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Sample records for fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational

  1. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and Fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, John Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of ∼ 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm -1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach

  2. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, John Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-11-24

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of {approx} 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm-1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach.

  3. Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy using inverted visible pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraman, Champika; Mitchell, Steven A; Lausten, Rune; Johnston, Linda J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-05-24

    We present a broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (BB-VSFG) scheme using a novel ps visible pulse shape. We generate the fs IR pulse via standard procedures and simultaneously generate an 'inverted' time-asymmetric narrowband ps visible pulse via second harmonic generation in the pump depletion regime using a very long nonlinear crystal which has high group velocity mismatch (LiNbO3). The 'inverted' ps pulse shape minimally samples the instantaneous nonresonant response but maximally samples the resonant response, maintaining high spectral resolution. We experimentally demonstrate this scheme, presenting SFG spectra of canonical organic monolayer systems in the C-H stretch region (2800-3000 cm(-1)).

  4. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the B u )–X g ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    improved by putting the wave number of band origins in Deslandre table. The vibrational analysis was supported by determining the Franck–Condon factor and r-centroid values. Keywords. Fourier transform spectroscopy; electronic spectrum of selenium dimer; vibrational analysis; Franck–Condon factor; r-centroid values.

  5. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the B 3− u (0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... microwave, was recorded on BOMEM DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer at an apodized resolution of 0.035 cm-1. Vibrational constants were improved by putting the wave number of band origins in Deslandre table. The vibrational analysis was supported by determining the Franck–Condon factor and -centroid values.

  6. Theoretical study of sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy on limonene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ren-Hui, E-mail: zrh@iccas.ac.cn; Liu, Hao; Jing, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Bo-Yang; Shi, Qiang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Wen-Mei [Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China)

    2014-03-14

    By combining molecule dynamics (MD) simulation and quantum chemistry computation, we calculate the surface sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) of R-limonene molecules at the gas-liquid interface for SSP, PPP, and SPS polarization combinations. The distributions of the Euler angles are obtained using MD simulation, the ψ-distribution is between isotropic and Gaussian. Instead of the MD distributions, different analytical distributions such as the δ-function, Gaussian and isotropic distributions are applied to simulate surface SFVS. We find that different distributions significantly affect the absolute SFVS intensity and also influence on relative SFVS intensity, and the δ-function distribution should be used with caution when the orientation distribution is broad. Furthermore, the reason that the SPS signal is weak in reflected arrangement is discussed.

  7. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts: Disordering versus Removal of Organic Capping

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.

    2012-08-23

    Recent work with nanoparticle catalysts shows that size and shape control on the nanometer scale influences reaction rate and selectivity. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying heterogeneous catalysis because it enables the observation of surface intermediates during catalytic reactions. To control the size and shape of catalytic nanoparticles, an organic ligand was used as a capping agent to stabilize nanoparticles during synthesis. However, the presence of an organic capping agent presents two major challenges in SFG and catalytic reaction studies: it blocks a significant fraction of active surface sites and produces a strong signal that prevents the detection of reaction intermediates with SFG. Two methods for cleaning Pt nanoparticles capped with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) are examined in this study: solvent cleaning and UV cleaning. Solvent cleaning leaves more PVP intact and relies on disordering with hydrogen gas to reduce the SFG signal of PVP. In contrast, UV cleaning depends on nearly complete removal of PVP to reduce SFG signal. Both UV and solvent cleaning enable the detection of reaction intermediates by SFG. However, solvent cleaning also yields nanoparticles that are stable under reaction conditions, whereas UV cleaning results in aggregation during reaction. The results of this study indicate that solvent cleaning is more advantageous for studying the effects of nanoparticle size and shape on catalytic selectivity by SFG vibrational spectroscopy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Study of cancer cell lines with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uceda Otero, E. P.; Eliel, G. S. N.; Fonseca, E. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes...... and differences in these cells lines utilizing FTIR spectroscopy. We have used the chemometrical and statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the spectral differences. We have been able to identify certain bands in the spectra which are so-called biomarkers for two types of cell lines......, three groups for the 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell line (5637A, 5637B and 5637C), and another one for the HeLa human cervix carcinoma cell line. The vibrational modes can be assigned to specific bands involving characteristic motions of the protein backbone. This work shows that infrared vibrational...

  9. Exploring the Underlying Biophysics of Eukaryotic Plasma Membrane Asymmetry by Sum-Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, John

    2010-03-01

    A central issue in molecular biology is the movement of lipids across the cellular membrane. The translocation of lipids is involved in cell apoptosis, the viral infection of living cells, the functioning of antibiotics, antiseptics and drugs, and the regulation and growth of cells. There have been a number of studies attempting to find the putative proteins responsive for lipid transbilayer movement in eukaryotic cells. This has led to a large number of theories about the mechanism of transbilayer movement of lipids in cellular systems and the physical process by which lipid compositional asymmetry in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is maintained. Using methods of classical surface chemistry coupled with nonlinear optical methods, we have developed a novel analytical approach, using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS), to selectively probe lipid compositional asymmetry in a planar supported lipid bilayer. This new method allows for the detection of lipid flip-flop kinetics and compositional asymmetry without the need for a fluorescent or spin-labeled lipid species. The effect of lipid composition, headgroup and fatty acid chemical structure, on the rate and thermodynamics of lipid transbilayer migration and the electrostatic induction of lipid asymmetry will be discussed.

  10. Effect of surface structure on catalytic reactions: A sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, Keith Ryan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In the results discussed above, it is clear that Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is a unique tool that allows the detection of vibrational spectra of adsorbed molecules present on single crystal surfaces under catalytic reaction conditions. Not only is it possible to detect active surface intermediates, it is also possible to detect spectator species which are not responsible for the measured turnover rates. By correlating high-pressure SFG spectra under reaction conditions and gas chromatography (GC) kinetic data, it is possible to determine which species are important under reaction intermediates. Because of the flexibility of this technique for studying surface intermediates, it is possible to determine how the structures of single crystal surfaces affect the observed rates of catalytic reactions. As an example of a structure insensitive reaction, ethylene hydrogenation was explored on both Pt(111) and Pt(100). The rates were determined to be essentially the same. It was observed that both ethylidyne and di-σ bonded ethylene were present on the surface under reaction conditions on both crystals, although in different concentrations. This result shows that these two species are not responsible for the measured turnover rate, as it would be expected that one of the two crystals would be more active than the other, since the concentration of the surface intermediate would be different on the two crystals. The most likely active intermediates are weakly adsorbed molecules such as π-bonded ethylene and ethyl. These species are not easily detected because their concentration lies at the detection limit of SFG. The SFG spectra and GC data essentially show that ethylene hydrogenation is structure insensitive for Pt(111) and Pt(100). SFG has proven to be a unique and excellent technique for studying adsorbed species on single crystal surfaces under high-pressure catalytic reactions. Coupled with kinetic data obtained from gas chromatography measurements, it can give

  11. Optical Fourier transform based in-plane vibration characterization for MEMS comb structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongfeng; Cao, Liangcai; You, Zheng; Zhao, Jiahao; Zhang, Zichen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2013-02-25

    On-line and on-wafer characterizations of mechanical properties of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) with efficiency are very important to the mass production of MEMS foundry in the near future. However, challenges still remain. In this paper, we present an in-plane vibration characterizing method for MEMS comb using optical Fourier transform (OFT). In the experiment, the intensity distribution at the focal plane was captured to characterize the displacement of the vibrator in the MEMS comb structure. A typical MEMS comb was tested to verify the principle. The shape and the movement of MEMS comb was imitated and tested to calibrate the measurement by using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the measured displacements were better than 5%, where the RSD is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. It is convinced that the presented method is feasible for on-line and on-wafer characterizations for MEMS with great convenience, high efficiency and low cost.

  12. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  13. Vision-based online vibration estimation of the in-vessel inspection flexible robot with short-time Fourier transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Lifei; He, Tao [Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Vision-based online vibration estimation method for a flexible arm is proposed. • The vibration signal is obtained by image processing in unknown environments. • Vibration parameters are estimated by short-time Fourier transformation. - Abstract: The vibration should be suppressed if it happens during the motion of a flexible robot or under the influence of external disturbance caused by its structural features and material properties, because the vibration may affect the positioning accuracy and image quality. In Tokamak environment, we need to get the real-time vibration information on vibration suppression of robotic arm, however, some sensors are not allowed in the extreme Tokamak environment. This paper proposed a vision-based method for online vibration estimation of a flexible manipulator, which is achieved by utilizing the environment image information from the end-effector camera to estimate its vibration. Short-time Fourier Transformation with adaptive window length method is used to estimate vibration parameters of non-stationary vibration signals. Experiments with one-link flexible manipulator equipped with camera are carried out to validate the feasibility of this method in this paper.

  14. Effects of cations and cholesterol with sphingomyelin membranes investigated by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Feng, Rong-juan; Li, Yi-yi; Liu, Ming-hua; Guo, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Sphingomyelin(SM) is specifically enriched in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Its molecular structure is compose by N-acyl-Derythro-sphingosylphosphorylcholine. The function of the SM related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking are relied on the interactions of the SM, cations, cholesterol and proteins. In this report, the interaction of three different nature SMs, cations and cholesterol at air/aqueous interfaces studied by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, respectively. Our results shed lights on understanding the relationship between SMs monolayer, cholesterol and Cations.

  15. Comparisons of the Structure of Water at Neat Oil/Water and Air/Water Interfaces as Determined by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gragson, D

    1997-01-01

    We have employed vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) to investigate the structure of water at neat oil/water and air/water interfaces through the OH stretching modes of the interfacial water molecules...

  16. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  17. Multimode vibration analysis with high-speed TV holography and a spatiotemporal 3D Fourier transform method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Angel F; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez-López, Carlos; de la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel; Deán, J Luis

    2009-09-28

    The combination of a high-speed TV holography system and a 3D Fourier-transform data processing is proposed for the analysis of multimode vibrations in plates. The out-of-plane displacement of the object under generic vibrational excitation is resolved in time by the fast acquisition rate of a high-speed camera, and recorded in a sequence of interferograms with spatial carrier. A full-field temporal history of the multimode vibration is thus obtained. The optical phase of the interferograms is extracted and subtracted from the phase of a reference state to yield a sequence of optical phase-change maps. Each map represents the change undergone by the object between any given state and the reference state. The sequence of maps is a 3D array of data (two spatial dimensions plus time) that is processed with a 3D Fourier-transform algorithm. The individual vibration modes are separated in the 3D frequency space due to their different vibration frequencies and, to a lesser extent, to the different spatial frequencies of the mode shapes. The contribution of each individual mode (or indeed the superposition of several modes) to the dynamic behaviour of the object can then be separated by means of a bandpass filter (or filters). The final output is a sequence of complex-valued maps that contain the full-field temporal history of the selected mode (or modes) in terms of its mechanical amplitude and phase. The proof-of-principle of the technique is demonstrated with a rectangular, fully clamped, thin metal plate vibrating simultaneously in several of its natural resonant frequencies under white-noise excitation.

  18. Kinetics of ultraviolet and plasma surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) probed by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongke; Gu, Zhiyong; Gracias, David H

    2006-02-14

    In numerous applications in microfluidics, cell growth, soft lithography, and molecular imprinting, the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is modified from a hydrophobic methyl-terminated surface to a hydrophilic hydroxyl-terminated surface. In this study, we investigated molecular structural and orientational changes at the PDMS-air interface in response to three commonly used surface modification processes: exposure to long-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV), exposure to short-wavelength UV that generates ozone (UVO), and exposure to oxygen plasma (OP). The surfaces of two PDMS compositions (10:1 and 4:1 of base polymer/curing agent) were probed during modification, using monolayer-sensitive IR + visible sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, with two different polarization combinations. During PDMS surface modification, the peak intensities of CH3 side groups and CH2 cross-link groups decreased, while peak intensities of Si-OH groups increased. There was no significant change in the average orientation of the CH3 groups on the PDMS surface during modification. The concentration of CH3 groups on the surface decreased exponentially with time, for all three UV, UVO, and OP modification processes, with first order kinetics and time constants of approximately 160, 66, and 0.3 min, respectively. At steady state, residual CH3 groups were detected at the PDMS surface for UV and UVO treatments; however, there were negligible CH3 groups detected after OP modification.

  19. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweskin, Sasha Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non

  20. Surface and buried interfacial structures of epoxy resins used as underfills studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Anne V; Holden, Brad; Kristalyn, Cornelius; Fuller, Mike; Wilkerson, Brett; Chen, Zhan

    2011-05-01

    Flip chip technology has greatly improved the performance of semiconductor devices, but relies heavily on the performance of epoxy underfill adhesives. Because epoxy underfills are cured in situ in flip chip semiconductor devices, understanding their surface and interfacial structures is critical for understanding their adhesion to various substrates. Here, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study surface and buried interfacial structures of two model epoxy resins used as underfills in flip chip devices, bisphenol A digylcidyl ether (BADGE) and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE). The surface structures of these epoxies were compared before and after cure, and the orientations of their surface functional groups were deduced to understand how surface structural changes during cure may affect adhesion properties. Further, the effect of moisture exposure, a known cause of adhesion failure, on surface structures was studied. It was found that the BADGE surface significantly restructured upon moisture exposure while the BDDGE surface did not, showing that BADGE adhesives may be more prone to moisture-induced delamination. Lastly, although surface structure can give some insight into adhesion, buried interfacial structures more directly correspond to adhesion properties of polymers. SFG was used to study buried interfaces between deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) and the epoxies before and after moisture exposure. It was shown that moisture exposure acted to disorder the buried interfaces, most likely due to swelling. These results correlated with lap shear adhesion testing showing a decrease in adhesion strength after moisture exposure. The presented work showed that surface and interfacial structures can be correlated to adhesive strength and may be helpful in understanding and designing optimized epoxy underfill adhesives.

  1. Characterisation of the membrane affinity of an isoniazide peptide conjugate by tensiometry, atomic force microscopy and sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, using a phospholipid Langmuir monolayer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katalin; Pénzes, Csanád Botond; Schnöller, Donát; Horváti, Kata; Bosze, Szilvia; Hudecz, Ferenc; Keszthelyi, Tamás; Kiss, Eva

    2010-10-07

    Tensiometry, sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to assess the cell penetration ability of a peptide conjugate of the antituberculotic agent isoniazide. Isoniazide was conjugated to peptide (91)SEFAYGSFVRTVSLPV(106), a functional T-cell epitope of the immunodominant 16 kDa protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a simple but versatile model of the cell membrane a phospholipid Langmuir monolayer at the liquid/air interface was used. Changes induced in the structure of the phospholipid monolayer by injection of the peptide conjugate into the subphase were followed by tensiometry and sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. The drug penetrated lipid films were transferred to a solid support by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, and their structures were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Peptide conjugation was found to strongly enhance the cell penetration ability of isoniazide.

  2. Fourier transform and particle swarm optimization based modified LQR algorithm for mitigation of vibrations using magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-11-01

    Structural control has gained significant attention in recent times. The standalone issue of power requirement during an earthquake has already been solved up to a large extent by designing semi-active control systems using conventional linear quadratic control theory, and many other intelligent control algorithms such as fuzzy controllers, artificial neural networks, etc. In conventional linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) theory, it is customary to note that the values of the design parameters are decided at the time of designing the controller and cannot be subsequently altered. During an earthquake event, the response of the structure may increase or decrease, depending the quasi-resonance occurring between the structure and the earthquake. In this case, it is essential to modify the value of the design parameters of the conventional LQR controller to obtain optimum control force to mitigate the vibrations due to the earthquake. A few studies have been done to sort out this issue but in all these studies it was necessary to maintain a database of the earthquake. To solve this problem and to find the optimized design parameters of the LQR controller in real time, a fast Fourier transform and particle swarm optimization based modified linear quadratic regulator method is presented here. This method comprises four different algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), the fast Fourier transform (FFT), clipped control algorithm and the LQR. The FFT helps to obtain the dominant frequency for every time window. PSO finds the optimum gain matrix through the real-time update of the weighting matrix R, thereby, dispensing with the experimentation. The clipped control law is employed to match the magnetorheological (MR) damper force with the desired force given by the controller. The modified Bouc-Wen phenomenological model is taken to recognize the nonlinearities in the MR damper. The assessment of the advised method is done by simulation of a three-story structure

  3. Intrinsic Chirality and Prochirality at Air/R-(+)- and S-(-)-Limonene Interfaces: Spectral Signatures with Interference Chiral Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Zhehao; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-06-04

    We report in this work detailed measurements on the chiral and achiral sum-frequency vibrational spectra in the C-H stretching vibration region (2800-3050cm-1) of the air/liquid interfaces of R-limonene and S-limonene, using the recently developed high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). The achiral SFG spectra of R-limonene and S-limonene, as well as the equal amount (50/50) racemic mixture show that the enantiomers are with the same interfacial orientations. The interference chiral SFG spectra of the limonene enantiomers exhibit spectral signature from chiral response of the Cα-H stretching mode, and spectral signature from prochiral response of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode, respectively. The chiral spectral feature of the Cα-H stretching mode changes sign from R-limonene to S-limonene, and disappears for the 50/50 racemic mixture. While the prochiral spectral feature of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode is the same for R-limonene and S-limonene, and also surprisingly remains the same for the 50/50 racemic mixture. These results provided detail information in understanding the structure and chirality of molecular interfaces, and demonstrated the sensitivity and potential of SFG-VS as unique spectroscopic tool for chirality characterization and chiral recognition at the molecular interface.

  4. On Fast Fourier Transform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    digital methods of spectrum estimation which influenced the research in almost every field of engineering and science. In this article, we will first introduce the conti- nuous-time Fourier transform (eFT), discrete-time Fourier transform and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and then present an example to illustrate the relation ...

  5. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the A3Π0–X1Σ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The emission spectrum of InBr molecule has been recorded in the region. 350–400 nm on BOMEM DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer at an apodized resolu- tion of 0.06 cm−1 using microwave excitation technique. About 61 violet degraded and single headed bands have been recorded and are classified into ...

  6. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the A3Π0–X1Σ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    400 nm on BOMEM DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer at an apodized resolution of 0.06 cm-1 using microwave excitation technique. About 61 violet degraded and single headed bands have been recorded and are classified into two band ...

  7. vapor phase lubrication of SiO2 surfaces via adsorption of short chain linear alcohols & a sum frequency generation vibration spectroscopy study of crystalline cellulose in biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna Lorraine

    . This study is important because in the ambient, water molecules are always present. In order to fully understand how the n-alcohol molecules interact with the SiO2 surfaces under co-adsorption conditions with water molecules, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy are performed to understand the thickness, composition, and structure of the binary adsorbate layer on SiO2 in the absence of sliding. These studies show that the water and n-alcohol molecules form a bi-layer structure with the water molecules adsorbed to the SiO2 surface and the n-alcohol molecules adsorbed on top of the water molecules. Once water is adsorbed to the SiO 2 surface it is difficult to remove. So, the effectiveness of adsorbed n-pentanol molecules in humid environment in lubricating a MEMS sidewall friction tribometer is investigated. This study demonstrates that an environment containing 50% P/Psat n-pentanol can lubricate these MEMS up to a relative humidity of 25% without device failure. Above this, too much water is adsorbed to the SiO2 surface which inhibits device operation. Thus, although adsorbed water is considered detrimental to SiO2 surfaces during sliding contact, its effect can be offset using n-pentanol VPL. Cellulose is considered the most abundant naturally occurring polymer on earth. Because of this, many applications in the biofuels and pharmaceutical industries are under evaluation. Despite studies dating back to the 1940s, the structures of cellulose in its naturally occurring form (I) as well as fabricated polymorphs (II and III) are not completely agreed upon in the literature. Conventional spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and solid-state 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are widely utilized in pursuit of understanding the structure of cellulose. Three of these techniques, FTIR, Raman

  8. Intrinsic chirality and prochirality at Air/R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene interfaces: spectral signatures with interference chiral sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Zhe-Hao; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2014-09-01

    We report in this work detailed measurements of the chiral and achiral sum-frequency vibrational spectra in the C-H stretching vibration region (2800-3050 cm(-1)) of the air/liquid interfaces of R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene, using the recently developed high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). The achiral SFG spectra of R-limonene and S-limonene, as well as the RS racemic mixture (50/50 equal amount mixture), show that the corresponding molecular groups of the R and S enantiomers are with the same interfacial orientations. The interference chiral SFG spectra of the limonene enantiomers exhibit a spectral signature from the chiral response of the Cα-H stretching mode, and a spectral signature from the prochiral response of the CH(2) asymmetric stretching mode, respectively. The chiral spectral feature of the Cα-H stretching mode changes sign from R-(+)-limonene to S-(-)-limonene surfaces, and disappears for the RS racemic mixture surface. While the prochiral spectral feature of the CH(2) asymmetric stretching mode is the same for R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene surfaces, and also surprisingly remains the same for the RS racemic mixture surface. Therefore, the structures of the R-(+)-limonene and the S-(-)-limonene at the liquid interfaces are nevertheless not mirror images to each other, even though the corresponding groups have the same tilt angle from the interfacial normal, i.e., the R-(+)-limonene and the S-(-)-limonene at the surface are diastereomeric instead of enantiomeric. These results provide detailed information in understanding the structure and chirality of molecular interfaces and demonstrate the sensitivity and potential of SFG-VS as a unique spectroscopic tool for chirality characterization and chiral recognition at the molecular interface. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Back-surface gold mirrors for vibrationally resonant sum-frequency (VR-SFG) spectroscopy using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as an adhesion promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Arthur D; Zhang, Feng; Linford, Matthew R; Patterson, James E

    2011-06-01

    Back-surface mirrors are needed as reference materials for vibrationally resonant sum-frequency generation (VR-SFG) probing of liquid-solid interfaces. Conventional noble metal mirrors are not suitable for back-surface applications due to the presence of a metal adhesion layer (chromium or titanium) between the window substrate and the reflective metal surface. Using vapor deposited 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as a bi-functional adhesion promoter, gold mirrors were fabricated on fused silica substrates. These mirrors exhibit excellent gold adhesion as determined by the Scotch(®) tape test. They also produce minimal spectroscopic interference in the C-H stretching region (2800-3000 cm(-1)), as characterized by VR-SFG. These mirrors are thus robust and can be used as back-surface mirrors for a variety of applications, including reference mirrors for VR-SFG.

  10. Molecular adsorption at electrolyte/α-Al2O3interface of aluminum electrolytic capacitor revealed by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ming; Hu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Jin; Liu, Yexiang; Ai, Liang

    2017-05-21

    The operating voltage of an aluminum electrolytic capacitor is determined by the breakdown voltage (U b ) of the Al 2 O 3 anode. U b is related to the molecular adsorption at the Al 2 O 3 /electrolyte interface. Therefore, we have employed sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) to study the adsorption states of a simple electrolyte, ethylene glycol (EG) solution with ammonium adipate, on an α-Al 2 O 3 surface. In an acidic electrolyte (pH 8), the Al 2 O 3 surface is negatively charged and the short chain EG molecules adopt a "tilting" orientation. The U b results exhibit a much higher value at pH 8. Since the "lying" long chain molecules cover and protect the Al 2 O 3 surface, U b increases with a decrease of pH. These findings provide new insights to study the breakdown mechanisms and to develop new electrolytes for high operating voltage capacitors.

  11. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Kinetic Study of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran Hydrogenation over 7 nm Platinum Cubic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aliaga, Cesar

    2011-04-28

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements obtained from gas chromatography were used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) over cubic Pt nanoparticles of 7 nm average size, synthesized by colloidal methods and cleaned by ultraviolet light and ozone treatment. Reactions carried out at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 20-120 °C produced dihydro and tetrahydro species, as well as ring-opening products (alcohols) and ring-cracking products, showing high selectivity toward ring opening throughout the entire temperature range. The aromatic rings (MF and DMF) adsorbed parallel to the nanoparticle surface. Results yield insight into various surface reaction intermediates and the reason for the significantly lower selectivity for ring cracking in DMF hydrogenation compared to MF hydrogenation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Adsorption and self-assembly of octyl hydroxamic acid at a fluorite surface as revealed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuming; Liu, Jin; Miller, Jan D

    2008-09-15

    In the study described here, the surface structure of a self-assembly octyl hydroxamic acid at a calcium fluoride (CaF(2)) surface is evaluated using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS). Of particular significance are the results that show octyl hydroxamic acid adsorbs at the fluorite surface from octanol solution and has more ordering and molecular conformation than the octyl hydroxamic acid adsorbed from solution. At the fluorite/0.1 M octyl hydroxamic acid octanol solution interface a bilayer-like structure consisting of an octyl hydroxamic acid layer in contact with fluorite and a tilted alcohol layer was observed by SFVS. The alcohol molecules are oriented with respect to the hydroxamic acid monolayer with the OH groups directed towards the bulk alcohol phase and the terminal CH(3) group oriented to face the alkyl chains of the hydroxamic acid monolayer.

  13. Amine Chemistry at Aqueous Interfaces: The Study of Organic Amines in Neutralizing Acidic Gases at an Air/Water Surface Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, L.; Wren, S. N.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Small organic bases have been measured in atmospheric samples, with their sources ranging from industrial processing to animal husbandry. These small organic amines are often highly soluble, being found in atmospheric condensed phases such as fogwater and rainwater. Additionally, they display acid-neutralization ability often greater than ammonia, yet little is known regarding their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. This presentation will describe the molecular level details of a model amine system at the vapor/liquid interface in the presence of acidic gas. We find that this amine system shows very unique properties in terms of its bonding, structure, and orientation at aqueous surfaces. The results of our studies using a combination of computation, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, and surface tension will report the properties inherent to these atmospherically relevant species at aqueous surfaces.

  14. Catalyzed hydrogenation of nitrogen and ethylene on metal (Fe, Pt) single crystal surfaces and effects of coadsorption: A sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Staffan Per Gustav [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure catalytic reactions and associated processes, such as adsorption have been studied on a molecular level on single crystal surfaces. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy together with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were used to investigate the nature of species on catalytic surfaces and to measure the catalytic reaction rates. Special attention has been directed at studying high-pressure reactions and in particular, ammonia synthesis in order to identify reaction intermediates and the influence of adsorbates on the surface during reaction conditions. The adsorption of gases N2, H2, O2 and NH3 that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH2 (~3325 cm-1) and NH (~3235 cm-1) under high pressure of ammonia (200 Torr) on the clean Fe(111) surface. Addition of 0.5 Torr of oxygen to 200 Torr of ammonia does not significantly change the bonding of dissociation intermediates to the surface. However, it leads to a phase change of nearly 180° between the resonant and non-resonant second order non-linear susceptibility of the surface, demonstrated by the reversal of the SFG spectral features. Heating the surface in the presence of 200 Torr ammonia and 0.5 Torr oxygen reduces the oxygen coverage, which can be seen from the SFG spectra as another relative phase change of 180°. The reduction of the oxide is also supported by Auger electron spectroscopy. The result suggests that the phase change of the spectral features could serve as a sensitive indicator of the chemical environment of the adsorbates.

  15. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings and the Voigt line shapes in the phase-resolved and intensity sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-21

    In this report we show that the ability to measure the sub-1 cm-1 resolution phase-resolved and intensity high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectra (HR-BB-SFG-VS) of the –CN stretch vibration of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer of the 4-n-octyl-4’-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) on the z-cut α-quartz surface allows for the first time the direct comparison and understanding of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in the imaginary and intensity SFG vibrational spectral lineshapes in detail. The difference of the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of the imaginary and intensity SFG-VS spectra of the same vibrational mode is the signature of the Voigt lineshape and it measures the relative contribution to the overall lineshape from the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in SFG vibrational spectra. From the phase-resolved and intensity spectra, we found that the FWHM of the 2238.00 ±0.02 cm-1 peak in the phase-resolved imaginary and intensity spectra is 19.2 ± 0.2 cm-1 and 21.6 ± 0.4 cm-1, respectively, for the –CN group of the 8CB LB monolayer on the z-cut α-quartz crystal surface. The FWHM width difference of 2.4 cm-1 agrees quantitatively with a Voigt lineshape with a homogeneous broadening half width of Γ = 5.29 ± 0.08 cm-1 and a inhomogeneous standard derivation width Δω = 5.42 ± 0.07 cm-1. These results shed new lights on the understanding and interpretation of the lineshapes of both the phase-resolved and the intensity SFG vibrational spectra, as well as other incoherent and coherent spectroscopic techniques in general.

  16. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fourier Transform Spectrometer project demonstrates the efficacy of a miniaturized spectrometer for flight applications.A spectrometer is an instrument used to...

  17. Phase transition behaviors of the supported DPPC bilayer investigated by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng-Liang; Tong, Yujin; Peng, Qiling; Li, Na; Ye, Shen

    2016-01-21

    The phase transition behaviors of a supported bilayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) have been systematically evaluated by in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By using an asymmetric bilayer composed of per-deuterated and per-protonated monolayers, i.e., DPPC-d75/DPPC and a symmetric bilayer of DPPC/DPPC, we were able to probe the molecular structural changes during the phase transition process of the lipid bilayer by SFG spectroscopy. It was found that the DPPC bilayer is sequentially melted from the top (adjacent to the solution) to bottom leaflet (adjacent to the substrate) over a wide temperature range. The conformational ordering of the supported bilayer does not decrease (even slightly increases) during the phase transition process. The conformational defects in the bilayer can be removed after the complete melting process. The phase transition enthalpy for the bottom leaflet was found to be approximately three times greater than that for the top leaflet, indicating a strong interaction of the lipids with the substrate. The present SFG and AFM observations revealed similar temperature dependent profiles. Based on these results, the temperature-induced structural changes in the supported lipid bilayer during its phase transition process are discussed in comparison with previous studies.

  18. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  19. Studies of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Liquid-Phase Alcohol Oxidation on Platinum bySum-frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Reaction Rate Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Christopher [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Compared to many branches of chemistry, the molecular level study of catalytically active surfaces is young. Only with the invention of ultrahigh vacuum technology in the past half century has it been possible to carry out experiments that yield useful molecular information about the reactive occurrences at a surface. The reason is two-fold: low pressure is necessary to keep a surface clean for an amount of time long enough to perform an experiment, and most atomic scale techniques that are surface speci c (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, etc.) cannot be used at ambient pressures, because electrons, which act as chemical probes in these techniques, are easily scattered by molecules. Sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is one technique that can provide molecular level information from the surface without the necessity for high vacuum. Since the advent of SFG as a surface spectroscopic tool it has proved its worth in the studies of surface catalyzed reactions in the gas phase, with numerous reactions in the gas phase having been investigated on a multitude of surfaces. However, in situ SFG characterization of catalysis at the solid-liquid interface has yet to be thoroughly pursued despite the broad interest in the use of heterogeneous catalysts in the liquid phase as replacements for homogeneous counterparts. This work describes an attempt to move in that direction, applying SFG to study the solid-liquid interface under conditions of catalytic alcohol oxidation on platinum.

  20. Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-11-26

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

  1. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium kinetics of self-assembled surfactant monolayers: a vibrational sum-frequency study of dodecanoate at the fluorite-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödle, Simon; Richmond, Geraldine L

    2008-04-16

    The adsorption, desorption, and equilibrium monomer exchange processes of sodium dodecanoate at the fluorite(CaF 2)-water interface have been studied. For the first time, we use in situ vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) to gain insights into the mechanism and kinetics of monolayer self-assembly at the mineral-water interface. By exploiting the nonlinear optical response of the adsorbate, the temporal correlation of headgroup adsorption and alignment of the surfactant's alkyl chain was monitored. Because of the unique surface-specificity of VSFS, changes in the interfacial water structure were also tracked experimentally. The spectra clearly reveal that the structure of interfacial water molecules is severely disturbed at the start of the adsorption process. With the formation of a well-ordered adsorbate layer, it is partially reestablished; however, the molecular orientation and state of coordination is significantly altered. Even at very low surfactant concentrations, overcharging of the mineral surface (i.e., the adsorption of adsorbates past the point of electrostatic equilibrium) was observed. This points out the importance of effects other than electrostatic interactions and it is proposed that cooperative effects of both water structure and surfactant hemimicelle formation at the interface are key factors. The present study also investigates desorption kinetics of partially and fully established monolayers and a statistical model for data analysis is proposed. Additional experiments were performed in the presence of electrolytes and showed that uni- and divalent anions affect the nonequilibrium kinetics of self-assembled monolayers in strikingly different ways.

  2. Water Orientation at Ceramide/Water Interfaces Studied by Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Adhikari, Aniruddha

    2016-10-10

    Lipid/water interaction is essential for many biological processes. The water structure at the nonionic lipid interface remains little known, and there is no scope of a priori prediction of water orientation at nonionic interfaces, either. Here, we report our study combining advanced nonlinear spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation on the water orientation at the ceramide/water interface. We measured χ spectrum in the OH stretch region of ceramide/isotopically diluted water interface using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and found that the interfacial water prefers an overall hydrogen-up orientation. Molecular dynamics simulation indicates that this preferred hydrogen-up orientation of water is determined by a delicate balance between hydrogen-up and hydrogen-down orientation induced by lipid-water and intralipid hydrogen bonds. This mechanism also suggests that water orientation at neutral lipid interfaces depends highly on the chemical structure of the lipid headgroup, in contrast to the charged lipid interfaces where the net water orientation is determined solely by the charge of the lipid headgroup.

  3. High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions of C6 Hydrocarbons on PlatinumSingle-Crystals and nanoparticles: A Sum Frequency Generation VibrationalSpectroscopic and Kinetic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratlie, Kaitlin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reactions of cyclohexene, benzene, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene on platinum catalysts were monitored in situ via sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). SFG is a surface specific vibrational spectroscopic tool capable of monitoring submonolayer coverages under reaction conditions without gas-phase interference. SFG was used to identify the surface intermediates present during catalytic processes on Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystals and on cubic and cuboctahedra Pt nanoparticles in the Torr pressure regime and at high temperatures (300K-450K). At low pressures (<10-6 Torr), cyclohexene hydrogenated and dehydrogenates to form cyclohexyl (C6H11) and π-allyl C6H9, respectively, on Pt(100). Increasing pressures to 1.5 Torr form cyclohexyl, π-allyl C6H9, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, illustrating the necessity to investigate catalytic reactions at high-pressures. Simultaneously, GC was used to acquire turnover rates that were correlated to reactive intermediates observed spectroscopically. Benzene hydrogenation on Pt(111) and Pt(100) illustrated structure sensitivity via both vibrational spectroscopy and kinetics. Both cyclohexane and cyclohexene were produced on Pt(111), while only cyclohexane was formed on Pt(100). Additionally, π-allyl c-C6H9 was found only on Pt(100), indicating that cyclohexene rapidly dehydrogenates on the (100) surface. The structure insensitive production of cyclohexane was found to exhibit a compensation effect and was analyzed using the selective energy transfer (SET) model. The SET model suggests that the Pt-H system donates energy to the E2u mode of free benzene, which leads to catalysis. Linear C6 (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene) hydrocarbons were also investigated in the presence and absence of excess hydrogen on Pt

  4. Probing the structure and nano-scale mechanical properties of polymer surfaces with scanning force microscopy and sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracias, David Hugo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) has been used to quantitatively measure the elastic modulus, friction and hardness of polymer surfaces with special emphasis on polyethylene and polypropylene. In the experiments, tips of different radii of curvature ranging from 20 nm to 1000 nm have been used and the high pressure applied by the SFM have been observed to affect the values obtained in the measurements. The contact of the SFM tip with the polymer surface is explained by fitting the experimental curves to theoretical predictions of contact mechanics. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Vibrational Spectroscopy has been used to measure vibrational spectra of polymer surfaces in the vibrational range of 2700 to 3100 cm-1. Strong correlations are established between surface chemistry and surface structure as probed by SFG and mechanical properties measured by SFM on the surfaces. In these studies segregation of low surface energy moieties, from the bulk of the polymer to the surface have been studied. It was found that surface segregation occurs in miscible polymer blends and a small concentration of surface active polymer can be used to totally modify the surface properties of the blend. A novel high vacuum SFM was built to do temperature dependent measurements of mechanical changes occurring at the surface of polypropylene during the glass transition of the polymer. Using this instrument the modulus and friction of polypropylene was measured in the range of room temperature to ˜-60°C. An increase in the ordering of the backbone of the polymer chains below the glass transition measured by SFG correlates well with the increase in modulus measured on the same surface with SFM. Friction measurements have been done on polyethylene with three different instruments by applying loads ranging from nN to sub newton i.e. over eight orders of magnitude. Pressure and contact area effects were observed to play a significant role in determining the frictional response of the polymer

  5. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Studies on ModelPeptide Adsorption at the Hydrophobic Solid-Water and HydrophilicSolid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Roger L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been used to study the interfacial structure of several polypeptides and amino acids adsorbed to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces under a variety of experimental conditions. Peptide sequence, peptide chain length, peptide hydrophobicity, peptide side-chain type, surface hydrophobicity, and solution ionic strength all affect an adsorbed peptide's interfacial structure. Herein, it is demonstrated that with the choice of simple, model peptides and amino acids, surface specific SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be a powerful tool to elucidate the interfacial structure of these adsorbates. Herein, four experiments are described. In one, a series of isosequential amphiphilic peptides are synthesized and studied when adsorbed to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces of deuterated polystyrene, it was determined that the hydrophobic part of the peptide is ordered at the solid-liquid interface, while the hydrophilic part of the peptide appears to have a random orientation at this interface. On a hydrophilic surface of silica, it was determined that an ordered peptide was only observed if a peptide had stable secondary structure in solution. In another experiment, the interfacial structure of a model amphiphilic peptide was studied as a function of the ionic strength of the solution, a parameter that could change the peptide's secondary structure in solution. It was determined that on a hydrophobic surface, the peptide's interfacial structure was independent of its structure in solution. This was in contrast to the adsorbed structure on a hydrophilic surface, where the peptide's interfacial structure showed a strong dependence on its solution secondary structure. In a third experiment, the SFG spectra of lysine and proline amino acids on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces were obtained by using a different experimental geometry that increases the SFG signal

  6. Validation of Spectra and Phase in Sub-1 cm-1 Resolution Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy through Internal Heterodyne Phase-Resolved Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Li; Chen, Shunli; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-03-03

    Reliably determination of the spectral features and their phases in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) for surfaces with closely overlapping peaks has been a standing issue. Here we present two approaches towards resolving such issue. The first utilizes the high resolution and accurate lineshape from the recently developed sub-wavenumber high resolution broadband SFG-VS (HR-BB-SFG-VS), from which the detail spectral parameters, including relative spectral phases, of overlapping peaks can be determined through reliable spectral fitting. These results are further validated by using the second method that utilizes the azimuthal angle phase dependence of the z-cut α-quartz crystal, a common phase standard, through the spectral interference between the SFG fields of the quartz surface, as the internal phase reference, and the adsorbed molecular layer. Even though this approach is limited to molecular layers that can be transferred or deposited onto the quartz surface, it is simple and straightforward, as it requires only an internal phase standard with a single measurement that is free of phase drifts. More importantly, it provides unambiguous SFG spectral phase information of such surfaces. Using this method, the absolute phase of the molecular susceptibility tensors of the CH3, CH2 and chiral C-H groups in different Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) molecular monolayers and drop-cast peptide films are determined. These two approaches are fully consistent with and complement to each other, making both easily applicable tools in SFG-VS studies. More importantly, as the HR-BB-SFG-VS technique can be easily applied to various surfaces and interfaces, such validation of the spectral and phase information from HR-BB-SFG-VS measurement demonstrates it as one most promising tool for interrogating the detailed structure and interactions of complex molecular interfaces.

  7. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  8. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to Fourier Transformation with a focus on signal analysis, based on the first edition. It is well suited for undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, electronic engineering as well as for scientists in research and development. It gives illustrations and recommendations when using existing Fourier programs and thus helps to avoid frustrations. Moreover, it is entertaining and you will learn a lot unconsciously. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are discussed with particular emphasis on window functions. Filter effects of digital data processing are illustrated. Two new chapters are devoted to modern applications. The first deals with data streams and fractional delays and the second with the back-projection of filtered projections in tomography. There are many figures and mostly easy to solve exercises with solutions.

  9. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  10. Fourier transforms in spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2000-01-01

    This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi

  11. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  12. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  13. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  14. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to

  15. Effect of pH on the Water/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02) interface structure studied by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, J.; Zhang, L.; Tian, C.; Shen, Y. R.; Waychunas, G. A.

    2011-08-01

    Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) was used to study the structure of water/{alpha} - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 ) interfaces at different pH values. The OH stretch spectra are dominated by interfacial water contributions at lower frequencies, and by bonded hydroxyls on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface at higher frequencies. Protonation and deprotonation of various oxide functional groups at the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface as pH varies can be monitored quantitatively by changes of the spectrum, allowing their pK reaction values can be estimated. The point of zero charge of the interface is found to be at pH ~ 6.7.

  16. General Correlation Theorem for Trinion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2017-01-01

    - The trinion Fourier transform is an extension of the Fourier transform in the trinion numbers setting. In this work we derive the correlation theorem for the trinion Fourier transform by using the relation between trinion convolution and correlation definitions in the trinion Fourier transform domains.

  17. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Kunal; Liyanage, Mangala R; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides data that are widely used for secondary structure characterization of peptides. A wide array of available sampling methods permits structural analysis of peptides in diverse environments such as aqueous solution (including optically turbid media), powders, detergent micelles, and lipid bilayers. In some cases, side chain vibrations can also be resolved and used for tertiary structure and chemical analysis. Data from several low-resolution spectroscopic techniques, including FTIR, can be combined to generate an empirical phase diagram, an overall picture of peptide structure as a function of environmental conditions that can aid in the global interpretation of large amounts of spectroscopic data.

  18. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation on 4 nm Pt@SiO2, Pd@SiO2, and Rh@SiO2 core-shell catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krier, James M; Michalak, William D; Cai, Xiaojun; Carl, Lindsay; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2015-01-14

    1,3-Butadiene (1,3-BD) hydrogenation was performed on 4 nm Pt, Pd, and Rh nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 shells at 20, 60, and 100 °C. The core-shells were grown around polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated NPs (Stöber encapsulation) prepared by colloidal synthesis. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was performed to correlate surface intermediates observed in situ with reaction selectivity. It is shown that calcination is effective in removing PVP, and the SFG signal can be generated from the metal surface. Using SFG, it is possible to compare the surface vibrational spectrum of Pt@SiO2 (1,3-BD is hydrogenated through multiple paths and produces butane, 1-butene, and cis/trans-2-butene) to Pd@SiO2 (1,3-BD favors one path and produces 1-butene and cis/trans-2-butene). In contrast to Pt@SiO2 and Pd@SiO2, SFG and kinetic experiments of Rh@SiO2 show a permanent accumulation of organic material.

  19. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of 1,3-Butadiene Hydrogenation on 4 nm Pt@SiO 2 , Pd@SiO 2 , and Rh@SiO 2 Core–Shell Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.

    2015-01-14

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. 1,3-Butadiene (1,3-BD) hydrogenation was performed on 4 nm Pt, Pd, and Rh nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 shells at 20, 60, and 100 °C. The core-shells were grown around polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated NPs (Stöber encapsulation) prepared by colloidal synthesis. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was performed to correlate surface intermediates observed in situ with reaction selectivity. It is shown that calcination is effective in removing PVP, and the SFG signal can be generated from the metal surface. Using SFG, it is possible to compare the surface vibrational spectrum of Pt@SiO2 (1,3-BD is hydrogenated through multiple paths and produces butane, 1-butene, and cis/trans-2-butene) to Pd@SiO2 (1,3-BD favors one path and produces 1-butene and cis/trans-2-butene). In contrast to Pt@SiO2 and Pd@SiO2, SFG and kinetic experiments of Rh@SiO2 show a permanent accumulation of organic material.

  20. Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geick, R.

    1981-01-01

    This review starts with the basic principles of resonance phenomena in physical systems. Especially, the connection is shown between the properties of these systems and Fourier transforms. Next, we discuss the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. Starting from the general properties of physical systems showing resonance phenomena and from the special properties of nuclear spin systems, the main part of this paper reviews pulse and Fourier methods in nuclear magnetic resonance. Among pulse methods, an introduction will be given to spin echoes, and, apart from the principle of Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, an introduction to the technical problems of this method, e.g. resolution in the frequency domain, aliasing, phase and intensity errors, stationary state of the spin systems for repetitive measurements, proton decoupling, and application of Fourier methods to systems in a nonequilibrium state. The last section is devoted to special applications of Fourier methods and recent developments, e.g. measurement of relaxation times, solvent peak suppression, 'rapid scan'-method, methods for suppressing the effects of dipolar coupling in solids, two-dimensional Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, and spin mapping or zeugmatography. (author)

  1. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste

  2. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  3. Improved Fourier-transform profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianfu; Chen Wenjing; Su Xianyu

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical geometry of the projected-fringe profilometry technique, in which the exit pupil of the projecting lens and the entrance pupil of the imaging lens are neither at the same height above the reference plane nor coplanar, is discussed and used in Fourier-transform profilometry. Furthermore, an improved fringe-pattern description and phase-height mapping formula based on the improved geometrical generalization is deduced. Employing the new optical geometry, it is easier for us to obtain the full-field fringe by moving either the projector or the imaging device. Therefore the new method offers a flexible way to obtain reliable height distribution of a measured object

  4. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-09-23

    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  5. Fourier-transform optical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.

  6. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  7. Vibrational Characterizations of Zn0.72Li0.28O/Si Thin Films Studied by Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myo Myat Thet; Win Kyaw; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2008-03-01

    The Zn0.72Li0.28O/Si (x = 0.28mol%) thin layers were fabricated on p-Si(100) substrate with five different process temperature. Vibrational characterizations of those thin films were investigated by FT- Raman spectroscopy. The resulted spectral line characters have been compared with that of Zn0.72Li0.28O/Glass thin films. Some vibrational motions of starting materials and final(candidate) thin films molecules were found in two substrates of glass and Si and vibrational frequencies were assigned by using molecular spectroscopy. Most of the frequencies of starting and final materials were found to be shifted in each of the films of two different substrates.

  8. Origins of emergent high-Tc ferroelectric ordering in heteroepitaxial ice films: Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of H2O and D2O ice films on Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiga, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Otsuki, Yuji; Watanabe, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2018-02-01

    Using sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, we have investigated ferroelectric orientational ordering of H2O and D2O crystalline-ice films grown on Pt(111) at 140 K. The Im χ(2 ) SFG spectrum of the hydrogen-bonded OH (OD) stretching band of H2O (D2O ) ice film shows a couple of peaks whose signs are all negative, indicating net-H-down (net-D-down) ferroelectric orientational ordering of H2O (D2O ) molecules with protons (deuterons) preferentially pointing toward the Pt substrate. The spectral features are analyzed in terms of the orientational ordering and OH (OD) vibrational excitons derived from intermolecular couplings. The quantitative analysis of the SFG peak intensity demonstrates the layer-dependent strong ferroelectric orientational ordering. Temperature dependence of the SFG intensity indicates that the ferroelectric orientational ordering decays via second-order type ferroelectric-paraelectric transition at critical temperatures of Tc=163 and 167 K for H2O (50 bilayers thickness) and D2O (64 bilayers thickness) ice films, respectively, which are more than twice as large as that of ferroelectric bulk ice XI (Tc˜72 K for H2O , Tc˜76 K for D2O ). The isotope shift of Tc for the high-Tc ferroelectric ice films on Pt(111) is only about 4 K, which is in stark contrast to a large isotope shift of Tc, approximately several tens of Kelvin, of typical high-Tc hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics. The interadsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions at the ice/Pt interface and nuclear quantum effects in the hydrogen-bond network of ice film are responsible for the observed thermal stability of ferroelectric orientational ordering and its isotope effect.

  9. Quantitative aspects of near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, F. T.; Smith, M. J.

    Three fundamental behaviors of vibrational spectroscopy data manipulation routinely associated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are evaluated for near-infrared (NIR) Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Spectral reproducibility, spectral subtraction and sensitivity are examined relative to the NIR FT-Raman experiment. Quantitative predictive ability is compared for identical sets of samples containing mixtures of the three xylene isomers. Partial least-squares analysis is used to compare predictive ability. IR performance is found to be better than Raman, though the potential for method development using NIR FT-Raman is shown to be quite promising.

  10. Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, Cesar; Park, Jeong Y.; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Hyun Sook; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-12-10

    We report the structure of the organic capping layers of platinum colloid nanoparticles and their removal by UV-ozone exposure. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFGVS) studies identify the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and tetradecyl tributylammonium bromide (TTAB)-capped platinum nanoparticles. We found that the UV-ozone treatment technique effectively removes the capping layer on the basis of several analytical measurements including SFGVS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The overall shape of the nanoparticles was preserved after the removal of capping layers, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SFGVS of ethylene hydrogenation on the clean platinum nanoparticles demonstrates the existence of ethylidyne and di-{sigma}-bonded species, indicating the similarity between single-crystal and nanoparticle systems.

  11. Tunable fractional-order Fourier transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyutin, A A

    2006-01-01

    A fractional two-dimensional Fourier transformer whose orders are tuned by means of optical quadrupoles is described. It is shown that in the optical scheme considered, the Fourier-transform order a element of [0,1] in one of the mutually orthogonal planes corresponds to the transform order (2-a) in another plane, i.e., to inversion and inverse Fourier transform of the order a. (laser modes and beams)

  12. In-situ Studies of the Reactions of Bifunctional and Heterocyclic Molecules over Noble Metal Single Crystal and Nanoparticle Catalysts Studied with Kinetics and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, Christopher J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-06-30

    Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in combination with gas chromatography (GC) was used in-situ to monitor surface bound reaction intermediates and reaction selectivities for the hydrogenation reactions of pyrrole, furan, pyridine, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal over Pt(111), Pt(100), Rh(111), and platinum nanoparticles under Torr reactant pressures and temperatures of 300K to 450K. The focus of this work is the correlation between the SFG-VS observed surface bound reaction intermediates and adsorption modes with the reaction selectivity, and how this is affected by catalyst structure and temperature. Pyrrole hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Rh(111) single crystals at Torr pressures. It was found that pyrrole adsorbs to Pt(111) perpendicularly by cleaving the N-H bond and binding through the nitrogen. However, over Rh(111) pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry binding through the {pi}-aromatic orbitals. A surface-bound pyrroline reaction intermediate was detected over both surfaces with SFG-VS. It was found that the ring-cracking product butylamine is a reaction poison over both surfaces studied. Furan hydrogenation was studied over Pt(111), Pt(100), 10 nm cubic platinum nanoparticles and 1 nm platinum nanoparticles. The product distribution was observed to be highly structure sensitive and the acquired SFG-VS spectra reflected this sensitivity. Pt(100) exhibited more ring-cracking to form butanol than Pt(111), while the nanoparticles yielded higher selectivities for the partially saturated ring dihydrofuran. Pyridine hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Pt(100). The α-pyridyl surface adsorption mode was observed with SFG-VS over both surfaces. 1,4-dihydropyridine was seen as a surface intermediate over Pt(100) but not Pt(111). Upon heating the surfaces to 350K, the adsorbed pyridine changes to a flat-lying adsorption mode. No evidence was found for the pyridinium cation. The hydrogenation of the

  13. Applications of Fourier transforms to generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M

    2011-01-01

    This book explains how Fourier transforms can be applied to generalized functions. The generalized function is one of the important branches of mathematics and is applicable in many practical fields. Its applications to the theory of distribution and signal processing are especially important. The Fourier transform is a mathematical procedure that can be thought of as transforming a function from its time domain to the frequency domain.The book contains six chapters and three appendices. Chapter 1 deals with preliminary remarks on Fourier series from a general point of view and also contains an introduction to the first generalized function. Chapter 2 is concerned with the generalized functions and their Fourier transforms. Chapter 3 contains the Fourier transforms of particular generalized functions. The author has stated and proved 18 formulas dealing with the Fourier transforms of generalized functions, and demonstrated some important problems of practical interest. Chapter 4 deals with the asymptotic esti...

  14. Dual Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, T. W.; Picqué, N.

    2010-06-01

    The advent of laser frequency combs a decade ago has already revolutionized optical frequency metrology and precision spectroscopy. Extensions of laser combs from the THz region to the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray frequencies are now under exploration. Such laser combs have become enabling tools for a growing tree of applications, from optical atomic clocks to attosecond science. Recently, the millions of precisely controlled laser comb lines that can be produced with a train of ultrashort laser pulses have been harnessed for highly multiplexed molecular spectroscopy. Fourier multi-heterodyne spectroscopy, dual comb spectroscopy, or asynchronous optical sampling spectroscopy with frequency combs are emerging as powerful new spectroscopic tools. Even the first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. Longer recording times allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. The spectral structure of sharp lines of a laser comb can be very useful even in the recording of broadband spectra without sharp features, as they are e.g. encountered for molecular gases or in the liquid phase. A second frequency comb of different line spacing permits the generation of a comb of radio frequency beat notes, which effectively map the optical spectrum into the radio frequency regime, so that it can be recorded with a single fast photodetector, followed by digital signal analysis. In the time domain, a pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser excites some molecular medium at regular time intervals. A second pulse train of different repetition

  15. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  16. Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, W.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Nutbrown, M.

    1997-07-01

    Fourier-transform Raman microscopic spectra of normal, untreated and bleached hair fibres are presented. Vibrational assignments are made and differences are ascribed to the production of cysteic acid from cysteine. Changes in conformation associated with the disulphide bond in the keratotic component are noted from the ν(CSSC) vibrational modes at wave numbers near 500 cm -1. Raman spectra of hair root ends have also been investigated with a diminution in cysteine content being observed. Application of the technique to the biomedical investigation of healthy and diseased hair is proposed.

  17. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Na

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers

  18. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Na [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-02-13

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

  19. Group-invariant finite Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenefelt, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The computation of the finite Fourier transform of functions is one of the most used computations in crystallography. Since the Fourier transform involved in 3-dimensional, the size of the computation becomes very large even for relatively few sample points along each edge. In this thesis, there is a family of algorithms that reduce the computation of Fourier transform of functions respecting the symmetries. Some properties of these algorithms are: (1) The algorithms make full use of the group of symmetries of a crystal. (2) The algorithms can be factored and combined according to the prime factorization of the number of points in the sample space. (3) The algorithms are organized into a family using the group structure of the crystallographic groups to make iterative procedures possible

  20. Fourier transforms and convolutions for the experimentalist

    CERN Document Server

    Jennison, RC

    1961-01-01

    Fourier Transforms and Convolutions for the Experimentalist provides the experimentalist with a guide to the principles and practical uses of the Fourier transformation. It aims to bridge the gap between the more abstract account of a purely mathematical approach and the rule of thumb calculation and intuition of the practical worker. The monograph springs from a lecture course which the author has given in recent years and for which he has drawn upon a number of sources, including a set of notes compiled by the late Dr. I. C. Browne from a series of lectures given by Mr. J . A. Ratcliffe of t

  1. Interferogram analysis using Fourier transform techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddier, Claude; Roddier, Francois

    1987-01-01

    A method of interferogram analysis is described in which Fourier transform techniques are used to map the complex fringe visibility in several types of interferograms. Algorithms are developed for estimation of both the amplitude and the phase of the fringes (yielding the modulus and the phase of the holographically recorded object Fourier transform). The algorithms were applied to the reduction of interferometric seeing measurements (i.e., the estimation of the fringe amplitude only), and the reduction of interferometric tests (i.e., estimation of the fringe phase only). The method was used to analyze scatter-plate interferograms obtained at NOAO.

  2. An optical Fourier transform coprocessor with direct phase determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfaden, Alexander J; Gordon, George S D; Wilkinson, Timothy D

    2017-10-20

    The Fourier transform is a ubiquitous mathematical operation which arises naturally in optics. We propose and demonstrate a practical method to optically evaluate a complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transform. By implementing the Fourier transform optically we can overcome the limiting O(nlogn) complexity of fast Fourier transform algorithms. Efficiently extracting the phase from the well-known optical Fourier transform is challenging. By appropriately decomposing the input and exploiting symmetries of the Fourier transform we are able to determine the phase directly from straightforward intensity measurements, creating an optical Fourier transform with O(n) apparent complexity. Performing larger optical Fourier transforms requires higher resolution spatial light modulators, but the execution time remains unchanged. This method could unlock the potential of the optical Fourier transform to permit 2D complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transforms with a performance that is currently untenable, with applications across information processing and computational physics.

  3. An Uncertainty Principle for Quaternion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    BAHRI, Mawardi; HITZER, Eckhard S. M; HAYASHI, Akihisa; ASHINO, Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    We review the quaternionic Fourier transform(QFT). Using the properties of the QFT we establish an uncertainty principle for the right-sided QFT.This uncertainty principle prescribes a lower bound on the product of the effective widths of quaternion-valued signals in the spatial and frequency domains. It is shown that only a Gaussian quaternion signal minimizes the uncertainty.

  4. Fast Fourier Transform Spectral Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J. A., Jr.; Graves, M. L.; Hovey, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform Spectral Analysis Program is used in frequency spectrum analysis of postflight, space vehicle telemetered trajectory data. This computer program with a digital algorithm can calculate power spectrum rms amplitudes and cross spectrum of sampled parameters at even time increments.

  5. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2005-01-01

    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  6. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    1994-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  7. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.

    1997-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  8. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krier, James M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.

  9. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies of adsorbates on Pt(111): Studies of CO at high pressures and temperatures, coadsorbed with olefins and its role as a poison in ethylene hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Kyle Yi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    High pressure high temperature CO adsorption and coadsorption with ethylene and propylene on Pt(111) was monitored in situ with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). At high pressures and high temperatures, CO dissociates on a Pt(111) surface to form carbon. At 400 torr CO pressure and 673K, CO modifies the Pt(111) surface through a carbonyl intermediate, and dissociates to leave carbon on the surface. SFG was used to follow the CO peak evolution from monolayer adsorption in ultra high vacuum (UHV) to 400 torr CO pressure. At this high pressure, a temperature dependence study from room temperature to 823K was carried out. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to identify carbon on the surface CO coadsorption with ethylene and CO coadsorption with propylene studies were carried out with 2-IR 1-visible SFG. With this setup, two spectral ranges covering the C-H stretch range and the CO stretch range can be monitored simultaneously. The coadsorption study with ethylene reveals that after 5L ethylene exposure on a Pt(111) surface to form ethylidyne , CO at high pressures cannot completely displace the ethylidyne from the surface. Instead, CO first adsorbs on defect sites at low pressures and then competes with ethylidyne for terrace sites at high pressures. Propylene coadsorption with CO at similar conditions shows that propylidyne undergoes conformation changes with increased CO pressure and at 1 torr, is absent from the Pt(111) surface. Experiments on CO poisoning of ethylene hydrogenation was carried by 2-IR 1-visible SFG. At 1 torr CO,10 torr ethylene and 100 torr hydrogen, CO was found to block active sites necessary for ethylene hydrogenation, Above 425K, CO desorbs from the surface to allow ethylene hydrogenation to occur. The gas phase species were monitored by gas chromatography.

  10. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools. PMID:27006089

  11. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-03-23

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.

  12. Fourier Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Hilary E.; Hays, Paul B.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a compact, rugged, high-resolution remote sensing instrument with wide spectral scanning capabilities. This relatively new type of instrument, which we have chosen to call the Fourier-Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FT-FPI), is accomplished by mechanically scanning the etalon plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) through a large optical distance while examining the concomitant signal with a Fourier-transform analysis technique similar to that employed by the Michelson interferometer. The FT-FPI will be used initially as a ground-based instrument to study near-infrared atmospheric absorption lines of trace gases using the techniques of solar absorption spectroscopy. Future plans include modifications to allow for measurements of trace gases in the stratosphere using spectral lines at terahertz frequencies.

  13. The PROSAIC Laplace and Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting

  14. Complete way to fractionalize Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Daniel S.; Ran, Qiwen; Tsang, Eric C. C.; Teo, Kok Lay

    2004-01-01

    We propose a complete way to fractionalize Fourier transform. This fractionalization can perfectly extend the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) defined in [C.C. Shih, Opt. Commun. 118 (1995) 495] to the original one in [V. Namias, J. Inst. Math. Appl. 25 (1980) 241]. The new FRFT proposed in this paper can have any integer M(⩾3)-periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform, and it will be reduced to the FRFT in [Namias, loc. cit.; Shih, loc. cit.; S. Liu, J. Jiang, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 30 (1997) 973] at the three limits with M=+∞, M=4, M=4 k ( k is a natural number), respectively.

  15. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Controller for Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.

    2013-01-01

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Resear......, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture....

  16. Gas Measurement Using Static Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Michael H; Schardt, Michael; Rauscher, Markus S; Koch, Alexander W

    2017-11-13

    Online monitoring of gases in industrial processes is an ambitious task due to adverse conditions such as mechanical vibrations and temperature fluctuations. Whereas conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers use rather complex optical and mechanical designs to ensure stable operation, static FTIR spectrometers do not require moving parts and thus offer inherent stability at comparatively low costs. Therefore, we present a novel, compact gas measurement system using a static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer (sSMFTS). The system works in the mid-infrared range from 650 cm - 1 to 1250 cm - 1 and can be operated with a customized White cell, yielding optical path lengths of up to 120 cm for highly sensitive quantification of gas concentrations. To validate the system, we measure different concentrations of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and perform a PLS regression analysis of the acquired infrared spectra. Thereby, the measured absorption spectra show good agreement with reference data. Since the system additionally permits measurement rates of up to 200 Hz and high signal-to-noise ratios, an application in process analysis appears promising.

  17. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... We present our studies on dual wavelength operation using a single Nd:YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum frequency ...

  18. Doppler-free Fourier transform spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Samuel A; Hipke, Arthur; Guelachvili, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Sub-Doppler broadband multi-heterodyne spectroscopy is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using two laser frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies, we have recorded Doppler-free two-photon dual-comb spectra of atomic rubidium resonances of a width of 6 MHz, while simultaneously interrogating a spectral span of 10 THz. The atomic transitions are uniquely identified via the intensity modulation of the observed fluorescence radiation. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first demonstration of Doppler-free Fourier transform spectroscopy and extend the range of applications of broadband spectroscopy towards precision nonlinear spectroscopy.

  19. Generalized Fourier transforms Fk,a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Ben Said; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Ørsted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    We construct a two-parameter family of actions ωk,a of the Lie algebra by differential-difference operators on . Here, k is a multiplicity-function for the Dunkl operators, and a>0 arises from the interpolation of the Weil representation and the minimal unitary representation of the conformal gro...... of our semigroup Ωk,a provides us with (k,a) -generalized Fourier transforms , which includes the Dunkl transform ( a=2 ) and a new unitary operator ( a=1 ) as a Dunkl-type generalization of the classical Hankel transform....

  20. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  1. Analysis method for Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform technique is given for the simulation of those distortion effects in the instrument line shape of the interferometric spectrum that are due to errors in the measured interferogram. The technique is applied to analyses of atmospheric absorption spectra and laboratory spectra. It is shown that the nonlinear least squares method can retrieve the correct information from the distorted spectrum. Analyses of HF absorption spectra obtained in a laboratory and solar CO absorption spectra gathered by a balloon-borne interferometer indicate that the retrieved amount of absorbing gas is less than the correct value in most cases, if the interferogram distortion effects are not included in the analysis.

  2. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  3. (Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2007-01-01

    We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found

  4. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B

    2012-05-18

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of the SiCl+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Cabezas, Carlos; Endo, Yasuki

    2018-03-01

    Fourier transform microwave spectra for the J = 1 ← 0 and 2 ← 1 rotational transitions of the SiCl+ ion were observed for two isotopologues (35 Cl and 37 Cl) in the ground and the first excited vibrational states of the ground 1Σ+ electronic state. Thanks to the high resolution of the FTMW spectrometer, hyperfine structures due to the quadrupole moment of the chlorine nucleus and the nuclear spin-rotation interaction were fully resolved. The observed FTMW spectra were combined with previously reported MMW and diode laser spectra in an analysis to determine the mass-independent Dunham coefficients Uk,l as well as a mass scaling parameter Δ01Cl = - 0.856 (30) . The equilibrium bond length of SiCl+ determined is re = 1.9439729 (10) Å and the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant of Si35 Cl+ is eQqe = - 11.8788 (23) MHz.

  6. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  7. Fourier transform of momentum distribution in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Manuel, A.A.; Peter, M.; Singru, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Compton profile and 2D-angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation data from vanadium are analyzed by the mean of their Fourier transform. They are compared with the functions calculated with the help of both the linear muffin-tin orbital and the Hubbard-Mijnarends band structure methods. The results show that the functions are influenced by the positron wave function, by the e + -e - many-body correlations and by the differences in the electron wave functions used for the band structure calculations. It is concluded that Fourier analysis is a sensitive approach to investigate the momentum distributions in transition metals and to understnad the effects of the positron. (Auth.)

  8. Multicomplementary operators via finite Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, Andrei B; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L; Guise, Hubert de

    2005-01-01

    A complete set of d + 1 mutually unbiased bases exists in a Hilbert space of dimension d, whenever d is a power of a prime. We discuss a simple construction of d + 1 disjoint classes (each one having d - 1 commuting operators) such that the corresponding eigenstates form sets of unbiased bases. Such a construction works properly for prime dimension. We investigate an alternative construction in which the real numbers that label the classes are replaced by a finite field having d elements. One of these classes is diagonal, and can be mapped to cyclic operators by means of the finite Fourier transform, which allows one to understand complementarity in a similar way as for the position-momentum pair in standard quantum mechanics. The relevant examples of two and three qubits and two qutrits are discussed in detail

  9. Laser Field Imaging Through Fourier Transform Heterodyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Olivas, N.L.; Galbraith, A.E.; Strauss, C.E.; Grubler, A.C.

    1999-04-05

    The authors present a detection process capable of directly imaging the transverse amplitude, phase, and Doppler shift of coherent electromagnetic fields. Based on coherent detection principles governing conventional heterodyned RADAR/LADAR systems, Fourier Transform Heterodyne incorporates transverse spatial encoding of the reference local oscillator for image capture. Appropriate selection of spatial encoding functions allows image retrieval by way of classic Fourier manipulations. Of practical interest: (1) imaging may be accomplished with a single element detector/sensor requiring no additional scanning or moving components, (2) as detection is governed by heterodyne principles, near quantum limited performance is achievable, (3) a wide variety of appropriate spatial encoding functions exist that may be adaptively configured in real-time for applications requiring optimal detection, and (4) the concept is general with the applicable electromagnetic spectrum encompassing the RF through optical.

  10. Ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikver, R.; Suurmaa, Eh.; Syugis, A.; Tammik, A.; Lippmaa, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with Fourier transformation intended for investigating mass specta and chemical reaction kinetics in the gaseous phase is described. The mass-spectrum of CO and N 2 positive ions is shown. The spectrometer consists of an electromagnet with power supply, a vacuum system, a cell with electronic equipment and a minicomputer. In the vacuum system (5x10 -9 Torr) there is a cubic measuring cell heated up to 400 deg C. The spectrometer mass resolution is of the 10 5 order. The spectrometer is able to operate as a high-resolution analytical mass-spectrometer of positive and negative ions. The experience of the spectrometer operation confirms its effectiveness for investigating ion-molecular reactions, in particular, proton transfer reactions

  11. Fourier transform and its application to 1D and 2D NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canet, D.

    1988-01-01

    In this review article, the following points are developed: Pulsed NMR and Fourier transform; Fourier transform and two-dimensional spectroscopy; Mathematical properties of Fourier transform; Fourier transform of a sine function- one dimensional NMR; Fourier transform of a product of sine functions - two-dimensional NMR; Data manipulations in the time domain; Numerical Fourier transform [fr

  12. Realization of quantum Fourier transform over ZN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiang-Qun; Bao Wan-Su; Li Fa-Da; Zhang Yu-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Since the difficulty in preparing the equal superposition state of amplitude is 1/√N, we construct a quantile transform of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Z N based on the elementary transforms, such as Hadamard transform and Pauli transform. The QFT over Z N can then be realized by the quantile transform, and used to further design its quantum circuit and analyze the requirements for the quantum register and quantum gates. However, the transform needs considerable quantum computational resources and it is difficult to construct a high-dimensional quantum register. Hence, we investigate the design of t-bit quantile transform, and introduce the definition of t-bit semiclassical QFT over Z N . According to probability amplitude, we prove that the transform can be used to realize QFT over Z N and further design its quantum circuit. For this transform, the requirements for the quantum register, the one-qubit gate, and two-qubit gate reduce obviously when compared with those for the QFT over Z N . (general)

  13. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Hewagama, Tilak; Kolasinski, John R.; Kostiuk, Theodor

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system.Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, NASA Goddard was funded via the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Progrem (PIDDP) to develop CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. Following the initial validation of CIRS-lite operation in the laboratory, we have been acquiring atmospheric data in the 8-12 micron window at the 1.2 m telescope at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) in Greenbelt, MD. Targets so far have included Earth's atmosphere (in emission, and in absorption against the moon), and Venus.We will present the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions.

  14. The Fourier Transform for Certain HyperKähler Fourfolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, M.; Vial, C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a codimension-1 algebraic cycle obtained from the Poincaré line bundle, Beauville defined the Fourier transform on the Chow groups of an abelian variety A and showed that the Fourier transform induces a decomposition of the Chow ring CH∗(A). By using a codimension-2 algebraic cycle

  15. Fourier transform in multimode systems in the Bargmann representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, C; Vourdas, A

    2007-01-01

    A Fourier transform in a multimode system is studied, using the Bargmann representation. The growth of a Bargmann function is shown to be related to the second-order correlation of the corresponding state. Both the total growth and the total second-order correlation remain unchanged under the Fourier transform. Examples with coherent states, squeezed states and Mittag-Leffler states are discussed

  16. Fourier Transforms Simplified: Computing an Infrared Spectrum from an Interferogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely in chemistry and allied sciences. Examples include infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopies. A thorough understanding of Fourier methods assists the understanding of microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and diffraction gratings. The theory of Fourier transforms has been presented in this "Journal",…

  17. Geometric interpretations of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    One, two, and three dimensional Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) and geometric interpretations of their periodicities are presented. These operators are examined for their relationship with the two sided, continuous Fourier transform. Discrete or continuous transforms of real functions have certain symmetry properties. The symmetries are examined for the one, two, and three dimensional cases. Extension to higher dimension is straight forward.

  18. The relationship between shock response spectrum and fast Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zola, Maurizio

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the basic relationship between response spectrum and fast Fourier transform is laid down. Since a long time the response spectrum has been used by structural engineers in the seismic domain and nowadays it is going to be used to define transient motions. This way to define the excitation is more general and more real than the use of classical shape pulses for the reproduction of real environment. Nevertheless the response spectrum of a real excitation represents a loss of some information with respect to the Fourier transform. A useful discussion could arise from these observations. Appendix A gives the relationship between the mathematic Fourier transform and the digital Fourier transform given by computers, while Appendix B gives some examples of response spectra and Fourier transforms of simple functions. (author)

  19. Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Francis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    A compact and lightweight mechanism has been developed to accurately move a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) scan mirror (a cube corner) in a near-linear fashion with near constant speed at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation includes a slide mechanism to restrict motion to one dimension, an actuator to drive the motion, and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) to measure the speed. The cube corner mirror is double-passed in one arm of the FTS; double-passing is required to compensate for optical beam shear resulting from tilting of the moving cube corner. The slide, actuator, and LVT are off-the-shelf components that are capable of cryogenic vacuum operation. The actuator drives the slide for the required travel of 2.5 cm. The LVT measures translation speed. A proportional feedback loop compares the LVT voltage with the set voltage (speed) to derive an error signal to drive the actuator and achieve near constant speed. When the end of the scan is reached, a personal computer reverses the set voltage. The actuator and LVT have no moving parts in contact, and have magnetic properties consistent with cryogenic operation. The unlubricated slide restricts motion to linear travel, using crossed roller bearings consistent with 100-million- stroke operation. The mechanism tilts several arc seconds during transport of the FTS mirror, which would compromise optical fringe efficiency when using a flat mirror. Consequently, a cube corner mirror is used, which converts a tilt into a shear. The sheared beam strikes (at normal incidence) a flat mirror at the end of the FTS arm with the moving mechanism, thereby returning upon itself and compensating for the shear

  20. Raman spectroscopy of gases with a Fourier transform spectrometer - The spectrum of D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Weber, A.; Brault, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometry (FTS) is presently used to record the spontaneous incoherent laser Raman spectra of gases. The high resolution, sensitivity, calibration accuracy and spectral coverage achieved demonstrate the viability of FTS for Raman spectroscopy. Attention is given to the coefficients obtained by fitting measurements obtained from the spectrum of D2, containing both v = 0-0 and 1-0 transitions, to the Dunham (1932) expansion of the vibration-rotation energy levels.

  1. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    :YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum ...

  2. Ribosomal DNA Nanoprobes studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Jaciara; Castilho, Maiara L.; Téllez Soto, Claudio A.; Vieira, Laís de Souza; Canevari, Renata A.; Fávero, Priscila P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermo-dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis. Brazil epidemiological data shows that endemic areas are the subtropical regions, especially where agricultural activities predominate such as the Southeast, South, and Midwest. There are several tests to diagnose paracoccidioidomycosis, but they have many limitations such as low sensitivity, high cost, and a cross-reacting problem. In this work, gold nanoprobes were used to identify P. brasiliensis as an alternative diagnostic technique, which is easier to apply, costs less, and has great potential for application. The specific Ribosomal sequence of P. brasiliensis DNA was amplified and used to design the nanoprobes using a thiol-modified oligonucleotide. The results of positive and negative tests were done by UV-visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) measurements. The deconvolution of FT-IR sample spectra showed differences in the vibrational modes from the hydrogen bridge NHN and NHO bands that form the double helix DNA for samples matching the DNA sequence of nanoprobes that could be used to classify the samples.

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G

    2017-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Image reconstruction from pairs of Fourier-transform magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.R.; Overman, T.L.; Gough, P.

    1998-01-01

    The retrieval of phase information from only the magnitude of the Fourier transform of a signal remains an important problem for many applications. We present an algorithm for phase retrieval when there exist two related sets of Fourier-transform magnitude data. The data are assumed to come from a single object observed in two different polarizations through a distorting medium, so the phase component of the Fourier transform of the object is corrupted. Phase retrieval is accomplished by minimization of a suitable criterion function, which can take three different forms. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  5. On nonlinear Fourier transform: towards the nonlinear superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksida, Pavle

    2017-01-01

    In the paper we consider the nonlinear Fourier transform associated to the AKNSZS systems. In particular, we discuss the construction of the nonlinear Fourier modes of this transform by means of a perturbation scheme. The linearization of the AKNS-ZS nonlinear Fourier transform is the usual, linear Fourier transform and the linearization of a nonlinear Fourier mode of frequency d is the linear Fourier mode of the same frequency. We show that the first non-trivial term in the perturbation expression of any nonlinear Fourier mode is given by the dilogarithm function.

  6. Surface Fourier-transform lens using a metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yun Bo; Cai, Ben Geng; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a surface (or 2D) Fourier-transform lens using a gradient refractive index (GRIN) metasurface in the microwave band, which is composed of sub-wavelength quasi-periodical metallic patches on a grounded dielectric substrate. Such a metasurface supports the transverse magnetic (TM) modes of surface waves. To gradually change the size of textures, we obtain different surface refractive indices, which can be tailored to fit the required refractive-index profile of a surface Fourier-transform lens. According to the theory of spatial Fourier transformation, we make use of the proposed lens to realize surface plane-wave scanning under different feeding locations. The simulation and experimental results jointly confirm the validity of the surface Fourier-transform lens. The proposed method can also be extended to the terahertz frequency. (paper)

  7. On the physical relevance of the discrete Fourier transform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper originated from the author's dissatisfaction with the way the discrete Fourier transform is usually presented in the literature. Although mathematically correct, the physical meaning of the common representation is unsatisfactory...

  8. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination: Part I: Fourier Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief introduction with some definitions and properties of Fourier transforms. Shows relations, ways of understanding the mathematics, and applications. Notes proofs are not included but references are given. First of three part series. (MVL)

  9. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  10. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...

  11. A discrete Fourier transform for virtual memory machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, David C.

    1992-01-01

    An algebraic theory of the Discrete Fourier Transform is developed in great detail. Examination of the details of the theory leads to a computationally efficient fast Fourier transform for the use on computers with virtual memory. Such an algorithm is of great use on modern desktop machines. A FORTRAN coded version of the algorithm is given for the case when the sequence of numbers to be transformed is a power of two.

  12. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, G N; Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  13. Principle and analysis of a rotational motion Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qisheng; Min, Huang; Han, Wei; Liu, Yixuan; Qian, Lulu; Lu, Xiangning

    2017-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an important technique in studying molecular energy levels, analyzing material compositions, and environmental pollutants detection. A novel rotational motion Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with high stability and ultra-rapid scanning characteristics is proposed in this paper. The basic principle, the optical path difference (OPD) calculations, and some tolerance analysis are elaborated. The OPD of this spectrometer is obtained by the continuously rotational motion of a pair of parallel mirrors instead of the translational motion in traditional Michelson interferometer. Because of the rotational motion, it avoids the tilt problems occurred in the translational motion Michelson interferometer. There is a cosine function relationship between the OPD and the rotating angle of the parallel mirrors. An optical model is setup in non-sequential mode of the ZEMAX software, and the interferogram of a monochromatic light is simulated using ray tracing method. The simulated interferogram is consistent with the theoretically calculated interferogram. As the rotating mirrors are the only moving elements in this spectrometer, the parallelism of the rotating mirrors and the vibration during the scan are analyzed. The vibration of the parallel mirrors is the main error during the rotation. This high stability and ultra-rapid scanning Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is a suitable candidate for airborne and space-borne remote sensing spectrometer.

  14. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane Concentrations in Cigarette Smoke by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T. L.; Lebron, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated absorbance areas of vibrational bands of CO[subscript 2], CO, and CH[subscript 4] gases in cigarette smoke were measured from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to derive the partial pressures of these gases at different smoke times. The quantity of the three gas-phase components of cigarette smoke at different smoke times…

  15. Toward a simple molecular understanding of sum frequency generation at air-water interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah-Vanhoucke, Joyce; Smith, Jared D.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2009-01-13

    Second-order vibrational spectroscopies successfully isolate signals from interfaces, but they report on intermolecular structure in a complicated and indirect way. Here we adapt a perspective on vibrational response developed for bulk spectroscopies to explore the microscopic fluctuations to which sum frequency generation (SFG), a popular surface-specific measurement, is most sensitive. We focus exclusively on inhomogeneous broadening of spectral susceptibilities for OH stretching of HOD as a dilute solute in D{sub 2}O. Exploiting a simple connection between vibrational frequency shifts and an electric field variable, we identify several functions of molecular orientation whose averages govern SFG. The frequency-dependence of these quantities is well captured by a pair of averages, involving alignment of OH and OD bonds with the surface normal at corresponding values of the electric field. The approximate form we obtain for SFG susceptibility highlights a dramatic sensitivity to the way a simulated liquid slab is partitioned for calculating second-order response.

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynov, Elchin; Garibov, Adil; Mehdiyeva, Ravan; Huseynova, Efsane

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, nano SiO2 particles are investigated before and after gamma irradiation (25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 kGy) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method for the wavenumber between 400-4000 cm-1. It is found that as a result of spectroscopic analysis, five new peaks have appeared after gamma radiation. Two of new obtained peaks (which are located at 687 cm-1 and 2357 cm-1 of wavenumber) were formed as a result of gamma radiation interaction with Si-O bonds. Another three new peaks (peaks appropriate to 941, 2052 and 2357 cm-1 values of wavenumber) appear as a result of interaction of water with nano SiO2 particles after gamma irradiation. It has been defined as asymmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and asymmetrical stretching vibration of Si-O bonds appropriate to peaks.

  17. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  18. Fixed-point error analysis of Winograd Fourier transform algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R. W.; Mcclellan, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The quantization error introduced by the Winograd Fourier transform algorithm (WFTA) when implemented in fixed-point arithmetic is studied and compared with that of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The effect of ordering the computational modules and the relative contributions of data quantization error and coefficient quantization error are determined. In addition, the quantization error introduced by the Good-Winograd (GW) algorithm, which uses Good's prime-factor decomposition for the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) together with Winograd's short length DFT algorithms, is studied. Error introduced by the WFTA is, in all cases, worse than that of the FFT. In general, the WFTA requires one or two more bits for data representation to give an error similar to that of the FFT. Error introduced by the GW algorithm is approximately the same as that of the FFT.

  19. Special affine Fourier transformation in frequency-domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L. Z.

    2000-11-01

    Special affine Fourier transformation (SAFT) can be considered as an extension of the fractional Fourier transformation (FRT) and the most general linear mapping in phase space. A general formula for SAFT in frequency-domain is derived, which gives a direct relationship between the input and output spatial frequency spectra of a light field. It shows that the SAFT has similar and symmetric feature in both space- and frequency-domains. As its special cases, Collins formula in frequency-domain, the spatial frequency representations of the almost-FRT, almost-Fresnel and almost-Fourier transformations are explicitly obtained. These formulae may provide a tool for investigating the performance of a lossless optical system including small deformations in both domains in a unified way within the framework of linear theory.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1985-01-01

    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1978-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc

  2. Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonak-Auer, I.

    1996-11-01

    In order to determine the type of charge carriers, i.e. electrons or holes, participating in optical transitions, cyclotron resonance experiments using circularly polarized radiation were performed on strained-layer [111]-oriented InGaAs/(Al)GaAs multiple quantum wells and on a [100]-oriented InAs/GaSb double-heterostructure. Because of the rather complicated band-structures of these samples it is a priori unknown which carriers take part in transitions. The measurements yield the surprising result, that for the InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well the experimentally observed cyclotron resonance appears in the electron-active polarization in the frequency-regime of the Far Infrared (FIR), but in the hole-active polarization in the range of millimeter waves, whereas for the InGaAs/AlGaAs sample the resonance is caused by holes also in the FIR. Since by theoretical considerations the possibility of electrons causing the FIR cyclotron resonance could be excluded, the measurements are interpreted as being caused by holes due to broken selection rules. In the InAs/GaSb sample hole cyclotron resonance could for the first time be measured on a double-heterostructure. As for the application oriented measurements, they comprised a study of the hydrogen content of amorphous silicon nitride layers, and were performed in collaboration with Austria Mikro Systeme International AG. Fourier spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive means for determining impurity concentrations. Radiation in the Mid Infrared regime stimulates N-H and Si-H stretching vibrations which lead to absorption peaks and can directly be attributed to the hydrogen concentration via calibration factors taken from the literature. In comparison with recommended procedures in the literature, a much higher accuracy in determining the areas of the absorption peaks could be gained in the course of this thesis by a proper polynomial fit of the background spectrum outside the absorption lines. The hydrogen content of

  3. Fourier transform distribution function of relaxation times; application and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple Fourier transform (FT) method is presented for obtaining a Distribution Function of Relaxation Times (DFRT) for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data. By using a special data extension procedure the FT is performed over the range from -∞ ≤ lnω ≤ + ∞. The integration procedure is

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic estimation of crystallinity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    quartz in rock samples and estimate the mining quality of quartz mineral, which is substantiated by calculating the crystallinity index. ... procedure which can be used to estimate the distribution of quartz in various rocks for mining purpose. ... coal was reported by several workers (Heaney et al. 1994). Fourier transform ...

  5. Coupling of column liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, G.W; Gooijer, C; Velthorst, N.H; Brinkman, U.A Th

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive overview of the literature on the coupling of column liquid chromatography (LC) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). Flow-cell-based FT-IR detection and early solvent-elimination interfaces for LC-FT-IR are discussed in brief. A comprehensive

  6. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit ...

  7. Application of Migration Velocity Using Fourier Transform Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of velocity by Fourier transform to process 3-D unmigrated seismic sections has been carried out in Fabi Field, Niger Delta – Nigeria. Usually, all seismic events (sections) are characterized by spikes or noise (random or coherent), multiples and shear waves so that when a seismic bed is dipping, the apparent ...

  8. Properties of the Simpson discrete fourier transform | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Simpson discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) and its inverse are transformations relating the time and frequency domains. In this paper we state and prove the important properties of shift, circular convolution, conjugation, time reversal and Plancherel's theorem. In addition, we provide an alternative representation of the ...

  9. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic estimation of crystallinity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic estimation of crystallinity in SiO2 based rocks. BHASKAR J SAIKIA. †. , G PARTHASARATHY* and N C SARMAH. †. National Geophysical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hyderabad 500 007, India. †. Department of Physics, Dibrugarh University, ...

  10. Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.

  11. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy can be considered to be a fast and non-invasive tool for distinguishing between normal and cancerous cells and tissues without the need for laborious and invasive sampling procedures. Gastric samples from four patients (age, 65±2 years) were analysed. Samples were ...

  12. Nonlinear Fourier transform for dual-polarization optical communication system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone

    communication is considered an emerging paradigm in fiber-optic communications that could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “inverse scattering transform” or “nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT)” to exploit the “hidden” linearity of the nonlinear Schrödinger...

  13. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms(FT). This very general technique gives us a lot of insight intosolving first order differential equations with source terms dependingon time. In itself, the RC circuit is by far the mostcommonplace entity in modern ...

  14. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and X-ray powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at demonstrating complementary roles offered by both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques in characterizing clay size fraction of kaolins. The clay size fraction of kaolin samples obtained from Kgwakgwe, Makoro, Lobatse and Serule kaolin ...

  15. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1890 and Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing 1833. Two cultures were grown in a chemically-defined media under photoautotrophic culture conditions isolated from eutrophic ...

  16. Fourier-transform Infrared Characterization of Kaolin, Granite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourier-transform Infrared Characterization of Kaolin, Granite, Bentonite and Barite. ... Diazonium salts at the peak region frequency of 3200-3100cm-1, organic substance at peak region of 2900-2700cm-1, by comparing the spectra obtained with those ... Keywords: characterization; clays; infrared; minerals; spectroscopy ...

  17. Fourier transforms of Dini-Lipschitz functions on Vilenkin groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Younis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In [4] we proved some theorems on the Fourier Transforms of functions satisfying conditions related to the Dini-Lipschitz conditions on the n-dimensional Euclidean space Rn and the torus group Tn. In this paper we extend those theorems for functions with Fourier series on Vilenkin groups.

  18. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Holograms; security holograms; optical security; extended fractional Fourier transforms. PACS Nos 42.40.-i; 42.40. ... cost-effective scheme for the development of security hologram, we noticed that two reference beams holography [10] can ..... couragement, support and for permission to publish this work. They wish to thank.

  19. Construction of a pulsed nozzle fourier transform microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Construction of a pulsed nozzle fourier transform microwave spectrometer to study the lithium bond. A P TIWARI 1, B J MUKKADA 1, E ARUNAN 1 and P C MATHIAS 2. 1Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of. Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 2Sophisticated Instruments Facility, Indian Institute ...

  20. HEART ABNORMALITY CLASSIFICATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORMS METHOD AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Purwanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health problems with cardiovascular system disorder are still ranked high globally. One way to detect abnormalities in the cardiovascular system especially in the heart is through the electrocardiogram (ECG reading. However, reading ECG recording needs experience and expertise, software-based neural networks has designed to help identify any abnormalities ofthe heart through electrocardiogram digital image. This image is processed using image processing methods to obtain ordinate chart which representing the heart’s electrical potential. Feature extraction using Fourier transforms which are divided into several numbers of coefficients. As the software input, Fourier transforms coefficient have been normalized. Output of this software is divided into three classes, namely heart with atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and normal. Maximum accuracy rate ofthis software is 95.45%, with the distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/8 and number of nodes 5, while minimum accuracy rate of this software at least 68.18% by distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/32 and the number of nodes 32. Overall result accuracy rate of this software has an average of86.05% and standard deviation of7.82.

  1. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  2. A functional program for the Fast Fourier Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, F.-J. de

    This paper is written as a contribution to the Parallel Reduction Machine Project. Its purpose is to present a functional program for a well-known application of the fundamental algorithmic method Fast Fourier Transform for multiplication of polynomials. This in order to verify experimentally two

  3. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded ex- tended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded ...

  4. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  5. Matrix-Vector Based Fast Fourier Transformations on SDR Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. He

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Today Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs are applied in various radio standards based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex. It is important to gain a fast computational speed for the DFT, which is usually achieved by using specialized Fast Fourier Transform (FFT engines. However, in face of the Software Defined Radio (SDR development, more general (parallel processor architectures are often desirable, which are not tailored to FFT computations. Therefore, alternative approaches are required to reduce the complexity of the DFT. Starting from a matrix-vector based description of the FFT idea, we will present different factorizations of the DFT matrix, which allow a reduction of the complexity that lies between the original DFT and the minimum FFT complexity. The computational complexities of these factorizations and their suitability for implementation on different processor architectures are investigated.

  6. Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope with double focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The meso-optical Fourier transform microscope (MFTM) with double focusing for particle tracks of low ionization level in the nuclear emulsion is described. It is shown experimentally that this device enables one to get high concentration of information about the position of the particle track in the nuclear emulsion and thus to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that spreading of the meso-optical image of the particle track in the sagittal section of the MFTM can be eliminated completely in the frame of the diffraction limit. The number of the additional degrees of freedom in this new MFTM system along depth coordinate is equal to 20 in comparison to single degree of freedom in the Fourier transform microscope of the direct observation. 10 refs.; 15 figs

  7. The morphing of geographical features by Fourier transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhong; Liu, Pengcheng; Yu, Wenhao; Cheng, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a morphing model of vector geographical data based on Fourier transformation. This model involves three main steps. They are conversion from vector data to Fourier series, generation of intermediate function by combination of the two Fourier series concerning a large scale and a small scale, and reverse conversion from combination function to vector data. By mirror processing, the model can also be used for morphing of linear features. Experimental results show that this method is sensitive to scale variations and it can be used for vector map features' continuous scale transformation. The efficiency of this model is linearly related to the point number of shape boundary and the interceptive value n of Fourier expansion. The effect of morphing by Fourier transformation is plausible and the efficiency of the algorithm is acceptable.

  8. Discrete Fourier Transform Analysis in a Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative computational strategies for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) have been developed using analysis of geometric manifolds. This approach provides a general framework for performing DFT calculations, and suggests a more efficient implementation of the DFT for applications using iterative transform methods, particularly phase retrieval. The DFT can thus be implemented using fewer operations when compared to the usual DFT counterpart. The software decreases the run time of the DFT in certain applications such as phase retrieval that iteratively call the DFT function. The algorithm exploits a special computational approach based on analysis of the DFT as a transformation in a complex vector space. As such, this approach has the potential to realize a DFT computation that approaches N operations versus Nlog(N) operations for the equivalent Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation.

  9. Limitations on continuous variable quantum algorithms with Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, Mark R A; Hoeyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C

    2009-01-01

    We study quantum algorithms implemented within a single harmonic oscillator, or equivalently within a single mode of the electromagnetic field. Logical states correspond to functions of the canonical position, and the Fourier transform to canonical momentum serves as the analogue of the Hadamard transform for this implementation. This continuous variable version of quantum information processing has widespread appeal because of advanced quantum optics technology that can create, manipulate and read Gaussian states of light. We show that, contrary to a previous claim, this implementation of quantum information processing has limitations due to a position-momentum trade-off of the Fourier transform, analogous to the famous time-bandwidth theorem of signal processing.

  10. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  11. Visible Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: Design and Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishnow, E.H.; Wurtz, R.; Blais-Ouellette, S.; Cook, K.H.; Carr, D.; Lewis, I.; Grandmont, F.; Stubbs, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    We present details of the design, operation and calibration of an astronomical visible-band imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS). This type of instrument produces a spectrum for every pixel in the field of view where the spectral resolution is flexible. The instrument is a dual-input/dual-output Michelson interferometer coupled to the 3.5 meter telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Imaging performance and interferograms and spectra from calibration sources and standard stars are discussed

  12. 10th International Conference on Progress in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Keresztury, Gábor; Kellner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    19 plenary lectures and 203 poster papers presented at the 10th International Conference of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in Budapest 1995 give an overview on the state-of-the art of this technology and its wide range of applications. The reader will get information on any aspects of FTS including the latest instrumental developments, e.g. in diode array detection, time resolution FTS, microscopy and spectral mapping, double modulation and two-dimensional FTS.

  13. FTIS compact Fourier transform imaging spectrometer for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, W.; Holota, K.; Tittel, H. O.; Rost, M.; Harnisch, B.

    2017-11-01

    The feasibility of a compact Fourier-Transform-Imaging-Spectrometer (FTIS) for small satellite remote sensing missions is currently being studied under ESA contract. Compared to classical hyperspectral imagers using dispersive spectrometers the major advantages of the FTIS is the compact optics module and the tolerable higher detector temperature, thus easing the instrument thermal design. The feasibility of this instrument concept will be demonstrated by breadboarding.

  14. Fast Fourier transform analysis of rotor-bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, K. C.; Gunter, E. J.; Allaire, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    Nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is becoming increasingly important in the analysis of modern-day rotating machinery to model such phenomena as oil film whirl. This paper develops an analysis technique incorporating modal analysis and fast Fourier transform techniques to analyze rotors with residual shaft bow and realistic nonlinear bearings. The technique is demonstrated on single-mass and three-mass rotor examples. Comparisons of the theoretical results with experimental data give excellent agreement.

  15. Fourier transform profilometry by using digital dc subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongjarern, J.; Widjaja, J.; Sangpech, W.; Thongdee, N.; Santisoonthornwat, P.; Traisak, O.; Chuamchaitrakool, P.; Meemon, P.

    2014-06-01

    A new method for eliminating unwanted background of Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) by using simple dc bias and background eliminations from the deformed grating images is proposed. The proposed method has an advantage over a conventional FTP in that the 3-D object profile can be accurately measured although original fundamental spectra are corrupted by a zeroth-order spectrum. Experimental verifications of the proposed method are presented.

  16. Solving singular convolution equations using the inverse fast Fourier transform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajník, E.; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, P.; Zizler, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2012), s. 543-550 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : singular convolution equations * fast Fourier transform * tempered distribution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.222, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/m8437t3563214048/

  17. Methodological effects in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy: Implications for structural analyses of biomacromolecular samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Dyatlova, Yulia A.; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Grigoryeva, Olga P.; Fainleib, Alexander M.; De Luca, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    A set of experimental data obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (involving the use of samples ground and pressed with KBr, i.e. in a polar halide matrix) and by matrix-free transmission FTIR or diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic methodologies (involving measurements of thin films or pure powdered samples, respectively) were compared for several different biomacromolecular substances. The samples under study included poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) isolated from cell biomass of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense; dry PHB-containing A. brasilense biomass; pectin (natural carboxylated heteropolysaccharide of plant origin; obtained from apple peel) as well as its chemically modified derivatives obtained by partial esterification of its galacturonide-chain hydroxyl moieties with palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Significant shifts of some FTIR vibrational bands related to polar functional groups of all the biomacromolecules under study, induced by the halide matrix used for preparing the samples for spectroscopic measurements, were shown and discussed. A polar halide matrix used for preparing samples for FTIR measurements was shown to be likely to affect band positions not only per se, by affecting band energies or via ion exchange (e.g., with carboxylate moieties), but also by inducing crystallisation of metastable amorphous biopolymers (e.g., PHB of microbial origin). The results obtained have important implications for correct structural analyses of polar, H-bonded and/or amphiphilic biomacromolecular systems using different methodologies of FTIR spectroscopy.

  18. Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2012-10-01

    A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.

  19. Fourier transform spectrometry for fiber-optic sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Tuma, Margaret L.; Sotomayor, Jorge L.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used as a Fourier transform spectrometer to analyze the input and output spectra of a temperature-sensing thin-film etalon. This type of spectrometer has an advantage over conventional grating spectrometers because it is better suited for use with time-division-multiplexed sensor networks. In addition, this spectrometer has the potential for low cost due to its use of a component that could be manufactured in large quantities for the optical communications industry.

  20. Alternating multivariate trigonometric functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2008-01-01

    We define and study multivariate sine and cosine functions, symmetric with respect to the alternating group A n , which is a subgroup of the permutation (symmetric) group S n . These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator. They determine Fourier-type transforms. There exist three types of such transforms: expansions into corresponding sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier series, integral sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier transforms, and multivariate finite sine and cosine transforms. In all these transforms, alternating multivariate sine and cosine functions are used as a kernel

  1. Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.

  2. Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.

  3. Optical Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Layered Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Shan, J.; Karaiskaj, D.; Z. D. Kovalyuk; Z. R. Kudrynskyi Collaboration; A. H. Romero Collaboration; A. Cantarero Collaboration; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. Shan Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) measurements were used to study the mechanism of excitonic dephasing and probe the electronic structure of the excitonic ground state in layered metal dichalcogenides. Temperature-dependent 2DFT measurements were performed to probe exciton-phonon interactions. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal exciton-exciton and exciton-carrier scattering, and the lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of excitons on positively and negatively doped samples. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0012635.

  4. Hochauflösende Fourier-Transform-Emissionsspektroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Mittels hochauflösender Fourier-Transform-Infrarot-Emissionsspektroskopie wurden tiefliegende elektronische Anregungszustände der mittelschweren zweiatomigen Radikale As2, Sb2 und TeF untersucht. Dabei lag das Interesse vor allem bei den Emissionen nicht voll erlaubter Übergänge wie beispielsweise der 3Σ +u →  1Σ +g- bzw. (1u) →  (0+g)-Übergänge bei den Stickstoff-Homologen. Dieses besondere Interesse an der genauen Analyse der 3Σ +u-Zustände liegt in ihrem metastab...

  5. Particle field holography data reduction by Fourier transform analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Cecil F.; Trolinger, James D.

    1987-01-01

    The size distribution of a particle field hologram is obtained with a Fourier transformation of the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the reconstructed hologram. Off-axis absorption holograms of particle fields with known characteristics were obtained and analyzed with a commercially available instrument. The mean particle size of the reconstructed hologram was measured with an error of + or - 5 percent, while the distribution broadening was estimated within + or - 15 percent. Small sections of a pulsed laser hologram of a synthetic fuel spray were analyzed with this method thus yielding a spatially resolved size distribution. The method yields fast and accurate automated analysis of particle field holograms.

  6. THREE-VARIABLE ALTERNATING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS AND CORRESPONDING FOURIER TRANSFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bezubik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The common trigonometric functions admit generalizations to any higher dimension, the symmetric, antisymmetric and alternating ones. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to three dimensional generalization only, focusing on alternating case in detail. Many specific properties of this new class of special functions useful in applications are studied. Such are the orthogonalities, both the continuous one and the discrete one on the 3D lattice of any density, corresponding discrete and continuous Fourier transforms, and others. Rapidly increasing precision of the interpolation with increasing density of the 3D lattice is shown in an example.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Trifluoroiodomethane ICP Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Cassius; Urrabazo, David; Goeckner, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I) is an experimental gas that currently is being considered for semiconductor etching. We will report the breakdown characteristics of CF3I in an ICP plasma. In this study, the gas chemistry was examined through the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This allowed us to identify the fraction of CF3I remaining in the discharge as well as some of the daughter species produced. Our results indicate that the major multi-atomic species found in the system include Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Trifluoromethyl (CF3). Mass balance examination also suggests the creation of atomic and molecular Iodide.

  8. Fourier transform infrared studies in solid egg white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivzi, T.Z.

    1994-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is the most recent addition to the arsenal of bioanalytical techniques capable of providing information about the secondary structure of proteins in a variety of environments. FTIR spectra have been obtained in solid egg white lysozyme. The spectra display the usual amide I, II and III bands. Secondary structural information obtained from the spectra after applying resolution enhancement techniques to the amide I band has been found consistent with the x-ray crystallographic data of the protein and also to the spectroscopic data of the protein in aqueous solution. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Directional short-time Fourier transform of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hadzi-Velkova Saneva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we consider the directional short-time Fourier transform (DSTFT that was introduced and investigated in (Giv in J. Math. Anal. Appl. 399:100-107, 2013. We analyze the DSTFT and its transpose on test function spaces S ( R n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and S ( Y 2 n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {Y}^{2n}$ , respectively, and prove the continuity theorems on these spaces. Then the obtained results are used to extend the DSTFT to spaces of distributions.

  10. Neural network signature verification using Haar wavelet and Fourier transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Daniel K. R.; Brown, B. M.; Pedersen, John F.

    1993-08-01

    This paper discusses the use of neural network's for handwritten signature verification using the Fourier and Haar wavelet transforms as methods of encoding signature images. Results will be presented that discuss a neural network's ability to generalize to unseen signatures using wavelet encoded training data. These results will be discussed with reference to both Backpropagation networks and Cascade-Correlation networks. Backpropagation and Cascade- Correlation networks are used to compare and contrast the generalization ability of Haar wavelet and Fourier transform encoded signature data.

  11. Polarization entanglement of sum-frequency photons: A tool to probe the Markovian limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Victor; Chelli, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    The article addresses the possibility of entanglement-specific infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. In the case of an anisotropic interface, it is possible to employ SSS and PSS polarizations to detect responses not only specific to χY Y Y and χX Y Y nonlinearities, but also to higher-order χ(Y Y Y )(X Y Y ) and χ(X Y Y )(Y Y Y ) nonlinearities. Using quantum mechanical studies of the rhenium complex [Re (OH) 3(CO) 3] as a molecular model, we demonstrate that if such complexes would form an anisotropic orientational distribution at a surface, under the considered geometry and the polarization settings, we may prepare quantum correlated C =O vibrational states to emit polarization-entangled photons. Accordingly, we explore the possibility of a polarization-measurement protocol to extract spectral signatures of the entangled states. The response would be informative on intramolecular interactions. As a result, we discuss the possible practical implications in probing dynamics at interfaces, and different opportunities in the preparation of entangled vibrational states of quantified fidelity.

  12. Fourier series, Fourier transform and their applications to mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Serov, Valery

    2017-01-01

    This text serves as an introduction to the modern theory of analysis and differential equations with applications in mathematical physics and engineering sciences.  Having outgrown from a series of half-semester courses given at University of Oulu, this book consists of four self-contained parts. The first part, Fourier Series and the Discrete Fourier Transform, is devoted to the classical one-dimensional trigonometric Fourier series with some applications to PDEs and signal processing.  The second part, Fourier Transform and Distributions, is concerned with distribution theory of L. Schwartz and its applications to the Schrödinger and magnetic Schrödinger operations.  The third part, Operator Theory and Integral Equations, is devoted mostly to the self-adjoint but unbounded operators in Hilbert spaces and their applications to integral equations in such spaces. The fourth and final part, Introduction to Partial Differential Equations, serves as an introduction to modern methods for classical theory o...

  13. Progress report of a static Fourier transform spectrometer breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosak, A.; Tintó, F.

    2017-11-01

    MOLI instrument -for MOtionLess Interferometer- takes advantage of the new concept of static Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a high-resolution spectrometer working over a narrow bandwidth, which is adapted to a wide range of atmospheric sounding missions and compatible with micro-satellite platform. The core of this instrument is an echelette cube. Mirrors on the classical design are replaced by stepped mirrors -integrated into that interference cube- thus suppressing any moving part. The steps' directions being set over a perpendicular axis, the overlap of both stepped mirrors creates a cluster of so-called "echelettes", each one corresponding to a different optical path difference (OPD). Hence the Fourier transform of the incoming radiance is directly imaged on a CCD array in a single acquisition. The frequency domain of the measurements is selected by an interferential filter disposed on the incoming optical path. A rotating wheel equipped with several filters allows the successive measurement of spectra around some bands of interest, i.e. O2, CO2 and CO absorption bands.

  14. Vector Radix 2 × 2 Sliding Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yung Byun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional (2D discrete Fourier transform (DFT in the sliding window scenario has been successfully used for numerous applications requiring consecutive spectrum analysis of input signals. However, the results of conventional sliding DFT algorithms are potentially unstable because of the accumulated numerical errors caused by recursive strategy. In this letter, a stable 2D sliding fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm based on the vector radix (VR 2 × 2 FFT is presented. In the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, each 2D DFT bin is hierarchically decomposed into four sub-DFT bins until the size of the sub-DFT bins is reduced to 2 × 2; the output DFT bins are calculated using the linear combination of the sub-DFT bins. Because the sub-DFT bins for the overlapped input signals between the previous and current window are the same, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm by reusing previously calculated sub-DFT bins in the sliding window scenario. Moreover, because the resultant DFT bins are identical to those of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, numerical errors do not arise; therefore, unconditional stability is guaranteed. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm has the lowest computational requirements among the existing stable sliding DFT algorithms.

  15. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  16. [Fourier Transform Spectrometer Based on Rotating Parallel-Mirror-Pair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bao-wei; Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qi-sheng; Lü, Qun-bo; Zhou, Jin-song

    2015-11-01

    In the temporally-modulated Fourier transform spectroscopy, the translational moving mirror is difficult to drive accurately, causing tilt and shear problems. While, a rotational moving mirror can solve these problems. A rotary Fourier transform spectrometer is recommanded in this paper. Its principle is analyzed and the optical path difference is deduced. Also, the constrains for engineering realization are presented. This spectrometer consists of one beamsplitter, two fixed mirrors, one rotating parallel mirror pair, a collimating lens, a collecting lens, and one detector. From it's principle, this spectrometer show a simple structure, and it is assembled and adjustmented easily because the two split light are interfered with each other after reflected through the same plane mirror; By calculating the expression of it's optical path difference, the spectrometer is easy to realize large optical path difference, meaning high spectral resolution; Through analyzing it's engineering design constraints and computer simulation, it is known that the spectrometer should get the high resolution sample by high-speed spinning motor, so it is easy to achieve precise motion control, good stability, fast measurement speed.

  17. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as a Tool for the Identification and Differentiation of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiec, Paulina; Lechowicz, Łukasz; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Methods of human bacterial pathogen identification need to be fast, reliable, inexpensive, and time efficient. These requirements may be met by vibrational spectroscopic techniques. The method that is most often used for bacterial detection and identification is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It enables biochemical scans of whole bacterial cells or parts thereof at infrared frequencies (4,000-600 cm(-1)). The recorded spectra must be subsequently transformed in order to minimize data variability and to amplify the chemically-based spectral differences in order to facilitate spectra interpretation and analysis. In the next step, the transformed spectra are analyzed by data reduction tools, regression techniques, and classification methods. Chemometric analysis of FTIR spectra is a basic technique for discriminating between bacteria at the genus, species, and clonal levels. Examples of bacterial pathogen identification and methods of differentiation up to the clonal level, based on infrared spectroscopy, are presented below.

  18. Time-resolved FTIR [Fourier transform infrared] emission studies of laser photofragmentation and chain reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress is described resulting from the past three years of DOE support for studies of combustion-related photofragmentation dynamics, energy transfer, and reaction processes using a time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) emission technique. The FTIR is coupled to a high repetition rate excimer laser which produces radicals by photolysis to obtain novel, high resolution measurements on vibrational and rotational state dynamics. The results are important for the study of numerous radical species relevant to combustion processes. The method has been applied to the detailed study of photofragmentation dynamics in systems such as acetylene, which produces C 2 H; chlorofluoroethylene to study the HF product channel; vinyl chloride and dichloroethylene, which produce HCl; acetone, which produces CO and CH 3 ; and ammonia, which produces NH 2 . In addition, we have recently demonstrated use of the FTIR technique for preliminary studies of energy transfer events under near single collision conditions, radical-radical reactions, and laser-initiated chain reaction processes

  19. Photoacoustic detection of blood in dental pulp by using short-time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Azusa; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    A method based on photoacoustic analysis is proposed to diagnose dental pulp vitality. Photoacoustic analysis enables to get signal from deeper tissues than other optical analyses and therefore, signal detection from root canal of thick dental tissues such as molar teeth is expected. As a light source for excitation of photoacoustic waves, a microchip Q-switched YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm was used and owing to large penetration depth of the near infrared laser, photoacoustic signals from dental root were successfully obtained. It was found that the photoacoustic signals from the teeth containing hemoglobin solution in the pulp cavity provide vibration in high frequency region. It was also shown that the intensities of the high frequency component have correlation with the hemoglobin concentration of solution. We applied short-time Fourier transform for evaluation of photoacoustic signals and this analysis clearly showed photoacoustic signals from dental root.

  20. Discrimination of intact and injured Listeria monocytogenes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mengshi; Al-Holy, Murad; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Cavinato, Anna G; Huang, Yiqun; Rasco, Barbara A

    2004-09-22

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 4000-600 cm(-)(1)) was used to discriminate between intact and sonication-injured Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114 and to distinguish this strain from other selected Listeria strains (L. innocua ATCC 51742, L. innocua ATCC 33090, and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644). FT-IR vibrational overtone and combination bands from mid-IR active components of intact and injured bacterial cells produced distinctive "fingerprints" at wavenumbers between 1500 and 800 cm(-)(1). Spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis. Clear segregations of different intact and injured strains of Listeria were observed, suggesting that FT-IR can detect biochemical differences between intact and injured bacterial cells. This technique may provide a tool for the rapid assessment of cell viability and thereby the control of foodborne pathogens.

  1. On the finite Fourier transforms of functions with infinite discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Saric

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The introductory part of the paper is provided to give a brief review of the stability theory of a matrix pencil for discrete linear time-invariant singular control systems, based on the causal relationship between Jordan's theorem from the theory of Fourier series and Laurent's theorem from the calculus of residues. The main part is concerned with the theory of the integral transforms, which has proved to be a powerful tool in the control systems theory. On the basis of a newly defined notion of the total value of improper integrals, throughout the main part of the paper, an attempt has been made to present the global theory of the integral transforms, which are slightly more general with respect to the Laplace and Fourier transforms. The paper ends with examples by which the results of the theory are verified.

  2. Fractional Fourier Transform for Ultrasonic Chirplet Signal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractional fourier transform (FrFT based chirplet signal decomposition (FrFT-CSD algorithm is proposed to analyze ultrasonic signals for NDE applications. Particularly, this method is utilized to isolate dominant chirplet echoes for successive steps in signal decomposition and parameter estimation. FrFT rotates the signal with an optimal transform order. The search of optimal transform order is conducted by determining the highest kurtosis value of the signal in the transformed domain. A simulation study reveals the relationship among the kurtosis, the transform order of FrFT, and the chirp rate parameter in the simulated ultrasonic echoes. Benchmark and ultrasonic experimental data are used to evaluate the FrFT-CSD algorithm. Signal processing results show that FrFT-CSD not only reconstructs signal successfully, but also characterizes echoes and estimates echo parameters accurately. This study has a broad range of applications of importance in signal detection, estimation, and pattern recognition.

  3. Discrimination of different Chrysanthemums with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-xia; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Bao, Hong-juan

    2008-07-01

    Use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to analyze simultaneously the main chemical constituents in different solvent extracts of seven kinds of Chrysanthemum samples of different regions. The findings indicate that different Chrysanthemum samples have dissimilar fingerprint characters in FT-IR spectra. Such spectral technique can provide substance structural information of the complicated test samples. According to these spectral fingerprint features, we cannot only identify the main components of different extracts, but also distinguish the origins of the Chrysanthemum samples from different regions easily, which is a troublesome work by existing analytical methods. FT-IR, with the characters of speediness, good repeatability and easy operation, can be used as an effective analytical means to study the complicated system, in our research, the tradition Chinese medicines.

  4. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices.

  5. Development of galvanostatic Fourier transform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kwang-Mo; Shin, Dong-Hyup; Jung, Namchul; Joo, Moon G; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Su-Moon; Chang, Byoung-Yong

    2013-02-19

    Here, we report development of the galvanostatic Fourier transform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (FTEIS), which monitors impedance of electrochemical reactions activated by current steps. We first derive relevant relations for potential change upon application of a step current, obtain impedances theoretically from the relations by simulation, and verify them with experimental results. The validity of the galvanostatic FTEIS technique is demonstrated by measuring impedances of a semiconductive silicon wafer using the conventional frequency response analysis (FRA), the potentiostatic FTEIS, and the galvanostatic FTEIS methods, and the results are in excellent agreement with each other. This work is significant in that the galvanostatic FTEIS would allow one to record impedance changes during charge/discharge cycles of secondary batteries and fuel cells as well as electrochemically irreversible systems which may produce noise level chronoamperometric currents by potentiostatic techniques.

  6. 2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-03-01

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.

  7. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy; Yan, Fangzhi; Bach, Stephen; Pihakari, Katianna; Klein, David

    2016-01-01

    Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices. PMID:26784175

  8. Topography description of thin films by optical Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaglarz, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the main problems concerning the scattering of light by real surfaces and films are presented in view of results obtained with the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) method and optical profilometry (OP). The BRDF and OP studies, being complementary to the atomic force microscopy (AFM), allow one to get information about surface topography. From the optical data, the surface power spectral density (PSD) functions for absorbing and transparent rough films have been found. Both functions have been evaluated from the Fourier transform (FT) of the surface profiles. The usefulness of BRDF-and OP methods in characterization of real surfaces is demonstrated when analyzing the optical data obtained for metallic TiN-and organic PVK thin films deposited on various substrates

  9. Quantum Fourier transform, Heisenberg groups and quasi-probability distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Manas K; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the inherent connection between Heisenberg groups, quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and (quasi-probability) distribution functions. Distribution functions for continuous and finite quantum systems are examined from three perspectives and all of them lead to Weyl-Gabor-Heisenberg groups. The QFT appears as the intertwining operator of two equivalent representations arising out of an automorphism of the group. Distribution functions correspond to certain distinguished sets in the group algebra. The marginal properties of a particular class of distribution functions (Wigner distributions) arise from a class of automorphisms of the group algebra of the Heisenberg group. We then study the reconstruction of the Wigner function from the marginal distributions via inverse Radon transform giving explicit formulae. We consider some applications of our approach to quantum information processing and quantum process tomography.

  10. A rheumatoid arthritis study by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina S.; Silva, Ana Carla A.; Santos, Tatiano J. P. S.; Martin, Airton A.; dos Santos Fernandes, Ana Célia; Andrade, Luís E.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown causes and a new methods to identify it in early stages are needed. The main purpose of this work is the biochemical differentiation of sera between normal and RA patients, through the establishment of a statistical method that can be appropriately used for serological analysis. The human sera from 39 healthy donors and 39 rheumatics donors were collected and analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results show significant spectral variations with plipids and immunoglobulins. The technique of latex particles, coated with human IgG and monoclonal anti-CRP by indirect agglutination known as FR and CRP, was performed to confirm possible false-negative results within the groups, facilitating the statistical interpretation and validation of the technique.

  11. Micro wishbone interferometer for Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Min; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    A miniature wishbone-type Si interferometer with electrically actuated rotary comb drive actuators is designed and fabricated to apply a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Corner cube mirrors are mounted on the end of the Si interferometer that is formed on a glass substrate. The total size of the interferometer is approximately 8 mm × 8 mm. The corner cube mirrors with sharp edges with a size of approximately 1 × 1 × 0.5 mm 3 are fabricated using an indentation technique. The rotation angle of rotary comb drive actuators is approximately 11° with an applied voltage of 180 V. Hereby, the maximum optical path difference of approximately 2640 µm is achieved, which corresponds to the highest resolution of ∼4 cm −1 as a spectrometer

  12. High-Throughput Screening Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sasmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient parallel screening of combinatorial libraries is one of the most challenging aspects of the high-throughput (HT heterogeneous catalysis workflow. Today, a number of methods have been used in HT catalyst studies, including various optical, mass-spectrometry, and gas-chromatography techniques. Of these, rapid-scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR imaging is one of the fastest and most versatile screening techniques. Here, the new design of the 16-channel HT reactor is presented and test results for its accuracy and reproducibility are shown. The performance of the system was evaluated through the oxidation of CO over commercial Pd/Al2O3 and cobalt oxide nanoparticles synthesized with different reducer-reductant molar ratios, surfactant types, metal and surfactant concentrations, synthesis temperatures, and ramp rates.

  13. Using the fast fourier transform in binding free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hai; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Minh, David D L

    2018-04-30

    According to implicit ligand theory, the standard binding free energy is an exponential average of the binding potential of mean force (BPMF), an exponential average of the interaction energy between the unbound ligand ensemble and a rigid receptor. Here, we use the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to efficiently evaluate BPMFs by calculating interaction energies when rigid ligand configurations from the unbound ensemble are discretely translated across rigid receptor conformations. Results for standard binding free energies between T4 lysozyme and 141 small organic molecules are in good agreement with previous alchemical calculations based on (1) a flexible complex ( R≈0.9 for 24 systems) and (2) flexible ligand with multiple rigid receptor configurations ( R≈0.8 for 141 systems). While the FFT is routinely used for molecular docking, to our knowledge this is the first time that the algorithm has been used for rigorous binding free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of far-infrared emission Fourier transform spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis method that uses the nonlinear least-squares fit technique has been developed for emission spectra obtained with a Fourier transform spectrometer. This method is used for the analysis of submillimeter-region atmospheric emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne FT spectrometer that was carried out as a correlative measurement for the Limb IR Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) satellite experiment. The retrieved mixing ratios of H2O and O3 in the stratosphere from four spectral intervals have standard deviations of about 10 percent, and the average values agree to within 10 percent of corresponding results from the LIMS satellite experiment which used a broadband emission radiometer in the IR region.

  15. Generation of Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the spectral (temporal) properties of heralded single photon wave packets, triggered by the detection of an idler photon in the process of parametric down conversion. The generated single photons are studied within the framework of the chronocyclic Wigner function, from which the single photon spectral width and temporal duration can be computed. We derive specific conditions on the two-photon joint spectral amplitude which result in both pure and Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons. Likewise, we present specific source geometries which lead to the fulfillment of these conditions and show that one of these geometries leads, for a given pump bandwidth, to the temporally shortest possible heralded single photon wave packets

  16. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  17. Surface analysis by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.L.; Smyrl, N.R.; Fuller, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse-reflectance capability for the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at the Y-12 Plant Laboratory has been implemented. A sample cell with a 25 to 400 0 C temperature-controlled sample stage and an ultrahigh-vacuum-to-atmospheric pressure gas-handling capability has been developed. Absorbance of light from the spectrometer beam, resulting from the beam being scattered from a powder sample, can be measured. This capability of detecting molecular species on and in powders is to be used to study chemisorption on actinide and rare-earth metals, alloys, and compounds. Cell design is described along with experiments demonstrating its performance in detecting moisture absorption on uranium oxide, moisture and carbon dioxide absorption on the lithium hydride/hydroxide system, and carbon dioxide absorption on potassium borohydride. 13 figures

  18. Quantum copying and simplification of the quantum Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Sheng

    Theoretical studies of quantum computation and quantum information theory are presented in this thesis. Three topics are considered: simplification of the quantum Fourier transform in Shor's algorithm, optimal eavesdropping in the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol, and quantum copying of one qubit. The quantum Fourier transform preceding the final measurement in Shor's algorithm is simplified by replacing a network of quantum gates with one that has fewer and simpler gates controlled by classical signals. This simplification results from an analysis of the network using the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. The optimal amount of information which an eavesdropper can gain, for a given level of noise in the communication channel, is worked out for the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. The optimal eavesdropping strategy is expressed in terms of various quantum networks. A consistent history analysis of these networks using two conjugate quantum bases shows how the information gain in one basis influences the noise level in the conjugate basis. The no-cloning property of quantum systems, which is the physics behind quantum cryptography, is studied by considering copying machines that generate two imperfect copies of one qubit. The best qualities these copies can have are worked out with the help of the Bloch sphere representation for one qubit, and a quantum network is worked out for an optimal copying machine. If the copying machine does not have additional ancillary qubits, the copying process can be viewed using a 2-dimensional subspace in a product space of two qubits. A special representation of such a two-dimensional subspace makes possible a complete characterization of this type of copying. This characterization in turn leads to simplified eavesdropping strategies in the BB84 and the B92 quantum cryptographic protocols.

  19. Pseudo-Polar Fourier Transform-Based Compressed Sensing MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Feng; Li, Mingyan; Jin, Jin; Weber, Ewald; Liu, Qinghuo; Crozier, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    The use of radial k-space trajectories has drawn strong interest from researchers for their potential in developing fast imaging methods in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with conventional Cartesian trajectories, radial sampling collects more data from the central k-space region and the radially sampled data are more incoherent. These properties are very suitable for compressed sensing (CS)-based fast imaging. When reconstructing under-sampled radial data with CS, regridding and inverse-regridding are needed to transfer data between the image and frequency domains. In each CS iteration, two-dimensional interpolations are implemented twice in the regridding and inverse-regridding, introducing errors and undermining reconstruction quality. To overcome these problems, a radial-like pseudo-polar (PP) trajectory is proposed for the CS MRI applications. The PP trajectory preserves all the essential features of radial trajectory and allows an image reconstruction with PP fast Fourier transform (PPFFT) instead of interpolations. This paper attempts to investigate the performance of PP trajectory-based CS-MRI. In CS-based image reconstruction, the transformation of PP-sampled k-space data into the image domain is realized through PPFFT, which is based on the standard one-dimensional FFT and the fractional Fourier transform. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, both numerical and experimental data are used to compare the new methods with conventional approaches. The proposed method provided high-quality reconstruction of the MR images with over 2-dB gain in peak signal-to-noise ratio while keeping structural similarity over 0.88 in different situations. Compared with the conventional radial sampling-based CS MRI methods, the proposed method achieves a more accurate reconstruction with respect to image detail/edge preservation and artifact suppression. The successful implementation of the PP subsampling-based CS scheme provides a practical and

  20. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.; Roke, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  1. Sum-Frequency-Generation-Based Laser Sidebands for Tunable Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangdong Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS is an emerging molecular structural dynamics technique for functional materials characterization typically in the visible to near-IR range. To expand its applications we have developed a versatile FSRS setup in the ultraviolet region. We use the combination of a narrowband, ~400 nm Raman pump from a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor and a tunable broadband probe pulse from sum-frequency-generation-based cascaded four-wave mixing (SFG-CFWM laser sidebands in a thin BBO crystal. The ground state Raman spectrum of a laser dye Quinolon 390 in methanol that strongly absorbs at ~355 nm is systematically studied as a standard sample to provide previously unavailable spectroscopic characterization in the vibrational domain. Both the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra can be collected by selecting different orders of SFG-CFWM sidebands as the probe pulse. The stimulated Raman gain with the 402 nm Raman pump is >21 times larger than that with the 550 nm Raman pump when measured at the 1317 cm−1 peak for the aromatic ring deformation and ring-H rocking mode of the dye molecule, demonstrating that pre-resonance enhancement is effectively achieved in the unique UV-FSRS setup. This added tunability in the versatile and compact optical setup enables FSRS to better capture transient conformational snapshots of photosensitive molecules that absorb in the UV range.

  2. Retrieval of complex χ((2)) parts for quantitative analysis of sum-frequency generation intensity spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias J; Koelsch, Patrick

    2015-10-07

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has become an established technique for in situ surface analysis. While spectral recording procedures and hardware have been optimized, unique data analysis routines have yet to be established. The SFG intensity is related to probing geometries and properties of the system under investigation such as the absolute square of the second-order susceptibility χ((2)) (2). A conventional SFG intensity measurement does not grant access to the complex parts of χ((2)) unless further assumptions have been made. It is therefore difficult, sometimes impossible, to establish a unique fitting solution for SFG intensity spectra. Recently, interferometric phase-sensitive SFG or heterodyne detection methods have been introduced to measure real and imaginary parts of χ((2)) experimentally. Here, we demonstrate that iterative phase-matching between complex spectra retrieved from maximum entropy method analysis and fitting of intensity SFG spectra (iMEMfit) leads to a unique solution for the complex parts of χ((2)) and enables quantitative analysis of SFG intensity spectra. A comparison between complex parts retrieved by iMEMfit applied to intensity spectra and phase sensitive experimental data shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  3. TMS320C25 Digital Signal Processor For 2-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa

    1996-01-01

    The Fourier transform is one of the most important mathematical tool in signal processing and analysis, which converts information from the time/spatial domain into the frequency domain. Even with implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithms in imaging data, the discrete Fourier transform execution consume a lot of time. Digital signal processors are designed specifically to perform computation intensive digital signal processing algorithms. By taking advantage of the advanced architecture. parallel processing, and dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) instruction sets. This device can execute million of DSP operations per second. The device architecture, characteristics and feature suitable for fast Fourier transform application and speed-up are discussed

  4. Atmospheric pressure reaction cell for operando sum frequency generation spectroscopy of ultrahigh vacuum grown model catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiaz, Matteo; Pramhaas, Verena; Li, Xia; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-04-01

    A new custom-designed ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber coupled to a UHV and atmospheric-pressure-compatible spectroscopic and catalytic reaction cell is described, which allows us to perform IR-vis sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy during catalytic (kinetic) measurements. SFG spectroscopy is an exceptional tool to study vibrational properties of surface adsorbates under operando conditions, close to those of technical catalysis. This versatile setup allows performing surface science, SFG spectroscopy, catalysis, and electrochemical investigations on model systems, including single crystals, thin films, and deposited metal nanoparticles, under well-controlled conditions of gas composition, pressure, temperature, and potential. The UHV chamber enables us to prepare the model catalysts and to analyze their surface structure and composition by low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively. Thereafter, a sample transfer mechanism moves samples under UHV to the spectroscopic cell, avoiding air exposure. In the catalytic cell, SFG spectroscopy and catalytic tests (reactant/product analysis by mass spectrometry or gas chromatography) are performed simultaneously. A dedicated sample manipulation stage allows the model catalysts to be examined from LN2 temperature to 1273 K, with gaseous reactants in a pressure range from UHV to atmospheric. For post-reaction analysis, the SFG cell is rapidly evacuated and samples are transferred back to the UHV chamber. The capabilities of this new setup are demonstrated by benchmark results of CO adsorption on Pt and Pd(111) single crystal surfaces and of CO adsorption and oxidation on a ZrO2 supported Pt nanoparticle model catalyst grown by atomic layer deposition.

  5. Rotor-System Log-Decrement Identification Using Short-Time Fourier-Transform Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of the centrifugal compressor capability, such as large scale LNG and CO2 reinjection, the stability margin evaluation is crucial to assure the compressor work in the designed operating conditions in field. Improving the precision of parameter identification of stability is essential and necessary as well. Based on the time-varying characteristics of response vibration during the sine-swept process, a short-time Fourier transform (STFT filter was introduced to increase the signal-noise ratio and improve the accuracy of the estimated stability parameters. A finite element model was established to simulate the sine-swept process, and the simulated vibration signals were used to study the filtering effect and demonstrate the feasibility to identify the stability parameters by using Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output system identification method that combines the prediction error method and instrumental variable method. Simulation results show that the identification method with STFT filter improves the estimated accuracy much well and makes the curves of frequency response function clearer. Experiment was carried out on a test rig as well, which indicates the identification method is feasible in stability identification, and the results of experiment indicate that STFT filter works very well.

  6. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Florence T.; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J.; Kubicki, James D.; Santelli, Cara M.

    2017-05-01

    The characterization of birnessite structures is particularly challenging for poorly crystalline materials of biogenic origin, and a determination of the relative concentrations of triclinic and hexagonal birnessite in a mixed assemblage has typically required synchrotron-based spectroscopy and diffraction approaches. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is demonstrated to be capable of differentiating synthetic triclinic Na-birnessite and synthetic hexagonal H-birnessite. Furthermore, IR spectral deconvolution of peaks resulting from Mnsingle bondO lattice vibrations between 400 and 750 cm- 1 yield results comparable to those obtained by linear combination fitting of synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data when applied to known mixtures of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that an infrared absorbance peak at ~ 1628 cm- 1 may be related to OH vibrations near vacancy sites. The integrated intensity of this peak may show sensitivity to vacancy concentrations in the Mn octahedral sheet for different birnessites.

  7. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Florence T; Post, Jeffrey E; Heaney, Peter J; Kubicki, James D; Santelli, Cara M

    2017-05-05

    The characterization of birnessite structures is particularly challenging for poorly crystalline materials of biogenic origin, and a determination of the relative concentrations of triclinic and hexagonal birnessite in a mixed assemblage has typically required synchrotron-based spectroscopy and diffraction approaches. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is demonstrated to be capable of differentiating synthetic triclinic Na-birnessite and synthetic hexagonal H-birnessite. Furthermore, IR spectral deconvolution of peaks resulting from MnO lattice vibrations between 400 and 750cm -1 yield results comparable to those obtained by linear combination fitting of synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data when applied to known mixtures of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that an infrared absorbance peak at ~1628cm -1 may be related to OH vibrations near vacancy sites. The integrated intensity of this peak may show sensitivity to vacancy concentrations in the Mn octahedral sheet for different birnessites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum of the OCD bending mode in methanol-D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-03-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra corresponding to OCD bending vibration of asymmetrically deuterated methanol species CH2DOH have been recorded with a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The spectrum shows a typical structure of a parallel a-type band. This is expected because the bending vibration mainly executed parallel to the symmetry axis The Q-branch lines are grouped closely around 896 cm-1 and the P- and R-Branches show complex structure. Nonetheless it was possible to assign a-type P- and R-branch lines up to K value of 8 and J value up to about 20 in most cases. The Q-branch lines for higher K values can be followed to about J = 15, the presence of which confirmed the assignments. The observations suggest that in the OCD bend some energy levels are highly interacted by highly excited torsional state from the ground torsional state. A full catalogue is presented along with the effective molecular parameters. An intensity anomaly was also observed in the transitions. So far it has been possible to assign only transitions between e0 ← e0 states. Plausible explanations of intensity anomaly are presented. Lastly, a number of optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser lines have been assigned either to exact or tentative quantum states. These assignments should prove valuable for production of new FIR laser lines.

  9. Fourier transform spectrometer for Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  10. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: technique developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Schweikhard, Lutz

    1992-09-01

    In the three years since the 11th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry has advanced both theoretically and experimentally with respect to ion formation and transfer to the ion trap, ion trap design and operation, ion excitation and detection, data reduction, and in chemical and analytical applications. In this short review, we shall describe several new ion sources for FT-ICR MS (e.g. high pressure, fast neutral beam, and continuous- flow atom bombardment), various new ion traps employing screens (e.g. for simultaneous trapping of positive and negative ions), guard wires (for improved isotopic abundance accuracy), and multiple sections. In addition, the ICR excitation and detection processes have recently been treated in quite full theoretical detail, leading to improved understanding of the origin and relative magnitudes of signals at multiples and combinations of the three fundamental ion frequencies: cyclotron, magnetron, and trapping. Recent chemical applications of FT-ICR MS have concentrated on ion/molecule chemistry (e.g. clusters, such as C60), whereas the primary analytical applications have come from laser desorption FT-ICR MS (e.g. polymers, surface analysis).

  11. Adulteration identification in raw milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Tatiane Barbosa; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Cerqueira, Pedro Henrique Ramos; da Silva, Helen Krystine; Coitinho, Juliana Barbosa; Machado, Paulo Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Adulteration of milk is a common practice that concerns regulatory agencies, industry, and the population. Despite the growing need for checking adulteration, the current methods employed generally have low performance and are highly dependent on manual labor. This study aims to calibrate and validate a compact equipment (MilkoScan FT1) that adopts a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology to monitor adulteration in raw milk. Almost 2500 milk samples were used for reference spectrum construction and 1650 samples were used to validate the identification of the following five most commonly used adulterants (at three different concentrations each): (1) cornstarch, (2) sodium bicarbonate, (3) sodium citrate, (4) formaldehyde, and (5) saccharose, plus the additions of two levels of water or whey. To define the calibration with the best performance in milk adulteration identification, 12 calibrations involving 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, or 18 factors, with one or two outlier eliminations, were developed. The results of sensitivity and specificity analyses, as well as Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison tests, revealed that the calibration that best identified the adulterants was the one involving 14 factors, with a single elimination of outliers, exhibiting for all adulterants simultaneously, 84% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The calibration showed excellent sensitivity to cornstarch (>98%), sodium bicarbonate (100%), sodium citrate (99%), and formaldehyde (>84%), indicating that this calibration has good capacity for adulteration detection. Thus, this methodology is a viable option for the dairy industry to identify adulteration of raw milk.

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Saliva Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Jopi J W; Raittila, Jussi; Rieppo, Lassi; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kullaa, Arja M; Myllymaa, Sami

    2016-09-01

    Saliva provides a valuable tool for assessing oral and systemic diseases, but concentrations of salivary components are very small, calling the need for precise analysis methods. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using transmission and photoacoustic (PA) modes were compared for quantitative analysis of saliva. The performance of these techniques was compared with a calibration series. The linearity of spectrum output was verified by using albumin-thiocyanate (SCN(-)) solution at different SCN(-) concentrations. Saliva samples used as a comparison were obtained from healthy subjects. Saliva droplets of 15 µL were applied on the silicon sample substrate, 6 drops for each specimen, and dried at 37 ℃ overnight. The measurements were carried out using an FT-IR spectrometer in conjunction with an accessory unit for PA measurements. The findings with both transmission and PA modes mirror each other. The major bands presented were 1500-1750 cm(-1) for proteins and 1050-1200 cm(-1) for carbohydrates. In addition, the distinct spectral band at 2050 cm(-1) derives from SCN(-) anions, which is converted by salivary peroxidases to hypothiocyanate (OSCN(-)). The correlation between the spectroscopic data with SCN(-) concentration (r > 0.990 for transmission and r = 0.967 for PA mode) was found to be significant (P < 0.01), thus promising to be utilized in future applications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Convergence and summability of Fourier transforms and Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Ferenc

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates the convergence and summability of both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional Fourier transforms, as well as the theory of Hardy spaces. To do so, it studies a general summability method known as theta-summation, which encompasses all the well-known summability methods, such as the Fejér, Riesz, Weierstrass, Abel, Picard, Bessel and Rogosinski summations.  Following on the classic books by Bary (1964) and Zygmund (1968), this is the first book that considers strong summability introduced by current methodology. A further unique aspect is that the Lebesgue points are also studied in the theory of multi-dimensional summability. In addition to classical results, results from the past 20-30 years – normally only found in scattered research papers – are also gathered and discussed, offering readers a convenient “one-stop” source to support their work. As such, the book will be useful for researchers, graduate and postgraduate students alike.

  14. Correlation of portal images using fast fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffler, A.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Pennequin, J.C.; Diller, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The checking of the patient's position in relation to the treatment unit is mandatory in external radiotherapy quality assurance programmes. One way of checking positions is the electronic portal imaging. An automatic control could be performed simultaneously by the correlation of a reference 256 grey levels image with the current image of the treatment field of the patient. The algorithm used to process this correlation must be fast for a practical use (a few seconds). To accelerate the computation, the cross-correlation is performed by the means of the Fast Fourier Transform as applied by Jones and Boyer. As a consequence, the calculation time is divided by three. The principle of correlation of both images consists in comparing a significant squared area in the first image to a greater squared area in the second image by point to point scanning. In order to improve the convergence of this algorithm, we have added an optimization method. Because these methods have limitations depending on the starting point, we have chosen a compromise leading to an efficient and robust detection procedure. Instead of simple point to point scanning in the reference image, a quick scanning is proposed to detect the most probable fitting area. Then, the correlation function is optimized to find corresponding points between both images. Several points allow to evaluate the displacement in pixels, in relation to the reference image. Converted into distance, this displacement translates the deviation of the positioning of the patient

  15. Fourier-transform spatial modulation spectroscopy of single gold nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmann Heiko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensing the scattered fields of single metallic nanostructures is a crucial step towards the applications of isolated plasmonic antennas, such as for the sensing of single molecules or nanoparticles. In the past, both near- and far-field spectroscopy methods have been applied to monitor single plasmonic resonances. So far, however, these spectral-domain techniques do not yet provide the femtosecond time resolution that is needed to probe the dynamics of plasmonic fields in the time domain. Here, we introduce a time-domain technique that combines broadband Fourier-transform spectroscopy and spatial modulation spectroscopy (FT-SMS to quantitatively measure the extinction spectra of the isolated gold nanorods with a nominal footprint of 41×10 nm2. Using a phase-stable pulse pair for excitation, the technique is capable of rejecting off-resonant stray fields and providing absolute measurements of the extinction cross section. Our results indicate that the method is well suited for measuring the optical response of strongly coupled hybrid systems with high signal-to-noise ratio. It may form the basis for new approaches towards time-domain spectroscopy of single nanoantennas with few-cycle time resolution.

  16. First characterization of a static Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, A.; Bréon, F.-M.; Rosak, A.; Pierangelo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new instrument concept for a Static Fourier Transform Spectrometer has been developed and characterized by CNES. This spectrometer is based on a Michelson interferometer concept, but a system of stepped mirrors generates all interference path differences simultaneously, without any moving parts. The instrument permits high spectral resolution measurements (≍0.1 cm-1) adapted to the sounding and the monitoring of atmospheric gases. Moreover, its overall dimensions are compatible with a micro satellite platform. The stepped mirrors are glued using a molecular bonding technique. An interference filter selects a waveband only a few nanometers wide. It limits the number of sampling points (and consequently the steps number) necessary to achieve the high resolution. The instrument concept can be optimized for the detection and the monitoring of various atmospheric constituents. CNES has developed a version whose measurements are centered on the CO2 absorption lines at 1573 nm (6357 cm-1). This model has a theoretical resolution of 40 pm (0.15 cm-1) within a 5 nm (22.5 cm-1) wide spectral window. It is aimed at the feasibility demonstration for atmospheric CO2 column measurements with a very demanding accuracy of better than 1%. Preliminary measurements indicate that, although high quality spectra are obtained, the theoretical performances are not yet achieved. We discuss the causes for the achieved performances and describe foreseen methods for their improvements.

  17. Remote detection of organics using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirgian, J.C.; Spurgash, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an ideal technique for remote detection of organic emissions. There is an atmospheric window in the 1200 to 800 cm -1 region, which corresponds to the ''fingerprint'' region for organic molecules. Virtually all organic molecules have a unique absorption/emission pattern in the fingerprint region. A remote-passive FTIR relies on ambient emission of infrared energy from organics to obtain spectra. The instrumentation consists of inlet optics, and interferometer, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector, and an on-board computer. The transportable unit measures 40 cm by 50 cm and has been used to collect data while mounted on a helicopter or ground vehicle. Through the use of this FTIR combined with least squares software, it is possible to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively for organic vapors from either the air or ground. The data presented will include quantitative releases of common organics present in incinerator stacks, hazardous wastes, and illegal laboratories. Data will be presented for pure compounds, mixtures, and target analytes in the presence of interfering compounds. The sensitivity, reproducibility, and the potential of the technique will be discussed. 1 ref., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for analysis of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Imran, Sheharbano; Talati, Jamsheer; Jafri, Lena

    2018-01-01

    To compare the results of a chemical method of kidney stone analysis with the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Kidney stones collected between June and October 2015 were simultaneously analyzed by chemical and FT-IR methods. Kidney stones (n=449) were collected from patients from 1 to 81 years old. Most stones were from adults, with only 11.5% from children (aged 3-16 years) and 1.5% from children aged stone type, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, n=224), was the most common crystal, followed by uric acid and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD, n=83). In children, the most frequently occurring type was predominantly COD (n=21), followed by COM (n=11), ammonium urate (n=10), carbonate apatite (n=6), uric acid (n=4), and cystine (n=1). Core composition in 22 stones showed ammonium urate (n=2), COM (n=2), and carbonate apatite (n=1) in five stones, while uric acid crystals were detected (n=13) by FT-IR. While chemical analysis identified 3 stones as uric acid and the rest as calcium oxalate only. Agreement between the two methods was moderate, with a kappa statistic of 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.64). Disagreement was noted in the analysis of 77 stones. FT-IR analysis of kidney stones can overcome many limitations associated with chemical analysis.

  19. Chiral Process Monitoring Using Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    We present the application of Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy in monitoring the chiral purity of components in a reaction mixture. This is of particular interest due to the increasing use of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, in which a number of attributes (including the chiral purity of the product) can change on short time scales. Therefore, new techniques that can accomplish this measurement rapidly are desired. The excellent specificity of FTMW spectroscopy, coupled with newly developed techniques for measuring enantiomeric excess in a mixture, have motivated this work. In collaboration with B. Frank Gupton (Virginia Commonwealth University), we are testing this application first with the synthesis of artemisinin. Artemisinin, a common drug for malaria treatment, is of high global health interest and subject to supply shortages, and therefore a strong candidate for continuous manufacturing. It also has moderately high molecular weight (282 amu) and seven chiral centers, making it a good candidate to test the capabilities of FTMW spectroscopy. Using a miniature cavity-enhanced FTMW spectrometer design, we aim to demonstrate selective component quantification in the reaction mixture. Future work that will be needed to fully realize this application will be discussed. R.D. Suenram, J.U. Grabow, A.Zuban, and I.Leonov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2127 (1999).

  20. The changes of fourier transform infrared spectrum in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yong; Li, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2012-05-01

    Estimation of the time since death (postmortem interval [PMI]) is one of the most difficult problems in forensic investigations, and many methods currently are utilized to estimate the PMI. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes of attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of rat brain from postmortem time 0-144 h. The intensity ratios of major absorbance bands were examined (I(1066)/I(1392), I(1168)/I(1392), I(1234)/I(1454), I(1301)/I(1392), I(1647)/I(2956), I(2921)/I(2850), and I(1647)/I(1539)). The spectra of rat brain displayed prominent changes with increasing PMI. The band at 2871 and 1737 per cm became weak with the time increasing and even disappeared at postmortem 96 and 72 h, respectively. A close linear correlation was shown between the relative absorption intensity and the PMI, and the I(1234) /I(1454) offered a stronger correlation (r = 0.973). Our results indicate that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy may be a useful technique for estimating the PMI. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. [The changes of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in rat's brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yong; Zhang, Jian-Gang; Huang, Ping; Lu, Qing-Yang; Fan, Shuan-Liang; Xu, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2008-06-01

    To apply Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the process of postmortem degradation of the rat brain and to provide a new way for the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the bodies were kept in a controlled environmental chamber set at (30 +/- 2) degrees C. To measure the content of the chemical groups in postmortem rat brains at the different time points from 0 to 36 h using the FTIR spectrograph. With prolongation of PMI, the peak position of main absorbance bands in the FTIR spectra showed no significant changes, while the peak levels showed dramatic changes: (1) The relative peak intensity of 1080 cm(-1), 1238 cm(-1) (I1080/I1398, I1238/I1398) associated with nucleic acid decreased obviously; (2) The peak intensity ratio at Amide I, II (I1647/I1541) decreased; (3) The peak intensities at 1456 cm(-1) and 1398 cm(-1) showed a decreased and an increased trend, respectively; (4) Compared to the peak intensity of 1647 cm(-1), the peak intensities at 2852 cm(-1), 2871 cm(-1), 2923 cm(-1), and 2958 cm(-1) tended to increase, with only a slightly increased tendency in peak intensity of 2871 cm(-1). FTIR spectroscopy may be potentially used as an effective method for estimating the PMI in medicolegal practice using brain tissue sample.

  2. Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 199Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.; Lutz, O.; Nolle, A.; Schwenk, A.

    1975-01-01

    199 Hg Fourier Transform NMR studies of various solutions of diverse mercury salts in H 2 O and D 2 O or in the appropriate protonated and deuterated acids are reported for both Hg 2 ++ and Hg ++ . In the different solutions investigated the 199 Hg line positions depend on the concentration of the solution, on the solvents and their isotopic composition and on the temperature of the sample. A ratio of the Larmor frequency of 199 Hg and of 2 H in a Hg(NO 3 ) 2 solution in dilute DNO 3 is given. Using this ratio and the measured chemical shifts, a ratio of the Larmor frequencies of 199 Hg for infinite dilution relative to 2 H in pure D 2 O is given. From this a g 1 -factor for 199 Hg is derived and compared with the g 1 -factor of an optical pumping experiment. The resulting shielding constant is sigma (hydrated 199 Hg ++ versus 199 Hg atom) = -24.32(5) x 10 -4 . This yields an atomic reference scale for all measured NMR line shifts of mercury. (orig.) [de

  3. High Range Resolution Profile Construction Exploiting Modified Fractional Fourier Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the discrimination of closely spaced high speed group targets with radar transmitting linear frequency modulation (LFM pulses. The high speed target motion leads to range migration and target dispersion and thereby the discriminating capability of the high range resolution profile (HRRP deteriorating significantly. An effective processing approach composed of stretch processing (SP, modified fractional Fourier transform (FrFT, and multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. Firstly, SP is adopted to transform the received LFM with Doppler distortions into narrow band LFM signals. Secondly, based on the two-dimensional range/velocity plane constructed by the modified FrFT, the velocity of the high speed group target is estimated and compensated with just one single pulse. After the compensation of range migration and target dispersion simultaneously, the resolution of the HRRP achieved by single pulse transmission improves significantly in the high speed group targets scenarios. Finally, MUSIC algorithm with superresolution capability is utilized to make a more explicit discrimination between the scatterers in comparison with the conventional SP method. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Toward a soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Frank, K.; Hussain, Z.; Moler, E.J.; Reich, T.; Moeller, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) in the soft x-ray region is advocated as a possible route to spectral resolution superior to that attainable with a grating system. A technical plan is described for applying FTS to the study of the absorption spectrum of helium in the region of double ionization around 60--80 eV. The proposed scheme includes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer deformed into a rhombus shape to provide grazing incidence reflections. The path difference between the interfering beams is to be tuned by translation of a table carrying four mirrors over a range ±1 cm which, in the absence of errors generating relative tilts of the wave fronts, would provide a resolving power equal to the number of waves of path difference: half a million at 65 eV, for example. The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum is analyzed and for operation on an Advanced Light Source bending magnet beam line should be about 330

  5. Large Molecule Structures by Broadband Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Seifert, Nathan A.; Spada, Lorenzo; Pate, Brooks

    2016-06-01

    Fourier transform molecular rotational resonance spectroscopy (FT-MRR) using pulsed jet molecular beam sources is a high-resolution spectroscopy technique that can be used for chiral analysis of molecules with multiple chiral centers. The sensitivity of the molecular rotational spectrum pattern to small changes in the three dimensional structure makes it possible to identify diastereomers without prior chemical separation. For larger molecules, there is the additional challenge that different conformations of each diastereomer may be present and these need to be differentiated from the diastereomers in the spectral analysis. Broadband rotational spectra of several larger molecules have been measured using a chirped-pulse FT-MRR spectrometer. Measurements of nootkatone (C15H22O), cedrol (C15H26O), ambroxide (C16H28O) and sclareolide (C16H26O2) are presented. These spectra are measured with high sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio near 1,000:1) and permit structure determination of the most populated isomers using isotopic analysis of the 13C and 18O isotopologues in natural abundance. The accuracy of quantum chemistry calculations to identify diastereomers and conformers and to predict the dipole moment properties needed for three wave mixing measurements is examined.

  6. A Short Biography of Joseph Fourier and Historical Development of Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…

  7. Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies: I. Surface melting of ice, II. Surface alignment of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Surface vibrational spectroscopy via infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) has been established as a useful tool to study the structures of different kinds of surfaces and interfaces. This technique was used to study the (0001) face of hexagonal ice (Ih). SFG spectra in the O-H stretch frequency range were obtained at various sample temperatures. For the vapor(air)/ice interface, the degree of orientational order of the dangling OH bonds at the surface was measured as a function of temperature. Disordering sets in around 200 K and increases dramatically with temperature, which is strong evidence of surface melting of ice. For the other ice interfaces (silica/OTS/ice and silica/ice), a similar temperature dependence of the hydrogen bonded OH stretch peak was observed; the free OH stretch mode, however, appears to be different from that of the vapor (air)/ice interface due to interactions at the interfaces. The technique was also used to measure the orientational distributions of the polymer chains on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface. Results show that the polymer chains at the surface appear to be well aligned by rubbing, and the adsorbed liquid crystal molecules are aligned, in turn, by the surface polymer chains. A strong correlation exists between the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and the liquid crystal molecules, indicating that the surface-induced bulk alignment of a liquid crystal film by rubbed polymer surfaces is via an orientational epitaxy-like mechanism. This thesis also contains studies on some related issues that are crucial to the above applications. An experiment was designed to measure SFG spectra in both reflection and transmission. The result confirms that SFG in reflection is generally dominated by the surface contribution. Another issue is the motional effect due to fast orientational motion of molecules at a surface or interface. Calculations show that the effect is significant if the molecular orientation varies

  8. Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-09-19

    The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.

  9. Missing texture reconstruction method based on error reduction algorithm using Fourier transform magnitude estimation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki

    2013-03-01

    A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.

  10. Advanced multivariate data evaluation for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diewok, J.

    2002-12-01

    The objective of the presented dissertation was the evaluation, application and further development of advanced multivariate data evaluation methods for qualitative and quantitative Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements, especially of aqueous samples. The focus was set on 'evolving systems'; i.e. chemical systems that change gradually with a master variable, such as pH, reaction time, elution time, etc. and that are increasingly encountered in analytical chemistry. FT-IR measurements on such systems yield 2-way and 3-way data sets, i.e. data matrices and cubes. The chemometric methods used were soft-modeling techniques, like multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) or principal component analysis (PCA), hard modeling of equilibrium systems and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-CoS). The research results are presented in six publications and comprise: A new combination of FT-IR flow titrations and second-order calibration by MCR-ALS for the quantitative analysis of mixture samples of organic acids and sugars. A novel combination of MCR-ALS with a hard-modeled equilibrium constraint for second-order quantitation in pH-modulated samples where analytes and interferences show very similar acid-base behavior. A detailed study in which MCR-ALS and 2D-CoS are directly compared for the first time. From the analysis of simulated and experimental acid-base equilibrium systems, the performance and interpretability of the two methods is evaluated. Investigation of the binding process of vancomycin, an important antibiotic, to a cell wall analogue tripeptide by time-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy and detailed chemometric evaluation. Determination of red wine constituents by liquid chromatography with FT-IR detection and MCR-ALS for resolution of overlapped peaks. Classification of red wine cultivars from FT-IR spectroscopy of phenolic wine extracts with hierarchical clustering and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA

  11. Sum-frequency generation from molecular monolayers using 14 μm radiation from the FELIX free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Ham, E.W.M.; Vrehen, Q.H.F.; Eliel, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) has developed into a widely applied tool for study of surfaces and interfaces where molecules are present. It combines the surface specificity of a second-order nonlinear optical technique with the power of a spectroscopic method, and it can be used under widely varying experimental conditions ranging from UHV to electrochemical cells. The important characteristic of SFG is that it allows one to study the average spatial orientation of a molecular bond in a monolayer of molecules at an interface. Until recently SFG measurements were confined to the frequency interval Y μ > 1700 cm -1 because of a lack of suitable laser sources at wave-lengths λ > 6 μm. So for most molecules only a few vibrational modes and thus intramolecular bonds can be studied. We have developed a universal sum-frequency spectrometer around the FELIX free-electron law that covers the complete molecular fingerprint since we can generate any IR wavelength between 2.75 and 110 fμ at the FELIX facility. We have used this setup for a series of exploratory SFG experiments in a frequency range that was hitherto unexplored in the study of molecular monolayers. We have studied thiol monolayers chemisorbed on a variety of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt) where we focussed on the C-S stretch vibration at ν = 702 cm -1 (λ = 14.3 μm). We have found spectroscopic features revealing the presence of both the trane and gauche conformers of the adsorbed molecules. The present measurements open a whole new wavelength range for nonlinear optical studies of interfaces

  12. Design and construction of a Fourier transform soft x-ray interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spring, John A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Helium, with its two electrons and one nucleus, is a three-body system. One of the models for investigating correlated electron motion in this system is autoionization, produced via double excitation of the electrons. Predictions about the autoionization spectrum of helium have differed from each other and from preliminary experimental data. However, previous experiments have not been able to distinguish among the theoretical predictions because their energy resolution is not high enough to resolve the narrow linewidths of quasi-forbidden peaks and the resonances that appear in the highest excited states. Consequently, a team of researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have embarked on a project for building a high-resolution Fourier-Transform Soft X-ray (or VUV) interferometer (FTSX) to provide definitive data to answer remaining questions about the autoionization spectrum of helium. The design and construction of this interferometer is described in detail below, including the use of a flexure stage to provide the large path length difference necessary for high resolution measurements, the manufacture of x-ray beamsplitters, a description of the software, and the solution to the problems of stick-slip, vibration, and alignment. Current progress of its development is also described, as well as future goals.

  13. Motor Fault Diagnosis Based on Short-time Fourier Transform and Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Jia-Xin; Xie, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Hong

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of mechanical equipment, the mechanical health monitoring field has entered the era of big data. However, the method of manual feature extraction has the disadvantages of low efficiency and poor accuracy, when handling big data. In this study, the research object was the asynchronous motor in the drivetrain diagnostics simulator system. The vibration signals of different fault motors were collected. The raw signal was pretreated using short time Fourier transform (STFT) to obtain the corresponding time-frequency map. Then, the feature of the time-frequency map was adaptively extracted by using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The effects of the pretreatment method, and the hyper parameters of network diagnostic accuracy, were investigated experimentally. The experimental results showed that the influence of the preprocessing method is small, and that the batch-size is the main factor affecting accuracy and training efficiency. By investigating feature visualization, it was shown that, in the case of big data, the extracted CNN features can represent complex mapping relationships between signal and health status, and can also overcome the prior knowledge and engineering experience requirement for feature extraction, which is used by traditional diagnosis methods. This paper proposes a new method, based on STFT and CNN, which can complete motor fault diagnosis tasks more intelligently and accurately.

  14. Infrared absorption of gaseous ClCS detected with time-resolved Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Li-Kang; Han, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2007-01-01

    A transient infrared absorption spectrum of gaseous ClCS was detected with a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. ClCS was produced upon irradiating a flowing mixture of Cl 2 CS and N 2 or CO 2 with a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm. A transient band in the region of 1160-1220 cm -1 , which diminished on prolonged reaction, is assigned to the C-S stretching (ν 1 ) mode of ClCS. Calculations with density-functional theory (B3P86 and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) predict the geometry, vibrational wave numbers, and rotational parameters of ClCS. The rotational contour of the spectrum of ClCS simulated based on predicted rotational parameters agrees satisfactorily with experimental observation; from spectral simulation, the band origin is determined to be at 1194.4 cm -1 . Reaction kinetics involving ClCS, CS, and CS 2 are discussed

  15. Localization of polyhydroxybutyrate in sugarcane using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoi, Jason S; Smith-Moritz, Andreia; Singh, Seema; McQualter, Richard; Scheller, Henrik V; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Slow-degrading, fossil fuel-derived plastics can have deleterious effects on the environment, especially marine ecosystems. The production of bio-based, biodegradable plastics from or in plants can assist in supplanting those manufactured using fossil fuels. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one such biodegradable polyester that has been evaluated as a possible candidate for relinquishing the use of environmentally harmful plastics. PHB, possessing similar properties to polyesters produced from non-renewable sources, has been previously engineered in sugarcane, thereby creating a high-value co-product in addition to the high biomass yield. This manuscript illustrates the coupling of a Fourier-transform infrared microspectrometer, equipped with a focal plane array (FPA) detector, with multivariate imaging to successfully identify and localize PHB aggregates. Principal component analysis imaging facilitated the mining of the abundant quantity of spectral data acquired using the FPA for distinct PHB vibrational modes. PHB was measured in the chloroplasts of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, acquiescent with previously evaluated plant samples. This study demonstrates the power of IR microspectroscopy to rapidly image plant sections to provide a snapshot of the chemical composition of the cell. While PHB was localized in sugarcane, this method is readily transferable to other value-added co-products in different plants.

  16. Universally applicable model for the quantitative determination of lake sediment composition using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura; Hahn, Annette; Hausmann, Sonja; Pienitz, Reinhard; Zolitschka, Bernd; Wagner, Bernd; Persson, Per

    2011-10-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) can provide detailed information on organic and minerogenic constituents of sediment records. Based on a large number of sediment samples of varying age (0-340,000 yrs) and from very diverse lake settings in Antarctica, Argentina, Canada, Macedonia/Albania, Siberia, and Sweden, we have developed universally applicable calibration models for the quantitative determination of biogenic silica (BSi; n = 816), total inorganic carbon (TIC; n = 879), and total organic carbon (TOC; n = 3164) using FTIRS. These models are based on the differential absorbance of infrared radiation at specific wavelengths with varying concentrations of individual parameters, due to molecular vibrations associated with each parameter. The calibration models have low prediction errors and the predicted values are highly correlated with conventionally measured values (R = 0.94-0.99). Robustness tests indicate the accuracy of the newly developed FTIRS calibration models is similar to that of conventional geochemical analyses. Consequently FTIRS offers a useful and rapid alternative to conventional analyses for the quantitative determination of BSi, TIC, and TOC. The rapidity, cost-effectiveness, and small sample size required enables FTIRS determination of geochemical properties to be undertaken at higher resolutions than would otherwise be possible with the same resource allocation, thus providing crucial sedimentological information for climatic and environmental reconstructions.

  17. Chapter 3 Studies of complex I by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Douglas; Rich, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform vibrational infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy provides a novel spectroscopic tool to study atomic details of the structure and mechanism of respiratory NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Methods for the acquisition of difference spectra in both transmission and ATR modes in the mid-IR 4000 to 900 cm(-1) region are reviewed. In both modes, redox transitions can be induced by electrochemistry, and ultraviolet (UV)/visible spectra can be recorded simultaneously. Use of the ATR method with complex I layers immobilized on an internal reflection element (IRE) additionally allows transitions to be induced by perfusion/buffer exchange, hence providing a versatile means of analyzing IR changes associated with, for example, ligand/substrate binding or specific catalytic intermediates at high signal-to-noise. Absolute absorbance IR spectra can provide information on secondary structure, lipid/protein ratio, extent of isotope exchange, and sample quality and stability more generally. Such information is useful for quality control of samples during the acquisition of difference spectra in which specific atomic details of changes between two states may be probed. Examples of absolute and difference IR spectra of complex I are presented, and strategies for assignments of the spectral features are discussed.

  18. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  19. Design and construction of a Fourier transform soft x-ray interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spring, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Helium, with its two electrons and one nucleus, is a three-body system. One of the models for investigating correlated electron motion in this system is autoionization, produced via double excitation of the electrons. Predictions about the autoionization spectrum of helium have differed from each other and from preliminary experimental data. However, previous experiments have not been able to distinguish among the theoretical predictions because their energy resolution is not high enough to resolve the narrow linewidths of quasi-forbidden peaks and the resonances that appear in the highest excited states. Consequently, a team of researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have embarked on a project for building a high-resolution Fourier-Transform Soft X-ray (or VUV) interferometer (FTSX) to provide definitive data to answer remaining questions about the autoionization spectrum of helium. The design and construction of this interferometer is described in detail below, including the use of a flexure stage to provide the large path length difference necessary for high resolution measurements, the manufacture of x-ray beamsplitters, a description of the software, and the solution to the problems of stick-slip, vibration, and alignment. Current progress of its development is also described, as well as future goals

  20. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albero, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm -1 ), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm -1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm -1 , with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm -1 ) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm -1 . Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm -1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were

  1. Analysis of the physical simulation on Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng-yuan; Wan, Yu-xi; Zhao, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    A kind of oscillating arm type Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTS) which based on the corner cube retroreflector is presented, and its principle and properties are studied. It consists of a pair of corner cube retroreflector, beam splitter and compensator. The optical path difference(OPD) is created by oscillating reciprocating motion of the moving corner cube pair, and the OPD value is four times the physical shift value of the moving corner cube pair. Due to the basic property of corner cube retroreflector, the oscillating arm type FTS has no tilt problems. It is almost ideal for very high resolution infrared spectrometer. However, there are some factors to reduce the FTS capability. First, wavefront aberration due to the figures of these surfaces will reduce modulation of FTS system; second, corner cube retroreflector consist of three plane mirror, and orthogonal to each other. When there is a deviation from right angle, it will reduced the modulation of system; third, the apexes of corner cube retroreflector are symmetric about the surface of beam splitter, if one or both of the corner cube retroreflector is displaced laterally from its nominal position, phase of off-axis rays returning from the two arms were difference, this also contributes to loss of modulation of system. In order to solve these problems, this paper sets up a non-sequential interference model, and a small amount of oscillating arm rotation is set to realize the dynamic simulation process, the dynamic interference energy data were acquired at different times, and calculated the modulation of the FTS system. In the simulation, the influence of wedge error of beam splitter, compensator or between them were discussed; effects of oscillating arm shaft deviation from the coplanar of beam splitter was analyzed; and compensation effect of corner cube retroreflector alignment on beam splitter, oscillating arm rotary shaft alignment error is analyzed. In addition, the adjustment procedure

  2. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  3. Highly efficient single-pass sum frequency generation by cascaded nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2015-01-01

    The cascading of nonlinear crystals has been established as a simple method to greatly increase the conversion efficiency of single-pass second-harmonic generation compared to a single-crystal scheme. Here, we show for the first time that the technique can be extended to sum frequency generation......, despite differences in the phase relations of the involved fields. An unprecedented 5.5 W of continuous-wave diffraction-limited green light is generated from the single-pass sum frequency mixing of two diode lasers in two periodically poled nonlinear crystals (conversion efficiency 50%). The technique...

  4. Singly-resonant sum frequency generation of visible light in a semiconductor disk laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Schlosser, P.J.; Hastie, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid......-state laser light. This exploits the good beam quality and high intra-cavity power present in the semiconductor disk laser to achieve high conversion efficiency. Combining sum frequency mixing and semiconductor disk lasers in this manner allows in principle for generation of any wavelength within the visible...

  5. Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of Period-Finding Algorithm by Means of Simulating Quantum Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghareh Abed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce quantum fourier transform as a key ingredient for many useful algorithms. These algorithms make a solution for problems which is considered to be intractable problems on a classical computer. Quantum Fourier transform is propounded as a key for quantum phase estimation algorithm. In this paper our aim is the implementation of period-finding algorithm.Quantum computer solves this problem, exponentially faster than classical one. Quantum phase estimation algorithm is the key for the period-finding problem .Therefore, by means of simulating quantum Fourier transform, we are able to implement the period-finding algorithm. In this paper, the simulation of quantum Fourier transform is carried out by Matlab software.

  7. Photoselective discrimination of matrix isolated respiratory enzymes from E. coli by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John J.; Gennis, R. B.; Alben, James O.

    1992-03-01

    Photodissociation of heme-CO complexes in bacterial membranes was measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Wavelength of the photodissociating light and selected cryogenic temperatures were used to distinguish multiple forms of respiratory enzymes (cytochromes).

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS BY AB INITIO QUANTUM MECHANICAL COMPUTATION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational chemistry, in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/MS/FT-IR), was used to tentatively identify seven tetrachlorobutadiene (TCBD) isomers detected in an environmental sample. Computation of the TCBD infrare...

  9. Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...

  10. Engineering Model Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) Instrument for the GEO-CAPE Mission

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is an imaging spectrometer that can measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for in the...

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  12. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reagent-free, can rapidly and non-invasively detect changes in the biochemical composition of cells and tissues (at the molecular ... and glycogen (~1030 cm. –1. ). In vibrational spectra, different ratios and/or .... and glycogen levels due to carcinogenesis have been reported (Cohenford and Rigas 1998; Ramesh et al. 2001) ...

  13. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  14. Pulse shaping using the optical Fourier transform technique - for ultra-high-speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment.......This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment....

  15. On integral and finite Fourier transforms of continuous q-Hermite polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakishiyeva, M. K.; Atakishiyev, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of the remarkably simple transformation properties of the continuous q-Hermite polynomials H n (x vertical bar q) of Rogers with respect to the classical Fourier integral transform. The behavior of the q-Hermite polynomials under the finite Fourier transform and an explicit form of the q-extended eigenfunctions of the finite Fourier transform, defined in terms of these polynomials, are also discussed.

  16. OTDM-to-WDM Conversion of Complex Modulation Formats by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Richter, T.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information.......We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information....

  17. Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation for OTDM-DWDM and DWDM-OTDM Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats.......Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats....

  18. Analysis and application of Fourier transform spectroscopy in atmospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis method for Fourier transform spectroscopy is summarized with applications to various types of distortion in atmospheric absorption spectra. This analysis method includes the fast Fourier transform method for simulating the interferometric spectrum and the nonlinear least-squares method for retrieving the information from a measured spectrum. It is shown that spectral distortions can be simulated quite well and that the correct information can be retrieved from a distorted spectrum by this analysis technique.

  19. Nonlinear beam clean-up using resonantly enhanced sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Emir; Pedersen, Christian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of improving the beam quality and obtaining high conversion efficiency in nonlinear sum-frequency generation. A 765 nm beam from an external cavity tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal situated in the high intracavity field of a 1342 nm N...

  20. Observation of strong magnetic effects in visible-infrared sum frequency generation from magnetic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirilyuk, A.; Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Renard, S.; Rasing, T.; Heskamp, I. R.; Lodder, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    We have observed very strong magnetization-induced changes of the infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) intensity from thin magnetic films using a free electron laser as a tunable infrared source. With the help of a magnetic grating a clear resonance is observed due to the excitation of

  1. Giant enhancement of sum-frequency yield by surface-plasmon excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, E. W. M.; Vrehen, Q. H. F.; Eliel, E. R.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Valieva, E. V.; Kuzik, L. A.; Petrov, J. E.; Sychugov, V. A.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    We show experimentally that the radiation generated in infrared-visible sum-frequency mixing at an air-silver interface can be greatly enhanced when the visible input beam excites a surface plasmon-polariton at the interface. With either a prism or a grating used to couple the visible radiation with

  2. Causal Correlation Functions and Fourier Transforms: Application in Calculating Pressure Induced Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Lavrentieva, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    By adopting a concept from signal processing, instead of starting from the correlation functions which are even, one considers the causal correlation functions whose Fourier transforms become complex. Their real and imaginary parts multiplied by 2 are the Fourier transforms of the original correlations and the subsequent Hilbert transforms, respectively. Thus, by taking this step one can complete the two previously needed transforms. However, to obviate performing the Cauchy principal integrations required in the Hilbert transforms is the greatest advantage. Meanwhile, because the causal correlations are well-bounded within the time domain and band limited in the frequency domain, one can replace their Fourier transforms by the discrete Fourier transforms and the latter can be carried out with the FFT algorithm. This replacement is justified by sampling theory because the Fourier transforms can be derived from the discrete Fourier transforms with the Nyquis rate without any distortions. We apply this method in calculating pressure induced shifts of H2O lines and obtain more reliable values. By comparing the calculated shifts with those in HITRAN 2008 and by screening both of them with the pair identity and the smooth variation rules, one can conclude many of shift values in HITRAN are not correct.

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectral detection of life in polar subsurface environments and its application to Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Louisa J; Johnson, Diane; Cockell, Charles S; Grady, Monica M

    2015-09-01

    Cryptoendolithic lichen communities of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, survive in an extremely inhospitable environment, finding refuge in microscopic niches where conditions suitable for life exist. Such "within-rock" communities may have evolved on Mars when conditions for life on the surface deteriorated to such an extent that they could no longer survive. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of unprepared whole-rock Antarctic Beacon sandstones was used to vertically profile molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, and carboxylic acids created by endolithic communities. Spectral biosignatures were found localized to lichen-rich areas and were absent in crustal regions and the bulk rock substrate. These cryptoendolithic profiles will aid similar spectroscopic investigations of organic biosignatures during future Martian subsurface studies and will help in the identification of similar communities in other localities across the Earth.

  4. Monitoring breast cancer treatment using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-based computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J; Kaznowska, E; Golowski, S; Koziorowska, A; Zawlik, I; Cholewa, M; Szmuc, K; Cebulski, J

    2017-09-05

    Breast cancer affects one in four women, therefore, the search for new diagnostic technologies and therapeutic approaches is of critical importance. This involves the development of diagnostic tools to facilitate the detection of cancer cells, which is useful for assessing the efficacy of cancer therapies. One of the major challenges for chemotherapy is the lack of tools to monitor efficacy during the course of treatment. Vibrational spectroscopy appears to be a promising tool for such a purpose, as it yields Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectra which can be used to provide information on the chemical composition of the tissue. Previous research by our group has demonstrated significant differences between the infrared spectra of healthy, cancerous and post-chemotherapy breast tissue. Furthermore, the results obtained for three extreme patient cases revealed that the infrared spectra of post-chemotherapy breast tissue closely resembles that of healthy breast tissue when chemotherapy is effective (i.e., a good therapeutic response is achieved), or that of cancerous breast tissue when chemotherapy is ineffective. In the current study, we compared the infrared spectra of healthy, cancerous and post-chemotherapy breast tissue. Characteristic parameters were designated for the obtained spectra, spreading the function of absorbance using the Kramers-Kronig transformation and the best fit procedure to obtain Lorentz functions, which represent components of the bands. The Lorentz function parameters were used to develop a physics-based computational model to verify the efficacy of a given chemotherapy protocol in a given case. The results obtained using this model reflected the actual patient data retrieved from medical records (health improvement or no improvement). Therefore, we propose this model as a useful tool for monitoring the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient generation of 509 nm light by sum-frequency mixing between two tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept for visible laser sources based on sum-frequency generation of beam com- bined tapered diode lasers. In this specific case, a 1.7 W sum-frequency generated green laser at 509 nm is obtained, by frequency adding of 6.17 W from a 978 nm tapered diode laser with 8.06 W from...... a 1063 nm tapered diode laser, inside a periodically poled MgO doped lithium niobate crystal. This corresponds to an optical to optical conversion ef fi ciency of 12.1%. As an example of potential applica- tions, the generated nearly diffraction-limited green light is used for pumping a Ti:sapphire laser...

  6. Reconstruction of on-axis lensless Fourier transform digital hologram with the screen division method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongzhen; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yong; Li, Dong; Chen, Zhu; Zheng, Fanglan; Yu, Deqiang

    2017-10-01

    An effective approach for reconstructing on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital hologram by using the screen division method is proposed. Firstly, the on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram is divided into sub-holograms. Then the reconstruction result of every sub-hologram is obtained according to the position of corresponding sub-hologram in the hologram reconstruction plane with Fourier transform operation. Finally, the reconstruction image of on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram can be acquired by the superposition of the reconstruction result of sub-holograms. Compared with the traditional reconstruction method with the phase shifting technology, in which multiple digital holograms are required to record for obtaining the reconstruction image, this method can obtain the reconstruction image with only one digital hologram and therefore greatly simplify the recording and reconstruction process of on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital holography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is well proved with the experimental results and it will have potential application foreground in the holographic measurement and display field.

  7. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of polyacrylamide gels for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.; Murry, P.; Pope, J.; Rintoul, L.; George, G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAG) gels are used in magnetic resonance imaging radiation dosimetry. The PAG dosimeter is based on the radiation-induced co-polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers infused in a gel matrix. PAG was manufactured with a composition of 5% gelatine, 3% acrylamide and 3% N,N'methylene-bis-acrylamide by mass, with distilled water as the remaining constituent [Baldock, 1998]. FT-Raman spectroscopy studies were undertaken to investigate cross-linking changes during the co-polymerisation of PAG in the spectral range of 200 - 3500 cm -1 . Vibrational bands of 1285 cm -1 and 1256 cm -1 were assigned to the acrylamide and bis-acrylamide single CH 2 δ CH2 binding modes. These bands were found to decrease in amplitude with increasing absorbed radiation dose, as a result of co-polymerisation. Principal Component Regression was performed on FT-Raman spectra of PAG samples irradiated to 50 Gy and two components were found to be sufficient to account for 98.7% of variance in the data. Cross validation was used to establish the absorbed radiation dose of an unknown PAG sample from the FT-Raman spectra. The calculated correlation coefficient between measured and predictive samples was 0.997 with a standard error of estimate of 0.976 and a standard error of prediction of 1.140. These results demonstrate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for ionising radiation dosimetry using polyacrylamide gels

  8. Differentiating Fragmentation Pathways of Cholesterol by Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agthoven, Maria A; Barrow, Mark P; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a data-independent analytical method that records the fragmentation patterns of all the compounds in a sample. This study shows the implementation of atmospheric pressure photoionization with two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated. This study shows the use of fragment ion lines, precursor ion lines, and neutral loss lines in the 2D mass spectrum to determine fragmentation mechanisms of known compounds and to gain information on unknown ion species in the spectrum. In concert with high resolution mass spectrometry, 2D Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry can be a useful tool for the structural analysis of small molecules. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Functional differential equations for the q-Fourier transform of q-Gaussians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umarov, S; Queiros, S M Duarte

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the question 'is the q-Fourier transform of a q-Gaussian a q'-Gaussian (with some q') up to a constant factor?' is studied for the whole range of q in (- infty, 3). This question is connected with applicability of the q-Fourier transform in the study of limit processes in nonextensive statistical mechanics. Using the functional differential equation approach we prove that the answer is affirmative if and only if 1 ≤ q < 3, excluding two particular cases of q < 1, namely q=1/2 and q=2/3. Complementarily, we discuss some applications of the q-Fourier transform to nonlinear partial differential equations such as the porous medium equation.

  10. Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time.

  11. Single Channel Quantum Color Image Encryption Algorithm Based on HSI Model and Quantum Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li-Hua; He, Xiang-Tao; Tan, Ru-Chao; Zhou, Zhi-Hong

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain high-quality color images, it is important to keep the hue component unchanged while emphasize the intensity or saturation component. As a public color model, Hue-Saturation Intensity (HSI) model is commonly used in image processing. A new single channel quantum color image encryption algorithm based on HSI model and quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is investigated, where the color components of the original color image are converted to HSI and the logistic map is employed to diffuse the relationship of pixels in color components. Subsequently, quantum Fourier transform is exploited to fulfill the encryption. The cipher-text is a combination of a gray image and a phase matrix. Simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed single channel quantum color image encryption scheme based on the HSI model and quantum Fourier transform is secure and effective.

  12. Continuous Fourier transform method and apparatus. [for the analysis of simultaneous analog signal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An input analog signal to be frequency analyzed is separated into N number of simultaneous analog signal components each identical to the original but delayed relative to the original by a successively larger time delay. The separated and delayed analog components are combined together in a suitable number of adders and attenuators in accordance with at least one component product of the continuous Fourier transform and analog signal matrices to separate the analog input signal into at least one of its continuous analog frequency components of bandwidth 1/N times the bandwidth of the original input signal. The original analog input signal can be reconstituted by combining the separate analog frequency components in accordance with the component products of the continuous Fourier transform and analog frequency component matrices. The continuous Fourier transformation is useful for spectrum analysis, filtering, transfer function synthesis, and communications.

  13. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. III. Fourier Transforming the Universe: Phase and Power Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. G.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.

  14. Nonlinear Fourier transforms for the sine-Gordon equation in the quarter plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lenells, Jonatan

    2018-03-01

    Using the Unified Transform, also known as the Fokas method, the solution of the sine-Gordon equation in the quarter plane can be expressed in terms of the solution of a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem whose definition involves four spectral functions a , b , A , B. The functions a (k) and b (k) are defined via a nonlinear Fourier transform of the initial data, whereas A (k) and B (k) are defined via a nonlinear Fourier transform of the boundary values. In this paper, we provide an extensive study of these nonlinear Fourier transforms and the associated eigenfunctions under weak regularity and decay assumptions on the initial and boundary values. The results can be used to determine the long-time asymptotics of the sine-Gordon quarter-plane solution via nonlinear steepest descent techniques.

  15. Fourier-transform spectroscopy: new methods and applications: introduction by the feature editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Winkel, Raymond J., Jr.; Goldman, Aaron

    1996-06-01

    We are pleased to introduce this special issue of papers on Fourier-transform spectroscopy, which grew out of a recent topical meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America. The topical meeting welcomed all researchers who practice the art of Fourier-transform spectroscopy in the laboratory, in the atmosphere, and in space. The power and the wide applicability of Fourier-transform spectroscopy unite these fields with a common mathematical and instrumental bond. The meeting probed each of these areas in depth, bringing out new ideas for instrumentation, analysis, and applications. There was a strong sentiment at the meeting that the quality of papers and posters was exceptionally high and that it would be important for future progress in the field to have the results of this meeting captured in print. This special issue is the fruit of that effort.

  16. A chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave/pulsed uniform flow spectrometer. II. Performance and applications for reaction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N.; Park, G. Barratt; Joalland, Baptiste; Oldham, James M.; Prozument, Kirill; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Sims, Ian R.; Field, Robert W.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2014-12-01

    This second paper in a series of two reports on the performance of a new instrument for studying chemical reaction dynamics and kinetics at low temperatures. Our approach employs chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy to probe photolysis and bimolecular reaction products that are thermalized in pulsed uniform flows. Here we detail the development and testing of a new Ka-band CP-FTMW spectrometer in combination with the pulsed flow system described in Paper I [J. M. Oldham, C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, L. N. Zack, K. Prozument, I. R. Sims, G. B. Park, R. W. Field, and A. G. Suits, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 154202 (2014)]. This combination delivers broadband spectra with MHz resolution and allows monitoring, on the μs timescale, of the appearance of transient reaction products. Two benchmark reactive systems are used to illustrate and characterize the performance of this new apparatus: the photodissociation of SO2 at 193 nm, for which the vibrational populations of the SO product are monitored, and the reaction between CN and C2H2, for which the HCCCN product is detected in its vibrational ground state. The results show that the combination of these two well-matched techniques, which we refer to as chirped-pulse in uniform flow, also provides insight into the vibrational and rotational relaxation kinetics of the nascent reaction products. Future directions are discussed, with an emphasis on exploring the low temperature chemistry of complex polyatomic systems.

  17. The cyclic ground state structure of the HF trimer revealed by far infrared jet-cooled Fourier transform spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, P; Soulard, P; Madebène, B; Goubet, M; Huet, T R; Georges, R; Pirali, O; Roy, P

    2014-03-14

    The rovibrationally resolved Fourier transform (FT) far infrared (FIR) spectra of two intermolecular librations of (HF)3, namely the in-plane ν6 and out-of-plane ν4 bending fundamentals centered, respectively, at about 494 cm(-1) and 602 cm(-1), have been recorded for the first time under jet-cooled conditions using the supersonic jet of the Jet-AILES apparatus. The simultaneous rotational analysis of 245 infrared transitions belonging to both bands enabled us to determine the ground state (GS), ν6 and ν4 rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. These results provided definite experimental answers to the structure of such a weakly bound trimer: firstly the vibrationally averaged planarity of cyclic (HF)3, also supported by the very small value of the inertia defect obtained in the GS, secondly the slight weakening of the hydrogen bond in the intermolecular excited states evidenced from the center of mass separations of the HF constituents determined in the ground, ν6 = 1 and ν4 = 1 states of (HF)3 as well as the decrease of the fitted rotational constants upon excitation. Finally, lower bounds of about 2 ns on ν6 and ν4 state lifetimes could be derived from the deconvolution of experimental linewidths. Such long lifetimes highlight the interest in probing low frequency intermolecular motions of molecular complexes to get rid of constraints related to the vibrational dynamics of coupled anharmonic vibrations at higher energy, resulting in loss of rotational information.

  18. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of polyacrylamide gels for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C.; Murry, P.; Pope, J. [Queensland University of Tehchnology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Centres for Medical and Health Physics; Rintoul, L.; George, G. [Queensland University of Tehchnology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Instrumental and Development Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Polyacrylamide (PAG) gels are used in magnetic resonance imaging radiation dosimetry. The PAG dosimeter is based on the radiation-induced co-polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers infused in a gel matrix. PAG was manufactured with a composition of 5% gelatine, 3% acrylamide and 3% N,N`methylene-bis-acrylamide by mass, with distilled water as the remaining constituent [Baldock, 1998]. FT-Raman spectroscopy studies were undertaken to investigate cross-linking changes during the co-polymerisation of PAG in the spectral range of 200 - 3500 cm{sup -1}. Vibrational bands of 1285 cm{sup -1} and 1256 cm{sup -1} were assigned to the acrylamide and bis-acrylamide single CH{sub 2} {delta}{sub CH2} binding modes. These bands were found to decrease in amplitude with increasing absorbed radiation dose, as a result of co-polymerisation. Principal Component Regression was performed on FT-Raman spectra of PAG samples irradiated to 50 Gy and two components were found to be sufficient to account for 98.7% of variance in the data. Cross validation was used to establish the absorbed radiation dose of an unknown PAG sample from the FT-Raman spectra. The calculated correlation coefficient between measured and predictive samples was 0.997 with a standard error of estimate of 0.976 and a standard error of prediction of 1.140. These results demonstrate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for ionising radiation dosimetry using polyacrylamide gels

  19. Linear and Nonlinear Crosstalk Evaluation in DWDM Networks Using Optical Fourier Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel DWDM channel monitoring technique based on the conversion from wavelength domain to time domain by performing a real-time optical Fourier transform over the whole DWDM system bandwidth is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The use of chromatic dispersion-based optical Fourier transformers has been validated in the case of a spectrum comprising light from different uncorrelated sources. Linear and nonlinear crosstalks between the DWDM channels appear as amplitude noise at specific time positions. The correspondence of this amplitude noise with the crosstalk spectral distribution is evaluated theoretically and experimentally.

  20. Surface shape measurement by multi-illumination lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Jia, Shuhai; Jiang, Chao

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-illumination lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry method for surface shape measurement. In this method, the interference phases with different effective synthetic wavelengths are obtained by tilting the illumination angle several times, and all are wrapped. A Fourier-transform demodulation algorithm employing all these wrapped phases simultaneously is used to determine the object surface shape. No phase unwrapping procedure is required, and the shape information of each point is calculated independently, thereby offering great flexibility for measuring objects with discontinuities surface, such as holes, steps and gaps. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the principle.

  1. DWDM-TO-OTDM Conversion by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated.......We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated....

  2. Accelerating the Non-equispaced Fast Fourier Transform on Commodity Graphics Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Schaeffter, Tobias; Noe, Karsten Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe the performa......We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe...

  3. OTDM-WDM Conversion Based on Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation with Spectral Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown.......We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown....

  4. Color image cryptosystem using Fresnel diffraction and phase modulation in an expanded fractional Fourier transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Liu, Zhengjun; Chen, Qi; Blondel, Walter; Varis, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, what we believe is a new technique for optical color image encryption by using Fresnel diffraction and a phase modulation in an extended fractional Fourier transform domain is proposed. Different from the RGB component separation based method, the color image is converted into one component by improved Chirikov mapping. The encryption system is addressed with Fresnel diffraction and phase modulation. A pair of lenses is placed into the fractional Fourier transform system for the modulation of beam propagation. The structure parameters of the optical system and parameters in Chirikov mapping serve as extra keys. Some numerical simulations are given to test the validity of the proposed cryptosystem.

  5. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-05

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple example of track finding by Fourier transform and possibilities for vector or optical processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.

    1986-01-01

    Simple examples of finding tracks by Fourier transform with filter or correlation function are presented. Possibilities for using this method in more complicated real situations and the processing times which might be achieved are discussed. The method imitates the simplest examples in the literature on optical pattern recognition and optical processing. The possible benefits of the method are in speed of processing in the optical Fourier transform wherein an entire picture is processed simultaneously. The speed of a computer vector processor may be competitive with present electro-optical devices. 2 refs., 6 figs

  7. The Fourier transform as a signature for chaos in nuclear energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bybee, C.R.; Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function is an alternative test to characterize level statistics. For GOE statistics there is a suppression of the Fourier transform near the origin; this correlation hole is absent for Poisson statistics. Numerical modeling has been used to quantify the method and determine the dependence of the correlation-hole area on number, density, sampling interval, and fraction of missing or spurious levels. For large N the normalized correlation-hole area is a nearly universal constant and insensitive to missing and spurious levels. However, for the smaller sample sizes typical of nuclear data, application of the FT method yields ambiguous results. (orig.)

  8. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude......We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  9. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  10. Deficiencies of the cryptography based on multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Qiwen; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Jin; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing

    2009-06-01

    Methods of image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform have an incipient flaw in security. We show that the schemes have the deficiency that one group of encryption keys has many groups of keys to decrypt the encrypted image correctly for several reasons. In some schemes, many factors result in the deficiencies, such as the encryption scheme based on multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform [Opt. Lett.33, 581 (2008)]. A modified method is proposed to avoid all the deficiencies. Security and reliability are greatly improved without increasing the complexity of the encryption process. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America.

  11. Slow Light Based On-Chip High Resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer For Geostationary Imaging of Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) in infrared wavelength range is an effective measure for global greenhouse gas monitoring. However, conventional FTS instruments...

  12. Study of HDO absorption in the 11,200-12,400 cm-1 range using LED-based Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdyukov, Viktor I.; Sinitsa, Leonid N.; Polovtseva, Elena R.; Bykov, Alexander D.; Voronin, Boris. A.; Scherbakov, Anatolii P.

    2017-11-01

    A high resolution Fourier transform spectrum of mono-deuterated water vapor was studied between 11,200 and 12,400 cm-1 using a Fourier transform spectrometer with the spectral resolution of 0.05 cm-1, coupled to a multi-pass White-type cell that provided an optical path length of 24 m. A light-emitting diode was used as the radiation source to obtain a measurement signal-to-noise ratio of about 104. The rotational-vibrational assignment of more than 1560 lines was carried out using the VTT variational line list. The parameters of the spectral lines (line centers, intensities and half-widths) were determined by least-squares fitting of the Voigt contour parameters to the experimental data. A total of 584 rotational-vibrational energy levels with maximum rotational quantum numbers of J = 16 and Ka = 9 were determined. For the first time, 64 new energy levels belonging to the nine vibrational states: (032), (112), (301), (141), (410), (221), (330), (061) and (170) were derived from the experiment.

  13. All-solid-state continuous-wave doubly resonant all-intracavity sum-frequency mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, H M; Heine, F; Huber, G; Halldórsson, T

    1997-10-01

    A new resonator design for doubly resonant continuous-wave intracavity sum-frequency mixing is presented. We generated 212 mW of coherent radiation at 618 nm by mixing the radiation of a 1080-nm Nd(3+):YAlO(3) laser and a 1444-nm Nd(3+):YAG laser. Two different mixing resonator setups and several nonlinear-optical crystals were investigated. So far output is limited by unequal performance of the two fundamental lasers and coating problems of the nonlinear crystals.

  14. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritboon, Atirach, E-mail: atirach.3.14@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Daengngam, Chalongrat, E-mail: chalongrat.d@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Pengpan, Teparksorn, E-mail: teparksorn.p@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  15. Flexibility of three differential constitutive models evaluated by large amplitude oscillatory shear and Fourier transform rheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2016), s. 171-178 ISSN 0032-3861 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * fourier transform rheology * Giesekus model * PTT model * modified XPP model * poly( ethylene oxide ) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  16. On the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, A. C.; Smets, A. H. M.; Creatore, M.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2011-01-01

    Insight into the oxidation mechanism of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been obtained by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited by using the expanding thermal plasma and their oxidation upon air exposure was followed in time. Transmission spectra were

  17. Imaging properties of the mesooptical Fourier transform microscope for nuclear research emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, Gy.L.; Soroko, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The optical signal transformation in the Mesooptical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM) for nuclear emulsion is treated in terms of Fourier Optics. A continuous conversion of the traditional optical microscope into the MFTM is followed. The images of dot-like and straight line objects given by the MFTM are discussed

  18. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  19. On the Elliptic Nonabelian Fourier Transform for Unipotent Representations of p-Adic Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciubotaru, D.; Opdam, E.; Cogdell, J.; Kim, J.-L.; Zhu, C.-B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between two nonabelian Fourier transforms. The first one is defined in terms of the Langlands-Kazhdan-Lusztig parameters for unipotent elliptic representations of a split p-adic group and the second is defined in terms of the pseudocoefficients of these

  20. Fourier transform and the Verlinde formula for the quantum double of a finite group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornwinder, T.H.; Schroers, B.J.; Slingerland, J.K.; Bais, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    We define a Fourier transform $S$ for the quantum double $D(G)$ of a finite group $G$. Acting on characters of $D(G)$, $S$ and the central ribbon element of $D(G)$ generate a unitary matrix representation of the group $SL(2,Z)$. The characters form a ring over the integers under both the algebra

  1. Limitations and potential of spectral subtractions in fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...

  2. Teaching Stable Two-Mirror Resonators through the Fractional Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Garcia-Martinez, Pascuala; Ferreira, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We analyse two-mirror resonators in terms of their fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) properties. We use the basic ABCD ray transfer matrix method to show how the resonator can be regarded as the cascade of two propagation-lens-propagation FRFT systems. Then, we present a connection between the geometric properties of the resonator (the g…

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER MEASUREMENTS USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FT1R) spectroscopy is an accepted technology for measuring gaseous air contaminants. OP-FT1R absorbance spectra acquired during changing aerosols conditions reveal related changes in very broad baseline features. Usually, this shearing of ...

  4. The fractional Fourier transform as a simulation tool for lens-based X-ray microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Filsøe; Simons, Hugh; Detlefs, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is introduced as a tool for numerical simulations of X-ray wavefront propagation. By removing the strict sampling requirements encountered in typical Fourier optics, simulations using the FrFT can be carried out with much decreased detail, allowing...

  5. 3D spectral imaging with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Martin; Charlotte Dabat-Blondeau; Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Dilworth Y. Parkinson; Hans A. Bechtel; Barbara Illman; Jonathan M. Castro; Marco Keiluweit; David Buschke; Brenda Ogle; Michael J. Nasse; Carol J. Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    We report Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography, a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging approach that reveals the distribution of distinctive chemical compositions throughout an intact biological or materials sample. The method combines mid-infrared absorption contrast with computed tomographic data acquisition and reconstruction to enhance chemical...

  6. Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, J.; Sayre, D.; Chapman, H.N.

    1998-01-01

    It is suggested that, given the magnitude of Fourier transforms sampled at the Bragg density, the phase problem is underdetermined by a factor of 2 for 1D, 2D, and 3D objects. It is therefore unnecessary to oversample the magnitude of Fourier transforms by 2x in each dimension (i.e., oversampling by 4x for 2D and 8x for 3D) in retrieving the phase of 2D and 3D objects. Our computer phasing experiments accurately retrieved the phase from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of 2D and 3D complex-valued objects by using positivity constraints on the imaginary part of the objects and loose supports, with the oversampling factor much less than 4 for 2D and 8 for 3D objects. Under the same conditions we also obtained reasonably good reconstructions of 2D and 3D complex-valued objects from the magnitude of their Fourier transforms with added noise and a central stop. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  7. Large quantum Fourier transforms are never exactly realized by braiding conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Michael H.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2007-01-01

    Fourier transform is an essential ingredient in Shor's factoring algorithm. In the standard quantum circuit model with the gate set {U(2), controlled-NOT}, the discrete Fourier transforms F N =(ω ij ) NxN , i,j=0,1,...,N-1, ω=e 2πi at ∼sol∼ at N , can be realized exactly by quantum circuits of size O(n 2 ), n=ln N, and so can the discrete sine or cosine transforms. In topological quantum computing, the simplest universal topological quantum computer is based on the Fibonacci (2+1)-topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where the standard quantum circuits are replaced by unitary transformations realized by braiding conformal blocks. We report here that the large Fourier transforms F N and the discrete sine or cosine transforms can never be realized exactly by braiding conformal blocks for a fixed TQFT. It follows that an approximation is unavoidable in the implementation of Fourier transforms by braiding conformal blocks

  8. Fourier-transform imaging of cotton and botanical and field trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical and field cotton trash comingled with cotton lint can greatly reduce the marketability and quality of cotton. Trash can be found comingled with cotton lint during harvesting, ginning, and processing, thus this study is of interest. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (A...

  9. Dual-polarization nonlinear Fourier transform-based optical communication system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone; Perego, A. M.; da Silva, Edson Porto

    2018-01-01

    communication could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT)” to exploit the “hidden” linearity of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as the master model for signal propagation in an optical fiber. We present here the theoretical...

  10. Specification of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm as a term rewriting system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.H.; Hoekzema, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    We specify an algorithm for multiplying polynomials with complex coefficients incorporating, the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm of Cooley and Tukey [CT]. The specification formalism we use is a variant of the formalism ASF described in. [BHK]. The difference with ASF is essentially a matter of

  11. Cryogenic magnetic bearing scanning mechanism design for the SPICA/SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Kruizinga, B.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Braam, B.C.; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Loix, N.; Luyckx, S.; Loon, D. van; Kooijman, P.P.; Swinyard, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    TNO, together with its partners Micromega and SRON, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. The optics of the FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) consists of two back-to-back cat's-eyes. The optics are mounted

  12. Superexponentially damped Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Z.; Nocera, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Landau (exponentially) damped solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson equation Fourier transformed with respect to velocity are genuine eigenmodes corresponding to complex eigenvalues. In addition there exist solutions decaying faster than exponentially which exhibit no oscillatory behaviour. A new characterization is given of the initial conditions that give rise to these solutions together with a numerical demonstration

  13. Refined fourier-transform method of analysis of full two-dimensional digitized interferograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Davorin; Vucić, Zlatko; Gladić, Jadranko; Demoli, Nazif; Mitrović, Slobodan; Milas, Mirko

    2003-03-10

    A refined Fourier-transform method of analysis of interference patterns is presented. The refinements include a method of automatic background subtraction and a way of treating the problem of heterodyning. The method proves particularly useful for analysis of long sequences of interferograms.

  14. Analysis of Chaperone Complexes by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, R.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of methodologies for analyses of noncovalently bound protein assemblies using Fourier transformation ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and quadrupole Time-of-Flight (qToF) mass spectrometry. Specifically, the co-chaperonins GroEL and gp31 are used to perform

  15. Photochemical Degradation Of Polymer Films On Metals As Studied By Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John D.; Schissel, Paul; Czanderna, Alvin; Chughtai, Abdul R.; Smith, Dwight M.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental approach to the study of polymer film photodegradation by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with simultaneous UV irradiation under varying thermal and environmental parameters, has been developed. Reflection spectra from metal-backed polycarbonate films undergoing irradiation in a test chamber illustrate the system's capability. Early degradative events in polycarbonate are revealed by differences in these spectra.

  16. A fast Fourier transform program for the deconvolution of IN10 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, W.S.

    1981-04-01

    A deconvolution program based on the Fast Fourier Transform technique is described and some examples are presented to help users run the programs and interpret the results. Instructions are given for running the program on the RAL IBM 360/195 computer. (author)

  17. Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of atomic rubidium: g- and h-states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Chernov, Vladislav E.; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 17 (2012), s. 175002 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fourier transform infrared emission spectra * atomic rubidium * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.031, year: 2012

  18. Determination of Lamb wave dispersion curves by means of Fourier transform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 5-16 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Lamb wave * dispersion curves * Fourier transform * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  19. Chemometric Analysis of Multicomponent Biodegradable Plastics by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry: The R-Matrix Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new chemometric method based on absorbance ratios from Fourier transform infrared spectra was devised to analyze multicomponent biodegradable plastics. The method uses the BeerLambert law to directly compute individual component concentrations and weight losses before and after biodegradation of c...

  20. Design of a compact and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, B. Imran

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a compact and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer design is presented which is in great demand in numerous areas. The spectrometer is formed by sequentially-activated 60 Mach-Zehnder interferometers that are connected to photodetectors through very-low-loss beam

  1. High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared (HSCCC/FT-IR) Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanach, Rodolfo J.; de Haseth, James A.

    1985-12-01

    High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography/Fourier transform infrared (HSCCC/FT-IR) spectrometry is present-ed. High solute-to-solvent ratios can be obtained in separations performed using HSCCC. At these high solute concentrations it is possible to obtain spectra of solutes without solvent elimination, even in the presence of polar solvents, such as water and methanol.

  2. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we look at the methods employed to solve this differential equa- tion for different forms of the input voltage applied. 1. The RC Circuit and its Differential Equation. For the circuit shown in Figure 1, the differential equation for. Keywords. Fourier transforms, contour integration, circuit theory. charge q on the capacitor is given ...

  3. Flexibility of three differential constitutive models evaluated by large amplitude oscillatory shear and Fourier transform rheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2016), s. 171-178 ISSN 0032-3861 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * fourier transform rheology * Giesekus model * PTT model * modified XPP model * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  4. Prediction of beta-lactoglobulin genotypes based on milk Fourier transform infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Heck, J.M.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    ß-Lactoglobulin (ß-LG) genotypes are associated with differences in bovine milk protein composition. Therefore, ß-LG genotypes are of direct relevance for the dairy industry. In this study, we predicted ß-lactoglobulin genotypes based on routinely recorded milk Fourier transform infrared spectra

  5. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-. Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms. (FT). This very general technique gives us a lot of insight into solving first order differential equations with source terms de- pending on time. In itself, the RC circuit is by far the most commonplace entity in ...

  6. some new estimates for the helgason fourier transform on rank 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    24

    Key words: Symmetric space; Helgason Fourier transform; Spherical modulus of continuity; Generalized ... For the required properties of semisimple Lie groups and symmetric spaces, we refer the reader, e.g., to [3,4]. ..... f ∈ L2(X) that have gener- alized derivatives in the sense of distributions satisfying ∆rf ∈ L2(X). i.e.,. Wr.

  7. Measurement of Microscopic Deformations Using Double-Exposure Holographic Interferometry and the Fourier Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percival Almoro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic deformations on the surface of a circular diaphragm were measured using double exposure holographic interferometry and Fourier transform method (FTM. The three-dimensional surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM to holographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. This was calibrated via the Michelson interferometry technique.

  8. On Fast Fourier Transform-A Popular Tool for Spectrum Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. On Fast Fourier Transform - A Popular Tool for Spectrum Analysis. V Umapathi Reddy. General Article ... Author Affiliations. V Umapathi Reddy1. Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India ...

  9. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. Development of instrumentation, data aquisition software and processing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbu, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes, the use of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectrometer in the study of biological samples with, imaging mass spectrometry (MS). To achieve this goal experiments were performed on an in-house modified FTICR-MS instrument (for which special acquisition software

  10. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to evaluate biological effects induced by photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cassio A; Goulart, Viviane P; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M

    2016-07-01

    Vibrational spectroscopic methods associated with multivariate statistical techniques have been succeeded in discriminating skin lesions from normal tissues. However, there is no study exploring the potential of these techniques to assess the alterations promoted by photodynamic effect in tissue. The present study aims to demonstrate the ability of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on Attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling mode associated with principal component-linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) to evaluate the biochemical changes caused by photodynamic therapy (PDT) in skin neoplastic tissue. Cutaneous neoplastic lesions, precursors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), were chemically induced in Swiss mice and submitted to a single session of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated PDT. Tissue sections with 5 μm thickness were obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and processed prior to the histopathological analysis and spectroscopic measurements. Spectra were collected in mid-infrared region using a FTIR spectrometer on ATR sampling mode. Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) was applied on preprocessed second derivatives spectra. Biochemical changes were assessed using PCA-loadings and accuracy of classification was obtained from PC-LDA . Sub-bands of Amide I (1,624 and 1,650 cm(-1) ) and Amide II (1,517 cm(-1) ) indicated a protein overexpression in non-treated and post-PDT neoplastic tissue compared with healthy skin, as well as a decrease in collagen fibers (1,204, 1,236, 1,282, and 1,338 cm(-1) ) and glycogen (1,028, 1,082, and 1,151 cm(-1) ) content. Photosensitized neoplastic tissue revealed shifted peak position and decreased β-sheet secondary structure of proteins (1,624 cm(-1) ) amount in comparison to non-treated neoplastic lesions. PC-LDA score plots discriminated non-treated neoplastic skin spectra from post-PDT cutaneous lesions with accuracy of 92.8%, whereas non-treated neoplastic

  11. Fourier Transform Absorption Spectroscopy of C_3 in the ν_3 Antisymmetric Stretch Mode Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Pirali, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The C_3 molecule has been detected in a variety of astrophysical objects thanks to the well-known 4050 Å (A^1Π_u-X^1Σ ^+ _g) electronic transition as well as the two IR active modes of the electronic ground state: ν_2 (˜ 63.42 cm^{-1}) and ν_3 (˜ 2040.02 cm^{-1}). Previous laboratory data in the ν_3 region, obtained using diode laser spectroscopy and the photolysis of allene to produce C_3, permitted measurement of the fundamental (0,0,1)Σ-(0,0,0)Σ as well as the hot bands: (0,1,1)Π-(0,1,0)Π; (0,2,1)Σ-(0,2,0)Σ; (0,2,1)Δ-(0,2,0)Δ and provided insights on the anharmonicity of the (0,nν_2,1) vibrational pattern. We have recorded the absorption spectrum of C_3 in the 1800-2100 cm^{-1} region (at a resolution of 0.003 cm^{-1}) using the Bruker IFS 125 Fourier Transform spectrometer at the AILES beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL. C_3 was produced in a DC discharge of methane heavily diluted in helium. The rovibrational temperature of C_3 produced in our discharge is noticeably higher than in Ref. [4], which allowed us to extend measurements to higher J values. More interestingly, we assigned new hot bands involving higher quanta of the ν_2 bending states: (0,nν_2,1) with n ranging from 0 to 5. Despite the absence of Q branches for these bands, which results in a possible ambiguous J-assignment of P and R lines, the large variety of data considered in this work, in addition to our experimental data and including observations of comet spectra, allows confident assignments. L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerqvist, B. Rosen, Astrophysical Journal, 45-81 (1965); T. F. Giesen et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 551, L181-L184 (2001) K. W. Hinkle, J. J. Keady, P. F. Bernath, Science, 241, 1319-1322 (1988) K. Kawaguchi et al., J. Chem. Phys., 91, 1953-1957 (1989)

  12. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  13. q-Extension of Mehta's eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform for q, a root of unity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atakishiyeva, M.K.; Atakishiyev, N.M.; Koornwinder, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the continuous q-Hermite polynomials for q, a root of unity, have simple transformation properties with respect to the classical Fourier transform. This result is then used to construct q-extended eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform in terms of these polynomials.

  14. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Guan, Pengyu; Lillieholm, Mads

    2017-01-01

    In the talk, we will review recent work on optical signal processing based on time lenses. Various applications of optical Fourier transformation for optical communications will be discussed.......In the talk, we will review recent work on optical signal processing based on time lenses. Various applications of optical Fourier transformation for optical communications will be discussed....

  15. Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation for All-Optical Signal Processing of Spectrally-Efficient Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2017-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced all-optical signal processing. A novel time lens based complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique is introduced. This complete OFT is based on two quadratic phase-modulation stages using...

  16. Reducing aberration effect of Fourier transform lens by modifying Fourier spectrum of diffractive optical element in beam shaping optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie

    2015-10-20

    In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.

  17. Optical sum-frequency generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Kowligy, Abijith S; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, the process saturates already at sub-mW pump peak power, at least two orders of magnitude lower than in existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory based on spherical geometry. Our experimental and theoretical results point toward a new platform for manipulating the color and quantum states of light waves for applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals. (paper)

  18. Estimation of Large Scalings in Images Based on Multilayer Pseudopolar Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the Fourier transform in log-polar coordinates is a major challenge for phase-correlation based motion estimation. To acquire better image registration accuracy, a method is proposed to estimate the log-polar coordinates coefficients using multilayer pseudopolar fractional Fourier transform (MPFFT. The MPFFT approach encompasses pseudopolar and multilayer techniques and provides a grid which is geometrically similar to the log-polar grid. At low coordinates coefficients the multilayer pseudopolar grid is dense, and at high coordinates coefficients the grid is sparse. As a result, large scalings in images can be estimated, and better image registration accuracy can be achieved. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented method.

  19. Birefringent static Fourier-transform spectrometer for flow cytometry and imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Alex

    2017-07-24

    A new concept for a birefringent static Fourier-transform spectrometer, applicable to both spectral flow cytometry and hyperspectral imaging, is introduced. Biological particles or scenes in relative motion are imaged onto a polarization interferometer consisting of a calcite Wollaston prism between crossed polarizers, with polarization axes at 45° with respect to the optical axes of the Wollaston prism. Due to the position-dependent optical path delay of the interferometer, interferograms are generated by the relative motion. These interferograms are recorded either by a flow cytometer detector, or in the case of hyperspectral imaging, by a CMOS focal plane array. Fourier-transforming the interferograms with respect to time yields the optical spectrum of each particle or scene position. The concept has applicability to situations where linear motion is already present, including flow cytometers, conveyor belt systems, fixed-wing aircraft, and nanosatellites.

  20. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the analysis of the biochemical composition of C. elegans worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ming; Gorzsás, András; Tuck, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Changes in intermediary metabolism have profound effects on many aspects of C. elegans biology including growth, development and behavior. However, many traditional biochemical techniques for analyzing chemical composition require relatively large amounts of starting material precluding the analysis of mutants that cannot be grown in large amounts as homozygotes. Here we describe a technique for detecting changes in the chemical compositions of C. elegans worms by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. We demonstrate that the technique can be used to detect changes in the relative levels of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in one and the same worm. We suggest that Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy represents a useful addition to the arsenal of techniques for metabolic studies of C. elegans worms.

  1. High-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography using non-uniform fast Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenny K. H.; Tang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The useful imaging range in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is often limited by the depth dependent sensitivity fall-off. Processing SD-OCT data with the non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NFFT) can improve the sensitivity fall-off at maximum depth by greater than 5dB concurrently with a 30 fold decrease in processing time compared to the fast Fourier transform with cubic spline interpolation method. NFFT can also improve local signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce image artifacts introduced in post-processing. Combined with parallel processing, NFFT is shown to have the ability to process up to 90k A-lines per second. High-speed SD-OCT imaging is demonstrated at camera-limited 100 frames per second on an ex-vivo squid eye. PMID:21258551

  2. Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135

  3. Limited-angle three-dimensional reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero has been calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms has been analyzed in detail. it was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect which tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time

  4. Improving Spectral Results Using Row-by-Row Fourier Transform of Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer Interferogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Patrick D; Strange, K Alicia; Angel, S Michael

    2017-06-01

    This work describes a method of applying the Fourier transform to the two-dimensional Fizeau fringe patterns generated by the spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS), a dispersive interferometer, to correct the effects of certain types of optical alignment errors. In the SHRS, certain types of optical misalignments result in wavelength-dependent and wavelength-independent rotations of the fringe pattern on the detector. We describe here a simple correction technique that can be used in post-processing, by applying the Fourier transform in a row-by-row manner. This allows the user to be more forgiving of fringe alignment and allows for a reduction in the mechanical complexity of the SHRS.

  5. Limited-angle 3-D reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1979-12-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero was calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms was analyzed in detail. It was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect that tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time. 8 figures, 2 tables

  6. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super...

  7. Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, H.; Slavyanov, S.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images [ru

  8. Advances in hyperspectral remote sensing I: The visible Fourier transform hyperspectral imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce Rafert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss early hyperspectral research and development activities during the 1990s that led to the deployment of aircraft and satellite payloads whose heritage was based on the use of visible, spatially modulated, imaging Fourier transform spectrometers, beginning with early experiments at the Florida Institute of Technology, through successful launch and deployment of the Visible Fourier Transform Hyperspectral Imager on MightySat II.1 on 19 July 2000. In addition to a brief chronological overview, we also discuss several of the most interesting optical engineering challenges that were addressed over this timeframe, present some as-yet un-exploited features of field-widened (slit-less SMIFTS instruments, and present some images from ground-based, aircraft-based and satellite-based instruments that helped provide the impetus for the proliferation and development of entire new families of instruments and countless new applications for hyperspectral imaging.

  9. Simulation of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals: finite elements vs. fast Fourier transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prakash, Arun [IWM FREIBURG

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular, stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases - rolling of aluminium and wire drawing of tungsten - are used to evaluate the predictions of the two mode1s. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison to the fast Fourier transform simulations.

  10. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  11. Seismology with a Fourier-transform spectrometer: applications to giant planets and stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, J P

    1996-06-01

    A method to detect the acoustic oscillation spectrum of giant planets and stars exploits the multiplex properties of a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). It is based on measurement of the small Doppler shift related to the oscillation of the atmosphere measured from all the lines in a portion of the planetary or the stellar spectrum directly from the interferogram. The resulting amplitude modulation of the output signal is recorded continuously over several consecutive nights at a fixed path difference selected from criteria of optimum efficiency. Hence the Fourier transform of this signal yields the pressure-mode spectrum of the object. Applications to Jupiter, Saturn, and Procyon, observed in this mode with the step-scan FTS installed in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, are presented. Future projects are discussed.

  12. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  13. Fast data reconstructed method of Fourier transform imaging spectrometer based on multi-core CPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunchao; Du, Debiao; Xia, Zongze; Song, Li; Zheng, Weijian; Yan, Min; Lei, Zhenggang

    2017-10-01

    Imaging spectrometer can gain two-dimensional space image and one-dimensional spectrum at the same time, which shows high utility in color and spectral measurements, the true color image synthesis, military reconnaissance and so on. In order to realize the fast reconstructed processing of the Fourier transform imaging spectrometer data, the paper designed the optimization reconstructed algorithm with OpenMP parallel calculating technology, which was further used for the optimization process for the HyperSpectral Imager of `HJ-1' Chinese satellite. The results show that the method based on multi-core parallel computing technology can control the multi-core CPU hardware resources competently and significantly enhance the calculation of the spectrum reconstruction processing efficiency. If the technology is applied to more cores workstation in parallel computing, it will be possible to complete Fourier transform imaging spectrometer real-time data processing with a single computer.

  14. Detecting of copy-move forgery in digital images using fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renqing; Bai, Zhengyao; Yin, Liguo; Gao, Hao

    2015-07-01

    Copy-move forgery is one of the most simple and commonly used forging methods, where a part of image itself is copied and pasted on another part of the same image. This paper presents a new approach for copy-move forgery detection where fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is used. First, the 1-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the forged image is to reduce its dimension. Next, the low frequency the sub-band is divided into overlapped blocks of equal size. The fractional Fourier transform of each block is calculated and the vector of the coefficients is constructed. All feature vectors are sorted using lexicographical order. Finally, the difference of adjacent feature vectors is evaluated and employed to locate the duplicated regions which have the same feature vectors. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in detection of the copy-move forgery regions.

  15. Tabletop single-shot extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography of an extended object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Erik B; Monserud, Nils C; Brown, Christopher G; Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Xu, Huiwen; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik; Marconi, Mario C

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate single and multi-shot Fourier transform holography with the use of a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser. The reference wave was produced by a Fresnel zone plate with a central opening that allowed the incident beam to illuminate the sample directly. The high reference wave intensity allows for larger objects to be imaged compared to mask-based lensless Fourier transform holography techniques. We obtain a spatial resolution of 169 nm from a single laser pulse and a resolution of 128 nm from an accumulation of 20 laser pulses for an object ~11x11μm(2) in size. This experiment utilized a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser that produces a highly coherent ~1.2 ns laser pulse at 46.9 nm wavelength.

  16. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Qingzheng; Via, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide bet...

  17. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1997-06-01

    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  18. Characterizing and Overcoming Spectral Artifacts in Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy of Turbulent Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imagery (Imagerie hyperspectrale thermique ). Meeting Proceedings of Sensors and Electronics Panel (SET) Specialists Meeting held at the Belgian...Schäfer et al. use a more sophisticated radiative transfer model which takes into account temperature gradients and the effects of emission and self...Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer , 92, 447–455 (2005). Characterizing and Overcoming Spectral Artifacts in Imaging Fourier-Transform

  19. Gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (chapter 2 contains a short description of this method). Three chapters are mainly concerned with mechanistic aspects of gas phase ion/molecule reactions. An equally important aspect of the thesis is the stability and reactivity of α-thio carbanions, dipole stabilized carbanions and homoenolate anions, dealt with in the other four chapters. (Auth.)

  20. The use of the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to determine adulterants in raw milk

    OpenAIRE

    Cassoli,Laerte Dagher; Sartori,Beatriz; Machado,Paulo Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop calibrations to determine the concentration of some milk adulterants by using the automated methodology of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). For construction of calibrations, samples were collected from 100 farms in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Samples were tainted with three different adulterants commonly used in the adulteration of raw milk: sodium bicarbonate (SB), sodium citrate (SC) and cheese whey (W). Each adulterant was used at ...

  1. Identifying common metalloprotease inhibitors by protein fold types using Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer K; Pitcher, Desley; McArdle, Bernadette M; Alnefelt, Terese; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky; Quinn, Ronald J

    2007-12-01

    Fourteen natural products, known to inhibit other proteins of the Zincin-like fold class, were screened for inhibition of the Zincin-like fold metalloprotease thermolysin using mass spectrometry. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry was successful in identifying actinonin, a known inhibitor of astacin and stromelysin, to be an inhibitor of thermolysin. Molecular modelling studies have shown that specificity within the Zincin-like fold is determined by Protein Fold Topology.

  2. Bell’s measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We perform Bell’s measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell’s inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally. PMID:26369424

  3. Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.

  4. Simple spectral method for solving propagation problems in cylindrical geometry with fast Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a spectral method for solving the paraxial wave equation in cylindrical geometry that is based on expansion of the exponential evolution operator in a Taylor series and use of fast Fourier transforms to evaluate derivatives. A fourth-order expansion gives excellent agreement with a two-transverse-dimensional split-operator calculation at a fraction of the cost in computation time per z step and at a considerable savings in storage

  5. Techniques for Handling and Removal of Spectral Channels in Fourier Transform Synchrotron-Based Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Teillet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Channel spectra are a big problem for those attempting to use synchrotron-based Fourier transform spectra for spectral lineshape studies. Due to the layout of the optical system at the CLS far-infrared beamline, the synchrotron beam undergoes unavoidable multiple reflections on the steering mirrors, beam splitter, several sets of windows, and filters. We present a method for eliminating channel spectra and compare the results of our technique with other methods available in the literature.

  6. Pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of the BF3-CO complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Caminati, Walther

    2017-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex between BF3 and CO was studied using a pulse jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, which renewed the electric resonance spectroscopic measurements by Klemperer et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100 (1978) 8074]. The spectral measurements have been considerably extended and the newly assigned rotational spectrum of the isotopologue BF3-C18O allowed for a precise structural analysis confirming the effective collinearity of the atoms B, C and O in the complex.

  7. A Fast Fourier transform stochastic analysis of the contaminant transport problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.W.; Cushman, J.H.; Delleur, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional stochastic analysis of the contaminant transport problem is developed in the spirit of Naff (1990). The new derivation is more general and simpler than previous analysis. The fast Fourier transformation is used extensively to obtain numerical estimates of the mean concentration and various spatial moments. Data from both the Borden and Cape Cod experiments are used to test the methodology. Results are comparable to results obtained by other methods, and to the experiments themselves.

  8. A fluctuation-induced plasma transport diagnostic based upon fast-Fourier transform spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, J. Y.; Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A diagnostic, based on fast Fourier-transform spectral analysis techniques, that provides experimental insight into the relationship between the experimentally observable spectral characteristics of the fluctuations and the fluctuation-induced plasma transport is described. The model upon which the diagnostic technique is based and its experimental implementation is discussed. Some characteristic results obtained during the course of an experimental study of fluctuation-induced transport in the electric field dominated NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma are presented.

  9. Broadband and High-Resolution Static Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Bandpass Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Meriç; Sardari, Behzad

    2018-01-01

    In this study, experimental demonstration of a static Fourier transform spectrometer (static-FTS), based on division of the spectrum into multiple narrowband signals, is presented. The bandpass sampling technique used in this novel spectrometer solves the Nyquist sampling rate limitations and enables recording of wideband spectrum in high resolution. The proposed spectrometer not only has the potential of operating in a wide spectral range, but also has a resolution potential better than 2 cm -1 .

  10. Application of the fractional Fourier transformation to digital holography recorded by an elliptical, astigmatic Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, F; Coëtmellec, S; Brunel, M; Allano, D; Lebrun, D; Janssen, A J E M

    2005-11-01

    The authors have studied the diffraction pattern produced by a particle field illuminated by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam. They demonstrate that the bidimensional fractional Fourier transformation is a mathematically suitable tool to analyse the diffraction pattern generated not only by a collimated plane wave [J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 1537 (2002)], but also by an elliptic and astigmatic Gaussian beam when two different fractional orders are considered. Simulations and experimental results are presented.

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Hovde, Per Jostein

    2012-01-01

    Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for exa...

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool in Analysis of Proteus mirabilis Endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żarnowiec, Paulina; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to scan whole bacterial cells as well as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, endotoxins) isolated from them. Proteus mirabilis cells, with chemically defined LPSs, served as a model for the ATR FT-IR method. The paper focuses on three steps of infrared spectroscopy: (1) sample preparation, (2) IR scanning, and (3) multivariate analysis of IR data (principal component analysis, PCA).

  13. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of dental unit water line biofilm bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Liaqat, Iram

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has become an important tool for rapid analysis of complex biological samples. The infrared absorbance spectrum could be regarded as a “fingerprint” which is a feature of biochemical substances. The FT-IR spectra of fresh and stored dried samples of six bacterial isolates (Klebsiella sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Achromobacter sp.) were observed by variation in sample preparation....

  14. Single-channel color image encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo

    2013-06-01

    A single-channel color image encryption is proposed based on iterative fractional Fourier transform and two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, a gray scale image is constituted with three channels of the color image, and permuted by a sequence of chaotic pairs which is generated by two-coupled logistic map. Firstly, the permutation image is decomposed into three components again. Secondly, the first two components are encrypted into a single one based on iterative fractional Fourier transform. Similarly, the interim image and third component are encrypted into the final gray scale ciphertext with stationary white noise distribution, which has camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and description, chaotic permutation makes the resulting image nonlinear and disorder both in spatial domain and frequency domain, and the proposed iterative fractional Fourier transform algorithm has faster convergent speed. Additionally, the encryption scheme enlarges the key space of the cryptosystem. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  15. Nonuniform fast Fourier transform method for numerical diffraction simulation on tilted planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Tang, Xiahui; Qin, Yingxiong; Peng, Hao; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Lijing

    2016-10-01

    The method, based on the rotation of the angular spectrum in the frequency domain, is generally used for the diffraction simulation between the tilted planes. Due to the rotation of the angular spectrum, the interval between the sampling points in the Fourier domain is not even. For the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based methods, a spectrum interpolation is needed to get the approximate sampling value on the equidistant sampling points. However, due to the numerical error caused by the spectrum interpolation, the calculation accuracy degrades very quickly as the rotation angle increases. Here, the diffraction propagation between the tilted planes is transformed into a problem about the discrete Fourier transform on the uneven sampling points, which can be evaluated effectively and precisely through the nonuniform fast Fourier transform method (NUFFT). The most important advantage of this method is that the conventional spectrum interpolation is avoided and the high calculation accuracy can be guaranteed for different rotation angles, even when the rotation angle is close to π/2. Also, its calculation efficiency is comparable with that of the conventional FFT-based methods. Numerical examples as well as a discussion about the calculation accuracy and the sampling method are presented.

  16. Time dependent and asymptotic neutron number probability distribution calculation using discrete Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the probability distribution of neutrons in a multiplying assembly. The problem is studied using a space independent one group neutron point reactor model without delayed neutrons. We recall the generating function methodology and analytical results obtained by G.I. Bell when the c 2 approximation is used and we present numerical solutions in the general case, without this approximation. The neutron source induced distribution is calculated using the single initial neutron distribution which satisfies a master (Kolmogorov backward) equation. This equation is solved using the generating function method. The generating function satisfies a differential equation and the probability distribution is derived by inversion of the generating function. Numerical results are obtained using the same methodology where the generating function is the Fourier transform of the probability distribution. Discrete Fourier transforms are used to calculate the discrete time dependent distributions and continuous Fourier transforms are used to calculate the asymptotic continuous probability distributions. Numerical applications are presented to illustrate the method. (author)

  17. Application of the fractional Fourier transform to image reconstruction in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Vicente; Sing-Long, Carlos; Lizama, Carlos; Tejos, Cristian; Uribe, Sergio; Irarrazaval, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    The classic paradigm for MRI requires a homogeneous B(0) field in combination with linear encoding gradients. Distortions are produced when the B(0) is not homogeneous, and several postprocessing techniques have been developed to correct them. Field homogeneity is difficult to achieve, particularly for short-bore magnets and higher B(0) fields. Nonlinear magnetic components can also arise from concomitant fields, particularly in low-field imaging, or intentionally used for nonlinear encoding. In any of these situations, the second-order component is key, because it constitutes the first step to approximate higher-order fields. We propose to use the fractional Fourier transform for analyzing and reconstructing the object's magnetization under the presence of quadratic fields. The fractional fourier transform provides a precise theoretical framework for this. We show how it can be used for reconstruction and for gaining a better understanding of the quadratic field-induced distortions, including examples of reconstruction for simulated and in vivo data. The obtained images have improved quality compared with standard Fourier reconstructions. The fractional fourier transform opens a new paradigm for understanding the MR signal generated by an object under a quadratic main field or nonlinear encoding. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ISAR Image Formation Based on Minimum Entropy Criterion and Fractional Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghsh, Mohammad Mahdi; Modarres-Hashemi, Mahmood

    Conventional radar imaging systems use Fourier transform for image formation, but due to the target's complicated motion the Doppler spectrum is time-varying and thus the reconstructed image becomes blurred even after applying standard motion compensation algorithms. Therefore, sophisticated algorithms such as polar reformatting are usually employed to produce clear images. Alternatively, Joint Time-Frequency (JTF) analysis can be used for image formation which produces clear image without using polar reformatting algorithm. In this paper, a new JTF-based method is proposed for image formation in inverse synthetic aperture radars (ISAR). This method uses minimum entropy criterion for optimum parameter adjustment of JTF algorithms. Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT) are applied as JTF for time-varying Doppler spectrum analysis. Both the width of Gaussian window of STFT and the order of FrFT, α, are adjusted using minimum entropy as local and total measures. Furthermore, a new statistical parameter, called normalized correlation, is defined for comparison of images reconstructed by different methods. Simulation results show that α-order FrFT with local adjustment has much better performance than the other methods in this category even in low SNR.

  19. [A novel spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu-Sheng; Liao, Ning-Fang; Lü, Hang; Wu, Wen-Min; Dong, Zhi-Gang

    2014-11-01

    In the premise of fulfilling the application requirement, the adjustment of spectral resolution can improve efficiency of data acquisition, data processing and data saving. So, by adjusting the spectral resolution, the performance of spectrometer can be improved, and its application range can be extended. To avoid the problems of the fixed spectral resolution of classical Fourier transform spectrometer, a novel type of spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution is proposed in this paper. The principle of the novel spectrometer and its interferometer is described. The general expressions of the optical path difference and the lateral shear are induced by a ray tracing procedure. The equivalent model of the novel interferometer is analyzed. Meanwhile, the principle of the adjustment of spectral resolution is analyzed. The result shows that the novel spectrometer has the merits of adjustable spectral resolution, high stability, easy assemblage and adjustment etc. This theoretical study will provide the theoretical basis for the design of the spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution and expand the application range of Fourier transform spectrometer.

  20. Delineation of First-Order Elastic Property Closures for Hexagonal Metals Using Fast Fourier Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Landry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Property closures are envelopes representing the complete set of theoretically feasible macroscopic property combinations for a given material system. In this paper, we present a computational procedure based on fast Fourier transforms (FFTs to delineation of elastic property closures for hexagonal close packed (HCP metals. The procedure consists of building a database of non-zero Fourier transforms for each component of the elastic stiffness tensor, calculating the Fourier transforms of orientation distribution functions (ODFs, and calculating the ODF-to-elastic property bounds in the Fourier space. In earlier studies, HCP closures were computed using the generalized spherical harmonics (GSH representation and an assumption of orthotropic sample symmetry; here, the FFT approach allowed us to successfully calculate the closures for a range of HCP metals without invoking any sample symmetry assumption. The methodology presented here facilitates for the first time computation of property closures involving normal-shear coupling stiffness coefficients. We found that the representation of these property linkages using FFTs need more terms compared to GSH representations. However, the use of FFT representations reduces the computational time involved in producing the property closures due to the use of fast FFT algorithms. Moreover, FFT algorithms are readily available as opposed to GSH codes.

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction from radiographs and electron micrographs: application of convolutions instead of Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, G N; Lakshminarayanan, A V

    1971-09-01

    A new technique is proposed for the mathematical process of reconstruction of a three-dimensional object from its transmission shadowgraphs; it uses convolutions with functions defined in the real space of the object, without using Fourier transforms. The object is rotated about an axis at right angles to the direction of a parallel beam of radiation, and sections of it normal to the axis are reconstructed from data obtained by scanning the corresponding linear strips in the shadowgraphs at different angular settings. Since the formulae in the convolution method involve only summations over one variable at a time, while a two-dimensional reconstruction with the Fourier transform technique requires double summations, the convolution method is much faster (typically by a factor of 30); the relative increase in speed is larger where greater resolution is required. Tests of the convolution method with computer-simulated shadowgraphs show that it is also more accurate than the Fourier transform method. It has good potentialities for application in electron microscopy and x-radiography. A new method of reconstructing helical structures by this technique is also suggested.

  2. Transition dipole-moment of the ν1 +ν3 band of acetylene measured with dual-comb Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Sho; Iwakuni, Kana; Yamada, Koichi M. T.; Inaba, Hajime; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    The ν1 +ν3 vibration band of acetylene (C2H2) in the near infrared region was recorded with a dual-comb Fourier-transform spectrometer. We observed 56 transitions from P (26) to R (29) at six different column densities. The integral line intensity was determined for each recorded absorption line by fitting the line profile to Lambert-Beer's law with a Voigt function. Thanks to the outstanding capability of dual-comb spectroscopy to cover a broad spectrum in a relatively short time with high resolution and high frequency precision, we determined the reliable line strength for each ro-vibrational transition as well as the transition dipole moment for this band.

  3. Time, Temperature, and Cationic Dependence of Alkali Activation of Slag: Insights from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Spectral Deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhane, Akash; Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu; Marzke, Robert; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2017-08-01

    The use of waste/by-product materials, such as slag or fly ash, activated using alkaline agents to create binding materials for construction applications (in lieu of portland cement) is on the rise. The influence of activation parameters (SiO 2 to Na 2 O ratio or M s of the activator, Na 2 O to slag ratio or n, cation type K + or Na + ) on the process and extent of alkali activation of slag under ambient and elevated temperature curing, evaluated through spectroscopic techniques, is reported in this paper. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with a Fourier self-deconvolution method is used. The major spectral band of interest lies in the wavenumber range of ∼950 cm -1 , corresponding to the antisymmetric stretching vibration of Si-O-T (T = Si or Al) bonds. The variation in the spectra with time from 6 h to 28 days is attributed to the incorporation of Al in the gel structure and the enhancement in degree of polymerization of the gel. 29 Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to quantify the Al incorporation with time, which is found to be higher when Na silicate is used as the activator. The Si-O-T bond wavenumbers are also generally lower for the Na silicate activated systems.

  4. Elucidation of the thermal deterioration mechanism of bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Xu, Yu; Lu, Rui; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-09-14

    In this study, the rationale for exploring the thermal deterioration mechanism of the bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk is established. This is based on identification of the unstable intermediates in the thermal deterioration process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor such a thermal deterioration process of bio-oil samples in thermal treatment and/or during long-term storage at ambient temperatures of 20-30 °C. Terminal olefins, as a key intermediate, so-called "signature", were identified qualitatively by using FTIR spectroscopy. A band shift observed at 880 cm(-1), which was assigned to the C-H out-of-plane deformation vibration of terminal olefins, indicates the start-up of the bio-oil thermal deterioration. A two-step pathway was proposed to describe the thermal deterioration process of bio-oil. This study suggests that the status of bio-oil could be rapidly monitored by the FTIR method.

  5. Estimating and correcting mie scattering in synchrotron-based microscopic fourier transform infrared spectra by extended multiplicative signal correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, A; Sulé-Suso, J; Sockalingum, G D; Tobin, M; Bahrami, F; Yang, Y; Pijanka, J; Dumas, P; Cotte, M; van Pittius, D G; Parkes, G; Martens, H

    2008-03-01

    We present an approach for estimating and correcting Mie scattering occurring in infrared spectra of single cells, at diffraction limited probe size, as in synchrotron based microscopy. The Mie scattering is modeled by extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) and subtracted from the vibrational absorption. Because the Mie scattering depends non-linearly on alpha, the product of the radius and the refractive index of the medium/sphere causing it, a new method was developed for estimating the Mie scattering by EMSC for unknown radius and refractive index of the Mie scatterer. The theoretically expected Mie contributions for a range of different alpha values were computed according to the formulae developed by Van de Hulst (1957). The many simulated spectra were then summarized by a six-dimensional subspace model by principal component analysis (PCA). This subspace model was used in EMSC to estimate and correct for Mie scattering, as well as other additive and multiplicative interference effects. The approach was applied to a set of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra measured for individual lung cancer cells in order to remove unwanted interferences and to estimate ranges of important alpha values for each spectrum. The results indicate that several cell components may contribute to the Mie scattering.

  6. Analysis of Complex Carbohydrate Composition in Plant Cell Wall Using Fourier Transformed Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool for compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Acebes et al., Front Plant Sci 5:303, 2014; Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The infrared spectrum generates a fingerprint of a sample with absorption peaks corresponding to the frequency of vibrations between the bonds of the atoms making up the material. Here, we describe a method focused on the use of FTIR in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the composition of the plant cell wall. This method has been successfully used to study complex enzyme saccharification processes like rumen digestion to identify recalcitrant moieties in low-quality forage which resist rumen digestion (Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015), as well as to characterize cell wall mutant lines or transgenic lines expressing exogenous hydrolases (Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The FTIR method described here facilitates high-throughput identification of the major compositional differences across a large set of samples in a low cost and nondestructive manner.

  7. Numerous applications of fiber optic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy for subsurface structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Welser, Leslie; Bruch, Reinhard F.; Kano, Angelique; Makhine, Volodymyr

    1999-10-01

    A new infrared (IR) interferometric method has been developed in conjunction with low-loss, flexible optical fibers, sensors, and probes. This combination of fiber optical sensors and Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometers can be applied to many fields, including (1) noninvasive medical diagnostics of cancer and other different diseases in vivo, (2) minimally invasive bulk diagnostics of tissue, (3) remote monitoring of tissue, chemical processes, and environment, (4) surface analysis of polymers and other materials, (5) characterization of the quality of food, pharmacological products, cosmetics, paper, and other wood-related products, as well as (6) agricultural, forensic, geological, mining, and archeological field measurements. In particular, our nondestructive, fast, compact, portable, remote and highly sensitive diagnostics tools are very promising for subsurface analysis at the molecular level without sample preparation. For example, this technique is ideal for different types of soft porous foams, rough polymers, and rock surfaces. Such surfaces, as well as living tissue, are very difficult to investigate by traditional FTIR methods. We present here FEW-FTIR spectra of polymers, banana and grapefruit peels, and living tissues detected directly at surfaces. In addition, results on the vibrational spectral analysis of normal and pathological skin tissue in the region of 850 - 4000 cm-1 are discussed.

  8. Micro Fourier Transform Profilometry (μFTP): 3D shape measurement at 10,000 frames per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Tao, Tianyang; Feng, Shijie; Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand; Chen, Qian

    2018-03-01

    Fringe projection profilometry is a well-established technique for optical 3D shape measurement. However, in many applications, it is desirable to make 3D measurements at very high speed, especially with fast moving or shape changing objects. In this work, we demonstrate a new 3D dynamic imaging technique, Micro Fourier Transform Profilometry (μFTP), which can realize an acquisition rate up to 10,000 3D frame per second (fps). The high measurement speed is achieved by the number of patterns reduction as well as high-speed fringe projection hardware. In order to capture 3D information in such a short period of time, we focus on the improvement of the phase recovery, phase unwrapping, and error compensation algorithms, allowing to reconstruct an accurate, unambiguous, and distortion-free 3D point cloud with every two projected patterns. We also develop a high-frame-rate fringe projection hardware by pairing a high-speed camera and a DLP projector, enabling binary pattern switching and precisely synchronized image capture at a frame rate up to 20,000 fps. Based on this system, we demonstrate high-quality textured 3D imaging of 4 transient scenes: vibrating cantilevers, rotating fan blades, flying bullet, and bursting balloon, which were previously difficult or even unable to be captured with conventional approaches.

  9. [Differentiation of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, You-Ming; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Xiang-Ping; Zhou, Ji-Guo; Liu, Jian-Hong; Song, Ding-Shan

    2009-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the ability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the differentiation of macro-fungi at variety level, FTIR spectroscopy was used to obtain vibrational spectra of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang. The results show that their spectra are very similar to each other, with a small difference in the relative intensity of absorbance. For the purpose of enhancing the spectral resolution and amplifying the differences, the first-derivative spectra and second-derivative spectra were selected for evaluating the correlation coefficients respectively. The results show that the second-derivative spectra of two fruit bodies of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and one fruit body of Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang have obvious differences, the correlation coefficients are only 0.245 and 0.356 respectively, the second-derivative spectra of two fruit bodies of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. &Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha are very similar, and the correlation coefficient is 0.865. The authors' results show that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with correlation analysis method can be used to identify Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang rapidly and accurately.

  10. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  11. VUV Fourier-Transform absorption study of the np pi (1)Pi(-)(u) nu,N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glass-Maujean, M.; Jungen, C.; Dickenson, G.D.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The DESIRS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility, equipped with a vacuum ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer has been used to measure Q(N″)(N-N″=0) absorption transitions of the D

  12. Generation and tunable enhancement of a sum-frequency signal in lithium niobate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Anton; Reig Escalé, Marc; Grange, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures down to the nanoscale opens up novel applications of this versatile material in nonlinear optics. Current nonlinear optical studies in sub-micron waveguides are mainly restricted to the generation of second and third harmonics. In this work, we demonstrate the generation and waveguiding of the sum-frequency generation (SFG) signal in a single LiNbO3 nanowire with a cross-section of 517 nm  ×  654 nm. Furthermore, we enhance the guided SFG signal 17.9 times by means of modal phase matching. We also display tuning of the phase-matched wavelength by varying the nanowire cross-section and changing the polarization of the incident laser. The results prove that LiNbO3 nanowires can be successfully used for nonlinear wave-mixing applications and assisting the miniaturization of optical devices. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J Phys D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Rachel Grange was selected by the Editorial Board of J Phys D as an Emerging Leader.

  13. Large enhancement of fully resonant sum-frequency generation through quantum control via continuum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A. K.; Kimberg, V. V.; George, Thomas F.

    2004-04-01

    A theory of quantum control of short-wavelength sum-frequency generation, which employs the continuum states, is developed. The proposed scheme employs all-resonant coupling and trade-off optimization of the accompanying constructive and destructive quantum interference effects in the lower-order and higher-order polarizations controlled by the overlap of two autoionizinglike laser-induced continuum structures. The scheme does not rely on adiabatic passage, coherent population trapping or maximum atomic coherence as a means to facilitate maximum output. The opportunities for manipulating transparency of the medium and refractive index for the fundamental and generated radiations, as well as nonlinear polarization in the multiple-resonant medium, are shown. This opens the feasibility of creating frequency-tunable narrowband filters, polarization rotators, and dispersive elements for vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The features specific for quantum interference in Doppler-broadened media are investigated. The feasibility of almost complete conversion of long-wavelength fundamental radiation into generated short-wavelength radiation, and of a dramatic decrease in the intensity of required fundamental radiations, is shown.

  14. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  15. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-01-01

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength λ=8.5 μm suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length Nλ. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users' experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 μm have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up

  16. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  17. Generating a Square Switching Window for Timing Jitter Tolerant 160 Gb/s Demultiplexing by the Optical Fourier Transform Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, A. T:

    2006-01-01

    A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps.......A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps....

  18. Identification of early biomarkers during acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Gautam

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is a widely prescribed drug used to relieve pain and fever; however, it is a leading cause of drug-induced liver injury and a burden on public healthcare. In this study, hepatotoxicity in mice post oral dosing of acetaminophen was investigated using liver and sera samples with Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy. The infrared spectra of acetaminophen treated livers in BALB/c mice show decrease in glycogen, increase in amounts of cholesteryl esters and DNA respectively. Rescue experiments using L-methionine demonstrate that depletion in glycogen and increase in DNA are abrogated with pre-treatment, but not post-treatment, with L-methionine. This indicates that changes in glycogen and DNA are more sensitive to the rapid depletion of glutathione. Importantly, analysis of sera identified lowering of glycogen and increase in DNA and chlolesteryl esters earlier than increase in alanine aminotransferase, which is routinely used to diagnose liver damage. In addition, these changes are also observed in C57BL/6 and Nos2(-/- mice. There is no difference in the kinetics of expression of these three molecules in both strains of mice, the extent of damage is similar and corroborated with ALT and histological analysis. Quantification of cytokines in sera showed increase upon APAP treatment. Although the levels of Tnfα and Ifnγ in sera are not significantly affected, Nos2(-/- mice display lower Il6 but higher Il10 levels during this acute model of hepatotoxicity. Overall, this study reinforces the growing potential of Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy as a fast, highly sensitive and label-free technique for non-invasive diagnosis of liver damage. The combination of Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy and cytokine analysis is a powerful tool to identify multiple biomarkers, understand differential host responses and evaluate therapeutic regimens during liver damage and, possibly, other diseases.

  19. Beyond MOS and fibers: Optical Fourier-transform Imaging Unit for Cananea Observatory (OFIUCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Suárez, M. A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Castillo, E.; García, P.; Escobedo, G.; Sánchez, S. F.; González, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Mollá, M.; Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; et al.

    2017-11-01

    Many physical processes in astronomy are still hampered by the lack of spatial and spectral resolution, and also restricted to the field-of-view (FoV) of current 2D spectroscopy instruments available worldwide. It is due to that, many of the ongoing or proposed studies are based on large-scale imaging and/or spectroscopic surveys. Under this philosophy, large aperture telescopes are dedicated to the study of intrinsically faint and/or distance objects, covering small FoVs, with high spatial resolution, while smaller telescopes are devoted to wide-field explorations. However, future astronomical surveys, should be addressed by acquiring un-biases, spatially resolved, high-quality spectroscopic information for a wide FoV. Therefore, and in order to improve the current instrumental offer in the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) in Cananea, Mexico (INAOE); and to explore a possible instrument for the future Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (6.5m), we are currently integrating at INAOE an instrument prototype that will provide us with un-biased wide-field (few arcmin) spectroscopic information, and with the flexibility of operating at different spectral resolutions (R 1-20000), with a spatial resolution limited by seeing, and therefore, to be used in a wide range of astronomical problems. This instrument called OFIUCO: Optical Fourier-transform Imaging Unit for Cananea Observatory, will make use of the Fourier Transform Spectroscopic technique, which has been proved to be feasible in the optical wavelength range (350-1000 nm) with designs such as SITELLE (CFHT). We describe here the basic technical description of a Fourier transform spectrograph with important modifications from previous astronomical versions, as well as the technical advantages and weakness, and the science cases in which this instrument can be implemented.

  20. Applications of asynoptic space - Time Fourier transform methods to scanning satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lait, Leslie R.; Stanford, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A method proposed by Salby (1982) for computing the zonal space-time Fourier transform of asynoptically acquired satellite data is discussed. The method and its relationship to other techniques are briefly described, and possible problems in applying it to real data are outlined. Examples of results obtained using this technique are given which demonstrate its sensitivity to small-amplitude signals. A number of waves are found which have previously been observed as well as two not heretofore reported. A possible extension of the method which could increase temporal and longitudinal resolution is described.

  1. Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J

    2001-01-01

    The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.

  2. Analysis of the Interference Modulation Depth in the Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principle of the Michelson interferometer, the paper briefly describes the theoretical significance and calculates and deduces three expressions of the interference modulation depth. The influence of the surface shape error of plane mirror on modulation depth is analyzed, and the tolerance of error is also pointed out. Moreover, the dependence of modulation depth on the reflectance change of beam splitter interface is also analyzed, and the curve is given. It is concluded that this paper is of general significance for the Fourier transform spectrometer based on the principle of the Michelson two-beam interference.

  3. A Fourier transform spectrometer for visible and near ultra-violet measurements of atmospheric absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.; Gerlach, J. C.; Whitehurst, M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a prototype, ground-based, Sun-pointed Michelson interferometric spectrometer is described. Its intended use is to measure the atmospheric amount of various gases which absorb in the near-infrared, visible, and near-ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Preliminary spectra which contain the alpha, 0.8 micrometer, and rho sigma tau water vapor absorption bands in the near-infrared are presented to indicate the present capability of the system. Ultimately, the spectrometer can be used to explore the feasible applications of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet where grating spectrometers were used exclusively.

  4. Three dimensional implementation of anisotropy corrected fast fourier transform dose calculation around brachytherapy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyeremeh, P.O.

    2011-01-01

    Current-available brachytherapy dose computation algorithms ignore heterogeneities such as tissue-air interfaces, shielded gynaecological colpostats, and tissue-composition variations in source implants despite dose computation errors as large as 40%. A convolution kernel, which takes into consideration anisotropy of the dose distribution around a brachytherapy source, and to compute dose in the presence of tissue and applicator heterogeneities, has been established. Resulting from the convolution kernel are functions with polynomial and exponential terms. the solution to the convolution integral was represented by the Fast Fourier transform. The Fast Fourier transform has shown enough potency in accounting for errors due to these heterogeneities and the versatility of this Fast Fourier transform is evident from its capability of switching in between fields. Thus successful procedures in external beam could be adopted in brachytherapy to a yield similar effect. A dose deposition kernel was developed for a 64x64x64 matrix size with wrap around ordering and convoluted with the distribution of the sources in 3D. With MatLab's inverse Fast Fourier transform, dose rate distribution for a given array of interstitial sources, typical of brachytherapy was calculated. The shape of the dose rate distribution peaks appeared comparable with the output expected from computerized treatment planning systems for brachytherapy. Subsequently, the study confirmed the speed and accuracy of dose computation using the FFT convolution as well juxtaposed. Although, dose rate peaks from both the FFT convolution and the TPS(TG43) did not compare quantitatively, which was mainly due to the TPS(TG43) initiation computations from the origin (0,0,0) unlike the FFT convolution which uses sampling points; N=1,2,3..., there is a strong basis for establishing parity since the dose rate peaks compared qualitatively. With both modes compared, the discrepancies in the dose rates ranged between 3.6% to

  5. A symplectic Poisson solver based on Fast Fourier Transformation. The first trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, L.G. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki; Hirata, Kohji

    1995-11-01

    A symplectic Poisson solver calculates numerically a potential and fields due to a 2D distribution of particles in a way that the symplecticity and smoothness are assured automatically. Such a code, based on Fast Fourier Transformation combined with Bicubic Interpolation, is developed for the use in multi-turn particle simulation in circular accelerators. Beside that, it may have a number of applications, where computations of space charge forces should obey a symplecticity criterion. Detailed computational schemes of all algorithms will be outlined to facilitate practical programming. (author).

  6. First measurements using the ALS Soft X-ray Fourier Transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.; Spring, J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Commissioning of a Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) is under way at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution spectroscopy in the photon experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  7. A symplectic Poisson solver based on Fast Fourier Transformation. The first trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobiev, L.G.; Hirata, Kohji.

    1995-11-01

    A symplectic Poisson solver calculates numerically a potential and fields due to a 2D distribution of particles in a way that the symplecticity and smoothness are assured automatically. Such a code, based on Fast Fourier Transformation combined with Bicubic Interpolation, is developed for the use in multi-turn particle simulation in circular accelerators. Beside that, it may have a number of applications, where computations of space charge forces should obey a symplecticity criterion. Detailed computational schemes of all algorithms will be outlined to facilitate practical programming. (author)

  8. A transformada de Fourier em basic The Fourier transform (FFT in basic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gomes Constantino

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe three computer programs in Basic language about the Fourier transform (FFT which are available in the Internet site http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/SoftwareE.htm (in English or http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/softwareP.htm (in Portuguese since October 1998. Those are addresses to the Web Page of our Laboratory of Organic Synthesis. The programs can be downloaded and used by anyone who is interested on the subject. The texts, menus and captions in the programs are written in English.

  9. Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy of a halogen substituted Criegee intermediate ClCHOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Carlos; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Endo, Yasuki

    2016-11-01

    Pure rotational spectra of the chloro-substituted Criegee intermediate (ClCHOO) were observed by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Two conformers (syn and anti) of the isolated molecule were identified from the rotational spectra of the parent and 37Cl and 13C isotopologues detected in natural abundance. Rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and all components of the nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor were determined for both conformers. Structural features of the molecule have been rationalized with supporting ab initio calculations and the natural bond orbital analysis, which suggest that the conformational preferences are driven by hyperconjugative effects.

  10. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P.

    1998-01-01

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  11. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  12. The application of Fast Fourier transforms to the primitive equations of Boussinesq convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    We have described a numerical scheme which is second-order in both space and time. The use of Fast Fourier Transform techniques for the solution of pressure equation guarantees accurate incompressibility at all time and enabled us to consider using iteration for part of this scheme. The iterations converge satisfactorily for values of the timestep of the order of one-half to one-quarter of the space step. Numerical calculations are being undertaken to clarify the range of Reynolds numbers and timestep over which the iteration converges. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of the Advantages and Limitations of Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecken, Brian P.; Kleinman, Randall R.

    2004-01-01

    New developments in infrared sensor technology have potentially made possible a new space-based system which can measure far-infrared radiation at lower costs (mass, power and expense). The Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SIFTS) proposed by NASA Langley Research Center, makes use of new detector array technology. A mathematical model which simulates resolution and spectral range relationships has been developed for analyzing the utility of such a radically new approach to spectroscopy. Calculations with this forward model emulate the effects of a detector array on the ability to retrieve accurate spectral features. Initial computations indicate significant attenuation at high wavenumbers.

  14. Differentiation of neotropical fish species with statistical analysis of fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Francylaine S; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Súarez, Yzel R

    2012-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was applied to nineteen fish species in Brazil's Upper Paraná River basin to identify differences in the structural composition of their scales. To differentiate the species, a canonical discriminant analysis was used to indicate the most important absorption peaks in the mid-infrared region. Significant differences were found in the chemical composition of scales among the studied fish species, with Wilk's lambda = 5.2 × 10(-6), F((13,18,394)) = 37.57, and P absorbance is related to the biological traits of each species. This procedure can also be used to complement evolutionary studies.

  15. Mastering the discrete Fourier transform in one, two or several dimensions pitfalls and artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Amidror, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is an extremely useful tool that finds application in many different disciplines. However, its use requires caution. The aim of this book is to explain the DFT and its various artifacts and pitfalls and to show how to avoid these (whenever possible), or at least how to recognize them in order to avoid misinterpretations. This concentrated treatment of the DFT artifacts and pitfalls in a single volume is, indeed, new, and it makes this book a valuable source of information for the widest possible range of DFT users. Special attention is given to the one and

  16. Response of multiferroic composites inferred from a fast-Fourier-transform-based numerical scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Renald; Bravo-Castillero, Julián

    2010-01-01

    The effective response and the local fields within periodic magneto-electric multiferroic composites are investigated by means of a numerical scheme based on fast Fourier transforms. This computational framework relies on the iterative resolution of coupled series expansions for the magnetic, electric and strain fields. By using an augmented Lagrangian formulation, a simple and robust procedure which makes use of the uncoupled Green operators for the elastic, electrostatics and magnetostatics problems is proposed. Its accuracy is assessed in the cases of laminated and fibrous two-phase composites for which analytical solutions exist

  17. Determination of precise X-ray diffraction angles by fast Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, S.; Kojima, T.

    1987-01-01

    A new analytical method is presented for the separation of two or more closely overlapping X-ray diffraction lines using the narrowly distributed Gaussian function and one-dimensional fast Fourier transform pair. To test the method, the diffraction lines associated with characteristic Kα 1 and Kα 2 rays are measured by an X-ray diffractometer using a Brazilian quartz powder as a standard sample. It is found that the observed diffraction lines can be completely separated into Kα 1 and Kα 2 lines and that the accuracy of those diffraction angles is better than 2x10 -4 . (orig.)

  18. A compact, high numerical aperture imaging Fourier transform spectrometer and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, R. D.; Coupland, J. M.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes a compact imaging Fourier transform spectrometer with high numerical aperture. In comparison with other optical arrangements in which extended interferometer paths are required for the inclusion of dispersion compensation optics, this technique utilizes a rudimentary cubic beam splitter based Michelson interferometer with minimal optical path so that the numerical aperture of the system is maximized. Mathematical modelling is presented showing that the fringe distortions caused by the dispersion in the cubic beam splitter can be entirely removed without any loss of the spectral information. An illustration of the power of the technique is given classifying between different plant foliage performed using a Fisher discriminant function based optimal linear filtering.

  19. Studies of gas phase ion/molecule reactions by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingeld, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    An important field in which Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance has useful applications is that of gas phase ion chemistry, the subject of this thesis. First, the general picture of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase is discussed. Next, some positive ion-molecule reactions are described, whereas the remaining chapters deal with negative ion-molecule reactions. Most of these studies have been performed using the FT-ICR method. Reactions involving H 3 O - and NH 4 - ions are described whereas the other chapters deal with larger organic complexes. (Auth.)

  20. Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy to Study Cadmium-Induced Changes in Padina Tetrastromatica (Hauck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette D’Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adopt the approach of metabolic fingerprinting through the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR technique to understand changes in the chemical structure in Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck. The marine brown alga under study was grown in two different environmental conditions; in natural seawater (P. tetrastromatica (c and in seawater suplemented with 50 ppm of cadmium (P. tetrastromatica (t for a three-week period in the laboratory. The second derivative, IR specrum in the mid-infrared region (4000–400 cm−1 was used for discriminating and identifying various functional groups present in P. tetrastromatica (c. On exposure to Cd, P. tetrastromatica (t accumulated 412 ppm of Cd and showed perturbation in the band structure in the mid-IR absorption region. Variation in spectral features of the IR bands of P. tetrastromatica (untreated and treated suggests that cadmium ions bind to hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl and phosphoryl functionalities. This was attributable to the presence of the following specific bands. A band at 3666 cm−1 in untreated P. tetrastromatica (c while a band at 3560 cm−1 in Cd-treated P. tetrastromatica (t due to non bonded and bonded O-H respectively. Similarly, non bonded N-H for P. tetrastromatica (c showed two bands at 3500 cm−1 and 3450 cm−1 due to the N-H stretching vibrations and a band at 1577cm−1 due to N-H bending vibrations, while an intense band at 3350 cm−1 due to bonded N-H stretching vibrations and at 1571 cm−1 due to bending vibrations was observed for Cd-treated P. tetrastromatica (t. Involvement of ester carbonyl group is characterized by the presence of a band at 1764 cm−1 in untreated P. tetrastromatica (c while the Cd-treated P. tetrastromatica (t showed the band at 1760 cm−1. The intensity of the band at 1710 cm−1 in the control samples decreased drastically after cadmium treatment indicating carbonyl of COOH to be involved in metal chelation. A band at 1224

  1. Efficient generation of continuous-wave yellow-orange light using sum-frequency in periodically poled KTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW 1064 and 1342 nm laser lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers using periodically poled KTP. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range....

  2. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  3. Estimation of Interchannel Time Difference in Frequency Subbands Based on Nonuniform Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.

  4. Fourier transform hyperspectral visible imaging and the nondestructive analysis of potentially fraudulent documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, Eric B; Dyer, R Brian

    2006-08-01

    The work presented in this paper details the design and performance characteristics of a new hyperspectral visible imaging technique. Rather than using optical filters or a dispersing element, this design implements Fourier transform spectroscopy to achieve spectral discrimination. One potentially powerful application of this new technology is the non-destructive analysis and authentication of written and printed documents. Document samples were prepared using red, blue, and black inks. The samples were later altered using a different ink of the same color. While the alterations are undetectable to the naked eye, the alterations involving the blue and black inks were easily detected when the spectrally resolved images were viewed. Analysis of the sample using the red inks was unsuccessful. A 2004 series 20 US dollars bill was imaged to demonstrate the application to document authentication. The results argue that counterfeit detection and quality control during printing are plausible applications of Fourier transform hyperspectral visible imaging. All of the images were subjected to fuzzy c-means cluster analysis in an effort to objectively analyze and automate image analysis. Our results show that cluster analysis can distinguish image features that have remarkably similar visible transmission spectra.

  5. Coulomb Fourier transformation: A novel approach to three-body scattering with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Levin, S.B.; Yakovlev, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    A unitary transformation of the three-body Hamiltonian which describes a system of two charged and one neutral particles is constructed such that the Coulomb potential which acts between the charged particles is explicitly eliminated. The transformed Hamiltonian and, in particular, the transformed short-range pair interactions are worked out in detail. Thereby it is found that, after transformation, the short-range potentials acting between the neutral and either one of the charged particles become simply Fourier transformed but, in addition, multiplied by a function that represents the Coulombic three-body correlations originating from the action of the other charged particle on the considered pair. This function which is universal as it does not depend on any property of the short-range interaction is evaluated explicitly and its singularity structure is described in detail. In contrast, the short-range potential between the charged particles remains of two-body type but occurs now in the 'Coulomb representation'. Specific applications to Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are given. Since the Coulomb-Fourier-transformed Hamiltonian does no longer contain the Coulomb potential or any other effective interaction of long range, standard methods of short-range few-body scattering theory are applicable

  6. High-speed fan-beam reconstruction using direct two-dimensional Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Noboru; Mizutani, Toshio; Takahashi, Yoshizo; Inouye, Tamon.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first development of X-ray computer tomography (CT), various efforts have been made to obtain high quality of high-speed image. However, the development of high resolution CT and the ultra-high speed CT to be applied to hearts is still desired. The X-ray beam scanning method was already changed from the parallel beam system to the fan-beam system in order to greatly shorten the scanning time. Also, the filtered back projection (DFBP) method has been employed to directly processing fan-beam projection data as reconstruction method. Although the two-dimensional Fourier transform (TFT) method significantly faster than FBP method was proposed, it has not been sufficiently examined for fan-beam projection data. Thus, the ITFT method was investigated, which first executes rebinning algorithm to convert the fan-beam projection data to the parallel beam projection data, thereafter, uses two-dimensional Fourier transform. By this method, although high speed is expected, the reconstructed images might be degraded due to the adoption of rebinning algorithm. Therefore, the effect of the interpolation error of rebinning algorithm on the reconstructed images has been analyzed theoretically, and finally, the result of the employment of spline interpolation which allows the acquisition of high quality images with less errors has been shown by the numerical and visual evaluation based on simulation and actual data. Computation time was reduced to 1/15 for the image matrix of 512 and to 1/30 for doubled matrix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Barnana

    2017-01-01

    The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis of Urinary Calculi and Metabolic Studies in a Group of Sicilian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Maria Michela; Gennaro, Giuseppe; Tralongo, Pietro; Maringhini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    Prevalence of urinary calculi in children has been increasing in the past years. We performed an analysis of the chemical composition of stones formers of the pediatric population in our geographical area over the years 2005 to 2013. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed for the determination of the calculus composition of a group of Sicilian children, and metabolic studies were performed to formulate the correct diagnosis and establish therapy. The prevalence of stone formation was much higher for boys than for girls, with a sex ratio of 1.9:1. The single most frequent component was found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate, and calcium oxalates (pure or mixed calculi) were the overall most frequent components. Calcium phosphates ranked 2nd for frequency, most often in mixed calculi, while urates ranked 3rd. The metabolic disorder most often associated with pure calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi was hypocitraturia, while hyperoxaluria was predominantly associated with calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi. Mixed calculi had the highest prevalence in our pediatric population. Our data showed that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was a useful tool for the determination of the calculi composition.

  9. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of the scattering of ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Katherine M.M.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Langer, Matthias; Gachagan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Many safety critical structures, such as those found in nuclear plants, oil pipelines and in the aerospace industry, rely on key components that are constructed from heterogeneous materials. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) uses high-frequency mechanical waves to inspect these parts, ensuring they operate reliably without compromising their integrity. It is possible to employ mathematical models to develop a deeper understanding of the acquired ultrasonic data and enhance defect imaging algorithms. In this paper, a model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves by a crack is derived in the time–frequency domain. The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is applied to an inhomogeneous wave equation where the forcing function is prescribed as a linear chirp, modulated by a Gaussian envelope. The homogeneous solution is found via the Born approximation which encapsulates information regarding the flaw geometry. The inhomogeneous solution is obtained via the inverse Fourier transform of a Gaussian-windowed linear chirp excitation. It is observed that, although the scattering profile of the flaw does not change, it is amplified. Thus, the theory demonstrates the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio permitted by the use of coded excitation, as well as establishing a time–frequency domain framework to assist in flaw identification and classification. PMID:25792967

  10. Miniature, Low-Power, Waveguide Based Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Spacecraft Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagama, TIlak; Aslam, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen; Allen, John E., Jr.; Annen, John N.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers have a venerable heritage as flight instruments. However, obtaining an accurate spectrum exacts a penalty in instrument mass and power requirements. Recent advances in a broad class of non-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) devices, generally called spatial heterodyne spectrometers, offer distinct advantages as flight optimized systems. We are developing a miniaturized system that employs photonics lightwave circuit principles and functions as an FTS operating in the 7-14 micrometer spectral region. The inteferogram is constructed from an ensemble of Mach-Zehnder interferometers with path length differences calibrated to mimic scan mirror sample positions of a classic Michelson type FTS. One potential long-term application of this technology in low cost planetary missions is the concept of a self-contained sensor system. We are developing a systems architecture concept for wide area in situ and remote monitoring of characteristic properties that are of scientific interest. The system will be based on wavelength- and resolution-independent spectroscopic sensors for studying atmospheric and surface chemistry, physics, and mineralogy. The self-contained sensor network is based on our concept of an Addressable Photonics Cube (APC) which has real-time flexibility and broad science applications. It is envisaged that a spatially distributed autonomous sensor web concept that integrates multiple APCs will be reactive and dynamically driven. The network is designed to respond in an event- or model-driven manner or reconfigured as needed.

  11. Fourier Transform Surface Plasmon Resonance of Nanodisks Embedded in Magnetic Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insub; Ih, Seongkeun; Yoo, Haneul; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Sungho

    2018-03-14

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis and application of magnetic plasmonic gyro-nanodisks (GNDs) for Fourier transform surface plasmon resonance based biodetection. Plasmonically active and magnetically responsive gyro-nanodisks were synthesized using electrochemical methods with anodized aluminum templates. Due to the unique properties of GNDs (magnetic responsiveness and surface plasmon bands), periodic extinction signals were generated under an external rotating magnetic field, which is, in turn, converted into frequency domains using Fourier transformation. After the binding of a target on GNDs, an increase in the shear force causes a shift in the frequency domain, which allows us to investigate biodetection for HA1 (the influenza virus). Most importantly, by modulating the number and the location of plasmonic nanodisks (a method for controlling the hydrodynamic forces by rationally designing the nanomaterial architecture), we achieved enhanced biodetection sensitivity. We expect that our results will contribute to improved sensing module performance, as well as a better understanding of dynamic nanoparticle systems, by harnessing the perturbed periodic fluctuation of surface plasmon bands under the modulated magnetic field.

  12. Algorithm, applications and evaluation for protein comparison by Ramanujan Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Jiasong; Hua, Wei; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its chemical properties, chain conformation and biological functions. Protein sequence comparison is of great importance to identify similarities of protein structures and infer their functions. Many properties of a protein correspond to the low-frequency signals within the sequence. Low frequency modes in protein sequences are linked to the secondary structures, membrane protein types, and sub-cellular localizations of the proteins. In this paper, we present Ramanujan Fourier transform (RFT) with a fast algorithm to analyze the low-frequency signals of protein sequences. The RFT method is applied to similarity analysis of protein sequences with the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM). The results show that the proposed fast RFT method on protein comparison is more efficient than commonly used discrete Fourier transform (DFT). RFT can detect common frequencies as significant feature for specific protein families, and the RFT spectrum heat-map of protein sequences demonstrates the information conservation in the sequence comparison. The proposed method offers a new tool for pattern recognition, feature extraction and structural analysis on protein sequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-stationary component extraction in noisy multicomponent signal using polynomial chirping Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenlong; Xie, Junwei; Wang, Heming; Sheng, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by track-before-detection technology in radar, a novel time-frequency transform, namely polynomial chirping Fourier transform (PCFT), is exploited to extract components from noisy multicomponent signal. The PCFT combines advantages of Fourier transform and polynomial chirplet transform to accumulate component energy along a polynomial chirping curve in the time-frequency plane. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to search optimal polynomial parameters with which the PCFT will achieve a most concentrated energy ridge in the time-frequency plane for the target component. The component can be well separated in the polynomial chirping Fourier domain with a narrow-band filter and then reconstructed by inverse PCFT. Furthermore, an iterative procedure, involving parameter estimation, PCFT, filtering and recovery, is introduced to extract components from a noisy multicomponent signal successively. The Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method has better performance in component extraction from noisy multicomponent signal as well as provides more time-frequency details about the analyzed signal than conventional methods.

  14. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huipeng; Li, Mengyuan; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Huikai; Chen, Chang; Peng, Zhangming; Su, Shaohui

    2018-02-08

    Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) spectral linewidth of 96 cm -1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.

  15. FFT-BM, Code Accuracy Evaluations with the 1D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FFT-BM is an integrated version of the programs package performing code accuracy evaluations with the 1D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) methodology. It contains two programs: - CASEM: Takes care of the complete manipulation of data in order to evaluate the quantities through which the FFT method quantifies the code accuracy. - AAWFTO completes the evaluation of the average accuracy (AA) and related weighted frequency (WF) values in order to obtain the AAtot and WFtot values characterising the global calculation performance. 2 - Methods: The Fast Fourier Transform, or FFT, which is based on the Fourier analysis method is an optimised method for calculating the amplitude Vs frequency, of functions or experimental or computed data. In order to apply this methodology, after selecting the parameters to be analyzed, it is necessary to choose the following parameters: - number of curves (exp + calc) to be analyzed; - number of time windows to be analyzed; - sampling frequency; - cut frequency; - time begin and time end of each time window. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Up to 30 curves (exp + calc) and 5 time windows may be analyzed

  16. Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalekou Marianthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.

  17. Investigation of stingray spines by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis to recognize functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate functional groups of toxic spines in stingray by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods: The venom extract of Himantura gerrardi, Himantura imbricata and Pastinachus sephen were centrifuged at 6 000 r/min for 10 min. The supernatant was collected and preserved separately in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone (1:2 and then soaked in the mentioned solvents for 48 h. Then extracts were filtered and used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Results: The results identified that the presence of free amino acids and protein having β-sheet and random coiled secondary structure. The presence of O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-H stretch, N-H deformation, O-H deformation and C-O stretch in the sample aligned with standard bovine serum albumin. The influence of functional groups within the molecule was because of the impact of preferred spatial orientation, chemical and physical interaction on the molecule. In conclusion, compared to bovine serum albumin, Himantura imbricata consists of two C=O stretch, are involved in the hydrogen bonding that takes place between the different elements of secondary structure. Conclusions: The venom of poisonous animals has been extensively studied, since standard medicine not available for treatment against injuries causing stingray. Therefore, it's the baseline study, to motivate further process and produce effective antibiotics.

  18. Combustion stratification study of partially premixed combustion using Fourier transform analysis of OH* chemiluminescence images

    KAUST Repository

    Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad

    2017-11-06

    A relatively high level of stratification (qualitatively: lack of homogeneity) is one of the main advantages of partially premixed combustion over the homogeneous charge compression ignition concept. Stratification can smooth the heat release rate and improve the controllability of combustion. In order to compare stratification levels of different partially premixed combustion strategies or other combustion concepts, an objective and meaningful definition of “stratification level” is required. Such a definition is currently lacking; qualitative/quantitative definitions in the literature cannot properly distinguish various levels of stratification. The main purpose of this study is to objectively define combustion stratification (not to be confused with fuel stratification) based on high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging, which is assumed to provide spatial information regarding heat release. Stratification essentially being equivalent to spatial structure, we base our definition on two-dimensional Fourier transforms of photographs of OH* chemiluminescence. A light-duty optical diesel engine has been used to perform the OH* bandpass imaging on. Four experimental points are evaluated, with injection timings in the homogeneous regime as well as in the stratified partially premixed combustion regime. Two-dimensional Fourier transforms translate these chemiluminescence images into a range of spatial frequencies. The frequency information is used to define combustion stratification, using a novel normalization procedure. The results indicate that this new definition, based on Fourier analysis of OH* bandpass images, overcomes the drawbacks of previous definitions used in the literature and is a promising method to compare the level of combustion stratification between different experiments.

  19. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-08

    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption.

  20. A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer for near-infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2015-09-01

    A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) was constructed with a fiber-coupled lithium niobate (LiNbO3) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the purpose of rapid on-site spectroscopy of biological and chemical measurands. The MZI contains push-pull electrodes for electro-optic modulation, and its interferogram as a plot of intensity against voltage was obtained by scanning the modulating voltage from -60 to +60 V in 50 ms. The power spectrum of input signal was retrieved by Fourier transform processing of the interferogram combined with the wavelength dispersion of half-wave voltage determined for the MZI used. The prototype FTS operates in the single-mode wavelength range from 1200 to 1700 nm and allows for reproducible spectroscopy. A linear concentration dependence of the absorbance at λmax = 1451 nm for water in ethanolic solution was obtained using the prototype FTS. The near-infrared spectroscopy of solid samples was also implemented, and the different spectra obtained with different materials evidenced the chemical recognition capability of the prototype FTS. To make this prototype FTS practically applicable, work on improving its spectral resolution by increasing the maximum optical path length difference is in progress.

  1. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyuan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Chang; Peng, Zhangming; Su, Shaohui

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) spectral linewidth of 96 cm−1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions. PMID:29419765

  2. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM spectral linewidth of 96 cm−1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.

  3. [Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in identification of wine spoilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian-De; Dong, Da-Ming; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Jiao, Lei-Zi; Lang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, fresh and spoiled wine samples from three wines produced by different companies were studied u- sing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We analyzed the physicochemical property change in the process of spoil- age, and then, gave out the attribution of some main FTIR absorption peaks. A novel determination method was explored based on the comparisons of some absorbance ratios at different wavebands although the absorbance ratios in this method were relative. Through the compare of the wine spectra before and after spoiled, the authors found that they were informative at the bands of 3,020~2,790, 1,760~1,620 and 1,550~800 cm(-1). In order to find the relation between these informative spectral bands and the wine deterioration and achieve the discriminant analysis, chemometrics methods were introduced. Principal compounds analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used for classifying different-quality wines. And partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to identify spoiled wines and good wines. Results showed that FTIR technique combined with chemometrics methods could effectively distinguish spoiled wines from fresh samples. The effect of classification at the wave band of 1 550-800 cm(-1) was the best. The recognition rate of SIMCA and PLSDA were respectively 94% and 100%. This study demonstrates that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring red wine's spoilage and provides theoretical support for developing early-warning equipments.

  4. LIQUID COAL CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS WITH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRA RED (FTIR AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATUS BUKU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the value of compounds contained in liquid coal by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. FTIR was used to analyse the components contained in liquid coal, while the DSC is done to observe the heat reaction to the environment. Based on the Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test results it is shown that the compound contained in the liquid Coal consisting of alkanes, alkenes and alkyne. These compounds are similar compounds. The alkanes, alkenes and alkynes compounds undergo complete combustion reaction with oxygen and would produce CO2 and water vapour [H2O (g]. If incomplete combustion occurs, the reaction proceeds in the form of Carbon Monoxide CO gas or solid carbon andH2O. Combustion reaction that occurs in all these three compounds also produces a number of considerable energy. And if it has higher value of Carbon then the boiling point would be higher. From the Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC test results obtained some of the factors that affect the reaction speed, which are the temperature, the reaction mixture composition, and pressure. Temperature has a profound influence in coal liquefaction, because if liquid coal heated with high pressure, the carbon chain would break down into smaller chains consisting of aromatic chain, hydro-aromatic, or aliphatic. This then triggers a reaction between oil formation and polymerization reactions to form solids (char.

  5. Novel Fourier transform infrared spectrometer architecture based on cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltagoury, Yomna M.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present a novel architecture for Fourier transform spectrometers based on cascaded low-finesse FP interferometers. One of the interferometers has fixed path length while the second is a scanning one using a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. The fixed interferometer results in a spectrum modulation and, hence, a shifted version of the interferogram away from the point of the zero spacing between the two mirrors. The shifted interferogram can then be used with the Fourier transform algorithm to obtain the spectrum of the measured light. This cascaded FP configuration results in a simple arrangement of mirrors on a line, which makes it much tolerant to misalignment errors. The proposed configuration is implemented using the MEMS DRIE technology on an SOI wafer with a simple MEMS process flow without metallization or dielectric coating of the vertical optical surface. The fabricated compact structure is measured with both a laser source with narrow spectrum at 1550 nm and a wide spectrum source composed of an SLED and the ASE of a semiconductor optical amplifier source. The obtained results validate the concept of the new configuration.

  6. Adaptive synchrosqueezing based on a quilted short-time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Alexander; Saito, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST) has gained popularity as a method for the analysis of signals that can be broken down into multiple components determined by instantaneous amplitudes and phases. One such version of SST, based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), enables the sharpening of instantaneous frequency (IF) information derived from the STFT, as well as the separation of amplitude-phase components corresponding to distinct IF curves. However, this SST is limited by the time-frequency resolution of the underlying window function, and may not resolve signals exhibiting diverse time-frequency behaviors with sufficient accuracy. In this work, we develop a framework for an SST based on a "quilted" short-time Fourier transform (SST-QSTFT), which allows adaptation to signal behavior in separate time-frequency regions through the use of multiple windows. This motivates us to introduce a discrete reassignment frequency formula based on a finite difference of the phase spectrum, ensuring computational accuracy for a wider variety of windows. We develop a theoretical framework for the SST-QSTFT in both the continuous and the discrete settings, and describe an algorithm for the automatic selection of optimal windows depending on the region of interest. Using synthetic data, we demonstrate the superior numerical performance of SST-QSTFT relative to other SST methods in a noisy context. Finally, we apply SST-QSTFT to audio recordings of animal calls to demonstrate the potential of our method for the analysis of real bioacoustic signals.

  7. Progress in static fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: assessment of sifti preliminary performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Philippe; Pierangelo, Clémence; Rosak, Alain; Cansot, Elodie; Bernard, Frédéric; Camy-Peyret, Claude

    2017-11-01

    The concept of static Fourier transform interferometry at thermal infrared wavelengths is well suited in the case of narrow spectral bands that are looked at for targeted molecular species as CO and O3 for pollution and air quality monitoring, or H20 and CO2 for weather forecast, down to the troposphere. It permits a high spectral resolution and a very good radiometric performance, with the advantage of a static interferometer, including no moving part. Along with other molecules sounded in the UV-VIS domain, as for instance in the TRAQ mission, SIFTI will provide scientists with a complete set for pollution measurements and air quality survey. Our paper presents the principles of static Fourier transform spectrometry, the work led on the instrument performance model and our study of the SIFTI instrument. We describe the instrument, its main dimensions and characteristics, and its architecture and major subsystems. We eventually make a preliminary survey of the SIFTI performance budget items. As a conclusion, we introduce the future CNES phase A study of this instrument that is started in 2006

  8. Post-processing of EPR spectrum from dosimetric substances through filtering of Discrete Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Fabio P.B.; Bevilacqua, Joyce S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometers - EPR - in radiation dosimetry is known for more than four decades. It is an important tool in the retrospective determination of doses absorbed. To estimate the dose absorbed by the sample, it is necessary to know the amplitude of the peak to peak signature of the substance in its EPR spectrum. This information can be compromised by the presence of spurious information: noise - of random and low intensity nature; and the behavior of the baseline - coming from the coupling between the resonator tube and the sample analyzed. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the three main components of the signal, i.e. signature, noise, and baseline - the analysis in the frequency domain allows, through post-processing techniques to filter spurious information. In this work, an algorithm that retrieves the signature of a substance has been implemented. The Discrete Fourier Transform is applied to the signal and without user intervention, the noise is filtered. From the filtered signal, recovers the signature by Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform. The peak to peak amplitude, and the absorbed dose is calculated with an error of less than 1% for signals wherein the base line is linearized. Some more general cases are under investigation and with little user intervention, you can get the same error

  9. Chemical fingerprinting of Arabidopsis using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzsás, András; Sundberg, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, and nondestructive technique for chemical profiling of plant materials. In this chapter we discuss the instrumental setup, the basic principles of analysis, and the possibilities for and limitations of obtaining qualitative and semiquantitative information by FT-IR spectroscopy. We provide detailed protocols for four fully customizable techniques: (1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS): a sensitive and high-throughput technique for powders; (2) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy: a technique that requires no sample preparation and can be used for solid samples as well as for cell cultures; (3) microspectroscopy using a single element (SE) detector: a technique used for analyzing sections at low spatial resolution; and (4) microspectroscopy using a focal plane array (FPA) detector: a technique for rapid chemical profiling of plant sections at cellular resolution. Sample preparation, measurement, and data analysis steps are listed for each of the techniques to help the user collect the best quality spectra and prepare them for subsequent multivariate analysis.

  10. Adaptive Filtering to Enhance Noise Immunity of Impedance and Admittance Spectroscopy: Comparison with Fourier Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Daniil D.; Koniakhin, Sergei V.; Verlov, Nikolay A.; Dubina, Michael V.

    2017-05-01

    The time-domain technique for impedance spectroscopy consists of computing the excitation voltage and current response Fourier images by fast or discrete Fourier transformation and calculating their relation. Here we propose an alternative method for excitation voltage and current response processing for deriving a system impedance spectrum based on a fast and flexible adaptive filtering method. We show the equivalence between the problem of adaptive filter learning and deriving the system impedance spectrum. To be specific, we express the impedance via the adaptive filter weight coefficients. The noise-canceling property of adaptive filtering is also justified. Using the RLC circuit as a model system, we experimentally show that adaptive filtering yields correct admittance spectra and elements ratings in the high-noise conditions when the Fourier-transform technique fails. Providing the additional sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy, adaptive filtering can be applied to otherwise impossible-to-interpret time-domain impedance data. The advantages of adaptive filtering are justified with practical living-cell impedance measurements.

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Resonance Raman (UVRR) Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for Study of the Kinetics of Formation and Structural Characterization of Tau Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Gayathri

    2017-01-01

    Kinetic studies of tau fibril formation in vitro most commonly employ spectroscopic probes such as thioflavinT fluorescence and laser light scattering or negative stain transmission electron microscopy. Here, I describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as complementary probes for studies of tau aggregation. The sensitivity of vibrational spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and UVRR) to secondary structure content allows for measurement of conformational changes that occur when the intrinsically disordered protein tau transforms into cross-β-core containing fibrils. AFM imaging serves as a gentle probe of structures populated over the time course of tau fibrillization. Together, these assays help further elucidate the structural and mechanistic complexity inherent in tau fibril formation.

  12. Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    2015-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33 nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the Nsbnd CH3 functional group about 2850 cm-1 is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field.

  13. Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra, assignment, ab initio, DFT and normal co-ordinate analysis of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Mohan, S

    2009-03-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline have been measured in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100cm(-1), respectively. Utilising the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out. The vibrational frequency which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from ab initio HF and DFT gradient calculations employing the HF/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) methods for optimised geometries. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from the HF and DFT methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The normal co-ordinate analysis was also carried out on the basis of ab initio force fields utilising Wilson's FG matrix method. The manifestations of NH-pi interactions and the influence of bulky chlorine and methyl group on the vibrational modes of the amino group are investigated.

  14. A new direct Fourier transform infrared analysis of free fatty acids in edible oils using spectral reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuzhu; van de Voort, F R; Sedman, Jacqueline; Gao, Jin-ming

    2011-07-01

    A new transmission-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method for the direct determination of free fatty acids (FFA) in edible oils has been developed using the developed spectral reconstitution (SR) technique. Conventional neat-oil and SR calibrations were devised by spiking hexanoic acid into FFA-free canola oil and measuring the response to added FFA at 1,712 cm(-1) referenced to a baseline at 1,600 cm(-1)(1,712 cm(-1)/1,600 cm(-1)). To compensate for the known oil dependency of such calibration equations resulting from variation of the triacylglycerol ester (C═O) absorption with differences in oil saponification number (SN), a correction equation was devised by recording the spectra of blends of two FFA-free oils (canola and coconut) differing substantially in SN and correlating the intensity of the ester (C═O) absorption at the FFA measurement location with the intensity of the first overtone of this vibration, measured at 3,471 cm(-1)/3,427 cm(-1). Further examination of the spectra of the oil blends by generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy revealed an additional strong correlation with an absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) combination band region, which led to the development of a second correction equation based on the absorbance at 4,258 cm(-1)/4,235 cm(-1). The NIR-based correction equation yielded superior results and was shown to completely eliminate biases due to variations in oil SN, thereby making a single FFA calibration generally applicable to oils, regardless of SN. FTIR methodology incorporating this correction equation and employing the SR technique has been automated.

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Sebagai Metode Alternatif Penetapan Tingkat Stres pada Sapi (FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TOOL FOR DETERMINING OF STRESS IN COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Astuti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress in animal is a condition of nonspesific discomfort which cause of non-specific immune defects,failure of reproduction, and decreased of meat carcass until the death of  animals. To determine stress ofcattle,  it will be invented stress detector using a non-invasive method based on the spectroscopy FourierTransform Infrared (FTIR. Basically,  FTIR will detect component in compound of cathecolamine andcortisol as ketone (= O and methyl (= CH 3. Furthermore, each group of components will be detected indifferent of absorbant and wavelength.   The results showed that average level of cortisol in female beefcattle durimg resting eriod was 38,48±21,53 ng/dL, on time of slaughtering were 116,88±112,59 ng/dL. Forbull, which were resting  20,42±9,25 ng/dL; when animal was slaughtered level of cortisol was  67,61±41,62ng/dL. Using FTIR, it was showed that compound of metil was absorbed well. Animals with udder stresscondition have been recorded on the wave lenght of 2777-3456 nm.   It has been concluded level of cortisolon cattle which were resting is significantly different from animal which were slaughtering P(< 0.05,where cortisol would increase drastically. Using Calibration of FTIR indicated resting animals only havefewer value of absorbance than animals which slaughtered.  FTIR is a very prospect method for makingstress indicator.

  16. Robust alignment of chromatograms by statistically analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjing; Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng; Zhan, Dejian

    2015-03-01

    Retention time shift is one of the most challenging problems during the preprocessing of massive chromatographic datasets. Here, an improved version of the moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation algorithm is presented to perform nonlinear and robust alignment of chromatograms by analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window procedure. The shifts matrix in retention time can be estimated by fast Fourier transform cross-correlation with a moving window procedure. The refined shift of each scan point can be obtained by calculating the mode of corresponding column of the shifts matrix. This version is simple, but more effective and robust than the previously published moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation method. It can handle nonlinear retention time shift robustly if proper window size has been selected. The window size is the only one parameter needed to adjust and optimize. The properties of the proposed method are investigated by comparison with the previous moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation and recursive alignment by fast Fourier transform using chromatographic datasets. The pattern recognition results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry dataset of metabolic syndrome can be improved significantly after preprocessing by this method. Furthermore, the proposed method is available as an open source package at https://github.com/zmzhang/MWFFT2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Blind third-order dispersion estimation based on fractional Fourier transformation for coherent optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Guo, Peng; Yang, Aiying; Qiao, Yaojun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a blind third-order dispersion estimation method based on fractional Fourier transformation (FrFT) in optical fiber communication system. By measuring the chromatic dispersion (CD) at different wavelengths, this method can estimation dispersion slope and further calculate the third-order dispersion. The simulation results demonstrate that the estimation error is less than 2 % in 28GBaud dual polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (DP-QPSK) and 28GBaud dual polarization 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) system. Through simulations, the proposed third-order dispersion estimation method is shown to be robust against nonlinear and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. In addition, to reduce the computational complexity, searching step with coarse and fine granularity is chosen to search optimal order of FrFT. The third-order dispersion estimation method based on FrFT can be used to monitor the third-order dispersion in optical fiber system.

  18. Fourier transform IR studies on the interaction of selected chemicals with isolated cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, P.; Ramirez, F.J.; Heredia, A.; Bukovac, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    It is known that the plant cuticle represents the first barrier that must be overcome by any chemical reaching the plant surface from the atmosphere before entering the plant. Because of the importance of the cuticle as a barrier to penetration of a wide variety of compounds, its morphology, chemistry, and permeability have been extensively studied. However, only limited information is available on the nature of functional chemical groups present and their interaction and role during the penetration process. The usefulness of in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies in identifying functional groups present in isolated cuticles is described and their relationships to the structure of the cuticular membrane are discussed. Applications of infrared spectroscopy on the presence and role of phenolics in the cuticle structure and during the cuticle development, nitrogen oxide binding to isolated cuticles, and the interactions between selected chemical probes during sorption by the cuticle are also described. (orig.)

  19. Blind detection of isolated astrophysical pulses in the spatial Fourier transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Natalia A.; Prestage, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of isolated transients in pulsar surveys and fast radio transient observations. Rather than the conventional approach of performing a computationally expensive blind DM search, we take the spatial Fourier transform (SFT) of short (˜ few seconds) sections of data. A transient will have a characteristic signature in the SFT domain, and we present a blind statistic which may be used to detect this signature at an empirical zero False Alarm Rate (FAR). The method has been evaluated using simulations, and also applied to two fast radio burst observations. In addition to its use for current observations, we expect this method will be extremely beneficial for future multi-beam observations made by telescopes equipped with phased array feeds.

  20. Empirical mode decomposition profilometry: small scale capabilities and comparison to Fourier Transform Profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Cobelli, Pablo; Bobinski, Tomasz; Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent; Petitjeans, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Fringe projection profilometry is an instrument of choice for the instantaneous measurement of the full height map of a free-surface. It is useful to capture interfacial phenomena such as droplet impact and propagation of water waves. We present the Empirical Mode Decomposition Profilometry (EMDP) for the analysis of fringe projection profilometry images. It is based on an iterative filter, using empirical mode decomposition, that is free of spatial filtering and adapted for surfaces characterized by a broadband spectrum of deformation. Examples of such surfaces can be found in nonlinear wave interaction regimes such as wave turbulence in gravity-capillary water waves. We show both numerically and experimentally that using EMDP improves strongly the profilometry small scale capabilities compared to traditionally used Fourier Transform Profilometry. Moreover, the height reconstruction distortion is much lower: the reconstructed height field is now both spectrally and statistically accurate.

  1. Correcting attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectra for water vapor and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Kohler, Achim; Adt, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a valuable technique for characterization of biological samples, providing a detailed fingerprint of the major chemical constituents. However, water vapor and CO(2) in the beam path often cause interferences in the spectra, which can hamper...... the data analysis and interpretation of results. In this paper we present a new method for removal of the spectral contributions due to atmospheric water and CO(2) from attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT-IR spectra. In the IR spectrum, four separate wavenumber regions were defined, each containing...... of the growing yeast biofilm, the gas correction revealed otherwise hidden variations of relevance for modeling the growth dynamics. As the presented method improved the interpretation of the principle component analysis (PCA) models, it has proven to be a valuable tool for filtering atmospheric variation in ATR...

  2. Relative-coordinate determination for visual double stars by applying Fourier transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the software developed for the purpose of determining the relative coordinates (position angle θ and separation ρ for visual double or multiple stars. It is based on application of Fourier transforms in treating CCD frames of these systems. The objective was to determine the relative coordinates automatically to an extent as large as possible. In this way the time needed for the reduction of many CCD frames becomes shorter. The capabilities and limitations of the software are examined. Besides, the possibility of improving is also considered. The software has been tested and checked on a sample consisting of CCD frames of 165 double or multiple stars obtained with the 2m telescope at NAO Rozhen in Bulgaria in October 2011. The results have been compared with the corresponding results obtained by applying different software and the agreement is found to be very good.

  3. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  4. Biochemical differentiation of mycelium and yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Matos, Tatiana G. F.; de Abreu, Geraldo M. A.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37°C in vitro). The most prominent difference between both forms is probably the cell wall polysaccharide, being 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts, but a plethora of other differences have already been described. In this work, we performed a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis to compare the yeast and mycelia forms of P. brasiliensis and found additional biochemical differences. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.

  5. Label-free identification of individual bacteria using Fourier transform light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Kim, Min-Hyeok; Park, HyunJoo; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-06-15

    Rapid identification of bacterial species is crucial in medicine and food hygiene. In order to achieve rapid and label-free identification of bacterial species at the single bacterium level, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical method based on Fourier transform light scattering (FTLS) measurements and statistical classification. For individual rod-shaped bacteria belonging to four bacterial species (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei, and Bacillus subtilis), two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps are precisely measured using FTLS technique. The scattering maps are then systematically analyzed, employing statistical classification in order to extract the unique fingerprint patterns for each species, so that a new unidentified bacterium can be identified by a single light scattering measurement. The single-bacterial and label-free nature of our method suggests wide applicability for rapid point-of-care bacterial diagnosis.

  6. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of red seal inks on questioned document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yun Sik; Park, Jin Sook; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2014-07-01

    Seals are traditionally used in the Far East Asia to stamp an impression on a document in place of a signature. In this study, an accuser claimed that a personal contract regarding mining development rights acquired by a defendant was devolved to the accuser because the defendant stamped the devolvement contract in the presence of the accuser and a witness. The accuser further stated that the seal ink stamped on the devolvement contract was the same as that stamped on the development rights application document. To verify this, the seals used in two documents were analyzed using micro-attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and infrared spectra. The findings revealed that the seals originated from different manufacturers. Thus, the accuser's claim on the existence of a devolvement contract was proved to be false. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Aliasless fresnel transform image reconstruction in phase scrambling fourier transform technique by data interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshifumi; Liu, Na; Ito, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The signal in the Fresnel transform technique corresponds to a blurred one of the spin density image. Because the amplitudes of adjacent sampled signals have a high interrelation, the signal amplitude at a point between sampled points can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy even if the sampling is so coarse as to generate aliasing in the reconstructed images. In this report, we describe a new aliasless image reconstruction technique in the phase scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique in which the PSFT signals are converted to Fresnel transform signals by multiplying them by a quadratic phase term and are then interpolated using polynomial expressions to generate fully encoded signals. Numerical simulation using MR images showed that almost completely aliasless images are reconstructed by this technique. Experiments using ultra-low-field PSFT MRI were conducted, and aliasless images were reconstructed from coarsely sampled PSFT signals. (author)

  8. Machine learning (ML)-guided OPC using basis functions of polar Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhyeong; Shim, Seongbo; Shin, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    With shrinking feature size, runtime has become a limitation of model-based OPC (MB-OPC). A few machine learning-guided OPC (ML-OPC) have been studied as candidates for next-generation OPC, but they all employ too many parameters (e.g. local densities), which set their own limitations. We propose to use basis functions of polar Fourier transform (PFT) as parameters of ML-OPC. Since PFT functions are orthogonal each other and well reflect light phenomena, the number of parameters can significantly be reduced without loss of OPC accuracy. Experiments demonstrate that our new ML-OPC achieves 80% reduction in OPC time and 35% reduction in the error of predicted mask bias when compared to conventional ML-OPC.

  9. Discrete Fourier transformation processor based on complex radix (−1 + j number system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anidaphi Shadap

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex radix (−1 + j allows the arithmetic operations of complex numbers to be done without treating the divide and conquer rules, which offers the significant speed improvement of complex numbers computation circuitry. Design and hardware implementation of complex radix (−1 + j converter has been introduced in this paper. Extensive simulation results have been incorporated and an application of this converter towards the implementation of discrete Fourier transformation (DFT processor has been presented. The functionality of the DFT processor have been verified in Xilinx ISE design suite version 14.7 and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumption have been calculated by Virtuoso platform in Cadence. The proposed DFT processor has been implemented through conversion, multiplication and addition. The performance parameter matrix in terms of delay and power consumption offered a significant improvement over other traditional implementation of DFT processor.

  10. Laser Mode Behavior of the Cassini CIRS Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The CIRS Fourier transform spectrometer aboard the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini orbiter has been acquiring spectra of the Saturnian system since 2004. The CIRS reference interferometer employs a laser diode to trigger the interferogram sampling. Although the control of laser diode drive current and operating temperature are stringent enough to restrict laser wavelength variation to a small fraction of CIRS finest resolution element, the CIRS instrument does need to be restarted every year or two, at which time it may start in a new laser mode. By monitoring the Mylar absorption features in uncalibrated spectra due to the beam splitter Mylar substrate, it can be shown that these jumps are to adjacent modes and that most of the eight-year operation so far is restricted to three adjacent modes. For a given mode, the wavelength stability appears consistent with the stability of the laser diode drive curren.t and operating temperature.

  11. X-ray Fourier transform holography by amplitude-division-type Fresnel zone plate interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyan, Minas; Haroutunyan, Levon

    2018-01-01

    A two-block X-ray Fresnel zone plate system forms two-beams - a plane wave and a spherical wave - which interfere at the focal distance of the virtual source of the spherical wave. An object placed in the path of the plane wave forms an object wave and the spherical wave is the reference wave. The recorded intensity distribution is the Fourier transform hologram of the object. Analytical and numerical calculations show the possibilities of this scheme to record the hologram and reconstruct the object image. Examples of recording holograms of a one-dimensional cosine-like grating and a two-dimensional grid object as well as reconstruction of the images are considered.

  12. Novel Polynomial Basis with Fast Fourier Transform and Its Application to Reed-Solomon Erasure Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian-Jheng

    2016-09-13

    In this paper, we present a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over extension binary fields, where the polynomial is represented in a non-standard basis. The proposed Fourier-like transform requires O(h lg(h)) field operations, where h is the number of evaluation points. Based on the proposed Fourier-like algorithm, we then develop the encoding/ decoding algorithms for (n = 2m; k) Reed-Solomon erasure codes. The proposed encoding/erasure decoding algorithm requires O(n lg(n)), in both additive and multiplicative complexities. As the complexity leading factor is small, the proposed algorithms are advantageous in practical applications. Finally, the approaches to convert the basis between the monomial basis and the new basis are proposed.

  13. Suppressing carrier removal error in the Fourier transform method for interferogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qi; Yang, Hongru; Li, Gaoping; Zhao, Jianlin

    2010-01-01

    A new carrier removal method for interferogram analysis using the Fourier transform is presented. The proposed method can be used to suppress the carrier removal error as well as the spectral leakage error. First, the carrier frequencies are estimated with the spectral centroid of the up sidelobe of the apodized interferogram, and then the up sidelobe can be shifted to the origin in the frequency domain by multiplying the original interferogram by a constructed plane reference wave. The influence of the carrier frequencies without an integer multiple of the frequency interval and the window function for apodization of the interferogram can be avoided in our work. The simulation and experimental results show that this method is effective for phase measurement with a high accuracy from a single interferogram

  14. Analysis of gamma-ray spectra by using fast Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nagata, Shojiro; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Isamu; Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1977-01-01

    In order to simplify the mass data processing in a response matrix method for γ-ray spectral analysis, a method using a Fast Fourier Transform devised. The validity of the method was confirmed by a computer simulation for spectra of a NaI detector. The method uses the fact that spectral data can be represented by Fourier series with reduced number of terms. The estimation of intensities of γ-ray components is performed by a matrix operation using the compressed data of an observation spectrum and standard spectra in Fourier coefficients. The identification of γ-ray energies is also easy. Several features in the method and a general problem to be solved in a response matrix method are described. (auth.)

  15. Simplification of gamma-ray spectral data by using Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nagata, Shojiro; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Isamu; Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1977-01-01

    A method is proposed to represent γ-ray response spectra by Fourier series for the purpose of compressing spectral data. The usefulness of the method was confirmed by applying it to a spectral library of a NaI detector. In the method, a response spectrum as a wave is described by superposition of sine (cosine) waves with low frequencies, whose coefficient parameters can be obtained by a Fast Fourier Transform program. The relation between the number of parameters and the fitting error is discussed, and as the result, it is shown that the number of parameters can be reduced to about a half. The merits and features are presented in practical application of the method to the analysis of γ-ray spectra. (auth.)

  16. Use of fast Fourier transform in gamma-ray spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Nagata, Shojiro; Sasaki, Takashi; Ueda, Isamu.

    1978-01-01

    In order to simplify the mass data processing in a response matrix method for γ-ray spectral analysis, a method using a Fast Fourier Transform has been devised. The validity of the method has been confirmed by computer simulation for spectra of a NaI detector. First, it is shown that spectral data can be represented by Fourier series with a reduced number of terms. Then the estimation of intensities of γ-ray components is performed by a matrix operation using the compressed data of an observation spectrum and standard spectra in Fourier coefficients. The identification of γ-ray energies is also easy. Several features of the method and a general problem to be solved in relation to a response matrix method are described. (author)

  17. Techniques for Handling Channeling in High Resolution Fourier Transform Spectra Recorded with Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; PredoiCross, Adriana; Teillet, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Seven different techniques in dealing the problem of channel spectra in Fourier transform Spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron source were examined and compared. Five of these techniques deal with the artifacts (spikes) in the recorded interferogram which in turn result in channel spectra within the spectral domain. Such interferogram editing method include replacing these spikes with zeros, straight line, fitted polynomial curve, rescaled spike and spike reduced with Gauss Function. Another two techniques try to target this issue in the spectral domain instead by either generating a synthetic background simulating the channels or measuring the channels parameters (amplitude, spacing and phase) to use in the spectral fitting program. Results showed spectral domain techniques produces higher quality results in terms of signal to noise and fitting residual. The effect of each method on the line parameters such as position, intensity are air broadening are also measured and discussed.

  18. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2010-04-01

    OPTRA has developed an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize the design and build and detail system characterization and test of a prototype I-OP-FTIR instrument. System characterization includes radiometric performance and spectral resolution. Results from a series of tomographic reconstructions of sulfur hexafluoride plumes in a laboratory setting are also presented.

  19. Geographical traceability of Marsdenia tenacissima by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Sheng-Chao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zheng, Kai-Yan; Wang, Ping-Li; Meng, Zhen-Gui

    2016-01-05

    A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics tools provided an approach for studying Marsdenia tenacissima according to its geographical origin. A total of 128 M. tenacissima samples from four provinces in China were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. Six pattern recognition methods were used to construct the discrimination models: support vector machine-genetic algorithms, support vector machine-particle swarm optimization, K-nearest neighbors, radial basis function neural network, random forest and support vector machine-grid search. Experimental results showed that K-nearest neighbors was superior to other mathematical algorithms after data were preprocessed with wavelet de-noising, with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction sets. This study demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with K-nearest neighbors could be successfully applied to determine the geographical origins of M. tenacissima samples, thereby providing reliable authentication in a rapid, cheap and noninvasive way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient Discrimination of Some Moss Species by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR technique was used to classify 16 species from three moss families (Mielichhoferiaceae, Bryaceae, and Mniaceae. The FTIR spectra ranging from 4000 cm−1 to 400 cm−1 of the 16 species were obtained. To group the spectra according to their spectral similarity in a dendrogram, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA were performed. Cluster analysis combined with PCA was used to give a rough result of classification among the moss samples. However, some species belonging to the same genus exhibited very similar chemical components and similar FTIR spectra. Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD was used to enhance the differences of the spectra. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT was used to decompose the FTIR spectra of Mnium laevinerve and M. spinosum. Three scales were selected as the feature extracting space in the DWT domain. Results showed that FTIR spectroscopy combined with DWT was suitable for distinguishing different species of the same genus.