The Scope Of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)
Hirschfeld, T.
1981-10-01
Three auarters of a century after its inception, a generation after its advantages were recognized, and a decade after its first commercialization, FT-IR dominates the growth of the IR market, and reigns alone over its high performance end. What lies ahead for FT-IR now? On one hand, the boundary between it and the classical scanning spectrometers is becoming fuzzy, as gratings attempt to use as much of FT-IR's computer technology as they can handle, and smaller FT systems invade the medium cost instrument range. On the other hand, technology advances in IR detectors, non-Fourier interference devices, and the often announced tunable laser are at long last getting set to make serious inroads in the field (although not necessarily in the manner most of us expected). However, the dominance of FT-IR as the leading edge of IR spectroscopy seems assured for a good many years. The evolution of FT-IR will be dominated by demands not yet fully satisfied such as rapid sample turnover, better quantitation, automated interpretation, higher GC-IR sensitivity, improved LC-IR, and, above all else, reliability and ease of use. These developments will be based on multiple small advances in hardware, large advances in the way systems are put together, and the traditional yearly revolutionary advances of the computer industry. The big question in the field will, however, still be whether our ambition and our skill can continue to keep up with the advances of our tools. It will be fun.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identification of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1890 and Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing 1833. Two cultures were grown in a chemically-defined media under photoautotrophic culture conditions isolated from eutrophic ...
Biological Applications Of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Or Bloody FTIR
Jakobsen, R. J.; Winters, S.; Gendreau, R. M.
1981-10-01
An ex vivo FT-IR/ATR experiment for studying blood protein adsorption at the molecular level is described. This experiment involves the use of live dogs pumping the blood through a arterial-veinal shunt to the ATR cell and back into the animal. The results from these live dog experiments are compared to results obtained using donated whole blood. These experiments demonstrate that FT-IR can be used to study aqueous, physiological, flowing solutions in real time with the sensitivity necessary to detect minor changes.
Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albero, Felipe Guimaraes
2009-01-01
Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm -1 ), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm -1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm -1 , with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm -1 ) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm -1 . Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm -1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were
Surface analysis by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Powell, G.L.; Smyrl, N.R.; Fuller, E.L.
1981-01-01
A diffuse-reflectance capability for the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at the Y-12 Plant Laboratory has been implemented. A sample cell with a 25 to 400 0 C temperature-controlled sample stage and an ultrahigh-vacuum-to-atmospheric pressure gas-handling capability has been developed. Absorbance of light from the spectrometer beam, resulting from the beam being scattered from a powder sample, can be measured. This capability of detecting molecular species on and in powders is to be used to study chemisorption on actinide and rare-earth metals, alloys, and compounds. Cell design is described along with experiments demonstrating its performance in detecting moisture absorption on uranium oxide, moisture and carbon dioxide absorption on the lithium hydride/hydroxide system, and carbon dioxide absorption on potassium borohydride. 13 figures
Photoacoustic Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy Of Solids
Vidrine, D. Warren
1981-10-01
After discovering the photoacoustic effect, Alexander Graham Bell predicted its use in spectrometers, and that it would find its greatest utility "in the ultra-red." More than ninety years were required to fulfil his first prediction, and the second is still a prophecy. There is no record whether he ever imagined that an invention being developed that same winter by a young protege of his named Albert Michelson would ever be combined with his photoacoustic effect. A century later, the combination was made by Farrow Burnham, and Eyring, using a visible-range interferometer spectrometer of their own design. Soon afterwards, Rockley and myself, working independently, applied the technique to infrared measurements of solid samples. Photoacoustic cells are now commercially available as FT-IR accessories, and the technique is in use in the field.
Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uceda Otero, E. P.; Eliel, G. S. N.; Fonseca, E. J. S.
2013-01-01
In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes...
Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Dyatlova, Yulia A.; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Grigoryeva, Olga P.; Fainleib, Alexander M.; De Luca, Stefania
2018-03-01
A set of experimental data obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (involving the use of samples ground and pressed with KBr, i.e. in a polar halide matrix) and by matrix-free transmission FTIR or diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic methodologies (involving measurements of thin films or pure powdered samples, respectively) were compared for several different biomacromolecular substances. The samples under study included poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) isolated from cell biomass of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense; dry PHB-containing A. brasilense biomass; pectin (natural carboxylated heteropolysaccharide of plant origin; obtained from apple peel) as well as its chemically modified derivatives obtained by partial esterification of its galacturonide-chain hydroxyl moieties with palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Significant shifts of some FTIR vibrational bands related to polar functional groups of all the biomacromolecules under study, induced by the halide matrix used for preparing the samples for spectroscopic measurements, were shown and discussed. A polar halide matrix used for preparing samples for FTIR measurements was shown to be likely to affect band positions not only per se, by affecting band energies or via ion exchange (e.g., with carboxylate moieties), but also by inducing crystallisation of metastable amorphous biopolymers (e.g., PHB of microbial origin). The results obtained have important implications for correct structural analyses of polar, H-bonded and/or amphiphilic biomacromolecular systems using different methodologies of FTIR spectroscopy.
Zarnowiec, Paulina; Lechowicz, Łukasz; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław
2015-01-01
Methods of human bacterial pathogen identification need to be fast, reliable, inexpensive, and time efficient. These requirements may be met by vibrational spectroscopic techniques. The method that is most often used for bacterial detection and identification is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It enables biochemical scans of whole bacterial cells or parts thereof at infrared frequencies (4,000-600 cm(-1)). The recorded spectra must be subsequently transformed in order to minimize data variability and to amplify the chemically-based spectral differences in order to facilitate spectra interpretation and analysis. In the next step, the transformed spectra are analyzed by data reduction tools, regression techniques, and classification methods. Chemometric analysis of FTIR spectra is a basic technique for discriminating between bacteria at the genus, species, and clonal levels. Examples of bacterial pathogen identification and methods of differentiation up to the clonal level, based on infrared spectroscopy, are presented below.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leone, S.R.
1990-01-01
Recent progress is described resulting from the past three years of DOE support for studies of combustion-related photofragmentation dynamics, energy transfer, and reaction processes using a time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) emission technique. The FTIR is coupled to a high repetition rate excimer laser which produces radicals by photolysis to obtain novel, high resolution measurements on vibrational and rotational state dynamics. The results are important for the study of numerous radical species relevant to combustion processes. The method has been applied to the detailed study of photofragmentation dynamics in systems such as acetylene, which produces C 2 H; chlorofluoroethylene to study the HF product channel; vinyl chloride and dichloroethylene, which produce HCl; acetone, which produces CO and CH 3 ; and ammonia, which produces NH 2 . In addition, we have recently demonstrated use of the FTIR technique for preliminary studies of energy transfer events under near single collision conditions, radical-radical reactions, and laser-initiated chain reaction processes
Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ATUS BUKU
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the value of compounds contained in liquid coal by using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. FTIR was used to analyse the components contained in liquid coal, while the DSC is done to observe the heat reaction to the environment. Based on the Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR test results it is shown that the compound contained in the liquid Coal consisting of alkanes, alkenes and alkyne. These compounds are similar compounds. The alkanes, alkenes and alkynes compounds undergo complete combustion reaction with oxygen and would produce CO2 and water vapour [H2O (g]. If incomplete combustion occurs, the reaction proceeds in the form of Carbon Monoxide CO gas or solid carbon andH2O. Combustion reaction that occurs in all these three compounds also produces a number of considerable energy. And if it has higher value of Carbon then the boiling point would be higher. From the Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC test results obtained some of the factors that affect the reaction speed, which are the temperature, the reaction mixture composition, and pressure. Temperature has a profound influence in coal liquefaction, because if liquid coal heated with high pressure, the carbon chain would break down into smaller chains consisting of aromatic chain, hydro-aromatic, or aliphatic. This then triggers a reaction between oil formation and polymerization reactions to form solids (char.
Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo
2014-01-01
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Muhammad Ilham Noor
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Corrosion is a decline in the quality of the metal due to electrochemical reaction between the metal by a corrosive medium. One effort to reduce the rate of corrosion is by adding inhibitors. Organic inhibitors that can be used include antioxidants and vitamin C. To determine both the content of the test method is used Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and phytochemicals. FTIR is a method to measure used to determine the group and the type of bonding of a compound based on the value of the wave number of a plant. Phytochemical screening is a test of the qualitative secondary metabolites biologically active compounds found in plants. In this study used a sample of red dragon fruit. The results of the analysis provide information regarding the types of biologically active compounds and levels of the active compound contained in the red dragon fruit.
Gorzsás, András; Sundberg, Björn
2014-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, and nondestructive technique for chemical profiling of plant materials. In this chapter we discuss the instrumental setup, the basic principles of analysis, and the possibilities for and limitations of obtaining qualitative and semiquantitative information by FT-IR spectroscopy. We provide detailed protocols for four fully customizable techniques: (1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS): a sensitive and high-throughput technique for powders; (2) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy: a technique that requires no sample preparation and can be used for solid samples as well as for cell cultures; (3) microspectroscopy using a single element (SE) detector: a technique used for analyzing sections at low spatial resolution; and (4) microspectroscopy using a focal plane array (FPA) detector: a technique for rapid chemical profiling of plant sections at cellular resolution. Sample preparation, measurement, and data analysis steps are listed for each of the techniques to help the user collect the best quality spectra and prepare them for subsequent multivariate analysis.
Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basalekou Marianthi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ali Mallah
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A simple, rapid and economical method for azithromycin quantification in solid tablet and capsule formulations has been developed by applying Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR transmission spectroscopy for regular quality monitoring. The newly developed method avoids the sample preparation, except grinding for pellet formation and does not involve consumption of any solvent as it absolutely eliminates the need of extraction. KBr pellets were employed for the appraisal of azithromycin while acquiring spectra of standards as well as samples on FT-IR. By selecting the FT-IR carbonyl band (C=O in the region 1,744–1,709 cm−1 the calibration model was developed based on simple Beer’s law. The excellent regression coefficient (R2 0.999 was accomplished for calibration set having standard error of calibration equal to 0.01 mg. The current work exposes that transmission FT-IR spectroscopy can definitely be applied to determine the exact amount of azithromycin to control the processing and quality of solid formulations with reduced cost and short analysis time.
Chen, Yanyan; Zou, Caineng; Mastalerz, Maria; Hu, Suyun; Gasaway, Carley; Tao, Xiaowan
2015-01-01
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic) systems. PMID:26694380
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanyan Chen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyedeh Zeinab Afzali
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Music is one of the branches of the art whose helpful role and usefulness in the human’s mind and soul is undeniable. It is the only art which in the philosophers’ divisions is directly linked with the human spirit and immediate overflows the ears of his soul. The sound, as a psychological phenomenon is associated with the emotion and excitement so that sometimes calms and sometimes confuses the human. This study aims to examine the technology of the gramophone records in the Music Museum by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR. The method of this research is experimental and the data are collected by documentation, library, and using FTIR tests. Some records of the Music Museum were studied including four samples of 78 rpm platter (stone platter, one sample of 45 rpm, and one sample of 33 rpm (vinyl platter. The results of the FTIR test indicated that the materials of the records were vinyl and shellac and in their raw material, some of the softening additives (phthalates and fillers (silica and calcium carbonate compounds had been used.
Analysis of pork adulteration in beef meatball using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
Rohman, A; Sismindari; Erwanto, Y; Che Man, Yaakob B
2011-05-01
Meatball is one of the favorite foods in Indonesia. The adulteration of pork in beef meatball is frequently occurring. This study was aimed to develop a fast and non destructive technique for the detection and quantification of pork in beef meatball using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) calibration. The spectral bands associated with pork fat (PF), beef fat (BF), and their mixtures in meatball formulation were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure PF and BF. For quantitative analysis, PLS regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1200-1000 cm(-1). The equation obtained for the relationship between actual PF value and FTIR predicted values in PLS calibration model was y = 0.999x + 0.004, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.999 and 0.442, respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples using laboratory made meatball samples containing the mixtures of BF and PF. Using 4 principal components, root mean square error of prediction is 0.742. The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the detection and quantification of pork in beef meatball formulation for Halal verification purposes. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amir, Rai Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Pasha, Imran; Nadeem, Muhammad
2013-10-01
Quality characteristics of wheat are determined by different physiochemical and rheological analysis by using different AACC methods. AACC methods are expensive, time consuming and cause destruction of samples. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most important and emerging tool used for analyzing wheat for different quality parameters. This technique is rapid and sensitive with a great variety of sampling techniques. In the present study different wheat varieties were analyzed for quality assessment and were also characterized by using AACC methods and FTIR technique. The straight grade flour was analyzed for physical, chemical and rheological properties by standard methods and results were obtained. FTIR works on the basis of functional groups and provide information in the form of peaks. On basis of peaks the value of moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and hardness of grain were determined. Peaks for water were observed in the range 1,640 cm(-1) and 3,300 cm(-1) on the basis of functional group H and OH. Protein was observed in the range from 1,600 cm(-1) to 1,700 cm(-1) and 1,550 cm(-1) to 1,570 cm(-1) on the basis of bond amide I and amide II respectively. Fat was also observed within these ranges but on the basis of C-H bond and also starch was observed in the range from 2,800 and 3,000 cm(-1) (C-H stretch region) and in the range 3,000 and 3,600 cm(-1) (O-H stretch region). As FTIR is a fast tool it can be easily emplyed for wheat varieties identification according to a set criterion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albero, Felipe Guimaraes
2009-07-01
Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by {mu}-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm{sup -1}), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm{sup -1} and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm{sup -1}, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm{sup -1}) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm{sup -1}. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm{sup -1} were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower
Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...
Thomas L. Eberhardt
2009-01-01
The outer bark (rhytidome) of the southern yellow pines is a complex structure comprised of alternating layers of obliterated phloem and periderm tissues, with the latter comprised of three layers, those being phellem, phellogen, and phelloderm. An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling accessory, coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer,...
Nielsen, L; Frokjaer, S; Carpenter, J F; Brange, J
2001-01-01
Fibril formation (aggregation) of insulin was investigated in acid media by visual inspection, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Insulin fibrillated faster in hydrochloric acid than in acetic acid at elevated temperatures, whereas the fibrillation tendencies were reversed at ambient temperatures. Electron micrographs showed that bovine insulin fibrils consisted of long fibers with a diameter of 5 to 10 nm and lengths of several microns. The fibrils appeared either as helical filaments (in hydrochloric acid) or arranged laterally in bundles (in acetic acid, NaCl). Freeze-thawing cycles broke the fibrils into shorter segments. FTIR spectroscopy showed that the native secondary structure of insulin was identical in hydrochloric acid and acetic acid, whereas the secondary structure of fibrils formed in hydrochloric acid was different from that formed in acetic acid. Fibrils of bovine insulin prepared by heating or agitating an acid solution of insulin showed an increased content of beta-sheet (mostly intermolecular) and a decrease in the intensity of the alpha-helix band. In hydrochloric acid, the frequencies of the beta-sheet bands depended on whether the fibrillation was induced by heating or agitation. This difference was not seen in acetic acid. Freeze-thawing cycles of the fibrils in hydrochloric acid caused an increase in the intensity of the band at 1635 cm(-1) concomitant with reduction of the band at 1622 cm(-1). The results showed that the structure of insulin fibrils is highly dependent on the composition of the acid media and on the treatment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90: 29-37, 2001
Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K
2016-07-01
Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Batina, N.; Reyna-Cordova, A.; Trinidad-Reyes, Y.
2005-01-01
Thin films of crude oil samples were prepared for atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis on the gold substrate. Sample preparation involved evaporation during a long (24 h) but mild thermal exposure (80 °C). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy (reflectance spectroscopy) was employed...... of oxidation state was compared to surface morphology data by AFM previously reported. The reported results emphasize the advantage of complementary techniques (AFM/FTIR microscopy) in the analysis of petroleum thin films that should be considered during analysis and interpretation of this type of data....... to determinate the quality of the thin film surface, before the morphology characterization. The surface reflectance spectra were compared to direct transmittance FTIR of liquid oil samples. The two FTIR techniques showed different spectral characteristics related to oxygenated functionalities. This clearly...
Nguyen, Peter L.; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J.
2015-01-01
High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis. PMID:25650759
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarr Cisse, Aita; Diaham, Babou; Dossou, Nicole; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Wade, Salimata; Bluck, Leslie
2002-01-01
Breastmilk output can be estimated from the mother's total body water and water turnover rates after oral administration of deuterium oxide. Usually the deuterium enrichments are determined using a isotope ratio mass spectrometer, which is expensive and requires a specialist for operation and maintenance. Such equipment is dfficult to set up in developing countries. A less expensive method was developed which uses a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) for deuterium enrichment analysis. This study evaluated the constraints of using FTIR to study lactating women in Senegal. The deuterium isotope method was found to be adequate for free living subjects and presented few constraints except for the duration of the saliva sampling (14 days). The method offers the opportunity to determine simultaneously breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and breastfeeding practices. Deuterium sample enrichments measured with FTIR were fast and easy, but for spectrum quality some environmental control is required to optimize the results. (Authors)
Study of Kerogen Maturity using Transmission Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
Dang, S. T.
2014-12-01
Maturity of kerogen in shale governs the productivity and generation hydrocarbon type. There are generally two accepted methods to measure kerogen maturity; one is the measurement of vitrinite reflectance, %Ro, and another is the measurement of Tmax through pyrolysis. However, each of these techniques has its own limits; vitrinite reflectance measurement cannot be applied to marine shale and pre-Silurian shales, which lack plant materials. Furthermore, %Ro, requires the isolation and identification of vitrinite macerals and statistical measurements of at least 50 macerals. Tmax measurement is questionable for mature and post-mature samples. In addition, there are questions involving the effects of solvents on Tmax determinations. Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy, FTIR, can be applied for both qualitative and quantitative assessment on organics maturity in shale. The technique does not require separating organic matter or identifying macerals. A CH2/CH3 index, RCH, calculated from FTIR spectra is more objective than other measurements. The index increases with maturity (both natural maturation and synthetic maturation through hydrous and dry pyrolysis). The new maturity index RCH can be calibrated to vitrinite reflectance which allows the definition of the following values for levels of maturity: 1) immature—RCH > 1.6±0.2; 2) oil window-- 1.6±0.2 1.3±0.3; 3) wet gas window--1.3±0.3 1.13±0.05; and 4) dry gas window RCH < 1.13±0.05.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.; Al Aji, Z.
1999-02-01
Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.
1999-01-01
Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)
Nikzad-Langerodi, Ramin; Arth, Katharina; Klatte-Asselmeyer, Valerie; Bressler, Sabine; Saukel, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dobeš, Christoph
2018-04-01
(Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. species aggregate with its three major ploidy cytotypes (i.e., di-, tetra- and octoploid). Calibration models were built by orthogonal partial least squares regression for quantitative analysis of (acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content. For the latter, we propose a simplistic protocol involving apolar extraction followed by gas chromatography as a reference method for multivariate calibration in order to handle the analysis of samples taken from individual plants. We found good predictive ability of chemometric models for quantification of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid, total sesquiterpenoid acid, and essential oil content with a root mean squared error of cross-validation of 0.064, 0.043, and 0.09 and root mean squared error of prediction of 0.066, 0.057, and 0.09 (% content), respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed good discriminability between the most productive phenotype (i.e., the octoploid cytotype) in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids, and the less productive ones (i.e., di- and tetraploid). All in all, our results demonstrate the application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid, extractionless estimation of the most important quality attributes of valerian root and minimally invasive identification of the most productive phenotype in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New
The applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in waste management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smidt, Ena; Meissl, Katharina
2007-01-01
State and stability or reactivity of waste materials are important properties that must be determined to obtain information about the future behavior and the emission potential of the materials. Different chemical and biological parameters are used to describe the stage of organic matter in waste materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides information about the chemistry of waste materials in a general way. Several indicator bands that are referred to functional groups represent components or metabolic products. Their presence and intensity or their absence shed light on the phase of degradation or stabilization. The rapid assessment of the stage of organic matter decomposition is a very important field of application. Therefore, infrared spectroscopy is an appropriate tool for process and quality control, for the assessment of abandoned landfills and for checking of the successful landfill remediation. A wide range of applications are presented in this study for different waste materials. Progressing stages of a typical yard/kitchen waste composting process are shown. The fate of anaerobically 'stabilized' leftovers in a subsequent liquid aerobic process is revealed by spectroscopic characteristics. A compost that underwent the biological stabilization process is distinguished from a 'substrate' that comprises immature biogenic waste mixed with mineral compounds. Infrared spectra of freeze-dried leachate from untreated and aerated landfill material prove the effect of the aerobic treatment during 10 weeks in laboratory-scale experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherazi, S.T.H.; Bhutto, A.A.; Mehesar, S.A.
2017-01-01
A cost effective and environmentally safe analytical method for rapid assessment of total phenolic content (TPC) in freeze dried lemon juice samples was developed using transmission Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in conjunction with chemometric techniques. Two types of calibrations i.e. simple Beer's law and partial least square (PLS) were applied to investigate most accurate calibration model based on region from1420 to 1330 cm-1. The better analytical performance was obtained by PLS technique coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) with the value of 0.999 and 0.00864, respectively. The results of TPC in freeze dried lemon juice samples obtained by transmission FT-IR were compared with TPC observed by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay and found to be comparable. Outcomes of the present study indicate that transmission FT-IR spectroscopic approach could be used as an alternative approach in place of Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay which is expensive and time-consuming conventional chemical methods for determination of the total phenolic content of lemon fruits. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Pongpiachan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Understanding the tsunami cycle requires a simple method for identification of tsunami backwash deposits. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy followed by careful analysis of variance (ANOVA, Gaussian distribution, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA for the discrimination of typical marine sediments and tsunami backwash deposits. In order to test the suitability of FTIR spectra as innovative methods for classifications of tsunami deposits, typical marine sediments and terrestrial soils were classified into three zones, namely zone-1 (i.e. typical marine sediments, zone-2 (i.e. including tsunami backwash deposits and zone-3 (i.e. coastal terrestrial soils. HCA was performed to group the spectra according to their spectral similarity in a dendrogram and successfully separate FTIR spectra of all three sampling zones into two main clusters with five sub-clusters. The simplicifolious (i.e. single-leafed type of dendrogram was observed with the strong dissimilarity of terrestrial components in subcluster- 5. Graphical displays of PC1 vs PC2 highlight the prominent features of zone-1, which is explicitly different from those of zone-2 and zone-3. The acceptable discrimination of typical marine sediments and tsunami backwash deposits, even six years after the tsunami on Boxing Day 2004, dramatically demonstrates the potential of the method for the identification of paleotsunami.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pelusi, A.; Hanawa, Y.; Araie, H.; Suzuki, I.; Giordano, Mario; Shiraiwa, I.
2016-01-01
Roč. 19, NOVEMBER 2016 (2016), s. 48-56 ISSN 2211-9264 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Rapid detection * haptophyte alkenones * Fourier spectroscopy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2016
Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; García-Ruiz, Carmen
2016-04-01
Body fluids are evidence of great forensic interest due to the DNA extracted from them, which allows genetic identification of people. This study focuses on the discrimination among semen, vaginal fluid, and urine stains (main fluids in sexual crimes) placed on different colored cotton fabrics by external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics. Semen-vaginal fluid mixtures and potential false positive substances commonly found in daily life such as soaps, milk, juices, and lotions were also studied. Results demonstrated that the IR spectral signature obtained for each body fluid allowed its identification and the correct classification of unknown stains by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Interestingly, results proved that these IR spectra did not show any bands due to the color of the fabric and no substance of those present in daily life which were analyzed, provided a false positive. © The Author(s) 2016.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brandes Ammann Andrea
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR has been used as analytical tool in chemistry for many years. In addition, FTIR can also be applied as a rapid and non-invasive method to detect and identify microorganisms. The specific and fingerprint-like spectra allow - under optimal conditions - discrimination down to the species level. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and reproducible non-molecular method to differentiate pure samples of Bacillus spores originating from different species as well as to identify spores in a simple matrix, such as the clay mineral, bentonite. Results We investigated spores from pure cultures of seven different Bacillus species by FTIR in reflection or transmission mode followed by chemometrical data treatment. All species investigated (B. atrophaeus, B. brevis, B. circulans, B. lentus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis are typical aerobic soil-borne spore formers. Additionally, a solid matrix (bentonite and mixtures of benonite with spores of B. megaterium at various wt/wt ratios were included in the study. Both hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the spectra along with multidimensional scaling allowed the discrimination of different species and spore-matrix-mixtures. Conclusions Our results show that FTIR spectroscopy is a fast method for species-level discrimination of Bacillus spores. Spores were still detectable in the presence of the clay mineral bentonite. Even a tenfold excess of bentonite (corresponding to 2.1 × 1010 colony forming units per gram of mineral matrix still resulted in an unambiguous identification of B. megaterium spores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Naeim Mohamad Asri
2015-12-01
Full Text Available FTIR spectroscopic techniques have been shown to possess good abilities to analyse ballpoint pen inks. These in-situ techniques involve directing light onto ballpoint ink samples to generate an FTIR spectrum, providing “molecular fingerprints” of the ink samples thus allowing comparison by direct visual comparison. In this study, ink from blue (n=15 and red (n=15 ballpoint pens of five different brands: Kilometrico®, G-Soft®, Stabilo®, Pilot® and Faber Castell® was analysed using the FTIR technique with the objective of establishing a distinctive differentiation according to the brand. The resulting spectra were first compared and grouped manually. Due to the similarities in terms of colour and shade of the inks, distinctive differentiation could not be achieved by means of direct visual comparison. However, when the same spectral data was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA software, distinctive grouping of the ballpoint pen inks was achieved. Our results demonstrate that PCA can be used objectively to investigate ballpoint pen inks of similar colour and more importantly of different brands.
Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Welser, Leslie; Bruch, Reinhard F.; Kano, Angelique; Makhine, Volodymyr
1999-10-01
A new infrared (IR) interferometric method has been developed in conjunction with low-loss, flexible optical fibers, sensors, and probes. This combination of fiber optical sensors and Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometers can be applied to many fields, including (1) noninvasive medical diagnostics of cancer and other different diseases in vivo, (2) minimally invasive bulk diagnostics of tissue, (3) remote monitoring of tissue, chemical processes, and environment, (4) surface analysis of polymers and other materials, (5) characterization of the quality of food, pharmacological products, cosmetics, paper, and other wood-related products, as well as (6) agricultural, forensic, geological, mining, and archeological field measurements. In particular, our nondestructive, fast, compact, portable, remote and highly sensitive diagnostics tools are very promising for subsurface analysis at the molecular level without sample preparation. For example, this technique is ideal for different types of soft porous foams, rough polymers, and rock surfaces. Such surfaces, as well as living tissue, are very difficult to investigate by traditional FTIR methods. We present here FEW-FTIR spectra of polymers, banana and grapefruit peels, and living tissues detected directly at surfaces. In addition, results on the vibrational spectral analysis of normal and pathological skin tissue in the region of 850 - 4000 cm-1 are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Elaine; Silva, Ieda de S.; Gomide, Ricardo G.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.
2015-01-01
This work presents a low cost, simple and new methodology for direct determination uranium in different matrices uranium: organic phase (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .2TBP - uranyl nitrate complex) and aqueous phase (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 - NTU - uranyl nitrate), based on Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using KBr pellets technique. The analytical validation is essential to define if a developed methodology is completely adjusted to the objectives that it is destined and is considered one of the main instruments of quality control. The parameters used in the validation process were: selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LD) and quantitation (LQ), precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and robustness. The method for uranium in organic phase (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .2TBP in hexane/embedded in KBr) was linear (r=0.9989) over the range of 1.0 g L -1 a 14.3 g L -1 , LD were 92.1 mg L -1 and LQ 113.1 mg L -1 , precision (RSD < 1.6% and p-value < 0.05), accurate (recovery of 100.1% - 102.9%). The method for uranium aqueous phase (UO 2 (NO 3 )2/embedded in KBr) was linear (r=0.9964) over the range of 5.4 g L -1 a 51.2 g L -1 , LD were 835 mg L -1 and LQ 958 mg L -1 , precision (RSD < 1.0% and p-value < 0.05), accurate (recovery of 99.1% - 102.0%). The FTIR method is robust regarding most of the variables analyzed, as the difference between results obtained under nominal and modified conditions were lower than the critical value for all analytical parameters studied. Some process samples were analyzed in FTIR and compared with gravimetric and x ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showing similar results in all three methods. The statistical tests (Student-t and Fischer) showed that the techniques are equivalent. (author)
Garriques, Liza Nielsen; Frokjaer, Sven; Carpenter, John F; Brange, Jens
2002-12-01
Fibril formation (aggregation) of human and bovine insulin and six human insulin mutants in hydrochloric acid were investigated by visual inspection, Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The fibrillation tendencies of the wild-type insulins and the insulin mutants were (in order of decreasing fibrillation tendencies): Glu(B1) + Glu(B27) = bovine < human < des-(B1,B2)-insulin < Ser(B2) + Asp(B10) < Glu(A13) + Glu(B10) = Gln(B17) < Asp(B10). Transmission electron micrographs showed that the protofibrils of the mutants were similar to those of wild-type insulins and had a diameter of 5-10 nm and lengths varying from 50 nm to several microns. The fibrils of human insulin mutants exhibited varying degrees of lateral aggregation. The Asp(B10) mutant and human insulin had greater tendency to form laterally aggregated fibrils arranged in parallel bundles, whereas fibrils of the other mutants and bovine insulin were mainly arranged in helical filaments. FTIR spectroscopy showed that the native secondary structure of the wild-type insulins and the human insulin mutants in hydrochloric acid were identical, whereas the secondary structure of the fibrils formed by heating at 50 degrees C depended on the amino acid substitution. FTIR spectra of fibrils of the human insulin mutants exhibited different beta-sheet bands at 1,620-1,640 cm(-1), indicating that the beta-sheet interactions in the fibrils depended on variations in the primary structure of insulin. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:2473-2480, 2002
Heperkan, Dilek; Gökmen, Ece
2016-07-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of FTIR spectroscopy as a rapid screening method to detect fumonisin produced by Aspergillus niger. A. niger spore suspensions isolated from raisins were inoculated in Petri dishes prepared with sultana raisin or black raisin extracts containing agar and malt extract agar (MEA). After 9 days of incubation at 25°C, fumonisin B2 (FB2) production on each agar plate was determined by subjecting the agar plugs to IR spectroscopy. The presence of amino group (at 1636-1639 cm(-1)) was especially indicative of fumonisin production in MEA and the raisin extracts containing agar. The results were confirmed by HPLC analysis of the agar sample extracts after immunoaffinity column cleanup. It was determined that A. niger produced more FB2 in sultana raisins than in MEA, with no FB2 being produced in black raisin extract agar. This study demonstrated that proper sample preparation procedure followed by FTIR analysis is a useful technique for identifying toxigenic molds and their mycotoxin production in agricultural commodities.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fiber optic monitoring of composites during cure in an autoclave
Druy, Mark A.; Elandjian, Lucy; Stevenson, William A.; Driver, Richard D.; Leskowitz, Garett M.
1990-01-01
Real-time in situ monitoring of the chemical states of epoxy resins was investigated during cure in an autoclave using infrared evanescent spectroscopy. Fiber evanescent sensors were developed which may be sandwiched between the plies of the prepreg sample. A short length of sapphire fiber was used as the sensor cell portion of the fiber probe. Heavy metal fluoride glass optical fiber cables were designed for connecting the FTIR spectrometer to the sensor fiber within the autoclave. The sapphire fibers have outstanding mechanical thermal properties which should permit their use as an embedded link in all thermoset composites. The system is capable of operation at a temperature of 250 C for periods up to 8 hours without major changes to the fiber transmission. A discussion of the selection of suitable sensor fibers, the construction of a fiber-optic interface, and the interpretation of in situ infrared spectra of the curing process is presented.
Ogburn, Zachary L; Vogt, Frank
2018-03-01
With increasing amounts of anthropogenic pollutants being released into ecosystems, it becomes ever more important to understand their fate and interactions with living organisms. Microalgae play an important ecological role as they are ubiquitous in marine environments and sequester inorganic pollutants which they transform into organic biomass. Of particular interest in this study is their role as a sink for atmospheric CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algal blooms. Novel chemometric hard-modeling methodologies have been developed for interpreting phytoplankton's chemical and physiological adaptations to changes in their growing environment. These methodologies will facilitate investigations of environmental impacts of anthropogenic pollutants on chemical and physiological properties of marine microalgae (here: Nannochloropsis oculata). It has been demonstrated that attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can gain insights into both and this study only focuses on the latter. From time-series of spectra, the rate of microalgal biomass settling on top of a horizontal ATR element is derived which reflects several of phytoplankton's physiological parameters such as growth rate, cell concentrations, cell size, and buoyancy. In order to assess environmental impacts on such parameters, microalgae cultures were grown under 25 different chemical scenarios covering 200-600 ppm atmospheric CO 2 and 0.35-0.75 mM dissolved NO 3 - . After recording time-series of ATR FT-IR spectra, a multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm extracted spectroscopic and time profiles from each data set. From the time profiles, it was found that in the considered concentration ranges only NO 3 - has an impact on the cells' physiological properties. In particular, the cultures' growth rate has been influenced by the ambient chemical conditions. Thus, the presented spectroscopic
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to detect Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis foodborne bacteria and distinguish between live and dead cells of both serotypes. Bacteria were loaded individually on the ZnSe Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) crystal surface and s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli Li
Full Text Available The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR transmission spectroscopy for determination of lead chrome green in green tea was investigated based on chemometric methods. Firstly, the qualitative analysis of lead chrome green in tea was performed based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and the correct rate of classification was 100%. And then, a hybrid method of interval partial least squares (iPLS regression and successive projections algorithm (SPA was proposed to select characteristic wavenumbers for the quantitative analysis of lead chrome green in green tea, and 19 wavenumbers were obtained finally. Among these wavenumbers, 1384 (C = C, 1456, 1438, 1419(C = N, and 1506 (CNH cm-1 were the characteristic wavenumbers of lead chrome green. Then, these 19 wavenumbers were used to build determination models. The best model was achieved by least squares support vector machine (LS-SVMalgorithm with high coefficient of determination and low root-mean square error of prediction set (R2p = 0.864 and RMSEP = 0.291. All these results indicated the feasibility of IR spectra for detecting lead chrome green in green tea.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohrab Rohani
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the polymorphic transformation of carbamazepine from Form II to Form III in 1-propanol during seeded isothermal batch crystallization. First, the pure Form II and Form III were obtained and characterized. Then their solubilities and metastable zone limits were measured by in-situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM. A transition temperature at about 34.2 °C was deduced suggesting the enantiotropic nature of this compound over the studied temperature range. To quantify the polymorph ratio during the transformation process, a new in-situ quantitative method was developed to measure the fraction of Form II by Raman spectroscopy. Successful tracking of the nucleation of the stable form and the transformation from Form II to Form III during isothermal crystallization was achieved by Raman spectroscopy and FBRM. The results from these three in-situ techniques, FBRM, FTIR and Raman were consistent with each other. The results showed a strong dependency on the amount of seeds added during isothermal crystallization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eyring, E.M.
1997-11-04
Two step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were purchased with URI-DOE funds by the University of Utah. These infrared spectrometers have been used to carry out the following investigations: the determination of strength of adsorption of organic molecules at the liquid-solid interface of coated attenuated total reflectance (ATR) elements, the kinetic study of the photoinitiated polymerization of a dental resin, the exploration of the kinetics of photochemical reactions of organic molecules in solution, and the development of a stopped-flow FTIR interface for measuring rates and mechanisms of reactions in solution that are not photoinitiated and do not have convenient ultraviolet-visible spectral features.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruvolo-Filho, Adhemar; Pelozzi, Tadeu Luiz Alonso, E-mail: adhemar@power.ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica
2013-07-01
In this work a new method was developed for monitoring the oxidative stability of restabilized and non-restabilized low-density polyethylene (LDPE) during multiple extrusion cycles. The method is based on correlations between Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Onset Oxidation Temperature (OOT). Non-linear calibration curves correlating the concentration of primary or secondary antioxidants and the OOT values were obtained. (author)
Ramachandran, Gayathri
2017-01-01
Kinetic studies of tau fibril formation in vitro most commonly employ spectroscopic probes such as thioflavinT fluorescence and laser light scattering or negative stain transmission electron microscopy. Here, I describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as complementary probes for studies of tau aggregation. The sensitivity of vibrational spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and UVRR) to secondary structure content allows for measurement of conformational changes that occur when the intrinsically disordered protein tau transforms into cross-β-core containing fibrils. AFM imaging serves as a gentle probe of structures populated over the time course of tau fibrillization. Together, these assays help further elucidate the structural and mechanistic complexity inherent in tau fibril formation.
Sato, Kenichi; Seimiya, Masanori; Kodera, Yoshio; Kitamura, Akihide; Nomura, Fumio
2010-02-01
Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a simple and reagent-free physicochemical analysis method, and is a potential alternative to more time-consuming and labor-intensive procedures. In this study, we aimed to use FT-IR spectroscopy to determine serum concentrations of chylomicron-triglyceride (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG. We analyzed a chylomicron fraction and VLDL fraction, which had been obtained by ultracentrifugation, to search for wavelengths to designate to each fraction. Then, partial least square (PLS) calibrations were developed using a training set of samples, for which TG concentrations had been determined by conventional procedures. Validation was conducted with another set of samples using the PLS model to predict serum TG concentrations on the basis of the samples' IR spectra. We analyzed a total of 150 samples. Serum concentrations of chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG estimated by FT-IR spectroscopy agreed well with those obtained by the reference method (r=0.97 for both lipoprotein fractions). FT-IR spectrometric analysis required 15mul of serum and was completed within 1min. Serum chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG concentrations can be determined with FT-IR spectroscopy. This rapid and simple test may have a great impact on the management of patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.H.; Riella, H.G.; Guedes, S.M.L.
1995-01-01
The effects of gamma radiation on Epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes, were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The spectra showed no significant modifications on Epoxy resin functional groups (irradiated with dose from 0 to 1 MGy). Up to 1 MGy Epoxy resin did not oxidize, confirming the Epoxy good radiation strength. The presence of aromatic chain and amine group, mainly tertiary amine, give good radiolytic stability to the Epoxy, increasing the interest to use this material in nuclear facilities. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs
Generalized Fourier transforms classes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen
2002-01-01
The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...
App. 1. Fourier series and Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1977-01-01
Definitions, formulas and practical properties in quantum mechanics are presented: Fourier series (development of periodic function, Bessel-Parseval equality); Fourier transform (Parseval-Plancherel formula, Fourier transform in three-dimensional space) [fr
Generalized Fourier transforms classes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen
2002-01-01
The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....
Fractional finite Fourier transform.
Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas
2004-07-01
We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.
Weinstock, B André; Guiney, Linda M; Loose, Christopher
2012-11-01
We have developed a rapid, nondestructive analytical method that estimates the thickness of a surface polymer layer with high precision but unknown accuracy using a single attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) measurement. Because the method is rapid, nondestructive, and requires no sample preparation, it is ideal as a process analytical technique. Prior to implementation, the ATR FT-IR spectrum of the substrate layer pure component and the ATR FT-IR and real refractive index spectra of the surface layer pure component must be known. From these three input spectra a synthetic mid-infrared spectral matrix of surface layers 0 nm to 10,000 nm thick on substrate is created de novo. A minimum statistical distance match between a process sample's ATR FT-IR spectrum and the synthetic spectral matrix provides the thickness of that sample. We show that this method can be used to successfully estimate the thickness of polysulfobetaine surface modification, a hydrated polymeric surface layer covalently bonded onto a polyetherurethane substrate. A database of 1850 sample spectra was examined. Spectrochemical matrix-effect unknowns, such as the nonuniform and molecularly novel polysulfobetaine-polyetherurethane interface, were found to be minimal. A partial least squares regression analysis of the database spectra versus their thicknesses as calculated by the method described yielded an estimate of precision of ±52 nm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hallenga, K.
1991-01-01
This paper discusses the concept of Fourier transformation one of the many precious legacies of the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, essential for understanding the link between continuous-wave (CW) and Fourier transform (FT) NMR. Although in modern FT NMR the methods used to obtain a frequency spectrum from the time-domain signal may vary greatly, from the efficient Cooley-Tukey algorithm to very elaborate iterative least-square methods based other maximum entropy method or on linear prediction, the principles for Fourier transformation are unchanged and give invaluable insight into the interconnection of many pairs of physical entities called Fourier pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsao, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chang-Fu; Chang, Pao-Erh; Chen, Shin-Yu; Hwang, Yaw-Huei
2011-01-01
This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park. There was a combined total odor rate of 43.9% for the three monitoring paths, each comprised of 736 continuous 5-minute monitoring records and containing detectable odor compounds, such as ammonia, ozone, butyl acetate, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). The results of the logistic regression model indicated that the prevailing south wind and the OP-FTIR monitoring path closest to the emission source in down-wind direction resulted in a high efficacy for detecting odorous samples with odds ratios (OR) of 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-5.0) and 5.1 (95% CI: 3.6-7.2), respectively. Meanwhile, the odds ratio for detecting ammonia odorous samples was 7.5 for Path II, which was downwind closer to the possible source, as compared to Path III, downwind far away from the possible source. PGMEA could not be monitored at Path II but could be at Path III, indicating the importance of the monitoring path and flow ejection velocities inside the stacks on the monitoring performance of OP-FTIR. Besides, an odds ratio of 5.1 for odorous sample detection was obtained with south prevailing wind comprising 65.0% of the monitoring time period. In general, it is concluded that OP-FTIR operated with multiple paths simultaneously shall be considered for investigation on relatively complicated episodes such as emergency of chemical release, multiple-source emission and chemical monitoring for odor in a densely populated plant area to enhance the efficacy of OP-FTIR monitoring. - Research highlights: → To conduct multi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsao, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chang-Fu [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei City 100, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pao-Erh; Chen, Shin-Yu [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu City 310, Taiwan 310 (China); Hwang, Yaw-Huei, E-mail: yhhwang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei City 100, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 100, Taiwan (China)
2011-08-01
This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park. There was a combined total odor rate of 43.9% for the three monitoring paths, each comprised of 736 continuous 5-minute monitoring records and containing detectable odor compounds, such as ammonia, ozone, butyl acetate, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). The results of the logistic regression model indicated that the prevailing south wind and the OP-FTIR monitoring path closest to the emission source in down-wind direction resulted in a high efficacy for detecting odorous samples with odds ratios (OR) of 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-5.0) and 5.1 (95% CI: 3.6-7.2), respectively. Meanwhile, the odds ratio for detecting ammonia odorous samples was 7.5 for Path II, which was downwind closer to the possible source, as compared to Path III, downwind far away from the possible source. PGMEA could not be monitored at Path II but could be at Path III, indicating the importance of the monitoring path and flow ejection velocities inside the stacks on the monitoring performance of OP-FTIR. Besides, an odds ratio of 5.1 for odorous sample detection was obtained with south prevailing wind comprising 65.0% of the monitoring time period. In general, it is concluded that OP-FTIR operated with multiple paths simultaneously shall be considered for investigation on relatively complicated episodes such as emergency of chemical release, multiple-source emission and chemical monitoring for odor in a densely populated plant area to enhance the efficacy of OP-FTIR monitoring. - Research highlights: {yields} To conduct
Mietke, Henriette; Beer, W; Schleif, Julia; Schabert, G; Reissbrodt, R
2010-05-30
Animal feed often contains probiotic Bacillus strains used as feed additives. Spores of the non-pathogenic B. cereus var. toyoi (product name Toyocerin) are used. Distinguishing between toxic wild-type Bacillus cereus strains and this probiotic strain is essential for evaluating the quality and risk of feed. Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 (product name Paciflor was used as probiotic strain until 2001. The properties of the two probiotic strains are quite similar. Differentiating between probiotic strains and wild-type B. cereus strains is not easy. ss-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cefamandole exhibit an inhibition zone in the agar diffusion test of probiotic B. cereus strains which are not seen for wild-type strains. Therefore, performing the agar diffusion test first may make sense before FT-IR testing. When randomly checking these strains by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the probiotic B. cereus strains were separated from wild-type B. cereus/B. thuringiensis/B. mycoides/B. weihenstephanensis strains by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The discriminatory information was contained in the spectral windows 3000-2800 cm(-1) ("fatty acid region"), 1200-900 cm(-1) ("carbohydrate region") and 900-700 cm(-1) ("fingerprint region"). It is concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid quality control and risk analysis of animal feed containing probiotic B. cereus strains. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yongliang; Kim, Hee-Jin
2017-06-22
With cotton fiber growth or maturation, cellulose content in cotton fibers markedly increases. Traditional chemical methods have been developed to determine cellulose content, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive, mostly owing to the slow hydrolysis process of fiber cellulose components. As one approach, the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy technique has also been utilized to monitor cotton cellulose formation, by implementing various spectral interpretation strategies of both multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and 1-, 2- or 3-band/-variable intensity or intensity ratios. The main objective of this study was to compare the correlations between cellulose content determined by chemical analysis and ATR FT-IR spectral indices acquired by the reported procedures, among developmental Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and immature fiber ( im ) mutant cotton fibers. It was observed that the R value, CI IR , and the integrated intensity of the 895 cm -1 band exhibited strong and linear relationships with cellulose content. The results have demonstrated the suitability and utility of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, combined with a simple algorithm analysis, in assessing cotton fiber cellulose content, maturity, and crystallinity in a manner which is rapid, routine, and non-destructive.
Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing
2017-03-01
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.
Liu, Sheng-jin; Yang, Huan; Wu, De-kang; Xu, Chun-xiang; Lin, Rui-chao; Tian, Jin-gai; Fang, Fang
2015-04-01
In the present paper, the fingerprint of Limonitum (a mineral Chinese medicine) by FTIR was established, and the spectrograms among crude samples, processed one and the adulterant sample were compared. Eighteen batches of Limonitum samples from different production areas were analyzed and the angle cosine value of transmittance (%) of common peaks was calculated to get the similarity of the FTIR fingerprints. The result showed that the similarities and the coefficients of the samples were all more than 0.90. The processed samples revealed significant differences compared with the crude one. This study analyzed the composition characteristics of Limonitum in FTIR fingerprint, and it was simple and fast to distinguish the crude, processed and the counterfeit samples. The FTIR fingerprints provide a new method for evaluating the quality of Limonitum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poultney, Darren; Snell, David
2008-01-01
Electrical steels are highly specialised, magnetically soft materials, used to form the cores that carry the magnetic flux in electrical machines such as motors, generators and transformers. The steel strip is coated with a phosphate-based solution, which, on curing, provides an electrically insulating layer that also imparts a tension onto the strip. It has previously been shown that the magnetic losses of the material are affected by the ratio of phosphate and silica within the coating solution [O. Tanaka, H. Kobayashi, E. Minematsu, New insulating coating for grain-oriented electrical steel, J. Mater. Eng. 13 (1991) 161-168.]. It would therefore be highly beneficial to possess an analytical technique that can be used to accurately and rapidly determine the composition of this coating. This paper details the evaluation of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique for this purpose. Analysing each of the important constituents separately enabled their specific absorption bands to be identified, and laboratory trials produced spectra that exhibited a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Analysis of samples coated under production conditions was found to be more challenging due to the detection of an underlying forsterite layer. However, there is potential for FTIR analysis when using regions of the spectra that were unaffected by this compound
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Armando Guerrero Peña
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We propose an analytical method based on fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to detect the adulteration of petrodiesel and petrodiesel/palm biodiesel blends with African crude palm oil. The infrared spectral fingerprints from the sample analysis were used to perform principal components analysis (PCA and to construct a prediction model using partial least squares (PLS regression. The PCA results separated the samples into three groups, allowing identification of those subjected to adulteration with palm oil. The obtained model shows a good predictive capacity for determining the concentration of palm oil in petrodiesel/biodiesel blends. Advantages of the proposed method include cost-effectiveness and speed; it is also environmentally friendly.
Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan
2017-02-01
Oral cancer is the most frequent type of cancer that occurs with 75000 to 80000 new cases reported every year in India. The carcinogens from tobacco and related products are the main cause for the oral cancer. ATR-FTIR method is label free, fast and cost-effective diagnostic method would allow for rapid diagnostic results in earlier stages by the minimal chemical changes occur in the biological metabolites available in the blood plasma. The present study reports the use of ATR-FTIR data with advanced statistical model (LDA-ANN) in the diagnosis of oral cancer from normal with better accuracy. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Jasco spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 5 spectra recorded from each blood plasma sample. The spectral data were routed through the multilayer perception of artificial neural network to evaluate for the statistical efficacy. Among the spectral data it was found that amide II (1486 cm-1) and lipid (1526 cm-1) affords about 90 % in the discrimination between groups using LDA. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal subject from oral cancer patients using blood plasma.
Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry
Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander
2011-01-01
This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802
Lv, Jungang; Feng, Jimin; Zhang, Wen; Shi, Rongguang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Meng
2013-01-01
Pressure-sensitive tape is often used to bind explosive devices. It can become important trace evidence in many cases. Three types of calcium carbonate (heavy, light, and active CaCO(3)), which were widely used as additives in pressure-sensitive tape substrate, were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in this study. A Spectrum GX 2000 system with a diamond anvil cell and a deuterated triglycine sulfate detector was employed for IR observation. Background was subtracted for every measurement, and triplicate tests were performed. Differences in positions of main peaks and the corresponding functional groups were investigated. Heavy CaCO(3) could be identified from the two absorptions near 873 and 855/cm, while light CaCO(3) only has one peak near 873/cm because of the low content of aragonite. Active CaCO(3) could be identified from the absorptions in the 2800-2900/cm region because of the existence of organic compounds. Tiny but indicative changes in the 878-853/cm region were found in the spectra of CaCO(3) with different content of aragonite and calcite. CaCO(3) in pressure-sensitive tape, which cannot be differentiated by scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and thermal analysis, can be easily identified using FTIR. The findings were successfully applied to three specific explosive cases and would be helpful in finding the possible source of explosive devices in future cases. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Bridelli, M. G.; Capelletti, R.; Mora, C.
2013-12-01
Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100-300 K (type I) and 100-285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (aw = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH2/CH3, PO_{2}^{-} and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bridelli, M G; Capelletti, R; Mora, C
2013-01-01
Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100–300 K (type I) and 100–285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (a w = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH 2 /CH 3 , PO 2 − and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed. (paper)
Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary; Bauer, Philip; VanDerveer, Don
2012-08-01
Despite considerable efforts in developing curve-fitting protocols to evaluate the crystallinity index (CI) from X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, in its present state XRD can only provide a qualitative or semi-quantitative assessment of the amounts of crystalline or amorphous fraction in a sample. The greatest barrier to establishing quantitative XRD is the lack of appropriate cellulose standards, which are needed to calibrate the XRD measurements. In practice, samples with known CI are very difficult to prepare or determine. In a previous study, we reported the development of a simple algorithm for determining fiber crystallinity information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hence, in this study we not only compared the fiber crystallinity information between FT-IR and XRD measurements, by developing a simple XRD algorithm in place of a time-consuming and subjective curve-fitting process, but we also suggested a direct way of determining cotton cellulose CI by calibrating XRD with the use of CI(IR) as references.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Olivia Conrad
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Over the last two decades coast live oak (CLO dominance in many California coastal ecosystems has been threatened by the alien invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death. In spite of high infection and mortality rates in some areas, the presence of apparently resistant trees has been observed, including trees that become infected but recover over time. However, identifying resistant trees based on recovery alone can take many years. The objective of this study was to determine if Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, a chemical fingerprinting technique, can be used to identify CLO resistant to P. ramorum prior to infection. Soft independent modeling of class analogy identified spectral regions that differed between resistant and susceptible trees. Regions most useful for discrimination were associated with carbonyl group vibrations. Additionally, concentrations of two putative phenolic biomarkers of resistance were predicted using partial least squares regression; > 99% of the variation was explained by this analysis. This study demonstrates that chemical fingerprinting can be used to identify resistance in a natural population of forest trees prior to infection with a pathogen. FT-IR spectroscopy may be a useful approach for managing forests impacted by sudden oak death, as well as in other situations where emerging or existing forest pests and diseases are of concern.
Ferguson, Frank T.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III
2015-01-01
One possible origin of prebiotic organic material is that these compounds were formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on silicate and oxide grains in the warm, inner-solar nebula. To investigate this possibility, an experimental system has been built in which the catalytic efficiency of different grain-analog materials can be tested. During such runs, the gas phase above these grain analogs is sampled using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To provide quantitative estimates of the concentration of these gases, a technique in which high-resolution spectra of the gases are calculated using the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) database is used. Next, these spectra are processed via a method that mimics the processes giving rise to the instrumental line shape of the FT-IR spectrometer, including apodization, self-apodization, and broadening due to the finite resolution. The result is a very close match between the measured and computed spectra. This technique was tested using four major gases found in the FTT reactions: carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. For the ranges typical of the FTT reactions, the carbon monoxide results were found to be accurate to within 5% and the remaining gases accurate to within 10%. These spectra can then be used to generate synthetic calibration data, allowing the rapid computation of the gas concentrations in the FTT experiments.
Ye, Qiang; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Abedin, Farhana; Laurence, Jennifer S; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette
2013-12-01
Water is ubiquitous in the mouths of healthy individuals and is a major interfering factor in the development of a durable seal between the tooth and composite restoration. Water leads to the formation of a variety of defects in dentin adhesives; these defects undermine the tooth-composite bond. Our group recently analyzed phase partitioning of dentin adhesives using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration measurements provided by HPLC offered a more thorough representation of current adhesive performance and elucidated directions to be taken for further improvement. The sample preparation and instrument analysis using HPLC are, however, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The objective of this work was to develop a methodology for rapid, reliable, and accurate quantitative analysis of near-equilibrium phase partitioning in adhesives exposed to conditions simulating the wet oral environment. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical methods, including partial least squares (PLS) regression and principal component regression (PCR), were used for multivariate calibration to quantify the compositions in separated phases. Excellent predictions were achieved when either the hydrophobic-rich phase or the hydrophilic-rich phase mixtures were analyzed. These results indicate that FT-IR spectroscopy has excellent potential as a rapid method of detection and quantification of dentin adhesives that experience phase separation under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment.
Millan-Oropeza, Aaron; Rebois, Rolando; David, Michelle; Moussa, Fathi; Dazzi, Alexandre; Bleton, Jean; Virolle, Marie-Joelle; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane
2017-10-01
There is a growing interest worldwide for the production of renewable oil without mobilizing agriculture lands; fast and reliable methods are needed to identify highly oleaginous microorganisms of potential industrial interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relevance of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to achieve this goal. To do so, the total lipid content of lyophilized samples of five Streptomyces strains with varying lipid content was assessed with two classical quantitative but time-consuming methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in transmission mode with KBr pellets and the fast ATR method, often questioned for its lack of reliability. A linear correlation between these three methods was demonstrated allowing the establishment of equations to convert ATR values expressed as CO/amide I ratio, into micrograms of lipid per milligram of biomass. The ATR method proved to be as reliable and quantitative as the classical GC-MS and FT-IR in transmission mode methods but faster and more reproducible than the latter since it involves far less manipulation for sample preparation than the two others. Attenuated total reflection could be regarded as an efficient fast screening method to identify natural or genetically modified oleaginous microorganisms by the scientific community working in the field of bio-lipids.
Ogren, John I; Yi, Adrian; Mamaev, Sergey; Li, Hai; Spudich, John L; Rothschild, Kenneth J
2015-05-15
Channelrhodopsin-1 from the alga Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) is a low-efficiency light-activated cation channel that exhibits properties useful for optogenetic applications such as a slow light inactivation and a red-shifted visible absorption maximum as compared with the more extensively studied channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR2). Previously, both resonance Raman and low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy revealed that unlike CrChR2, CaChR1 under our conditions exhibits an almost pure all-trans retinal composition in the unphotolyzed ground state and undergoes an all-trans to 13-cis isomerization during the primary phototransition typical of other microbial rhodopsins such as bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Here, we apply static and rapid-scan FTIR difference spectroscopy along with site-directed mutagenesis to characterize the proton transfer events occurring upon the formation of the long-lived conducting P2 (380) state of CaChR1. Assignment of carboxylic C=O stretch bands indicates that Asp-299 (homolog to Asp-212 in BR) becomes protonated and Asp-169 (homolog to Asp-85 in BR) undergoes a net change in hydrogen bonding relative to the unphotolyzed ground state of CaChR1. These data along with earlier FTIR measurements on the CaChR1 → P1 transition are consistent with a two-step proton relay mechanism that transfers a proton from Glu-169 to Asp-299 during the primary phototransition and from the Schiff base to Glu-169 during P2 (380) formation. The unusual charge neutrality of both Schiff base counterions in the P2 (380) conducting state suggests that these residues may function as part of a cation selective filter in the open channel state of CaChR1 as well as other low-efficiency ChRs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing
2017-03-05
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Priyanto Slamet
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Lignin from biomass waste (Black Liquor was isolated by using sulfuric acid 25% and sodium hydroxide solutions 2N. The obtained lignin was reacted with Sodium Bisulfite to Sodium Ligno Sulfonate (SLS. The best result was achieved at 80 ° C, pH 9, ratio of lignin and bisulfite 4: 1, for 2 hours, and 290 rpm stirring rate. The result of lignin formed was sulfonated using Sodium Bisulfite (NaHSO3 to Sodium Ligno Sulfonate (SLS whose results were tested by the role of groups in peak formation by FTIR and compared to the spectrum of Sodium Ligno Sulfonate made from pure Lignin (commercial reacted with the commercial Sodium Bisulfite. The result can be seen by the typical functional groups present in the SLS.
Witjaksono, Gunawan; Saputra, Irwan; Latief, Marsad; Jaswir, Irwandi; Akmeliawati, Rini; Abdelkreem Saeed Rabih, Almur
2017-11-01
Consumption of meat from halal (lawful) sources is essential for Muslims. The identification of non-halal meat is one of the main issues that face consumers in meat markets, especially in non-Islamic countries. Pig is one of the non-halal sources of meat, and hence pig meat and its derivatives are forbidden for Muslims to consume. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the biomarkers for nonhalal meats like pig meat, these studies are still in their infancy stages, and as a result there is no universal biomarker which could be used for clear cut identification. The purpose of this paper is to use Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (GC-TOF MS) techniques to study fat of pig, cow, lamb and chicken to find possible biomarkers for pig fat (lard) identification. FTIR results showed that lard and chicken fat have unique peaks at wavenumbers 1159.6 cm-1, 1743.4 cm-1, 2853.1 cm-1 and 2922.5 cm-1 compared to lamb and beef fats which did not show peaks at these wavenumbers. On the other hand, GC/MS-TOF results showed that the concentration of 1,2,3-trimethyl-Benzene, Indane, and Undecane in lard are 250, 14.5 and 1.28 times higher than their concentrations in chicken fat, respectively, and 91.4, 2.3 and 1.24 times higher than their concentrations in cow fat, respectively. These initial results clearly indicate that there is a possibility to find biomarkers for non-halal identification.
Taylor, Erik A; Lloyd, Ashley A; Salazar-Lara, Carolina; Donnelly, Eve
2017-10-01
Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging techniques can be used to characterize bone composition. In this study, our objective was to validate the Raman mineral:matrix ratios (ν 1 PO 4 :amide III, ν 1 PO 4 :amide I, ν 1 PO 4 :Proline + hydroxyproline, ν 1 PO 4 :Phenylalanine, ν 1 PO 4 :δ CH 2 peak area ratios) by correlating them to ash fraction and the IR mineral:matrix ratio (ν 3 PO 4 :amide I peak area ratio) in chemical standards and native bone tissue. Chemical standards consisting of varying ratios of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen, as well as bone tissue from humans, sheep, and mice, were characterized with confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and gravimetric analysis. Raman and IR mineral:matrix ratio values from chemical standards increased reciprocally with ash fraction (Raman ν 1 PO 4 /Amide III: P Raman ν 1 PO 4 /Amide I: P Raman ν 1 PO 4 /Proline + Hydroxyproline: P Raman ν 1 PO 4 /Phenylalanine: P Raman ν 1 PO 4 /δ CH 2 : P Raman and IR mineral:matrix ratio values were strongly correlated ( P Raman mineral:matrix bone composition parameter correlates strongly to ash fraction and to its IR counterpart. Finally, the mineral:matrix ratio values of the native bone tissue are similar to those of both chemical standards and theoretical values, confirming the biological relevance of the chemical standards and the characterization techniques.
Mainali, Dipak; Seelenbinder, John
2016-05-01
Quick and presumptive identification of seized drug samples without destroying evidence is necessary for law enforcement officials to control the trafficking and abuse of drugs. This work reports an automated screening method to detect the presence of cocaine in seized samples using portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers. The method is based on the identification of well-defined characteristic vibrational frequencies related to the functional group of the cocaine molecule and is fully automated through the use of an expert system. Traditionally, analysts look for key functional group bands in the infrared spectra and characterization of the molecules present is dependent on user interpretation. This implies the need for user expertise, especially in samples that likely are mixtures. As such, this approach is biased and also not suitable for non-experts. The method proposed in this work uses the well-established "center of gravity" peak picking mathematical algorithm and combines it with the conditional reporting feature in MicroLab software to provide an automated method that can be successfully employed by users with varied experience levels. The method reports the confidence level of cocaine present only when a certain number of cocaine related peaks are identified by the automated method. Unlike library search and chemometric methods that are dependent on the library database or the training set samples used to build the calibration model, the proposed method is relatively independent of adulterants and diluents present in the seized mixture. This automated method in combination with a portable FT-IR spectrometer provides law enforcement officials, criminal investigators, or forensic experts a quick field-based prescreening capability for the presence of cocaine in seized drug samples. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew
2009-11-25
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Elaine
2016-01-01
This work presents a low cost, simple and new methodology for direct quantification of uranium in compounds of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using KBr pressed discs technique. Uranium in different matrices were used to development and validation: UO 2 (NO 3 )2.2TBP complex (TBP uranyl nitrate complex) in organic phase and uranyl nitrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ) in aqueous phase. The parameters used in the validation process were: linearity, selectivity, accuracy, limits of detection (LD) and quantitation (LQ), precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and robustness. The method for uranium in organic phase (UO 2 (NO 3 )2.2TBP complex in hexane/embedded in KBr) was linear (r = 0.9980) over the range of 0.20% 2.85% U/ KBr disc, LD 0.02% and LQ 0.03%, accurate (recoveries were over 101.0%), robust and precise (RSD < 1.6%). The method for uranium aqueous phase (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 /embedded in KBr) was linear (r = 0.9900) over the range of 0.14% 1.29% U/KBr disc, LD 0.01% and LQ 0.02%, accurate (recoveries were over 99.4%), robust and precise (RSD < 1.6%). Some process samples were analyzed in FTIR and compared with gravimetric and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showing similar results in all three methods. The statistical tests (t-Student and Fischer) showed that the techniques are equivalent. The validated method can be successfully employed for routine quality control analysis for nuclear compounds. (author)
Güler, Günnur; Džafić, Enela; Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner
2011-06-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)- and UV-circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy have been used to study real-time proteolytic digestion of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and β-casein (β-CN) by trypsin at various substrate/enzyme ratios in D 2O-buffer at 37 °C. Both techniques confirm that protein substrate looses its secondary structure upon conversion to the peptide fragments. This perturbation alters the backbone of the protein chain resulting in conformational changes and degrading of the intact protein. Precisely, the most significant spectral changes which arise from digestion take place in the amide I and amide II regions. The FT-IR spectra for the degraded β-LG show a decrease around 1634 cm -1, suggesting a decrease of β-sheet structure in the course of hydrolysis. Similarly, the intensity around the 1654 cm -1 band decreases for β-CN digested by trypsin, indicating a reduction in the α-helical part. On the other hand, the intensity around ˜1594 cm -1 and ˜1406 cm -1 increases upon enzymatic breakdown of both substrates, suggesting an increase in the antisymmetric and symmetric stretching modes of free carboxylates, respectively, as released digestion products. Observation of further H/D exchange in the course of digestion manifests the structural opening of the buried groups and accessibility to the core of the substrate. On the basis of the UV-CD spectra recorded for β-LG and β-CN digested by trypsin, the unordered structure increases concomitant with a decrease in the remaining structure, thus, revealing breakdown of the intact protein into smaller fragments. This model study in a closed reaction system may serve as a basis for the much more complex digestion processes in an open reaction system such as the stomach.
Koch, Cosima; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard
2016-12-01
The performance of a fiber optic and an optical conduit in-line attenuated total reflection mid-infrared (IR) probe during in situ monitoring of Penicillium chrysogenum fermentation were compared. The fiber optic probe was connected to a sealed, portable, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) process spectrometer via a plug-and-play interface. The optical conduit, on the other hand, was connected to a FT-IR process spectrometer via a knuckled probe with mirrors that had to be adjusted prior to each fermentation, which were purged with dry air. Penicillin V (PenV) and its precursor phenoxyacetic acid (POX) concentrations were determined by online high-performance liquid chromatography and the obtained concentrations were used as reference to build partial least squares regression models. Cross-validated root-mean-square errors of prediction were found to be 0.2 g L -1 (POX) and 0.19 g L -1 (PenV) for the fiber optic setup and 0.17 g L -1 (both POX and PenV) for the conduit setup. Higher noise-levels and spectrum-to-spectrum variations of the fiber optic setup lead to higher noise of estimated (i.e., unknown) POX and PenV concentrations than was found for the conduit setup. It seems that trade-off has to be made between ease of handling (fiber optic setup) and measurement accuracy (optical conduit setup) when choosing one of these systems for bioprocess monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, R., E-mail: rosaline@barc.gov.in; Sapra, B.K.; Rout, R.P.; Prajith, R.
2016-12-01
Direct measurement of Radon and Thoron progeny in the atmosphere and occupational environments such as Uranium mines, Uranium and Thorium handling facilities has gained importance because of its radiological significance in inhalation dose assessment. In this regard, Radon and Thoron Progeny sensors (DTPS and DRPS) are the only passive solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD, LR115) based devices which are being extensively used for time integrated direct progeny measurements. An essential component of the analysis is the chemical etching of the detectors, followed by spark counting of tracks and then estimation of the inhalation dose using appropriate calibration factors. Alternatively, the tracks may be counted using image analysis techniques. However, under high exposure conditions, both these methods have inherent limitations and errors arising due to increased frequency of tracks. In the present work, we probe the use of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyse the deposited fluence of the progeny particulates based on change in transmittance of the nitric group vibrational bands of the LR115. A linear relationship between the transmittance and the deposited fluence was observed, which can be used to estimate the deposited fluence rate and the inhalation dose. This alternative method of analysis will provide a faster and non-destructive technique for inhalation dose assessment, specially for routine large scale measurements. - Highlights: • An alternative method of inhalation dose assessment. • Linearity between the transmittance of nitric goup bands and the deposited fluence. • Faster and non-destructive technique for high exposure scenarios.
Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.
Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.
1984-01-01
Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochleitner, B.
2002-11-01
This thesis presents a systematic characterization of historical inorganic pigments with respect to their crystallographic structure, main components, and trade elements, utilizing three complementary methods. The results are compiled in a computer-database containing the experimentally obtained information. The specimens examined in this study originate from a collection of 19th and 20th century pigments, dyes and binders with a wide variety of colors and materials at the Institute of Natural Sciences and Technologies in Art of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. Approximately 400 different inorganic pigments were analysed for this first study of its kind by combining the experimental techniques explained in the next paragraph. For analyzing the inorganic pigments three different methods were applied: x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proved to be suitable techniques to identify and characterize the composition of the materials. The experimental work was focused on x-ray diffraction to detect the main components and to perform phase analysis for the identification of the crystallographic structure. To facilitate the analysis of the diffractograms and investigate differences in the elemental composition, XRF-measurements were carried out and complemented by FTIR-spectroscopy. The latter technique supports the identification of organic components of the samples and both ease phase analysis. In some cases, the obtained results show remarkable differences in composition for pigments having the same trade name. These differences consist either with respect to the identified elements or added components, such as pure white pigments. However, in most cases the chemical structure of the phase determining the color of the relevant pigment group was similar. Knowledge of the composition of the originally used pigments is of great importance for the restoration and conservation of art objects. In order to
Khoshmanesh, Aazam; Cook, Perran L M; Wood, Bayden R
2012-08-21
Phosphorus (P) is a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality in freshwater ecosystems. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. Despite the broad relevance of polyphosphate (Poly-P) in bioremediation and P release processes in the environment, its quantification is not yet well developed for sediment samples. Current methods possess significant disadvantages because of the difficulties associated with using a single extractant to extract a specific P compound without altering others. A fast and reliable method to estimate the quantitative contribution of microorganisms to sediment P release processes is needed, especially when an excessive P accumulation in the form of polyphosphate (Poly-P) occurs. Development of novel approaches for application of emerging spectroscopic techniques to complex environmental matrices such as sediments significantly contributes to the speciation models of P mobilization, biogeochemical nutrient cycling and development of nutrient models. In this study, for the first time Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) was used to quantify Poly-P in sediments. To reduce the high absorption matrix components in sediments such as silica, a physical extraction method was developed to separate sediment biological materials from abiotic particles. The aim was to achieve optimal separation of the biological materials from sediment abiotic particles with minimum chemical change in the sample matrix prior to ATR-FTIR analysis. Using a calibration set of 60 samples for the PLS prediction models in the Poly-P concentration range of 0-1 mg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight of sediment) (R(2) = 0.984 and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP = 0.041 at Factor-1) Poly-P could be detected at less than 50 μg g(-l) d.w. Using this technique, there is no solvent extraction or chemical
Fourier transforms principles and applications
Hansen, Eric W
2014-01-01
Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods. Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.
Approximating the Analytic Fourier Transform with the Discrete Fourier Transform
Axelrod, Jeremy
2015-01-01
The Fourier transform is approximated over a finite domain using a Riemann sum. This Riemann sum is then expressed in terms of the discrete Fourier transform, which allows the sum to be computed with a fast Fourier transform algorithm more rapidly than via a direct matrix multiplication. Advantages and limitations of using this method to approximate the Fourier transform are discussed, and prototypical MATLAB codes implementing the method are presented.
Lazidou, Dimitra; Lampakis, Dimitrios; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Panayiotou, Costas
2018-01-01
The cross-section stratifications of samples, which were removed from six icons, are studied using optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The icons, dated from the 14th to 19th centuries, are prominent examples of Byzantine painting art and are attributed to different artistic workshops of northern Greece. The following materials are identified in the cross-sections of the icon samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy: anhydrite; calcite; carbon black; chrome yellow; cinnabar; gypsum; lead white; minium; orpiment; Prussian blue; red ochre; yellow ochre; and a paint of organic origin which can be either indigo ( Indigofera tinctoria L. and others) or woad ( Isatis tinctoria L.). The same samples are investigated using micro-FT-IR which leads to the following identifications: calcite; calcium oxalates; chrome yellow; gypsum; kaolinite; lead carboxylates; lead sulfate (or quartz); lead white; oil; protein; Prussian blue; saponified oil; shellac; silica; and tree resin. The study of the cross-sections of the icon samples reveals the combinations of the aforementioned inorganic and organic materials. Although the icons span over a long period of six centuries, the same stratification comprising gypsum ground layer, paint layers prepared by modified "egg tempera" techniques (proteinaceous materials mixed with oil and resins), and varnish layer is revealed in the investigated samples. Moreover, the presence of three layers of varnishes, one at the top and other two as intermediate layers, in the cross-section analysis of a sample from Virgin and Child provide evidence of later interventions.
Fourier transformation for engineering and natural science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klingen, B.
2001-01-01
The following topics are covered: functions, Dirac delta function, Fourier operators, Fourier integrals, Fourier transformation and periodic functions, discrete Fourier transformations and discrete filters, applications. (WL)
Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2012-01-01
We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).
Fourier transforms in spectroscopy
Kauppinen, Jyrki
2000-01-01
This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi
Fast Fourier transform telescope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2009-01-01
We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog 2 N rather than N 2 ) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.
Fourier Transform Spectrometer System
Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.
Krecisz, M.; Rybka, J. D.; Strugała, A. J.; Skalski, B.; Figlerowicz, M.; Kozak, M.; Giersig, M.
2016-09-01
The toxicity of nanoparticles (nanotoxicity) is often associated with their interruption of biological membranes. The effect of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (with different Fe3O4 core sizes and different polymeric coatings) on a model biological membrane system of vesicles formed by dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was studied. Selected magnetic nanoparticles with core sizes ranging from 3 to 13 nm (in diameter) were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Samples with 10% DMPC and different nanoparticle concentrations were studied by attenuated total reflectance—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to establish the influence of nanoparticles on the phase behaviour of model phospholipid systems.
On fractional Fourier transform moments
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.
2000-01-01
Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their
Kuligowski, J; Quintás, G; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M
2010-03-15
A new background correction method for the on-line coupling of gradient liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry has been developed. It is based on the use of a point-to-point matching algorithm that compares the absorption spectra of the sample data set with those of a previously recorded reference data set in order to select an appropriate reference spectrum. The spectral range used for the point-to-point comparison is selected with minimal user-interaction, thus facilitating considerably the application of the whole method. The background correction method has been successfully tested on a chromatographic separation of four nitrophenols running acetonitrile (0.08%, v/v TFA):water (0.08%, v/v TFA) gradients with compositions ranging from 35 to 85% (v/v) acetonitrile, giving accurate results for both, baseline resolved and overlapped peaks. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of peptides.
Bakshi, Kunal; Liyanage, Mangala R; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell
2014-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides data that are widely used for secondary structure characterization of peptides. A wide array of available sampling methods permits structural analysis of peptides in diverse environments such as aqueous solution (including optically turbid media), powders, detergent micelles, and lipid bilayers. In some cases, side chain vibrations can also be resolved and used for tertiary structure and chemical analysis. Data from several low-resolution spectroscopic techniques, including FTIR, can be combined to generate an empirical phase diagram, an overall picture of peptide structure as a function of environmental conditions that can aid in the global interpretation of large amounts of spectroscopic data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)
2013-06-15
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010-2,710, 1,530-1,170, and 1,170-625 cm{sup -1} regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 Degree-Sign C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si-O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}-N{sup +} groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH{sub 2}, C-N, Si-C and C-C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Gómez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz; Simionescu, Bogdan C.
2013-01-01
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010–2,710, 1,530–1,170, and 1,170–625 cm −1 regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 °C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si–O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH 3 and CH 3 –N + groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH 2 , C–N, Si–C and C–C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Moinuddin, E-mail: moinuddin.hassan@fda.hhs.gov; Ilev, Ilko [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)
2014-10-15
Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.
Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geick, R.
1981-01-01
This review starts with the basic principles of resonance phenomena in physical systems. Especially, the connection is shown between the properties of these systems and Fourier transforms. Next, we discuss the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. Starting from the general properties of physical systems showing resonance phenomena and from the special properties of nuclear spin systems, the main part of this paper reviews pulse and Fourier methods in nuclear magnetic resonance. Among pulse methods, an introduction will be given to spin echoes, and, apart from the principle of Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, an introduction to the technical problems of this method, e.g. resolution in the frequency domain, aliasing, phase and intensity errors, stationary state of the spin systems for repetitive measurements, proton decoupling, and application of Fourier methods to systems in a nonequilibrium state. The last section is devoted to special applications of Fourier methods and recent developments, e.g. measurement of relaxation times, solvent peak suppression, 'rapid scan'-method, methods for suppressing the effects of dipolar coupling in solids, two-dimensional Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, and spin mapping or zeugmatography. (author)
Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems
Ferraro, John R
1978-01-01
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc
General Correlation Theorem for Trinion Fourier Transform
Bahri, Mawardi
2017-01-01
- The trinion Fourier transform is an extension of the Fourier transform in the trinion numbers setting. In this work we derive the correlation theorem for the trinion Fourier transform by using the relation between trinion convolution and correlation definitions in the trinion Fourier transform domains.
Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J
2016-01-01
Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sugumaran, Vatsala; Prakash, Shanti; Ramu, Emmandi; Arora, Ajay Kumar; Bansal, Veena; Kagdiyal, Vivekanand; Saxena, Deepak
2017-07-15
Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis is highly complicated mixture with valued chemicals. In order to reduce the complexity for unambiguous characterization of components present in bio-oil, solvent extractions using different solvents with increasing polarity have been adopted. The fractions have been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identifying the functional groups and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for detailed characterization of components present in various fractions, thereby providing in-depth information at molecular level of various components in bio-oil. This paper reveals the potential of the analytical techniques in identification and brings out the similarities as well as differences in the components present in the bio-oil obtained from two non-edible oil seed-cakes, viz., Jatropha and Karanjia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D
2016-01-27
The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.
The rheological properties of waxy starch-'-polygutamic acid (PGA) graft copolymers were investigated. Grafting was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The starch-PGA copolymers absorbed water and formed gels, which exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher starch-PGA conce...
Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene; Medlicott, Natalie J
2018-02-01
Protein drugs may encounter conformational perturbations during the formulation processing of lipid-based solid dosage forms. In aqueous protein solutions, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can investigate these conformational changes following the subtraction of spectral interference of solvent with protein amide I bands. However, in solid dosage forms, the possible spectral contribution of lipid carriers to protein amide I band may be an obstacle to determine conformational alterations. The objective of this study was to develop an ATR FT-IR spectroscopic method for the analysis of protein secondary structure embedded in solid lipid matrices. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as a model protein, while Precirol AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58 ℃) was employed as the model lipid matrix. Bovine serum albumin was incorporated into lipid using physical mixing, melting and mixing, or wet granulation mixing methods. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were performed for the analysis of BSA secondary structure and its dissolution in aqueous media, respectively. The results showed significant interference of Precirol ATO5 with BSA amide I band which was subtracted up to 90% w/w lipid content to analyze BSA secondary structure. In addition, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy also detected thermally denatured BSA solid alone and in the presence of lipid matrix indicating its suitability for the detection of denatured protein solids in lipid matrices. Despite being in the solid state, conformational changes occurred to BSA upon incorporation into solid lipid matrices. However, the extent of these conformational alterations was found to be dependent on the mixing method employed as indicated by area overlap calculations. For instance, the melting and mixing method imparted negligible effect on BSA secondary structure, whereas the wet granulation mixing method promoted
FOURIER SERIES MODELS THROUGH TRANSFORMATION
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DEPT
monthly temperature data (1996 – 2005) collected from the National Root ... KEY WORDS: Fourier series, square transformation, multiplicative model, ... fluctuations or movements are often periodic(Ekpeyong,2005). .... significant trend or not, if the trend is not significant, the grand mean may be used as an estimate of trend.
Irinislimane, Ratiba; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima
2012-12-01
Commercial sunflower oil was epoxidized at the laboratory-scale. The epoxidized sunflower oil (ESFO) was modified following the acrylation reaction. Modification was carried out simultaneously using acrylic acid (AA) and triethylamine (TEA). To optimize the reaction conditions, the effects of four temperatures (40, 60, 80, and 100 °C), the ESFO:AA (100:100) ratio, and 0.2% TEA were investigated. The rate of conversion was analyzed with both FT-IR and titration of the oxirane ring. After that, the temperature with the highest conversion was selected and used throughout for all modification reactions. Then, four ratios (100:100, 100:90, 100:80, and 100:75) of ESFO:AA were analyzed at four different concentrations of TEA (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) to determine the best estimate for both the ESFO:AA ratio and the catalyst concentration. Conversion rate was analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy by measuring the concentrations of ester, carbonyl, and alcohol groups. Moreover, oxirane-ring concentration was estimated using the titration method (with gentian violet as indicator) and FT-IR spectroscopy (epoxy ring absorptions at 1270 cm(-1) and 877 cm(-1)). Based on conversion yield, the optimum ESFO:AA ratio corresponds to 100:80; the best temperature reaction was at 60 °C, and the best TEA concentration was 0.2%. The critical amounts of reactants needed to reach maximum conversion were established. The final acid value of the acrylated ESFO after washing (pH = 7) was 2.1 mg potassium hydroxide (KOH)·g(-1). All results show that FT-IR spectroscopy is a simple, low-cost, rapid method for investigating the kinetics of a reaction.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2004-01-01
1.1 This test method covers determining the concentrations of refrigerant-114, other carbon-containing and fluorine-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, and partially or completely substituted halohydrocarbons that may be impurities in uranium hexafluoride. The two options are outlined for this test method. They are designated as Part A and Part B. 1.1.1 To provide instructions for performing Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis for the possible presence of Refrigerant-114 impurity in a gaseous sample of uranium hexafluoride, collected in a "2S" container or equivalent at room temperature. The all gas procedure applies to the analysis of possible Refrigerant-114 impurity in uranium hexafluoride, and to the gas manifold system used for FTIR applications. The pressure and temperatures must be controlled to maintain a gaseous sample. The concentration units are in mole percent. This is Part A. 1.2 Part B involves a high pressure liquid sample of uranium hexafluoride. This method can be appli...
Balbekova, Anna; Lohninger, Hans; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Bonta, Maximilian; Limbeck, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Al-Saad, Khalid A; Ali, Mohamed; Celikic, Minja; Ofner, Johannes
2018-02-01
Microspectroscopic techniques are widely used to complement histological studies. Due to recent developments in the field of chemical imaging, combined chemical analysis has become attractive. This technique facilitates a deepened analysis compared to single techniques or side-by-side analysis. In this study, rat brains harvested one week after induction of photothrombotic stroke were investigated. Adjacent thin cuts from rats' brains were imaged using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The LA-ICP-MS data were normalized using an internal standard (a thin gold layer). The acquired hyperspectral data cubes were fused and subjected to multivariate analysis. Brain regions affected by stroke as well as unaffected gray and white matter were identified and classified using a model based on either partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or random decision forest (RDF) algorithms. The RDF algorithm demonstrated the best results for classification. Improved classification was observed in the case of fused data in comparison to individual data sets (either FT-IR or LA-ICP-MS). Variable importance analysis demonstrated that both molecular and elemental content contribute to the improved RDF classification. Univariate spectral analysis identified biochemical properties of the assigned tissue types. Classification of multisensor hyperspectral data sets using an RDF algorithm allows access to a novel and in-depth understanding of biochemical processes and solid chemical allocation of different brain regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousaf, M.; Nadeem, R.; Saeed, M.; Zahoor, T.
2013-01-01
Current study explored biosorption mechanism and kinetics of Cu (II) onto Trapa bispinosa peels (TBPs) biomass in surfactant (SDS, CTAB, and Triton X-100), organic acid (CA, TA, AA) and in Native (N) form during batch experiment. Equilibrium sorption capacity was determined at various solution parameters like pH, contact time and initial concentration. Increment in sorption capacity was observed with increase in pH until maximum is achieved at pH 5. Optimized time and concentration were 120 minutes and 100 ppm respectively. Best fitted pseudo-second order kinetic model on the data showed that sorption of Cu (II) is rate-controlling. Sorption capacity (mg g-1) for Cu (II) ions increased while % removal decreased. SDS TBPs in comparison to all TBPs show highest sorption tendency as after SDS pretreatment TBPs surface is loaded with the negatively charged groups that provide more attachment sites for Cu (II) ions. Langmuir isotherm give best description of monolayer adsorption over the surface as it fitted better to data. FTIR analysis showed presence of functional groups like amine, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Ionization states of these functional groups are changed with pH. (author)
Debnath, Lokenath
2012-01-01
This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…
Properties of the distributional finite Fourier transform
Carmichael, Richard D.
2016-01-01
The analytic functions in tubes which obtain the distributional finite Fourier transform as boundary value are shown to have a strong boundedness property and to be recoverable as a Fourier-Laplace transform, a distributional finite Fourier transform, and as a Cauchy integral of a distribution associated with the boundary value.
de Castro, Eduardo da S G; Cassella, Ricardo J
2016-05-15
Reference methods for quality control of vaccines usually require treatment of the samples before analysis. These procedures are expensive, time-consuming, unhealthy and require careful manipulation of the sample, making them a potential source of analytical errors. This work proposes a novel method for the quality control of thermostabilizer samples of the yellow fever vaccine employing attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR). The main advantage of the proposed method is the possibility of direct determination of the analytes (sodium glutamate and sorbitol) without any pretreatment of the samples. Operational parameters of the FTIR technique, such as the number of accumulated scans and nominal resolution, were evaluated. The best conditions for sodium glutamate were achieved when 64 scans were accumulated using a nominal resolution of 4 cm(-1). The measurements for sodium glutamate were performed at 1347 cm(-1) (baseline correction between 1322 and 1369 cm(-1)). In the case of sorbitol, the measurements were done at 890cm(-1) (baseline correction between 825 and 910 cm(-1)) using a nominal resolution of 2 cm(-1) with 32 accumulated scans. In both cases, the quantitative variable was the band height. Recovery tests were performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method and recovery percentages in the range 93-106% were obtained. Also, the methods were compared with reference methods and no statistical differences were observed. The limits of detection and quantification for sodium glutamate were 0.20 and 0.62% (m/v), respectively, whereas for sorbitol they were 1 and 3.3% (m/v), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brittain, Harry G
2016-01-01
Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.
Improved Fourier-transform profilometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Xianfu; Chen Wenjing; Su Xianyu
2007-01-01
An improved optical geometry of the projected-fringe profilometry technique, in which the exit pupil of the projecting lens and the entrance pupil of the imaging lens are neither at the same height above the reference plane nor coplanar, is discussed and used in Fourier-transform profilometry. Furthermore, an improved fringe-pattern description and phase-height mapping formula based on the improved geometrical generalization is deduced. Employing the new optical geometry, it is easier for us to obtain the full-field fringe by moving either the projector or the imaging device. Therefore the new method offers a flexible way to obtain reliable height distribution of a measured object
Fourier-transform optical microsystems
Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.
1999-01-01
The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.
Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4
Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.
2015-01-01
This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..
Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and X-ray powder ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study aimed at demonstrating complementary roles offered by both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques in characterizing clay size fraction of kaolins. The clay size fraction of kaolin samples obtained from Kgwakgwe, Makoro, Lobatse and Serule kaolin ...
Tunable fractional-order Fourier transformer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malyutin, A A
2006-01-01
A fractional two-dimensional Fourier transformer whose orders are tuned by means of optical quadrupoles is described. It is shown that in the optical scheme considered, the Fourier-transform order a element of [0,1] in one of the mutually orthogonal planes corresponds to the transform order (2-a) in another plane, i.e., to inversion and inverse Fourier transform of the order a. (laser modes and beams)
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry
Marshall, Alan G.
1998-06-01
As for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the introduction of pulsed Fourier transform techniques revolutionized ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: increased speed (factor of 10,000), increased sensitivity (factor of 100), increased mass resolution (factor of 10,000-an improvement not shared by the introduction of FT techniques to IR or NMR spectroscopy), increased mass range (factor of 500), and automated operation. FT-ICR mass spectrometry is the most versatile technique for unscrambling and quantifying ion-molecule reaction kinetics and equilibria in the absence of solvent (i.e., the gas phase). In addition, FT-ICR MS has the following analytically important features: speed (~1 second per spectrum); ultrahigh mass resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy for analysis of mixtures and polymers; attomole sensitivity; MSn with one spectrometer, including two-dimensional FT/FT-ICR/MS; positive and/or negative ions; multiple ion sources (especially MALDI and electrospray); biomolecular molecular weight and sequencing; LC/MS; and single-molecule detection up to 108 Dalton. Here, some basic features and recent developments of FT-ICR mass spectrometry are reviewed, with applications ranging from crude oil to molecular biology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloilson Domingos
2012-01-01
Full Text Available O potencial da técnica de espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e acessório de reflexão total atenuada (FTIR-ATR foi avaliado para o monitoramento da degradação da poliamida 11 (PA-11 usada em dutos flexíveis. As amostras foram submetidas a envelhecimento em reatores com pressão controlada e atmosfera inerte. Os corpos de prova foram imersos em água deionizada (pH 7, nas temperaturas de 110, 120 e 140 ÂºC por um período de até 50 dias. A técnica recomendada para monitoramento da degradação da PA-11 é a viscosimetria, através de medidas da viscosidade inerente corrigida (VIC e a análise termogravimétrica (TGA. O comportamento observado para a VIC e TGA durante o envelhecimento possibilitou a construção de modelos que correlacionam com a técnica de FTIR-ATR. A partir dos resultados de FTIR-ATR, a variação na intensidade da banda atribuída à fase amorfa, 1161 cm-1, possibilitou o monitoramento do envelhecimento quando associamos a técnica a modelos quimiométricos como o de regressão dos mínimos quadrados parciais, PLS. Portanto, a técnica FTIR-ATR pode ser uma nova alternativa no monitoramento da degradação hidrolítica da PA-11, eliminando assim o uso de solventes orgânicos tóxicos e reduzindo, consequentemente, o tempo de análise.The potential of the infrared spectroscopy with the attenuated total reflection technique (FTIR-ATR was evaluated to monitor degradation of polyamide 11, PA-11, applied in flexible pipes. The samples were subjected to aging on reactors with controlled pressure and atmosphere. The samples were immersed in deionized water, pH 7, at temperatures of 110, 120 and 140 ÂºC over a period of up to 50 days. The typical technique recommended for monitoring PA-11 degradation is viscometry from inherent viscosity corrected (VIC and thermogravimetric (TGA measurements. TGA and VIC results allowed the use of chemometric models that can be related to FTIR-ATR spectra, with
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloilson Domingos
2013-01-01
Full Text Available O potencial da técnica de espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e acessório de reflexão total atenuada (FTIR-ATR foi avaliado para o monitoramento da degradação da poliamida 11 (PA-11 usada em dutos flexíveis. As amostras foram submetidas a envelhecimento em reatores com pressão controlada e atmosfera inerte. Os corpos de prova foram imersos em água deionizada (pH 7, nas temperaturas de 110, 120 e 140 ÂºC por um período de até 50 dias. A técnica recomendada para monitoramento da degradação da PA-11 é a viscosimetria, através de medidas da viscosidade inerente corrigida (VIC e a análise termogravimétrica (TGA. O comportamento observado para a VIC e TGA durante o envelhecimento possibilitou a construção de modelos que correlacionam com a técnica de FTIR-ATR. A partir dos resultados de FTIR-ATR, a variação na intensidade da banda atribuída à fase amorfa, 1161 cm-1, possibilitou o monitoramento do envelhecimento quando associamos a técnica a modelos quimiométricos como o de regressão dos mínimos quadrados parciais, PLS. Portanto, a técnica FTIR-ATR pode ser uma nova alternativa no monitoramento da degradação hidrolítica da PA-11, eliminando assim o uso de solventes orgânicos tóxicos e reduzindo, consequentemente, o tempo de análise.The potential of the infrared spectroscopy with the attenuated total reflection technique (FTIR-ATR was evaluated to monitor degradation of polyamide 11, PA-11, applied in flexible pipes. The samples were subjected to aging on reactors with controlled pressure and atmosphere. The samples were immersed in deionized water, pH 7, at temperatures of 110, 120 and 140 ÂºC over a period of up to 50 days. The typical technique recommended for monitoring PA-11 degradation is viscometry from inherent viscosity corrected (VIC and thermogravimetric (TGA measurements. TGA and VIC results allowed the use of chemometric models that can be related to FTIR-ATR spectra, with
Applications of Fourier transforms to generalized functions
Rahman, M
2011-01-01
This book explains how Fourier transforms can be applied to generalized functions. The generalized function is one of the important branches of mathematics and is applicable in many practical fields. Its applications to the theory of distribution and signal processing are especially important. The Fourier transform is a mathematical procedure that can be thought of as transforming a function from its time domain to the frequency domain.The book contains six chapters and three appendices. Chapter 1 deals with preliminary remarks on Fourier series from a general point of view and also contains an introduction to the first generalized function. Chapter 2 is concerned with the generalized functions and their Fourier transforms. Chapter 3 contains the Fourier transforms of particular generalized functions. The author has stated and proved 18 formulas dealing with the Fourier transforms of generalized functions, and demonstrated some important problems of practical interest. Chapter 4 deals with the asymptotic esti...
Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform
Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2014-01-01
The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.
Wigner distribution and fractional Fourier transform
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Boashash, B.
2003-01-01
We have described the relationship between the fractional Fourier transform and the Wigner distribution by using the Radon-Wigner transform, which is a set of projections of the Wigner distribution as well as a set of squared moduli of the fractional Fourier transform. We have introduced the concept
Gorre, Elsa; Owens, Kevin G
2016-11-01
In this work an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption based method is used to measure the solubility of two matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) matrices in a few pure solvents and mixtures of acetonitrile and water using low microliter amounts of solution. Results from a method that averages the values obtained from multiple calibration curves created by manual peak picking are compared to those predicted using a partial least squares (PLS) chemometrics approach. The PLS method provided solubility values that were in good agreement with the manual method with significantly greater ease of analysis. As a test, the solubility of adipic acid in acetone was measured using the two methods of analysis, and the values are in good agreement with solubility values reported in literature. The solubilities of the MALDI matrices α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA) and sinapinic acid (SA) were measured in a series of mixtures made from acetonitrile (ACN) and water; surprisingly, the results show a highly nonlinear trend. While both CHCA and SA show solubility values of less than 10 mg/mL in the pure solvents, the solubility value for SA increases to 56.3 mg/mL in a 75:25 v/v ACN:water mixture. This can have a significant effect on the matrix-to-analyte ratios in the MALDI experiment when sample protocols call for preparation of a saturated solution of the matrix in the chosen solvent system. © The Author(s) 2016.
The finite Fourier transform of classical polynomials
Dixit, Atul; Jiu, Lin; Moll, Victor H.; Vignat, Christophe
2014-01-01
The finite Fourier transform of a family of orthogonal polynomials $A_{n}(x)$, is the usual transform of the polynomial extended by $0$ outside their natural domain. Explicit expressions are given for the Legendre, Jacobi, Gegenbauer and Chebyshev families.
On the Scaled Fractional Fourier Transformation Operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong-Yi, Fan; Li-Yun, Hu
2008-01-01
Based on our previous study [Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 (2007) 2238] in which the Fresnel operator corresponding to classical Fresnel transform was introduced, we derive the fractional Fourier transformation operator, and the optical operator method is then enriched
On the inverse windowed Fourier transform
Rebollo Neira, Laura; Fernández Rubio, Juan Antonio
1999-01-01
The inversion problem concerning the windowed Fourier transform is considered. It is shown that, out of the infinite solutions that the problem admits, the windowed Fourier transform is the "optimal" solution according to a maximum-entropy selection criterion. Peer Reviewed
A new twist to fourier transforms
Meikle, Hamish D
2004-01-01
Making use of the inherent helix in the Fourier transform expression, this book illustrates both Fourier transforms and their properties in the round. The author draws on elementary complex algebra to manipulate the transforms, presenting the ideas in such a way as to avoid pages of complicated mathematics. Similarly, abbreviations are not used throughout and the language is kept deliberately clear so that the result is a text that is accessible to a much wider readership.The treatment is extended with the use of sampled data to finite and discrete transforms, the fast Fourier transform, or FFT, being a special case of a discrete transform. The application of Fourier transforms in statistics is illustrated for the first time using the examples operational research and later radar detection. In addition, a whole chapter on tapering or weighting functions is added for reference. The whole is rounded off by a glossary and examples of diagrams in three dimensions made possible by today's mathematics programs
The fractional Fourier transform and applications
Bailey, David H.; Swarztrauber, Paul N.
1991-01-01
This paper describes the 'fractional Fourier transform', which admits computation by an algorithm that has complexity proportional to the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Whereas the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is based on integral roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i/n, the fractional Fourier transform is based on fractional roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i(alpha), where alpha is arbitrary. The fractional Fourier transform and the corresponding fast algorithm are useful for such applications as computing DFTs of sequences with prime lengths, computing DFTs of sparse sequences, analyzing sequences with noninteger periodicities, performing high-resolution trigonometric interpolation, detecting lines in noisy images, and detecting signals with linearly drifting frequencies. In many cases, the resulting algorithms are faster by arbitrarily large factors than conventional techniques.
The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung
2012-01-01
The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been widely used for the structural investigation of humic substances. Although Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) instrumentation has been available for sometime, relatively little work with these instruments has been reported for humic substances,...
Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing
Brandwood, David
2011-01-01
Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit
Fourier transform infrared studies in solid egg white lysozyme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivzi, T.Z.
1994-12-01
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is the most recent addition to the arsenal of bioanalytical techniques capable of providing information about the secondary structure of proteins in a variety of environments. FTIR spectra have been obtained in solid egg white lysozyme. The spectra display the usual amide I, II and III bands. Secondary structural information obtained from the spectra after applying resolution enhancement techniques to the amide I band has been found consistent with the x-ray crystallographic data of the protein and also to the spectroscopic data of the protein in aqueous solution. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs
Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography - Fourier transform infrared spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olesik, S.V.; French, S.B.; Movotny, M.
1984-01-01
One of the most demanding tasks asked of an analytical chemist today is to separate and identify the components of a nonvolatile complex mixture. An efficient separation technique combined with a universal detector that provides structural information, therefore, would be a great asset to analytical chemists. Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) - Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) shows great potential for being such a technique. SFC-FTIR shows great potential as a very powerful technique for separation and identification of thermally labile and nonvolatile compounds. Research is continuing in these labs to further optimize the technique. 2 refs
Replica Fourier Transform: Properties and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crisanti, A.; De Dominicis, C.
2015-01-01
The Replica Fourier Transform is the generalization of the discrete Fourier Transform to quantities defined on an ultrametric tree. It finds use in conjunction of the replica method used to study thermodynamics properties of disordered systems such as spin glasses. Its definition is presented in a systematic and simple form and its use illustrated with some representative examples. In particular we give a detailed discussion of the diagonalization in the Replica Fourier Space of the Hessian matrix of the Gaussian fluctuations about the mean field saddle point of spin glass theory. The general results are finally discussed for a generic spherical spin glass model, where the Hessian can be computed analytically
Fourier series, Fourier transform and their applications to mathematical physics
Serov, Valery
2017-01-01
This text serves as an introduction to the modern theory of analysis and differential equations with applications in mathematical physics and engineering sciences. Having outgrown from a series of half-semester courses given at University of Oulu, this book consists of four self-contained parts. The first part, Fourier Series and the Discrete Fourier Transform, is devoted to the classical one-dimensional trigonometric Fourier series with some applications to PDEs and signal processing. The second part, Fourier Transform and Distributions, is concerned with distribution theory of L. Schwartz and its applications to the Schrödinger and magnetic Schrödinger operations. The third part, Operator Theory and Integral Equations, is devoted mostly to the self-adjoint but unbounded operators in Hilbert spaces and their applications to integral equations in such spaces. The fourth and final part, Introduction to Partial Differential Equations, serves as an introduction to modern methods for classical theory o...
Wigner distribution and fractional Fourier transform
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.
2001-01-01
The connection between the Wigner distribution and the squared modulus of the fractional Fourier transform - which are both well-known time-frequency representations of a signal - is established. In particular the Radon-Wigner transform is used, which relates projections of the Wigner distribution
Geometric Representations for Discrete Fourier Transforms
Cambell, C. W.
1986-01-01
Simple geometric representations show symmetry and periodicity of discrete Fourier transforms (DFT's). Help in visualizing requirements for storing and manipulating transform value in computations. Representations useful in any number of dimensions, but particularly in one-, two-, and three-dimensional cases often encountered in practice.
The Kinetics of Mo(Co)6 Substitution Monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry.
Suslick, Kenneth S.; And Others
1987-01-01
Describes a physical chemistry experiment that uses Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometers and microcomputers as a way of introducing students to the spectral storage and manipulation techniques associated with digitized data. It can be used to illustrate FTIR spectroscopy, simple kinetics, inorganic mechanisms, and Beer's Law. (TW)
Group-invariant finite Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shenefelt, M.H.
1988-01-01
The computation of the finite Fourier transform of functions is one of the most used computations in crystallography. Since the Fourier transform involved in 3-dimensional, the size of the computation becomes very large even for relatively few sample points along each edge. In this thesis, there is a family of algorithms that reduce the computation of Fourier transform of functions respecting the symmetries. Some properties of these algorithms are: (1) The algorithms make full use of the group of symmetries of a crystal. (2) The algorithms can be factored and combined according to the prime factorization of the number of points in the sample space. (3) The algorithms are organized into a family using the group structure of the crystallographic groups to make iterative procedures possible
Fourier transforms and convolutions for the experimentalist
Jennison, RC
1961-01-01
Fourier Transforms and Convolutions for the Experimentalist provides the experimentalist with a guide to the principles and practical uses of the Fourier transformation. It aims to bridge the gap between the more abstract account of a purely mathematical approach and the rule of thumb calculation and intuition of the practical worker. The monograph springs from a lecture course which the author has given in recent years and for which he has drawn upon a number of sources, including a set of notes compiled by the late Dr. I. C. Browne from a series of lectures given by Mr. J . A. Ratcliffe of t
An optical Fourier transform coprocessor with direct phase determination.
Macfaden, Alexander J; Gordon, George S D; Wilkinson, Timothy D
2017-10-20
The Fourier transform is a ubiquitous mathematical operation which arises naturally in optics. We propose and demonstrate a practical method to optically evaluate a complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transform. By implementing the Fourier transform optically we can overcome the limiting O(nlogn) complexity of fast Fourier transform algorithms. Efficiently extracting the phase from the well-known optical Fourier transform is challenging. By appropriately decomposing the input and exploiting symmetries of the Fourier transform we are able to determine the phase directly from straightforward intensity measurements, creating an optical Fourier transform with O(n) apparent complexity. Performing larger optical Fourier transforms requires higher resolution spatial light modulators, but the execution time remains unchanged. This method could unlock the potential of the optical Fourier transform to permit 2D complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transforms with a performance that is currently untenable, with applications across information processing and computational physics.
Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.
Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik
2005-01-01
Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.
Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.
1997-06-01
The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.
Complex nonlinear Fourier transform and its inverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saksida, Pavle
2015-01-01
We study the nonlinear Fourier transform associated to the integrable systems of AKNS-ZS type. Two versions of this transform appear in connection with the AKNS-ZS systems. These two versions can be considered as two real forms of a single complex transform F c . We construct an explicit algorithm for the calculation of the inverse transform (F c ) -1 (h) for an arbitrary argument h. The result is given in the form of a convergent series of functions in the domain space and the terms of this series can be computed explicitly by means of finitely many integrations. (paper)
Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms
Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander
2016-01-01
Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools. PMID:27006089
Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.
Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander
2016-03-23
Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeKeyser, C.F. Jr.
1984-01-01
Use of isotope exchange kinetics for functional group determination in coal is investigated. Net exchange kinetics determined by time dependent Neutron Activation Analysis measurements (NAA) would be related to individual functional group exchange kinetics determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements. The work described herein can be grouped into three categories: 1) work relating to the FTIR spectroscopy of coal, 2) work relating to oxygen exchange in coal, and 3) work relating to measurements of O-18 by NAA. Methods are discussed for preparing IR observable samples of coal and ash, obtaining FTIR spectra of these samples, and reducing the spectral data to numerical form. Also included in this category is an investigation into the use of IR spectroscopic methods for the ultimate analysis of coals. An initial attempt at the observation of oxygen exchange in coal is described which includes two exchange schemes and the FTIR spectroscopic observation of their end products. A facile exchange between O-18 water and O-16 in coal was attempted with and without catalysts. Also, the design and construction of a fast pneumatic transfer system for the determination of O-18 is described
Pi, Fourier Transform and Ludolph van Ceulen
Vajta, Miklos
2000-01-01
The paper describes an interesting (and unexpected) application of the Fast Fourier transform in number theory. Calculating more and more decimals of p (first by hand and then from the mid-20th century, by digital computers) not only fascinated mathematicians from ancient times but kept them busy as
Fourier transform infrared spectrometery: an undergraduate experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lerner, L
2016-01-01
Simple apparatus is developed, providing undergraduate students with a solid understanding of Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy in a hands on experiment. Apart from its application to measuring the mid-IR spectra of organic molecules, the experiment introduces several techniques with wide applicability in physics, including interferometry, the FT, digital data analysis, and control theory. (paper)
The Fourier transform of tubular densities
Prior, C B; Goriely, A
2012-01-01
molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one
Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
1994-01-01
Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation
Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.
1997-01-01
Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation
The PROSAIC Laplace and Fourier Transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.A.
1994-01-01
Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting
Generalized Fourier transforms Fk,a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salem, Ben Said; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Ørsted, Bent
2009-01-01
We construct a two-parameter family of actions ωk,a of the Lie algebra by differential-difference operators on . Here, k is a multiplicity-function for the Dunkl operators, and a>0 arises from the interpolation of the Weil representation and the minimal unitary representation of the conformal gro...... of our semigroup Ωk,a provides us with (k,a) -generalized Fourier transforms , which includes the Dunkl transform ( a=2 ) and a new unitary operator ( a=1 ) as a Dunkl-type generalization of the classical Hankel transform....
Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer
Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.
Realization of quantum Fourier transform over ZN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Xiang-Qun; Bao Wan-Su; Li Fa-Da; Zhang Yu-Chao
2014-01-01
Since the difficulty in preparing the equal superposition state of amplitude is 1/√N, we construct a quantile transform of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Z N based on the elementary transforms, such as Hadamard transform and Pauli transform. The QFT over Z N can then be realized by the quantile transform, and used to further design its quantum circuit and analyze the requirements for the quantum register and quantum gates. However, the transform needs considerable quantum computational resources and it is difficult to construct a high-dimensional quantum register. Hence, we investigate the design of t-bit quantile transform, and introduce the definition of t-bit semiclassical QFT over Z N . According to probability amplitude, we prove that the transform can be used to realize QFT over Z N and further design its quantum circuit. For this transform, the requirements for the quantum register, the one-qubit gate, and two-qubit gate reduce obviously when compared with those for the QFT over Z N . (general)
Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer
Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.
2017-09-01
A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.
Discrete Fourier transform in nanostructures using scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leuenberger, Michael N.; Flatte, Michael E.; Loss, Daniel; Awschalom, D.D.
2004-01-01
In this article, we show that the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) can be performed by scattering a coherent particle or laser beam off an electrically controllable two-dimensional (2D) potential that has the shape of rings or peaks. After encoding the initial vector into the two-dimensional potential by means of electric gates, the Fourier-transformed vector can be read out by detectors surrounding the potential. The wavelength of the laser beam determines the necessary accuracy of the 2D potential, which makes our method very fault-tolerant. Since the time to perform the DFT is much smaller than the clock cycle of today's computers, our proposed device performs DFTs at the frequency of the computer clock speed
Quantum Fourier Transform Over Galois Rings
Zhang, Yong
2009-01-01
Galois rings are regarded as "building blocks" of a finite commutative ring with identity. There have been many papers on classical error correction codes over Galois rings published. As an important warm-up before exploring quantum algorithms and quantum error correction codes over Galois rings, we study the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Galois rings and prove it can be efficiently preformed on a quantum computer. The properties of the QFT over Galois rings lead to the quantum algorit...
Fourier Transform Spectrometer Controller for Partitioned Architectures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.
2013-01-01
The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Resear......, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture....
Gas Measurement Using Static Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers.
Köhler, Michael H; Schardt, Michael; Rauscher, Markus S; Koch, Alexander W
2017-11-13
Online monitoring of gases in industrial processes is an ambitious task due to adverse conditions such as mechanical vibrations and temperature fluctuations. Whereas conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers use rather complex optical and mechanical designs to ensure stable operation, static FTIR spectrometers do not require moving parts and thus offer inherent stability at comparatively low costs. Therefore, we present a novel, compact gas measurement system using a static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer (sSMFTS). The system works in the mid-infrared range from 650 cm - 1 to 1250 cm - 1 and can be operated with a customized White cell, yielding optical path lengths of up to 120 cm for highly sensitive quantification of gas concentrations. To validate the system, we measure different concentrations of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and perform a PLS regression analysis of the acquired infrared spectra. Thereby, the measured absorption spectra show good agreement with reference data. Since the system additionally permits measurement rates of up to 200 Hz and high signal-to-noise ratios, an application in process analysis appears promising.
Fourier transform resampling: Theory and application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawkins, W.G.
1996-01-01
One of the most challenging problems in medical imaging is the development of reconstruction algorithms for nonstandard geometries. This work focuses on the application of Fourier analysis to the problem of resampling or rebinning. Conventional resampling methods utilizing some form of interpolation almost always result in a loss of resolution in the tomographic image. Fourier Transform Resampling (FTRS) offers potential improvement because the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the process behaves like an ideal low pass filter. The MTF, however, is nonstationary if the coordinate transformation is nonlinear. FTRS may be viewed as a generalization of the linear coordinate transformations of standard Fourier analysis. Simulated MTF's were obtained by projecting point sources at different transverse positions in the flat fan beam detector geometry. These MTF's were compared to the closed form expression for FIRS. Excellent agreement was obtained for frequencies at or below the estimated cutoff frequency. The resulting FTRS algorithm is applied to simulations with symmetric fan beam geometry, an elliptical orbit and uniform attenuation, with a normalized root mean square error (NRME) of 0.036. Also, a Tc-99m point source study (1 cm dia., placed in air 10 cm from the COR) for a circular fan beam acquisition was reconstructed with a hybrid resampling method. The FWHM of the hybrid resampling method was 11.28 mm and compares favorably with a direct reconstruction (FWHM: 11.03 mm)
(Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimyk, A U; Patera, J
2007-01-01
We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found
Advanced multivariate data evaluation for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diewok, J.
2002-12-01
The objective of the presented dissertation was the evaluation, application and further development of advanced multivariate data evaluation methods for qualitative and quantitative Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements, especially of aqueous samples. The focus was set on 'evolving systems'; i.e. chemical systems that change gradually with a master variable, such as pH, reaction time, elution time, etc. and that are increasingly encountered in analytical chemistry. FT-IR measurements on such systems yield 2-way and 3-way data sets, i.e. data matrices and cubes. The chemometric methods used were soft-modeling techniques, like multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) or principal component analysis (PCA), hard modeling of equilibrium systems and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-CoS). The research results are presented in six publications and comprise: A new combination of FT-IR flow titrations and second-order calibration by MCR-ALS for the quantitative analysis of mixture samples of organic acids and sugars. A novel combination of MCR-ALS with a hard-modeled equilibrium constraint for second-order quantitation in pH-modulated samples where analytes and interferences show very similar acid-base behavior. A detailed study in which MCR-ALS and 2D-CoS are directly compared for the first time. From the analysis of simulated and experimental acid-base equilibrium systems, the performance and interpretability of the two methods is evaluated. Investigation of the binding process of vancomycin, an important antibiotic, to a cell wall analogue tripeptide by time-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy and detailed chemometric evaluation. Determination of red wine constituents by liquid chromatography with FT-IR detection and MCR-ALS for resolution of overlapped peaks. Classification of red wine cultivars from FT-IR spectroscopy of phenolic wine extracts with hierarchical clustering and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA
Fourier transform of momentum distribution in vanadium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, A.K.; Manuel, A.A.; Peter, M.; Singru, R.M.
1985-01-01
Experimental Compton profile and 2D-angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation data from vanadium are analyzed by the mean of their Fourier transform. They are compared with the functions calculated with the help of both the linear muffin-tin orbital and the Hubbard-Mijnarends band structure methods. The results show that the functions are influenced by the positron wave function, by the e + -e - many-body correlations and by the differences in the electron wave functions used for the band structure calculations. It is concluded that Fourier analysis is a sensitive approach to investigate the momentum distributions in transition metals and to understnad the effects of the positron. (Auth.)
The prosaic Laplace and Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.A.
1995-01-01
Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Alternating multivariate trigonometric functions and corresponding Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimyk, A U; Patera, J
2008-01-01
We define and study multivariate sine and cosine functions, symmetric with respect to the alternating group A n , which is a subgroup of the permutation (symmetric) group S n . These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator. They determine Fourier-type transforms. There exist three types of such transforms: expansions into corresponding sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier series, integral sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier transforms, and multivariate finite sine and cosine transforms. In all these transforms, alternating multivariate sine and cosine functions are used as a kernel
Fourier transforms in the complex domain
Wiener, N
1934-01-01
With the aid of Fourier-Mellin transforms as a tool in analysis, the authors were able to attack such diverse analytic questions as those of quasi-analytic functions, Mercer's theorem on summability, Milne's integral equation of radiative equilibrium, the theorems of MÃ¼nz and SzÃ¡sz concerning the closure of sets of powers of an argument, Titchmarsh's theory of entire functions of semi-exponential type with real negative zeros, trigonometric interpolation and developments in polynomials of the form \\sum^N_1A_ne^{i\\lambda_nx}, lacunary series, generalized harmonic analysis in the complex domain,
Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver
2007-01-01
An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...
Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram
2010-01-01
Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.
Functional Fourier transforms and the loop equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershadskii, M.A.; Vaisburd, I.D.; Migdal, A.A.
1986-01-01
The Migdal-Makeenko momentum-space loop equation is investigated. This equation is derived from the ordinary loop equation by taking the Fourier transform of the Wilson functional. A perturbation theory is constructed for the new equation and it is proved that the action of the loop operator is determined by vertex functions which coincide with those of the previous equation. It is shown how the ghost loop arises in direct iterations of the momentum-space equation with respect to the coupling constant. A simple example is used to illustrate the mechanism of appearance of an integration in the interior loops in transition to observables
Fourier transform spectroscopy of six stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendoza V, E E [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia
1981-01-01
This paper outlines results from a digital analysis of the Fourier transform spectroscopy of six stars: ..sigma.. Aur, rho Ori, ..cap alpha.. Lyr, zeta Aql and ..cap alpha.. Cyg. Nearly 1200 different spectral lines have been identified in the spectra of these six stars in the wavelength interval 4800-10200 A where the spectra are of very high quality, less than the one per cent level of noise versus signal. ..cap alpha.. Lyr and ..cap alpha.. Cyg show spectral line and profile variations easily seen in their spectra.
Fourier-transforming with quantum annealers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Itay eHen
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We introduce a set of quantum adiabatic evolutions that we argue may be used as `building blocks', or subroutines, in the onstruction of an adiabatic algorithm that executes Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT with the same complexity and resources as its gate-model counterpart. One implication of the above construction is the theoretical feasibility of implementing Shor's algorithm for integer factorization in an optimal manner, and any other algorithm that makes use of QFT, on quantum annealing devices. We discuss the possible advantages, as well as the limitations, of the proposed approach as well as its relation to traditional adiabatic quantum computation.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool in Analysis of Proteus mirabilis Endotoxins.
Żarnowiec, Paulina; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław
2017-01-01
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to scan whole bacterial cells as well as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, endotoxins) isolated from them. Proteus mirabilis cells, with chemically defined LPSs, served as a model for the ATR FT-IR method. The paper focuses on three steps of infrared spectroscopy: (1) sample preparation, (2) IR scanning, and (3) multivariate analysis of IR data (principal component analysis, PCA).
Henry, Christine; Criner, Amanda Keck; Imel, Megan; King, Derek
2018-04-01
Data collected with a handheld Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) device is analyzed and considered as a useful method for detecting and quantifying oxidation on the surface of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials. Experiments examine silicon carbide (SiC) coupons, looking for changes in chemical composition before and after thermal exposure. Using mathematical, physical and statistical models for FTIR reflectance data, this research seeks to quantify any detected spectral changes as an indicator of surface oxidation on the CMC coupon.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of dental unit water line biofilm bacteria
Liaqat, Iram
2009-01-01
Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has become an important tool for rapid analysis of complex biological samples. The infrared absorbance spectrum could be regarded as a “fingerprint” which is a feature of biochemical substances. The FT-IR spectra of fresh and stored dried samples of six bacterial isolates (Klebsiella sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Achromobacter sp.) were observed by variation in sample preparation....
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in physics laboratory courses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Möllmann, K-P; Vollmer, M
2013-01-01
Infrared spectrometry is one of the most important tools in the field of spectroscopic analysis. This is due to the high information content of spectra in the so-called spectroscopic fingerprint region, which enables measurement not only of gases, but also of liquids and solids. Today, infrared spectroscopy is almost completely dominated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy is able to detect minute quantities in the ppm and ppb ranges, and the respective analyses are now standard tools in science as well as industry. Therefore FTIR spectroscopy should be taught within the standard curriculum at university to physicists and engineers. Here we present respective undergraduate laboratory experiments designed for students at the end of their third year. Experiments deal first with understanding the spectrometer and second with recording and analysing spectra. On the one hand, transmission spectra of gases are treated which relate to environmental analytics (being probably the most prominent and well-known examples), and on the other hand, the focus is on the transmission and reflection spectra of solids. In particular, silicon wafers are studied—as is regularly done in the microelectronics industry—in order to characterize their thickness, oxygen content and phonon modes. (paper)
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
The Fourier transform of tubular densities
Prior, C B
2012-05-18
We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
The Fourier transform of tubular densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prior, C B; Goriely, A
2012-01-01
We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. (paper)
Fourier transform zero field NMR and NQR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zax, D.B.
1985-01-01
In many systems the chemical shifts measured by traditional high resolution solid state NMR methods are insufficiently sensitive, or the information contained in the dipole-dipole couplings is more important. In these cases, Fourier transform zero field magnetic resonance may make an important contribution. Zero field NMR and NQR is the subject of this thesis. Chapter I presents the quantum mechanical background and notational formalism for what follows. Chapter II gives a brief review of high resolution magnetic resonance methods, with particular emphasis on techniques applicable to dipole-dipole and quadrupolar couplings. Level crossings between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar spins during demagnetization transfer polarization from high to low λ nuclei. This is the basis of very high sensitivity zero field NQR measurements by field cycling. Chapter III provides a formal presentation of the high resolution Fourier transform zero field NMR method. Theoretical signal functions are calculated for common spin systems, and examples of typical spectra are presented. Chapters IV and V review the experimental progress in zero field NMR of dipole-dipole coupled spin-1/2 nuclei and for quadrupolar spin systems. Variations of the simple experiment describe in earlier chapters that use pulsed dc fields are presented in Chapter VI
Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots
Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Armăşelu, Anca; Apostol, D.
2010-05-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.
Fourier Transforms Simplified: Computing an Infrared Spectrum from an Interferogram
Hanley, Quentin S.
2012-01-01
Fourier transforms are used widely in chemistry and allied sciences. Examples include infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopies. A thorough understanding of Fourier methods assists the understanding of microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and diffraction gratings. The theory of Fourier transforms has been presented in this "Journal",…
Applications of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to quality control of the epoxy matrix
Antoon, M. K.; Starkey, K. M.; Koenig, J. L.
1979-01-01
The object of the paper is to demonstrate the utility of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) difference spectra for investigating the composition of a neat epoxy resin, hardener, and catalysts. The composition and degree of cross-linking of the cured matrix is also considered.
Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang
2016-01-01
In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8–14 µm with a single-band CO2 laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8–14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964
High-Throughput Screening Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erdem Sasmaz
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Efficient parallel screening of combinatorial libraries is one of the most challenging aspects of the high-throughput (HT heterogeneous catalysis workflow. Today, a number of methods have been used in HT catalyst studies, including various optical, mass-spectrometry, and gas-chromatography techniques. Of these, rapid-scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR imaging is one of the fastest and most versatile screening techniques. Here, the new design of the 16-channel HT reactor is presented and test results for its accuracy and reproducibility are shown. The performance of the system was evaluated through the oxidation of CO over commercial Pd/Al2O3 and cobalt oxide nanoparticles synthesized with different reducer-reductant molar ratios, surfactant types, metal and surfactant concentrations, synthesis temperatures, and ramp rates.
Analysis of cigarette smoke by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maddox, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Mamantov, G.
1977-02-01
The application of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) to the quantitative determination of several components in the gas phase of whole, dilute tobacco smoke was demonstrated. The 18-cm absorption cell was part of a cigarette smoking system similar to the intermittent inhalation exposure devices used in smoking and health research with rodents. Concentrations were measured for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethylene, and methanol in 7 to 22% smoke. The precision of a measurement in 22% smoke ranged from 3% for carbon dioxide to 34% for ethylene. Absorbances measured for isoprene and hydrogen cyanide followed expected concentrations in different cigarette smokes. It was shown that the concentrations of these components remain constant during a 30-s hold-up following each puff on the cigarettes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Bonnichsen, Lise; Larsson, Jonas
flaA short variable region sequencing and phenetic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied on a collection of 102 Campylobacter jejuni isolated from continuous sampling of organic, free range geese and chickens. FTIR has been shown to serve as a valuable tool in typing...
Fourier transform inequalities for phylogenetic trees.
Matsen, Frederick A
2009-01-01
Phylogenetic invariants are not the only constraints on site-pattern frequency vectors for phylogenetic trees. A mutation matrix, by its definition, is the exponential of a matrix with non-negative off-diagonal entries; this positivity requirement implies non-trivial constraints on the site-pattern frequency vectors. We call these additional constraints "edge-parameter inequalities". In this paper, we first motivate the edge-parameter inequalities by considering a pathological site-pattern frequency vector corresponding to a quartet tree with a negative internal edge. This site-pattern frequency vector nevertheless satisfies all of the constraints described up to now in the literature. We next describe two complete sets of edge-parameter inequalities for the group-based models; these constraints are square-free monomial inequalities in the Fourier transformed coordinates. These inequalities, along with the phylogenetic invariants, form a complete description of the set of site-pattern frequency vectors corresponding to bona fide trees. Said in mathematical language, this paper explicitly presents two finite lists of inequalities in Fourier coordinates of the form "monomial < or = 1", each list characterizing the phylogenetically relevant semialgebraic subsets of the phylogenetic varieties.
Multicomplementary operators via finite Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimov, Andrei B; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L; Guise, Hubert de
2005-01-01
A complete set of d + 1 mutually unbiased bases exists in a Hilbert space of dimension d, whenever d is a power of a prime. We discuss a simple construction of d + 1 disjoint classes (each one having d - 1 commuting operators) such that the corresponding eigenstates form sets of unbiased bases. Such a construction works properly for prime dimension. We investigate an alternative construction in which the real numbers that label the classes are replaced by a finite field having d elements. One of these classes is diagonal, and can be mapped to cyclic operators by means of the finite Fourier transform, which allows one to understand complementarity in a similar way as for the position-momentum pair in standard quantum mechanics. The relevant examples of two and three qubits and two qutrits are discussed in detail
Fractional Fourier transform for confluent hypergeometric beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Bin; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Haibin
2012-01-01
Based on the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) in the cylindrical coordinate system, the propagation properties of a new family of paraxial laser beams named confluent hypergeometric (HyG) beams, of which intensity profile is similar to that for the Bessel modes, passing through FRFT optical systems have been studied in detail by some typical numerical examples. The results indicate that the normalized intensity distribution of a HyG beam in the FRFT plane is closely related to not only the fractional order p but also the beam parameters m,n, and focal length f. -- Highlights: ► We study the propagation of a HyG beam through FRFT optical systems. ► The intensity of the beam in the FRFT plane is closely related to some parameters. ► We can control the properties of HyG beams by properly choosing the parameters.
Fourier transform and its application to 1D and 2D NMR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canet, D.
1988-01-01
In this review article, the following points are developed: Pulsed NMR and Fourier transform; Fourier transform and two-dimensional spectroscopy; Mathematical properties of Fourier transform; Fourier transform of a sine function- one dimensional NMR; Fourier transform of a product of sine functions - two-dimensional NMR; Data manipulations in the time domain; Numerical Fourier transform [fr
Upadhyay, Neelam; Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan
2018-02-01
Pure ghee is superior to other fats and oils due to the presence of bioactive lipids and its rich flavor. Adulteration of ghee with cheaper fats and oils is a prevalent fraudulent practice. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was coupled with chemometrics for the purpose of detection of presence of pig body fat in pure ghee. Pure mixed ghee was spiked with pig body fat @ 3, 4, 5, 10, 15% level. The spectra of pure (ghee and pig body fat) along with the spiked samples was taken in MIR from 4000 to 500 cm-1. Some wavenumber ranges were selected on the basis of differences in the spectra obtained. Separate clusters of the samples were obtained by employing principal component analysis at 5% level of significance on the selected wavenumber range. Probable class membership was predicted by applying SIMCA approach. Approximately, 90% of the samples classified into their respective class and pure ghee and pig body fat never misclassified themselves. The value of R2 was >0.99 for both calibration and validation sets using partial least square method. The study concluded that spiking of pig body fat in pure ghee can be detected even at a level of 3%.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Saliva Analysis.
Mikkonen, Jopi J W; Raittila, Jussi; Rieppo, Lassi; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kullaa, Arja M; Myllymaa, Sami
2016-09-01
Saliva provides a valuable tool for assessing oral and systemic diseases, but concentrations of salivary components are very small, calling the need for precise analysis methods. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using transmission and photoacoustic (PA) modes were compared for quantitative analysis of saliva. The performance of these techniques was compared with a calibration series. The linearity of spectrum output was verified by using albumin-thiocyanate (SCN(-)) solution at different SCN(-) concentrations. Saliva samples used as a comparison were obtained from healthy subjects. Saliva droplets of 15 µL were applied on the silicon sample substrate, 6 drops for each specimen, and dried at 37 ℃ overnight. The measurements were carried out using an FT-IR spectrometer in conjunction with an accessory unit for PA measurements. The findings with both transmission and PA modes mirror each other. The major bands presented were 1500-1750 cm(-1) for proteins and 1050-1200 cm(-1) for carbohydrates. In addition, the distinct spectral band at 2050 cm(-1) derives from SCN(-) anions, which is converted by salivary peroxidases to hypothiocyanate (OSCN(-)). The correlation between the spectroscopic data with SCN(-) concentration (r > 0.990 for transmission and r = 0.967 for PA mode) was found to be significant (P < 0.01), thus promising to be utilized in future applications. © The Author(s) 2016.
Fourier transformations for difference analogs of the harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Askey, R.; Atakishiyev, N.M.
1995-01-01
The relation between the Mehler bilinear generating function for the Hermite polynomials and the kernel of the Fourier transformation that connect the spaces of coordinate and momentum is discussed. On the base of the relation the discrete analogs of the Fourier transformation for the Kravchuk and Charlier functions are considered. 6 refs
The Fourier Transform for Certain HyperKähler Fourfolds
Shen, M.; Vial, C.
2016-01-01
Using a codimension-1 algebraic cycle obtained from the Poincaré line bundle, Beauville defined the Fourier transform on the Chow groups of an abelian variety A and showed that the Fourier transform induces a decomposition of the Chow ring CH∗(A). By using a codimension-2 algebraic cycle
Fourier transform in multimode systems in the Bargmann representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei, C; Vourdas, A
2007-01-01
A Fourier transform in a multimode system is studied, using the Bargmann representation. The growth of a Bargmann function is shown to be related to the second-order correlation of the corresponding state. Both the total growth and the total second-order correlation remain unchanged under the Fourier transform. Examples with coherent states, squeezed states and Mittag-Leffler states are discussed
Fourier transform n.m.r. spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaw, D.
1976-01-01
This book is orientated to techniques rather than applications. The basic theory of n.m.r. is dealt with in a unified approach to the Fourier theory. The middle section of the book concentrates on the practical aspects of Fourier n.m.r., both instrumental and experimental. The final chapters briefly cover general application of n.m.r., but concentrate strongly on those areas where Fourier n.m.r. can give information which is not available by conventional techniques
Fourier transform n. m. r. spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaw, D [Varian Ltd., Walton (UK)
1976-01-01
This book is orientated to techniques rather than applications. The basic theory of n.m.r. is dealt with in a unified approach to the Fourier theory. The middle section of the book concentrates on the practical aspects of Fourier n.m.r., both instrumental and experimental. The final chapters briefly cover general application of n.m.r., but concentrate strongly on those areas where Fourier n.m.r. can give information which is not available by conventional techniques.
The relationship between shock response spectrum and fast Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zola, Maurizio
2001-01-01
In this paper the basic relationship between response spectrum and fast Fourier transform is laid down. Since a long time the response spectrum has been used by structural engineers in the seismic domain and nowadays it is going to be used to define transient motions. This way to define the excitation is more general and more real than the use of classical shape pulses for the reproduction of real environment. Nevertheless the response spectrum of a real excitation represents a loss of some information with respect to the Fourier transform. A useful discussion could arise from these observations. Appendix A gives the relationship between the mathematic Fourier transform and the digital Fourier transform given by computers, while Appendix B gives some examples of response spectra and Fourier transforms of simple functions. (author)
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for Kona coffee authentication.
Wang, Jun; Jun, Soojin; Bittenbender, H C; Gautz, Loren; Li, Qing X
2009-06-01
Kona coffee, the variety of "Kona typica" grown in the north and south districts of Kona-Island, carries a unique stamp of the region of Big Island of Hawaii, U.S.A. The excellent quality of Kona coffee makes it among the best coffee products in the world. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory and multivariate analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ground and brewed Kona coffee and blends made with Kona coffee. The calibration set of Kona coffee consisted of 10 different blends of Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 14 different farms in Hawaii and a non-Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 3 different sampling sites in Hawaii. Derivative transformations (1st and 2nd), mathematical enhancements such as mean centering and variance scaling, multivariate regressions by partial least square (PLS), and principal components regression (PCR) were implemented to develop and enhance the calibration model. The calibration model was successfully validated using 9 synthetic blend sets of 100% Kona coffee mixture and its adulterant, 100% non-Kona coffee mixture. There were distinct peak variations of ground and brewed coffee blends in the spectral "fingerprint" region between 800 and 1900 cm(-1). The PLS-2nd derivative calibration model based on brewed Kona coffee with mean centering data processing showed the highest degree of accuracy with the lowest standard error of calibration value of 0.81 and the highest R(2) value of 0.999. The model was further validated by quantitative analysis of commercial Kona coffee blends. Results demonstrate that FTIR can be a rapid alternative to authenticate Kona coffee, which only needs very quick and simple sample preparations.
On the windowed Fourier transform as an interpolation of the Gabor transform
Bastiaans, M.J.; Prochßzka, A.; Uhlør, J.; Sovka, P.
1997-01-01
The windowed Fourier transform and its sampled version - the Gabor transform - are introduced. With the help of Gabor's signal expansion, an interpolation function is derived with which the windowed Fourier transform can be constructed from the Gabor transform. Using the Zak transform, it is shown
Fourier transform based scalable image quality measure.
Narwaria, Manish; Lin, Weisi; McLoughlin, Ian; Emmanuel, Sabu; Chia, Liang-Tien
2012-08-01
We present a new image quality assessment (IQA) algorithm based on the phase and magnitude of the 2D (twodimensional) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The basic idea is to compare the phase and magnitude of the reference and distorted images to compute the quality score. However, it is well known that the Human Visual Systems (HVSs) sensitivity to different frequency components is not the same. We accommodate this fact via a simple yet effective strategy of nonuniform binning of the frequency components. This process also leads to reduced space representation of the image thereby enabling the reduced-reference (RR) prospects of the proposed scheme. We employ linear regression to integrate the effects of the changes in phase and magnitude. In this way, the required weights are determined via proper training and hence more convincing and effective. Lastly, using the fact that phase usually conveys more information than magnitude, we use only the phase for RR quality assessment. This provides the crucial advantage of further reduction in the required amount of reference image information. The proposed method is therefore further scalable for RR scenarios. We report extensive experimental results using a total of 9 publicly available databases: 7 image (with a total of 3832 distorted images with diverse distortions) and 2 video databases (totally 228 distorted videos). These show that the proposed method is overall better than several of the existing fullreference (FR) algorithms and two RR algorithms. Additionally, there is a graceful degradation in prediction performance as the amount of reference image information is reduced thereby confirming its scalability prospects. To enable comparisons and future study, a Matlab implementation of the proposed algorithm is available at http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/wslin/reduced_phase.rar.
Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Brasunas, John C.; Francis, John L.
2011-01-01
A compact and lightweight mechanism has been developed to accurately move a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) scan mirror (a cube corner) in a near-linear fashion with near constant speed at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation includes a slide mechanism to restrict motion to one dimension, an actuator to drive the motion, and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) to measure the speed. The cube corner mirror is double-passed in one arm of the FTS; double-passing is required to compensate for optical beam shear resulting from tilting of the moving cube corner. The slide, actuator, and LVT are off-the-shelf components that are capable of cryogenic vacuum operation. The actuator drives the slide for the required travel of 2.5 cm. The LVT measures translation speed. A proportional feedback loop compares the LVT voltage with the set voltage (speed) to derive an error signal to drive the actuator and achieve near constant speed. When the end of the scan is reached, a personal computer reverses the set voltage. The actuator and LVT have no moving parts in contact, and have magnetic properties consistent with cryogenic operation. The unlubricated slide restricts motion to linear travel, using crossed roller bearings consistent with 100-million- stroke operation. The mechanism tilts several arc seconds during transport of the FTS mirror, which would compromise optical fringe efficiency when using a flat mirror. Consequently, a cube corner mirror is used, which converts a tilt into a shear. The sheared beam strikes (at normal incidence) a flat mirror at the end of the FTS arm with the moving mechanism, thereby returning upon itself and compensating for the shear
Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses
Lim, Lucy; Yan, Fangzhi; Bach, Stephen; Pihakari, Katianna; Klein, David
2016-01-01
Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices. PMID:26784175
Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucy Lim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices.
Fourier Transform Infrared and Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Bacteriorhodopsin.
Earnest, Thomas Nixon
Fourier transform infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure and function of the light-activated, transmembrane proton pump, bacteriorhodopsin, from the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a 27,000 dalton integral membrane protein consisting of 248 amino acids with a retinylidene chromophore. Absorption of a photon leads to the translocation of one or two protons from the inside of the cell to the outside. Resonance Raman spectroscopy allows for the study of the configuration of retinal in bR and its photointermediates by the selective enhancement of vibrational modes of the chromophore. This technique was used to determine that the chromophore is attached to lysine-216 in both the bR _{570} and the M _{412} intermediates. In bR with tyrosine-64 selectively nitrated or aminated, the chromophore appears to have the same configuration in that bR _{570} (all- trans) and M _{412} (13- cis) states as it does in unmodified bR. Polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) permits the study of the direction of transition dipole moments arising from molecular vibrations of the protein and the retinal chromophore. The orientation of alpha helical and beta sheet components was determined for bR with the average helical tilt found to lie mostly parallel to the membrane normal. The beta sheet structures also exhibit an IR linear dichroism for the amide I and amide II bands which suggest that the peptide backbone is mostly perpendicular to the membrane plane although it is difficult to determine whether the bands originate from sheet or turn components. The orientation of secondary structure components of the C-1 (residues 72-248) and C-2 (residues 1-71) fragments were also investigated to determine the structure of these putative membrane protein folding intermediates. Polarized, low temperature FTIR -difference spectroscopy was then used to investigate the structure of bR as it undergoes
A discrete Fourier transform for virtual memory machines
Galant, David C.
1992-01-01
An algebraic theory of the Discrete Fourier Transform is developed in great detail. Examination of the details of the theory leads to a computationally efficient fast Fourier transform for the use on computers with virtual memory. Such an algorithm is of great use on modern desktop machines. A FORTRAN coded version of the algorithm is given for the case when the sequence of numbers to be transformed is a power of two.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic studies of dithia ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
limited region 1000–1150 cm–1.10 Therefore, in the present paper we report and analyse Fourier-trans- form infrared (FT-IR) spectra of S2TPP and its chemically prepared cation. 2. Experimental. Dithia tetraphenyl porphyrine was received from. Professor A L Verma as a gift and used without fur- ther purification. However ...
Park, Youngjune; Shin, Dolly; Jang, Young Nam; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa
2012-01-01
attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 capture capacity and swelling behaviors of polyetheramine (Jeffamine M-2070) and its corresponding NOHMs (NOHM-I-PE2070) were reported
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.
1992-07-01
The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirgian, J.C.; Mao, Zhouxiong; MacIntosh, M.; Wentz, C.A.
1991-01-01
The requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and public concern about the safety of air emissions from incineration necessitate the development of continuous emission monitors for on-line determination of both the destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of hazardous wastes and the emission products of incomplete combustion (PICs). This paper describes a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that has been developed for this purpose. A laboratory-scale hazardous waste incinerator was coupled directly, via heated sampling lines, to a heated long-path cell (LPC) combined with an FTIR analyzer. The DRE and PIC emission levels were measured, on-line, for toluene incineration. Thus, this new LPC/FTIR system has been demonstrated as an effective continuous emissions monitor. Further experimental work with other hydrocarbons is now underway using the FTIR system. 8 figs., 4 tabs
Gillard, Frédéric; Ferrec, Yann; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Taboury, Jean; Chavel, Pierre
2012-06-01
Stationary Fourier transform spectrometry is an interesting concept for building reliable field or embedded spectroradiometers, especially for the mid- and far- IR. Here, a very compact configuration of a cryogenic stationary Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectrometer is investigated, where the interferometer is directly integrated in the focal plane array (FPA). We present a theoretical analysis to explain and describe the fringe formation inside the FTIR-FPA structure when illuminated by an extended source positioned at a finite distance from the detection plane. The results are then exploited to propose a simple front lens design compatible with a handheld package.
From Fourier Transforms to Singular Eigenfunctions for Multigroup Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.
2001-01-01
A new Fourier transform approach to the solution of the multigroup transport equation with anisotropic scattering and isotropic source is presented. Through routine analytical continuation, the inversion contour is shifted from the real line to produce contributions from the poles and cuts in the complex plane. The integrand along the branch cut is then recast in terms of matrix continuum singular eigenfunctions, demonstrating equivalence of Fourier transform inversion and the singular eigenfunction expansion. The significance of this paper is that it represents the initial step in revealing the intimate connection between the Fourier transform and singular eigenfunction approaches as well as serves as a basis for a numerical algorithm
The application and improvement of Fourier transform spectrometer experiment
Liu, Zhi-min; Gao, En-duo; Zhou, Feng-qi; Wang, Lan-lan; Feng, Xiao-hua; Qi, Jin-quan; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Luning
2017-08-01
According to teaching and experimental requirements of Optoelectronic information science and Engineering, in order to consolidate theoretical knowledge and improve the students practical ability, the Fourier transform spectrometer ( FTS) experiment, its design, application and improvement are discussed in this paper. The measurement principle and instrument structure of Fourier transform spectrometer are introduced, and the spectrums of several common Laser devices are measured. Based on the analysis of spectrum and test, several possible improvement methods are proposed. It also helps students to understand the application of Fourier transform in physics.
Image reconstruction from pairs of Fourier-transform magnitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunt, B.R.; Overman, T.L.; Gough, P.
1998-01-01
The retrieval of phase information from only the magnitude of the Fourier transform of a signal remains an important problem for many applications. We present an algorithm for phase retrieval when there exist two related sets of Fourier-transform magnitude data. The data are assumed to come from a single object observed in two different polarizations through a distorting medium, so the phase component of the Fourier transform of the object is corrupted. Phase retrieval is accomplished by minimization of a suitable criterion function, which can take three different forms. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America
Direct fourier method reconstruction based on unequally spaced fast fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Liu Li
2003-01-01
First, We give an Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) method, which is more exact and theoretically more comprehensible than its former counterpart. Then, with an interesting interpolation scheme, we discusse how to apply USFFT to Direct Fourier Method (DFM) reconstruction of parallel projection data. At last, an emulation experiment result is given. (authors)
Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Qingzheng; Via, Brian K.
2015-01-01
This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide bet...
Osbin, K.; Jayan, Manuel; Bhadrakumari, S.; Predeep, P.
2017-06-01
This study investigates the presence of various amide bands present in different spider silk species, which provides extraordinary physical properties. Three different spider silks were collected from Western Ghats region. The collected spider silks samples belonging to the spider Heteropoda venatoria (species 1), Hersilia savignyi (species 2) and Pholcus phalangioides (species 3). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveals the protein peaks in the amide I, II, and III regions in all the three types of spider silk species.
Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Hovde, Per Jostein
2012-01-01
Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for exa...
Solution of 3-dimensional diffusion equation by finite Fourier transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnani, P.D.
1978-01-01
Three dimensional diffusion equation in Cartesian co-ordinates is solved by using the finite Fourier transformation. This method is different from the usual Fourier transformation method in the sense that the solutions are obtained without performing the inverse Fourier transformation. The advantage has been taken of the fact that the flux is finite and integrable in the finite region. By applying this condition, a two-dimensional integral equation, involving flux and its normal derivative at the boundary, is obtained. By solving this equation with given boundary conditions, all of the boundary values are determined. In order to calculate the flux inside the region, flux is expanded into three-dimensional Fourier series. The Fourier coefficients of the flux in the region are calculated from the boundary values. The advantage of this method is that the integrated flux is obtained without knowing the fluxes inside the region as in the case of finite difference method. (author)
The morphing of geographical features by Fourier transformation.
Li, Jingzhong; Liu, Pengcheng; Yu, Wenhao; Cheng, Xiaoqiang
2018-01-01
This paper presents a morphing model of vector geographical data based on Fourier transformation. This model involves three main steps. They are conversion from vector data to Fourier series, generation of intermediate function by combination of the two Fourier series concerning a large scale and a small scale, and reverse conversion from combination function to vector data. By mirror processing, the model can also be used for morphing of linear features. Experimental results show that this method is sensitive to scale variations and it can be used for vector map features' continuous scale transformation. The efficiency of this model is linearly related to the point number of shape boundary and the interceptive value n of Fourier expansion. The effect of morphing by Fourier transformation is plausible and the efficiency of the algorithm is acceptable.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.
Perkins, W. D.
1987-01-01
Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for sepia melanin
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mbonyiryivuze, A
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Spectroscopy (FTIR) for assessing biogenic silica sample purity in geochemical analyses and palaeoenvironmental research,” Climate of the Past, vol. 7, p. 65- 74, 2011. [12] P. N. R. Sundar, Films minces à base de Si nanostructuré pour des cellules...
Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.
Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G
2017-05-01
Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P < 0.05). The infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Revisiting the quantum harmonic oscillator via unilateral Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogueira, Pedro H F; Castro, Antonio S de
2016-01-01
The literature on the exponential Fourier approach to the one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator problem is revised and criticized. It is shown that the solution of this problem has been built on faulty premises. The problem is revisited via the Fourier sine and cosine transform method and the stationary states are properly determined by requiring definite parity and square-integrable eigenfunctions. (paper)
q-Generalization of the inverse Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauregui, M.; Tsallis, C.
2011-01-01
A wide class of physical distributions appears to follow the q-Gaussian form, which plays the role of attractor according to a q-generalized Central Limit Theorem, where a q-generalized Fourier transform plays an important role. We introduce here a method which determines a distribution from the knowledge of its q-Fourier transform and some supplementary information. This procedure involves a recently q-generalized representation of the Dirac delta and the class of functions on which it acts. The present method conveniently extends the inverse of the standard Fourier transform, and is therefore expected to be very useful in the study of many complex systems. - Highlights: → We present a method to invert the q-Fourier transform of a distribution. → We illustrate when Dirac delta can be represented using q-exponentials. → We describe a family of functions for which this new representation works.
On the physical relevance of the discrete Fourier transform
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Greben, JM
1991-11-01
Full Text Available This paper originated from the author's dissatisfaction with the way the discrete Fourier transform is usually presented in the literature. Although mathematically correct, the physical meaning of the common representation is unsatisfactory...
A fourier transform quality measure for iris images
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Makinana, S
2014-08-01
Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...
Surface Fourier-transform lens using a metasurface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yun Bo; Cai, Ben Geng; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun
2015-01-01
We propose a surface (or 2D) Fourier-transform lens using a gradient refractive index (GRIN) metasurface in the microwave band, which is composed of sub-wavelength quasi-periodical metallic patches on a grounded dielectric substrate. Such a metasurface supports the transverse magnetic (TM) modes of surface waves. To gradually change the size of textures, we obtain different surface refractive indices, which can be tailored to fit the required refractive-index profile of a surface Fourier-transform lens. According to the theory of spatial Fourier transformation, we make use of the proposed lens to realize surface plane-wave scanning under different feeding locations. The simulation and experimental results jointly confirm the validity of the surface Fourier-transform lens. The proposed method can also be extended to the terahertz frequency. (paper)
Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)
2011-01-01
In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.
Automatic Fourier transform and self-Fourier beams due to parabolic potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yiqi, E-mail: zhangyiqi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Xing [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Belić, Milivoj R., E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Zhong, Weiping [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Shunde 528300 (China); Petrović, Milan S. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)
2015-12-15
We investigate the propagation of light beams including Hermite–Gauss, Bessel–Gauss and finite energy Airy beams in a linear medium with parabolic potential. Expectedly, the beams undergo oscillation during propagation, but quite unexpectedly they also perform automatic Fourier transform, that is, periodic change from the beam to its Fourier transform and back. In addition to oscillation, the finite-energy Airy beams exhibit periodic inversion during propagation. The oscillating period of parity-asymmetric beams is twice that of the parity-symmetric beams. Based on the propagation in parabolic potential, we introduce a class of optically-interesting beams that are self-Fourier beams—that is, the beams whose Fourier transforms are the beams themselves.
Fourier series models through transformation | Omekara | Global ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
As a result, the square transformation which outperforms the others is adopted. Consequently, each of the multiplicative and additive FSA models fitted to the transformed data are then subjected to a test for white noise based on spectral analysis. The result of this test shows that only the multiplicative model is adequate.
Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund
2010-02-01
Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.
The Fastest Fourier Transform in the West
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Frigo, Matteo; Johnson, Steven G
1997-01-01
.... Three main ideas are the keys to FFTW's performance. First, the computation of the transform is performed by an executor consisting of highly-optimized, composable blocks of C code called codelets...
Properties of the Simpson discrete fourier transform | Singh ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Simpson discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) and its inverse are transformations relating the time and frequency domains. In this paper we state and prove the important properties of shift, circular convolution, conjugation, time reversal and Plancherel's theorem. In addition, we provide an alternative representation of the ...
Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Le, Duy Michael; Damgaard Nielsen, Anders; Sørensen, Hanne
2017-01-01
samples in situ with no prior purification and minimal sample preparation. Lignin chemical formulas and lignin Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were extracted from mixed spectra by filtering out signals from residual carbohydrates and minerals. From estimations of C, H and O and adjustment...
During a field study in the summer of 2000 in the Research Triangle Park (RTP), aerosol samples were collected using a five stage cascade impactor and subsequently analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The impaction surfaces were stainless steel disks....
Tan, T. L.; Lebron, G. B.
2012-01-01
The integrated absorbance areas of vibrational bands of CO[subscript 2], CO, and CH[subscript 4] gases in cigarette smoke were measured from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to derive the partial pressures of these gases at different smoke times. The quantity of the three gas-phase components of cigarette smoke at different smoke times…
The amount of secondary cell wall (SCW) cellulose in the fiber affects the quality and commercial value of cotton. Accurate assessments of SCW cellulose are essential for improving cotton fibers. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy enables distinguishing SCW from other cell wall componen...
VANDERMEI, HC; NAUMANN, D; BUSSCHER, HJ
1993-01-01
The grouping and identification made by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of 40 oral streptococcal strains was compared with their known taxonomic positions. Grouping was obtained by cluster analysis on the spectral distances between the first derivative spectra of the strains. Spectra
Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling
Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen
2010-04-01
OPTRA has developed an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize the design and build and detail system characterization and test of a prototype I-OP-FTIR instrument. System characterization includes radiometric performance and spectral resolution. Results from a series of tomographic reconstructions of sulfur hexafluoride plumes in a laboratory setting are also presented.
Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying
2006-01-01
An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Bonnichsen, Lise; Larsson, Jonas T.
2012-01-01
and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were applied on a collection of 102 epidemiologically related and unrelated Campylobacter jejuni strains. Previous application of FTIR spectroscopy for subtyping of Campylobacter has been limited. A subset of isolates, initially discriminated by flaA SVR...
Efficient Computer Implementations of Fast Fourier Transforms.
1980-12-01
fit in computer? Yes, continue (9) Determine fastest algorithm between WFTA and PFA from Table 4.6. For N=420, WFTA PFA Mult 1296 2528 Add 11352 10956...real adds = 24tN/4 + 2(3tN/4) = 15tN/2 (G.8) 260 All odd prime C<ictors ciual to or (,rater than 5 iso the general transform section. Based on the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.
1995-01-01
This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Wenhao; Chen Min; Xiao Tiqiao
2011-01-01
Effects of the incident angle offset on FT-IR spectra are investigated in this paper. The simulated FT-IR spectra are obtained by Fourier inverse transform. The results show that this frequency shift varies with the angle offset of the incident beam in FT-IR. As an example,the factors that affect the angle of incident IR light at SSRF are analyzed. According to performance specifications of the IR beamline, requirements of the optical component installation precision and position drift of the light source are given. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)
1998-12-31
Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P.
1998-01-01
Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gierczak, C.A.; Andino, J.M.; Butler, J.W.; Heiser, G.A.; Jesion, G.; Korniski, T.J.
1991-01-01
FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable tool in the analysis of complex gas phase mixtures, such as dilute vehicle exhaust. Regulated and non-regulated vehicle emissions have been routinely sampled and analyzed using prototype instrumentation developed in this laboratory, and in several other laboratories over the last decade. More recently, commercial versions of these FTIR analyzers have become available through several manufacturers. This paper reviews the data acquisition and processing techniques utilized by the FTIR analyzer developed in this laboratory. The statistical detection limits for 22 of the components analyzed by the system are presented. In addition, the linearity of the carbon monoxide (CO) analysis is demonstrated over several orders of magnitude. Experiments designed to study the effects of environmental parameters on the accuracy and the sensitivity of the system are also described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Hongyi; Hao Ren; Lu Hailiang
2008-01-01
Based on our previous paper (Commun. Theor. Phys. 39 (2003) 417) we derive the convolution theorem of fractional Fourier transformation in the context of quantum mechanics, which seems a convenient and neat way. Generalization of this method to the complex fractional Fourier transformation case is also possible
Vaibhav, V.K.
2017-01-01
This paper considers the non-Hermitian Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) scattering problem which forms the basis for defining the SU(2) nonlinear Fourier transformation (NFT). The theoretical underpinnings of this generalization of the conventional Fourier transformation are quite well established in the
Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems
Ferraro, John R
1985-01-01
The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers
Decay of the Fourier transform analytic and geometric aspects
Iosevich, Alex
2014-01-01
The Plancherel formula says that the L2 norm of the function is equal to the L2 norm of its Fourier transform. This implies that at least on average, the Fourier transform of an L2 function decays at infinity. This book is dedicated to the study of the rate of this decay under various assumptions and circumstances, far beyond the original L2 setting. Analytic and geometric properties of the underlying functions interact in a seamless symbiosis which underlines the wide range influences and applications of the concepts under consideration.
Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductor materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonak-Auer, I.
1996-11-01
In order to determine the type of charge carriers, i.e. electrons or holes, participating in optical transitions, cyclotron resonance experiments using circularly polarized radiation were performed on strained-layer [111]-oriented InGaAs/(Al)GaAs multiple quantum wells and on a [100]-oriented InAs/GaSb double-heterostructure. Because of the rather complicated band-structures of these samples it is a priori unknown which carriers take part in transitions. The measurements yield the surprising result, that for the InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well the experimentally observed cyclotron resonance appears in the electron-active polarization in the frequency-regime of the Far Infrared (FIR), but in the hole-active polarization in the range of millimeter waves, whereas for the InGaAs/AlGaAs sample the resonance is caused by holes also in the FIR. Since by theoretical considerations the possibility of electrons causing the FIR cyclotron resonance could be excluded, the measurements are interpreted as being caused by holes due to broken selection rules. In the InAs/GaSb sample hole cyclotron resonance could for the first time be measured on a double-heterostructure. As for the application oriented measurements, they comprised a study of the hydrogen content of amorphous silicon nitride layers, and were performed in collaboration with Austria Mikro Systeme International AG. Fourier spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive means for determining impurity concentrations. Radiation in the Mid Infrared regime stimulates N-H and Si-H stretching vibrations which lead to absorption peaks and can directly be attributed to the hydrogen concentration via calibration factors taken from the literature. In comparison with recommended procedures in the literature, a much higher accuracy in determining the areas of the absorption peaks could be gained in the course of this thesis by a proper polynomial fit of the background spectrum outside the absorption lines. The hydrogen content of
[Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in identification of wine spoilage].
Zhao, Xian-De; Dong, Da-Ming; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Jiao, Lei-Zi; Lang, Yun
2014-10-01
In the present work, fresh and spoiled wine samples from three wines produced by different companies were studied u- sing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We analyzed the physicochemical property change in the process of spoil- age, and then, gave out the attribution of some main FTIR absorption peaks. A novel determination method was explored based on the comparisons of some absorbance ratios at different wavebands although the absorbance ratios in this method were relative. Through the compare of the wine spectra before and after spoiled, the authors found that they were informative at the bands of 3,020~2,790, 1,760~1,620 and 1,550~800 cm(-1). In order to find the relation between these informative spectral bands and the wine deterioration and achieve the discriminant analysis, chemometrics methods were introduced. Principal compounds analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used for classifying different-quality wines. And partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to identify spoiled wines and good wines. Results showed that FTIR technique combined with chemometrics methods could effectively distinguish spoiled wines from fresh samples. The effect of classification at the wave band of 1 550-800 cm(-1) was the best. The recognition rate of SIMCA and PLSDA were respectively 94% and 100%. This study demonstrates that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for monitoring red wine's spoilage and provides theoretical support for developing early-warning equipments.
Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space
Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.
Fourier transform wavefront control with adaptive prediction of the atmosphere.
Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce A; Véran, Jean-Pierre
2007-09-01
Predictive Fourier control is a temporal power spectral density-based adaptive method for adaptive optics that predicts the atmosphere under the assumption of frozen flow. The predictive controller is based on Kalman filtering and a Fourier decomposition of atmospheric turbulence using the Fourier transform reconstructor. It provides a stable way to compensate for arbitrary numbers of atmospheric layers. For each Fourier mode, efficient and accurate algorithms estimate the necessary atmospheric parameters from closed-loop telemetry and determine the predictive filter, adjusting as conditions change. This prediction improves atmospheric rejection, leading to significant improvements in system performance. For a 48x48 actuator system operating at 2 kHz, five-layer prediction for all modes is achievable in under 2x10(9) floating-point operations/s.
Discrete Fourier Transform Analysis in a Complex Vector Space
Dean, Bruce H.
2009-01-01
Alternative computational strategies for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) have been developed using analysis of geometric manifolds. This approach provides a general framework for performing DFT calculations, and suggests a more efficient implementation of the DFT for applications using iterative transform methods, particularly phase retrieval. The DFT can thus be implemented using fewer operations when compared to the usual DFT counterpart. The software decreases the run time of the DFT in certain applications such as phase retrieval that iteratively call the DFT function. The algorithm exploits a special computational approach based on analysis of the DFT as a transformation in a complex vector space. As such, this approach has the potential to realize a DFT computation that approaches N operations versus Nlog(N) operations for the equivalent Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation.
Symmetrized neutron transport equation and the fast Fourier transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinh, N.Q.; Kisynski, J.; Mika, J.
1978-01-01
The differential equation obtained from the neutron transport equation by the application of the source iteration method in two-dimensional rectangular geometry is transformed into a symmetrized form with respect to one of the angular variables. The discretization of the symmetrized equation leads to finite difference equations based on the five-point scheme and solved by use of the fast Fourier transform method. Possible advantages of the approach are shown on test calculations
Transformation of a Free-Wilson matrix into Fourier coefficients
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Holík, M.; Halámek, Josef
2002-01-01
Roč. 20, - (2002), s. 422 - 428 ISSN 0931-8771 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Free-Wilson matrix * Fourier transform * multivariate regression Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2002
Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit ...
Application of Migration Velocity Using Fourier Transform Approach ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Application of velocity by Fourier transform to process 3-D unmigrated seismic sections has been carried out in Fabi Field, Niger Delta – Nigeria. Usually, all seismic events (sections) are characterized by spikes or noise (random or coherent), multiples and shear waves so that when a seismic bed is dipping, the apparent ...
Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.
Fourier transform distribution function of relaxation times; application and limitations
Boukamp, Bernard A.
2015-01-01
A simple Fourier transform (FT) method is presented for obtaining a Distribution Function of Relaxation Times (DFRT) for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data. By using a special data extension procedure the FT is performed over the range from -∞ ≤ lnω ≤ + ∞. The integration procedure is
SPICA/SAFARI fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design
Dool, T.C. van den; Kruizinga, B.; Braam, B.C.; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Loix, N.; Loon, D. van; Dams, J.
2012-01-01
TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme in 2022. JAXA leads the development
Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing
Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J
2014-01-01
Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.
The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 11 November 2016 pp 1029-1042 ... But a lot of things, (including the complex impedanceitself, and some insight into complex analysis) can be understoodbetter if we use the FT approach to solve the differentialequations that come up in ...
HEART ABNORMALITY CLASSIFICATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORMS METHOD AND NEURAL NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endah Purwanti
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Health problems with cardiovascular system disorder are still ranked high globally. One way to detect abnormalities in the cardiovascular system especially in the heart is through the electrocardiogram (ECG reading. However, reading ECG recording needs experience and expertise, software-based neural networks has designed to help identify any abnormalities ofthe heart through electrocardiogram digital image. This image is processed using image processing methods to obtain ordinate chart which representing the heart’s electrical potential. Feature extraction using Fourier transforms which are divided into several numbers of coefficients. As the software input, Fourier transforms coefficient have been normalized. Output of this software is divided into three classes, namely heart with atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and normal. Maximum accuracy rate ofthis software is 95.45%, with the distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/8 and number of nodes 5, while minimum accuracy rate of this software at least 68.18% by distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/32 and the number of nodes 32. Overall result accuracy rate of this software has an average of86.05% and standard deviation of7.82.
Nonlinear Fourier transform for dual-polarization optical communication system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaiarin, Simone
communication is considered an emerging paradigm in fiber-optic communications that could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “inverse scattering transform” or “nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT)” to exploit the “hidden” linearity of the nonlinear Schrödinger...
Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods
Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.
Spectrums Transform Operators in Bases of Fourier and Walsh Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Syuzev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The problems of synthesis of the efficient algorithms for digital processing of discrete signals require transforming the signal spectra from one basis system into other. The rational solution to this problem is to construct the Fourier kernel, which is a spectrum of some basis functions, according to the system of functions of the other basis. However, Fourier kernel properties are not equally studied and described for all basis systems of practical importance. The article sets a task and presents an original way to solve the problem of mutual transformation of trigonometric Fourier spectrum into Walsh spectrum of different basis systems.The relevance of this theoretical and applied problem is stipulated, on the one hand, by the prevalence of trigonometric Fourier basis for harmonic representation of digital signals, and, on the other hand, by the fact that Walsh basis systems allow us to have efficient algorithms to simulate signals. The problem solution is achieved through building the Fourier kernel of a special structure that allows us to establish independent groups of Fourier and Walsh spectrum coefficients for further reducing the computational complexity of the transform algorithms.The article analyzes the properties of the system of trigonometric Fourier functions and shows its completeness. Considers the Walsh function basis systems in three versions, namely those of Hadamard, Paley, and Hartmut giving different ordering and analytical descriptions of the functions that make up the basis. Proves a completeness of these systems.Sequentially, for each of the three Walsh systems the analytical curves for the Fourier kernel components are obtained, and Fourier kernel themselves are built with binary rational number of samples of basis functions. The kernels are presented in matrix form and, as an example, recorded for a particular value of the discrete interval of N, equal to 8. The analysis spectral coefficients of the Fourier kernel
Advances in passive-remote and extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.; Hwang, E.; Mao, Zhuoxiong.
1993-01-01
The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires the monitoring of air toxics including those from incinerator emissions. Continuous emission monitors (CEM) would demonstrate the safety of incinerators and address public concern about emissions of hazardous organic compounds. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can provide the technology for continuous emission monitoring of stacks. Stack effluent can be extracted and analyzed in less than one minute with conventional FTIR spectrometers. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers can detect certain emission gases over 1 km away from a stack. The authors discuss advances in both extractive and passive-remote FTIR technology. Extractive systems are being tested with EPA protocols, which will soon replace periodic testing methods. Standard operating procedures for extractive systems are being developed and tested. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers have the advantage of not requiring an extracted sample; however, they have less sensitivity. We have evaluated the ability of commercially available systems to detect fugitive plumes and to monitor carbon monoxide at a coal-fired power plant
Discrimination of organic coffee via Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.
Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet
2012-08-30
Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Nesakumar, Noel; Baskar, Chanthini; Kesavan, Srinivasan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru; Alwarappan, Subbiah
2018-05-22
The moisture content of beetroot varies during long-term cold storage. In this work, we propose a strategy to identify the moisture content and age of beetroot using principal component analysis coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Frequent FTIR measurements were recorded directly from the beetroot sample surface over a period of 34 days for analysing its moisture content employing attenuated total reflectance in the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 with a spectral resolution of 8 cm -1 . In order to estimate the transmittance peak height (T p ) and area under the transmittance curve [Formula: see text] over the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 , Gaussian curve fitting algorithm was performed on FTIR data. Principal component and nonlinear regression analyses were utilized for FTIR data analysis. Score plot over the ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 allowed beetroot quality discrimination. Beetroot quality predictive models were developed by employing biphasic dose response function. Validation experiment results confirmed that the accuracy of the beetroot quality predictive model reached 97.5%. This research work proves that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis and beetroot quality predictive models could serve as an effective tool for discriminating moisture content in fresh, half and completely spoiled stages of beetroot samples and for providing status alerts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherazai, S.T.H.; Shar, Z.; Iqbal, M.; Sumbal, G.A.
2013-01-01
Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)
Grimm, C. A.
This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…
On the finite Fourier transforms of functions with infinite discontinuities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Branko Saric
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The introductory part of the paper is provided to give a brief review of the stability theory of a matrix pencil for discrete linear time-invariant singular control systems, based on the causal relationship between Jordan's theorem from the theory of Fourier series and Laurent's theorem from the calculus of residues. The main part is concerned with the theory of the integral transforms, which has proved to be a powerful tool in the control systems theory. On the basis of a newly defined notion of the total value of improper integrals, throughout the main part of the paper, an attempt has been made to present the global theory of the integral transforms, which are slightly more general with respect to the Laplace and Fourier transforms. The paper ends with examples by which the results of the theory are verified.
An introduction to Laplace transforms and Fourier series
Dyke, Phil
2014-01-01
Laplace transforms continue to be a very important tool for the engineer, physicist and applied mathematician. They are also now useful to financial, economic and biological modellers as these disciplines become more quantitative. Any problem that has underlying linearity and with solution based on initial values can be expressed as an appropriate differential equation and hence be solved using Laplace transforms. In this book, there is a strong emphasis on application with the necessary mathematical grounding. There are plenty of worked examples with all solutions provided. This enlarged new edition includes generalised Fourier series and a completely new chapter on wavelets. Only knowledge of elementary trigonometry and calculus are required as prerequisites. An Introduction to Laplace Transforms and Fourier Series will be useful for second and third year undergraduate students in engineering, physics or mathematics, as well as for graduates in any discipline such as financial mathematics, econometrics and ...
Limitations on continuous variable quantum algorithms with Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adcock, Mark R A; Hoeyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C
2009-01-01
We study quantum algorithms implemented within a single harmonic oscillator, or equivalently within a single mode of the electromagnetic field. Logical states correspond to functions of the canonical position, and the Fourier transform to canonical momentum serves as the analogue of the Hadamard transform for this implementation. This continuous variable version of quantum information processing has widespread appeal because of advanced quantum optics technology that can create, manipulate and read Gaussian states of light. We show that, contrary to a previous claim, this implementation of quantum information processing has limitations due to a position-momentum trade-off of the Fourier transform, analogous to the famous time-bandwidth theorem of signal processing.
Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie
2015-10-20
In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.
Zhang, Yong; Cao, Chun-yu; Feng, Wen-ying; Xu, Ming; Su, Zhen-hua; Liu, Xiao-meng; Lü, Wei-jun
2011-03-01
As one of the most powerful tools to investigate the compositions of raw materials and the property of pulp and paper, infrared spectroscopy has played an important role in pulp and paper industry. However, the traditional transmission infrared spectroscopy has not met the requirements of the producing processes because of its disadvantages of time consuming and sample destruction. New technique would be needed to be found. Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation and could rapidly, accurately estimate the production properties of each process in pulp and paper industry. The present review describes the application of ATR-FTIR in analysis of pulp and paper industry. The analysis processes will include: pulping, papermaking, environmental protecting, special processing and paper identifying.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeyu Lin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors presented a study on the discrimination of handlebar grip samples, to provide effective forensic science service for hit and run traffic cases. 50 bicycle handlebar grip samples, 49 electric bike handlebar grip samples, and 96 motorcycle handlebar grip samples have been randomly collected by the local police in Beijing (China. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR was utilized as analytical technology. Then, target absorption selection, data pretreatment, and discrimination of linked samples and unlinked samples were chosen as three steps to improve the discrimination of FTIR spectrums collected from different handlebar grip samples. Principal component analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve were utilized to evaluate different data selection methods and different data pretreatment methods, respectively. It is possible to explore the evidential value of handlebar grip residue evidence through instrumental analysis and statistical treatments. It will provide a universal discrimination method for other forensic science samples as well.
Irudayaraj, Joseph; Yang, Hong; Sakhamuri, Sivakesava
2002-03-01
Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to differentiate and identify microorganisms on a food (apple) surface. Microorganisms considered include bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium verticilliodes). Discriminant analysis was used to differentiate apples contaminated with the different microorganisms from uncontaminated apple. Mahalanobis distances were calculated to quantify the differences. The higher the value of the Mahalanobis distance metric between different microorganisms, the greater is their difference. Additionally, pathogenic (O157:H7) E. coli was successfully differentiated from non-pathogenic strains. Results demonstrate that FTIR-PAS spectroscopy has the potential to become a non-destructive analysis tool in food safety related research.
Li, Chao; Yang, Sheng-Chao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zheng, Kai-Yan; Wang, Ping-Li; Meng, Zhen-Gui
2016-01-01
A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics tools provided an approach for studying Marsdenia tenacissima according to its geographical origin. A total of 128 M. tenacissima samples from four provinces in China were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. Six pattern recognition methods were used to construct the discrimination models: support vector machine-genetic algorithms, support vector machine-particle swarm optimization, K-nearest neighbors, radial basis function neural network, random forest and support vector machine-grid search. Experimental results showed that K-nearest neighbors was superior to other mathematical algorithms after data were preprocessed with wavelet de-noising, with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction sets. This study demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with K-nearest neighbors could be successfully applied to determine the geographical origins of M. tenacissima samples, thereby providing reliable authentication in a rapid, cheap and noninvasive way.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Xiang; Wang, Lianqin; Shen, Pei Kang [The State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Cui, Guofeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Bianchini, Claudio [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici (ICCOM-CNR), via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2010-03-01
The mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation on a palladium electrode in alkaline solution (from 0.01 to 5 M NaOH) has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroelectrochemistry. The electrode performance has been found to depend on the pH of the fuel solution. The best performance was observed in 1 M NaOH solution (pH = 14), while the electrochemical activity decreased by either increasing or decreasing the NaOH concentration. In situ FTIR spectroscopic measurements showed the main oxidation product to be sodium acetate at NaOH concentrations higher than 0.5 M. The C-C bond cleavage of ethanol, put in evidence by the formation of CO{sub 2}, occurred at pH values {<=}13. In these conditions, however, the catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation was quite low. No CO formation was detected along the oxidation of ethanol by FTIR spectroscopy. (author)
Quantification of DNA in simple eukaryotic cells using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
Whelan, Donna R; Bambery, Keith R; Puskar, Ljiljana; McNaughton, Don; Wood, Bayden R
2013-10-01
A technique capable of detecting and monitoring nucleic acid concentration offers potential in diagnosing cancer and further developing an understanding of the biochemistry of disease. The application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has previously been hindered by the supposed non-Beer-Lambert absorption behavior of DNA in intact cells making elucidation of the DNA bands difficult. We use known composition DNA/hemoglobin standards to successfully estimate the DNA content in avian erythrocyte nuclei (44.2%) and intact erythrocytes (12.8%). Furthermore we demonstrate that the absorption of cellular DNA does follow the Beer-Lambert Law and highlights the role of conformation and hydration in FTIR spectroscopy of biological samples. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The short time Fourier transform and local signals
Okumura, Shuhei
In this thesis, I examine the theoretical properties of the short time discrete Fourier transform (STFT). The STFT is obtained by applying the Fourier transform by a fixed-sized, moving window to input series. We move the window by one time point at a time, so we have overlapping windows. I present several theoretical properties of the STFT, applied to various types of complex-valued, univariate time series inputs, and their outputs in closed forms. In particular, just like the discrete Fourier transform, the STFT's modulus time series takes large positive values when the input is a periodic signal. One main point is that a white noise time series input results in the STFT output being a complex-valued stationary time series and we can derive the time and time-frequency dependency structure such as the cross-covariance functions. Our primary focus is the detection of local periodic signals. I present a method to detect local signals by computing the probability that the squared modulus STFT time series has consecutive large values exceeding some threshold after one exceeding observation following one observation less than the threshold. We discuss a method to reduce the computation of such probabilities by the Box-Cox transformation and the delta method, and show that it works well in comparison to the Monte Carlo simulation method.
Application of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions
Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.; Truman, W. M.
1975-01-01
Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is solved. Fourier transform techniques are used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system are included. The instability of the ill-posed Fredholm equation is examined and a restoration procedure is included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data.
Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system
Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.
2013-01-01
A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541
Matrix-Vector Based Fast Fourier Transformations on SDR Architectures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. He
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Today Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs are applied in various radio standards based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex. It is important to gain a fast computational speed for the DFT, which is usually achieved by using specialized Fast Fourier Transform (FFT engines. However, in face of the Software Defined Radio (SDR development, more general (parallel processor architectures are often desirable, which are not tailored to FFT computations. Therefore, alternative approaches are required to reduce the complexity of the DFT. Starting from a matrix-vector based description of the FFT idea, we will present different factorizations of the DFT matrix, which allow a reduction of the complexity that lies between the original DFT and the minimum FFT complexity. The computational complexities of these factorizations and their suitability for implementation on different processor architectures are investigated.
Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope with double focusing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batusov, Yu.A.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, V.V.
1992-01-01
The meso-optical Fourier transform microscope (MFTM) with double focusing for particle tracks of low ionization level in the nuclear emulsion is described. It is shown experimentally that this device enables one to get high concentration of information about the position of the particle track in the nuclear emulsion and thus to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that spreading of the meso-optical image of the particle track in the sagittal section of the MFTM can be eliminated completely in the frame of the diffraction limit. The number of the additional degrees of freedom in this new MFTM system along depth coordinate is equal to 20 in comparison to single degree of freedom in the Fourier transform microscope of the direct observation. 10 refs.; 15 figs
The Fourier transform for certain hyperkähler fourfolds
Shen, Mingmin
2016-01-01
Using a codimension-1 algebraic cycle obtained from the PoincarÃ© line bundle, Beauville defined the Fourier transform on the Chow groups of an abelian variety A and showed that the Fourier transform induces a decomposition of the Chow ring \\mathrm{CH}^*(A). By using a codimension-2 algebraic cycle representing the Beauvilleâe"Bogomolov class, the authors give evidence for the existence of a similar decomposition for the Chow ring of HyperkÃ¤hler varieties deformation equivalent to the Hilbert scheme of length-2 subschemes on a K3 surface. They indeed establish the existence of such a decomposition for the Hilbert scheme of length-2 subschemes on a K3 surface and for the variety of lines on a very general cubic fourfold.
10th International Conference on Progress in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
Keresztury, Gábor; Kellner, Robert
1997-01-01
19 plenary lectures and 203 poster papers presented at the 10th International Conference of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in Budapest 1995 give an overview on the state-of-the art of this technology and its wide range of applications. The reader will get information on any aspects of FTS including the latest instrumental developments, e.g. in diode array detection, time resolution FTS, microscopy and spectral mapping, double modulation and two-dimensional FTS.
An algorithm for the basis of the finite Fourier transform
Santhanam, Thalanayar S.
1995-01-01
The Finite Fourier Transformation matrix (F.F.T.) plays a central role in the formulation of quantum mechanics in a finite dimensional space studied by the author over the past couple of decades. An outstanding problem which still remains open is to find a complete basis for F.F.T. In this paper we suggest a simple algorithm to find the eigenvectors of F.T.T.
Fast Fourier transformation results from gamma-ray burst profiles
Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Norris, Jay P.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, W. S.
1992-01-01
Several gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE data have sufficiently long durations and complex temporal structures with pulses that appear to be spaced quasi-periodically. In order to test and quantify these periods we have applied fast Fourier transformations (FFT) to all these events. We have also performed cross spectral analyses of the FFT of the two extreme (high-low) energy bands in each case to determine the lead/lag of the pulses in different energies.
Calibration of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, E. T.; Hopwood, R.; Valtchanov, I.; Lu, N.; Fulton, T.; Benielli, D.; Imhof, P.; Marchili, N.; Baluteau, J.- P.; Bendo, G. J.; Ferlet, M.; Griffin, Matthew Jason; Lim, T. L.; Makiwa, G.
2014-01-01
The Herschel Spectral and Photometric REceiver (SPIRE) instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of ∼450–1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a sp...
An OTDM-To-WDM Converter Using Optical Fourier Transformation
Khin Su Myat Min; Zaw Myo Lwin; Hla Myo Tun
2015-01-01
We demonstrate serial-to-parallel conversion of 40 Gbps optical time division multiplexed OTDM signal to 4x10 Gbps wavelength division-multiplexed WDM individual channels by using Optical Fourier Transformation OFT method. OFT is also called time lens technique and it is implemented by the combination of dispersive fiber and phase modulation. In this research electro-optic phase modulator EOM is used as time lens. As our investigations simulation results and bit error rate BER measurements ar...
Solving singular convolution equations using the inverse fast Fourier transform
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krajník, E.; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, P.; Zizler, Václav
2012-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 5 (2012), s. 543-550 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : singular convolution equations * fast Fourier transform * tempered distribution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.222, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/m8437t3563214048/
Flow-through Fourier transform infrared sensor for total hydrocarbons determination in water.
Pérez-Palacios, David; Armenta, Sergio; Lendl, Bernhard
2009-09-01
A new flow-through Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) sensor for oil in water analysis based on solid-phase spectroscopy on octadecyl (C18) silica particles has been developed. The C18 non-polar sorbent is placed inside the sensor and is able to retain hydrocarbons from water samples. The system does not require the use of chlorinated solvents, reducing the environmental impact, and the minimal sample handling stages serve to ensure sample integrity whilst reducing exposure of the analyst to any toxic hydrocarbons present within the samples. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were recorded by co-adding 32 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) and the band located at 1462 cm(-1) due to the CH(2) bending was integrated from 1475 to 1450 cm(-1) using a baseline correction established between 1485 and 1440 cm(-1) using the areas as analytical signal. The technique, which provides a limit of detection (LOD) of 22 mg L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 5%, is considerably rapid and allows for a high level of automation.
Random sampling of evolution time space and Fourier transform processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Zawadzka, Anna; Kozminski, Wiktor; Zhukov, Igor
2006-01-01
Application of Fourier Transform for processing 3D NMR spectra with random sampling of evolution time space is presented. The 2D FT is calculated for pairs of frequencies, instead of conventional sequence of one-dimensional transforms. Signal to noise ratios and linewidths for different random distributions were investigated by simulations and experiments. The experimental examples include 3D HNCA, HNCACB and 15 N-edited NOESY-HSQC spectra of 13 C 15 N labeled ubiquitin sample. Obtained results revealed general applicability of proposed method and the significant improvement of resolution in comparison with conventional spectra recorded in the same time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Erukhimovitch
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR-M can detect small molecular changes in cells and therefore was previously applied for the identification of different biological samples. In the present study, FTIR spectroscopy was used for the identification and discrimination of Vero cells infected with herpes viruses or contaminated with bacteria or fungi in cell culture. Vero cells in culture were infected herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 or contaminated with E. coli bacteria or Candida albicans fungi and analyzed by FTIR microscopy at 24 h postinfection/contamination. Specific different spectral changes were observed according to the infecting or contaminating agent. For instance, both pure fungi and cell culture contaminated with this fungi showed specific peaks at 1030 cm−1 and at 1373 cm−1 regions, while pure E. coli and cell culture contaminated with this bacteria showed a specific and unique peak at 1657 cm−1. These results support the potential of developing FTIR microspectroscopy as a simple, reagent free method for identification and discrimination between different tissue infection or contamination with various pathogens.
Detection of emission sources using passive-remote Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirgian, J.C.; Macha, S.M.; Darby, S.M.; Ditillo, J.
1995-01-01
The detection and identification of toxic chemicals released in the environment is important for public safety. Passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers can be used to detect these releases. Their primary advantages are their small size and ease of setup and use. Open-path FTIR spectrometers are used to detect concentrations of pollutants from a fixed frame of reference. These instruments detect plumes, but they are too large and difficult to aim to be used to track a plume to its source. Passive remote FTIR spectrometers contain an interferometer, optics, and a detector. They can be used on tripods and in some cases can be hand-held. A telescope can be added to most units. We will discuss the capability of passive-remote FTIR spectrometers to detect the origin of plumes. Low concentration plumes were released using a custom-constructed vaporizer. These plumes were detected with different spectrometers from different distances. Passive-remote spectrometers were able to detect small 10 cm on a side chemical releases at concentration-pathlengths at the low parts per million-meter (ppm-m) level
Tabish, Tanveer A; Lin, Liangxu; Ali, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farhat; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Horsell, David W; Winyard, Paul G; Zhang, Shaowei
2018-06-06
Biomolecular fractions affect the fate and behaviour of quantum dots (QDs) in living systems but how the interactions between biomolecules and QDs affect the bioavailability of QDs is a major knowledge gap in risk assessment analysis. The transport of QDs after release into a living organism is a complex process. The majority accumulate in the lungs where they can directly affect the inhalation process and lung architecture. Here, we investigate the bioavailability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to the lungs of rats by measuring the alterations in macromolecular fractions via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GQDs were intravenously injected into the rats in a dose-dependent manner (low (5 mg kg -1 ) and high (15 mg kg -1 ) doses of GQDs per body weight of rat) for 7 days. The lung tissues were isolated, processed and haematoxylin-eosin stained for histological analysis to identify cell death. Key biochemical differences were identified by spectral signatures: pronounced changes in cholesterol were found in two cases of low and high doses; a change in phosphorylation profile of substrate proteins in the tissues was observed in low dose at 24 h. This is the first time biomolecules have been measured in biological tissue using FTIR to investigate the biocompatibility of foreign material. We found that highly accurate toxicological changes can be investigated with FTIR measurements of tissue sections. As a result, FTIR could form the basis of a non-invasive pre-diagnostic tool for predicting the toxicity of GQDs.
Analysis of Index Gases of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaojun Tang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis of the index gases of coal for the prevention of spontaneous combustion is of great importance for the enhancement of coal mine safety. In this work, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIRS is presented to be used to analyze the index gases of coal in real time to monitor spontaneous combustion conditions. Both the instrument parameters and the analysis method are introduced at first by combining characteristics of the absorption spectra of the target analyte with the analysis requirements. Next, more than ten sets of the gas mixture containing ten components (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2 are included and analyzed with a Spectrum Two FTIRS made by Perkin Elmer. The testing results show that the detection limit of most analytes is less than 2×10-6. All the detection limits meet the monitoring requirements of coal spontaneous combustion in China, which means that FTIRS may be an ideal instrument and the analysis method used in this paper is sufficient for spontaneous combustion gas monitoring on-line and even in situ, since FTIRS has many advantages such as fast analysis, being maintenance-free, and good safety.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bjørn Petter Jelle
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.
Anusha, Chidambaram; Sankar, Renu; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasindhuja, Gnanasambantham; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan
2017-12-01
The goal of this study is to establish Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke inhalation induced toxicity in mice. Primarily, we confirmed mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity in mice via reduced the body, organ weight and major vital organ tissue morphological structure changes. Furthermore, FTIR spectra was collected from control and mosquito coil smoke inhalation (8 h per day for 30 days) mice various tissues like liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain, to investigate the functional groups and their corresponding biochemical content variations. The FTIR spectra result shown major bio macromolecules such as protein and lipid functional peaks were shifted (decreased) in the mosquito coil smoke inhalation group as compared to control. The drastic peak shift was noticed in the liver, kidney followed by lung and brain. It is therefore concluded that the FTIR spectroscopy can be a successful detection tool in mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.
1981-01-01
The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero has been calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms has been analyzed in detail. it was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect which tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time
Limited-angle 3-D reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.
1979-12-01
The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero was calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms was analyzed in detail. It was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect that tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time. 8 figures, 2 tables
[Continuum based fast Fourier transform processing of infrared spectrum].
Liu, Qing-Jie; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Qin-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Shuai
2009-12-01
To recognize ground objects with infrared spectrum, high frequency noise removing is one of the most important phases in spectrum feature analysis and extraction. A new method for infrared spectrum preprocessing was given combining spectrum continuum processing and Fast Fourier Transform (CFFT). Continuum was firstly removed from the noise polluted infrared spectrum to standardize hyper-spectra. Then the spectrum was transformed into frequency domain (FD) with fast Fourier transform (FFT), separating noise information from target information After noise eliminating from useful information with a low-pass filter, the filtered FD spectrum was transformed into time domain (TD) with fast Fourier inverse transform. Finally the continuum was recovered to the spectrum, and the filtered infrared spectrum was achieved. Experiment was performed for chlorite spectrum in USGS polluted with two kinds of simulated white noise to validate the filtering ability of CFFT by contrast with cubic function of five point (CFFP) in time domain and traditional FFT in frequency domain. A circle of CFFP has limited filtering effect, so it should work much with more circles and consume more time to achieve better filtering result. As for conventional FFT, Gibbs phenomenon has great effect on preprocessing result at edge bands because of special character of rock or mineral spectra, while works well at middle bands. Mean squared error of CFFT is 0. 000 012 336 with cut-off frequency of 150, while that of FFT and CFFP is 0. 000 061 074 with cut-off frequency of 150 and 0.000 022 963 with 150 working circles respectively. Besides the filtering result of CFFT can be improved by adjusting the filter cut-off frequency, and has little effect on working time. The CFFT method overcomes the Gibbs problem of FFT in spectrum filtering, and can be more convenient, dependable, and effective than traditional TD filter methods.
Moreira, Maria João
2018-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (SS) and Salmon trout (Onconrhynchus mykiss) (OM) muscles were mixed in different percentages and transformed into mini-burgers. These were stored at 3 °C, then examined at 0, 72, 160, and 240 h for deteriorative microorganisms. Mini-burgers was submitted to Soxhlet extraction, following which lipid extracts were analyzed by FTIR. The principal component analysis (PCA) described the studied adulteration using four principal components with an explained variance of 95.60%. PCA showed that the absorbance in the spectral region from 721, 1097, 1370, 1464, 1655, 2805, to 2935, 3009 cm−1 may be attributed to biochemical fingerprints related to differences between SS and OM. The partial least squares regression (PLS-R) predicted the presence/absence of adulteration in fish samples of an external set with high accuracy. The proposed methods have the advantage of allowing quick measurements, despite the storage time of the adulterated fish. FTIR combined with chemometrics showed that a methodology to identify the adulteration of SS with OM can be established, even when stored for different periods of time. PMID:29621135
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belanche, A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Allison, G.G.
2014-01-01
This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total...... components, such as cellulose, pectin, lignin, cutin, and suberin, but also with nonstructural carbohydrates and certain active compounds. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy could be considered a low-cost alternative to in situ measurements in feed evaluation....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura
2010-01-01
We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) to make quantitative measures of total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sediment. FTIRS is a fast and cost-effective technique and only small sediment samples...... varied between r = 0.84-0.99 for TOC, r = 0.85-0.99 for TIC, and r = 0.68-0.94 for BSi. Because FTIR spectra contain information on a large number of both inorganic and organic components, there is great potential for FTIRS to become an important tool in paleolimnology....
Closed contour fractal dimension estimation by the Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florindo, J.B.; Bruno, O.M.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A novel fractal dimension concept, based on Fourier spectrum, is proposed. → Computationally simple. Computational time smaller than conventional fractal methods. → Results are closer to Hausdorff-Besicovitch than conventional methods. → The method is more accurate and robustness to geometric operations and noise addition. - Abstract: This work proposes a novel technique for the numerical calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal objects which can be represented as a closed contour. The proposed method maps the fractal contour onto a complex signal and calculates its fractal dimension using the Fourier transform. The Fourier power spectrum is obtained and an exponential relation is verified between the power and the frequency. From the parameter (exponent) of the relation, is obtained the fractal dimension. The method is compared to other classical fractal dimension estimation methods in the literature, e.g., Bouligand-Minkowski, box-counting and classical Fourier. The comparison is achieved by the calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal contours whose dimensions are well-known analytically. The results showed the high precision and robustness of the proposed technique.
A transformada de Fourier em basic The Fourier transform (FFT in basic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Gomes Constantino
2000-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe three computer programs in Basic language about the Fourier transform (FFT which are available in the Internet site http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/SoftwareE.htm (in English or http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/softwareP.htm (in Portuguese since October 1998. Those are addresses to the Web Page of our Laboratory of Organic Synthesis. The programs can be downloaded and used by anyone who is interested on the subject. The texts, menus and captions in the programs are written in English.
The gridding method for image reconstruction by Fourier transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomberg, H.; Timmer, J.
1995-01-01
This paper explores a computational method for reconstructing an n-dimensional signal f from a sampled version of its Fourier transform f. The method involves a window function w and proceeds in three steps. First, the convolution g = w * f is computed numerically on a Cartesian grid, using the available samples of f. Then, g = wf is computed via the inverse discrete Fourier transform, and finally f is obtained as g/w. Due to the smoothing effect of the convolution, evaluating w * f is much less error prone than merely interpolating f. The method was originally devised for image reconstruction in radio astronomy, but is actually applicable to a broad range of reconstructive imaging methods, including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In particular, it provides a fast and accurate alternative to the filtered backprojection. The basic method has several variants with other applications, such as the equidistant resampling of arbitrarily sampled signals or the fast computation of the Radon (Hough) transform
Comparative study on γ energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Dongsheng; Di Yuming; Zhou Chunlin
2007-01-01
This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise γ energy spectrum of 60 Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for γ energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to γ energy spectrum denoising. (authors)
Hochauflösende Fourier-Transform-Emissionsspektroskopie
Uibel, Christian
2000-01-01
Mittels hochauflösender Fourier-Transform-Infrarot-Emissionsspektroskopie wurden tiefliegende elektronische Anregungszustände der mittelschweren zweiatomigen Radikale As2, Sb2 und TeF untersucht. Dabei lag das Interesse vor allem bei den Emissionen nicht voll erlaubter Übergänge wie beispielsweise der 3Σ +u → 1Σ +g- bzw. (1u) → (0+g)-Übergänge bei den Stickstoff-Homologen. Dieses besondere Interesse an der genauen Analyse der 3Σ +u-Zustände liegt in ihrem metastab...
Optical Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Layered Metal Dichalcogenides
Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Shan, J.; Karaiskaj, D.; Z. D. Kovalyuk; Z. R. Kudrynskyi Collaboration; A. H. Romero Collaboration; A. Cantarero Collaboration; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. Shan Collaboration
2015-03-01
Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) measurements were used to study the mechanism of excitonic dephasing and probe the electronic structure of the excitonic ground state in layered metal dichalcogenides. Temperature-dependent 2DFT measurements were performed to probe exciton-phonon interactions. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal exciton-exciton and exciton-carrier scattering, and the lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of excitons on positively and negatively doped samples. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0012635.
Multi-band Image Registration Method Based on Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庹红娅; 刘允才
2004-01-01
This paper presented a registration method based on Fourier transform for multi-band images which is involved in translation and small rotation. Although different band images differ a lot in the intensity and features,they contain certain common information which we can exploit. A model was given that the multi-band images have linear correlations under the least-square sense. It is proved that the coefficients have no effect on the registration progress if two images have linear correlations. Finally, the steps of the registration method were proposed. The experiments show that the model is reasonable and the results are satisfying.
An OTDM-To-WDM Converter Using Optical Fourier Transformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khin Su Myat Min
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate serial-to-parallel conversion of 40 Gbps optical time division multiplexed OTDM signal to 4x10 Gbps wavelength division-multiplexed WDM individual channels by using Optical Fourier Transformation OFT method. OFT is also called time lens technique and it is implemented by the combination of dispersive fiber and phase modulation. In this research electro-optic phase modulator EOM is used as time lens. As our investigations simulation results and bit error rate BER measurements are expressed.
Directional short-time Fourier transform of distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katerina Hadzi-Velkova Saneva
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we consider the directional short-time Fourier transform (DSTFT that was introduced and investigated in (Giv in J. Math. Anal. Appl. 399:100-107, 2013. We analyze the DSTFT and its transpose on test function spaces S ( R n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and S ( Y 2 n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {Y}^{2n}$ , respectively, and prove the continuity theorems on these spaces. Then the obtained results are used to extend the DSTFT to spaces of distributions.
Hyperspectral imaging using the single-pixel Fourier transform technique
Jin, Senlin; Hui, Wangwei; Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Kaicheng; Shi, Qiushuai; Ying, Cuifeng; Liu, Dongqi; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Tian, Jianguo
2017-03-01
Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400-1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6.25%). The performance of this system was verified by its application to the non-destructive testing of potatoes.
Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions
Morelli, Eugene A.
2013-01-01
A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.
The discrete Fourier transform theory, algorithms and applications
Sundaraajan, D
2001-01-01
This authoritative book provides comprehensive coverage of practical Fourier analysis. It develops the concepts right from the basics and gradually guides the reader to the advanced topics. It presents the latest and practically efficient DFT algorithms, as well as the computation of discrete cosine and Walsh-Hadamard transforms. The large number of visual aids such as figures, flow graphs and flow charts makes the mathematical topic easy to understand. In addition, the numerous examples and the set of C-language programs (a supplement to the book) help greatly in understanding the theory and
Molecular profiling of sepsis in mice using Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy.
Gautam, Rekha; Deobagkar-Lele, Mukta; Majumdar, Shamik; Chandrasekar, Bhagawat; Victor, Emmanuel; Ahmed, Syed Moiz; Wadhwa, Nitin; Verma, Taru; Kumar, Srividya; Sundaresan, Nagalingam Ravi; Umapathy, Siva; Nandi, Dipankar
2016-01-01
Sepsis is a life threatening condition resulting from a high burden of infection. It is a major health care problem and associated with inflammation, organ dysfunction and significant mortality. However, proper understanding and delineating the changes that occur during this complex condition remains a challenge. A comparative study involving intra-peritoneal injection of BALB/c mice with Salmonella Typhimurium (infection), lipopolysaccharide (endotoxic shock) or thioglycollate (sterile peritonitis) was performed. The changes in organs and sera were profiled using immunological assays and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) micro-spectroscopy. There is a rapid rise in inflammatory cytokines accompanied with lowering of temperature, respiratory rate and glucose amounts in mice injected with S. Typhimurium or lipopolysaccharide. FTIR identifies distinct changes in liver and sera: decrease in glycogen and protein/lipid ratio and increase in DNA and cholesteryl esters. These changes were distinct from the pattern observed in mice treated with thioglycollate and the differences in the data obtained between the three models are discussed. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and other biomarkers will be valuable in monitoring molecular changes during sepsis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A Fourier-Transform Infrared Study of Biochar Aging in Soils
Singh, B.; Fang, Y.; Johnston, C.T.
2018-01-01
We used diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the light fraction of four contrasting soils (control and biocharamended soils) to determine changes in biochar properties after aging. Two Eucalyptus saligna Sm. wood biochars, produced at 450°C (B450) and 550°C (B550), were incubated separately in each of the four soils for up to 12 mo at 20, 40, and 60°C. Total C and isotopic (δ13C) methods were used to quantify the amounts of biochar C and native C mineralized during incubation. The DR-FTIR spectra of the light fraction showed distinct absorption bands representing native soil organic C, biochar C, and mineral constituents present in the soils; the mineral bands were consistent with XRD data of the clay fraction of the four soils. Analysis of the DR-FTIR spectra in the ν(C–H) bands showed that the ratio of the aromatic ν(C–H) bands systematically increased relative to the aliphatic ν(C–H) bands with increasing mineralization of biochar C in the B550 amended soils, and this relationship was unique for each soil type. In contrast, this relationship was not observed for the B450 amended soils that contained a relatively smaller proportion of aromatic C. PMID:29657354
Lirtsman, Vladislav; Golosovsky, Michael; Davidov, Dan
2017-10-01
We report an accessory for beam collimation to be used as a plug-in for a conventional Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The beam collimator makes use of the built-in focusing mirror of the FTIR spectrometer which focuses the infrared beam onto the pinhole mounted in the place usually reserved for the sample. The beam is collimated by a small parabolic mirror and is redirected to the sample by a pair of plane mirrors. The reflected beam is conveyed by another pair of plane mirrors to the built-in detector of the FTIR spectrometer. This accessory is most useful for the surface plasmon excitation. We demonstrate how it can be employed for label-free and real-time sensing of dynamic processes in bacterial and live cell layers. In particular, by measuring the intensity of the CO2 absorption peak one can assess the cell layer metabolism, while by measuring the position of the surface plasmon resonance one assesses the cell layer morphology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lia Campos Lemes
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.
Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of vegetable oils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nigri S.
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with chemometric approaches have been developed to analysis of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with pomace olive oil. The measurements were made on pure vegetable oils: extra virgin oil, pomace olive oil and that adulterated with varying concentration of pomace olive oil. Today, the application of FTIR spectroscopy has increased in food studied, and particularly has become a powerful analytical tool in the study of edible oils and fats. The spectral regions where the variations were observed chosen for developing models and cross validation was used. The synchronous fluorescence spectrometry takes advantage of the hardware capability to vary both the excitation and emission wavelengths during the analysis with constant wavelength difference is maintained between the two. The region between 300 and 400 nm is attributed to the tocopherols and phenols, the derivatives of vitamin E are associated with the region 400–600 nm and the bands in the region of 600–700 nm are attributed to the chlorophyll and peophytin pigments. The results presented in this study suggest that FTIR and fluorescence may be a useful tool for analysis and detecting adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with pomace oil.
Spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Al-Muslet, Nafie A.; Ali, Essam E.
2012-03-01
Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Africa. It takes several days to reach a diagnosis using histological examinations of specimens obtained by endoscope, which increases the medical expense. Recently, spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues has received considerable attention as a diagnosis technique due to its sensitivity to biochemical variations in the samples. This study investigated the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze a number of bladder cancer tissues. Twenty-two samples were collected from 11 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer from different hospitals without any pretreatment. From each patient two samples were collected, one normal and another cancerous. FTIR spectrometer was used to differentiate between normal and cancerous bladder tissues via changes in spectra of these samples. The investigations detected obvious changes in the bands of proteins (1650, 1550 cm-1), lipids (2925, 2850 cm-1), and nucleic acid (1080, 1236 cm-1). The results show that FTIR spectroscopy is promising as a rapid, accurate, nondestructive, and easy to use alternative method for identification and diagnosis of bladder cancer tissues.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gifty E. Acquah
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared reflectance (FTIR spectroscopy has been used to predict properties of forest logging residue, a very heterogeneous feedstock material. Properties studied included the chemical composition, thermal reactivity, and energy content. The ability to rapidly determine these properties is vital in the optimization of conversion technologies for the successful commercialization of biobased products. Partial least squares regression of first derivative treated FTIR spectra had good correlations with the conventionally measured properties. For the chemical composition, constructed models generally did a better job of predicting the extractives and lignin content than the carbohydrates. In predicting the thermochemical properties, models for volatile matter and fixed carbon performed very well (i.e., R2 > 0.80, RPD > 2.0. The effect of reducing the wavenumber range to the fingerprint region for PLS modeling and the relationship between the chemical composition and higher heating value of logging residue were also explored. This study is new and different in that it is the first to use FTIR spectroscopy to quantitatively analyze forest logging residue, an abundant resource that can be used as a feedstock in the emerging low carbon economy. Furthermore, it provides a complete and systematic characterization of this heterogeneous raw material.
Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Foster, Michael; Gutierrez, Fernando
2015-01-01
Mineralogical and geochemical information on reservoir and source rocks is necessary to assess and produce from petroleum systems. The standard methods in the petroleum industry for obtaining these properties are bulk measurements on homogenized, generally crushed, and pulverized rock samples and can take from hours to days to perform. New methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been developed to more rapidly obtain information on mineralogy and geochemistry. However, these methods are also typically performed on bulk, homogenized samples. We present a new approach to rock sample characterization incorporating multivariate analysis and FTIR microscopy to provide non-destructive, spatially resolved mineralogy and geochemistry on whole rock samples. We are able to predict bulk mineralogy and organic carbon content within the same margin of error as standard characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Validation of the method was performed using two oil shale samples from the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin with differing sedimentary structures. One sample represents laminated Green River oil shales, and the other is representative of oil shale breccia. The FTIR microscopy results on the oil shales agree with XRD and LECO TOC data from the homogenized samples but also give additional detail regarding sample heterogeneity by providing information on the distribution of mineral phases and organic content. While measurements for this study were performed on oil shales, the method could also be applied to other geological samples, such as other mudrocks, complex carbonates, and soils.
Ojeda, Jesús J; Romero-González, María E; Banwart, Steven A
2009-08-01
Reflectance micro-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis has been applied to characterize biofilm formation of Aquabacterium commune, a common microorganism present on drinking water distribution systems, onto the increasingly popular pipe material stainless steel EN1.4307. The applicability of the reflectance micro-FT-IR technique for analyzing the bacterial functional groups is discussed, and the results are compared to spectra obtained using more conventional FT-IR techniques: transmission micro-FT-IR, attenuated transmitted reflectance (ATR), and KBr pellets. The differences between the infrared spectra of wet and dried bacteria, as well as free versus attached bacteria, are also discussed. The spectra obtained using reflectance micro-FT-IR spectroscopy were comparable to those obtained using other FT-IR techniques. The absence of sample preparation, the potential to analyze intact samples, and the ability to characterize opaque and thick samples without the need to transfer the bacterial samples to an infrared transparent medium or produce a pure culture were the main advantages of reflectance micro-FT-IR spectroscopy.
A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy
Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.
1973-01-01
The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.
Quantum Fourier transform, Heisenberg groups and quasi-probability distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patra, Manas K; Braunstein, Samuel L
2011-01-01
This paper aims to explore the inherent connection between Heisenberg groups, quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and (quasi-probability) distribution functions. Distribution functions for continuous and finite quantum systems are examined from three perspectives and all of them lead to Weyl-Gabor-Heisenberg groups. The QFT appears as the intertwining operator of two equivalent representations arising out of an automorphism of the group. Distribution functions correspond to certain distinguished sets in the group algebra. The marginal properties of a particular class of distribution functions (Wigner distributions) arise from a class of automorphisms of the group algebra of the Heisenberg group. We then study the reconstruction of the Wigner function from the marginal distributions via inverse Radon transform giving explicit formulae. We consider some applications of our approach to quantum information processing and quantum process tomography.
Valuation of European Call Option via Inverse Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rubenis Oskars
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Very few models allow expressing European call option price in closed form. Out of them, the famous Black- Scholes approach sets strong constraints - innovations should be normally distributed and independent. Availability of a corresponding characteristic function of log returns of underlying asset in analytical form allows pricing European call option by application of inverse Fourier transform. Characteristic function corresponds to Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG probability density function. NIG distribution is obtained based on assumption that time series of log returns follows APARCH process. Thus, volatility clustering and leptokurtic nature of log returns are taken into account. The Fast Fourier transform based on trapezoidal quadrature is numerically unstable if a standard cumulative probability function is used. To solve the problem, a dampened cumulative probability is introduced. As a computation tool Matlab framework is chosen because it contains many effective vectorization tools that greatly enhance code readability and maintenance. The characteristic function of Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution is taken and exercised with the chosen set of parameters. Finally, the call price dependence on strike price is obtained and rendered in XY plot. Valuation of European call option with analytical form of characteristic function allows further developing models with higher accuracy, as well as developing models for some exotic options.
Vector Radix 2 × 2 Sliding Fast Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keun-Yung Byun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional (2D discrete Fourier transform (DFT in the sliding window scenario has been successfully used for numerous applications requiring consecutive spectrum analysis of input signals. However, the results of conventional sliding DFT algorithms are potentially unstable because of the accumulated numerical errors caused by recursive strategy. In this letter, a stable 2D sliding fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm based on the vector radix (VR 2 × 2 FFT is presented. In the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, each 2D DFT bin is hierarchically decomposed into four sub-DFT bins until the size of the sub-DFT bins is reduced to 2 × 2; the output DFT bins are calculated using the linear combination of the sub-DFT bins. Because the sub-DFT bins for the overlapped input signals between the previous and current window are the same, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm by reusing previously calculated sub-DFT bins in the sliding window scenario. Moreover, because the resultant DFT bins are identical to those of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, numerical errors do not arise; therefore, unconditional stability is guaranteed. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm has the lowest computational requirements among the existing stable sliding DFT algorithms.
Progress report of a static Fourier transform spectrometer breadboard
Rosak, A.; Tintó, F.
2017-11-01
MOLI instrument -for MOtionLess Interferometer- takes advantage of the new concept of static Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a high-resolution spectrometer working over a narrow bandwidth, which is adapted to a wide range of atmospheric sounding missions and compatible with micro-satellite platform. The core of this instrument is an echelette cube. Mirrors on the classical design are replaced by stepped mirrors -integrated into that interference cube- thus suppressing any moving part. The steps' directions being set over a perpendicular axis, the overlap of both stepped mirrors creates a cluster of so-called "echelettes", each one corresponding to a different optical path difference (OPD). Hence the Fourier transform of the incoming radiance is directly imaged on a CCD array in a single acquisition. The frequency domain of the measurements is selected by an interferential filter disposed on the incoming optical path. A rotating wheel equipped with several filters allows the successive measurement of spectra around some bands of interest, i.e. O2, CO2 and CO absorption bands.
Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform
Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.
2014-06-01
One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system - the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges.
Soft x-ray microscope using Fourier transform holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNulty, I.; Kirz, J.; Jacobsen, C.; Anderson, E.; Howells, M.R.; Rarback, H.
1989-01-01
A Fourier transform holographic microscope with an anticipated resolution of better than 100 nm has been built. Extensive testing of the apparatus has begun. Preliminary results include the recording of interference fringes using 3.6 nm x-rays. The microscope employs a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array of 576 x 384 elements. The system is illuminated by soft x-rays from a high brightness undulator. The reference point source is formed by a Fresnel zone plate with a finest outer zone width of 50 nm. Sufficient temporal coherence for hologram formation is obtained by a spherical grating monochromator. The x-ray hologram intensities at the recording plane are to be collected, digitized and reconstructed by computer. Data acquisition is under CAMAC control, while image display and off-line processing takes place on a VAX graphics workstation. Computational models of Fourier transform hologram synthesis, and reconstruction in the presence of noise, have demonstrated the feasibility of numerical methods in two dimensions, and that three-dimensional information is potentially recoverable. 13 refs., 3 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Holm, Jan; Hansen, Steen Ingemann
2006-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been applied to detect structural alterations in folate binding protein (FBP) induced by ligation in different buffer types. The amide I region pointed to a beta-sheet to alpha-helix transition upon ligation in acetate...
Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gases at an integrated swine production facility. The concentration-pathlength products of the target gases at this site often exceeded th...
The use of Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network software, NeuroDeveloper™ was examined for the rapid identification and classification of Listeria species and serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes. A spectral library was created for 245 strains...
The Fourier transform method for infinite medium resonance absorption problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, S.V.G.; Sahni, D.C.
1978-01-01
A new method, using Fourier transforms, is developed for solving the integral equation of slowing down of neutrons in the resonance region. The transformations replace the slowing down equation with a discontinuous kernel by an integral equation with a continuous kernel over the interval (-infinity, infinity). Further the Doppler broadened line shape functions have simple analytical representations in the transform variable. In the limit of zero temperature, the integral equation reduces to a second order differential equation. Accurate expressions for the zero temperature resonance integrals are derived, using the WKB method. In general, the integral equation is seen to be amenable to solution by Ganss-Hermite quadrature formule. Doppler coefficients of 238 U resonances are given and compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The method is extended to include the effect of interference between neighbouring resonances of an absorber. For the case of two interfering resonances the slowing down equation is transformed to the coupled integral equations that are amenable to solution by methods indicated earlier. Numerical results presented for the low lying thorium-232 doublet show that the Doppler coefficients of the resonances are reduced considerably because of the overlap between them. (author)
Kumar, Sanjay
2018-01-01
In this paper, a new variant to fractional signal processing is proposed known as the Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform. Various properties satisfied by its transformation kernel is derived. The properties associated with the proposed Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform like shift, modulation, time-frequency shift property are also derived and it is shown mathematically that when the rotation angle of Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform approaches 90 degrees, the propos...
On integral and finite Fourier transforms of continuous q-Hermite polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atakishiyeva, M. K.; Atakishiyev, N. M.
2009-01-01
We give an overview of the remarkably simple transformation properties of the continuous q-Hermite polynomials H n (x vertical bar q) of Rogers with respect to the classical Fourier integral transform. The behavior of the q-Hermite polynomials under the finite Fourier transform and an explicit form of the q-extended eigenfunctions of the finite Fourier transform, defined in terms of these polynomials, are also discussed.
Kandhro, Aftab A; Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Mahesar, Sarfaraz A; Saleem, Rubina; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Salman Tariq; Sherazi, S T H
2013-11-01
A quick and reliable analytical method for the quantitative assessment of cefixime in orally administered pharmaceutical formulations is developed by using diamond cell attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as an easy procedure for quality control laboratories. The standards for calibration were prepared in aqueous medium ranging from 350 to 6000mg/kg. The calibration model was developed based on partial least square (PLS) using finger print region of FT-IR spectrum in the range from 1485 to 887cm(-1). Excellent coefficient of determination (R(2)) was achieved as high as 0.99976 with root mean square error of 44.8 for calibration. The application of diamond cell (smart accessory) ATR FT-IR proves a reliable determination of cefixime in pharmaceutical formulations to assess the quality of the final product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Liu, Ning-guo; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping
2012-06-01
To observe the postmortem degradation process in rat myocardium and skeletal muscle using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and to provide a new method for estimating postmortem interval (PMI). Left ventricle and skeletal muscles of rats dying of mechanical asphyxiated were sampled at different PMIs. The changes of different chemical functional group in the myocardium and skeletal muscle samples were measured by FTIR spectroscopy. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish six mathematical models. FTIR spectral absorption peak of rat myocardium and skeletal muscle showed three changes: increase, decrease and stable. The cubic model function showed the strongest correlation coefficient. The A1080/A1396 ratio of skeletal muscle showed the strongest correlation coefficient (r = 0.832) with more accurate determination of PMI. FYIR spectroscopy can be potentially used as an effective method for estimating PMI in forensic practice using myocardium and skeletal muscle.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated SiO2 nanoparticles
Huseynov, Elchin; Garibov, Adil; Mehdiyeva, Ravan; Huseynova, Efsane
2018-03-01
In the present work, nano SiO2 particles are investigated before and after gamma irradiation (25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 kGy) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method for the wavenumber between 400-4000 cm-1. It is found that as a result of spectroscopic analysis, five new peaks have appeared after gamma radiation. Two of new obtained peaks (which are located at 687 cm-1 and 2357 cm-1 of wavenumber) were formed as a result of gamma radiation interaction with Si-O bonds. Another three new peaks (peaks appropriate to 941, 2052 and 2357 cm-1 values of wavenumber) appear as a result of interaction of water with nano SiO2 particles after gamma irradiation. It has been defined as asymmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and asymmetrical stretching vibration of Si-O bonds appropriate to peaks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingbo Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Early diagnosis and early medical treatments are the keys to save the patients' lives and improve the living quality. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy can distinguish malignant from normal tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, programs were made with pattern recognition method to classify unknown samples. Spectral data were pretreated by using smoothing and standard normal variate (SNV methods. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to evaluate the discrimination result of support vector machine (SVM method. A total of 54 gastric tissue samples were employed in this study, including 24 cases of normal tissue samples and 30 cases of cancerous tissue samples. The discrimination results of SVM method showed the sensitivity with 100%, specificity with 83.3%, and total discrimination accuracy with 92.2%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona-Liliana Iconaru
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis was conducted on europium-doped hydroxyapatite, Ca10-xEux(PO46(OH2 nanocrystalline powders (Eu:HAp with 0≤xEu≤0.2. Antimicrobial studies were also performed for the first time on Eu:HAp. The antimicrobial properties of Eu:HAp nanoparticles with 0≤xEu≤0.2 on Gram-negative (E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1397 and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus 0364, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 bacteria systems and a species of fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were reported. Our study demonstrates that the antimicrobial activity of Eu:HAp nanoparticles is dependent on the europium concentration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartosch, T. [Erlanger-Nuernberg Univ., Erlanger (Germany). Lehrstul fuer Nachrichtentechnik I; Seidl, D. [Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium Graefenberg, Erlanegen (Greece). Bundesanstalt fuer Geiwissenschaften und Rohstoffe
1999-06-01
Among a variety of spectrogram methods short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli (Italy).
A Fourier transform with speed improvements for microprocessor applications
Lokerson, D. C.; Rochelle, R.
1980-01-01
A fast Fourier transform algorithm for the RCA 1802microprocessor was developed for spacecraft instrument applications. The computations were tailored for the restrictions an eight bit machine imposes. The algorithm incorporates some aspects of Walsh function sequency to improve operational speed. This method uses a register to add a value proportional to the period of the band being processed before each computation is to be considered. If the result overflows into the DF register, the data sample is used in computation; otherwise computation is skipped. This operation is repeated for each of the 64 data samples. This technique is used for both sine and cosine portions of the computation. The processing uses eight bit data, but because of the many computations that can increase the size of the coefficient, floating point form is used. A method to reduce the alias problem in the lower bands is also described.
Using the fast fourier transform in binding free energy calculations.
Nguyen, Trung Hai; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Minh, David D L
2018-04-30
According to implicit ligand theory, the standard binding free energy is an exponential average of the binding potential of mean force (BPMF), an exponential average of the interaction energy between the unbound ligand ensemble and a rigid receptor. Here, we use the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to efficiently evaluate BPMFs by calculating interaction energies when rigid ligand configurations from the unbound ensemble are discretely translated across rigid receptor conformations. Results for standard binding free energies between T4 lysozyme and 141 small organic molecules are in good agreement with previous alchemical calculations based on (1) a flexible complex ( R≈0.9 for 24 systems) and (2) flexible ligand with multiple rigid receptor configurations ( R≈0.8 for 141 systems). While the FFT is routinely used for molecular docking, to our knowledge this is the first time that the algorithm has been used for rigorous binding free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Collision-induced dissociation with Fourier transform mass spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cody, R.B.; Burnier, R.C.; Freiser, B.S.
1982-01-01
Collision-induced dissociations (CID) is demonstrated on a number of primary and secondary ions using a Nicolet prototype Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FT-MS). Like the triple quadrupole technique, CID using FT-MS is a relatively low energy and efficient process. The ability to study a wide range of ion-molecule reaction products is exemplified by results on proton-bound dimers and transition metal containing ionic species. Variation of collision energy by varying the RF irradiation level can provide information about product distributions as a function of energy as well as yield ion structural information. Like the triple quadrupole technique, no slits are employed and virtually all of the fragment ions formed by the CID process may be detected. Unlike all previous mass spectrometric techniques for studying CID, a tandem instrument is not required, and different experiments are performed by making software modifications rather than hardware modifications
Seismic Shear Energy Reflection By Radon-Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malik Umairia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Seismic waves split in an anisotropic medium, instead of rotating horizontal component to principal direction, Radon-Fourier is derived to observe the signature of shear wave reflection. Synthetic model with fracture is built and discretized using finite difference scheme for spatial and time domain. Common depth point (CDP with single shot gives traces and automatic gain is preprocessed before Radon Transform (RT, a filtering technique gives radon domain. It makes easier to observe fractures at specific incidence and improves its quality in some way by removing the noise. A comparison of synthetic data and BF-data is performed on the basis of root means square error (RMS values. The RMS error is minimum at the 10th trace in radon domain.
A rheumatoid arthritis study by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Carvalho, Carolina S.; Silva, Ana Carla A.; Santos, Tatiano J. P. S.; Martin, Airton A.; dos Santos Fernandes, Ana Célia; Andrade, Luís E.; Raniero, Leandro
2012-01-01
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown causes and a new methods to identify it in early stages are needed. The main purpose of this work is the biochemical differentiation of sera between normal and RA patients, through the establishment of a statistical method that can be appropriately used for serological analysis. The human sera from 39 healthy donors and 39 rheumatics donors were collected and analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results show significant spectral variations with p<0.05 in regions corresponding to protein, lipids and immunoglobulins. The technique of latex particles, coated with human IgG and monoclonal anti-CRP by indirect agglutination known as FR and CRP, was performed to confirm possible false-negative results within the groups, facilitating the statistical interpretation and validation of the technique.
Fourier transforms in NMR, optical, and mass spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshall, A.G.; Verdun, F.R.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH
1990-01-01
This book is a teaching and reference text for Fourier transform methods as they are applied in spectroscopy. It offers a unified treatment of the three most popular types of FT/spectroscopy. Non-ideal effects are treated in detail: noise (source- and detector-limited); non-linear response; limits to spectrometer performance based on finite detection period, finite data size, mis-phasing, etc. Common puzzles and paradoxes are explained: e.g., use of mathematically complex variables to represent physically real quantities; interpretation of negative frequency signals; on-resonance versus off-resonance response; interpolation; ultimate accuracy of discrete representation of an analog signal; differences between linearly- and circularly-polarized radiation; multiplex advantage or disadvantage, etc. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs
Generation of Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito
2007-01-01
In this paper we study the spectral (temporal) properties of heralded single photon wave packets, triggered by the detection of an idler photon in the process of parametric down conversion. The generated single photons are studied within the framework of the chronocyclic Wigner function, from which the single photon spectral width and temporal duration can be computed. We derive specific conditions on the two-photon joint spectral amplitude which result in both pure and Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons. Likewise, we present specific source geometries which lead to the fulfillment of these conditions and show that one of these geometries leads, for a given pump bandwidth, to the temporally shortest possible heralded single photon wave packets
Topography description of thin films by optical Fourier Transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaglarz, Janusz
2008-01-01
In this work, the main problems concerning the scattering of light by real surfaces and films are presented in view of results obtained with the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) method and optical profilometry (OP). The BRDF and OP studies, being complementary to the atomic force microscopy (AFM), allow one to get information about surface topography. From the optical data, the surface power spectral density (PSD) functions for absorbing and transparent rough films have been found. Both functions have been evaluated from the Fourier transform (FT) of the surface profiles. The usefulness of BRDF-and OP methods in characterization of real surfaces is demonstrated when analyzing the optical data obtained for metallic TiN-and organic PVK thin films deposited on various substrates
Topography description of thin films by optical Fourier Transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaglarz, Janusz [Institute of Physics, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Podchoraz.ych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: pujaglar@cyfronet.krakow.pl
2008-09-30
In this work, the main problems concerning the scattering of light by real surfaces and films are presented in view of results obtained with the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) method and optical profilometry (OP). The BRDF and OP studies, being complementary to the atomic force microscopy (AFM), allow one to get information about surface topography. From the optical data, the surface power spectral density (PSD) functions for absorbing and transparent rough films have been found. Both functions have been evaluated from the Fourier transform (FT) of the surface profiles. The usefulness of BRDF-and OP methods in characterization of real surfaces is demonstrated when analyzing the optical data obtained for metallic TiN-and organic PVK thin films deposited on various substrates.
Quantum copying and simplification of the quantum Fourier transform
Niu, Chi-Sheng
Theoretical studies of quantum computation and quantum information theory are presented in this thesis. Three topics are considered: simplification of the quantum Fourier transform in Shor's algorithm, optimal eavesdropping in the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol, and quantum copying of one qubit. The quantum Fourier transform preceding the final measurement in Shor's algorithm is simplified by replacing a network of quantum gates with one that has fewer and simpler gates controlled by classical signals. This simplification results from an analysis of the network using the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. The optimal amount of information which an eavesdropper can gain, for a given level of noise in the communication channel, is worked out for the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. The optimal eavesdropping strategy is expressed in terms of various quantum networks. A consistent history analysis of these networks using two conjugate quantum bases shows how the information gain in one basis influences the noise level in the conjugate basis. The no-cloning property of quantum systems, which is the physics behind quantum cryptography, is studied by considering copying machines that generate two imperfect copies of one qubit. The best qualities these copies can have are worked out with the help of the Bloch sphere representation for one qubit, and a quantum network is worked out for an optimal copying machine. If the copying machine does not have additional ancillary qubits, the copying process can be viewed using a 2-dimensional subspace in a product space of two qubits. A special representation of such a two-dimensional subspace makes possible a complete characterization of this type of copying. This characterization in turn leads to simplified eavesdropping strategies in the BB84 and the B92 quantum cryptographic protocols.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilardy, Juan M; Millán, María S; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Torres, Yezid
2014-01-01
We propose a generalization of the encryption system based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) and a joint transform correlator (JTC), from the Fourier domain to the fractional Fourier domain (FrFD) by using the fractional Fourier operators, such as the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT), fractional traslation, fractional convolution and fractional correlation. Image encryption systems based on a JTC architecture in the FrFD usually produce low quality decrypted images. In this work, we present two approaches to improve the quality of the decrypted images, which are based on nonlinear processing applied to the encrypted function (that contains the joint fractional power spectrum, JFPS) and the nonzero-order JTC in the FrFD. When the two approaches are combined, the quality of the decrypted image is higher. In addition to the advantages introduced by the implementation of the DRPE using a JTC, we demonstrate that the proposed encryption system in the FrFD preserves the shift-invariance property of the JTC-based encryption system in the Fourier domain, with respect to the lateral displacement of both the key random mask in the decryption process and the retrieval of the primary image. The feasibility of this encryption system is verified and analyzed by computer simulations. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baum, Andreas; Hansen, P. W.; Nørgaard, Lars
2016-01-01
In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result of hydroly......In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result...... of hydrolysis, all casein proteins clot to form a creamy precipitate, and whey proteins remain in the supernatant. We monitored the cheese-clotting reaction in real time using FTIR and analyzed the resulting evolution profiles to establish calibration models using parallel factor analysis and multiway partial...
Li, Qingbo; Hao, Can; Kang, Xue; Zhang, Jialin; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Wenbo; Zeng, Haishan
2017-11-27
Combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with endoscopy, it is expected that noninvasive, rapid detection of colorectal cancer can be performed in vivo in the future. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectra were collected from 88 endoscopic biopsy colorectal tissue samples (41 colitis and 47 cancers). A new method, viz., entropy weight local-hyperplane k-nearest-neighbor (EWHK), which is an improved version of K-local hyperplane distance nearest-neighbor (HKNN), is proposed for tissue classification. In order to avoid limiting high dimensions and small values of the nearest neighbor, the new EWHK method calculates feature weights based on information entropy. The average results of the random classification showed that the EWHK classifier for differentiating cancer from colitis samples produced a sensitivity of 81.38% and a specificity of 92.69%.
Non-rigid registration of tomographic images with Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osorio, Ar; Isoardi, Ra; Mato, G
2007-01-01
Spatial image registration of deformable body parts such as thorax and abdomen has important medical applications, but at the same time, it represents an important computational challenge. In this work we propose an automatic algorithm to perform non-rigid registration of tomographic images using a non-rigid model based on Fourier transforms. As a measure of similarity, we use the correlation coefficient, finding that the optimal order of the transformation is n = 3 (36 parameters). We apply this method to a digital phantom and to 7 pairs of patient images corresponding to clinical CT scans. The preliminary results indicate a fairly good agreement according to medical experts, with an average registration error of 2 mm for the case of clinical images. For 2D images (dimensions 512x512), the average running time for the algorithm is 15 seconds using a standard personal computer. Summarizing, we find that intra-modality registration of the abdomen can be achieved with acceptable accuracy for slight deformations and can be extended to 3D with a reasonable execution time
TMS320C25 Digital Signal Processor For 2-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa
1996-01-01
The Fourier transform is one of the most important mathematical tool in signal processing and analysis, which converts information from the time/spatial domain into the frequency domain. Even with implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithms in imaging data, the discrete Fourier transform execution consume a lot of time. Digital signal processors are designed specifically to perform computation intensive digital signal processing algorithms. By taking advantage of the advanced architecture. parallel processing, and dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) instruction sets. This device can execute million of DSP operations per second. The device architecture, characteristics and feature suitable for fast Fourier transform application and speed-up are discussed
Zhang, Ji; Li, Bing; Wang, Qi; Wei, Xin; Feng, Weibo; Chen, Yijiu; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhenyuan
2017-12-21
Postmortem interval (PMI) evaluation remains a challenge in the forensic community due to the lack of efficient methods. Studies have focused on chemical analysis of biofluids for PMI estimation; however, no reports using spectroscopic methods in pericardial fluid (PF) are available. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory was applied to collect comprehensive biochemical information from rabbit PF at different PMIs. The PMI-dependent spectral signature was determined by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. The partial least square (PLS) and nu-support vector machine (nu-SVM) models were then established based on the acquired spectral dataset. Spectral variables associated with amide I, amide II, COO - , C-H bending, and C-O or C-OH vibrations arising from proteins, polypeptides, amino acids and carbohydrates, respectively, were susceptible to PMI in 2D correlation analysis. Moreover, the nu-SVM model appeared to achieve a more satisfactory prediction than the PLS model in calibration; the reliability of both models was determined in an external validation set. The study shows the possibility of application of ATR-FTIR methods in postmortem interval estimation using PF samples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, S.; Bajic, S.J.; Jones, R.W.
1994-01-01
Analysis of underground storage tank (UST) contents is critical for the determination of proper disposal protocols and storage procedures of nuclear waste materials. Tank volume reduction processes during the 1940's and 50's have produced a waste form that compositionally varies widely and has a consistency that ranges from paste like sludge to saltcake. The heterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the waste form makes analysis difficult by most conventional methods which require extensive sample preparation. In this paper, a method is presented to characterize nuclear waste from UST's at the Westinghouse Hanford Site in Washington State, using Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). FTIR-PAS measurements on milligram amounts of surrogate sludge samples have been used to accurately identify phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate and ferrocyanide components. A simple sample preparation method was followed to provide a reproducible homogeneous sample for quantitative analysis. The sample preparation method involved freeze drying the sludge sample prior to analysis to prevent the migration of soluble species. Conventional drying (e.g., air or, oven) leads to the formation of crystals near the surface where evaporation occurs. Sample preparation as well as the analytical utility of this method will be discussed
Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong
2012-06-01
The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Lian; Yang, Xiukun; Zhong, Mingliang; Liu, Yao; Jing, Xiaojun; Yang, Qin
2018-04-01
The discrete fractional Brownian incremental random (DFBIR) field is used to describe the irregular, random, and highly complex shapes of natural objects such as coastlines and biological tissues, for which traditional Euclidean geometry cannot be used. In this paper, an anisotropic variable window (AVW) directional operator based on the DFBIR field model is proposed for extracting spatial characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopic imaging. Probabilistic principal component analysis first extracts spectral features, and then the spatial features of the proposed AVW directional operator are combined with the former to construct a spatial-spectral structure, which increases feature-related information and helps a support vector machine classifier to obtain more efficient distribution-related information. Compared to Haralick’s grey-level co-occurrence matrix, Gabor filters, and local binary patterns (e.g. uniform LBPs, rotation-invariant LBPs, uniform rotation-invariant LBPs), experiments on three FTIR spectroscopy microscopic imaging datasets show that the proposed AVW directional operator is more advantageous in terms of classification accuracy, particularly for low-dimensional spaces of spatial characteristics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laroche, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie de Surface, Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux Avances, Departement de genie des mines, de la metallurgie et des materiaux, Universite Laval, 1065, avenue de la Medecine, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre de recherche du CHUQ, Hopital St Francois d' Assise, 10, rue de l' Espinay, local E0-165, Quebec G1L 3L5 (Canada); Vallade, J. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Agence de l' environnement et de la Ma Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -carettrise de l' Energie, 20, avenue du Gresille, BP 90406, F-49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Nijnatten, P. van [OMT Solutions bv, High Tech Campus 9, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2012-10-15
This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuntao Liang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aimed at monitoring emission of organic gases such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2, from coal mines, petroleum refineries, and other plants, a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer was used to develop a portable gas analyzer for patrolling and examining gas exhaust. Firstly, structure of the instrument was introduced. Then, a spectral analysis approach was presented. Finally, instrument was tested with standard gases and with actual gases emitted from a petroleum refinery. For the latter test, a gas chromatograph (GC was used as a reference instrument. The test results showed that the detection limit of every component of analyte was less than 10 × 10−6. The maximum test error of every analyte was less than 15 × 10−6 when its practical concentration was no more than 500 × 10−6. A final comparison showed that the result curves of analytes obtained with FT-IR spectrometer almost overlapped with those obtained with GC, and their resulting noise was less than 6.4% when the practical gas concentration was above 100 × 10−6. As a result, our instrument was suitable to be used as a portable instrument for monitoring exhaust gases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengfeng Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS and principal components regression (PCR were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide better predictive capability while PCR exhibited a more precise estimate of loading peaks and suggests that PCR is better for model interpretation of key underlying functional groups. Specifically, when PCR was utilized, an error in peak loading of ±15 cm−1 from the true mean was quantified. Application of the first derivative appeared to assist in improving both PCR and PLS loading precision. Research results identified the wavenumbers important in the prediction of extractives, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and further demonstrated the utility in FT-IR for rapid monitoring of wood chemistry.
[A study of Boletus bicolor from different areas using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].
Zhou, Zai-Jin; Liu, Gang; Ren, Xian-Pei
2010-04-01
It is hard to differentiate the same species of wild growing mushrooms from different areas by macromorphological features. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis was used to identify 58 samples of boletus bicolor from five different areas. Based on the fingerprint infrared spectrum of boletus bicolor samples, principal component analysis was conducted on 58 boletus bicolor spectra in the range of 1 350-750 cm(-1) using the statistical software SPSS 13.0. According to the result, the accumulated contributing ratio of the first three principal components accounts for 88.87%. They included almost all the information of samples. The two-dimensional projection plot using first and second principal component is a satisfactory clustering effect for the classification and discrimination of boletus bicolor. All boletus bicolor samples were divided into five groups with a classification accuracy of 98.3%. The study demonstrated that wild growing boletus bicolor at species level from different areas can be identified by FTIR spectra combined with principal components analysis.
Portable Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for Analysis of Surface Contamination and Quality Control
Pugel, Diane
2012-01-01
Progress has been made into adapting and enhancing a commercially available infrared spectrometer for the development of a handheld device for in-field measurements of the chemical composition of various samples of materials. The intent is to duplicate the functionality of a benchtop Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) within the compactness of a handheld instrument with significantly improved spectral responsivity. Existing commercial technology, like the deuterated L-alanine triglycine sulfide detectors (DLATGS), is capable of sensitive in-field chemical analysis. This proposed approach compares several subsystem elements of the FTIR inside of the commercial, non-benchtop system to the commercial benchtop systems. These subsystem elements are the detector, the preamplifier and associated electronics of the detector, the interferometer, associated readout parameters, and cooling. This effort will examine these different detector subsystem elements to look for limitations in each. These limitations will be explored collaboratively with the commercial provider, and will be prioritized to meet the deliverable objectives. The tool design will be that of a handheld gun containing the IR filament source and associated optics. It will operate in a point-and-shoot manner, pointing the source and optics at the sample under test and capturing the reflected response of the material in the same handheld gun. Data will be captured via the gun and ported to a laptop.
The use of Fourier reverse transforms in crystallographic phase refinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ringrose, Sharon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
1997-10-08
Often a crystallographer obtains an electron density map which shows only part of the structure. In such cases, the phasing of the trial model is poor enough that the electron density map may show peaks in some of the atomic positions, but other atomic positions are not visible. There may also be extraneous peaks present which are not due to atomic positions. A method for determination of crystal structures that have resisted solution through normal crystallographic methods has been developed. PHASER is a series of FORTRAN programs which aids in the structure solution of poorly phased electron density maps by refining the crystallographic phases. It facilitates the refinement of such poorly phased electron density maps for difficult structures which might otherwise not be solvable. The trial model, which serves as the starting point for the phase refinement, may be acquired by several routes such as direct methods or Patterson methods. Modifications are made to the reverse transform process based on several assumptions. First, the starting electron density map is modified based on the fact that physically the electron density map must be non-negative at all points. In practice a small positive cutoff is used. A reverse Fourier transform is computed based on the modified electron density map. Secondly, the authors assume that a better electron density map will result by using the observed magnitudes of the structure factors combined with the phases calculated in the reverse transform. After convergence has been reached, more atomic positions and less extraneous peaks are observed in the refined electron density map. The starting model need not be very large to achieve success with PHASER; successful phase refinement has been achieved with a starting model that consists of only 5% of the total scattering power of the full molecule. The second part of the thesis discusses three crystal structure determinations.
Shivali, Garg; Praful, Lahorkar; Vijay, Gadgil
2012-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a technique widely used for detection and quantification of various chemical moieties. This paper describes the use of the FT-IR spectroscopy technique for the quantification of total lactones present in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata. To validate the FT-IR spectroscopy method for quantification of total lactones in I. racemosa and A. paniculata. Dried and powdered I. racemosa roots and A. paniculata plant were extracted with ethanol and dried to remove ethanol completely. The ethanol extract was analysed in a KBr pellet by FT-IR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectroscopy method was validated and compared with a known spectrophotometric method for quantification of lactones in A. paniculata. By FT-IR spectroscopy, the amount of total lactones was found to be 2.12 ± 0.47% (n = 3) in I. racemosa and 8.65 ± 0.51% (n = 3) in A. paniculata. The method showed comparable results with a known spectrophotometric method used for quantification of such lactones: 8.42 ± 0.36% (n = 3) in A. paniculata. Limits of detection and quantification for isoallantolactone were 1 µg and 10 µg respectively; for andrographolide they were 1.5 µg and 15 µg respectively. Recoveries were over 98%, with good intra- and interday repeatability: RSD ≤ 2%. The FT-IR spectroscopy method proved linear, accurate, precise and specific, with low limits of detection and quantification, for estimation of total lactones, and is less tedious than the UV spectrophotometric method for the compounds tested. This validated FT-IR spectroscopy method is readily applicable for the quality control of I. racemosa and A. paniculata. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dong, Rong; Long, Jinhua; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chunlin; Wen, Zongyao; Li, Long; Yao, Weijuan; Zeng, Zhu
2014-01-10
Dendritic cells are potent and specialized antigen presenting cells, which play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The dendritic cell-based vaccination against cancer has been clinically achieved promising successes. But there are still many challenges in its clinical application, especially for how to identify the functional states. The CD14+ monocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood after plastic adherence and purified to approximately 98% with cocktail immunomagnetic beads. The immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells were induced by traditional protocols. The resulting dendritic cells were cocultured with normal cells and cancer cells. The functional state of dendritic cells including immature dendritic cells (imDCs) and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) under different conditioned microenvironments were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular biological methods. The results of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy showed that the gene transcription activity and energy states of dendritic cells were specifically suppressed by tumor cells (P Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were closely correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB (R2:0.69 and R2:0.81, respectively). Our results confirmed that the ratios of absorption intensities of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were positively correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB, suggesting that Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy technology could be clinically applied to identify the functional states of dendritic cell when performing dendritic cell-based vaccination. It's significant for the simplification and standardization of dendritic cell-based vaccination clinical preparation protocols.
Lassen, J; Løvendahl, P; Madsen, J
2012-02-01
Individual methane (CH(4)) production was recorded repeatedly on 93 dairy cows during milking in an automatic milking system (AMS), with the aim of estimating individual cow differences in CH(4) production. Methane and CO(2) were measured with a portable air sampler and analyzer unit based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) detection. The cows were 50 Holsteins and 43 Jerseys from mixed parities and at all stages of lactation (mean=156 d in milk). Breath was captured by the FTIR unit inlet nozzle, which was placed in front of the cow's head in each of the 2 AMS as an admixture to normal barn air. The FTIR unit was running continuously for 3 d in each of 2 AMS units, 1 with Holstein and another with Jersey cows. Air was analyzed every 20 s. From each visit of a cow to the AMS, CH(4) and CO(2) records were summarized into the mean, median, 75, and 90% quantiles. Furthermore, the ratio between CH(4) and CO(2) was used as a derived measure with the idea of using CO(2) in breath as a tracer gas to quantify the production of methane. Methane production records were analyzed with a mixed model, containing cow as random effect. Fixed effects of milk yield and daily intake of the total mixed ration and concentrates were also estimated. The repeatability of the CH(4)-to-CO(2) ratio was 0.39 for Holsteins and 0.34 for Jerseys. Both concentrate intake and total mixed ration intake were positively related to CH(4) production, whereas milk production level was not correlated with CH(4) production. In conclusion, the results from this study suggest that the CH(4)-to-CO(2) ratio measured using the noninvasive method is an asset of the individual cow and may be useful in both management and genetic evaluations. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Seidl
1999-06-01
Full Text Available Among a variety of spectrogram methods Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary tremor signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signal a more suitable representation of the signal is gained by CWT. Three selected broadband tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villa, E.
1999-01-01
Air samples from F-Canyon effluents were collected at the F-Canyon stack and transported to a laboratory at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for analysis using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in conjunction with a multipath cell. Air samples were collected during the decladding and acid cuts of the dissolution of the irradiated aluminum-cladded slugs. The FTIR analyses of the air samples show the presence of NO2, NO, HNO2, N2O, SF6, and 85Kr during the dissolution cycle. The concentration time profiles of these effluents corresponded with expected release rates from the F-Canyon operations
X-ray Fourier-transform holographic microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, W.S.; Cullen, D.; Solem, J.C.; Boyer, K.; Rhodes, C.K.
1988-01-01
The properties of an x-ray Fourier-transform holographic instrument suitable for imaging hydrated biological samples are described. Recent advances in coherent x-ray source technology are making diffraction-limited holograms of microscopic structures, with corresponding high spatial resolution, a reality. A high priority application of snapshot x-ray holography is the study of microscopic biological structures in the hydrated living state. X-rays offer both high resolution and high contrast for important structures within living organisms, thereby rendering unnecessary the staining of specimens, essential for optical and electron microscopy. If the wavelength is properly chosen. Furthermore, the snapshot feature, arising from picosecond or subpicosecond exposure times, eliminates blurring occurring from either thermal heating or normal biological activity of the sample. Finally, with sufficiently high photon fluxes, such as those available from x-ray lasers, the x-ray snapshot can be accomplished with a single pulse, thereby yielding complete three-dimensional information on a sample having normal biological integrity at the moment of exposure. 10 refs., 6 figs
Relativistic elliptic matrix tops and finite Fourier transformations
Zotov, A.
2017-10-01
We consider a family of classical elliptic integrable systems including (relativistic) tops and their matrix extensions of different types. These models can be obtained from the “off-shell” Lax pairs, which do not satisfy the Lax equations in general case but become true Lax pairs under various conditions (reductions). At the level of the off-shell Lax matrix, there is a natural symmetry between the spectral parameter z and relativistic parameter η. It is generated by the finite Fourier transformation, which we describe in detail. The symmetry allows one to consider z and η on an equal footing. Depending on the type of integrable reduction, any of the parameters can be chosen to be the spectral one. Then another one is the relativistic deformation parameter. As a by-product, we describe the model of N2 interacting GL(M) matrix tops and/or M2 interacting GL(N) matrix tops depending on a choice of the spectral parameter.
Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 199Hg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krueger, H.; Lutz, O.; Nolle, A.; Schwenk, A.
1975-01-01
199 Hg Fourier Transform NMR studies of various solutions of diverse mercury salts in H 2 O and D 2 O or in the appropriate protonated and deuterated acids are reported for both Hg 2 ++ and Hg ++ . In the different solutions investigated the 199 Hg line positions depend on the concentration of the solution, on the solvents and their isotopic composition and on the temperature of the sample. A ratio of the Larmor frequency of 199 Hg and of 2 H in a Hg(NO 3 ) 2 solution in dilute DNO 3 is given. Using this ratio and the measured chemical shifts, a ratio of the Larmor frequencies of 199 Hg for infinite dilution relative to 2 H in pure D 2 O is given. From this a g 1 -factor for 199 Hg is derived and compared with the g 1 -factor of an optical pumping experiment. The resulting shielding constant is sigma (hydrated 199 Hg ++ versus 199 Hg atom) = -24.32(5) x 10 -4 . This yields an atomic reference scale for all measured NMR line shifts of mercury. (orig.) [de
Convergence and summability of Fourier transforms and Hardy spaces
Weisz, Ferenc
2017-01-01
This book investigates the convergence and summability of both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional Fourier transforms, as well as the theory of Hardy spaces. To do so, it studies a general summability method known as theta-summation, which encompasses all the well-known summability methods, such as the Fejér, Riesz, Weierstrass, Abel, Picard, Bessel and Rogosinski summations. Following on the classic books by Bary (1964) and Zygmund (1968), this is the first book that considers strong summability introduced by current methodology. A further unique aspect is that the Lebesgue points are also studied in the theory of multi-dimensional summability. In addition to classical results, results from the past 20-30 years – normally only found in scattered research papers – are also gathered and discussed, offering readers a convenient “one-stop” source to support their work. As such, the book will be useful for researchers, graduate and postgraduate students alike.
Toward a soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howells, M.R.; Frank, K.; Hussain, Z.; Moler, E.J.; Reich, T.; Moeller, D.
1993-01-01
The use of Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) in the soft x-ray region is advocated as a possible route to spectral resolution superior to that attainable with a grating system. A technical plan is described for applying FTS to the study of the absorption spectrum of helium in the region of double ionization around 60--80 eV. The proposed scheme includes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer deformed into a rhombus shape to provide grazing incidence reflections. The path difference between the interfering beams is to be tuned by translation of a table carrying four mirrors over a range ±1 cm which, in the absence of errors generating relative tilts of the wave fronts, would provide a resolving power equal to the number of waves of path difference: half a million at 65 eV, for example. The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum is analyzed and for operation on an Advanced Light Source bending magnet beam line should be about 330
Sparse-matrix factorizations for fast symmetric Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sequel, J.
1987-01-01
This work proposes new fast algorithms computing the discrete Fourier transform of certain families of symmetric sequences. Sequences commonly found in problems of structure determination by x-ray crystallography and in numerical solutions of boundary-value problems in partial differential equations are dealt with. In the algorithms presented, the redundancies in the input and output data, due to the presence of symmetries in the input data sequence, were eliminated. Using ring-theoretical methods a matrix representation is obtained for the remaining calculations; which factors as the product of a complex block-diagonal matrix times as integral matrix. A basic two-step algorithm scheme arises from this factorization with a first step consisting of pre-additions and a second step containing the calculations involved in computing with the blocks in the block-diagonal factor. These blocks are structured as block-Hankel matrices, and two sparse-matrix factoring formulas are developed in order to diminish their arithmetic complexity
Large Molecule Structures by Broadband Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy
Evangelisti, Luca; Seifert, Nathan A.; Spada, Lorenzo; Pate, Brooks
2016-06-01
Fourier transform molecular rotational resonance spectroscopy (FT-MRR) using pulsed jet molecular beam sources is a high-resolution spectroscopy technique that can be used for chiral analysis of molecules with multiple chiral centers. The sensitivity of the molecular rotational spectrum pattern to small changes in the three dimensional structure makes it possible to identify diastereomers without prior chemical separation. For larger molecules, there is the additional challenge that different conformations of each diastereomer may be present and these need to be differentiated from the diastereomers in the spectral analysis. Broadband rotational spectra of several larger molecules have been measured using a chirped-pulse FT-MRR spectrometer. Measurements of nootkatone (C15H22O), cedrol (C15H26O), ambroxide (C16H28O) and sclareolide (C16H26O2) are presented. These spectra are measured with high sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio near 1,000:1) and permit structure determination of the most populated isomers using isotopic analysis of the 13C and 18O isotopologues in natural abundance. The accuracy of quantum chemistry calculations to identify diastereomers and conformers and to predict the dipole moment properties needed for three wave mixing measurements is examined.
Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)
2014-03-10
Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.
Application of finite Fourier transformation for the solution of the diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Keisuke
1991-01-01
The application of the finite Fourier transformation to the solution of the neutron diffusion equation in one dimension, two dimensional x-y and triangular geometries is discussed. It can be shown that the equation obtained by the Nodal Green's function method in Cartesian coordinates can be derived as a special case of the finite Fourier transformation method. (author)
On the moments of the Wigner distribution and the fractional Fourier transform
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Veen, J.P.
2000-01-01
A Fourier transformation maps a one-dimensional time signal into a one-dimensional frequency function, the signal spectrum. Although the Fourier transform provides the signal's spectral content, it fails to indicate the time location of the spectral components, which is important, for example, when
2017-08-01
Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, digital array processing , antenna beamformers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...125 3.7 Simulation of 2-D Beams Cross Sections .................................................................... 125 3.7.1 8...unlimited. List of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: N-beam Array Processing System using a Linear Array
The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
CLASSROOM. Mitrajyoti Ghosh. 83, Mitrapara 2nd Lane, Harinavi,. Kolkata 700148, West Bengal,. India. Email: mijospeakingnow@gmail.com. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-. Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms. (FT).
Novel Polynomial Basis with Fast Fourier Transform and Its Application to Reed-Solomon Erasure Codes
Lin, Sian-Jheng; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Han, Yunghsiang S.; Chung, Wei-Ho
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over extension binary fields, where the polynomial is represented in a non-standard basis. The proposed Fourier-like transform requires O(h lg(h)) field operations, where h
Imaging properties of the mesooptical Fourier transform microscope for nuclear research emulsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bencze, Gy.L.; Soroko, L.M.
1987-01-01
The optical signal transformation in the Mesooptical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM) for nuclear emulsion is treated in terms of Fourier Optics. A continuous conversion of the traditional optical microscope into the MFTM is followed. The images of dot-like and straight line objects given by the MFTM are discussed
An analogue of a theorem of Titchmarsh for Walsh-Fourier transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golubov, B I
1998-01-01
Let f-hat c be the Fourier cosine transform of f. Then, as proved for functions of class L p (R + ) in Titchmarsh's book 'Introduction to the theory of Fourier integrals' (1937), the Hardy operator and the Hardy-Littlewood operator can be defined. In the present paper similar equalities are proved for functions of class L p (R + ), 1< p≤2, and the Walsh-Fourier transformation
Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform
Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.
2011-01-01
One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that
Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
2013-03-01
A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.
Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform.
Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook
2016-09-19
The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.
Bai, Yue-kui; Yu, Li-wei; Zhang, Le; Fu, Jing; Leng, Hui; Yang, Xiao-jun; Ma, Jun-qiang; Li, Xiao-juan; Li, Xiu-juan; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Yuan-fu; Ling, Xiao-feng; Cao, Wen-lan
2015-03-01
To explore the feasibility of quick intraoperative in situ and noninvasive diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. FTIR spectra of surgically removed fresh lymph nodes were measured by FTIR via probe of attenuated total reflection (ATR). For each spectrum, 13 bands were indentified and assigned between 3 000 and 1 000 cm(-1). Peaks in the spectra were measured and relative intensity ratios were calculated and compared between the spectra of Metastatic lymph nodes (MLN) and Non-metastatic lymph nodes (NMLN). Standard statistic analysis was performed. 720 lymph nodes were measured in 38 gastric cancer patients. Results show that there were significant differences between the FTIR of 540 MLN and 180 NMLN. (1) For the band related to nucleic acid: The ratios of I1240/I1460 (p = 0.015) and I1080/I1460 (p = 0.034) increased in MLN, which shows that the relative quantity of nucleic acid was more in MLN than that in NMLN. (2) For the bands related to protein: The ratios of I1640 /I1460 (p = 0.001) and I146/I1460 (p = 0.027) increased in MLN, which shows that the relative quantity of protein was more in MLN. (3) For the bands related to lipid: The ratio of I2855/I460 and I1740/I1460 decreased in MLN FTIR spectrum, indicating the lower relative quantity of lipid in MLN. (4) For the bands related to carbohydrate: The ratio of I1160/I1460 (p = 0.023) decreased in MLN FTIR spectrum, indicating the lower relative quantity of carbohydrate in MLN. The results demonstrate that the FTIR spectroscopy technique maybe develop into a promising method for in situ and quick intraoperative differential diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.
Peng, Jiangtao; Peng, Silong; Xie, Qiong; Wei, Jiping
2011-04-01
In order to eliminate the lower order polynomial interferences, a new quantitative calibration algorithm "Baseline Correction Combined Partial Least Squares (BCC-PLS)", which combines baseline correction and conventional PLS, is proposed. By embedding baseline correction constraints into PLS weights selection, the proposed calibration algorithm overcomes the uncertainty in baseline correction and can meet the requirement of on-line attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) quantitative analysis. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by the analysis of glucose and marzipan ATR-FTIR spectra. BCC-PLS algorithm shows improved prediction performance over PLS. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) on marzipan spectra for the prediction of the moisture is found to be 0.53%, w/w (range 7-19%). The sugar content is predicted with a RMSECV of 2.04%, w/w (range 33-68%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Holy, Murad A; Lin, Mengshi; Alhaj, Omar A; Abu-Goush, Mahmoud H
2015-02-01
Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between 4 Alicyclobacillus strains and 4 Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm(-1) reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (for example, principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these 2 genera. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati SONAWANE
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Chlorococcalean microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutes was found in fresh water Godawari reservoir, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra State, India. Microalgae are modern biomass for the production of liquid biofuel due to its high solar cultivation efficiency. The collection, harvesting and drying processes were play vital role in converting algal biomass into energy liquid fuel. The oil extraction was the important step for the biodiesel synthesis. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME synthesis was carried through base catalyzed transesterification method. The product was analyzed by using the hyphened techniques like Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS. FT-IR Spectroscopy was results the ester as functional group of obtained product while the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy was results the six type of fatty acid methyl ester with different concentration. Ankistrodesmus convolutes biodiesel consist of 46.5% saturated and 49.14% unsaturated FAME.
Practical protocols for fast histopathology by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging
Keith, Frances N.; Reddy, Rohith K.; Bhargava, Rohit
2008-02-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that combines the molecular selectivity of spectroscopy with the spatial specificity of optical microscopy. We demonstrate a new concept in obtaining high fidelity data using commercial array detectors coupled to a microscope and Michelson interferometer. Next, we apply the developed technique to rapidly provide automated histopathologic information for breast cancer. Traditionally, disease diagnoses are based on optical examinations of stained tissue and involve a skilled recognition of morphological patterns of specific cell types (histopathology). Consequently, histopathologic determinations are a time consuming, subjective process with innate intra- and inter-operator variability. Utilizing endogenous molecular contrast inherent in vibrational spectra, specially designed tissue microarrays and pattern recognition of specific biochemical features, we report an integrated algorithm for automated classifications. The developed protocol is objective, statistically significant and, being compatible with current tissue processing procedures, holds potential for routine clinical diagnoses. We first demonstrate that the classification of tissue type (histology) can be accomplished in a manner that is robust and rigorous. Since data quality and classifier performance are linked, we quantify the relationship through our analysis model. Last, we demonstrate the application of the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transform to improve tissue segmentation.
Pipeline Analyzer using the Fractional Fourier Transform for Engine Control and Satellites Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darian M. Onchiș
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an algorithm for computing the fractional Fourier transform integrated into the pipeline of processing multi-variate and distributed data recorded by the engine control unit (ECU of a car and its satellites. The role of this transform is vital in establishing a time-variant filter and therefore it must be computed in a fast way. But for large scale time series, the application of the discrete fractional Fourier transform involves the computations of a large number of Hermite polynomials of increasingly order. The parallel algorithm presented will optimally compute the discrete Fourier-type transform for any given angle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Yoshifumi; Liu, Na; Ito, Satoshi
2006-01-01
The signal in the Fresnel transform technique corresponds to a blurred one of the spin density image. Because the amplitudes of adjacent sampled signals have a high interrelation, the signal amplitude at a point between sampled points can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy even if the sampling is so coarse as to generate aliasing in the reconstructed images. In this report, we describe a new aliasless image reconstruction technique in the phase scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique in which the PSFT signals are converted to Fresnel transform signals by multiplying them by a quadratic phase term and are then interpolated using polynomial expressions to generate fully encoded signals. Numerical simulation using MR images showed that almost completely aliasless images are reconstructed by this technique. Experiments using ultra-low-field PSFT MRI were conducted, and aliasless images were reconstructed from coarsely sampled PSFT signals. (author)
SPICA/SAFARI Fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design
van den Dool, Teun C.; Kruizinga, Bob; Braam, Ben C.; Hamelinck, Roger F. M. M.; Loix, Nicolas; Van Loon, Dennis; Dams, Johan
2012-09-01
TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI1 Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme2 in 2022. JAXA3 leads the development of the SPICA satellite and SRON is the prime investigator of the Safari instrument. The FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) has to meet a 35 mm stroke requirement with an Optical Path Difference resolution of less then 15 nm and must fit in a small volume. It consists of two back-to-back roof-top mirrors mounted on a small carriage, which is moved using a magnetic bearing linear guiding system in combination with a magnetic linear motor serving as the OPD actuator. The FTSM will be used at cryogenic temperatures of 4 Kelvin inducing challenging requirements on the thermal power dissipation and heat leak. The magnetic bearing enables movements over a scanning stroke of 35.5 mm in a small volume. It supports the optics in a free-floating way with no friction, or other non-linearities, with sub-nanometer accuracy. This solution is based on the design of the breadboard ODL (Optical Delay Line) developed for the ESA Darwin mission4 and the MABE mechanism developed by Micromega Dynamics. During the last couple of years the initial design of the SAFARI instrument, as described in an earlier SPIE 2010 paper5, was adapted by the SAFARI team in an evolutionary way to meet the changing requirements of the SPICA payload module. This presentation will focus on the evolution of the FTSM to meet these changing requirements. This work is supported by the Netherlands Space Office (NSO).
Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.
Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E
1994-05-01
Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, X.; Chen, Y.M.
1989-01-01
The boundary element method (BEM) is developed from the boundary integral equation method and the discretization techniques. Compared with other numerical method, BEM has been shown to be a versatile and efficient method for a wide variety of engineering problems, including the wave propagation in elastic media. The first formulation and solution of the transient elastodynamic problem by combining BEM and Laplace transform is due to Cruse. Further improvement was achieved by introducing Durbin's method instead of Papoulis method of numerical Laplace inverse transform. However, a great deal of computer time is still needed for the inverse transformation. The alternative integral transform approach is BEM combining with Fourier transform. The numerical Fourier inverse transformation is also computer time consuming, even if the fast Fourier transform is used. In the present paper, the authors use BEM combining with Fourier transform and Fourier eigen transform (FET). The new approach is very attractive in saving on computer time. This paper illustrates the application of FET to BEM of 2-dimensional transient elastodynamic problem. The example of a half plane subjected to a discontinuous boundary load is solved on ELXSI 6400 computer. The CPU time is less than one minute. If Laplace or Fourier transform is adopted, the CPU time will be more than 10 minutes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Hideo
1978-01-01
A two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation for a triangular region is shown to be solved by the finite Fourier transformation. An application of the Fourier transformation to the diffusion equation for triangular region yields equations whose unknowns are the expansion coefficients of the neutron flux and current in Fourier series or Legendre polynomials expansions only at the region boundary. Some numerical calculations have revealed that the present technique gives accurate results. It is shown also that the solution using the expansion in Legendre polynomials converges with relatively few terms even if the solution in Fourier series exhibits the Gibbs' phenomenon. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Keisuke
1975-01-01
A method of solution is presented for a monoenergetic diffusion equation in two-dimensional hexagonal cells by a finite Fourier transformation. Up to the present, the solution by the finite Fourier transformation has been developed for x-y, r-z and x-y-z geometries, and the flux and current at the boundary are obtained in terms of Fourier series. It is shown here that the method can be applied to hexagonal cells and the expansion of boundary values in a Legendre polynomials gives numerically a higher accuracy than is obtained by a Fourier series. (orig.) [de
Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Lavrentieva, N. N.
2012-01-01
By adopting a concept from signal processing, instead of starting from the correlation functions which are even, one considers the causal correlation functions whose Fourier transforms become complex. Their real and imaginary parts multiplied by 2 are the Fourier transforms of the original correlations and the subsequent Hilbert transforms, respectively. Thus, by taking this step one can complete the two previously needed transforms. However, to obviate performing the Cauchy principal integrations required in the Hilbert transforms is the greatest advantage. Meanwhile, because the causal correlations are well-bounded within the time domain and band limited in the frequency domain, one can replace their Fourier transforms by the discrete Fourier transforms and the latter can be carried out with the FFT algorithm. This replacement is justified by sampling theory because the Fourier transforms can be derived from the discrete Fourier transforms with the Nyquis rate without any distortions. We apply this method in calculating pressure induced shifts of H2O lines and obtain more reliable values. By comparing the calculated shifts with those in HITRAN 2008 and by screening both of them with the pair identity and the smooth variation rules, one can conclude many of shift values in HITRAN are not correct.
Rohaeti, Eti; Rafi, Mohamad; Syafitri, Utami Dyah; Heryanto, Rudi
2015-02-25
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber cassumunar) are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines (jamu). They have similar color for their rhizome and possess some similar uses, so it is possible to substitute one for the other. The identification and discrimination of these closely-related plants is a crucial task to ensure the quality of the raw materials. Therefore, an analytical method which is rapid, simple and accurate for discriminating these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with some chemometrics methods was developed. FTIR spectra were acquired in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm(-1)). Standard normal variate, first and second order derivative spectra were compared for the spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for the classification of the three species. Samples could be discriminated by visual analysis of the FTIR spectra by using their marker bands. Discrimination of the three species was also possible through the combination of the pre-processed FTIR spectra with PCA and CVA, in which CVA gave clearer discrimination. Subsequently, the developed method could be used for the identification and discrimination of the three closely-related plant species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bruet, Vincent; Dumon, Henri; Bourdeau, Patrick; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Martin, Lucile
2016-10-01
The diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) remains challenging due to the lack of a simple biomarker or metabolic profile. In human medicine, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is an analytical technique used for several diseases. It requires a small amount of sample and allows the identification of structural moieties of biomolecules on the basis of their infrared absorption, with limited sample pretreatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of FTIR. Three groups were tested: 21 dogs with non food-induced CAD (NFICAD), 16 dogs with inflammatory conditions of various origins but without allergic dermatoses (OD) and 10 healthy dogs (H). Peripheral blood was collected and spectra were acquired with a FTIR spectrophotometer. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the full wavenumber spectra (4000-600/cm), followed by a Fisher discriminant analysis (DA) to assess the differences between the three groups. The PCA followed by the DA of whole spectra showed significant differences between the three groups. These results suggest that by using the FTIR method, dogs with NFICAD can be differentiated from healthy dogs and dogs with nonallergic inflammation. There was no overlap between the spectral data of the three groups indicating that NFICAD dogs were correctly segregated from the H and OD groups. A study on a larger cohort including common pruritic skin diseases is necessary to confirm these initial results and the relevance of this diagnostic technique. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.
Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R
2014-12-01
The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.
Hu, Li-Xin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Chang-Gui; Tian, Fei; Martin, Francis L
2017-02-01
Traditional duckweed toxicity tests only measure plant growth inhibition as an endpoint, with limited effects-based data. The present study aimed to investigate whether Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could enhance the duckweed (Lemna minor L.) toxicity test. Four chemicals (Cu, Cd, atrazine, and acetochlor) and 4 metal-containing industrial wastewater samples were tested. After exposure of duckweed to the chemicals, standard toxicity endpoints (frond number and chlorophyll content) were determined; the fronds were also interrogated using FTIR spectroscopy under optimized test conditions. Biochemical alterations associated with each treatment were assessed and further analyzed by multivariate analysis. The results showed that comparable x% of effective concentration (ECx) values could be achieved based on FTIR spectroscopy in comparison with those based on traditional toxicity endpoints. Biochemical alterations associated with different doses of toxicant were mainly attributed to lipid, protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structural changes, which helped to explain toxic mechanisms. With the help of multivariate analysis, separation of clusters related to different exposure doses could be achieved. The present study is the first to show successful application of FTIR spectroscopy in standard duckweed toxicity tests with biochemical alterations as new endpoints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:346-353. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.
Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Pleshko, N.
2014-01-01
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues. PMID:24761431
Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A; Kiani, Mohammad F; Pleshko, Nancy
2014-06-21
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen LiMei; Carpita, N.C.; Reiter, W.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Jeffries, C.; McCann, M.C.
1998-01-01
We have developed a rapid method to screen large numbers of mutant plants for a broad range of cell wall phenotypes using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy of leaves. We established and validated a model that can discriminate between the leaves of wild-type and a previously defined set of cell-wall mutants of Arabidopsis. Exploratory principal component analysis indicated that mutants deficient in different cell-wall sugars can be distinguished from each other. Discrimination of cell-wall mutants from wild-type was independent of variability in starch content or additional unrelated mutations that might be present in a heavily mutagenised population. We then developed an analysis of FTIR spectra of leaves obtained from over 1000 mutagenised flax plants, and selected 59 plants whose spectral variation from wild-type was significantly out of the range of a wild-type population, determined by Mahalanobis distance. Cell wall sugars from the leaves of selected putative mutants were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 42 showed significant differences in neutral sugar composition. The FTIR spectra indicated that six of the remaining 17 plants have altered ester or protein content. We conclude that linear discriminant analysis of FTIR spectra is a robust method to identify a broad range of structural and architectural alterations in cell walls, appearing as a consequence of developmental regulation, environmental adaptation or genetic modification. (author)
Rohaeti, Eti; Rafi, Mohamad; Syafitri, Utami Dyah; Heryanto, Rudi
2015-02-01
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber cassumunar) are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines (jamu). They have similar color for their rhizome and possess some similar uses, so it is possible to substitute one for the other. The identification and discrimination of these closely-related plants is a crucial task to ensure the quality of the raw materials. Therefore, an analytical method which is rapid, simple and accurate for discriminating these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with some chemometrics methods was developed. FTIR spectra were acquired in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm-1). Standard normal variate, first and second order derivative spectra were compared for the spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for the classification of the three species. Samples could be discriminated by visual analysis of the FTIR spectra by using their marker bands. Discrimination of the three species was also possible through the combination of the pre-processed FTIR spectra with PCA and CVA, in which CVA gave clearer discrimination. Subsequently, the developed method could be used for the identification and discrimination of the three closely-related plant species.
Adiana, M. A.; Mazura, M. P.
2011-04-01
Senna alata L. commonly known as candle bush belongs to the family of Fabaceae and the plant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, laxative and antiplatelet-aggregating activity. In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents of S. alata and its different extracts (extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their extracts, but also compare the components differences among similar samples. In a conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation analysis provides a powerful method for the quality control of traditional medicines.
Khurana, Harpreet Kaur; Cho, Il Kyu; Shim, Jae Yong; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin
2008-02-13
Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in soft drinks; however, the maximum usage dose is limited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling accessory and partial least-squares regression (PLS) was used for rapid determination of aspartame in soft drinks. On the basis of spectral characterization, the highest R2 value, and lowest PRESS value, the spectral region between 1600 and 1900 cm(-1) was selected for quantitative estimation of aspartame. The potential of FTIR spectroscopy for aspartame quantification was examined and validated by the conventional HPLC method. Using the FTIR method, aspartame contents in four selected carbonated diet soft drinks were found to average from 0.43 to 0.50 mg/mL with prediction errors ranging from 2.4 to 5.7% when compared with HPLC measurements. The developed method also showed a high degree of accuracy because real samples were used for calibration, thus minimizing potential interference errors. The FTIR method developed can be suitably used for routine quality control analysis of aspartame in the beverage-manufacturing sector.
Igci, Nasit; Sharafi, Parisa; Demiralp, Duygu Ozel; Demiralp, Cemil Ozerk; Yuce, Aysel; Emre, Serap Dokmeci
2017-10-01
Gaucher disease (GD) is defined as an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.45). Glucocerebrosidase is responsible for the degradation of glucosylceramide into ceramide and glucose. The deficiency of this enzyme results in the accumulation of undegraded glucosylceramide, almost exclusively in macrophages. With Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the complete molecular diversity of the samples can be studied comparatively and the amount of the particular materials can be determined. Also, the secondary structure ratios of proteins can be determined by analysing the amide peaks. The primary aim of this study is to introduce FTIR-ATR spectroscopy technique to GD research for the first time in the literature and to assess its potential as a new molecular method. Primary fibroblast cell cultures obtained from biopsy samples were used, since this material is widely used for the diagnosis of GD. Intact cells were placed onto a FTIR-ATR crystal and dried by purging nitrogen gas. Spectra were recorded in the mid-infrared region between 4500-850 cm-1 wavenumbers. Each peak in the spectra was assigned to as organic biomolecules according to their chemical bond information. A quantitative analysis was performed using peak areas and we also used a hierarchical cluster analysis as a multivariate spectral analysis. We obtained FTIR spectra of fibroblast samples and assigned the biomolecule origins of the peaks. We observed individual heterogeneity in FTIR spectra of GD fibroblast samples, confirming the well-known phenotypic heterogeneity in GD at the molecular level. Significant alterations in protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels related to the enzyme replacement therapy were also observed, which is also supported by cluster analysis. Our results showed that the application of FTIR spectroscopy to GD research deserves more attention and detailed studies with an increased sample size in order to evaluate its
Analysis of the physical simulation on Fourier transform infrared spectrometer
Yue, Peng-yuan; Wan, Yu-xi; Zhao, Zhen
2017-10-01
A kind of oscillating arm type Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTS) which based on the corner cube retroreflector is presented, and its principle and properties are studied. It consists of a pair of corner cube retroreflector, beam splitter and compensator. The optical path difference(OPD) is created by oscillating reciprocating motion of the moving corner cube pair, and the OPD value is four times the physical shift value of the moving corner cube pair. Due to the basic property of corner cube retroreflector, the oscillating arm type FTS has no tilt problems. It is almost ideal for very high resolution infrared spectrometer. However, there are some factors to reduce the FTS capability. First, wavefront aberration due to the figures of these surfaces will reduce modulation of FTS system; second, corner cube retroreflector consist of three plane mirror, and orthogonal to each other. When there is a deviation from right angle, it will reduced the modulation of system; third, the apexes of corner cube retroreflector are symmetric about the surface of beam splitter, if one or both of the corner cube retroreflector is displaced laterally from its nominal position, phase of off-axis rays returning from the two arms were difference, this also contributes to loss of modulation of system. In order to solve these problems, this paper sets up a non-sequential interference model, and a small amount of oscillating arm rotation is set to realize the dynamic simulation process, the dynamic interference energy data were acquired at different times, and calculated the modulation of the FTS system. In the simulation, the influence of wedge error of beam splitter, compensator or between them were discussed; effects of oscillating arm shaft deviation from the coplanar of beam splitter was analyzed; and compensation effect of corner cube retroreflector alignment on beam splitter, oscillating arm rotary shaft alignment error is analyzed. In addition, the adjustment procedure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manli Wang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The present study establishes a visualization method for the measurement of the distribution and localization of protein/peptide constituents within a single poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microsphere using synchrotron radiation–based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy (SR-FTIR. The representative infrared wavenumbers specific for protein/peptide (Exenatide and excipient (PLGA were identified and chemical maps at the single microsphere level were generated by measuring and plotting the intensity of these specific bands. For quantitative analysis of the distribution within microspheres, Matlab software was used to transform the map file into a 3D matrix and the matrix values specific for the drug and excipient were extracted. Comparison of the normalized SR-FTIR maps of PLGA and Exenatide indicated that PLGA was uniformly distributed, while Exenatide was relatively non-uniformly distributed in the microspheres. In conclusion, SR-FTIR is a rapid, nondestructive and sensitive detection technology to provide the distribution of chemical constituents and functional groups in microparticles and microspheres.
Dowling, Quinton M; Kramer, Ryan M
2017-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for process monitoring, compositional quantification, and characterization of critical quality attributes in complex mixtures. Advantages over other spectroscopic measurements include ease of sample preparation, quantification of multiple components from a single measurement, and the ability to quantify optically opaque samples. This method describes the use of a multivariate model for quantifying a TLR4 agonist (GLA) adsorbed onto aluminum oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel ® ) using FTIR spectroscopy that may be adapted to quantify other complex aluminum based adjuvant mixtures.
Lin, Liang; Pang, Zhiyong; Fang, Shaojie; Wang, Fenggong; Song, Shumei; Huang, Yuying; Wei, Xiangjun; Yu, Haisheng; Han, Shenghao
2011-02-10
The structural properties of Co-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) have been studied by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GIXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GIXAFS analysis suggests that there are multivalent Co-Alq(3) complexes and the doped Co atoms tend to locate at the attraction center with respect to N and O atoms and bond with them. The FTIR spectra indicate that the Co atoms interact with the meridional (mer) isomer of Alq(3) rather than forming inorganic compounds.
The use of the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to determine adulterants in raw milk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laerte Dagher Cassoli
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop calibrations to determine the concentration of some milk adulterants by using the automated methodology of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. For construction of calibrations, samples were collected from 100 farms in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Samples were tainted with three different adulterants commonly used in the adulteration of raw milk: sodium bicarbonate (SB, sodium citrate (SC and cheese whey (W. Each adulterant was used at three different concentrations (SB: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25%; SC: 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075% and W: 5, 10 and 20%. For validation, 60 samples were collected in other farms, which were not considered at the development stage of calibration. Adulterants were added at the following concentrations: 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.12% for SB; 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% for SC and 5, 10 and 20% for W. Performance of each calibration was evaluated in terms of accuracy (Se, detection limit (DL and determination coefficient (R². All calibrations presented R² higher than 0.91 with DL of 0.015%; 0.017% and 3.9% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Accuracy was 0.005%, 0.009% and 2.26% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Results show that the FTIR methodology can be used for determining the concentration of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and whey in raw milk. Associated with automated equipment, it is a viable option for monitoring these adulterants, having low operational costs and high analytical performance as additional features.
Caine, Sally; Heraud, Philip; Tobin, Mark J; McNaughton, Donald; Bernard, Claude C A
2012-02-15
In the last two decades the field of infrared spectroscopy has seen enormous advances in both instrumentation and the development of bioinformatic methods for spectral analysis, allowing the examination of a large variety of healthy and diseased samples, including biological fluids, isolated cells, whole tissues, and tissue sections. The non-destructive nature of the technique, together with the ability to directly probe biochemical changes without the addition of stains or contrast agents, enables a range of complementary analyses. This review focuses on the application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to analyse central nervous system tissues, with the aim of understanding the biochemical and structural changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, multiple sclerosis, as well as brain tumours. Modern biospectroscopic methods that combine FTIR microspectroscopy with bioinformatic analysis constitute a powerful new methodology that can discriminate pathology from normal healthy tissue in a rapid, unbiased fashion, with high sensitivity and specificity. Notably, the ability to detect protein secondary structural changes associated with Alzheimer's plaques, neurons in Parkinson's disease, and in some spectra from meningioma, as well as in the animal models of Alzheimer's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and multiple sclerosis, illustrates the power of this technology. The capacity to offer insight into the biochemical and structural changes underpinning aetio-pathogenesis of diseases in tissues provides both a platform to investigate early pathologies occurring in a variety of experimentally induced and naturally occurring central nervous system diseases, and the potential to evaluate new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Study of tissue engineered bone nodules by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
Aydin, Halil Murat; Hu, Bin; Suso, Josep Sulé; El Haj, Alicia; Yang, Ying
2011-02-21
The key criteria for assessing the success of bone tissue engineering are the quality and quantity of the produced minerals within the cultured constructs. The accumulation of calcium ions and inorganic phosphates in culture medium serves as nucleating agents for the formation of hydroxyapatite, which is the main inorganic component of bone. Bone nodule formation is one of the hallmarks of mineralization in such cell cultures. In this study, we developed a new two-step procedure to accelerate bone formation in which mouse bone cell aggregates were produced first on various chemically treated non-adhesive substrates. After this step, the bone cells' growth and mineralization were followed in conventional culture plates. The number and size of cell aggregates were studied with light microscopy. The minerals' formation in the form of nodules produced by the cell aggregates and the bone crystal quality were studied with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of the ash specimens (mineral phase only) from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) provided valuable information of the quality of the minerals. The υ(4) PO(4) region (550-650 cm(-1)), which reveals apatitic and non-apatitic HPO(4) or PO(4) environments, and phosphate region (910-1180 cm(-1)) were examined for the minerals produced in the form of nodules. The peak position and intensity of the spectra demonstrate that the quality of the bone produced by cell aggregates, especially from the bigger ones, which were formed on Plunoric treated substrates, exhibit a composition more similar to that of native bone. This work establishes a new protocol for high quality bone formation and characterization, with the potential to be applied to bone tissue engineering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arash Hanifi
Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huck-Ywih Ch'ng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Logging and poor shifting cultivation negatively affect initial soil carbon (C storage, especially at the initial stage of deforestation, as these practices lead to global warming. As a result, an afforestation program is needed to mitigate this problem. This study assessed initial soil C buildup of rehabilitated forests using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The relatively high E4/E6 values of humic acids (HAs in the rehabilitated forest indicate prominence of aliphatic components, suggesting that the HAs were of low molecular weight. The total acidity, carboxylic (-COOH and phenolic (-OH of the rehabilitated forest were found to be consistent with the ranges reported by other researchers. The spectra of all locations were similar because there was no significant difference in the quantities of C in humic acids (CHA regardless of forest age and soil depth. The spectra showed distinct absorbance at 3290, 1720, 1630, 1510, 1460, 1380, and 1270 cm-1. Increase of band at 1630 and 1510 cm-1 from 0–20 to 40–60 cm were observed, suggesting C buildup from the lowest depths 20–40 and 40–60 cm. However, the CHA content in the soil depths was not different. The band at 1630 cm-1 was assigned to carboxylic and aromatic groups. Increase in peak intensity at 1510 cm-1 was because C/N ratio increased with increasing soil depth. This indicates that decomposition rate decreased with increasing soil depth and decreased with CHA. The finding suggests that FTIR spectroscopy enables the assessment of C composition functional group buildup at different depths and ages.
Sivakumar, S; Sivasubramanian, J; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J; Raja, B
2013-06-01
In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278±3.121 to 189.872±2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749±2.052 to 21.170±1.311 and 13.167±1.441 to 8.953±0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicCH stretching band and CO stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias, Derly Augusto; Pereira, Daisa L.; Gomes, Gabriela V.; Sugahara, Vanessa M.L.; Mathor, Monica B.; Zezell, Denise Maria, E-mail: zezell@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro para Lasers e Aplicacoes
2017-07-01
The skeletal systems with the structural arrangement of the bone are very important for load distribution, mechanical resistance and vital organs protection. The bone structure is multiphase and composed of organic, inorganic (mineral) compounds and water. Gamma radiation is an ionizing radiation that comes from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generator is commonly used in health establishments such as radio diagnostic exams, radiotherapy and sterilization of allograft. The characterization of the irradiated bone tissue can be is an important tool to study of the components that are affected and how much each dose of ionizing radiation can alter its mechanical properties. This information will be very important in in vitro and ex vivo studies where sterilization of the bone material is necessary and may still be useful in understanding the effects on the bone tissue of patients undergoing short-term radiotherapy. For this, 110 samples of bovine femur diaphysis were randomized into 11 groups: G1 untreated (control); G2 to G11 were submitted to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co Gammacel). Samples were polished before irradiation and submitted to a Knoop Microhardness Test to determine the hardness of bovine bone and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to biochemical characterization. Spectra were collected in the mid-infrared range in Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) sampling mode associated whit PCA multivariate technique to evaluate the molecular changes in bone matrix. It was observed that hardness was not altered by gamma irradiation and FTIR spectroscopy associated with PCA is a good method to analyze the changes in bone tissue submitted to ionizing radiation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dollinger, G.; Eisenstein, L.; Lin, S.L.; Nakanishi, K.; Termini, J.
1986-01-01
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy has been used to detect the vibrational modes due to tyrosine residues in the protein that change in position or intensity between light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (LA) and other species, namely, the K and M intermediates and dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (DA). To aid in the identification of the bands that change in these various species, the FTIR spectra of the free amino acids Tyr-d0, Tyr-d2 ( 2 H at positions ortho to OH), and Tyr-d4 ( 2 H at positions ortho and meta to OH) were measured in H 2 O and D 2 O at low and high pH. The characteristic frequencies of the Tyr species obtained in this manner were then used to identify the changes in protonation state of the tyrosine residues in the various bacteriorhodopsin species. The two diagnostically most useful bands were the approximately 1480-cm-1 band of Tyr(OH)-d2 and the approximately 1277-cm-1 band of Tyr(O-)-d0. Mainly by observing the appearance or disappearance of these bands in the difference spectra of pigments incorporating the tyrosine isotopes, it was possible to identify the following: in LA, one tyrosine and one tyrosinate; in the K intermediate, two tyrosines; in the M intermediate, one tyrosine and one tyrosinate; and in DA, two tyrosines. Since these residues were observed in the difference spectra K/LA, M/LA, and DA/LA, they represent the tyrosine or tyrosinate groups that most likely undergo changes in protonation state due to the conversions. These changes are most likely linked to the proton translocation process of bacteriorhodopsin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Derly Augusto; Pereira, Daisa L.; Gomes, Gabriela V.; Sugahara, Vanessa M.L.; Mathor, Monica B.; Zezell, Denise Maria
2017-01-01
The skeletal systems with the structural arrangement of the bone are very important for load distribution, mechanical resistance and vital organs protection. The bone structure is multiphase and composed of organic, inorganic (mineral) compounds and water. Gamma radiation is an ionizing radiation that comes from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generator is commonly used in health establishments such as radio diagnostic exams, radiotherapy and sterilization of allograft. The characterization of the irradiated bone tissue can be is an important tool to study of the components that are affected and how much each dose of ionizing radiation can alter its mechanical properties. This information will be very important in in vitro and ex vivo studies where sterilization of the bone material is necessary and may still be useful in understanding the effects on the bone tissue of patients undergoing short-term radiotherapy. For this, 110 samples of bovine femur diaphysis were randomized into 11 groups: G1 untreated (control); G2 to G11 were submitted to gamma irradiation ("6"0Co Gammacel). Samples were polished before irradiation and submitted to a Knoop Microhardness Test to determine the hardness of bovine bone and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to biochemical characterization. Spectra were collected in the mid-infrared range in Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) sampling mode associated whit PCA multivariate technique to evaluate the molecular changes in bone matrix. It was observed that hardness was not altered by gamma irradiation and FTIR spectroscopy associated with PCA is a good method to analyze the changes in bone tissue submitted to ionizing radiation. (author)
Kuijpers, A.H.W.M.; Verbeek, G.; Verheij, J.W.
1997-01-01
Effective use of the Fourier series boundary element method (FBEM) for everyday applications is hindered by the significant numerical problems that have to be overcome for its implementation. In the FBEM formulation for acoustics, some integrals over the angle of revolution arise, which need to be
From the rectangular to the quincunx Gabor lattice via fractional Fourier transformation
Bastiaans, M.J.; Leest, van A.J.
1998-01-01
Transformations of Gabor lattices have been associated with operations on the window functions that arise in Gabor theory. In particular it has been shown that transformation from a rectangular to a quincunx lattice can be associated with fractional Fourier transformation. Since a Gaussian function,
Rectangular-to-quincunx Gabor lattice conversion via fractional Fourier transformation
Bastiaans, M.J.; Leest, van A.J.
1998-01-01
Transformations of Gabor lattices are associated with operations on the window functions that arise in Gabor theory. In particular it is shown that transformation from a rectangular to a quincunx lattice can be associated with fractional Fourier transformation. Since a Gaussian function, which plays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurashige, J. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Takaoka, K.; Takasago, M.; Taru, Y.; Kobayashi, K. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))
1991-07-20
The states of dissolved water in triglycerides (TG) such as tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and compared with those of water itself. In the case of water, its states were considered to be mainly polymer clusters larger than dimer ones at 20{degree}C, and mostly monomer or dimer clusters at 120{degree}C. In TG, the states varied widely from monomer to polymer clusters at 20{degree}C. The distribution ratios of the water clusters observed in TG depended on the kinds of fatty acids of TG, and the water state was noted to change due to the interaction between unsaturated bonds and dissolved water. Although the states of dissolved water in trilinolein were similar to those of original water at 20{degree}C, the ratio of monomer water decreased and polymer clusters bigger than those in original water increased with an increase in number of unsaturated bonds of TG. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lassi Rieppo
Full Text Available Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic imaging has been earlier applied for the spatial estimation of the collagen and the proteoglycan (PG contents of articular cartilage (AC. However, earlier studies have been limited to the use of univariate analysis techniques. Current analysis methods lack the needed specificity for collagen and PGs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of partial least squares regression (PLSR and principal component regression (PCR methods for the analysis of the PG content of AC. Multivariate regression models were compared with earlier used univariate methods and tested with a sample material consisting of healthy and enzymatically degraded steer AC. Chondroitinase ABC enzyme was used to increase the variation in PG content levels as compared to intact AC. Digital densitometric measurements of Safranin O-stained sections provided the reference for PG content. The results showed that multivariate regression models predict PG content of AC significantly better than earlier used absorbance spectrum (i.e. the area of carbohydrate region with or without amide I normalization or second derivative spectrum univariate parameters. Increased molecular specificity favours the use of multivariate regression models, but they require more knowledge of chemometric analysis and extended laboratory resources for gathering reference data for establishing the models. When true molecular specificity is required, the multivariate models should be used.
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Of Food Components
Calvey, Elizabeth M.; Page, Samuel W.; Taylor, Larry T.
1989-12-01
Supercritical fluid (SF) technologies are being investigated extensively for applications in food processing. The number of SF-related patents issued testifies to the level of interest. Among the properties of materials at temperatures and pressures above their critical points (supercritical fluids) is density-dependent solvating power. Supercritical CO2 is of particular interest to the food industry because of its low critical temperature (31.3°C) and low toxicity. Many of the components in food matrices react or degrade at elevated temperatures and may be adversely affected by high temperature extractions. Likewise, these components may not be amenable to GC analyses. Our SF research has been in the development of methods employing supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and extraction (SFE) coupled to a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer to investigate food composition. The effects of processing techniques on the isomeric fatty acid content of edible oils and the analysis of lipid oxidation products using SFC/FT-IR with a flow-cell interface are described.
Chen, Xiaojing; Wu, Di; He, Yong; Liu, Shou
2009-04-06
Glycerol monolaurate (GML) products contain many impurities, such as lauric acid and glucerol. The GML content is an important quality indicator for GML production. A hybrid variable selection algorithm, which is a combination of wavelet transform (WT) technology and modified uninformative variable eliminate (MUVE) method, was proposed to extract useful information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for the determination of GML content. FT-IR spectra data were compressed by WT first; the irrelevant variables in the compressed wavelet coefficients were eliminated by MUVE. In the MUVE process, simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was employed to search the optimal cutoff threshold. After the WT-MUVE process, variables for the calibration model were reduced from 7366 to 163. Finally, the retained variables were employed as inputs of partial least squares (PLS) model to build the calibration model. For the prediction set, the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9910 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 4.8617 were obtained. The prediction result was better than the PLS model with full-spectra data. It was indicated that proposed WT-MUVE method could not only make the prediction more accurate, but also make the calibration model more parsimonious. Furthermore, the reconstructed spectra represented the projection of the selected wavelet coefficients into the original domain, affording the chemical interpretation of the predicted results. It is concluded that the FT-IR transmission spectroscopy technique with the proposed method is promising for the fast detection of GML content.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patino, A; Durand, P-E; Fogret, E; Pellat-Finet, P
2011-01-01
According to a scalar theory of diffraction, light propagation can be expressed by two-dimensional fractional order Fourier transforms. Since the fractional Fourier transform of a chirp function is a Dirac distribution, focusing a light beam is optically achieved by using a diffractive screen whose transmission function is a two-dimensional chirp function. This property is applied to designing Fresnel microlenses, and the orders of the involved Fourier fractional transforms depend on diffraction distances as well as on emitter and receiver radii of curvature. If the emitter is astigmatic (with two principal radii of curvature), the diffraction phenomenon involves two one-dimensional fractional Fourier transforms whose orders are different. This degree of freedom allows us to design microlenses that can focus astigmatic Gaussian beams, as produced by a line-shaped laser diode source.
D'Astous, Y.; Blanchard, M.
1982-05-01
In the past years, the Journal has published a number of articles1-5 devoted to the introduction of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the undergraduate labs. In most papers, the proposed experimental setup consists of a Michelson interferometer, a light source, a light detector, and a chart recorder. The student uses this setup to record an interferogram which is then Fourier transformed to obtain the spectrogram of the light source. Although attempts have been made to ease the task of performing the required Fourier transform,6 the use of computers and Cooley-Tukey's fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm7 is by far the simplest method to use. However, to be able to use FFT, one has to get a number of samples of the interferogram, a tedious job which should be kept to a minimum. (AIP)
How to use the Fast Fourier Transform in Large Finite Fields
Petersen, Petur Birgir
2011-01-01
The article contents suggestions on how to perform the Fast Fourier Transform over Large Finite Fields. The technique is to use the fact that the multiplicative groups of specific prime fields are surprisingly composite.
On the raising and lowering difference operators for eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atakishiyeva, M K; Atakishiyev, N M
2015-01-01
We construct explicit forms of raising and lowering difference operators that govern eigenvectors of the finite (discrete) Fourier transform. Some of the algebraic properties of these operators are also examined. (paper)
Computational chemistry, in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/MS/FT-IR), was used to tentatively identify seven tetrachlorobutadiene (TCBD) isomers detected in an environmental sample. Computation of the TCBD infrare...
Implementation of Period-Finding Algorithm by Means of Simulating Quantum Fourier Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zohreh Moghareh Abed
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce quantum fourier transform as a key ingredient for many useful algorithms. These algorithms make a solution for problems which is considered to be intractable problems on a classical computer. Quantum Fourier transform is propounded as a key for quantum phase estimation algorithm. In this paper our aim is the implementation of period-finding algorithm.Quantum computer solves this problem, exponentially faster than classical one. Quantum phase estimation algorithm is the key for the period-finding problem .Therefore, by means of simulating quantum Fourier transform, we are able to implement the period-finding algorithm. In this paper, the simulation of quantum Fourier transform is carried out by Matlab software.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is an imaging spectrometer that can measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for in the...
Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Suresh, T.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...
Fourier transform and mean quadratic variation of Bernoulli convolution on homogeneous Cantor set
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu Zuguo E-mail: yuzg@hotmail.comz.yu
2004-07-01
For the Bernoulli convolution on homogeneous Cantor set, under some condition, it is proved that the mean quadratic variation and the average of Fourier transform of this measure are bounded above and below.
Hourani, Nadim; Andersson, Jan T.; Mö ller, Isabelle; Amad, Maan H.; Witt, Matthí as; Sarathy, Mani
2013-01-01
oil (VGO) and injected using the same method. The samples were analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). RESULTS PASH model analytes were successfully ionized and mainly [M + H]+ ions were produced. The same
Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.
Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu
2014-12-21
It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Experimental demonstrations of the properties of Fourier transforms using diffraction phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazin, M.J.; Lucie, P.H.; Oliveira, S.M.M. de.
1984-01-01
The standard mathematical properties of Fourier transforms and the experimental characteristics of diffraction phenomena are systematically brought together. An experimental realization of a particular case of the convolution theorem is displayed in details. (Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R., E-mail: Jeffrey.D.Scargle@nasa.gov, E-mail: Michael.J.Way@nasa.gov, E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net [NASA Ames Research Center, Astrobiology and Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
2017-04-10
We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.
Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates.
Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie
2015-01-01
The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.
Pulse shaping using the optical Fourier transform technique - for ultra-high-speed signal processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael
2009-01-01
This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment.......This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment....
Analysis and application of Fourier transform spectroscopy in atmospheric remote sensing
Park, J. H.
1984-01-01
An analysis method for Fourier transform spectroscopy is summarized with applications to various types of distortion in atmospheric absorption spectra. This analysis method includes the fast Fourier transform method for simulating the interferometric spectrum and the nonlinear least-squares method for retrieving the information from a measured spectrum. It is shown that spectral distortions can be simulated quite well and that the correct information can be retrieved from a distorted spectrum by this analysis technique.
Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.
Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene
2017-08-01
Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.
OTDM-to-WDM Conversion of Complex Modulation Formats by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Palushani, Evarist; Richter, T.; Ludwig, R.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information.......We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information....
Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation for OTDM-DWDM and DWDM-OTDM Conversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael
2011-01-01
Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats.......Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats....
Lima, Cassio A; Goulart, Viviane P; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M
2016-07-01
Vibrational spectroscopic methods associated with multivariate statistical techniques have been succeeded in discriminating skin lesions from normal tissues. However, there is no study exploring the potential of these techniques to assess the alterations promoted by photodynamic effect in tissue. The present study aims to demonstrate the ability of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on Attenuated total reflection (ATR) sampling mode associated with principal component-linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) to evaluate the biochemical changes caused by photodynamic therapy (PDT) in skin neoplastic tissue. Cutaneous neoplastic lesions, precursors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), were chemically induced in Swiss mice and submitted to a single session of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated PDT. Tissue sections with 5 μm thickness were obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and processed prior to the histopathological analysis and spectroscopic measurements. Spectra were collected in mid-infrared region using a FTIR spectrometer on ATR sampling mode. Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) was applied on preprocessed second derivatives spectra. Biochemical changes were assessed using PCA-loadings and accuracy of classification was obtained from PC-LDA . Sub-bands of Amide I (1,624 and 1,650 cm(-1) ) and Amide II (1,517 cm(-1) ) indicated a protein overexpression in non-treated and post-PDT neoplastic tissue compared with healthy skin, as well as a decrease in collagen fibers (1,204, 1,236, 1,282, and 1,338 cm(-1) ) and glycogen (1,028, 1,082, and 1,151 cm(-1) ) content. Photosensitized neoplastic tissue revealed shifted peak position and decreased β-sheet secondary structure of proteins (1,624 cm(-1) ) amount in comparison to non-treated neoplastic lesions. PC-LDA score plots discriminated non-treated neoplastic skin spectra from post-PDT cutaneous lesions with accuracy of 92.8%, whereas non-treated neoplastic
ANN-based calibration model of FTIR used in transformer online monitoring
Li, Honglei; Liu, Xian-yong; Zhou, Fangjie; Tan, Kexiong
2005-02-01
Recently, chromatography column and gas sensor have been used in online monitoring device of dissolved gases in transformer oil. But some disadvantages still exist in these devices: consumption of carrier gas, requirement of calibration, etc. Since FTIR has high accuracy, consume no carrier gas and require no calibration, the researcher studied the application of FTIR in such monitoring device. Experiments of "Flow gas method" were designed, and spectrum of mixture composed of different gases was collected with A BOMEM MB104 FTIR Spectrometer. A key question in the application of FTIR is that: the absorbance spectrum of 3 fault key gases, including C2H4, CH4 and C2H6, are overlapped seriously at 2700~3400cm-1. Because Absorbance Law is no longer appropriate, a nonlinear calibration model based on BP ANN was setup to in the quantitative analysis. The height absorbance of C2H4, CH4 and C2H6 were adopted as quantitative feature, and all the data were normalized before training the ANN. Computing results show that the calibration model can effectively eliminate the cross disturbance to measurement.
Accelerating the Non-equispaced Fast Fourier Transform on Commodity Graphics Hardware
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Schaeffter, Tobias; Noe, Karsten Østergaard
2008-01-01
We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe the performa......We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1995-02-01
The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.
Depciuch, J; Kaznowska, E; Golowski, S; Koziorowska, A; Zawlik, I; Cholewa, M; Szmuc, K; Cebulski, J
2017-09-05
Breast cancer affects one in four women, therefore, the search for new diagnostic technologies and therapeutic approaches is of critical importance. This involves the development of diagnostic tools to facilitate the detection of cancer cells, which is useful for assessing the efficacy of cancer therapies. One of the major challenges for chemotherapy is the lack of tools to monitor efficacy during the course of treatment. Vibrational spectroscopy appears to be a promising tool for such a purpose, as it yields Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectra which can be used to provide information on the chemical composition of the tissue. Previous research by our group has demonstrated significant differences between the infrared spectra of healthy, cancerous and post-chemotherapy breast tissue. Furthermore, the results obtained for three extreme patient cases revealed that the infrared spectra of post-chemotherapy breast tissue closely resembles that of healthy breast tissue when chemotherapy is effective (i.e., a good therapeutic response is achieved), or that of cancerous breast tissue when chemotherapy is ineffective. In the current study, we compared the infrared spectra of healthy, cancerous and post-chemotherapy breast tissue. Characteristic parameters were designated for the obtained spectra, spreading the function of absorbance using the Kramers-Kronig transformation and the best fit procedure to obtain Lorentz functions, which represent components of the bands. The Lorentz function parameters were used to develop a physics-based computational model to verify the efficacy of a given chemotherapy protocol in a given case. The results obtained using this model reflected the actual patient data retrieved from medical records (health improvement or no improvement). Therefore, we propose this model as a useful tool for monitoring the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Preisner, Ornella; Guiomar, Raquel; Machado, Jorge; Menezes, José Cardoso; Lopes, João Almeida
2010-06-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques were used to discriminate five closely related Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types, phage type 1 (PT1), PT1b, PT4b, PT6, and PT6a. Intact cells and outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts from bacterial cell membranes were subjected to FT-IR analysis in transmittance mode. Spectra were collected over a wavenumber range from 4,000 to 600 cm(-1). Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop calibration models based on preprocessed FT-IR spectra. The analysis based on OMP extracts provided greater separation between the Salmonella Enteritidis PT1-PT1b, PT4b, and PT6-PT6a groups than the intact cell analysis. When these three phage type groups were considered, the method based on OMP extract FT-IR spectra was 100% accurate. Moreover, complementary local models that considered only the PT1-PT1b and PT6-PT6a groups were developed, and the level of discrimination increased. PT1 and PT1b isolates were differentiated successfully with the local model using the entire OMP extract spectrum (98.3% correct predictions), whereas the accuracy of discrimination between PT6 and PT6a isolates was 86.0%. Isolates belonging to different phage types (PT19, PT20, and PT21) were used with the model to test its robustness. For the first time it was demonstrated that FT-IR analysis of OMP extracts can be used for construction of robust models that allow fast and accurate discrimination of different Salmonella Enteritidis phage types.
Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Kell, Douglas B; Rowland, Jem J; Goodacre, Royston
2002-06-01
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a rapid, noninvasive technique with considerable potential for application in the food and related industries. We show here that this technique can be used directly on the surface of food to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints." Spoilage in meat is the result of decomposition and the formation of metabolites caused by the growth and enzymatic activity of microorganisms. FT-IR was exploited to measure biochemical changes within the meat substrate, enhancing and accelerating the detection of microbial spoilage. Chicken breasts were purchased from a national retailer, comminuted for 10 s, and left to spoil at room temperature for 24 h. Every hour, FT-IR measurements were taken directly from the meat surface using attenuated total reflectance, and the total viable counts were obtained by classical plating methods. Quantitative interpretation of FT-IR spectra was possible using partial least-squares regression and allowed accurate estimates of bacterial loads to be calculated directly from the meat surface in 60 s. Genetic programming was used to derive rules showing that at levels of 10(7) bacteria.g(-1) the main biochemical indicator of spoilage was the onset of proteolysis. Thus, using FT-IR we were able to acquire a metabolic snapshot and quantify, noninvasively, the microbial loads of food samples accurately and rapidly in 60 s, directly from the sample surface. We believe this approach will aid in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point process for the assessment of the microbiological safety of food at the production, processing, manufacturing, packaging, and storage levels.
Nichols, P. D.; Henson, J. M.; Guckert, J. B.; Nivens, D. E.; White, D. C.
1985-01-01
Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been used to rapidly and nondestructively analyze bacteria, bacteria-polymer mixtures, digester samples and microbial biofilms. Diffuse reflectance FT-IR (DRIFT) analysis of freeze-dried, powdered samples offered a means of obtaining structural information. The bacteria examined were divided into two groups. The first group was characterized by a dominant amide I band and the second group of organisms displayed an additional strong carbonyl stretch at approximately 1740 cm-1. The differences illustrated by the subtraction spectra obtained for microbes of the two groups suggest that FT-IR spectroscopy can be utilized to recognize differences in microbial community structure. Calculation of specific band ratios has enabled the composition of bacteria and extracellular or intracellular storage product polymer mixtures to be determined for bacteria-gum arabic (amide I/carbohydrate C-O approximately 1150 cm-1) and bacteria-poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (amide I/carbonyl approximately 1740 cm-1). The key band ratios correlate with the compositions of the material and provide useful information for the application of FT-IR spectroscopy to environmental biofilm samples and for distinguishing bacteria grown under differing nutrient conditions. DRIFT spectra have been obtained for biofilms produced by Vibrio natriegens on stainless steel disks. Between 48 and 144 h, an increase in bands at approximately 1440 and 1090 cm-1 was seen in FT-IR spectra of the V. natriegens biofilm. DRIFT spectra of mixed culture effluents of anaerobic digesters show differences induced by shifts in input feedstocks. The use of flow-through attenuated total reflectance has permitted in situ real-time changes in biofilm formation to be monitored and provides a powerful tool for understanding the interactions within adherent microbial consortia.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shang, D.
2009-01-01
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) is commonly used for oil fingerprinting and provides investigators with good forensic data. However, new challenges face oil spill forensic chemistry with the growing use of biodiesel as well as the recycling and reprocessing of used oil, particularly lubricating oils. This paper demonstrated that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy may be a fast, cost effective and complementary method for forensic analysis of biodiesels (fatty acid methyl esters) and lubricating oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy was shown to be an interesting analytic method because of its use in monitoring and quantifying minor chemical compounds in sample matrices and its ability to identify a broad range or organic compounds. Unlike chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy with ATR can provide results without compound separation or lengthy sample preparation steps. This study described the combined use of GC and ATR-FTIR in environmental oil spill identification through the matching of source lube oil samples with artificially weathered samples. Samples recovered from a biodiesel spill incident were also investigated. ATR-FTIR provided detailed spectral information for rapid lube oil differentiation. This study was part of a continuing effort to develop a methodology to deal with chemical spills of unknown origin, which is an important aspect in environmental protection and emergency preparedness. This method was only successfully applied to the short term artificially weathered and fresh lube oil characterization, and to limited cases of biodiesel spills. It was concluded that further validation tests are needed to determine if this method can be applied to real-world weather lube oil samples. 10 refs., 11 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. N. Nina Naquiah
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The agro-based production and consumption of frogs coupled with world-wide trading have been increased in the recent years giving rise to the risk of frog fat adulteration in expensive vegetable and marine oils. For the first time, we profiled here frog fats using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy coupled with multivariate principal component analysis (PCA. The comparison of the FTIR spectral absorbance intensities demonstrated linkage of frog fats to other edible fats and oils. Three commercially available marine oils and three vegetables oils were studied with frog fats and clear pattern of clusters with distinctive identifiable features were obtained through PCA modeling. PCA analysis identified 2922.21 cm-1, 2852.88 cm-1, 1745.45 cm-1, 1158.29 cm-1 and 721.51 cm-1 FTIR-frequencies as the most discriminating variables influencing the group separation into different clusters. This fundamental study has clear implications in the identification of frog fat from its marine and vegetable counterparts for the potential detection of frog fat adulteration in various fat and oils.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glaucia Braz Alcantara
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the potentiality of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy associated to chemometric analysis for assessment of conventional and genetically modified soybean crops. Recently, genetically modified organisms have been queried about their influence on the environment and their safety as food/feed. In this regard, chemical investigations are ever more required. Thus three different soybean cultivars distributed in transgenic Roundup ReadyTM soybean and theirs conventional counterparts were directly investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The application of PCA and KNN methods permitted the discrimination and classification of the genetically modified samples from conventional ones when they were separately analysed. The analyses showed the chemical variation according to genetic modification. Furthermore, this methodology was efficient for cultivar grouping and highlights cultivar dependence for discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. According to this study, FT-IR and chemometrics could be used as a quick, easy and low cost tool to assess the chemical composition variation in genetically modified organisms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallah, M.A.; Sherazi, S.T.H.; Mahesar, S.A.; Rauf, A.
2012-01-01
A rapid, sensitive and environmental friendly analytical method for the direct determination of clarithromycin in tablet formulations through transmission Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been successfully developed for routine quality control analysis. This method avoids any sample pretreatment except grinding or use of any solvent as extraction is no more required. Standards and samples were analysed in the form of KBr pellet for recording FT-IR spectra. In the final step, chemometric method was used to filter out unmatched spectral features and the converted and filtered spectra were used to build a calibration model based on partial least square (PLS) using the FT-IR carbonyl region (C=O) from 2965-1662 cm/sup -1/. The excellent correlation coefficient (R2) was achieved (0.9999). This also fulfills the ever increasing demand of pharmaceutical industries for developing sensitive, economical and less time consuming methods for the quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) while monitoring quality of finished product with total analysis time of less than three minutes. (author)
Cotte, Marine; Dumas, Paul; Taniguchi, Yoko; Checroun, Emilie; Walter, Philippe; Susini, Jean
2009-09-01
Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) is one of the emerging techniques increasingly employed for Cultural Heritage analytical science. Such a technique combines the assets of FTIR spectroscopy (namely, the identification of molecular groups in various environments: organic/inorganic, crystallized/amorphous, solid/liquid/gas), with the extra potential of chemical imaging (localization of components + easier data treatment thanks to geographical correlations) and the properties of the synchrotron source (namely, high brightness, offering high data quality even with reduced dwell time and reduced spot size). This technique can be applied to nearly all kind of materials found in museum objects, going from hard materials, like metals, to soft materials, like paper, and passing through hybrid materials such as paintings and bones. The purpose is usually the identification of complex compositions in tiny, heterogeneous samples. Recent applications are reviewed in this article, together with the fundamental aspects of the infrared synchrotron source which are leading to such improvements in analytical capabilities. A recent example from the ancient Buddhist paintings from Bamiyan is detailed. Emphasis is made on the true potential offered at such large scale facilities in combining SR-FTIR microscopy with other synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques. To cite this article: M. Cotte et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).
Xu, Fang; Xu, Yu; Lu, Rui; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing
2011-09-14
In this study, the rationale for exploring the thermal deterioration mechanism of the bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk is established. This is based on identification of the unstable intermediates in the thermal deterioration process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor such a thermal deterioration process of bio-oil samples in thermal treatment and/or during long-term storage at ambient temperatures of 20-30 °C. Terminal olefins, as a key intermediate, so-called "signature", were identified qualitatively by using FTIR spectroscopy. A band shift observed at 880 cm(-1), which was assigned to the C-H out-of-plane deformation vibration of terminal olefins, indicates the start-up of the bio-oil thermal deterioration. A two-step pathway was proposed to describe the thermal deterioration process of bio-oil. This study suggests that the status of bio-oil could be rapidly monitored by the FTIR method.
Liu, Hong-xia; Sun, Su-qin; Lv, Guang-hua; Chan, Kelvin K. C.
2006-05-01
In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Angelica and its different extracts (extracted by petroleum ether, ethanol and water in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR spectrum can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can not only identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. This analytical method is highly rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.
Chen, Jian-Bo; Sun, Su-Qin; Tang, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Zhao; Zhou, Qun
2016-08-05
Herbal powder preparation is a kind of widely-used herbal product in the form of powder mixture of herbal ingredients. Identification of herbal ingredients is the first and foremost step in assuring the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal powder preparations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic identification method is proposed for the direct and simultaneous recognition of multiple organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations. First, the reference spectrum of characteristic particles of each herbal ingredient is assigned according to FT-IR results and other available information. Next, a statistical correlation threshold is determined as the lower limit of correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and a larger number of calibration characteristic particles. After validation, the reference spectrum and correlation threshold can be used to identify herbal ingredient in mixture preparations. A herbal ingredient is supposed to be present if correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and some sample particles are above the threshold. Using this method, all kinds of herbal materials in powder preparation Kouqiang Kuiyang San are identified successfully. This research shows the potential of FT-IR microspectroscopic identification method for the accurate and quick identification of ingredients in herbal powder preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
High Accuracy Evaluation of the Finite Fourier Transform Using Sampled Data
Morelli, Eugene A.
1997-01-01
Many system identification and signal processing procedures can be done advantageously in the frequency domain. A required preliminary step for this approach is the transformation of sampled time domain data into the frequency domain. The analytical tool used for this transformation is the finite Fourier transform. Inaccuracy in the transformation can degrade system identification and signal processing results. This work presents a method for evaluating the finite Fourier transform using cubic interpolation of sampled time domain data for high accuracy, and the chirp Zeta-transform for arbitrary frequency resolution. The accuracy of the technique is demonstrated in example cases where the transformation can be evaluated analytically. Arbitrary frequency resolution is shown to be important for capturing details of the data in the frequency domain. The technique is demonstrated using flight test data from a longitudinal maneuver of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle.
Magneto-sensor circuit efficiency incremented by Fourier-transformation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Useinov, Arthur; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
2011-01-01
In this paper detection by recognized intelligent algorithm for different magnetic films with the aid of a cost-effective and simple high efficient circuit are realized. Well-known, magnetic films generate oscillating frequencies when they stay a part of an LC- oscillatory circuit. These frequencies can be further analyzed to gather information about their magnetic properties. For the first time in this work we apply the signal analysis in frequency domain to create the Fourier frequency spectra which was used to detect the sample properties and their recognition. In this paper we have summarized both the simulation and experimental results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magneto-sensor circuit efficiency incremented by Fourier-transformation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2011-10-01
In this paper detection by recognized intelligent algorithm for different magnetic films with the aid of a cost-effective and simple high efficient circuit are realized. Well-known, magnetic films generate oscillating frequencies when they stay a part of an LC- oscillatory circuit. These frequencies can be further analyzed to gather information about their magnetic properties. For the first time in this work we apply the signal analysis in frequency domain to create the Fourier frequency spectra which was used to detect the sample properties and their recognition. In this paper we have summarized both the simulation and experimental results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.