WorldWideScience

Sample records for four-week safety study

  1. Four-week oral toxicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, H.P.; Modderman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Erythritol was orally administered to Wistar rats at dietary levels of 0, 5, and 10% for 4 weeks. Soft stools and diarrhea were observed in male and female animals of the 10% group and in female animals of the 5% group. These symptoms disappeared during the course of the study. Mean body weights of

  2. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  3. Feasibility Study Evaluating Four Weeks Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration Training with Healthy Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Rogan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the feasibility of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV training and its impact on isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC, isometric rate of force development (IRFD and a drop jump test (DJ in healthy female students. Twelve participants were randomised to static squats during SR-WBV 6 Hz, noise level 4, over 4 weeks or to a control group (no training. Feasibility outcomes included the number of students agreeing to participate, the number of drop-outs, the adherence to the SR-WBV and the evaluation of the protocol. Secondary outcomes were IMVC, IRFD and DJ. Results: Among 35 eligible students, 12 agreed to participate and two dropped out. The adherence was 41 of 60 possible sessions. There were moderate to large, but statistically non-significant, gains in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: These results suggest that such a study would be feasible although with some modifications such as a better familiarisation to the DJ.

  4. Study of four weeks repeated-dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in rats Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Hae-Yon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four weeks repeated -dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLPat Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for the pilot study of four weeks repeated-dose toxicity and was injected at the level of 0.56 mg/kg body weight (eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14 mg/kg as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of normal saline was injected as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and side effects such as hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of injection in all experiment groups, and the higher dosage in treatment, the higher occurrence in side effects. 3. Concerning weight measurement, neither male nor female groups showed significant changes compared to the control group. 4. Concerning to the CBC and biochemistry, all experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 5. Concerning weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, those such as cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney,and spinal cords were removed and we conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining.Concerning the histologocal observation of liver tissues, some fatty changes were observed around portal vein in 0.56 mg/kg experiment group. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7. The proper high dosage of SBV for the thirteen weeks repeated test in rats may be 0.28 mg

  5. A four-week clinical study to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of a baking soda dentifrice and an antimicrobial dentifrice in reducing plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness in reducing plaque of a fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda and a non-baking soda fluoride dentifrice containing an antimicrobial (triclosan/copolymer) system after a single brushing and over a four-week period of daily brushing. A total of 207 subjects completed this randomized, blinded, parallel-group clinical study. Twenty-four hour plaque buildup was scored at baseline and after two and four weeks of twice-daily use of the products. Additionally, controlled single brushing with the assigned dentifrice, followed by post-brushing plaque assessment, was performed at the start (baseline visit) and end (Week-4 visit) of the study. Plaque was scored using the Turesky, et al. modification of Quigley-Hein Index at six sites per tooth, according to Soparkar's modification. Mean baseline whole mouth plaque scores for the baking soda and triclosan dentifrice groups were 2.90 +/- 0.40 and 2.90 +/- 0.39, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Within-group analysis showed that both products significantly reduced the amount of plaque over the four-week period (p baking soda dentifrice exhibited significantly greater reduction in plaque scores (p baking soda dentifrice group (0.34 +/- 0.32) was 2.22-fold greater than that observed for the triclosan dentifrice group (0.15 +/- 0.24). Similarly, single brushing with the baking soda dentifrice showed a 1.88- to 2.08-fold greater pre- to post-brushing plaque difference as compared to the triclosan dentifrice at the baseline visit (mean plaque reduction: baking soda 0.54 +/- 0.26; triclosan 0.28 +/- 0.18; ratio 1.88X) and Week-4 visit (baking soda 0.47 +/- 0.21; triclosan 0.23 +/- 0.15; ratio 2.08X). Similar to the whole mouth scores, evaluation of various tooth sites (facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival) showed a significantly greater reduction in plaque scores for brushing with the baking soda dentifrice as compared to brushing with the triclosan

  6. Four-week parenteral nutrition using a third generation lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid)--a double-blind, randomised, multicentre study in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klek, Stanislaw; Chambrier, Cecile; Singer, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a soybean/MCT/olive/fish oil emulsion in intestinal failure patients on long-term parenteral nutrition. 73 patients took part in a randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study. The study demonstrates that the lipid emulsion...

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, L-folinic acid and levamisole for patients with colorectal cancer: non-randomised comparison of weekly versus four-weekly schedules--less pain, same gain. QUASAR Colorectal Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D J; Gray, R; McConkey, C; Barnwell, J

    2000-08-01

    QUASAR is a large trial of adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer in which clinicians could choose to deliver a standard adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and L-folinic acid (L-FA), in either a once-weekly or a four-weekly schedule. We report results of a non-randomised comparison between these schedules with respect to survival, recurrence and differential toxicity. In a factorial (2 x 2) trial design, QUASAR compared high-dose (175 mg) versus low-dose (25 mg) L-FA and levamisole versus placebo. The dose of 5-FU was fixed at 370 mg/m2 and although the recommended schedule was i.v. bolus delivery, daily for 5 days repeated four-weekly for 6 months, a significant proportion of randomising clinicians were constrained to deliver once-weekly 5-FU-L-FA for 30 weeks. Four thousand nine hundred twenty-seven patients were entered into QUASAR between May 1994 and October 1997, eighteen hundred twenty-nine of whom have recurred and sixteen hundred eighty-nine died. Similar numbers 2370 vs. 2559 were treated with the once-weekly and four-weekly schedules and the demographic features of the 2 groups were well balanced: stage C, 73.3% once-weekly vs. 71.0% four-weekly; colon, 68.0% vs. 68.3%; high-dose FA, 50.1% vs. 49.9%; levamisole, 49.3% vs. 49.3%; females, 40.2% vs. 41.7%; median age (years) 62 vs. 61. The risk of recurrence and survival were similar regardless of schedule: three-year survival was 70.6% once-weekly vs. 71.0% four-weekly; three-year recurrence risk was 35.6% once-weekly vs. 35.5% four-weekly; But, the once-weekly regimen was much less toxic: number of patients for whom toxicity was reported (once-weekly: four-weekly), stomatitis, 37 vs. 337; diarrhoea, 260 vs. 440; neutropenia, 20 vs. 153. The once-weekly regimen is much less toxic than and, apparently, about as effective as the four-weekly schedule. This suggests that the toxicity of 5-FU-L-FA adjuvant chemotherapy could be reduced substantially by weekly scheduling without

  8. Novel Pharmaceutical Strontium Malonate Influence on Calcium and Strontium Adsorption by Dog Femur and by Dog Teeth in a Four-Week Toxicity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Christgau, Stephan; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    of osteoporosis. As part of this development the compound was administered in doses of 0 (placebo), 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day to beagle dogs for a period of 4 weeks. We measured the incorporation of strontium in bone, marrow and teeth in this study. Analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... marginally higher incorporation of strontium suggesting that saturation levels were reached with the lowest dose level. There was no gender difference in strontium incorporation. Correlations of strontium levels with Sr/Ca-ratio and other important biological parameters were investigated....

  9. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in “Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Dominguez-Clavé, Elisabeth; Pascual, Juan C.; Feilding, Amanda; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; García-Campayo, Javier; Riba, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills. Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A (n = 10) was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B (n = 10) was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course. Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring “acceptance.” Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions. Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the benefits of

  10. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in "Acceptance" Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Dominguez-Clavé, Elisabeth; Pascual, Juan C; Feilding, Amanda; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; García-Campayo, Javier; Riba, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N- dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills. Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A ( n = 10) was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B ( n = 10) was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course. Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring "acceptance." Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions. Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the benefits of

  11. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in “Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Soler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR, with the specific goal of improving these skills.Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ. The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A (n = 10 was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B (n = 10 was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course.Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring “acceptance.” Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions.Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the

  12. Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Farrell III

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.

  13. Effects of Innovative WALKBOT Robotic-Assisted Locomotor Training on Balance and Gait Recovery in Hemiparetic Stroke: A Prospective, Randomized, Experimenter Blinded Case Control Study With a Four-Week Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Yang, Li; Park, In Jae; Kim, Eun Joo; JoshuaPark, Min Su; You, Sung Hyun; Kim, Yun-Hee; Ko, Hyun-Yoon; Shin, Yong-Il

    2015-07-01

    The present clinical investigation was to ascertain whether the effects of WALKBOT-assisted locomotor training (WLT) on balance, gait, and motor recovery were superior or similar to the conventional locomotor training (CLT) in patients with hemiparetic stroke. Thirty individuals with hemiparetic stroke were randomly assigned to either WLT or CLT. WLT emphasized on a progressive, conventional locomotor retraining practice (40 min) combined with the WALKBOT-assisted, haptic guidance and random variable locomotor training (40 min) whereas CLT involved conventional physical therapy alone (80 min). Both intervention dosages were standardized and provided for 80 min, five days/week for four weeks. Clinical outcomes included function ambulation category (FAC), Berg balance scale (BBS), Korean modified Barthel index (K-MBI), modified Ashworth scale (MAS), and EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) before and after the four-week program as well as at follow-up four weeks after the intervention. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA showed significant interaction effect (time × group) for FAC (p=0.02), BBS (p=0.03) , and K-MBI (p=0.00) across the pre-training, post-training, and follow-up tests, indicating that WLT was more beneficial for balance, gait and daily activity function than CLT alone. However, no significant difference in other variables was observed. This is the first clinical trial that highlights the superior, augmented effects of the WALKBOT-assisted locomotor training on balance, gait and motor recovery when compared to the conventional locomotor training alone in patients with hemiparetic stroke.

  14. Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 13) Two- or four-week repeated dose studies and fertility study of PPAR alpha/gamma dual agonist in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Norihiro; Uchida, Keisuke; Nakajima, Mikio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kohira, Terutomo

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to determine the optimal dosing period in a repeated dose toxicity study based on toxic effects as assessed by ovarian morphological changes. To assess morphological and functional changes induced in the ovary by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma dual agonist, the compound was administered to female rats at dose levels of 0, 4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day in a repeated dose toxicity study for 2 or 4 weeks, and from 2 weeks prior to mating to Day 7 of pregnancy in a female fertility study. In the repeated dose toxicity study, an increase in atresia of large follicles, a decrease in corpora lutea, and an increase in stromal cells were observed in the treated groups. In addition, the granulosa cell exfoliations into antrum of large follicles and corpora lutea with retained oocyte are morphological characteristics induced by this compound, and they might be related with abnormal condition of ovulation. In the female fertility study, the pregnancy rate tended to decrease in the 100 mg/kg/day group. At necropsy, decreases in the number of corpora lutea, implantations and live embryos were noted in the 20 and 100 mg/kg/day group. No changes were observed in animals given 4 mg/kg/day. These findings indicated that histopathological changes in the ovary are important endpoints for evaluation of drugs inducing ovarian damage. In conclusion, a 2-week administration period is sufficient to detect ovarian toxicity of this test compound in the repeated dose toxicity study.

  15. Pilot study of an 'integrated boost' with fractionation into four weekly sessions in breast radiotherapy; etude pilote de 'boost integre' avec fractionnement en quatre seances hebdomadaires dans la radiotherapie du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabelle-Flandin, I.; Beneyton, V.; Dusserre, A.; Sihanath, R.; Villele, C. de; Henry, I.; Vassal, S.; Tessier, A.; Giraud, J.Y. [CHU de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Balosso, J. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a pilot study which aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of an 'integrated boost' technique within a treatment comprising four sessions a week, in order to increase machine availability. The reduction of the number of sessions resulted in 20 to 30 per cent increase of machine availability. The technique does not increase acute toxicity. Late toxicity is still to be assessed. Short communication

  16. Rapid response to methylphenidate as an add-on therapy to mirtazapine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: a four-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chong Guan; Boks, Marco P M; Roes, Kit C B; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Tan, Seng Beng; de Wit, Niek J

    2014-04-01

    This is a 4 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine the effects of methylphenidate as add-on therapy to mirtazapine compared to placebo for treatment of depression in terminally ill cancer patients. It involved 88 terminally ill cancer patients from University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They were randomized and treated with either methylphenidate or placebo as add on to mirtazapine. The change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score from baseline to day 3 was analyzed by linear regression. Changes of MADRS and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) over 28 days were analyzed using mixed model repeated measures (MMRM). Secondary analysis of MADRS response rates, defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline score. A significantly larger reduction of Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score in the methylphenidate group was observed from day 3 (B=4.14; 95% CI=1.83-6.45). Response rate (defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline MADRS score) in the methylphenidate treated group was superior from day 14. Improvement in Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) was greater in the methylphenidate treated group from day 3 until day 28. The drop-out rates were 52.3% in the methylphenidate group and 59.1% in the placebo group (relative risk=0.86, 95%CI=0.54-1.37) due to cancer progression. Nervous system adverse events were more common in methylphenidate treated subjects (20.5% vs 9.1%, p=0.13). In conclusions, methylphenidate as add on therapy to mirtazapine demonstrated an earlier antidepressant response in terminally ill cancer patients, although at an increased risk of the nervous system side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Four Weeks of Goal-Directed Learning in Primary Physical Education Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platvoet, Sebastiaan W. J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Kannekens, Rianne; de Niet, Mark; Visscher, Chris

    Relatively little is known about how practice relates to children's improvement in gross motor skill performance. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent 6- and 7-year-old children improve their gross motor skill performance in a four-week period, in which goal-directed learning is

  18. Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of type I collagen (COL1, the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4% or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents.

  19. Four Weeks of Off-Season Training Improves Peak Oxygen Consumption in Female Field Hockey Players

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey T. Funch; Erik Lind; Larissa True; Deborah Van Langen; John T. Foley; James F. Hokanson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙O2peak) and running economy (RE) following four-weeks of high intensity training and concurrent strength and conditioning during the off-season in collegiate female field hockey players. Fourteen female student-athletes (age 19.29 ± 0.91 years) were divided into two training groups, matched from baseline V ˙O2peak: High Intensity Training (HITrun; n = 8) and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT; ...

  20. Effect of sexual relationship during the last four weeks of pregnancy on Bishop score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayeste Esmaeelzadeh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical favoring or ripening which is evaluated by Bishop score is an importantfactor for predicting the type of delivery, especially at the induction of labor. Higher bishop scorepredicts more vaginal delivery and reduction of cesarean. The present study is designed to assess theeffect of intercourse during the last four weeks of pregnancy on cervical ripening for giving birth.Material and Method: In this case-control study, cases were included 74 primigravid women withunriped cervix (Bishop4.The two groups were referred for vaginal delivery at term and compared based on times of intercourseand experiencing orgasm during the last four weeks of pregnancy. The data were collected byexamination and interview using a checklist.Results: Case and control group were matched based on age, job and economic situation. Meantimes of intercourse were 1.8±2.3 and 3.1±3.2 in case and control groups, respectively. Mann-Whitneyu test showed that the control group reported more intercourse than the case group in the last fourweeks of pregnancy, significantly (P<0.01, Z=2.8. In case group, 41 persons (55.4% and in thecontrol 72 persons (70.2% experienced orgasm during intercourse. This difference was alsosignificant.Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual relationship and orgasm in the last fourweeks of pregnancy are related to cervical favoring and so declining cesarean.

  1. Effects of four weeks of repeated sprint training on physiological indices in futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar do Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p91   The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short repeated-sprint ability (RSA training on the neuromuscular and physiological indices in U17 futsal players during the competitive period. Fourteen players were divided into two groups: intervention group (n = 8 and control group (n = 6. Both groups performed a repeated maximal sprint test (40-m MST, intermittent shuttle-running test (Carminatti’s test and vertical jumps before and after the training period. The intervention group was submitted to an additional four-week repeated sprints program, twice a week, while the control group maintained their normal training routine. There was no significant interaction between time and groups for all variables analysed (p > 0.05. However, a significant main effect was observed for time (p < 0.01 indicating an increase on speed at heart rate deflection point (VHRDP and the continuous jump performance while the peak lactate (40m-LACpeak and sprint decrement decreased after training, in both groups. Still, based on effect sizes (ES the greater changes with practical relevance were verified for intervention group in important variables such as peak velocity (ES = 0,71, VHRDP (ES = 0,83 and 40m-LACpeak (ES = 1,00. This study showed that RSA-based and normal training routine are equally effective in producing changes in the analysed variables during a short period of intervention. However, the effect size suggests that four weeks of RSA training would be a minimum time that could induce the first changes of futsal player’s physical fitness.

  2. Changes in concentration of visfatin during four weeks of inpatient treatment of alcohol dependent males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Czarnecki

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The dynamic of change in the concentration of visfatin during four weeks of abstinence is not associated with a reduction in craving for alcohol at the time and is associated with alcohol drinking and liver functioning.

  3. Four Weeks of Off-Season Training Improves Peak Oxygen Consumption in Female Field Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey T. Funch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙O2peak and running economy (RE following four-weeks of high intensity training and concurrent strength and conditioning during the off-season in collegiate female field hockey players. Fourteen female student-athletes (age 19.29 ± 0.91 years were divided into two training groups, matched from baseline V ˙O2peak: High Intensity Training (HITrun; n = 8 and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT; n = 6. Participants completed 12 training sessions. HITrun consisted of 30 min of high-intensity running, while HIIT consisted of a series of whole-body high intensity Tabata-style intervals (75–85% of age predicted maximum heart rate for a total of four minutes. In addition to the interval training, the off-season training included six resistance training sessions, three team practices, and concluded with a team scrimmage. V ˙O2peak was measured pre- and post-training to determine the effectiveness of the training program. A two-way mixed (group × time ANOVA showed a main effect of time with a statistically significant difference in V ˙O2peak from pre- to post-testing, F(1, 12 = 12.657, p = 0.004, partial η2 = 0.041. Average (±SD V ˙O2peak increased from 44.64 ± 3.74 to 47.35 ± 3.16 mL·kg−1·min−1 for HIIT group and increased from 45.39 ± 2.80 to 48.22 ± 2.42 mL·kg−1·min−1 for HITrun group. Given the similar improvement in aerobic power, coaches and training staff may find the time saving element of HIIT-type conditioning programs attractive.

  4. To What Extent Can Adolescent Scoliosis Be Improved in Four Weeks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ağırman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a condition that leads to severe disability and an impaired cosmetic appearance in adolescence. This article presents x-ray images of a patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS in whom the pain and posture improved dramatically over four weeks, emphasizing the importance of physical therapy. A 13-year-old male was admitted because of posture deformity and mild back and lower back pain. He was being followed with the diagnosis of scoliosis for two years and specific exercises were proposed for scoliosis. On physical examination, we observed paravertebral muscle spasm and significant asymmetry of the thoracolumbar region. Neurological examination and laboratory tests were normal. X-ray showed arcuate thoracolumbar scoliosis (cobb angle: 24° with a leftward convexity. Electrical stimulation was applied to the convex and concave sides for 30 minutes, five times a week for four weeks and an exercise program was performed under the supervision of a therapist. The stimulation amplitude was the maximum stimulation intensity with which the patient was comfortable. Analgesic and myorelaxant drugs were not required, and no brace was used. After the treatment, significant improvements were observed in the patient’s posture and radiography (cobb angle: 10°. This work demonstrates that well-planned physical therapy is a rapid and effective option for treating AIS.

  5. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  6. Four weeks supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® shows modest effect on triacylglycerol in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota has been shown to have the potential to affect appetite and blood lipids positively in animal studies. We investigated if four weeks supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® (L. casei W8) had an effect on subjective appetite sensation, ad libitum e...

  7. Individual and average responses of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after four weeks of strength training in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Lyra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: To analyze the average and individual responses of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in adolescents after four weeks of strength training. Methods: 19 adolescents with sleep problems recruited in the Federal Institute of Pernambuco, were subject to anthropometric evaluations as well as those for body composition assessment, a 1 repetition maximum test, the sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI and Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS and were submitted to four weeks of strength-training, performed alternately by segment, two sessions per week, according to recommendations for this population. Results: A decrease in the average PSQI score was observed (10.3±3.3 vs 8.8±4.0; p=0.006, but not in ESS (p>0.05, after intervention. The individual analyses demonstrated that ~63% of adolescents experienced reductions ≥ 3 points in the PSQI and ~58% of them experienced reductions ≥ 3 points in the measure of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness reduced from 84.2% to 68.4% and from 52.6% to 31.6%, respectively. The comparisons of high and low responders to exercise training show that adolescents who reduced ≥3 points in the score of a least one sleep parameter presented lower weight, fat mass, and fat percentage (p<0.05. Conclusion: A short-term strength-training program is able to improve global sleep quality, but not daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Furthermore, the changes after training are highly heterogeneous. Further studies are required to better understand the effects of strength training on sleep parameters of adolescents.

  8. Safety study application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Included are analyses of existing facilities done under the aegis of the Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program, and analyses of new and modified facilities. A graded approach is used wherein the level of analysis and documentation for each facility is commensurate with the magnitude of the hazard(s), the complexity of the facility and the stage of the facility life cycle. Safety analysis reports (SARs) for hazard Category 1 and 2 facilities are usually detailed and extensive because these categories are associated with public health and safety risk. SARs for Category 3 are normally much less extensive because the risk to public health and safety is slight. At Energy Systems, safety studies are the name given to SARs for Category 3 (formerly open-quotes lowclose quotes) facilities. Safety studies are the appropriate instrument when on-site risks are limited to irreversible consequences to a few people, and off-site consequences are limited to reversible consequences to a few people. This application guide provides detailed instructions for performing safety studies that meet the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.22, open-quotes Technical Safety Requirements,close quotes and 5480.23, open-quotes Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.close quotes A seven-chapter format has been adopted for safety studies. This format allows for discussion of all the items required by DOE Order 5480.23 and for the discussions to be readily traceable to the listing in the order. The chapter titles are: (1) Introduction and Summary, (2) Site, (3) Facility Description, (4) Safety Basis, (5) Hazardous Material Management, (6) Management, Organization, and Institutional Safety Provisions, and (7) Accident Analysis

  9. The Effects of Four-Week Multivitamin Supplementation on Mood in Healthy Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Macpherson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Nutritional deficiencies have been associated with cognitive decline and mood disturbances. Vitamin intake can influence mood and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that multivitamin supplements are capable of reducing mild symptoms of mood dysfunction. However, few studies have focussed on healthy older women. Methods. This study investigated the effects of four weeks’ multivitamin supplementation on mood in 76 healthy women aged 50–75 years. Mood was assessed before and after intervention in the laboratory using measures of current mood and retrospective experiences of mood over the past week or longer. Mobile phones were used to assess changes in real-time mood ratings, twice weekly in the home. Results. There were no multivitamin-related benefits identified for measures of current mood or reflections of recent mood when measured in the laboratory. In-home assessments, where mood was rated several hours after dose, revealed multivitamin supplementation improved ratings of stress, with a trend to reduce mental fatigue. Conclusions. Over four weeks, subtle changes to stress produced by multivitamin supplementation in healthy older women may not be detected when only pre- and posttreatment mood is captured. In-home mobile phone-based assessments may be more sensitive to the effects of nutritional interventions compared to traditional in-laboratory assessments.

  10. Response of Arterial Stiffness Four Weeks After Terminating Short-term Aerobic Exercise Training in a Sedentary Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykara, Murat; Demirel, Adnan; Yavuzatmaca, İhsan; Bilgen, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of arterial stiffness in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle at 4 weeks after terminating a 2-week aerobic exercise session. Arterial stiffness was evaluated in 38 participants before starting and after completing a prescribed aerobic exercise program and also at 4 weeks after returning back to their sedentary lifestyle. Parameters regarding arterial compliance, distensibility, wall stress, and the elastic modulus were estimated from the information gained from sonography on the dimensions of carotid and femoral arteries and a sphygmomanometer on the pulse pressure. Primary outcomes included whether short-term aerobic exercise reduced the heart rate, arterial pressure, and intima-media thickness and improved vascular biomechanics in physically inactive but otherwise healthy individuals. The benefits gained in arterial compliance and distensibility deteriorated with termination of exercise, but diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus improved further. In individuals with sedentary lifestyles, short-term aerobic exercise has strong four-week residual benefits on diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus, but the effects appear to be negligible on arterial stiffness and distensibility. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Four Weeks of Mobility After 8 Weeks of Immobility Fails to Restore Normal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Guy; Zhou, Jian; Uhthoff, Hans K.

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged immobilization reduces passive range of motion of joints creating joint contractures. Whether and to what extent these iatrogenic contractures can be reduced is unknown. We raised three questions using an animal model: What degree of contracture remains at the end of a defined remobilization period? Do contractures in sham-operated and immobilized joints differ? What is the contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee extension? We immobilized one knee of 11 adult male rats in flexion to induce a joint contracture; 10 control animals underwent a sham operation. After 8 weeks, the internal fixation device was removed, and the animals were allowed to resume unrestricted activity for 4 weeks at the end of which the knee range of motion was measured with standardized torques. The mean flexion contracture was higher in the immobilized group (51.9° ± 2.8°) than in the sham-operated group (18.9° ± 2.1°). Eighty-eight percent of the contractures remained in the immobilized group after dividing skin and muscle, suggesting an important contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee mobility. Based on our preliminary study the range of motion of rat knees immobilized for 8 weeks remained substantially reduced after a 4-week period of unassisted remobilization. PMID:18299947

  12. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Brendorp, Bente

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine) in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) only, 1748 (16%) had cardiovascular disease (CVD) only and 6397 (60%) had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations...... significantly more in patients without DM (p sibutramine induced lower uric acid levels...

  13. Interchangeability of counts of cases and hours of cases for quantifying a hospital's change in workload among four-week periods of 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Ledolter, Johannes; Wanderer, Jonathan P

    2018-05-16

    Recent studies have made longitudinal assessments of case counts using State (e.g., United States) and Provincial (e.g., Canada) databases. Such databases rarely include either operating room (OR) or anesthesia times and, even when duration data are available, there are major statistical limitations to their use. We evaluated how to forecast short-term changes in OR caseload and workload (hours) and how to decide whether changes are outliers (e.g., significant, abrupt decline in anesthetics). Observational cohort study. Large teaching hospital. 35 years of annual anesthesia caseload data. Annual data were used without regard to where or when in the year each case was performed, thereby matching public use files. Changes in caseload or hours among four-week periods were examined within individual year-long periods using 159 consecutive four-week periods from the same hospital. Series of 12 four-week periods of the hours of cases performed on workdays lacked trend or correlation among periods for 49 of 50 series and followed normal distributions for 50 of 50 series. These criteria also were satisfied for 50 of 50 series based on counts of cases. The Pearson r = 0.999 between hours of anesthetics and cases. For purposes of time series analysis of total workload at a hospital within 1-year, hours of cases and counts of cases are interchangeable. Simple control chart methods of detecting sudden changes in workload or caseload, based simply on the sample mean and standard deviation from the preceding year, are appropriate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterson Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Elevated levels of serum uric acid are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The response of uric acid to weight loss therapy (lifestyle plus sibutramine in an overweight and obese cardiovascular high risk population was studied. Methods and results Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24% had diabetes mellitus (DM only, 1748 (16% had cardiovascular disease (CVD only and 6397 (60% had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations (mean ± standard deviation at screening were significantly higher among patients with CVD compared to patients without CVD (p Conclusion A four week daily intake of sibutramine and life style changes was associated with significant reductions in mean uric acid levels. Changes in renal glucose load in diabetes seem to counteract a potential uricosuric effect of sibutramine. Trial Registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00234832.

  15. The Effect of Four-Week Period of Aerobic Exercise with Cinnamon Consumption on Lipoprotein Indicates and Blood sugar in Diabetic Female Patients (Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dastani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cinnamon as an herbal medicine has the ability to reduce blood glucose and lipoproteins in diabetic patients. Based on the positive effects of exercise on diabetic patients, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Four weeks Period aerobic exercise alongside using cinnamon on lipoprotein parameters and blood glucose in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty diabetic women were voluntarily selected and were randomly divided into three groups: 1 aerobic exercise group; 2 aerobic exercise alongside using cinnamon; and 3 control group. Aerobic exercise took four weeks with 60 percent of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Blood glucose, the fat percentage and HDL, and the ratio of LDL to HDL in the first group significantly decreased and in the second group increased (P<0.05. Also the first group showed a significant reduction in triglyceride. The only significant change observed in the control group was a significant increase in the level of LDL. Comparing the first and second group, it was observed that in the second group the level of total cholesterol decreased and the ratio of LDL to HDL increased (P<0.05. Conclusion: Using cinnamon alongside aerobic exercise is likely to be beneficial in regulating the concentration of blood glucose and lipids in diabetic patients.

  16. Psychological well-being in obese in-patients with ischemic heart disease at entry and at discharge from a four-week cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Mauro Manzoni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this observational pre-post study were twofold: 1- to evaluate psychological health in obese patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD at admission to cardiac rehabilitation (CR and 2 - to examine the effectiveness of a four-week CR residential program in improving obese patients’ psychological well-being at discharge from CR. A sample of 177 obese patients completed the Psychological General Well-Being Inventory (PGWBI at admission to the CR program and at discharge. The equivalence testing method with normative comparisons was used to determine the clinical significance of improvements after having established that baseline mean scores on the PGWBI scales were significantly lower than normal means. Results show that patients scored equally or better than norms on many PGWBI dimensions at admission to CR but scored significantly worse on Global Score, Vitality and Self-control. At discharge, mean scores that were impaired at baseline returned to normal levels at the more conservative equivalence interval. A four-week CR program was thus effective in improving obese patients’ psychological well-being. The equivalence testing method allowed to establish the clinical significance of such improvement.

  17. Glycemia and insulinemia concentrations in four-weeks-old male and female broilers and their relationship to weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José H. Osorio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glucose metabolism in birds is directly related to insulin secretion, given that this hormone exerts an anabolic function and this response is reflected in the growth of poultry. There is little information on variables such as sex, age and weight, and their effect on insulin secretion and the regulation of glucose concentrations. Objective: To compare concentrations of insulin, glucose, and weight in four-weeks-old male and female broiler chickens, in order to establish reference values for them. Materials and methods: Fasting blood samples were collected from 80 broilers of both sexes (four-weeks-old Cobb 500 line. Enzyme immunoassay (sandwich method was used to determine levels of insulin, glucometer for glycemia levels, and scales for weight. Results were analyzed using the Stata statistical program; a statistically significant difference is accepted when p is < 0.05. Results: Insulin values are 0.60 ± 0.63 ng/mL; regarding glucose levels, males reported values between 415.45 ± 40.52 mg/dL, and females between 350.72 ± 68.37 mg/dL; finally, weight values were 963.73 g in males and 865.64 g in females. Conclusions: Males are heavier than females. Glycemia concentrations are higher in males than in females; reference values according to sex are: in females (mg/dL 350.72 ± 68.37, and in males (mg/dL 415 ± 40.52; finally, insulin levels are higher in females than in males.

  18. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  19. Acute and Four-Week Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats Exposed to Pyrotechnically Disseminated Black Smoke (PVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    level of activity, gait and posture, reactivity to handling or sensory stimuli, altered strength, and stereotypes or bizarre behavior (e.g., self...historical database. V.3.3. Laboratory Animals V.3.3.1. Genus and Species: Rattus norvegicus V.3.3.2. Strain/Stock: Sprague-Dawley V.3.3.3

  20. Nordic studies in reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershagen, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme SIK programme in reactor safety is part of a major joint Nordic research effort in nuclear safety. The report summarizes the achievements of the SIK programme, which was carried out during 1990-1993 in collaboration between Nordic nuclear utilities, safety authorities, and research institutes. Three main projects were successfully completed dealing with: 1) development and application of a living PSA concept for monitoring the risk of core damage, and of safety indicators for early warning of possible safety problems; 2) review and intercomparison of severe accident codes, case studies of potential core melt accidents in nordic reactors, development of chemical models for the MAAP code, and outline of a system for computerized accident management support; 3) compilation of information about design and safety features of neighbouring reactors in Germany, Lithuania and Russia, and for naval reactors and nuclear submarines. The report reviews the state-of-the-art in each subject matter as an introduction to the individual project summaries. The main findings of each project are highlighted. The report also contains an overview of reactor safety research in the Nordic countries and a summary of fundamental reactor safety principles. (au) (69 refs.)

  1. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz Landy, Christine; Sword, Wendy; Ciliska, Donna

    2008-10-03

    Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA) postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000) who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01-2.18)], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35-0.67)], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64-4.4)]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47-3.40)]. Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar health service needs and utilization patterns to more SEA women

  2. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Methods Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000 who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. Results When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01–2.18], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35–0.67], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64–4.4]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47–3.40]. Conclusion Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar

  3. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Samat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  4. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, Suhana; Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  5. Functional brain activity changes after four weeks supplementation with a multi-vitamin/mineral combination: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial exploring functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the neurocognitive effects of four weeks daily supplementation with a multivitamin and mineral combination (MVM in healthy adults (aged 18-40 years. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n=32, 16 females and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n=39, 20 females during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following four weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following four weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n=16 demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with four weeks of daily treatment with a multivitamin and mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity.

  6. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the EC initiative on model quality assessment and emphasizes some of the problems encountered in the selection of data from field tests used in the evaluation process. Further, it discusses the impact of model uncertainties in safety studies of industrial plants. The model...... that most of these have never been through a procedure of evaluation, but nonetheless are used to assist in making decisions that may directly affect the safety of the public and the environment. As a major funder of European research on major industrial hazards, DGXII is conscious of the importance......-tain model is appropriate for use in solving a given problem. Further, the findings from the REDIPHEM project related to dense gas dispersion will be highlighted. Finally, the paper will discuss the need for model quality assessment in safety studies....

  7. Test-retest reliability and four-week changes in cardiopulmonary fitness in stroke patients: evaluation using a robotics-assisted tilt table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Berger, Lucia; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Nef, Tobias; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-09-06

    Exercise testing devices for evaluating cardiopulmonary fitness in patients with severe disability after stroke are lacking, but we have adapted a robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT) for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Using the RATT in a sample of patients after stroke, this study aimed to investigate test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET and to prospectively investigate changes in cardiopulmonary outcomes over a period of four weeks. Stroke patients with all degrees of disability underwent 3 separate CPET sessions: 2 tests at baseline (TB1 and TB2) and 1 test at follow up (TF). TB1 and TB2 were at least 24 h apart. TB2 and TF were 4 weeks apart. A RATT equipped with force sensors in the thigh cuffs, a work rate estimation algorithm and a real-time visual feedback system was used to guide the patients' exercise work rate during CPET. Test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET variables were analysed using paired t-tests, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the coefficient of variation (CoV), and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Changes in cardiopulmonary fitness during four weeks were analysed using paired t-tests. Seventeen sub-acute and chronic stroke patients (age 62.7 ± 10.4 years [mean ± SD]; 8 females) completed the test sessions. The median time post stroke was 350 days. There were 4 severely disabled, 1 moderately disabled and 12 mildly disabled patients. For test-retest, there were no statistically significant differences between TB1 and TB2 for most CPET variables. Peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate, peak work rate and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC 0.65-0.94). For all CPET variables, CoV was 4.1-14.5 %. The mean difference was close to zero in most of the CPET variables. There were no significant changes in most cardiopulmonary performance parameters during the 4-week period

  8. Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Established in November 2015, the Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies (CMSHS) promotes safety and health for all maritime workers, including those employed...

  9. Safety analysis and related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, J.

    1979-12-01

    Several examples of reactor safety studies are given. For light water reactors, the consequences of loss of coolant, the disposition of the fuel elements and the behaviour under irradiation of the steels used for containment are described. For fast reactors, the disposition of fuel elements in the case of cooling accidents and sodium fies are described. Examples given of studies not specific to a particular reactor type include studies of non-destructive testing and those of reliability

  10. Validity of questionnaire self-reports on computer, mouse and keyboard usage during a four-week period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, S.; Vilstrup, Imogen; Lassen, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity and potential biases in self-reports of computer, mouse and keyboard usage times, compared with objective recordings. METHODS: A study population of 1211 people was asked in a questionnaire to estimate the average time they had worked with computer, mouse...... and keyboard during the past four working weeks. During the same period, a software program recorded these activities objectively. The study was part of a one-year follow-up study from 2000-1 of musculoskeletal outcomes among Danish computer workers. RESULTS: Self-reports on computer, mouse and keyboard usage...... times were positively associated with objectively measured activity, but the validity was low. Self-reports explained only between a quarter and a third of the variance of objectively measured activity, and were even lower for one measure (keyboard time). Self-reports overestimated usage times...

  11. Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Powis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV or nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum motherto-child HIV transmission (MTCT among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed infants.   Methods: Using data from the Mpepu Study, a Botswana-based clinical trial investigating whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole could improve infant survival, retrospective analyses of MTCT events and Division of AIDS (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 occurrences of anaemia or neutropenia were performed among infants born full-term (≥ 37 weeks gestation, with a birth weight ≥ 2500 g and who were formula-fed from birth. ZDV infant prophylaxis was used from Mpepu Study inception. A protocol modification mid-way through the study led to the subsequent use of NVP infant prophylaxis.   Results: Among infants qualifying for this secondary retrospective analysis, a total of 695 (52% infants received ZDV, while 646 (48% received NVP from birth for at least 25 days but no more than 35 days. Confirmed intrapartum HIV infection occurred in two (0.29% ZDV recipients and three (0.46% NVP recipients (p = 0.68. Anaemia occurred in 19 (2.7% ZDV versus 12 (1.9% NVP (p = 0.36 recipients. Neutropenia occurred in 28 (4.0% ZDV versus 21 (3.3% NVP recipients (p = 0.47.   Conclusions: Both ZDV and NVP resulted in low intrapartum transmission rates and no significant differences in severe infant haematologic toxicity (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 among formula-fed full-term infants with a birthweight ≥ 2500 g.

  12. The Effect of HMB Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors after Four Weeks of Resistance Training in Amateur Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional supplements have been widely used in order to enhance athletic performance and improve health. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors after 4 weeks of resistance training in athletes. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind study, 20 male athletes were selected through simple random sampling, were assigned to supplement and control groups, and participated in resistance training 3 sessions a week for 4 weeks. The supplement group consumed 3 g HMB supplement per day and the control group consumed the placebo (rice flour in this period. Before and after the test period, blood pressure was measured and fasting blood samples were obtained to determine blood lipids and hematological parameters. After all, paired and unpaired t-test were used to examine within and between group differences, respectively. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After the training period, no significant differences were found between HMB and placebo groups regarding blood lipids, blood pressure, and hematological parameters. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that HMB supplementation was safe and did not result in any adverse effects. Thus, HMB can be used safely by human as an ergogenic aid for exercise training.

  13. Increases in plasma plant sterols stabilize within four weeks of plant sterol intake and are independent of cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, R T; Koppenol, W P; Garczarek, U; Otten-Hofman, A; Fuchs, D; Wagner, F; Trautwein, E A

    2016-04-01

    Plant sterols (PS) lower plasma LDL-cholesterol through partial inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Although PS themselves are poorly absorbed, increased intakes of PS result in elevated plasma concentrations. In this paper, we report time curves of changes in plasma PS during 12 weeks of PS intake. Furthermore, the impact of cholesterol synthesis and absorption on changes in plasma PS is explored. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with the main aim to investigate the effects of PS on vascular function (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01803178). Hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy men and women (n = 240) consumed low-fat spreads without or with added PS (3 g/d) for 12 weeks after a 4-week run-in period. Blood sampling was performed at week 0, 4, 8 and 12. Basal cholesterol-standardized concentrations of lathosterol and sitosterol + campesterol were used as markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, respectively. In the PS group, plasma sitosterol and campesterol concentrations increased within the first 4 weeks of intervention by 69% (95%CI: 58; 82) starting at 7.2 μmol/L and by 28% (95%CI: 19; 39) starting at 11.4 μmol/L, respectively, and remained stable during the following 8 weeks. Placebo-corrected increases in plasma PS were not significantly different between high and low cholesterol synthesizers (P-values >0.05). Between high and low cholesterol absorbers, no significant differences were observed, except for the cholesterol-standardized sum of four major plasma PS (sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol) showing larger increases in low absorbers (78.3% (95%CI: 51.7; 109.5)) compared to high absorbers (40.8% (95%CI: 19.9; 65.5)). Increases in plasma PS stabilize within 4 weeks of PS intake and do not seem impacted by basal cholesterol synthesis or absorption efficiency. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01803178). Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of

  14. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  15. Brain changes following four weeks of unimanual motor training: Evidence from behavior, neural stimulation, cortical thickness, and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V; Reid, Lee B; Cocchi, Luca; Pagnozzi, Alex M; Rose, Stephen E; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-09-01

    Although different aspects of neuroplasticity can be quantified with behavioral probes, brain stimulation, and brain imaging assessments, no study to date has combined all these approaches into one comprehensive assessment of brain plasticity. Here, 24 healthy right-handed participants practiced a sequence of finger-thumb opposition movements for 10 min each day with their left hand. After 4 weeks, performance for the practiced sequence improved significantly (P left (mean increase: 53.0% practiced, 6.5% control) and right (21.0%; 15.8%) hands. Training also induced significant (cluster p-FWE right hemisphere, 301 voxel cluster; left hemisphere 700 voxel cluster), and sensorimotor cortices and superior parietal lobules (right hemisphere 864 voxel cluster; left hemisphere, 1947 voxel cluster). Transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right ("trained") primary motor cortex yielded a 58.6% mean increase in a measure of motor evoked potential amplitude, as recorded at the left abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Cortical thickness analyses based on structural MRI suggested changes in the right precentral gyrus, right post central gyrus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and potentially the right supplementary motor area. Such findings are consistent with LTP-like neuroplastic changes in areas that were already responsible for finger sequence execution, rather than improved recruitment of previously nonutilized tissue. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4773-4787, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Brain changes following four weeks of unimanual motor training: Evidence from fMRI-guided diffusion MRI tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lee B; Sale, Martin V; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B; Rose, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    We have reported reliable changes in behavior, brain structure, and function in 24 healthy right-handed adults who practiced a finger-thumb opposition sequence task with their left hand for 10 min daily, over 4 weeks. Here, we extend these findings by using diffusion MRI to investigate white-matter changes in the corticospinal tract, basal-ganglia, and connections of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Twenty-three participant datasets were available with pre-training and post-training scans. Task performance improved in all participants (mean: 52.8%, SD: 20.0%; group P right caudate nucleus (4.9%; P left nucleus accumbens (-1.3%; P right corticospinal tract (mean 3.28%; P left corticospinal tract did not show any changes. FA also increased in white matter connections between the right middle frontal gyrus and both right caudate nucleus (17/22 participants; P right supplementary motor area (18/22 participants; P left (non-trained) hemisphere. In combination with our functional and structural findings, this study provides detailed, multifocal evidence for widespread neuroplastic changes in the human brain resulting from motor training. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4302-4312, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Four Weeks of Classical Altitude Training Increases Resting Metabolic Rate in Highly Trained Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amy L; Sharma, Avish P; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Saunders, Philo U; Rice, Anthony J; Thompson, Kevin G

    2017-02-01

    High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether 4 weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runners. Ten highly trained athletes were recruited for 4 weeks of endurance training undertaking identical programs at either 2200m in Flagstaff, Arizona (ALT, n = 5) or 600m in Canberra, Australia (CON, n = 5). RMR, anthropometry, energy intake, and hemoglobin mass (Hb mass ) were assessed pre- and posttraining. Weekly run distance during the training block was: ALT 96.8 ± 18.3km; CON 103.1 ± 5.6km. A significant interaction for Time*Group was observed for absolute (kJ.day -1 ) (F-statistic, p-value: F (1,8) =13.890, p = .01) and relative RMR (F (1,8) =653.453, p = .003) POST-training. No significant changes in anthropometry were observed in either group. Energy intake was unchanged (mean ± SD of difference, ALT: 195 ± 3921kJ, p = .25; CON: 836 ± 7535kJ, p = .75). A significant main effect for time was demonstrated for total Hb mass (g) (F (1,8) =13.380, p = .01), but no significant interactions were observed for either variable [Total Hb mass (g): F (1,8) =1.706, p = .23; Relative Hb mass (g.kg -1 ): F (1,8) =0.609, p = .46]. These novel findings have important practical application to endurance athletes routinely training at moderate altitude, and those seeking to optimize energy management without compromising training adaptation. Altitude exposure may increase RMR and enhance training adaptation,. During training camps at moderate altitude, an increased energy intake is likely required to support an increased RMR and provide sufficient energy for training and performance.

  18. The benefits of endurance training in cardiomyocyte function in hypertensive rats are reversed within four weeks of detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, Miguel Araujo; Quintão-Júnior, Judson Fonseca; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Lavorato, Victor Neiva; Drummond, Filipe Rios; da Cunha, Daise Nunes Queiroz; Amadeu, Marco Aurélio; Felix, Leonardo Bonato; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Cruz, Jader Santos; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Mill, José Geraldo; Natali, Antonio José

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of low-intensity endurance training and detraining on the mechanical and molecular properties of cardiomyocytes from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs and normotensive control Wistar rats at 16-weeks of age were randomly divided into eight groups of eight animals: NC8 and HC8 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 8weeks); NT8 and HT8 (normotensive and hypertensive trained at 50-60% of maximal exercise capacity for 8weeks); NC12 and HC12 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 12weeks); NDT and HDT (normotensive and hypertensive trained for 8weeks and detrained for 4weeks). The total exercise time until fatigue (TTF) was determined by a maximal exercise capacity test. Resting heart rate (RHR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were measured. After the treatments, animals were killed by cervical dislocation and left ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dispersion. Isolated cells were used to determine intracellular global Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transient and cardiomyocyte contractility (1Hz; ~25°C). [Ca(2+)]i regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot, and the markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). Exercise training augmented the TTF (NC8, 11.4±1.5min vs. NT8, 22.5±1.4min; HC8, 11.7±1.4min vs. HT8, 24.5±1.3min; Pendurance training induces positive benefits to left ventricular myocyte mechanical and molecular properties, which are reversed within 4weeks of detraining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Nystrom, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-08-25

    A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6) years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA) at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8) kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1) kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4) kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018). DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9) kg (p = 0.01). After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0) kg (p = 0.01) while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5) kg (p = 0.88). One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

  20. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernersson Åsa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Methods Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6 years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. Results During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8 kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1 kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4 kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018. DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9 kg (p = 0.01. After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0 kg (p = 0.01 while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5 kg (p = 0.88. Conclusion One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

  1. Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-29

    Nanoparticles are near-atomic scale structures between 1 and 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally created and are used in research and development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study, presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and uncertainties associated with the use of unbound engineered nanoscale particles (UNP) in a laboratory environment.

  2. Ciprofibrate, clofibric acid and respective glycinate derivatives. Effects of a four-week treatment on male lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Karge, Elke; Deufel, Thomas; Oelschlägers, Herbert; Fleck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Fibrates are widely prescribed in hyperlpidemic patients to prevent atherosclerosis. Their therapeutic use, however, can be associated with adverse effects like gastrointestinal disorders, myalgia, myositis and hepatotoxicity. In rodents large doses can even cause hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, interactions with the biotransformation of other compounds at the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system have been observed. Thus, the discovery of new substances or derivatives with less side effects is of great interest. In the present study the influence of a four-week daily oral administration of 2 mg/kg body weight ciprofibrate (CAS 52214-84-3) or of 100 mg/kg body weight clofibric acid (CAS 882-09-7) was compared to that of the respective doses of their newly synthesized glycine conjugates in adult male lean and obese Zucker rats. Although obese rats displayed distinctly higher serum lipid concentrations, after fibrate treatment values were significantly lowered in lean animals only. Livers of obese rats were significantly enlarged, histologically showing a fine-droplet like fatty degeneration and an increase in glycogen content, but no signs of inflammation. After fibrate administration histologically a hypertrophy, an eosinophilia, a reduced glycogen content and also hepatocyteapoptosis were observed. Livers of obese rats displayed higher CYP1A1 andCYP2E1 expression, but lower immunostaining for CYP2B1 and CYP3A2. No differences between the two groups of rats were seen with respect to CYP4A1 expression. Due to fibrate treatment especially CYP2E1 and CYP4A1, but also CYP1A1, 2B1 and 3A2 were induced. Resulting CYP mediated monooxygenase activities were also elevated in most cases. In general, effects of clofibric acid and clofibric acid glycinate (CAS 4896-55-3) were less distinct than those of ciprofibrate and its glycinate (CAS 640772-36-7). With no parameterinvestigated major differences were seen between the parent fibrates and their glycine conjugates. Thus, the

  3. Study of industry safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Pil Su

    1987-06-01

    This book deals with general remarks, industrial accidents, statistics of industrial accidents, unsafe actions, making machinery and facilities safe, safe activities, having working environment safe, survey of industrial accidents and analysis of causes, system of safety management and operations, safety management planning, safety education, human engineering such as human-machines system, system safety, and costs of disaster losses. It lastly adds individual protective equipment and working clothes including protect equipment for eyes, face, hands, arms and feet.

  4. Study on the KALIMER safety approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Han, Do Hee; Kim, Young Cheol.

    1997-01-01

    This study describes KALIMER's safety approach, how to establish the safety criteria and temperature limit, how to define safety evaluation events, and some safety research and development needs items. It is recommended that the KALIMER's approach to safety use seven levels of safety design and a defense-in-depth design approach with particular emphasis on inherent passive features. In order to establish as set DBEs for KALIMER safety evaluation, the procedure is explained how to define safety evaluation events. Final selection is to be determined later with the final establishment of design concepts. On the basis of preliminary studies and evaluation of the plant safety related areas, the KALIMER and PRISM have following three main difference that may require special research and development for KALIMER. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  6. The effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ketabdar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players. Materials & Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Twenty female basketball players, with the mean age of 24.65 ± 4.81 years, height of 166.97 ± 4.12 cm, weight of 59.15 ± 5.23 kg and body mass index of 21.5 ± 1.23 kg/m2, were divided into two groups, including intervention (exercise + supplement and control groups. Two days before and after the intervention, the subjects performed Wingate test (to estimate the average aerobic power and Bruce test (to estimate VO2max.The subjects attended basketball training two sessions per week; Intervention group performed high-intensity interval training in addition to the basketball training in every session. The dose of beta-alanine supplementation was 2.4, 3.6, 4.8 g per day. After four weeks, creatine kinase and lactate levels and performance tests were reevaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21, with a significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation resulted in delay in the fatigue threshold, stabilization of PH and hydrogen ions balance, increased aerobic-anaerobic capacity and exercise performance in female basketball players.

  7. Fusion reactor safety studies, FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, J.B. Jr.

    1978-04-01

    This report reviews the technical progress in the fusion reactor safety studies performed during FY 1977 in the Fusion Power Program at the Argonne National Laboratory. The subjects reported on include safety considerations of the vacuum vessel and first-wall design for the ANL/EPR, the thermal responses of a tokamak reactor first wall, the vacuum wall electrical resistive requirements in relationship to magnet safety, and a major effort is reported on considerations and experiments on air detritiation

  8. Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun [Hallym University, Kangwon (Korea); Lee, Cherl Ho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jung Hee [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to beefs (0-5 kGy) and porks (0-30 kGy) for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity and four-week oral toxicity. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. In the study of rat hepatocarcinogenesis, the consumption of gamma irradiated beef and pork not only does not affect the formation of lipid peroxide and membrane stability but also has a possibility to inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis. Also, the consumption of {gamma} - irradiated beef and pork does not affect antioxidative defense system. In the study of the biological safety of korean red pepper, no difference was found on microbial growth between pepper extract alone or irradiated pepper extract. In the preservation study of korean traditional rice-cake(garedok), irradiation dose below 10kGy had no influence on typical sensory characteristics. The shelf-life in rice-cakes with different conditions was the longest on 10kGy treatment than 5kGy. In investigation of the consumer attitude toward irradiated foods, the main reason for the concern about irradiated foods is that compounds in the products formed by irradiation. Therefore, regulatory authorities must be encouraged to permit the sale of irradiated items when wholesomeness is established. (author). 94 refs.,31 figs., 62 tabs.

  9. Probabilistic studies for a safety assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.S.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The adequate supply of energy is always a matter of concern for any country. Nuclear power has played, and will continue to play an important role in supplying this energy. However, safety in nuclear power production is a fundamental prerequisite in fulfilling this role. This paper outlines a program to ensure safe operation of a nuclear power plant utilizing the Probabilistic Safety Studies

  10. To dimension safety valves. Probabilist study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Robert; Couvreur, Denis

    1982-01-01

    The gauge of safety valves of a steam pressure apparatus is usually determined according to an operating situation envelope which it is admitted covers all that can happen in reality. For the safety of the dryer-superheaters of turbines in nuclear power stations, Electricite de France and Alsthom-Atlantique made a reliability study; its method is exposed and the results are discussed. Such a study is heavy going and complex, but in return it permits a better quantitative understanding of the various dimension and operating parameters of an installation which condition its safety. It is therefore a source of progress [fr

  11. Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study 52827

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-17

    This course, Flammable Gas Safety Self-Study (COURSE 52827), presents an overview of the hazards and controls associated with commonly used, compressed flammable gases at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  12. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  13. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates

  14. Criticality safety studies at VTT Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roine, T.; Anttila, M.

    1995-01-01

    At VTT Energy a compact reactor physics calculation system is applied in many kind of problems. Generation of group constants for static and dynamic core calculations, flux and dose rate calculations as well as criticality safety studies are performed basically with the same codes. In the presentation a short overview of the wide variety of criticality safety problems analyzed at VTT Energy is given. The calculation system with some illustrative examples is also described. (12 refs., 1 tab.)

  15. Impact of Four Weeks of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Muscular Strength, Body Composition, and Anabolic Hormones in Resistance-Trained Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipke, Vince C; Allman, Brittany R; Kinsey, Amber W; Moffatt, Robert J; Hickner, Robert C; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Although multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) have increased in popularity because of their array of ergogenic ingredients, their efficacy and safety remain in question. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of supplementation with T+ (SUP; Onnit Labs, Austin, TX, USA), an MIPS containing long jack root, beta-alanine, and branched-chain amino acids, and other proprietary blends, on strength, body composition, and hormones in young resistance-trained men. Subjects were randomized to consume either T+ (SUP; n = 14; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 18.3 ± 4.7%) or an isocaloric placebo (PL; n = 13; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 21.5 ± 6.2%) for 4 weeks. Both groups underwent a progressive, 4-week high-intensity resistance training protocol. Before and after the training protocol, mood state, body composition, blood hormones (also collected at midpoint), and maximal strength were measured. SUP had significantly greater increases in bench press (SUP, 102 ± 16 kg to 108 ± 16 kg vs. PL, 96 ± 22 kg to 101 ± 22 kg; p < 0.001) and total weight lifted (SUP, 379 ± 59 kg to 413 ± 60 kg vs. PL, 376 ± 70 kg to 400 ± 75 kg; p < 0.001) compared with PL. Additionally, deadlift strength relative to total body mass (calculated as weight lifted/body mass; kg:kg) (2.08 ± 0.18 to 2.23 ± 0.16; p = 0.036) and lean mass (2.55 ± 0.19 to 2.72 ± 0.16; p = 0.021) increased significantly in SUP but not PL (2.02 ± 0.30 to 2.15 ± 0.36 and 2.56 ± 0.31 to 2.70 ± 0.36, respectively). No other significant differences were detected between groups for the remaining variables. Supplementing with SUP enhanced resistance training adaptations independent of hormonal status, and thus SUP use may warrant inclusion into peri-workout nutrition regimens. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01971723).

  16. The German reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The most important results of the German risk study of a nuclear power plant equipped with a pressurized water reactor were published in August 1979. The main volume of the study with the approach used and the results elaborated has been available for reference since late 1979. Eight technical volumes contain detailed descriptions and documentations of the investigations carried out. The reference facility used as a basis for the technical plant studies was unit B of the Biblis Nuclear Power Station, a KWU PWR of 3750 MW thermal power. This contribution provides more detailed explanations of the methods and the results of the risk study illustrated by examples. The description refers to accident categories and categories of radioactivity releases, probabilities of specific sequences of accident events, and the damage associated with core meltdown accidents as a function of various types of failure. For purposes of evaluation and application of the results the limits in the basic assumptions of the study are referred to. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Study on Fusion Safety Infrastructure using ISAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myungsuk; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Hyoungchan

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of nuclear facilities have checked and managed safety throughout the entire process from design, construction, operation and decommissioning. Also, the same meaning as the regulatory requirements and design requirements, it will be important indicators for detailed design of K-DEMO. K-DEMO has many uncertainties because it is in conceptual design phase. Also, there is no reference material because demonstration scale fusion power plants were not operated yet in overseas. So, hazard that threaten the integrity of K-DEMO have to be defined preferentially to define regulatory or design requirements. This study proposed method that educe regulatory or design requirements and introduce web-based cloud infrastructure to perform renewal and sharing of information related with safety that is required in the study rapidly as a part of the R and D program funded by National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI). We have been performing QSR and PIRT in accordance with development of fusion DEMO plant, and preparing OPT, PSA and DPA for regulation requirements. This study introduces our recent research activities about ISAM for fusion and CCI built for expert and extant safety related information. Unlike fission, nuclear fusion's safety goal is non-evacuation of the public during an accident. To satisfy this goal not only various safety issues should be analyzed, but safety objectives, regulatory requirements, and design variables should also be established in detailed design phase. The web-based cloud infrastructure proposed in this paper will be able to offer input data of future studies and, it is expected to contribute on general and technical safety principles for national fusion power plant technology plan

  18. The German nuclear power plant safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    With this study a new approach has been chosen, taking nuclear power plants as an example to assess and to describe the risks arising from the use of modern technology, including those hazards emanating from the rather hypothetical possibility of occurrence of very serious accidents. Following the definition of basic concepts and methods to be applied in risk assessment studied, as well as a brief account of the design and operating mode of nuclear power plants with PWRs', accidents and failures to be considered in a safety study are described. Using the course-of-event and fault tree analysis, the probability of fission product release as a consequence of failures in safety systems or of core meltdown is evaluated. Subsequently, the theoretical model for assessment of reactor accident consequences is presented, discussing such aspects as the dispersion of radioactivity in the atmosphere, the radiation dose model, safety and countermeasures, the model for the evaluation of health hazards as well as methods and calculations for estimating the reliability of risk assessments together with the remaining uncertainties. In an appendix to this study, the analyses presented in the study are discussed in the light of the TMI-2 event. This safety study showing the possibilities of detecting, keeping in check and minimizing harmful effects, can be regarded as a contribution to a better understanding of our modern, highly industrialised society, and eventually to an improvement of the quality of life. (GL) 891 GL/GL 892 MB [de

  19. Project safety studies - nuclear waste management (PSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The project 'Safety Studies-Nuclear Waste Management' (PSE) is a research project performed by order of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology, the general purpose of which is to deepen and ensure the understanding of the safety aspects of the nuclear waste management and to prepare a risk analysis which will have to be established in the future. Owing to this the project is part of a series of projects which serve the further development of the concept of nuclear waste management and its safety, and which are set up in such a way as to accompany the realization of that concept. This report contains the results of the first stage of the project from 1978 to mid-1981. (orig./RW) [de

  20. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  1. Bus safety study : a report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Section 20021(b) of the Moving Ahead for Progress for the 21st Century (MAP-21) legislation requires the Secretary of Transportation : to submit a report of the results of a Bus Safety Study to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affai...

  2. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanchana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  3. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  4. Safety in the ARIES Tokamak Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.; Wong, C.P.-C.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.

    1989-01-01

    Safety is one of the primary goals of the ARIES Tokamak Design Study. Public safety goals are the achievement passive safety which is demonstrable in tests that could precede operation and the assurance that releases from accidents be passively limited such that no evacuation plan in necessary. Strategies for safety of the plant investment are factory fabrication, short construction times and a design such that no off-normal operational transient results in damage which could not be repaired in routine maintenance. ARIES-I, the first of three 'visions' of potential tokamak reactors, will use He at 5 MPa as a blanket coolant and SiC/composite ceramic for the first wall and blanket materials. Both the coolant and the structural material were chosen for their low activation, both in the short term after accidents and for long term waste management. The breeder, Li 4 SiO 4 , was also chosen for low activation. Contemporary plasma physics and aggressive technology are used in ARIES-I, which results in very high toroidal fields (24 T maximum at the coil). The stored TF energy will be about 130 GJ. A central concern is the safe discharge of this stored energy under electrical fault conditions and prevention of a failure in the magnet set from propagating into systems containing radioactive inventories. The TF coil system consists of 16 coils, each containing two separate windings powered by two independent power supplies. Arcs and shorts between the two power supply systems and across individual windings have been modeled. In addition, delay or failure in circuit breaker opening has been modeled. The safety impacts of LOCA, LOFA and disruptive events have also been evaluated. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Pressure Safety: Advanced Self-Study 30120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Pressure Safety Advance Self-Study (Course 30120) consists of an introduction, five modules, and a quiz. To receive credit in UTrain for completing this course, you must score 80% or better on the 15-question quiz (check UTrain). Directions for initiating the quiz are appended to the end of this training manual. This course contains several links to LANL websites. UTrain might not support active links, so please copy links into the address line in your browser.

  6. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suhana Samat; Francis Kanyan Enchang; Fuzina Nor Hussein; Wan Iryani Wan Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using h...

  7. COLD-SAT feasibility study safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.

  8. Measuring Safety Culture on Ships Using Safety Climate: A Study among Indian Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Bhattacharya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace safety continues to be an area of concern in the maritime industry due to the international nature of the operations. The effectiveness of extensive legislation to manage shipboard safety remains in doubt. The focus must therefore shift towards the human element - seafarers and their perceptions of safety. The study aims to understand the alignment that exists between safety culture and safety climate on board ships as perceived by seafarers. The underlying factors of safety climate were identified using factor analysis which isolated seven factors - Support on Safety, Organizational Support, Resource Availability, Work Environment, Job Demands, ‘Just’ Culture, and Safety Compliance. The perception of safety level of seafarers was found to be low indicating the existence of misalignments between safety culture values and the actual safety climate. The study also reveals that the safety perceptions of officers employed directly by ship owners and those by managers do not differ significantly, nor do they differ between senior and junior officers. A shift in perspective towards how seafarers themselves feel towards safety might provide more effective solutions – instead of relying on regulations - and indeed aid in reducing incidents on board. This paper details practical suggestions on how to identify the factors that contribute towards a better safety climate on board ships.

  9. 77 FR 27776 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study... standard grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health...

  10. 76 FR 18220 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study... standard grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health...

  11. 75 FR 26266 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In...) Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and... cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the...

  12. Rehabilitation Interventions for Upper Limb Function in the First Four Weeks Following Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattchow, Kimberley A; McDonnell, Michelle N; Hillier, Susan L

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the therapeutic interventions reported in the research literature and synthesize their effectiveness in improving upper limb (UL) function in the first 4 weeks poststroke. Electronic databases and trial registries were searched from inception until June 2016, in addition to searching systematic reviews by hand. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and interventional studies with pre/posttest design were included for adults within 4 weeks of any type of stroke with UL impairment. Participants all received an intervention of any physiotherapeutic or occupational therapeutic technique designed to address impairment or activity of the affected UL, which could be compared with usual care, sham, or another technique. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility of full texts, and methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A total of 104 trials (83 RCTs, 21 nonrandomized studies) were included (N=5225 participants). Meta-analyses of RCTs only (20 comparisons) and narrative syntheses were completed. Key findings included significant positive effects for modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) (standardized mean difference [SMD]=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], .21-1.97) and task-specific training (SMD=.37; 95% CI, .05-.68). Evidence was found to support supplementary use of biofeedback and electrical stimulation. Use of Bobath therapy was not supported. Use of mCIMT and task-specific training was supported, as was supplementary use of biofeedback and electrical simulation, within the acute phase poststroke. Further high-quality studies into the initial 4 weeks poststroke are needed to determine therapies for targeted functional UL outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  14. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader; Lee, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed

  15. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed.

  16. Safety studies concerning nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, Jean; Pelce, Jacques

    1980-01-01

    The safety of nuclear installations poses different technical problems, whether concerning pressurized water reactors or fast reactors. But investigating methods are closely related and concern, on the one hand, the behavior of shields placed between fuel and outside and, on the other, analysis of accidents. The article is therefore in two parts based on the same plan. Concerning light water reactors, the programme of studies undertaken in France accounts for the research carried out in countries where collaboration agreements exist. Concerning fast reactors, France has the initiative of their studies owing to her technical advance, which explains the great importance of the programmes under way [fr

  17. Four Weeks in a Single-Leg Weight-Bearing Hip Spica Cast is Sufficient Treatment for Isolated Femoral Shaft Fractures in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sami; Sobh, Ali; Legakis, Julie E; Thomas, Ronald; Buhler, Kelsey; Jones, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Hip spica casting regimens for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in a pediatric population aged 1 to 3 years vary. Patient charts were reviewed to determine if there are any clinical differences between 3 and 4 weeks in an ambulatory single-leg hip spica (SLHS) cast versus 6 to 8 weeks in a standard double-leg, non-weight-bearing hip spica cast. The medical records of 109 patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with a hip spica casting from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011 were examined. After exclusions, 94 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patient records were assessed, noting age, weight, type of cast, time in cast, and complications. All casts were applied by senior pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at a single institution. Two groups were evaluated: 59 patients in the SLHS group and 35 in the double-leg hip spica group. The 2 groups were demographically similar with an average age of 2 years, 70.2% of patients were male, 45.7% were black, and 35.1% were white. The average time to cast removal was 4.1 weeks for the single-leg group and 5.3 weeks for the double-leg group (Pshaft fractures in patients less than 4 years old can be treated in a weight-bearing SLHS casts for approximately 4 weeks with fewer alignment and skin complications. Level III-clinical retrospective comparative study.

  18. Four weeks' inhalation exposure of Long Evans rats to 4-tert-butyltoluene: Effect on evoked potentials, behaviour and brain neurochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Ladefoged, Ole; Østergaard, Grete

    2000-01-01

    Long-lasting central nervous system (CNS) neurotoxicity of 4-tert-butyltoluene (TBT) has been investigated using electrophysiology, behaviour, and neurochemistry in Long Evans rats exposed by inhalation to 0, 20, or 40 p.p.m. TBT 6 hr/day, 7 days/week for 4 weeks. Flash evoked potentials...... and somatosensory evoked potentials were not affected by TBT In Auditory Brain Stem Response there was no shift in hearing threshold, but the amplitude of the first wave was increased in both exposed groups at high stimulus levels. Three to four months after the end of exposure, behavioural studies in Morris water...... maze and eight-arm maze failed to demonstrate any TBT induced effects. Exposure was followed by a 5 months exposure-free period prior to gross regional and subcellular (synaptosomal) neurochemical investigations of the brain. TBT reduced the NA concentration in whole brain minus cerebellum...

  19. Four-week dietary supplementation with 10- and/or 15-fold basal choline caused decreased body weight in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-10-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein packaging and secretion. Recently, choline supplementation has been used by athletes and the public for weight loss. However, the potential toxicological impact of choline dietary supplementation requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets containing basal choline levels (control) or 5-, 10-, or 15-fold (5×, 10×, or 15×) basal diet concentration. In groups fed choline-supplemented diets, there were no toxicologically relevant findings in clinical observations, food intake, clinical chemistry, liver weights, or liver histopathology. However, decreased mean body weights (8.5-10.2%) and body weight gains (24-31%) were noted for the 10× choline-supplemented (females only) and 15× choline-supplemented (both sexes) groups relative to the control groups from day 3 onward. These body weight effects were not related to a persistent reduction in average food intake. Serum cholesterol was increased in the 15× choline-supplemented male rats relative to the controls, an expected effect of choline supplementation; however, there were no changes in the serum cholesterol of female rats. Serum choline concentrations were increased in female rats relative to the male rats across all treatment groups. The maximum tolerated dose for male and female rats were the 15× and 10× choline supplements, respectively, based on decreased mean body weight and body weight gains. This study supported the conclusions of a clinical trial that showed a high choline diet can decrease body weight in humans.

  20. Adaptations of lumbar biomechanics after four weeks of running training with minimalist footwear and technique guidance: Implications for running-related lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Szu-Ping; Bailey, Joshua P; Smith, Jo Armour; Barton, Stephanie; Brown, David; Joyce, Talia

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lumbar kinematic and paraspinal muscle activation before, during, and after a 4-week minimalist running training. Prospective cohort study. University research laboratory. Seventeen habitually shod recreational runners who run 10-50 km per week. During stance phases of running, sagittal lumbar kinematics was recorded using an electrogoniometer, and activities of the lumbar paraspinal muscles were assessed by electromyography. Runners were asked to run at a prescribed speed (3.1 m/s) and a self-selected speed. For the 3.1 m/s running speed, significant differences were found in the calculated mean lumbar posture (p = 0.001) during the stance phase, including a more extended lumbar posture after minimalist running training. A significant reduction in the contralateral lumbar paraspinal muscle activation was also observed (p = 0.039). For the preferred running speed, similar findings of a more extended lumbar posture (p = 0.002) and a reduction in contralateral lumbar paraspinal muscle activation (p = 0.047) were observed. A 4-week minimalist running training program produced significant changes in lumbar biomechanics during running. Specifically, runners adopted a more extended lumbar posture and reduced lumbar paraspinal muscle activation. These findings may have clinical implications for treating individuals with running-related lower back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Four Weeks of Supplementation With Isolated Soy Protein Attenuates Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Enhances Muscle Recovery in Well Trained Athletes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Dhawan, Mrinal; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2016-09-01

    The effects of consumption of isolated soy protein (ISP) for a chronic period (4 weeks) on exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in athletic population have never been explored. To examine the effects of ISP on muscle damage indices elicited via a bout of damaging exercise. Forty males (20 boxers, 20 cyclists) aged 18 - 28 years were randomly assigned to two groups (ISP and Placebo) (n = 20). All participants who engaged themselves in specific, regular training of 30 hours a week during the competitive season were included in the study. Participants consumed the supplement and the placebo for 4 weeks. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Pre and post supplementation readings of the criterion variables, highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-cRP), creatine Kinase (CK), myeloperoxidase (MPO), isometric muscle strength, maximum aerobic capacity (VO 2 max), heart rate (HR) and muscle soreness were obtained at baseline (Day 1), at 24 hours (Day 2) and at 48 hours (Day 3) following EIMD. Differences were observed in pre and post supplementation values (P athletic population.

  2. Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Does Not Augment Fitness, Performance, or Body Composition Adaptations in Response to Four Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Young Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Sletten, Nathan; Durrer, Cody; Myette-Côté, Étienne; Candow, D; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-06-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. Creatine (Cr) supplementation may augment responses to HIIT, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of HIIT (three sessions/week) combined with Cr supplementation in recreationally active females. Seventeen females (age = 23 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 23.4 ± 2.4) were randomly assigned to either Cr (Cr; 0.3 g・kg -1 ・d -1 for 5 d followed by 0.1 g・kg -1 ・d -1 for 23 days; n = 9) or placebo (PLA; n = 8). Before and after the intervention, VO 2peak , ventilatory threshold (VT), time-trial performance, lean body mass and fat mass, and insulin sensitivity were assessed. HIIT improved VO 2peak (Cr = +10.2%; PLA = +8.8%), VT (Cr = +12.7%; PLA = +9.9%), and time-trial performance (Cr = -11.5%; PLA = -11.6%) with no differences between groups (time main effects, all p body lean mass (Cr = +0.5%; PLA = -0.9%), or insulin resistance (Cr = +3.9%; PLA = +18.7%). In conclusion, HIIT is an effective way to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, VT, and time-trial performance. The addition of Cr to HIIT did not augment improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, performance or body composition in recreationally active females.

  3. Preliminary Study on the Revision of Nuclear Safety Policy Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H.; Chang, H. S.; Choi, K. S.; Jung, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear safety policy in Korea is currently declared in the Nuclear Safety Charter as the highest tier document and safety principles and directions are announced in the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement. As the circumstances affecting on the nuclear safety policy change, it needs to revise the Statement. This study aims to develop the revised Nuclear Safety Policy Statement to declare that securing safety is a prerequisite to the utilization of nuclear energy, and that all workers in nuclear industry and regulatory body must adhere to the principle of priority to safety. As a result, two different types of revision are being prepared as of August. One is based on the spirit of Nuclear Safety Charter as well as the direction of future-oriented safety policies including the changes in the environment after declaration of the Statement. The other is to declare the fundamental safety objective and safety principles as the top philosophy of national nuclear safety policy by adopting the '10 Safety Principles in IAEA Safety Fundamental' instead of the current Charter. Both versions of revision are subject to further in-depth discussion. However once the revision is finalized and declared, it would be useful to accomplish effectively the organizational responsibilities and to enhance the public confidence in nuclear safety by performing the regulatory activities in a planned and systematic manner and promulgating the government's dedication to priority to safety

  4. Twenty-four-week effects of liraglutide on body composition, adherence to appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondanelli M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mariangela Rondanelli,1 Simone Perna,1 Paolo Astrone,2 Annalisa Grugnetti,2 Sebastiano Bruno Solerte,2 Davide Guido3,4 1Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Section of Human Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Medical and Genomics Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Liraglutide has well-known effects on glucose patterns. However, its several other metabolic properties are still controversial. Given this background, the aims of the present study are to evaluate the effects of 24-week liraglutide treatment on body composition, appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods: A cohort study was carried out on overweight and obese T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c equal to 6% (42 mmol/mol-10% (86 mmol/mol, under a 3-month treatment (at least with maximal dose of metformin as stable regime, by adding liraglutide at doses up to 3 mg/d. Body composition markers were measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was monitored by glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment. Finally, the appetite sensation and plasma lipids were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-eight subjects (male/female: 16/12, mean age: 58.75±9.33 years, body mass index: 34.13±5.46 kg/m2 were evaluated. Accounting for the adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, we noted significant

  5. GROWTH AND PHOTOPROTECTION IN THREE DINOFLAGELLATES (INCLUDING TWO STRAINS OF ALEXANDRIUM TAMARENSE) AND ONE DIATOM EXPOSED TO FOUR WEEKS OF NATURAL AND ENHANCED ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Roy, Suzanne

    2009-02-01

    Long-term growth response to natural solar radiation with enhanced ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure was examined in two species of dinoflagellates [Alexandrium tamarense (M. Lebour) Balech, At, and Heterocapsa triquetra (Ehrenb.) F. Stein, Ht], including two strains of A. tamarense, one from Spain and another from UK, and one diatom species (Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle et Heimdal). We examined whether variable photoprotection (mycosporine-like amino acids [MAAs] and xanthophyll-cycle pigments) affected photosynthetic performance, phytoplankton light absorption, and growth. Growth rate was significantly reduced under enhanced UVB for the UK strain of At and for Ht (both grew very little) as well as for the diatom (that maintained high growth rates), but there was no effect for the Spanish strain of At. MAA concentration was high in the dinoflagellates, but undetectable in the diatom, which instead used the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection. The highest cell concentrations of MAAs and photoprotective pigments were observed in the UK strain of At, along with lowest growth rates and Fv /Fm , indicating high stress levels. In contrast, the Spanish strain showed progressive acclimation to the experimental conditions, with no significant difference in growth between treatments. Increase in total MAAs followed linearly the cumulative UVB of the preceding day, and both total and primary MAAs were maintained at higher constitutive levels in this strain. Acclimation to enhanced UVB in the diatom resulted in an increase in PSII activity and reduction in nonphotochemical quenching, indicating an increased resistance to photoinhibition after a few weeks. All four species showed increased phytoplankton light absorption under enhanced UVB. Large intrastrain differences suggest a need to consider more closely intraspecific variability in UV studies. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Improving safety culture through the health and safety organization: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kent J

    2014-02-01

    International research indicates that internal health and safety organizations (HSO) and health and safety committees (HSC) do not have the intended impact on companies' safety performance. The aim of this case study at an industrial plant was to test whether the HSO can improve company safety culture by creating more and better safety-related interactions both within the HSO and between HSO members and the shop-floor. A quasi-experimental single case study design based on action research with both quantitative and qualitative measures was used. Based on baseline mapping of safety culture and the efficiency of the HSO three developmental processes were started aimed at the HSC, the whole HSO, and the safety representatives, respectively. Results at follow-up indicated a marked improvement in HSO performance, interaction patterns concerning safety, safety culture indicators, and a changed trend in injury rates. These improvements are interpreted as cultural change because an organizational double-loop learning process leading to modification of the basic assumptions could be identified. The study provides evidence that the HSO can improve company safety culture by focusing on safety-related interactions. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council.

  7. Criticality safety (prospect of study in NUCEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi

    1996-01-01

    Experimental studies of criticality safety are under way using STACY and TRACY in NUCEF. Collection of fundamental data on criticality in a solution system is undergoing with STACY to confirm that the likelihood of criticality safety in the system constructed on the assumption of apparatuses in a reprocessing plant is enough large. Whereas some experiments simulating criticality accidents in a reprocessing plant using TRACY were designed to investigate the behaviors of fuel solution and radioactive matters in order to clarify whether it is possible to safely shut them in the facility even if a critical accident occurs. Both STACY and TRACY reached the criticality in 1995. Up to now a series of criticality experiments have been done using STACY with a core tank φ60 cm and the first periodical examination is now under way. On the other hand, we have a plan using TRACY to investigate the behaviors of nuclear heat solution at a criticality accident, and the releasing, transfer and deposition of radioactive materials. After reaching the criticality for the first, the performance verification test has been conducted. The full-scale study using TRACY is planned to begin in the second half of 1996. (M.N.)

  8. Safety Study of Doxicycline in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Teodor Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Doxicycline is a structural isomer who meets the European reference standard (Ph.Eur. III 1997:0272 and respect EU Regulations for M.R.L. The good solubility permits high tissular absorption and distribution after administration in drinking water. The aim was to ascertain the clinical effects and tolerance consecutive to risen doses administration, as a part of safety study for this antibiotic in poultry in the respect of current drug testing methodology. The safety study revealed: good local and general tolerance to therapeutic doses (10 mg x kgb.w.-1 and to x2 dose, diarrhoea in lots which received x3 and x5 the therapeutic dose. Comparatively with the Control lot, haemoleucogram doesn’t suffer evident changes the registered values being between the references limits (exception of leucocitary formula. Also it was found an increased creatinin concentration consecutively to x3 and x5 greater doses administration and marked increasing of ASAT level and limited for ALAT’s, comparatively to control lot in the case of E4 lot, but light to reference values. Macro and microscopy revealed for the liver samples: hepatomegaly, diffuse hepatic degenerescence, nuclear heterochromatinization, vacuolar degenerescence; renal changes in nefrons and renal corpuscles, light splenomegaly, caecal sacs distension and brown-yellowish gaseous content to lots E3 and E4.

  9. Behavioral integrity for safety, priority of safety, psychological safety, and patient safety : a team-level study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroy, H.; Dierynck, B.; Anseel, F.; Simons, T.; Halbesleben, J.R.; McCaughey, D.; Savage, G.T.; Sels, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article clarifies how leader behavioral integrity for safety helps solve follower's double bind between adhering to safety protocols and speaking up about mistakes against protocols. Path modeling of survey data in 54 nursing teams showed that head nurse behavioral integrity for safety

  10. Defining safety culture and the nexus between safety goals and safety culture. 1. An Investigation Study on Practical Points of Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Naoko; Takano, Kenichi; Hirose, Ayako

    2001-01-01

    In a report after the Chernobyl accident, the International Atomic Energy Agency indicated the definition and the importance of safety culture and the ideal organizational state where safety culture pervades. However, the report did not mention practical approaches to enhance safety culture. In Japan, although there had been investigations that clarified the consciousness of employees and the organizational climate in the nuclear power and railway industries, organizational factors that clarified the level of organization safety and practical methods that spread safety culture in an organization had not been studied. The Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry conducted surveys of organizational culture for the construction, chemical, and manufacturing industries. The aim of our study was to clarify the organizational factors that influence safety in an organization expressed in employee safety consciousness, commitment to safety activities, rate of accidents, etc. If these areas were clarified, the level of organization safety might be evaluated, and practical ways could be suggested to enhance the safety culture. Consequently, a series of investigations was conducted to clarify relationships among organizational climate, employee consciousness, safety management and activities, and rate of accidents. The questionnaire surveys were conducted in 1998-1999. The subjects were (a) managers of the safety management sections in the head offices of the construction, chemical, and manufacturing industries; (b) responsible persons in factories of the chemical and manufacturing industries; and (c) general workers in factories of the chemical and manufacturing industries. The number of collected data was (a) managers in the head office: 48 from the construction industry and 58 from the chemical and manufacturing industries, (b) responsible persons in factories: 567, and (c) general workers: from 29 factories. Items in the questionnaires were selected from

  11. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  12. Study on 'Safety qualification of process computers used in safety systems of nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.; Hoermann, E.

    1991-01-01

    The study aims at developing safety standards for hardware and software of computer systems which are increasingly used also for important safety systems in nuclear power plants. The survey of the present state-of-the-art of safety requirements and specifications for safety-relevant systems and, additionally, for process computer systems has been compiled from national and foreign rules. In the Federal Republic of Germany the KTA safety guides and the BMI/BMU safety criteria have to be observed. For the design of future computer-aided systems in nuclear power plants it will be necessary to apply the guidelines in [DIN-880] and [DKE-714] together with [DIN-192]. With the aid of a risk graph the various functions of a system, or of a subsystem, can be evaluated with regard to their significance for safety engineering. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Qualitative analysis in reliability and safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Burdick, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The qualitative evaluation of system logic models is described as it pertains to assessing the reliability and safety characteristics of nuclear systems. Qualitative analysis of system logic models, i.e., models couched in an event (Boolean) algebra, is defined, and the advantages inherent in qualitative analysis are explained. Certain qualitative procedures that were developed as a part of fault-tree analysis are presented for illustration. Five fault-tree analysis computer-programs that contain a qualitative procedure for determining minimal cut sets are surveyed. For each program the minimal cut-set algorithm and limitations on its use are described. The recently developed common-cause analysis for studying the effect of common-causes of failure on system behavior is explained. This qualitative procedure does not require altering the fault tree, but does use minimal cut sets from the fault tree as part of its input. The method is applied using two different computer programs. 25 refs

  14. Acceptable risk in reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.; Shinozuka, M.; Shah, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Acceptable risk is defined in terms of its five basic parameters: the hazard or problem; the probability of occurrence; the consequence; the possible alternative actions; and the value system of the community or the society. The problem of consistency in design at a site and between differing sites is discussed and solutions are suggested. Techniques for consistent deterministic and probabilistic setting limits and design standards are illustrated using data from AEC Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400. The influence of level of consequence is discussed and a general methodology for decision analysis in resource allocation problem is briefly introduced and illustrated. The concept of acceptable risk is put in a quantitative format that can be used by engineers and planners. Bayesian statistical methods are introduced to develop the methodologies

  15. A study on safety climate at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Michio; Yoshiyama, Naohiro

    2001-01-01

    In the current study, we define safety climate as an organizational environment that induces members of the organization to give consideration to safety or take safety actions. It is of utmost importance that people holding managerial positions in an organization have a good understanding of the characteristics of the safety climate of the organization and implement safety promotion activities effectively. In the current research, we studied the rating scales and the characteristics of a safety climate. A survey was conducted, targeting technical engineers who belong to the three power stations of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The questionnaire mainly consisted of questions concerning safety measures taken by individuals and questions concerning safety measures taken by the organization, to which the individuals belong. As a result of a factor analysis of the responses, we extracted five factors, namely, 'confidence in knowledge and skill', attitude of supervisors,' 'safety education in workplace', 'clarity of tasks' and 'safety confirmation/report'. In studying the rating scales of the safety climate, we selected five items from each of the above five factors, and used the total scores of the ratings of the five items as scores of each factor. Then, we examined the correlation between scores of personal factors and scores of organizational environment factors. We treated the scores of safety confirmation/report' and 'confidence in knowledge and skill', which are personal factors, as criterion variables, and the scores of 'attitude of supervisors', 'safety education in workplace' and 'clarity of tasks', which are organizational environment factors, as predictor variables. As a result, we found that levels of 'safety confirmation/report' and 'confidence in knowledge and skill' can be deduced from the scores of 'attitude of supervisors', 'safety education in workplace' and 'clarity of tasks.' Hence, we have decided to use these three organizational environment

  16. Lessons learned from measuring safety culture: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suellen; Chiarella, Mary; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-10-01

    adverse events in maternity care are relatively common but often avoidable. International patient safety strategies advocate measuring safety culture as a strategy to improve patient safety. Evidence suggests it is necessary to fully understand the safety culture of an organisation to make improvements to patient safety. this paper reports a case study examining the safety culture in one maternity service in Australia and considers the benefits of using surveys and interviews to understand safety culture as an approach to identify possible strategies to improve patient safety in this setting. the study took place in one maternity service in two public hospitals in NSW, Australia. Concurrently, both hospitals were undergoing an organisational restructure which was part of a major health reform agenda. The priorities of the reform included improving the quality of care and patient safety; and, creating a more efficient health system by reducing administration inefficiencies and duplication. a descriptive case study using three approaches: the safety culture was identified to warrant improvement across all six safety culture domains. There was reduced infrastructure and capacity to support incident management activities required to improve safety, which was influenced by instability from the organisational restructure. There was a perceived lack of leadership at all levels to drive safety and quality and improving the safety culture was neither a key priority nor was it valued by the organisation. the safety culture was complex as was undertaking this study. We were unable to achieve a desired 60% response rate highlighting the limitations of using safety culture surveys in isolation as a strategy to improve safety culture. Qualitative interviews provided greater insight into the factors influencing the safety culture. The findings of this study provide evidence of the benefits of including qualitative methods with quantitative surveys when examining safety culture

  17. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  18. A feasibility study for Arizona's roadway safety management process using the Highway Safety Manual and SafetyAnalyst : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    To enable implementation of the American Association of State Highway Transportation (AASHTO) Highway Safety Manual using : SaftetyAnalyst (an AASHTOWare software product), the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) studied the data assessment :...

  19. Fusion safety studies in Russia in 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B.N. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kolbasov@nfi.kiae.ru; Guseva, M.I. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Khripunov, B.I. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Martynenko, Yu.V. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimin, A.M. [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Bauman ul. 5, 107005 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stankevich, V.G. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Svechnikov, N.Yu. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartenev, S.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskij Prospect 28, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-15

    The paper presents a review of the fusion safety studies performed in Russia in 2003. Among the findings is the effect of tungsten sputtering by subthreshold energy ions at high temperature, which tends to decrease with irradiation dose. The size distribution of W-erosion products (spherical droplets or flakes) depends on the positioning of the collector. Studies of Be + D(H) films revealed that D/Be ratio in co-deposited Be-D films decreases from 0.15 at 375 K to 0.05 at 575 K. Hydrogen concentration in Be + C films, exposed to acetylene ion flux at 670 K, decreased from 20-24 to 6 at.% with increase in irradiation dose from 10{sup 23} to 10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The analysis of spectroscopic characteristics of C-D films deposited inside the T-10 tokamak vacuum chamber provides qualitative insight into the physical and chemical reasons behind the preferential retention of the heavier hydrogen isotope in the tokamak erosion films. An extraction scheme for radiochemical reprocessing of activated V-Cr-Ti alloy after a fusion reactor decommissioning was developed and checked experimentally. It takes 48 extraction steps to recover V, Cr and Ti down to an effective dose rate <12.5 {mu}Sv/h, permitting the refabrication of these metals without any biological shielding from ionizing radiation.

  20. The Citizenship Safety Project: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, K; Barlow, J

    2006-02-01

    The Government White Paper Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation (1999) provides a clear indication that accidents are a serious public health problem and have been targeted by the Department of Health as a key area for prevention over the next 10 years. School-based injury prevention programmes have been identified as one of the key settings for the implementation of the White Paper's heath promotion strategies. The Citizen Safety Project (CSP) is a peer-delivered injury prevention programme for Year 10 students (14-15 years) and Year 2 pupils (6-7 years). This paper summarizes the findings of a pilot study that assessed the feasibility of implementing the CSP in schools and of conducting a larger study. Working as part of their Personal Social Health Education lessons, 11 pairs (n = 22) of Year 10 students developed a project to take one accident prevention theme of their choice into a primary school to teach small groups of five or six Year 2 pupils (n = 55). A formative evaluation was conducted, based on interviews with Year 2 and Year 10 teachers (n = 2), and the diaries of Year 10 students. Knowledge of accident prevention and risk awareness was measured in Year 2 pupils using the Draw and Write technique, and impact on Year 10 students was measured using self-esteem and locus of control inventories. Using both statistical and thematic analysis the study concludes that the CSP is well accepted, improves knowledge in Year 2 pupils and boosts confidence in Year 10 students, while concurrently achieving key stage attainment targets. Implications of the study are discussed in terms of future research, as are recommendations with regard to modifications to the project.

  1. 78 FR 64504 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or..., Number 177, Pages 56235-56236. Contact Person for More Information: Price Connor, Ph.D., NIOSH Health...

  2. 75 FR 5333 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) Place: Embassy Suites Hotel, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone (703) 684-5900... matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to consider safety and...

  3. 77 FR 75633 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... (Closed). 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m., February 22, 2013 (Closed). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road... conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to consider safety and occupational health...

  4. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year's findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to γ radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H 2 . Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs

  5. Age and workers' perceptions of workplace safety: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Salminen, Simo

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between age and (i) safety perception; (ii) job satisfaction; (iii) compliance with safety management policies; and (iv) accident frequency. Participants were Ghanaian industrial workers (N=320) categorized into 4 age groups: 19-29 years; 30-39 years; 40-50 years; and 51 years and above. Workplace safety perception was assessed with Hayes, Perander, Smecko, and Trask's (1998) 50-item Work Safety Scale (WSS): a scale that effectively captures the dimensions identified by safety experts to influence perceptions of workplace safety. ANOVA was used to test for differences in the mean scores of the 4 groups. Post Hoc analysis revealed differences of statistical significance between the 2 younger cohorts and the 2 older cohorts. The results indicated a positive association between age and safety perception. Older workers had the best perceptions on safety, indicated the highest level of job satisfaction, were the most compliant with safety procedures, and recorded the lowest accident involvement rate. From a practical perspective, understanding age-related perceptions of workplace safety would benefit management's decisions regarding workers' adaptability, general work effectiveness, accident frequency, implementation of safety management policies, and handling of age-related accident characteristics.

  6. A study of passive safety conditions for fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akinao

    1991-01-01

    A study has been made for passive safety conditions of fast reactor cores. Objective of the study is to develop a concept of a core with passive safety as well as a simple safety philosophy. A simple safety philosophy, which is wore easy to explain to the public, is needed to enhance the public acceptance for nuclear reactors. The present paper describes a conceptual plan of the study including the definition of the problem a method of approach and identification of tasks to be solved

  7. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Hyoung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  8. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  9. Safety and economic study of special trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, W.V.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is being conducted of the safety and economics of special (35 mph and less) and regular trains for shipment of spent fuels. The approach, pertinent considerations, and results to date are discussed. The preliminary conclusion is that special train requirements have potential for only a small reduction in the accident likelihood, while increasing the cost

  10. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  11. 78 FR 24751 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... 14, 2013 (Closed) Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone... business and for the study section to consider safety and occupational health-related grant applications...

  12. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Directeur(s) : Veena Jha. Maison(s) d'édition : Edward Elgar, IDRC. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 184542512X. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 155250185X.

  13. Study on some safety-related aspects of tyre use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Maas, S.; Rodarius, C.; Akkermans, L.

    2014-01-01

    The tyre is a key component that affects road safety. The European commission has posted a tender aimed to study what measures on a European level can be taken in relation to the use of tyres to improve road safety. The results of this study, supported by a cost benefit analyses and carried out by

  14. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  15. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  16. Studying the Safety Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Using Simulation-Based Surrogate Safety Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mario Morando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicle (AV technology has advanced rapidly in recent years with some automated features already available in vehicles on the market. AVs are expected to reduce traffic crashes as the majority of crashes are related to driver errors, fatigue, alcohol, or drugs. However, very little research has been conducted to estimate the safety impact of AVs. This paper aims to investigate the safety impacts of AVs using a simulation-based surrogate safety measure approach. To this end, safety impacts are explored through the number of conflicts extracted from the VISSIM traffic microsimulator using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM. Behaviours of human-driven vehicles (HVs and AVs (level 4 automation are modelled within the VISSIM’s car-following model. The safety investigation is conducted for two case studies, that is, a signalised intersection and a roundabout, under various AV penetration rates. Results suggest that AVs improve safety significantly with high penetration rates, even when they travel with shorter headways to improve road capacity and reduce delay. For the signalised intersection, AVs reduce the number of conflicts by 20% to 65% with the AV penetration rates of between 50% and 100% (statistically significant at p<0.05. For the roundabout, the number of conflicts is reduced by 29% to 64% with the 100% AV penetration rate (statistically significant at p<0.05.

  17. Safety study of PCC 2140 and ALILOG 21 used as part of safety measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriaux, Pierre; Adnot, Serge; Rayrolles, Catherine.

    1978-03-01

    The PCC 2140 and ALILOG 21 equipment may be used at C.E.A. or E.D.F., as part of safety measurement systems. In a study of a similar, but earlier equipment, it was noticed that certain types of failures caused the system to switch to the least sensitive measurement range, which was detrimental to safety. This report analyses failure modes leading to unsafe failures and evaluates the risks ran into taking in account tests during use [fr

  18. A study on safety climate at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Hirokazu [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Michio; Yoshiyama, Naohiro [Japan Institute for Group Dynamics, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In the current study, we define safety climate as an organizational environment that induces members of the organization to give consideration to safety or take safety actions. It is of utmost importance that people holding managerial positions in an organization have a good understanding of the characteristics of the safety climate of the organization and implement safety promotion activities effectively. In the current research, we studied the rating scales and the characteristics of a safety climate. A survey was conducted, targeting technical engineers who belong to the three power stations of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The questionnaire mainly consisted of questions concerning safety measures taken by individuals and questions concerning safety measures taken by the organization, to which the individuals belong. As a result of a factor analysis of the responses, we extracted five factors, namely, 'confidence in knowledge and skill', attitude of supervisors,' 'safety education in workplace', 'clarity of tasks' and 'safety confirmation/report'. In studying the rating scales of the safety climate, we selected five items from each of the above five factors, and used the total scores of the ratings of the five items as scores of each factor. Then, we examined the correlation between scores of personal factors and scores of organizational environment factors. We treated the scores of safety confirmation/report' and 'confidence in knowledge and skill', which are personal factors, as criterion variables, and the scores of 'attitude of supervisors', 'safety education in workplace' and 'clarity of tasks', which are organizational environment factors, as predictor variables. As a result, we found that levels of 'safety confirmation/report' and 'confidence in knowledge and skill' can be deduced from the scores of 'attitude of supervisors', 'safety

  19. Advances made in French safety studies on pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelce, J.

    1979-01-01

    The programme of French safety studies on reactors is supposed to be known in its main outlines. A few recent results, obtained in different fields are presented. They concern the safety margins evaluation, the contamination transfer and the effect of external aggressions

  20. Safety Culture Enhancement Project. Final Report. A Field Study on Approaches to Enhancement of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Andrew; Hayward, Brent

    2006-08-01

    This report documents a study with the objective of enhancing safety culture in the Swedish nuclear power industry. A primary objective of this study was to ensure that the latest thinking on human factors principles was being recognised and applied by nuclear power operators as a means of ensuring optimal safety performance. The initial phase of the project was conducted as a pilot study, involving the senior management group at one Swedish nuclear power-producing site. The pilot study enabled the project methodology to be validated after which it was repeated at other Swedish nuclear power industry sites, providing a broad-ranging analysis of opportunities across the industry to enhance safety culture. The introduction to this report contains an overview of safety culture, explains the background to the project and sets out the project rationale and objectives. The methodology used for understanding and analysing the important safety culture issues at each nuclear power site is then described. This section begins with a summary of the processes used in the information gathering and data analysis stage. The six components of the Management Workshops conducted at each site are then described. These workshops used a series of presentations, interactive events and group exercises to: (a) provide feedback to site managers on the safety culture and safety leadership issues identified at their site, and (b) stimulate further safety thinking and provide 'take-away' information and leadership strategies that could be applied to promote safety culture improvements. Section 3, project Findings, contains the main observations and output from the project. These include: - a brief overview of aspects of the local industry operating context that impinge on safety culture; - a summary of strengths or positive attributes observed within the safety culture of the Swedish nuclear industry; - a set of identified opportunities for further improvement; - the aggregated results of the

  1. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  2. Safety Culture Enhancement Project. Final Report. A Field Study on Approaches to Enhancement of Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Andrew; Hayward, Brent (Dedale Asia Pacific, Albert Park VIC 3206 (Australia))

    2006-08-15

    This report documents a study with the objective of enhancing safety culture in the Swedish nuclear power industry. A primary objective of this study was to ensure that the latest thinking on human factors principles was being recognised and applied by nuclear power operators as a means of ensuring optimal safety performance. The initial phase of the project was conducted as a pilot study, involving the senior management group at one Swedish nuclear power-producing site. The pilot study enabled the project methodology to be validated after which it was repeated at other Swedish nuclear power industry sites, providing a broad-ranging analysis of opportunities across the industry to enhance safety culture. The introduction to this report contains an overview of safety culture, explains the background to the project and sets out the project rationale and objectives. The methodology used for understanding and analysing the important safety culture issues at each nuclear power site is then described. This section begins with a summary of the processes used in the information gathering and data analysis stage. The six components of the Management Workshops conducted at each site are then described. These workshops used a series of presentations, interactive events and group exercises to: (a) provide feedback to site managers on the safety culture and safety leadership issues identified at their site, and (b) stimulate further safety thinking and provide 'take-away' information and leadership strategies that could be applied to promote safety culture improvements. Section 3, project Findings, contains the main observations and output from the project. These include: - a brief overview of aspects of the local industry operating context that impinge on safety culture; - a summary of strengths or positive attributes observed within the safety culture of the Swedish nuclear industry; - a set of identified opportunities for further improvement; - the aggregated

  3. Contribution of operating feedback to probabilistic safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guio, J.M. de; Lannoy, A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents the method used for PWR unit operation feedback analysis and its contribution to probabilistic safety studies. The targets were as follows: - use of failure data banks to assess reliability parameters, - use of event data banks to identify and quantify main system initiating events, - determination of a standard operating profile. These studies, performed in the context of nuclear power plant safety programs, prove useful not only to safety engineers but also to equipment experts, designers, operators and maintenance specialists. They constitute basic data for studies in all these areas or the departure point for new investigations. (authors). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  4. Main lessons for FBR safety study from the CABRI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ikken

    2006-01-01

    CABRI project has been carried out FBR safety study with international cooperation of five nations since 1978. The project consists of four periods such as CABRI-1, CABRI-2, CABRI-FAST and CABRI-RAFT. The objects and the main information for hypothetical core decay accident and safety study of fuel are described. The behavior of core decay accident was studied in the first period (CABRI-1), the safety study of fuel was investigated after the second period (CABRI-2). Change of phenomena at the initial process of core decay accident, comparison between analysis and data of fuel diffusion behavior of neutron horoscope by CABRI-2 experiment, representative in-core experiment under slow TOP conditions, the damaged and undamaged pin under slow TOP conditions, the exterior of CABRI and TREAT and the upper part of CABRI and TREAT reactor are shown. CABRI experiments changed to LWR safety study and a part of TREAT is stated. (S.Y.)

  5. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    to safety pharmacology studies, and, when indicated, to secondary pharmacodynamic studies, does not influence the scientific standards of studies. However, applying formal GLP standards will ensure the quality, reliability and integrity of studies, which reflect sound study management. It is important...... to encourage a positive attitude among researchers and academics towards these lines, whenever possible. GLP principles applied to the management of non-clinical safety studies are appropriate quality standards when studies are used in the context of protecting public health, and these quality standards...... of pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...

  6. The advanced neutron source facility: Safety philosophy and studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Harrington, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is currently the only new civilian nuclear reactor facility proposed for construction in the United States. Even though the thermal power of this research-oriented reactor is a relatively low 300 MW, the design will undoubtedly receive intense scrutiny before construction is allowed to proceed. Safety studies are already under way to ensure that the maximum degree of safety in incorporated into the design and that the design is acceptable to the Department of Energy (DOE) and can meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This document discusses these safety studies

  7. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of ... are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade. ... In some cases, products that had initially been refused access to a ...

  8. Example of a SWOV (Institute for Road Safety Research) safety study : "Avenida Marginal", Lisbon 1989.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the accident study on the Marginal Road between Alges and Cascais in Portugal. The aim of this study was to produce a philosophy for a strategy to select the best safety measures out of several which had already been proposed. The general point of departure in this philosophy is

  9. On safety management and nuclear safety - A frame of reference for studies of safety management with examples from non-nuclear contects of relevance for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenson, O.; Allwin, P.; Salo, I.

    2004-03-01

    The report includes three case studies of safety management. The studies are presented as chapters, but are written in a format that makes them easy to read separately. Two of the studies cover regulators (the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Luftfartsinspektionen) and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) and one a regulated activity/industry (a car manufacturer, Volvo Car). The introduction outlines a living system framework and relates this to concepts used in organizational management. The report concludes with some findings with potential relevance for safety management in the nuclear power domain. In the next phase of the work, the regulated counterparts of the regulators here will be investigated in addition to a fourth case study of a regulated activity/industry. (au)

  10. Nitrogen-system safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Department of Energy has primary responsibility for the safety of operations at DOE-owned nuclear facilities. The guidelines for the analysis of credible accidents are outlined in DOE Order 5481.1. DOE has requested that existing plant facilities and operations be reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. This review is being conducted by investigating individual facilities and documenting the results in Safety Study Reports which will be compiled to form the Existing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report which is scheduled for completion in September, 1984. This Safety Study documents the review of the Plant Nitrogen System facilities and operations and consists of Section 4.0, Facility and Process Description, and Section 5.0, Accident Analysis, of the Final Safety Analysis Report format. The existing nitrogen system consists of a Superior Air Products Company Type D Nitrogen Plant, nitrogen storage facilities, vaporization facilities and a distribution system. The system is designed to generate and distribute nitrogen gas used in the cascade for seal feed, buffer systems, and for servicing equipment when exceptionally low dew points are required. Gaseous nitrogen is also distributed to various process auxiliary buildings. The average usage is approximately 130,000 standard cubic feet per day

  11. Safety certification of airborne software: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, Ian; Habli, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Many safety-critical aircraft functions are software-enabled. Airborne software must be audited and approved by the aerospace certification authorities prior to deployment. The auditing process is time-consuming, and its outcome is unpredictable, due to the criticality and complex nature of airborne software. To ensure that the engineering of airborne software is systematically regulated and is auditable, certification authorities mandate compliance with safety standards that detail industrial best practice. This paper reviews existing practices in software safety certification. It also explores how software safety audits are performed in the civil aerospace domain. The paper then proposes a statistical method for supporting software safety audits by collecting and analysing data about the software throughout its lifecycle. This method is then empirically evaluated through an industrial case study based on data collected from 9 aerospace projects covering 58 software releases. The results of this case study show that our proposed method can help the certification authorities and the software and safety engineers to gain confidence in the certification readiness of airborne software and predict the likely outcome of the audits. The results also highlight some confidentiality issues concerning the management and retention of sensitive data generated from safety-critical projects.

  12. Behavior-based safety on construction sites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Rafiq M

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the results of a case study and describes an important area within the field of construction safety management, namely behavior-based safety (BBS). This paper adopts and develops a management approach for safety improvements in construction site environments. A rigorous behavioral safety system and its intervention program was implemented and deployed on target construction sites. After taking a few weeks of safety behavior measurements, the project management team implemented the designed intervention and measurements were taken. Goal-setting sessions were arranged on-site with workers' participation to set realistic and attainable targets of performance. Safety performance measurements continued and the levels of performance and the targets were presented on feedback charts. Supervisors were asked to give workers recognition and praise when they acted safely or improved critical behaviors. Observers were requested to have discussions with workers, visit the site, distribute training materials to workers, and provide feedback to crews and display charts. They were required to talk to operatives in the presence of line managers. It was necessary to develop awareness and understanding of what was being measured. In the process, operatives learned how to act safely when conducting site tasks using the designed checklists. Current weekly scores were discussed in the weekly safety meetings and other operational site meetings with emphasis on how to achieve set targets. The reliability of the safety performance measures taken by the company's observers was monitored. A clear increase in safety performance level was achieved across all categories: personal protective equipment; housekeeping; access to heights; plant and equipment, and scaffolding. The research reveals that scores of safety performance at one project improved from 86% (at the end of 3rd week) to 92.9% during the 9th week. The results of intervention demonstrated large decreases in

  13. Angra-1 probabilistic safety study-phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.; Gibelli, S.M.O.

    1988-05-01

    This study represents the Phase B of the Angra-1 Probabilistic Safety Study and is the the final report prepared for the IAEA under Research Contract No. 3423/R2/RB. The three main items covered in this report are the establishment of interim safety goals, analysis of Angra-1 operational experience and development of emergency procedures to address severe accidents. For establishment of interim safety goals a methodology for calculating consequences and risks associated to the Angra-1 operation was developed based on the available data and codes. The proposed safety goals refer to the individual risk of early fatality for people living in the vicinity of the plant, colective risk of cancer fatalities for people living near the plant, the propobability of core melt occurrence and the probability of dominant accident sequences. (author) [pt

  14. Study Of Safety Management By Using Gis In Coimbatore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanchana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The safety management is very important in the process of construction .The traditional methods of construction safety control cannot meet the construction of big project. To ensure the safety of construction and reduce accidents in the process of construction the current situation and problems we face in construction safety management should be studied first. And then the project risk warning mechanism based on the GIS is constructed according to the problems we faced to achieve visual monitoring and warning of construction safety risk management and to provide decision support for construction. This project aims to develop a web-based spatial decision support system model for proactive health and safety management in linear construction projects. 5 Currently health and safety management is usually performed reactively instead of proactive management since hazard identification and risk assessment is mostly performed on paper based documents that are not effectively used at site. An information system relates to a chain of operations lead to planning the observation and collection of data to storage and analysis of data to the use of derived information in decision-making processes. To create a web-based free and open sourced GIS that can work with different data formats by exchanging and presenting data as a real-time map on web.

  15. Preliminary Study on the Development of Quantitative Safety Culture Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal; Kim, Hun Sil; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2005-01-01

    Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Because it needs to be recognized as the most significant consciousness to achieve the nuclear safety performance, Korean government and nuclear power generation company have tried to develop the practical method to improve the safety culture from the long term point view. In this study, based on the site interviews to define the potential issues on organizational behavior for the safe operation and the survey on the level of safety culture of occupied workers are conducted. Survey results are quantified as a few indicators of nuclear safety by the statistical method and it can be simulated by the dynamic modeling as time goes on. Currently index and dynamic modeling are still being developed, however, results can be used to suggest the long term strategy which safety is clearly integrated into all activities in the nuclear organization

  16. A study of RFID application impacts on medical safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, She-I; Ou, Chin-Shyh; Ku, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Morris

    2008-01-01

    With the international reform in medical management systems gaining ground worldwide, hospital management has gradually begun to shift its focus from providing expensive medical treatment to improving medical service quality and patient safety. In this study, we discuss the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and data integrating technology with the medical service, and examine whether or not this technology can enhance medical safety. We also discuss the possible benefits following the application of the RFID system. The findings show that the application of RFID to hospitals can actually generate benefits, which can be further divided into operational structure benefits, users' structure benefits, and organisational and environmental benefits. However, not all these benefits can achieve medical safety. Among them, only the operator and environmental benefits can play such roles. Nevertheless, the application of RFID can bring hospitals towards the integration of technology benefits and improved medical safety.

  17. Study on operational safety issues in the Japanese disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Kitagawa, Yoshito; Hyodo, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Iijima, Masayoshi; Tamura, Akio; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Fujihara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and certain types of low-level radioactive waste that results from the reprocessing of spent fuel and classified as TRU waste will be disposed of in deep geological formations. NUMO aims to ensure the safety of local residents and workers during the operational phase and after repository closure and will therefore establish a safety case for the geological disposal programme at the end of each stage of the stepwise siting process. Although the Japanese programme is still in the stage before initiation of the siting process, updating the generic (non-site-specific) safety case is required for building confidence among stakeholders. This study focuses on operational safety issues for the Japanese HLW disposal concept. (authors)

  18. Canadian Consumer Food Safety Practices and Knowledge: Foodbook Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona; Gardhouse, Christine; Marshall, Barbara; Ciampa, Nadia; Franklin, Kristyn; Hurst, Matt; Thomas, M Kate; Nesbitt, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Understanding consumers' food safety practices and knowledge supports food safety education for the prevention of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to describe Canadian consumer food safety practices and knowledge. This study identifies demographic groups for targeted food safety education messaging and establishes a baseline measurement to assess the effectiveness of food safety interventions over time. Questions regarding consumer food safety practices and knowledge were included in a population-based telephone survey, Foodbook, conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The results were analyzed nationally by age group and by gender. The results showed that approximately 90% of Canadians reported taking the recommended cleaning and separating precautions when handling raw meat to prevent foodborne illness. Only 29% of respondents reported using a food thermometer when cooking any meat, and even fewer (12%) reported using a food thermometer for small cuts of meat such as chicken pieces. The majority (>80%) of Canadians were aware of the foodborne illness risks related to chicken and hamburger, but fewer (poultry.

  19. Efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture in acute decompensated heart failure: a study protocol for a randomized, patient- and assessor-blinded, sham controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jungtae; Lee, Seung Min Kathy; Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Suji; Chung, Hyemoon; Lee, Jung Myung; Kim, Weon; Lee, Sanghoon; Woo, Jong Shin

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure compared with sham electroacupuncture. This protocol is for a randomized, sham controlled, patient- and assessor-blinded, parallel group, single center clinical trial that can overcome the limitations of previous trials examining acupuncture and heart failure. Forty-four acute decompensated heart failure patients admitted to the cardiology ward will be randomly assigned into the electroacupuncture treatment group (n = 22) or the sham electroacupuncture control group (n = 22). Participants will receive electroacupuncture treatment for 5 days of their hospital stay. The primary outcome of this study is the difference in total diuretic dose between the two groups during hospitalization. On the day of discharge, follow-up heart rate variability, routine blood tests, cardiac biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) level will be assessed. Four weeks after discharge, hs-CRP, NT-pro BNP, heart failure symptoms, quality of life, and a pattern identification questionnaire will be used for follow-up analysis. Six months after discharge, major cardiac adverse events and cardiac function measured by echocardiography will be assessed. Adverse events will be recorded during every visit. The result of this clinical trial will offer evidence of the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture for acute decompensated heart failure. Clinical Research Information Service: KCT0002249 .

  20. Nuclear safety code study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.; Abumansoor, K.; Myers, E.; Jespersen, D.; Cramer, E.; O'Reilly, B.; Carmichael, B.

    1980-06-01

    An unprotected overpower accident in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor is studied. A mathematical model and a system of partial differential equations for the temperature are derived. After spatial discretization, a large system of ordinary differential equations is obtained. The steady state version of the equations is solved analytically

  1. Patients for patient safety in China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongwen; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Mao, Xuanyue; Zhang, Lijuan; Ying, Qinghua; Wei, Xin; Shang, Lili; Zhang, Mingming

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the baseline status of patients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes to patient safety in China, and to determine the factors that influence patients' involvement in patient safety. We conducted a cross sectional survey using questionnaires adapted from recent studies on patient safety from outside China. The items included medical errors, infection, medication safety, and other aspects of patient safety. The questionnaire included 17 items and 5 domains. The survey was conducted between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 involving 1000 patients from ten grade-A hospitals in seven provinces or cities in China. Most patients from the surgery departments completed the questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. Five reviewers independently input the data into Microsoft Excel 2003, and the data were double-checked. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software for differences in the perceptions and attitudes of patients toward patient safety among different genders, ages, and regions. We distributed 1000 questionnaires and collected 959 completed questionnaires (response rate: 96%). Among the respondents, 58% of patients did not know what medical error is. Sixty-five percent of patients wanted disclosure of all medical errors. After errors occurred, 58% of patients wanted explanations of all possible harms that had resulted. Among 187 patients who had experienced medical errors, 83% of patients had sought appropriate legal action. About 52% of patients understood hospital infection, but 28% patients did not know that infections could occur in hospital. Seventy-eight percent of patients thought that medical staff should wash their hands before examining patients. More than half of the patients (68%) were willing to remind the staff of hygiene if they saw unsanitary conditions in a health clinic. Only 14% of patients knew the side effects of medications that they took. The majority of patients surveyed expressed willingness to contribute to patient safety, but their

  2. Fire safety study of Dodewaard and Borssele nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    From the nuclear and conventional fire safety audits of both Dutch nuclear power plants performed under supervision of the Nuclear Safety Inspectorate and the Inspectorate for the Fire Services it turns out that the fire safety is sufficient however amenable for improvement. Besides a detailed description of the method of examination, the study 'Fire Safety' contains the results of the audit and 14 respectively 15 recommendations for improvement of the fire safety in Dodewaard and Borssele. The suggested recommendations which are applicable to both power plants are the following: fire fighting training for operators and guards, a complete emergency ventilation system of the control room, increase in the number of detectors and alarms, an increase in the quantity of water available for high-pressure fire fighting, improvement of fire barriers between several redundancies of nuclear safety systems, an investigation and possible improvement of the heat and radiation protection offered by presently used fire fighting suits. For Dodewaard a closed emergency staircase in the reactor building (secondary containment) is deemed necessary for personnel emergency escape routes and continued fire fighting if required

  3. Safety of pressurized water reactors: problems and corresponding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogne, F.

    1976-01-01

    The author recalls the safety problems subject to researches in the CEA, either because of their importance or because studies made abroad were not sufficiently developed or were classified or in order to acquire an independent judgement when safety is concerned. Those problems and studies are submitted referring to the 3 existing shields between man and dangerous materials: fuel element can, thermal shield, (pressure vessel and pipes), biological shield of which the behaviour is studied in connection with outside aggressions such as earthquakes, plane crashes, chemical explosions.. [fr

  4. CANDU 6 probabilistic safety study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes the methodology, phenomenology and results relevent to the assessment of severe events in a CANDU 6 (formerly designated CANDU 600) station. The station design being analysed is based on a CANDU 6 Mark I currently operating in Canada. This evaluation includes event frequency and fission product release assessments but does not include assessment of radiation dose to the public, so that the information is equivalent to a level 2 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The study has shown that the predicted overall average frequency for core melt in a CANDU 6 Mark I is 4.4 x 10 -6 events/year. This low frequency is, in large part due to the heavy water moderator which acts as a heat sink, prevents UO 2 melting and maintains core geometry for many events which could otherwise result in a core melt. The consequences for most core melts will be limited to the release of a fraction of noble gases and organic iodides. Other isotopes will be condensed or dissolved in the containment atmosphere and are ultimately retained in the pool of water in the basement where they are unavailable for release. Most core melts (∼ 90%) can be mitigated by operator action so that there is no danger of consequential damage to the containment structure and leak tightness. The frequency and consequences of less likely, more severe core melt sequences are also discussed in this report and shown to be small contributors to public risk

  5. Nuclear safety code study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.; Abumansoor, K.; Myers, E.; Jesperson, D.; Cramer, E.; O'Reilly, B.; Carmichael, B.

    1980-06-01

    An unprotected overpower accident in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor is studied. We construct a mathematical model and derive a system of partial differential equations for the temperature. After spatial discretization, we have a large system of ordinary differential equations; the system is stiff. We solve the steady state version of our equations analytically and obtain good agreement with other work. Then we solve the time-dependent problem numerically, using two stiff techniques and one non-stiff technique. The stiff techniques are vastly more efficient than the non-stiff technique. Between the two stiff techniques, the Gear backward differentiation formulas are more efficient than an implicit Runge-Kutta type method. We also compare the use of the full neutron kinetics equations to an approximation called the zero-lifetime system. Use of the zero-lifetime system is thought to make the problem easier to solve. Results indicate this is not true when a good stiff method is used. Thus use of the zero-lifetime system is probably not necessary, and should be avoided

  6. Safety design study of fast breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two fast breeder reactor (FBR) concepts, the tank type and the loop type, that have been studied as possible reactor designs to be used for a demonstration FBR (DFBR). The basic principle fo the DFBR design is to ensure plant safety through a defense-in-depth methodology. Improvements in the seismic and thermal stress designs have been attempted for both reactor concepts. The system design study strives to maximize the reliability of the safety-related systems and to rationalize commercialization of the plant

  7. A study on optimization of the nuclear safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Koh, Byung Joon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Byoung Do; Cho, Seong Won; Kwon, Seog Kwon; Choi, Kwang Sik

    1986-12-01

    The number of nuclear facilities (nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel facilities) under construction or in operation in Korea continues to increase and this has brought about increased importance and concerns toward nuclear safety in Korea. Also, domestic nuclear related organizations are increasingly carrying out the design/construction of nuclear power plants and the development /supply of nuclear fuels. In order to flexibly respond to these changes and to suggest direction to take, it is necessary to re-examine the current nuclear safety regulation system. This study is carried out in two stages and this report describes the results of the analysis and the assessment of the nuclear licencing system of such foreign countries as sweden and German, as the first of the two. In this regard, this study includes the analysis on the backgrounds on the choice of nuclear licensing system, the analysis on the licensing procedures, the analysis on the safety inspection system and the enforcement laws, the analysis on the structure and function of the regulatory, business and research organizations as well as the analysis on the relationship between the safety research and the regulatory duties. In this study, the German safety inspection system and the enforcement procedures and the Swedish nuclear licensing system are analyzed in detail. By comparing and assessing the finding with the current Korea Nuclear Licensing System, this study points out some reform measures of the Korean system that needs to improved. With the changing situations in mind, this study aims to develop the nuclear safety regulation system optimized for Korean situation by re-examining the current regulation system. (Author)

  8. A probabilistic safety assessment PEER review: Case study on the use of probabilistic safety assessment for safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this case study is to illustrate, using an actual example, the organizing and carrying out of an independent peer review of a draft full-scope (level 3) probabilistic safety assessment. The specific findings of the peer review are of less importance than the approach taken, the interaction between sponsor and study team, and the technical and administrative issues that can arise during a peer review. This case study will examine the following issues: how the scope of the peer review was established, based on how it was to be used by the review sponsoring body; how the level of effort was determined, and what this determination meant for the technical quality of the review; how the team of peer reviewers was selected; how the review itself was carried out; what findings were made; what was done with these findings by both the review sponsoring body and the PSA analysis team. 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. A Study on University Student's Perception of Food Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study compared the perception of food safety between students majoring in Food Science and Nutrition and other students who are ordinary food consumers. The importance of factors related to food safety was high in order of pesticide residue (45%), food additives (24%), food pathogens (15%), GM foods (7%), antibiotics (4%) and irradiated foods (4%), and no significant difference was observed according to major(p less than 0.10). Particularly with regard to irradiated food, students majoring in Food Science and Nutrition replied 'no hamful' (21%), 'harmful' (58%) or 'not sure' (21%), showing that more than half of them thought that irradiated food is harmful

  10. Fusion-reactor blanket-material safety-compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Keough, R.F.; Cohen, S.

    1982-11-01

    Blanket material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Blanket material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize blanket-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate that : (1) ternary oxides (LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and LiTiO 3 ) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li 7 Pb 2 alloy reactions with water generate heat, aerosol and hydrogen; (2) lithium oxide and Li 17 Pb 83 alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release; (3) liquid lithium reacts substantially, while Li 17 Pb 83 alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen; and (4) liquid lithium-air reactions present some major safety concerns

  11. Calculational study for criticality safety data of fissionable actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Ichiro; Fukasaku, Yasuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    This study has been carried out to obtain basic criticality safety characteristics of minor actinides nuclides. Criticality safety data of minor actinides nuclides have been surveyed through public literatures. Critical mass of seven nuclides, Np-237, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244 and Cm-245, have been calculated by using two code systems of criticality safety analysis, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A, under some material and reflector conditions. Some applicable cross-section libraries have been used for each code systems. Calculated data have been compared with each other and with published data. The results of this comparison shows that there is no discrepancy within the computational codes and the calculated data is strongly depend on the cross-section library. (author)

  12. Randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandy JJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Justin J Gandy, Jacques R Snyman, Constance EJ van RensburgDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA in the treatment of eczema in patients two years and older.Methods: In this single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study, 36 volunteers with predetermined eczema were randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or placebo twice daily for four weeks.Results: All safety parameters remained within normal limits, with no significant differences in either group. Significant differences were observed for both severity and erythema in the placebo and CHD-FA treated groups, and a significant difference was observed for scaling in the placebo-treated group. With regard to the investigator assessment of global response to treatment, a significant improvement was observed in the CHD-FA group when compared with the placebo group. A statistically significant decrease in visual analog scale score was observed in both groups, when comparing the baseline with the final results.Conclusion: CHD-FA was well tolerated, with no difference in reported side effects other than a short-lived burning sensation on application. CHD-FA significantly improved some aspects of eczema. Investigator assessment of global response to treatment with CHD-FA was significantly better than that with emollient therapy alone. The results of this small exploratory study suggest that CHD-FA warrants further investigation in the treatment of eczema.Keywords: fulvic acid, eczema, anti-inflammatory, efficacy, safety

  13. Patients' experiences of safety during haemodialysis treatment - a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, M.H.; Kars, M.C.; Man-van Ginkel, J.M. de; Schoonhoven, L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the experiences of safety of adult patients during their haemodialysis treatment. BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis is a complex treatment with a risk for harm that causes anxiety among many patients. To date, no in-depth study of haemodialysis patients' emotional responses to conditions of

  14. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  15. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  16. Knowledge Translation and Patient Safety: The Canadian Adverse Events Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, G. Ross; Norton, Peter; Flintoft, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Adverse Events Study was the first national study of adverse events in Canadian hospitals. Learning from the controversy surrounding similar studies in other countries, the team engaged in extensive knowledge translation activities throughout the life of the project. Using meetings, Web-based communication and other tools, the team successfully prepared most Canadian stakeholders for the study’s release, allowing them to develop anticipatory patient safety initiatives. However, u...

  17. Safety benefits from CANDU reactor replacement - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottram, R.; Millard, J.W.F.; Purdy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Both total core replacement and core retubing have been used in the CANDU industry. For future plant refurbishments, based on experience both in new construction and in recent refurbishments, the concept of total core replacement has been revisited. This builds on practices for replacement of other large plant equipment like boilers. The Bruce CANDU reactors, with their local shield tanks built around the Calandria and containment closely located around that Calandria Shield Tank Assembly (CSTA), are believed to be good candidates for core replacement. A structured process was used to design a replacement CSTA suitable for Bruce A use. The work started with a study of opportunities for safety enhancements in the core. This progressed into design studies and related design assist safety analysis on the reactor. A key element of the work involved consideration of how verified features from later CANDU designs, and from our new reactor design work, could be tailored to fit this replacement core. The replacement reactor core brings in structural improvements in both calandria and end shield, and safety improvements like the natural circulation enhancing moderator cooling layout and further optimized reactivity layouts to improve shutdown system performance. Bruce Power are currently studying the business implications of this and retube techniques as part of preparation for future refurbishments. The work explained in this paper is in the context of the safety related changes and the work to choose and quantify them. (author)

  18. Safety benefits from CANDU reactor replacement. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottram, R.; Millard, J.W.F.; Purdy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Both total core replacement and core retubing have been used in the CANDU industry. For future plant refurbishments, based on experience both in new construction and in recent refurbishments, the concept of total core replacement has been revisited. This builds on practices for replacement of other large plant equipment like boilers. The Bruce CANDU reactors, with their local shield tanks built around the Calandria and containment closely located around that Calandria Shield Tank Assembly (CSTA), are believed to be good candidates for core replacement. A structured process was used to design a replacement CSTA suitable for Bruce A use. The work started with a study of opportunities for safety enhancements in the core. This progressed into design studies and related design assist safety analysis on the reactor. A key element of the work involved consideration of how verified features from later CANDU designs, and from our new reactor design work, could be tailored to fit this replacement core. The replacement reactor core brings in structural improvements in both calandria and end shield, and safety improvements like the natural circulation enhancing moderator cooling layout and further optimized reactivity layouts to improve shutdown system performance. Bruce Power are currently studying the business implications of this and retube techniques as part of preparation for future refurbishments. The work explained in this paper is in the context of the safety related changes and the work to choose and quantify them. (author)

  19. Empirical Analysis of Construction Safety Climate - A Study

    OpenAIRE

    S.V.S.RAJA PRASAD; K.P.REGHUNATH

    2010-01-01

    Safety in the construction industry has always been a major issue. Though much improvement in construction safety has been achieved, the industry still continues to lag behind most other industries with regard to safety. The safety climate of any organization consists of employee’s attitudes towards and perceptions of, health and safety behavior. Construction workers attitudes towards safety are influenced by their perceptions of risk, management, safety rulesand procedures. A measure of safe...

  20. A Study on Drug Safety Monitoring Program in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R.; Mohanta, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers. PMID:25425751

  1. Activities on safety culture study. Study status in public and private sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Takano, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    Around after entering in the 21st century, organizational accidents had occurred in Japan at various industries including nuclear industry, which were caused directly by unsafe action, human error and illegal conduct of personnel but there were problems in safety culture of organization such as slow retreat of safety system stimulated by management, schedule control and procedure management becoming a dead letter, lack of safety education, and workplace climate of schedule priority. This article referred to organizational factors common to many severe accidents and introduced safety culture study in public and private sectors to overcome those factors. Safety Culture Evaluation Support Tool (SCEST) was developed for self-evaluation of safety culture of organization as well as Organizational Reliability model (OR model) for analysis of initiation and propagation process of risk event. Safety diagnosis system and feedback type risk assessment system for promoting safe organizational climate and culture were also developed. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Ferrocyanide safety project ferrocyanide aging studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Alderson, E.V.

    1996-06-01

    This final report gives the results of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from FY 1992 to FY 1996 on the Ferrocyanide Aging Studies, part of the Ferrocyanide Safety Project. The Ferrocyanide Safety Project was initiated as a result of concern raised about the safe storage of ferrocyanide waste intermixed with oxidants, such as nitrate and nitrite salts, in Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). In the laboratory, such mixtures can be made to undergo uncontrolled or explosive reactions by heating dry reagents to over 200 degrees C. In 1987, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), published by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Final Environmental Impact Statement, Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level Transuranic and Tank Waste, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, included an environmental impact analysis of potential explosions involving ferrocyanide-nitrate mixtures. The EIS postulated that an explosion could occur during mechanical retrieval of saltcake or sludge from a ferrocyanide waste tank, and concluded that this worst-case accident could create enough energy to release radioactive material to the atmosphere through ventilation openings, exposing persons offsite to a short-term radiation dose of approximately 200 mrem. Later, in a separate study (1990), the General Accounting Office postulated a worst-case accident of one to two orders of magnitude greater than that postulated in the DOE EIS. The uncertainties regarding the safety envelope of the Hanford Site ferrocyanide waste tanks led to the declaration of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) in October 1990

  3. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  4. The first symposium of Research Center for Radiation Safety, NIRS. Perspective of future studies of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni

    2002-03-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given in the title symposium, held at the Conference Room of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) on November 29 and 30, 2001. Contained are Introductory remarks: Basic presentations concerning exposure dose in man; Environmental levels of radiation and radioactivity, environmental radon level and exposure dose, and radiation levels in the specific environment (like in the aircraft): Special lecture (biological effects given by space environment) concerning various needs for studies of radiation safety; Requirement for open investigations, from the view of utilization, research and development of atomic energy, from the clinical aspect, and from the epidemiological aspect: Special lecture (safety in utilization of atomic energy and radiation-Activities of Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) concerning present state and perspective of studies of radiation safety; Safety of radiation and studies of biological effects of radiation-perspective, and radiation protection and radiation safety studies: Studies in the Research Center for Radiation Safety; Summary of studies in the center, studies of the biological effects of neutron beam, carcinogenesis by radiation and living environmental factors-complicated effects, and studies of hereditary effects: Panel discussion (future direction of studies of radiation safety for the purpose of the center's direction): and concluding remarks. (N.I.)

  5. Radiological safety research for nuclear excavation projects - Interoceanic canal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klement, A.W. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The general radiological problems encountered in nuclear cratering and nuclear excavation projects are discussed. Procedures for assessing radiological problems in such projects are outlined. Included in the discussions are source term, meteorology, fallout prediction and ecological factors. Continuing research requirements as well as pre- and post-excavation studies are important considerations. The procedures followed in the current interoceanic canal feasibility studies provide examples of radiological safety problems, current solutions and needed research. (author)

  6. Radiological safety research for nuclear excavation projects - Interoceanic canal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, Jr, A W [U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The general radiological problems encountered in nuclear cratering and nuclear excavation projects are discussed. Procedures for assessing radiological problems in such projects are outlined. Included in the discussions are source term, meteorology, fallout prediction and ecological factors. Continuing research requirements as well as pre- and post-excavation studies are important considerations. The procedures followed in the current interoceanic canal feasibility studies provide examples of radiological safety problems, current solutions and needed research. (author)

  7. Pilot Study on Harmonisation of Reactor Safety in WENRA Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Most of the objectives, set for the Pilot Study, were met. It can be concluded that the methodology was adequate for its purpose. National requirements on selected safety issues have been systematically compared and the major gaps and differences have been identified. Convenient overviews have been provided of differences and similarities between the countries. Furthermore, the conclusions are based on a safety justification and are detailed enough to provide input to a further more detailed analysis on the national level. It was not possible, however, to provide fully verified conclusions about the implementation of the reference levels in the different countries. This has to do with the following constraints on the study: In line with the Terms of Reference, the comparison of formal requirements did not address the more detailed use of criteria and methods to verify compliance. The same requirement could be enforced differently in different regulatory systems, and hence lead to different implementation. The Pilot Study also assessed the implementation, but it was not possible to do this in sufficient detail to identify such differences. The implementation was assessed on the basis of current knowledge of the respective regulatory body, but it was not possible to provide the panels with evidence of the implementation. For these reasons, conclusions about implemented safety provisions in the different countries should be drawn with precaution. The introduction of the panel assessments greatly improved the quality and consistency of the comparison assessments. Uncertainties in the assessments are mainly connected with lack of time to make a detailed analysis in some cases. The reliability of the assessments seems to be sufficient for the objectives of the Pilot Study. The introduction of the IAEA safety standards in the study proved to be helpful and provided confidence in the scope and strictness of the reference levels. This Pilot Study has contributed to

  8. Studying the Safety Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Using Simulation-Based Surrogate Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Morando, Mark Mario; Tian, Qingyun; Truong, Long T.; Vu, Hai L.

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology has advanced rapidly in recent years with some automated features already available in vehicles on the market. AVs are expected to reduce traffic crashes as the majority of crashes are related to driver errors, fatigue, alcohol, or drugs. However, very little research has been conducted to estimate the safety impact of AVs. This paper aims to investigate the safety impacts of AVs using a simulation-based surrogate safety measure approach. To this end, safety...

  9. EPR safety. Consideration of the internal and external hazards in the safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguin, H.

    2008-04-01

    The author presents the main points of the Preliminary Safety Report of EDF on the EPR reactor safety. It concerns the considerations of the internal (fire, flood, explosions, pipes failures) and external (earthquakes, airplane falls, explosions, exceptional natural disasters, extreme meteorological conditions) damages. It presents how the safety report takes into account the aggression. (A.L.B.)

  10. Survey of the state of the German safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.; Kotthoff, K.

    1977-01-01

    In spring 1976 the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology has ordered a safety study to assess the risk for a nuclear power plant with a PWR. Giving first a survey on the main subtasks of the study the present state of work and some first results are discussed. Assuming a failure of safety systems a core melt event and a subsequent failure of the containment could occur. Corresponding accident sequences are discussed in some detail. Related hereto the results of some calculations for fission product release with respect to different containment failure modes are given. According to the results obtained so far the consequences of a core melt event can essentially be restricted by the retention function of the containment. (orig.) [de

  11. Overview of the reactor safety study consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, I.B.; Yaniv, S.S.; Blond, R.M.; McGrath, P.E.; Church, H.W.; Wayland, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) is a comprehensive assessment of the potential risk to the public from accidents in light water power reactors. The engineering analysis of the plants is described in detail in the Reactor Safety Study: it provides an estimate of the probability versus magnitude of the release of radioactive material. The consequence model, which is the subject of this paper, describes the progression of the postulated accident after the release of the radioactive material from the containment. A brief discussion of the manner in which the consequence calculations are performed is presented. The emphasis in the description is on the models and data that differ significantly from those previously used for these types of assessments. The results of the risk calculations for 100 light water power reactors are summarized

  12. Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project parameter study database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Erickson, D.G.; Samuel, T.J.; Pearson, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    A computerized, knowledge-screened, comprehensive database of the nuclear criticality safety documentation has been assembled as part of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety (NCTS) Project. The database is focused on nuclear criticality parameter studies. The database has been computerized using dBASE III Plus and can be used on a personal computer or a workstation. More than 1300 documents have been reviewed by nuclear criticality specialists over the last 5 years to produce over 800 database entries. Nuclear criticality specialists will be able to access the database and retrieve information about topical parameter studies, authors, and chronology. The database places the accumulated knowledge in the nuclear criticality area over the last 50 years at the fingertips of a criticality analyst

  13. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  14. Modeling the Relationship between Safety Climate and Safety Performance in a Developing Construction Industry: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Hafiz; Chan, Albert P C; Utama, Wahyudi P; Gao, Ran; Zafar, Irfan

    2017-03-28

    This study attempts to validate a safety performance (SP) measurement model in the cross-cultural setting of a developing country. In addition, it highlights the variations in investigating the relationship between safety climate (SC) factors and SP indicators. The data were collected from forty under-construction multi-storey building projects in Pakistan. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis, a SP measurement model was hypothesized. It was tested and validated by conducting confirmatory factor analysis on calibration and validation sub-samples respectively. The study confirmed the significant positive impact of SC on safety compliance and safety participation , and negative impact on number of self-reported accidents/injuries . However, number of near-misses could not be retained in the final SP model because it attained a lower standardized path coefficient value. Moreover, instead of safety participation , safety compliance established a stronger impact on SP. The study uncovered safety enforcement and promotion as a novel SC factor, whereas safety rules and work practices was identified as the most neglected factor. The study contributed to the body of knowledge by unveiling the deviations in existing dimensions of SC and SP. The refined model is expected to concisely measure the SP in the Pakistani construction industry, however, caution must be exercised while generalizing the study results to other developing countries.

  15. Reactor safety study applied to the Forsmark 3 Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Tiren, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    A reactor safety study of the Forsmark 3 BWR power plant has been carried out for the purpose of calculating core melt probabilities using WASH-1400 methods. A sensitivity analysis shows that the calculated core melt probability is changed by approximately a factor of 10 depending on assumptions made with respect to the probability of human error. The importance of the availability of off-site power and the influence of common cause failure is also discussed. (author)

  16. Study design and analysis of automobile bumper for pedestrian safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Akash; Vora, Rushabh; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to design and analyse the bumper beam structure, in order to ensure the protection of the pedestrians along with the occupants inside the vehicle. The concern shown towards the pedestrian safety is because, each year about 2,70,000 pedestrians are killed in road accidents that accounts to 22% of the total deaths. From the literature review, it was inferred that the mounting position of bumper and material selection play a crucial role in maximising the pedestrian safety. Hence in this paper, the effects of bumper mounting position and the bumper beam material have been studied, with reference to an explicit dynamic collision involving with a dummy human lower leg set-up. The acceptance of a particular mounting position/material was based on the fact that the maximum stress and deformation induced were less than the yield limits of the human leg form structure (representing the skin, femur and tibia).

  17. French studies and research program in pressurized water reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    1986-06-01

    The aim of researches developed now in France on water reactor safety is to obtain means and knowledge allowing to control accidental situations, including severe situations beyond design basis accidents. The main studies and researches concerning water reactors and described in this report are the following ones: core cooling accident and prevention of severe accidents, fuel behavior in accidental situation, behavior of the containment building, fission product transfer and releases in case of accident, problems related to equipment aging, and, methodology of risk analysis and ''human factor'' studies. Most of these studies follow an analytic approach of phenomena [fr

  18. Reactor parameters for European economic, safety and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Spears, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter sets for five 1200 MW e tokamak reactors were developed for the European Study Group on the Environmental, Safety-related and Economic Potential of Fusion Power, showing today's perception of the range of reactors likely to be available as a result of the Commission's fusion programme. On the basis of the cost of generating electricity, relative to a fission reactor, a reference set was chosen and endorsed by the Group for further studies including that on the environmental impact of fusion power. Key physics and technology parameters for the reference reactor are compared with values used in the ITER design, and with those from American studies. (author)

  19. A history of studies on safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    This report explained a history of studies on safety of irradiated foods in the United States. The army of USA had begun an experiment of irradiated foods in 1953. The toxic tests consisted of three phase, the phase I (1954 to 1959), phase II (1956 to 1965) and phase III (1971 to 1978). In the phase I, the short period toxic tests (90days) of 54 kinds of foods were carried out using high and low irradiation. The Swift and Company Laboratories reported detailed animal tests of 2685 albino rat, chickens and human. The animal tests showed many kinds of nutrition disorder, but the human test no problem. On phase II, 22 kinds of foods were tested for long period using rat, dog and mouse. Dog showed many kinds of symptom, for example, low birthrate, short life time, low growth rate, increasing spleen weight and thyroid disease. On phase III, two companies carried out the toxic test and Ralston Purina Company report is only data to be used now. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (1960 to 1970), Department of Commerce (1965 to 1976) and Department of Agriculture (1961 to 1966) studied safety of irradiated foods. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined that the irradiated foods belonged to under the category of food additive in 1958. FDA tests safety of irradiated foods using the determination tree and permitted many kinds of irradiated foods. (S.Y.)

  20. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  1. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  2. Premarket safety and efficacy studies for ADHD medications in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence T Bourgeois

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing.We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug's clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials.A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419. Eleven drugs (55% were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70% after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9, with 5 (38% drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77% after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed.Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

  3. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  4. Study on occupational safety and health strategy for Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Su, Teh-Sheng; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lin, Chien-Liang; Lin, Han-Yu; Yu, Yi-Chun

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a set of occupational safety and health (OSH) issues and development policies suitable for adoption in Taiwan. A survey was conducted on a sample of 102 experts and 235 industrial work safety personnel in Taiwan for statistical analysis of the general consensus, with the results showing such consensus in 104 individual policy indicators. Our results reveal that the most appropriate targets were considered to be annual 10% reductions in the 'occupational accident disability rate', 'occupational accident injury rate' and 'occupational diseases before 2010'. Responding to the specific question of the appropriate method of achieving a reduction in the number of accidents in Taiwan, the primary consideration for 13.4% of the experts and 10.6% of the industry personnel was 'promoting OSH awareness and enhancing the overall safety culture'. As regards the current OSH policy focus, 11.2% of the experts considered 'improving OSH legislation, standards and systems' to be the most important, whilst 8.9% of the industry personnel felt that 'recognizing work stress, overwork and emerging OSH issues' were the most important.

  5. Prescription safety eyewear: impact studies of lens and frame failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinger, P F; Woods, T A

    2000-02-01

    To determine if a plano lens could be the test lens for all prescription (Rx) lenses and to investigate why Rx lenses pop out of safety eyewear. Plano and Rx polycarbonate lenses (n = 641) with varying thickness and edge geometry, mounted on steel lens holders, and Rx safety eyewear (n = 128) placed on headforms were impacted with test objects of varying diameter and hardness. Impacts were studied with 500 to 2,000 frames-per-second motion analysis. Plano lenses were at least, or more, prone to failure (dislodgment, perforation, shatter, or crack) than -3.00 or +3.00 lenses of the same minimum thickness. More than 40% of safety frames with removable lenses broke or had lenses pop out when impacted with energies expected in industry and sports. Plano lenses can be used as the test lenses for all Rx lenses made of the same material with the same minimal thickness. The ANSI Z87.1-1989 industrial standard for Rx eyewear is inadequate for sports or other activities with high-impact potential. The best lens-retention system has, as a component, a frame with a bevel perpendicular to a frontal impact force.

  6. Nuclear fuel safety studies by laser pulse heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, C.S.; Kumar, Santosh; Dey, G.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Khan, K.B.; Kumar, Arun; Jathar, V.P.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of nuclear fuels under transient heating conditions is vital to nuclear safety. A laser pulse based heating system to simulate the transient heating conditions experienced by the fuel during reactor accidents like LOCA and RIA is under development at BARC, Mumbai. Some of the concepts used in this system are under testing in pilot studies. This paper describes the results of some pilot studies carried out on unirradiated UO 2 specimens by laser pulse heating, followed by metallography and X-ray diffraction measurements. (author)

  7. Safety aspects of geological studies around nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    The experience of geological studies of about forty french nuclear sites allows to set out the objectives, the phases and the geographic extensions of workings to be realized for confirming a site. The data to be collected for the safety analysis are specified; they concern the local and regional geology, the geotechnical characteristics and the essential elements for evaluating the hazards related to the soil liquefaction, the surface fracturing and in some cases the volcanic risks. It is necessary to follow up the geology during the installation construction and life. 8 refs. (F.M.)

  8. Fusion safety studies in Russia from 1996 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B.N. E-mail: kolbasov@nfi.kiae.ru; Biryukov, A.Yu.; Davydov, D.A.; Guseva, M.I.; Khripunov, B.I.; Korshunov, S.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Romanov, P.V.; Vasiliev, V.I

    2001-04-01

    The paper is a review of results of some fusion safety studies performed in Russia during 1996-2000 (after the 6th IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on 'Developments in Fusion Safety'). In particular, changes of hydrogen isotope inventory in co-deposited layers on tungsten and graphite under simulation of normal tokamak operation and plasma disruptions are reported. Size distribution of graphite and W-Be-dust under the experiments at issue revealed two maximums. Erosion products were collected within tokamak T-10. Their microstructure and chemical composition were studied and are reported in the paper. Chemical interaction of beryllium powder with steam (in temperature range of 400-600 deg. C) and air (at 500-1000 deg. C) was investigated. Mathematical models describing it were developed. Chemical interaction of Be-powder with carbon was studied too. A dependence of beryllium carbide layer thickness growth versus time at 950 deg. C was found on the basis of the experiments.

  9. A study on Impact of Safety Culture on Safety Behavior: Moderating effect of Prevention Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sun Chul; Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In modern society, it has been acknowledged that disasters caused by civilization became inevitable. With growing attention to role of human as one component of the system to cope with accident to prevent disasters, various efforts have been deployed to keep safety. Most of the industries with high hazard have adopted the term as their banner in the efforts to promote safety in their installations and operations. Recently, the Fukushima nuclear power plants(NPPs) accident happened in Japan in 2011 resulted in great impact over the world and have highlighted the importance of safety culture again.

  10. A study on Impact of Safety Culture on Safety Behavior: Moderating effect of Prevention Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun Chul; Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, it has been acknowledged that disasters caused by civilization became inevitable. With growing attention to role of human as one component of the system to cope with accident to prevent disasters, various efforts have been deployed to keep safety. Most of the industries with high hazard have adopted the term as their banner in the efforts to promote safety in their installations and operations. Recently, the Fukushima nuclear power plants(NPPs) accident happened in Japan in 2011 resulted in great impact over the world and have highlighted the importance of safety culture again

  11. The role of human intrusion in the dutch safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Weers, A.W.v.; Glasbergen, P.; Slot, A.F.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands the OPLA research program in which a large number of possible disposal concepts for radioactive waste is investigated has been carried out recently. The disposal concepts concern three different waste strategies, two disposal techiques and three different types of salt formations. In the OPLA program the post-closure safety of the disposal concepts has been investigated. The paper reviews the role of the human intrusion in this safety study. The hydrological consequences of human activities in the underground are discussed and it has been demonstrated that these effects could be taken into account during the groundwater transport calculations. Four different scenario's for human intrusion in the repository have been studied to obtain an indication of the radiological effects. The results show that extremely high doses may result if, after several hundred years, human beings come into direct contact with highly active waste. For the final assessment the probability that the doses will be received should be calculated. This should be done in a subsequent research

  12. Fire safety case study of a railway tunnel: Smoke evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maele Karim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When a fire occurs in a tunnel, it is of great importance to assure the safety of the occupants of the tunnel. This is achieved by creating smoke-free spaces in the tunnel through control of the smoke gases. In this paper, results are presented of a study concerning the fire safety in a real scale railway tunnel test case. Numerical simulations are performed in order to examine the possibility of natural ventilation of smoke in inclined tunnels. Several aspects are taken into account: the length of the simulated tunnel section, the slope of the tunnel and the possible effects of external wind at one portal of the tunnel. The Fire Dynamics Simulator of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, is applied to perform the simulations. The simulations show that for the local behavior of the smoke during the early stages of the fire, the slope of the tunnel is of little importance. Secondly, the results show that external wind and/or pressure conditions have a large effect on the smoke gases inside the tunnel. Finally, some idea for the value of the critical ventilation velocity is given. The study also shows that computational fluid dynamics calculations are a valuable tool for large scale, real life complex fire cases. .

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the reactor safety study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.J.; Rasmussen, N.C.; Hinkle, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study (RSS) or Wash 1400 developed a methodology estimating the public risk from light water nuclear reactors. In order to give further insights into this study, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to determine the significant contributors to risk for both the PWR and BWR. The sensitivity to variation of the point values of the failure probabilities reported in the RSS was determined for the safety systems identified therein, as well as for many of the generic classes from which individual failures contributed to system failures. Increasing as well as decreasing point values were considered. An analysis of the sensitivity to increasing uncertainty in system failure probabilities was also performed. The sensitivity parameters chosen were release category probabilities, core melt probability, and the risk parameters of early fatalities, latent cancers and total property damage. The latter three are adequate for describing all public risks identified in the RSS. The results indicate reductions of public risk by less than a factor of two for factor reductions in system or generic failure probabilities as high as one hundred. There also appears to be more benefit in monitoring the most sensitive systems to verify adherence to RSS failure rates than to backfitting present reactors. The sensitivity analysis results do indicate, however, possible benefits in reducing human error rates

  14. Novel technology to prepare oral formulations for preclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2008-02-28

    A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded in the cylindrical container (vessel) of the mixer was quite efficient in dispersing and milling the particles of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an aqueous medium. The API powder and a small amount of oral aqueous medium (vehicle) were successfully mixed by the spinning motion of the balls in the vessel as though the paste-like suspension was kneaded with a mortar and pestle. It was found that the milled suspension with the mean size of 10-20microm could be prepared, in addition finer milling of less than 10microm could be achieved by selecting the material of vessel. Optimum driving conditions including mixing time, size and quantity of balls, and the standard operational procedure was established using compounds varying in physicochemical properties. The particle size and quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that the resultant suspension was well-milled and highly homogeneous with the nearly intended concentration of API. The proposed method established by this experiment could be applied to the actual safety studies in the real preparation scale of oral suspension.

  15. RAMONA-4B development for SBWR safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Aronson, A.L.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Mallen, A.N.

    1993-12-31

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) is a revolutionary design of a boiling-water reactor. The reactor is based on passive safety systems such as natural circulation, gravity flow, pressurized gas, and condensation. SBWR has no active systems, and the flow in the vessel is by natural circulation. There is a large chimney section above the core to provide a buoyancy head for natural circulation. The reactor can be shut down by either of four systems; namely, scram, Fine Motion Control Rod Drive (FMCRD), Alternate Rod Insertion (ARI), and Standby Liquid Control System (SLCS). The safety injection is by gravity drain from the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) and Suppression Pool (SP). The heat sink is through two types of heat exchangers submerged in the tank of water. These heat exchangers are the Isolation Condenser (IC) and the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The RAMONA-4B code has been developed to simulate the normal operation, reactivity transients, and to address the instability issues for SBWR. The code has a three-dimensional neutron kinetics coupled to multiple parallel-channel thermal-hydraulics. The two-phase thermal hydraulics is based on a nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium drift-flux formulation. It employs an explicit integration to solve all state equations (except for neutron kinetics) in order to predict the instability without numerical damping. The objective of this project is to develop a Sun SPARC and IBM RISC 6000 based RAMONA-4B code for applications to SBWR safety analyses, in particular for stability and ATWS studies.

  16. RAMONA-4B development for SBWR safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Aronson, A.L.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Mallen, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) is a revolutionary design of a boiling-water reactor. The reactor is based on passive safety systems such as natural circulation, gravity flow, pressurized gas, and condensation. SBWR has no active systems, and the flow in the vessel is by natural circulation. There is a large chimney section above the core to provide a buoyancy head for natural circulation. The reactor can be shut down by either of four systems; namely, scram, Fine Motion Control Rod Drive (FMCRD), Alternate Rod Insertion (ARI), and Standby Liquid Control System (SLCS). The safety injection is by gravity drain from the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) and Suppression Pool (SP). The heat sink is through two types of heat exchangers submerged in the tank of water. These heat exchangers are the Isolation Condenser (IC) and the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The RAMONA-4B code has been developed to simulate the normal operation, reactivity transients, and to address the instability issues for SBWR. The code has a three-dimensional neutron kinetics coupled to multiple parallel-channel thermal-hydraulics. The two-phase thermal hydraulics is based on a nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium drift-flux formulation. It employs an explicit integration to solve all state equations (except for neutron kinetics) in order to predict the instability without numerical damping. The objective of this project is to develop a Sun SPARC and IBM RISC 6000 based RAMONA-4B code for applications to SBWR safety analyses, in particular for stability and ATWS studies

  17. Alberta Environment's weir safety program : options for rehabilitation to improve public safety : a case study of the Calgary weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, D [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Alberta Environment Water Management Operations (WMO) owns and operates 46 dams and 800 kilometres of canals in Alberta. The WMO consists of 120 staff and several contract operators to take care of this infrastructure. Most of the infrastructure supplies water for irrigation use, which adds 5 billion dollars to the provincial economy annually. Other water uses include stock watering, domestic use, municipal use, recreational use and habitat. Alberta Environment's weir safety program was also discussed along with options for rehabilitation to improve public safety. A case study of Calgary's Weir Dam on the Bow River was highlighted. A brief history of the dam was offered and safety programs around provincially-owned weirs were discussed. Photographs were included to illustrate some of the additional safety measures at the Calgary weir, such as suspended safety buoys upstream of the boom directing paddlers to the portage trail, and signage on the river that can be activated when the boom is out. Typical river users on the Calgary Bow River and safety history at the Calgary Weir were discussed along with other topics such as the Calgary Bow River weir project criteria; project design progress; pre-feasibility options; scale modelling; final design analysis; construction funding; and proposed changes to the safety program for the new weir configuration. figs.

  18. Multi-channel grouping techniques for conducting reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    In conducting safety studies for postulated unprotected accidents in an LMFBR system, it is common practice to employ multi-channel coupled neutronics, thermal hydraulics computer programs such as SAS3A or MELT-III. The multichannel feature of such code systems is important if the natural fuel failure incoherencies and the resulting sodium void/fuel motion reactivity feedbacks--which have strong spatial variations--are to be properly modeled. Because of the large amounts of computer time associated with many channel runs, however, there is a strong incentive to conduct parametric studies with as few channels as possible. The paper presented is focused on methods successfully employed to accomplish this end for a study of the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident conducted for the FFTF

  19. On Safety Management. A Frame of Reference for Studies of Safety Management with Examples From Non-Nuclear Contexts of Relevance for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka; Allwin, Pernilla

    2004-11-01

    A good knowledge about safety management from risk technologies outside the area of nuclear power may contribute to both broaden the perspectives on safety management in general, and point at new opportunities for improving safety measures within the nuclear industry. First, a theoretical framework for the study of safety management in general is presented, followed by three case studies on safety management from different non-nuclear areas with potential relevance for nuclear safety. The chapters are written as separate reports and can be read independently of each other. The nuclear industry has a long experience about the management of risky activities, involving all the stages from planing to implementation, both on a more generalized level and in the specific branches of activities (management, administration, operation, maintenance, etc.). Here, safety management is a key concept related to these areas of activities. Outside the field of nuclear power there exist a number of different non-nuclear risk technologies, each one with their own specific needs and experiences about safety management. The differences between the areas consist partly of the different experiences caused by the different technologies. Besides using own experiences in safety practices within the own areas of activities, it may be profitable to take advantage in knowledge and experiences from one area and put it in practice in another area. In order to facilitate knowledge transfer from one technological area to another it may be possible to adapt a common theoretical model, for descriptions and explanations, to the different technologies. Such a model should admit that common denominators for safety management across the areas might be identified and described with common concepts. Systems theory gives the opportunity to not only create models that are descriptive for events within the limits of a given technology, but also to generate knowledge that can be transferred to other

  20. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyo; Seo, Eun-Sung; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Gang-Tai; You, Young-Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Kook; Jo, Ga-Won; Kim, Nam-Kwen

    2013-11-25

    Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition.This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ health-related quality of life

  1. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  2. A study of software safety analysis system for safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H. S.; Shin, H. K.; Chang, Y. W.; Jung, J. C.; Kim, J. H.; Han, H. H.; Son, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The core factors and requirements for the safety-critical software traced and the methodology adopted in each stage of software life cycle are presented. In concept phase, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for the system has been performed. The feasibility evaluation of selected safety parameter was performed and Preliminary Hazards Analysis list was prepared using HAZOP(Hazard and Operability) technique. And the check list for management control has been produced via walk-through technique. Based on the evaluation of the check list, activities to be performed in requirement phase have been determined. In the design phase, hazard analysis has been performed to check the safety capability of the system with regard to safety software algorithm using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). In the test phase, the test items based on FMEA have been checked for fitness guided by an accident scenario. The pressurizer low pressure trip algorithm has been selected to apply FTA method to software safety analysis as a sample. By applying CASE tool, the requirements traceability of safety critical system has been enhanced during all of software life cycle phases

  3. Review of light--water reactor safety studies. Volume 3 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Farnaam, M.R.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes and compares important studies of light-water nuclear reactor safety, emphasizing the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study, work on risk assessment funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Report of the American Physical Society study group on light-water reactor safety. These reports treat risk assessment for nuclear power plants and provide an introduction to the basic issues in reactor safety and the needs of the reactor safety research program. Earlier studies are treated more briefly. The report includes comments on the Reactor Safety Study. The manner in which these studies may be used and alterations which would increase their utility are discussed

  4. A study of the international trend and comprehensive enhancement program on the Nuclear Power Plant safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin; Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    The objectives of this study are as follows : overview of the international trend related to the safety of Nuclear Power Plant(NPPs), study of the present status of NPP safety in Korea in aspects of design, construction and operation, suggestion of the comprehensive program to improve NPP safety in Korea. The results of this study can contribute to improve the safety of existing and future NPPs, and to establish the severe accident policy in Korea.

  5. A study of the international trend and comprehensive enhancement program on the Nuclear Power Plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin; Paek, Won Phil

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows : overview of the international trend related to the safety of Nuclear Power Plant(NPPs), study of the present status of NPP safety in Korea in aspects of design, construction and operation, suggestion of the comprehensive program to improve NPP safety in Korea. The results of this study can contribute to improve the safety of existing and future NPPs, and to establish the severe accident policy in Korea

  6. Safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy: a real life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczek, Agnieszka; Skorupa, Dawid; Antczak-Marczak, Monika; Kuna, Piotr; Kupczyk, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is recommended as the first-line treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. To analyze the safety and efficacy of VIT in a real life setting. One hundred and eighty patients undergoing VIT were studied to evaluate the safety, efficacy, incidence and nature of symptoms after field stings and adverse reactions to VIT. Significantly more patients were allergic to wasp than bee venom (146 vs. 34, p bees, and were not associated with angiotensin convertase inhibitors (ACEi) or β-adrenergic antagonists use. Systemic reactions were observed in 4 individuals on wasp VIT (2.7%) and in 6 patients allergic to bees (17.65%). The VIT was efficacious as most patients reported no reactions (50%) or reported only mild local reactions (43.75%) to field stings. The decrease in sIgE at completion of VIT correlated with the dose of vaccine received ( r = 0.53, p = 0.004). Beekeeping (RR = 29.54, p venom allergy. Venom immunotherapy is highly efficacious and safe as most of the adverse events during the induction and maintenance phase are mild and local. Side effects of VIT are more common in subjects on bee VIT. Beekeeping and female sex are associated with a higher risk of allergy to Hymenoptera venom.

  7. Meteorological aspects of the reactor safety study requiring further study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and approximate methods are used in a search for meteorological features that dominate estimates of reactor-accident consequences, and that require more accurate descriptions if consequence estimates are to be more realistic. By considering variations in the source term, it is seen that accidents involving containment-vessel failure dominate both the mean and variance of the distribution of consequences, although this conclusion is subject to uncertainties about plume rise. Research is recommended on the behavior of horizontal, sonic jets, with heat transfer to the ground, and especially during stable atmospheric conditions. Diffusion with fumigation and lofting require further study; use of K-theory and National Weather Service data should be vigorously pursued. Conditional upon an accident occurring, precipitation scavenging appears to dominate the variance of the consequences

  8. Summary of safety evaluation toxicity studies of glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, E; Leist, K H; Mayer, D

    1990-05-01

    This article reviews the results of toxicity studies to evaluate the safety of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA) and its formulation (200 g/litre) in laboratory animals. The data show that GLA and its formulation are slightly toxic following oral exposure. In addition, the formulation induced GLA and its formulation are slightly toxic following oral exposure. In addition, the formulation induced slight dermal toxicity and eye irritation. Testing for teratogenicity in rats and rabbits indicated no teratogenic potential, and numerous mutagenicity tests showed GLA to be non-genotoxic. Chronic toxicity testing in rats and dogs yielded no-observable-effect levels of 2 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Oncogenicity studies in rats and mice revealed no carcinogenic potential. On the basis of these toxicity data it is concluded that this herbicide is safe under conditions of recommended use.

  9. Contributions to safety studies for new concepts of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdu, F.

    2003-12-01

    The complete study of molten salt reactors, designed for a massive and durable nuclear energy production, must include neutronics, hydraulics and thermal effects. This coupled study, using the MCNP and Trio U codes, is undertaken in the case of the MSRE (molten salt reactor experiment) prototype. The obtained results fit very well the experiment. Their extrapolation suggests ways of improving the safety coefficients of power molten salt reactors. A second part is devoted to accelerator driven subcritical reactors, developed to incinerate radioactive waste.We propose a method to measure the prompt reactivity from the decay following a neutron pulse. It relies only on the distribution of times between generations, which is a characteristic of the reactor. This method is implemented on the results of the MUSE 4 experiment, and the obtained reactivity is accurate within 5%. (author)

  10. Safety of SSRIs during pregnancy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, A C; De Gaspari, I F; Rovera, C; Colombo, E M; Mauri, M C; Fedele, L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of our study was to analyze the efficacy and the safety of SSRIs during pregnancy. A group of 30 pregnant women affected by Major Depressive Disorder by SCID I interview (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision criteria) and treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were included in the study. They were matched to a comparison group of 26 pregnant women. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the pregnancy outcomes of interest between the treated women and comparison group. There was no statistically significant association in newborns of women treated with an SSRI and the control group in the first and fifth minute Apgar score, and no newborns were admitted to neonatal Intensive Care Units. No definitive association between use of SSRIs during pregnancy and an increased risk of birth defects or other adverse outcomes could be found. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Consequence model of the German reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Aldrich, D.; Burkart, K.; Horsch, F.; Hubschmann, W.; Schueckler, M.; Vogt, S.

    1979-01-01

    The consequency model developed for phase A of the German Reactor Safety Study (RSS) is similar in many respects to its counterpart in WASH-1400. As in that previous study, the model describes the atmosphere dispersion and transport of radioactive material released from the containment during a postulated reactor accident, and predicts its interaction with and influence on man. Differences do exist between the two models however, for the following reasons: (1) to more adequately reflect central European conditions, (2) to include improved submodels, and (3) to apply additional data and knowledge that have become available since publication of WASH-1400. The consequence model as used in phase A of the German RSS is described, highlighting differences between it and the U.S. model

  12. 77 FR 43090 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section... Secretary, Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and...

  13. 75 FR 42455 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Safety and Occupational Health Study Section... Secretary, Safety and Occupational Health Study Section, Department of Health and Human Services, 1600... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and...

  14. Observational Study on Safety of Prehospital BLS CPAP in Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Novneet; Matthews, Patrick; Groner, Kathryn; Papas, Mia A; Megargel, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves outcomes in patients with respiratory distress. Additional benefits are seen with CPAP application in the prehospital setting. Theoretical safety concerns regarding Basic Life Support (BLS) providers using CPAP exist. In Delaware's (USA) two-tiered Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system, BLS often arrives before Advanced Life Support (ALS). Hypothesis This study fills a gap in literature by evaluating the safety of CPAP applied by BLS prior to ALS arrival. This was a retrospective, observational study using Quality Assurance (QA) data collected from October 2009 through December 2012 throughout a state BLS CPAP pilot program; CPAP training was provided to BLS providers prior to participation. Collected data include pulse-oximetry (spO2), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), skin color, and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) before and after CPAP application. Pre-CPAP and post-CPAP values were compared using McNemar's and t-tests. Advanced practitioners evaluated whether CPAP was correctly applied and monitored and whether the patient condition was "improved," "unchanged," or "worsened." Seventy-four patients received CPAP by BLS; CPAP was correctly indicated and applied for all 74 patients. Respiratory status and CPAP were appropriately monitored and documented in the majority of cases (98.6%). A total of 89.2% of patients improved and 4.1% worsened; CPAP significantly reduced the proportion of patients with SpO224, and cyanosis (PCPAP (mean difference [MD]=0.17; 95% CI, -0.49 to 0.83; P=.59). The HR decreased from 115.7 (SD=53) to 105.1 (SD=37) after CPAP (MD=-10.9; 95% CI, -3.2 to -18.6; PCPAP (MD=17.8; 95% CI, 14.2-21.5; PCPAP was indicated, to apply it correctly, and to appropriately monitor the status of these patients. The majority of patients who received CPAP by BLS providers had improvement in their clinical status and vital signs. The findings suggest that CPAP can be safely used by BLS providers

  15. A study on LAN applications in nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung; Lee, Young Ryul; Koo, Jun Mo; Han, Jai Bok

    1995-01-01

    It is a general tendency to digitalize the conventional relay based I and C systems in nuclear power plant. But, the digitalisation of nuclear safety systems has many a difficulty to surmount. The typical one thing of many difficulties is the data communication problem between local controllers and systems. The network architecture built with LAN (Local Area Network) in digital systems of the other industries are general. But in case of nuclear safety systems many considerations in point of safety and license are required to implement it in the field. In this parer, some considerations for applying LAN in nuclear safety systems were reviewed

  16. Present status of nuclear power safety studies in JAERI, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Securing safety in the development and utilization of nuclear power is the prerequisite, and in order to maintain the safety of nuclear power facilities at level corresponding to the expansion and diversification of nuclear power development and utilization, it is necessary to promote the safety research. The reliable evaluation of environmental effect and the safe disposal of radioactive waste are the indispensable conditions. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the research on the engineering safety of nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the research on the environmental safety related to environmental radiation and the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste. In this book, the researches on the safety of reactor fuel, the reliability of reactor machinery and equipment and structures, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of reactors at the time of accidents, the behavior of reactors at the time of severe accidents, the analytical research on the safety of reactors, the researches on the safety of nuclear fuel cycle, the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, the assessment and analysis of environmental radiation and radioactivity, and the individual researches related to nuclear power safety are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na 2 NiFe(CN) 6

  18. Comparative assessment of the efficacy and safety of sertaconazole (2%) cream versus terbinafine cream (1%) versus luliconazole (1%) cream in patients with dermatophytoses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerajani, Hr; Janaki, C; Kumar, Sharath; Phiske, Meghana

    2013-01-01

    Sertaconazole is a new, broad spectrum, fungicidal and fungistatic imidazole with added antipruritic and anti-inflammatory activity that would provide greater symptomatic relief and hence would be beneficial in improving the quality of life for the patient with dermatophytoses. To compare efficacy and safety of sertaconazole, terbinafine and luliconazole in patients with dermatophytoses. 83 patients with tinea corporis and tinea cruris infections were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open label parallel study. The initial 'Treatment Phase' involved three groups receiving either sertaconazole 2% cream applied topically twice daily for four weeks, terbinafine 1% cream once daily for two weeks, luliconazole 1% cream once daily for two weeks. At the end of treatment phase, there was a 'Follow-up Phase' at end of 2 weeks, where the patients were assessed clinically and mycologically for relapse. Of the 83 patients, 62 completed the study, sertaconazole (n = 20), terbinafine (n = 22) and luliconazole (n = 20). The primary efficacy variables including change in pruritus, erythema, vesicle, desquamation and mycological cure were significantly improved in all the three groups, as compared to baseline, in the Treatment and Follow-up phase. Greater proportion of patients in sertaconazole group (85%) showed resolution of pruritus as compared to terbinafine (54.6%); and luliconazole (70%), (P terbinafine). There was a greater reduction in mean total composite score (pruritus, erythema, vesicle and desquamation) in sertaconazole group (97.1%) as compared to terbinafine (91.2%) and luliconazole (92.9%). All groups showed equal negative mycological assessment without any relapses. All three study drugs were well tolerated. Only one patient in sertaconazole group withdrew from the study due to suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Sertaconazole was better than terbinafine and luliconazole in relieving signs and symptoms during study and follow up period. At the end of

  19. On Safety Management. A Frame of Reference for Studies of Safety Management with Examples From Non-Nuclear Contexts of Relevance for Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka; Allwin, Pernilla (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2004-11-15

    A good knowledge about safety management from risk technologies outside the area of nuclear power may contribute to both broaden the perspectives on safety management in general, and point at new opportunities for improving safety measures within the nuclear industry. First, a theoretical framework for the study of safety management in general is presented, followed by three case studies on safety management from different non-nuclear areas with potential relevance for nuclear safety. The chapters are written as separate reports and can be read independently of each other. The nuclear industry has a long experience about the management of risky activities, involving all the stages from planing to implementation, both on a more generalized level and in the specific branches of activities (management, administration, operation, maintenance, etc.). Here, safety management is a key concept related to these areas of activities. Outside the field of nuclear power there exist a number of different non-nuclear risk technologies, each one with their own specific needs and experiences about safety management. The differences between the areas consist partly of the different experiences caused by the different technologies. Besides using own experiences in safety practices within the own areas of activities, it may be profitable to take advantage in knowledge and experiences from one area and put it in practice in another area. In order to facilitate knowledge transfer from one technological area to another it may be possible to adapt a common theoretical model, for descriptions and explanations, to the different technologies. Such a model should admit that common denominators for safety management across the areas might be identified and described with common concepts. Systems theory gives the opportunity to not only create models that are descriptive for events within the limits of a given technology, but also to generate knowledge that can be transferred to other

  20. Assessment of Safety Condition in One of the Teaching Hospitals in Kermanshah (2015: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masod Ghanbari Kakavand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Many working conditions-related stress factors that can produce injuries and illnesses are important in hospital environments. So, the health and safety of nurses and patients from workplace-induced injuries and illnesses is important. In this study, we have assessed the safety condition of one of the teaching hospitals in Kermanshah (2015. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of medical sciences. For this aim a checklist was prepared based on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's standards and Part 3 of the manual of National Building Regulations. These checklists comprised (The final checklist had 239 questions of 9 dimensions various sections of safety including; fire safety, building safety, electrical safety, emergency exit routes safety, heating and cooling equipment safety, operating room and laundry room and salty home safety. Eventually, using SPSS 16 and descriptive statistics, data were analyzed. Results: According to the results of this study, 66.6% of the units had poor safety and 33.4% of them were moderately safe. As well as, only ICU and CCU unit, heating and cooling equipment and operational room showed moderate compliance with safety requirements and other sections were poorly complied. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that safety conditions of hospital were not at favorable level. These poor safety statues can jeopardize patients and hospital personnel. Thus some interventions such as improvement of working conditions, compliance with safety acts and implementation of health, safety and environmental management system would be necessary.

  1. Key aspects in managing safety when working with multiple contractors: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Rasmussen, H.B.; Ustailieva, E.; Kampen, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Working with multiple contractors in a shared workplace can introduce and increase safety risks due to complexity. The aim of this study was to explore how safety issues are recognized in a specific case and to identify whether clients and contractors perceive problems similarly. The safety issues

  2. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others

    1992-12-01

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria

  3. Brain Magnetic Resonance Elastography on Healthy Volunteers: A Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang-Rui Liu; Pei-Yi Gao; Yan Lin; Jing Xue; Xiao-Chun Wang; Bin-Bin Sui; Li Ma; Zhi-Nong Xi; Qin Bai; Hao Shen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a recently developed imaging technique that can directly visualize and quantitatively measure tissue elasticity. Purpose: To evaluate the safety of brain MRE on human subjects. Material and Methods: The study included 20 healthy volunteers. MRE sequence scan (drive signal not applied to external force actuator) and MRE study were separately performed on each volunteer at an interval of more than 24 hours. The heart rate and blood pressure of each volunteer were measured immediately before and after MRE sequence scan and MRE study. Electroencephalography (EEG) was also performed within 2 hours after each scan. The volunteers were asked about their experience of the two scans. Randomized-block analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data of blood pressure and heart rate. Paired t test was used to analyze the data of the two EEG examinations. The volunteers were followed up 1 week after the examination. Results: All procedures were performed on each volunteer, and no one complained of obvious discomfort. No related adverse events were reported during follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in heart rate or blood pressure. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in EEG results in the right temporoparietal region. Increased power was found in the theta, delta, alpha, and beta2 bands. No brain injury was detected by the EEG examinations. Conclusion: Based on the study results, brain MRE examinations are safe to perform on human subjects

  4. Maintaining and Researching Port Safety: A Case Study of the Port of Kaohsiung

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Po-Hsing.; Pilcher, Nick.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining port safety in full conformity with IMO standards is a requisite for every port and country. To do this, understanding the challenges and human factors involved is key. To date, much research has shed valuable light on these factors and considered how to address them. One aspect that is often noted is that both maintaining port safety and researching port safety presents numerous challenges. This paper considers both these aspects in the context of a case study of port safety in K...

  5. Study on safety subsidiary objective of nuclear power plant in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Zhang Chunming; Fu Zhiwei; Song Wei; Li Chaojun; Wang Zhe; Zuo Jiaxu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of the quantitative safety objective and subsidiary objective in USA. The expressions of CDF and LERF were obtained according to NUREG-1150. The relationship between the subsidiary objective and the quantitative safety objective was derived. The method was compared with that used in NUREG-1860. The requirements of safety objective for the future nuclear power plant and the development of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) technology in USA were studied and can be used as reference in China. (authors)

  6. An integrative review of patient safety in studies on the care and safety of patients with communication disabilities in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Bronwyn; Georgiou, Andrew; Hill, Sophie; Rollo, Megan; Steel, Joanne; Balandin, Susan

    2016-04-01

    To review the research literature on the experiences of patients with communication disabilities in hospital according to the Generic Model of patient safety. In 2014 and 2015, we searched four scientific databases for studies with an aim or result relevant to safety of hospital patients with communication disabilities. The review included 27 studies. A range of adverse event types were outlined in qualitative research. Little detail was provided about contributing or protective factors for safety incidents in hospital for these patients or the impact of the incidents on the patient or organisations involved. Further research addressing the safety of patients with communication disabilities is needed. Sufficient detail is required to identify the nature, timing, and detection of incidents; factors that contribute to or prevent adverse events; and detail the impact of the adverse events. In order to provide safe and effective care to people with communication disabilities in hospital, a priority for health and disability services must be the design and evaluation of ecologically appropriate and evidence-based interventions to improve patient care, communication, and reduce the risk of costly and harmful patient safety incidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of health and safety committees. A study based on survey, interview, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, L I; Hall, J A; Levenstein, C; Punnett, L

    1984-11-01

    In a study conducted to determine if the existence of a joint labor-management health and safety committee (HSC) was correlated with either the number of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) complaints or hazardousness, as measured by OSHA serious citations, virtually no effect could be detected in a sample of 127 Massachusetts manufacturing firms. At a sample of 13 firms, interviews of HSC members were conducted. Committee attributes and perceptions about committee effectiveness were compared with the number of OSHA complaints and serious citations. There were fewer complaints and fewer serious citations at firms with HSCs that were perceived as effective. Results of the study suggest that the objective attributes of the committee may be less important to its success than the commitment of management and labor to solving workplace safety problems.

  8. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  9. Safety studies on LOCA for N.S. Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masayuki; Yaguchi, Shinnosuke

    1978-01-01

    A number of safety studies are under way concerning the reactor plant of N.S. Mutsu. One such study relates to Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA), which has been conducted to cover mainly the two subjects of experiments to ascertain the integrity of stainless steel fuel cladding under the action of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), and analysis of containment integrity following a LOCA. The stainless steel cladding tests were conducted to test swelling, rupture, oxidation and compression characteristics. Few reports are known to have been published in this domain, so that the present results should prove useful for future studies related to ECCS evaluation analyses on stainless steel fuel cladding. The containment integrity analysis covered variations of containment pressure and temperature following a LOCA, performed separately for short- and long-term periods. Estimates were also made on the changes in the hydrogen concentration present inside the containment after a LOCA. The results obtained should serve in determining the characteristic response to LOCA of marine reactor plants

  10. A study for safety and health management problem of semiconductor industry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chin-Jung; Wang, Hui-Ming; Feng, Wen-Yang; Tseng, Feng-Yi

    2008-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to discuss and explore the safety and health management in semiconductor industry. The researcher practically investigates and interviews the input, process and output of the safety and health management of semiconductor industry by using the questionnaires and the interview method which is developed according to the framework of the OHSAS 18001. The result shows that there are six important factors for the safety and health management in Taiwan semiconductor industry. 1. The company should make employee clearly understand the safety and health laws and standards. 2. The company should make the safety and health management policy known to the public. 3. The company should put emphasis on the pursuance of the safety and health management laws. 4. The company should prevent the accidents. 5. The safety and health message should be communicated sufficiently. 6. The company should consider safety and health norm completely.

  11. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  12. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotov, Dobromir, E-mail: dobromir.panayotov@f4e.europa.eu; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  13. Present status of nuclear power safety studies in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carries out the safety research required for ensuring safety accompanying the development and utilization of atomic energy, dividing the roles with industrial circules, universities and other public research institutes. First, it carries out the research based on the yearly program of safety research, in which the subjects of safety research that the state should execute are decided. Next, it carries out a series of the safety verification test on atomic energy facilities entrusted by the state using the special account for power source development promotion countermeasures. Besides, it carries out the safety research on the specific subjects entrusted by outside organizations. The object and range of atomic energy safety at present are roughly divided into four fields, that is, nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel facilities, waste treatment and disposal, and environmental radioactivity. In order to advance the research effectively, in addition to the generalization department and the execution department, various committees are organized. In 1988, about 260 persons engaged in these four research fields, and the budget for fiscal year 1988 was about 17.4 billion yen. (K.I.)

  14. Progress in the development of methodology for fusion safety systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.K.; Cambi, G.; Ciattaglia, S.; Fujii-e, Y.; Seki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The development of fusion safety systems-study methodology, including the aspects of schematic classification of overall fusion safety system, qualitative assessment of fusion system for identification of critical accident scenarios, quantitative analysis of accident consequences and risk for safety design evaluation, and system-level analysis of accident consequences and risk for design optimization, by a consortium of international efforts is presented. The potential application of this methodology into reactor design studies will facilitate the systematic assessment of safety performance of reactor designs and enhance the impacts of safety considerations on the selection of design configurations

  15. Study on application of safety checklist in preventive maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Chen Song; Liu Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the principles and the characteristics of safety checklist as a risk evaluation method. Examples of application of safety checklists to preventive maintenance activities such as criteria comparison and checkup items in place in nuclear power plants are illustrated in details with issues appeared in the checklist establishment. Checklist has a good application in the RCM analysis or in the actual preventive maintenance program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant indicated by concrete instances. In the light of safety checklist which is used to sustain preventive maintenance as a simple and applicable risk analysis approach, we can get deep knowledge of risks of nuclear power plant to perfect preventive maintenance activities. (authors)

  16. Contractors’ Attitude towards Enhancing Safety Performance: Case Study on Construction Firms in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to investigate the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the safety performance in construction site. Despite the fact that there are many safety initiatives established by the government, the rates of accidents are still in a critically high condition. Thus the purpose of this research is to study the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the implementation of safety management system in construction site in order to increase the safety awareness of construction practitioners in construction site and improve the safety condition of construction sites. This study is conducted through oral interviews with the construction practitioners, and visual inspection of construction sites. The attitudes of contractors are evaluated from 3 aspects: Contractors’ efforts in implement and enforce the safety rules, Contractors efforts in overcoming the rate of accidents, and Reasons given by the contractors for not implement safety law.

  17. Bridging probabilistic safety assessment studies with information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luanco, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a critical business often known in conjunction with either new build or life extension of nuclear power plant. However, it is not so often referred to the operation phase of the plant, although it could bring a lot of long term benefits to the operator. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential contribution of PSA with day to day operation in bridging the deficiencies and specific failures characteristics of critical Structure System and Component (SSC) with the results of PSA studies. From and Information System prospective, the use of Information Management system (IMS) -also known as EAM solution -widely used by the majority of nuclear operators- is the potential vehicle to bridge the 2 worlds of PSA and daily operation. Most EAM solution get reliability management functionalities which are not really integrated with PSA tools and data and thus cannot provide the anticipated benefits of addressing typical aging phenomena beyond the only predictive models used by the PSA studies. The paper will also discuss potential integration scenario between PSA tools and EAM solutions. (authors)

  18. Probabilistic seismic safety study of an existing nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Cornell, C.A.; Kaplan, S.; Perla, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of an overall safety study of the Oyster Creek nuclear power plant. The earthquake hazard was considered as an initiating event that could result in radioactive release from the site as a result of core melt. The probability of earthquake initiated releases were compared with the probability of releases due to other initiating events. Three steps are necessary to evaluate the probability of earthquake initiated core melt. (1) estimate the ground motion (peak ground acceleration) and uncertainty in this estimate as functions of annual probability of occurrence; (2) estimate the conditional probability of failure and its uncertainty for structures, equipment, piping, controls, etc., as functions of ground acceleration; and (3) combine these estimates to obtain probabilities of earthquake induced failure and uncertainties in such estimates to be used in event trees, system models, and fault trees for evaluating the probability of earthquake induced core melt. This paper concentrates on the first two steps with emphasis on step 2. The major difference between the work presented and previous papers is the development and use of uncertainty estimates for both the ground motion probability estimates and the conditional probability of failure estimates. (orig.)

  19. Measuring mobile patient safety information system success: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Wen-Yuan; Chao, Chia-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    The Health Risk Reminders and Surveillance (HRRS) system was designed to deliver critical abnormal test results of severely ill patients from Laboratory, Radiology, and Pathology departments to physicians within 5 min using cell phone text messages. This paper explores the success of the HRRS system. This study employed an augmented version of the DeLone and McLean IS success model. Seven variables (system quality, information quality, system use, user satisfaction, mobile healthcare anxiety, impact on the individual and impact on the organization) were used to evaluate the success of the HRRS system. The interrelationships between the seven variables were hypothesized and the hypotheses were empirically tested. The results indicate that the information quality of the HRRS system is positively associated with both system use and user satisfaction. In addition, system use is positively associated with user satisfaction, which is also positively associated with mobile healthcare anxiety. Moreover, results indicate that impact on the individual is positively associated with both user satisfaction and mobile healthcare anxiety. Finally, the impact of the organization is positively associated with impact on the individual. The results of the study provide an expanded understanding of the factors that contribute to mobile patient safety information system (IS) success. Implications of the relationship between system use and physician mobile healthcare anxiety are discussed.

  20. Nuclear power and the public safety: a study in regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolph, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    The large-scale introduction of new substances and new technologies into our habitat has been cause for growing alarm. Over the past decade we have come to rely more and more on government regulation to protect us from the hidden dangers of these new products. But how can a regulatory authority set standards when there are enormous uncertainties about consequences of use. How can it satisfy a large, pluralistic society where some take risks easily and others do not. How can it provide the stability needed by industrial decision makers, yet maintain the flexibility to change as information or circumstances change. As the history of the Atomic Energy Commission dramatically illustrates, these are very real problems. And this study of the evolution of AEC's policies, practices, and effectiveness from its creation in 1954 to its demise in 1974 provides an illuminating exploration of the interaction of technical development, economic imperatives, and regulatory mandate. In conclusions drawn from her incisive analysis of the AEC experience, Rolph notes that regulatory bodies must: recognize their political identity; they must be open and responsive; have strong, aggressive information gathering capabilities; and be prepared to pace the evolution and commercial use of the technology they control. Although this study concentrates on a single agency, it explores issues and draws lessons probably common to most regulatory authorities responsible for public safety

  1. Motorcycle safety device investigation: A case study on airbags

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis methods for research evaluation of rider crash protective devices fitted to ... The safety evaluation is then based on simulation of the 200 impact types. ... with recording of ISO 13232 car-front impact tests to evaluate the qualitative.

  2. Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; McCabe, Brenda; Hyatt, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry. The research was based on 837 surveys collected in Ontario between June 2015 and June 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to explore the impact of individual resilience and safety climate on physical safety outcomes and on psychological stress among construction workers. The results show that safety climate not only affected construction workers' safety performance but also indirectly affected their psychological stress. In addition, it was found that individual resilience had a direct negative impact on psychological stress but had no impact on physical safety outcomes. These findings highlight the roles of both organizational and individual factors in individual safety performance and in psychological well-being. Construction organizations need to not only monitor employees' safety performance, but also to assess their employees' psychological well-being. Promoting a positive safety climate together with developing training programs focusing on improving employees' psychological health - especially post-trauma psychological

  3. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  4. Adolescents' Perceptions of Safety at School and Their Solutions for Enhancing Safety and Reducing School Violence: A Rural Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    An exploratory study of a small rural high school in upstate New York investigated students' perceptions of safety at school and empowered students to develop solutions to school violence. A mixed-methods approach drew on action research, youth-based phenomenology, and a general systems frame of reference. Data collection included two surveys of…

  5. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boubaker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety, a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing culture has been devised and distributed to residents. 228 responses have been collected and analyzed. Using a scale similar to the one adopted for a university student GPA calculation, the electrical safety level (ESL in Hail region has been found to be 0.76 (in a scale of 4 points which is a very low score and indicates a poor electrical safety culture. Several recommendations involving different competent authorities have been proposed. Future work will concern the assessment of safety in industrial companies in Hail region.

  6. Ferrocyanide safety project ferrocyanide aging studies FY 1995 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Alderson, E.V.; Hallen, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1995 on Task 3 of the Ferrocyanide Safety Project, Ferrocyanide Aging Studies. Aging refers to the dissolution and hydrolysis of simulated Hanford ferrocyanide waste in alkaline aqueous solutions by radiolytic and chemical means. The ferrocyanide simulant primarily used in these studies was dried In-Farm-1B, Rev. 7, prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company to simulate the waste generated when the In-Farm flowsheet was used to remove radiocesium from waste supernates in single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. In the In-Farm flowsheet, nickel ion and ferrocyanide anion were added to waste supernates to precipitate sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na 2 NiFe(CN) 6 , and co-precipitate radiocesium. Once the radiocesium was removed, supernates were pumped from the tanks, and new wastes from cladding removal processes or from evaporators were added. These new wastes were typically highly caustic, having hydroxide ion concentrations of over 1 M and as high as 4 M. The Aging Studies task is investigating reactions this caustic waste may have had with the precipitated ferrocyanide waste in a radiation field. In previous Aging Studies research, Na 2 NiFe(CN) 6 in simulants was shown to dissolve in basic solutions, forming insoluble Ni(OH) 2 and soluble Na 4 Fe(CN) 6 . The influence on solubility of base strength, sodium ion concentration, anions, and temperature was previously investigated. The results may indicate that even ferrocyanide sludge that did not come into direct contact with highly basic wastes may also have aged significantly

  7. Safety of the yellow Fever vaccine: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, James D; Parker, Emily D; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Naleway, Allison; Marcy, S Michael; Molitor, Beth; Kuckler, Leslie; Baggs, James

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe; however, severe illness and death following vaccination have been reported. Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) and US Department of Defense (DoD) data were used to identify adverse reactions following YF vaccination. Within the VSD, YF-vaccine-exposed subjects were compared to age-, site-, and gender-matched unexposed subjects. YF-vaccine-exposed DoD subjects were studied using a risk-interval design. For both cohorts, ICD-9 codes were analyzed for allergic and local reactions, mild systemic reactions, and possible visceral and neurologic adverse events (AEs). The VSD cohort received 47,159 doses from 1991 through 2006. The DoD cohort received 1.12 million doses from 1999 through 2007. Most subjects received other vaccines simultaneously. In the VSD cohort, rates of allergic, local, and mild systemic reactions were not statistically different between YF-vaccine-exposed and -unexposed subjects. In the DoD, there was an increased risk for outpatient allergic events in the period following vaccination with YF and other vaccines rate ratios [RR 3.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.35-4.41] but with no increased risk for inpatient allergic reactions. In both cohorts, inpatient ICD-9 codes for visceral events were significantly less common following vaccination; inpatient codes for neurologic events were less common in the VSD YF-vaccine-exposed adult cohort, but did not differ between exposed and unexposed periods in the DoD. In the DoD, one fatal case of YF-vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YF-vaccine-AVD) was detected. The estimated death rate was 0.89 for 1,000,000 YF vaccine doses (95% CI 0.12-6.31/1,000,000 doses). No YF vaccine-associated deaths occurred in the VSD. In these closed cohorts we did not detect increased risk for visceral or neurologic events following YF vaccination. The death rate following YF vaccine was consistent with previous reports. These data support current recommendations for use of YF

  8. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  9. A safety study on the wet storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Hoo Kun; Choi, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Geun

    1989-02-01

    This study is to provide data related with a basic design of the spent fuel storage facility in the field of radiation and to establish the safety assessment methodology of away from reactor spent fuel storage facility. This is in progress and continue upto the year of 1991. The mathematical model which predict the quantity of environmental release of fission and corrosion products from spent fuel received and stored in wet storage facility operated in normal conditions was prepared. The decay characteristic of domestic spent fuels are analysed and then the coefficients for the prediction of the decay heat by simple formular was determined. This correlations could predict decay heat of spent fuel with ±10% difference from ORIGEN2 results. The release factor of cobalt out of PWR spent fuel in PIE pool is 7.97 x 10-12∼8.49 x 10-11 Ci/ sec-rod, which appears to be linear without being connected with the types of fuel defects, but that of cesium varies with the defect type and the exposure time in water. In water condition, release factor of uranium out of CANDU fuel pellets appears to be about 5 x 10-8/day, whose tendency is similar to that of cesium of the latter half of the exposure time of water. (Author)

  10. A study on safety measure of LMR coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Choi, Y D; Choi, J H; Kim, T J; Jeong, K C; Kwon, S W; Kim, B H; Jeong, J Y; Park, J H; Kim, K R; Jo, B R

    1997-08-01

    A study on safety measures of LMR coolant showed the results as follows: 1. Sodium fire characteristics. A. Sodium pool temp., gas temp., oxygen concentration calculated by flame combustion model were generally higher than those calculated by surface combustion model. B. Basic and detail designs for medium sodium fire test facility were carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. 2. Sodium/Cover gas purification technology. A. Construction and operation of calibration loop. B. Purification analysis and conceptual design of the packing for a cold trap. 3. Analysis of sodium-water reaction characteristics. We have investigated the characteristics analysis for micro and small leaks phenomena, development of the computer code for analysis of initial and quasi steady-state spike pressures to analyze large leak accident. Also, water mock-up test facility for the analysis of large leak accident phenomena was designed and manufactured. 4. Development of water leak detection technology. Detection signals were appeared when the hydrogen detector is operated to Ar-H{sub 2} gas system. The technology for the passive acoustic detection with respect to large leakage of water into sodium media was reviewed. And water mock-up test equipment and instrument system were designed and constructed. (author). 19 refs., 45 tabs., 52 figs.

  11. A study on safety measure of LMR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Choi, Y. D.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Kwon, S. W.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Park, J. H.; Kim, K. R.; Jo, B. R.

    1997-08-01

    A study on safety measures of LMR coolant showed the results as follows: 1. Sodium fire characteristics. A. Sodium pool temp., gas temp., oxygen concentration calculated by flame combustion model were generally higher than those calculated by surface combustion model. B. Basic and detail designs for medium sodium fire test facility were carried out and medium sodium fire test facility was constructed. 2. Sodium/Cover gas purification technology. A. Construction and operation of calibration loop. B. Purification analysis and conceptual design of the packing for a cold trap. 3. Analysis of sodium-water reaction characteristics. We have investigated the characteristics analysis for micro and small leaks phenomena, development of the computer code for analysis of initial and quasi steady-state spike pressures to analyze large leak accident. Also, water mock-up test facility for the analysis of large leak accident phenomena was designed and manufactured. 4. Development of water leak detection technology. Detection signals were appeared when the hydrogen detector is operated to Ar-H 2 gas system. The technology for the passive acoustic detection with respect to large leakage of water into sodium media was reviewed. And water mock-up test equipment and instrument system were designed and constructed. (author). 19 refs., 45 tabs., 52 figs

  12. Abstract of results of safety study. Nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This report descried the results of studies of nuclear fuel cycle field (nuclear fuel facilities, seismic design, all subjects of environmental radiation and waste disposal, and subjects on nuclear fuel cycle in probabilistic safety assessment) in fiscal 2003 on the basis of the principle project of safety study (from fiscal 2001 to 2005). It consists of four chapters; the first chapter is outline of the principle of project, the second is objects and subjects of safety study in the nuclear fuel cycle field, the third list of questionnaire of results of safety study and the forth investigation of results of safety study in fiscal 2003. There are 49 lists, which include 22 reports on the nuclear fuel facility, one on the seismic design, 4 on the probabilistic safety assessment, 7 on the environmental radiation and 15 on the waste disposal. (S.Y.)

  13. Triptan safety during pregnancy: a Norwegian population registry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on triptan safety during pregnancy remains limited to their class effect or studies on sumatriptan. Our aim was to evaluate the individual effect of four most frequently used triptans on several pregnancy outcomes. We used the Norwegian prescription database to access information on triptans redeemed by pregnant women living in Norway between 2004 and 2007. This database was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway covering every institutional delivery in Norway and providing information on pregnancy, delivery, maternal and neonatal health. Estimates of associations with pregnancy outcomes were obtained by Generalised Estimation Equations analysis. Of the 181,125 women in our study, 1,465 (0.8 %) redeemed triptans during pregnancy, and 1,095 (0.6 %) redeemed triptans before pregnancy only (disease comparison group). The population comparison group comprised the remaining 178,565 women. Using this group as reference, we found no associations between triptan redemption during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Second trimester redemption was associated with postpartum haemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.19–2.07). The disease comparison group had an increased risk of major congenital malformations (adjusted OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.11–1.97), low birth weight (adjusted OR 1.39; 95 % CI 1.08–1.81), and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.06–1.60). The association of triptans with postpartum hemorrhage could be attributable to decreased platelet agreeability occurring in severe migraine. Likewise, the increased risk of major congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in the disease comparison group might be attributable to migraine severity

  14. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  15. Simulation study of coal mine safety investment based on system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lei; Dou Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    To generate dynamic planning for coal mine safety investment, this study applies system dynamics to decision-making, classifying safety investments by accident type. It validates the relationship between safety investments and accident cost, by structurally analyzing the causality between safety investments and their influence factors. Our simulation model, based on Vensim software, conducts simulation anal-ysis on a series of actual data from a coalmine in Shanxi Province. Our results indicate a lag phase in safety investments, and that increasing pre-phase safety investment reduces accident costs. We found that a 24%increase in initial safety investment could help reach the target accident costs level 14 months earlier. Our simulation test included nine kinds of variation trends of accident costs brought by different investment ratios on accident prevention. We found an optimized ratio of accident prevention invest-ments allowing a mine to reach accident cost goals 4 months earlier, without changing its total investment.

  16. Patient safety challenges in a case study hospital--of relevance for transfusion processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Karina; Høyland, Sindre; Olsen, Espen; Wiig, Siri; Nilsen, Stein Tore

    2008-10-01

    The paper reports results from a research project with the objective of studying patient safety, and relates the finding to safety issues within transfusion medicine. The background is an increased focus on undesired events related to diagnosis, medication, and patient treatment in general in the healthcare sector. The study is designed as a case study within a regional Norwegian hospital conducting specialised health care services. The study includes multiple methods such as interviews, document analysis, analysis of error reports, and a questionnaire survey. Results show that the challenges for improved patient safety, based on employees' perceptions, are hospital management support, reporting of accidents/incidents, and collaboration across hospital units. Several of these generic safety challenges are also found to be of relevance for a hospital's transfusion service. Positive patient safety factors are identified as teamwork within hospital units, a non-punitive response to errors, and unit manager's actions promoting safety.

  17. Socio-technological study for establishing comprehensive nuclear safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kanno, Taro; Yagi, Ekou; Shuto, Yuki

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and preliminary results of a research project on social-technology for nuclear safety, which started in October 2001. In particular, emergency response preparedness against nuclear disaster and consensus development will be discussed. The architecture of an emergency response simulator will be given, which is for assessing design of disaster prevention systems. A conceptual model of evacuation behavior of a resident has been constructed from analysis of past disaster cases. As for consensus development, deliberation spaces of actual committee meetings were constructed by analyzing transcripts of the meetings based on an opinion schema. A model of consensus development process has been proposed from the traces of participants' opinions over the deliberation spaces. Such a socio-technological approach will be useful not only for nuclear safety but also for safety of non-nuclear domains and human activities of a high hazard potential; it is expected to contribute to establishing risk-aware society of the future. (author)

  18. Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

  19. STUDY ON SAFETY TECHNOLOGY SCHEME OF THE UNMANNED HELICOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the unmanned helicopter is widely used for its' unique strongpoint, however, the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter seriously limits its further application and development. For solving the above problems, in this paper, the reasons for the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter is analyzed and the corresponding solution schemes are proposed. The main problem of the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is the aircraft engine fault, and the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is analyzed particularly. In order to improving the safety performance of unmanned helicopter system, the scheme of adding the safety parachute system to the unmanned helicopter system is proposed and introduced. These schemes provide the safety redundancy of the unmanned helicopter system and lay on basis for the unmanned helicopter applying into residential areas.

  20. A study on methodologies for assessing safety critical network's risk impact on Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T. J.; Lee, H. J.; Park, S. K.; Seo, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of this project is to investigate and study existing reliability analysis techniques for communication networks in order to develop reliability analysis models for Nuclear Power Plant's safety-critical networks. It is necessary to make a comprehensive survey of current methodologies for communication network reliability. Major outputs of the first year study are design characteristics of safety-critical communication networks, efficient algorithms for quantifying reliability of communication networks, and preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks

  1. Case studies in food microbiology for food safety and quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Pawsey, Rosa K

    2002-01-01

    ... to engage in the learning process, and in so doing learn techniques for learning, and subsequently for applying knowledge. This has been more interesting for me, the teacher, and I think for the students too. This book has grown from my ten years teaching food microbiology and hygiene to post-graduate students in Food Safety and Control at South Bank University, London. It was the decade during which, in the UK, the national policies behind the management of food safety changed rapidly, and this me...

  2. Criticality safety study of shutdown diffusion cascade coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, L.S.; Basoglu, B.; Bentley, C.L.; Dunn, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants use cascade coolers in the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to remove heat from the enriched stream of UF 6 . The cascade coolers operate like shell and tube heat exchangers with the UF 6 on the shell side and Freon on the tube side. Recirculating cooling water (RCW) in condensers is used to cool the Freon. A criticality safety analysis was previously performed for cascade coolers during normal operation. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several different hypothetical accidents regarding RCW ingress into the cooler to determine whether criticality safety concerns exist

  3. Study of fast reactor safety test facilities. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.I.; Boudreau, J.E.; McLaughlin, T.; Palmer, R.G.; Starkovich, V.; Stein, W.E.; Stevenson, M.G.; Yarnell, Y.L.

    1975-05-01

    Included are sections dealing with the following topics: (1) perspective and philosophy of fast reactor safety analysis; (2) status of accident analysis and experimental needs; (3) experiment and facility definitions; (4) existing in-pile facilities; (5) new facility options; and (6) data acquisition methods

  4. Monitoring consumer confidence in food safety: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Wit, de W.; Timmers, J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In response to the potential for negative economic and societal effects resulting from a low level of consumer confidence in food safety, it is important to know how confidence is potentially influenced by external events. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a monitor

  5. Driving Simulator study for intelligent cooperative intersection safety system (IRIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.; Schendzielorz, T.; Mathias, P.; Feenstra, P.

    2008-01-01

    About forty percent of all accidents occur at intersections. The Intelligent Cooperative Intersection Safety system (IRIS), as part of the European research project SAFESPOT, is a roadside application and aims at minimizing the number of accidents at controlled and uncontrolled intersections. IRIS

  6. Understanding lean & safety projects: analysis of case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Crema

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Facing the current socio-economic contingency while guaranteeing a high level of care quality is particularly challenging in the field of healthcare. Through an integrated adoption of emerging managerial solutions, projects that allow organizations to achieve both efficiency and patient safety improvements could be implemented, thereby transposing policy directives towards a safer and more sustainable healthcare system. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the features of Lean & Safety (L&S projects. Three Health Lean Management (HLM projects that had unexpected patient safety results were selected from the same region. Differences and similarities among the cases have been highlighted and interesting points of evidence have been noted. Despite the fact that the projects were pursuing similar objectives and benefiting from comparable support, the obtained changes had direct impact on patient safety enhancement in the cases that involved the front-office processes, and an indirect impact on patient safely for the L&S project that focused on back-office activities. The implementation processes and the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT adoption of the cases are also different.

  7. Ethics in occupational health and safety: case studies from Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jagdish; David, Siddarth

    2016-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation in India is giving employment to millions of people in the formal sector, and many more in the unorganised sector. However, the absence of clear policies, poorly enforced regulations, lack of systematic reporting of occupational diseases, lamentable socioeconomic conditions of the workers and their limited access to healthcare make occupational health and safety (OHS) a critical area.

  8. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2006 ... Environmental Regulation and Food Safety intéressera les artisans des politiques et les ONG , les chercheurs et les spécialistes de l'économie ... This funding will help strengthen the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization's (STIPRO) role as a credible public policy institution in ...

  9. Sun safety in construction: a U.K. intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Madgwick, P; Randall, R

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to promote sun safety in the U.K. construction sector are warranted given the high incidence of skin cancer attributable to sun exposure relative to other occupational groups. To evaluate change in sun safety knowledge and practices among construction workers in response to an educational intervention. A baseline questionnaire was administered, followed by a bespoke sector-specific DVD-based intervention. At 12-month follow-up, participants completed a further questionnaire. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 120 workers (intervention group, n = 70; comparison group, n = 50). At follow-up, the proportion of intervention group participants that reported correct sun safety knowledge was not significantly greater than at baseline. However, the intervention group demonstrated significant positive change on 9 out of 10 behavioural measures, the greatest change being use of a shade/cover when working in the sun followed by regularly checking skin for moles or unusual changes. Exposure to this intervention was linked to some specific positive changes in construction workers' self-reported sun safety practices. These findings highlight the potential for educational interventions to contribute to tackling skin cancer in the UK construction sector. The findings support the development of bespoke educational interventions for other high-risk outdoor worker groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ready to Respond: Case Studies in Campus Safety and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Is your campus primed for the next big emergency? The National Campus Safety and Security Project (NCSSP), led by NACUBO, sought to help colleges and universities develop comprehensive emergency management plans that address the four phases of emergency management: prevention/mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. A major component of…

  11. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse

  12. Status of conceptual safety design study of Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shigenobu; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Niwa, Hajime; Shimakawa, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current conceptual safety design and related evaluation of Japanese Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor which is studied in the framework of the Feasibility Study (FS) on commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems in Japan are described. The purpose of the safety design is to establish a feasible safety concept of FBR which aims at a sustainable energy source of the next generations. The safety targets and the safety design principle are set aiming at realizing worldwide acceptability of the safety level. The basic safety design concept, which can meet the safety targets, was formulated taking along with the defense-in-depth philosophy as the basic safety design principle. In order to cope with wide range of energy and resource demands, there are some various designs both of oxide and metal fuel for JSFR. Some analytical results of typical design basis events, design extension conditions and core damage frequency estimation show the feasibility of the safety design concept for them. (author)

  13. Studies on environment safety and application of advanced reactor for inland nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Jie, L.

    2014-01-01

    To study environment safety assessment of inland nuclear power plants (NPPs), the impact of environment safety under the normal operation was researched and the environment risk of serious accidents was analyzed. Moreover, the requirements and relevant provisions of site selection between international nuclear power plant and China's are comparatively studied. The conclusion was that the environment safety assessment of inland and coastal nuclear power plant have no essential difference; the advanced reactor can meet with high criteria of environment safety of inland nuclear power plants. In this way, China is safe and feasible to develop inland nuclear power plant. China's inland nuclear power plants will be as big market for advanced reactor. (author)

  14. A Study on the Main Steam Safety Valve Opening Mechanism by Flashing on NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bae Joo

    2009-01-01

    A safety injection event happened by opening of the Main Steam Safety Valve at Kori unit 1 on April 16, 2005. The safety valves were opened at the lower system pressure than the valve opening set point due to rapid system pressure drop by opening of the Power Operated Relief Valve installed at the upstream of the Main Steam System. But the opening mechanism of safety valve at the lower set point pressure was not explained exactly. So, it needs to be understood about the safety valve opening mechanism to prevent a recurrence of this kind of event at a similar system of Nuclear Power Plant. This study is aimed to suggest the hydrodynamic mechanism for the safety valve opening at the lower set point pressure and the possibility of the recurrence at similar system conditions through document reviewing for the related previous studies and Kori unit 1 event

  15. Preliminary study on functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tanks is studied. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive flow features in compound type safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the functional performance of a compound type multistage safety injection tank that would be considered one of the components for the passive safety injection systems in nuclear power plants. The effects of key design parameters such as the initial volume fraction and charging pressure of gas, tank elevation, vertical location of a sparger, resistance coefficient, and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. The obtained results indicate that the compound type multistage safety injection tank can effectively control the injection flow rate in a passive manner, by switching the driving force for the safety injection from gas pressure to gravity during the refill and reflood phases, respectively

  16. Central repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (ALMA) conceptual design, siting and safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.; Haeggblom, H.; Cederstroem, M.; Lundgren, T.

    1980-07-01

    A generic design, siting and safety study of a proposed repository for low- and intermediate-level waste has been made. Special emphasis has been placed on safety characterostics. The conceptual design and the generic site, on which the study is based, are realistically chosen in accordance with present construction techniques and the existing geohydrological conditions in Sweden. (Auth.)

  17. Cooperative conflict and contested space: a case study of risk and safety in the steel industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is a journey into the world of risk and safety in the steel industry. The problem statement that is explored in this study relates to the nature of the relationship between safety performance and stakeholders in the steel industry, the nature of the relationships between different stakeholders and the way in which these relationships impact on risk management strategies. The author contends that safety is not a normative or procedural system within the workplace, but rather ...

  18. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  19. Temperature threshold for burn injury: an oximeter safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Lawless, Mary Beth; Chew, Bradford B; Crone, Willem A; Fein, Michael E; Palmieri, Tina L

    2004-01-01

    Pulse oximeters have become essential devices for evaluating and monitoring patient oxygenation. The probe emits a small amount of heat into the skin in the process of signal detection. Regulations set by the Food and Drug Administration currently limit the maximum allowable temperature of an oximeter probe to 41 degrees C. As a result of the prolonged exposure of extremities to these devices, we sought to determine the actual temperature threshold for burn injury in patients. Eighteen patients undergoing surgery for removal of redundant skin (abdominoplasty, breast reduction) consented to the application of a temperature-controlled custom probe with four light-emitting diodes that had temperatures set randomly at the expected threshold for burn injury (42.5 degrees C, 43 degrees C, 43.5 degrees C, and 44 degrees C). The probe was left in place for 8 hours (or less if significant pain was noted). The sites covered by the probes were then checked for signs of injury. On the next day, the redundant skin was removed as a scheduled procedure, and histopathology was performed to detect the extent of burn injury. The study was approved by the local institutional research board. Two patients were excluded because of technical problems with the probe, one of whom had the probe turned off because of pain. The only observed sign of injury was either erythema or a superficial blister that was usually unobservable or slightly red at operation. These subtle signs of a burn were noted in one patient at 43 degrees C, four at 43.5 degrees C, and nine at 44 degrees C. No burns were noted in two patients. Minimal or no signs of injury frequently were noted by histopathology. Pulse oximeter probes are safe up to a temperature of 43 degrees C for at least 8 hours in well-perfused skin. Above that temperature, there is a risk of burn injury. Performing temperature threshold tests in redundant skin that is planned for excision is a potential method for testing the safety of devices or

  20. Studying the Relationship between Individual and Organizational Factors and Nurses' Perception of Patient Safety Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Abdolahzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safety culture is considered as an important factor in improving patient safety. Therefore, identifying individual and organizational factors affecting safety culture is crucial. This study was carried out to determine individual and organizational factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Methods: The present descriptive study included 940 nurses working in four training hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran. Data was collected through the self-report questionnaire of patient safety culture. Descriptive (number, percent, mean, and standard deviation and inferential (t-test and analysis of variance statistics were used to analyze the data in SPSS. Results: Nurses' perception of patient safety culture was significantly correlated with marital status, workplace, and overtime hours. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that some individual and organizational factors can impact on nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Nursing authorities should thus pay more attention to factors which promote patient safety culture and ultimately the safety of provided services.

  1. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  2. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  3. Phenomenological Studies on Sodium for CSP Applications: A Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Sodium as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) can achieve temperatures above 700°C to improve power cycle performance for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF’s (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable latent operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal input power cycles. This advantage could increase the receiver and system efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium systems, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Operation and maintenance experience from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  4. En Route Patient Safety: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Army, Navy, volunteers, and civilians who meet the planes lack proper safety training First-names-only rule • MCD often refuses to give report...record; EMED = emergency medical; GPMRC = Global Patient Movement Requirements Center; MCD = medical crew director; MDG = Medical Group; OI...crews voiced concerns that “the biggest issue as far as taking report from the MCD is it’s always second hand.” However, several nurses who filled

  5. Cost benefit study of a safety campaign's impact on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanová, Hana; Blašková, Veronika

    2018-04-28

    The aim of this paper is to identify a break in the development trend of the time series of the number of fatal, light and heavy injuries in traffic accidents and compare the progress caused by the media campaign named "Think or you'll pay! "in the Czech Republic over the period 2000-2015. The campaign focuses on the age group of drivers under the age of 25 and the most common cause of their traffic accidents as the drivers in this age category are the most vulnerable group in road traffic. The campaign uses a method in which it tries to influence behaviour by negative action, or by causing negative emotions. The authors concentrate on the effects of mass media campaigns in the long-term development of accidents in the Czech Republic and a financial evaluation of the road safety campaign "Think or you'll pay! "by comparing the campaign costs, the cost of road fatalities, and the cost savings from the perspective of government expenditures. The secondary source data for the chart analysis and interpolation according to the criteria of analytical and mechanical balancing time series, the Chow test and Quandt Likelihood Ratio test, choosing the appropriate model trend of accidents and consequences of traffic accidents were obtained from the Czech Ministry of Transport, the database of The Losses due to Traffic Accident Rates (CZRSO) and the Czech Association of Victims of Traffic Accidents (CSODN, 2015) from period of 1990 till 2016. The impact of the media campaign "Think or you'll pay!", measured by enumerating the costs was compared with the number of fatalities in the years immediately after the campaign and the impact of the media campaign was evaluated and recognised. The conclusion and the highlights summarize the findings of research and the limits of media campaign evaluation approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of studies on criticality safety evaluation and criticality experiment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamane, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, many studies on criticality safety evaluation have been conducted in Japan. Computer code systems were developed initially by employing finite difference methods, and more recently by using Monte Carlo methods. Criticality experiments have also been carried out in many laboratories in Japan as well as overseas. By effectively using these study results, the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook was published in 1988, almost the intermediate point of the last 50 years. An increased interest has been shown in criticality safety studies, and a Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) was set up by the Nuclear Science Committee of Organisation Economic Co-operation and Development in 1997. WPNCS has several task forces in charge of each of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP), Subcritical Measurement, Experimental Needs, Burn-up Credit Studies and Minimum Critical Values. Criticality safety studies in Japan have been carried out in cooperation with WPNCS. This paper describes criticality safety study activities in Japan along with the contents of the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook and the tasks of WPNCS. (author)

  7. Safety Challenges and Improvement Strategies of Ethnic Minority Construction Workers: A Case Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunlin; Luo, Xiaowei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yue; Sapkota, Bibek

    2018-04-18

    Due to cultural differences, ethnic minority construction workers are more difficult to manage and more vulnerable to accidents. This study aims to identify the major barriers faced by ethnic minority workers from their own perspectives and determine potential strategies to enhance safety climate of construction projects, thus ultimately improve their safety performance. A survey with modified Nordic safety climate questionnaire was conducted in a certain sub-contractor in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews, status quo description, major challenge investigation and safety knowledge tests were carried as well. The top three most important safety challenges identified are improper stereotypes from the whole industry, lack of opportunities for job assignment, and language barriers. To improve the safety performance, employers should allocate sufficient personal protective equipment and governments should organize unannounced site visits more frequently. Besides, the higher-level management should avoid giving contradictory instructions to foremen against to the standards of supervisors.

  8. Commuter Train Passenger Safety Model Using Positive Behavior Approach: The Case Study in Suburban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanto, D. A.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Hamid, S.; Hustim, M.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, Train passanger safety measures are more predominantly measurable using negative dimensions in user mode behavior, such as accident rate, accident intensity and accident impact. This condition suggests that safety improvements aim only to reduce accidents. Therefore, this study aims to measure the safety level of light train transit modes (KRL) through the dimensions of traveling safety on commuters based on positive safety indicators with severel condition departure times and returns for work purposes and long trip rates above KRL. The primary survey were used in data collection methods. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used in data analysis. The results show that there are different models of the safety level of departure and return journey. The highest difference is in the security dimension which is the internal variable of KRL users.

  9. Safety training parks – A case study on the effectiveness of the trainings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räsänen, Tuula; Sormunen, E.; Reiman, Arto

    The Safety Training Park (STP) concept is a unique Finnish safety training innovation. The STP provides different actors of the construction industry and other branches a practical occupational safety and health (OSH) training area. To the authors’ knowledge, no such parks exist in Europe besides...... Finland. Objec-tive was to study the effectiveness of the STP trainings at a large case company which participated in this study and which has actively trained its personnel in the park. The study was conducted from February 2015 to Feb-ruary 2017. Several key success factors were identified...... in the interviews of this case study. In addition, the company OSH statistics (2010 – 2016) showed a positive development at safety level. However, The Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire did not show any significant change of results in a one year period. According to the results of the group interviews...

  10. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  11. Investigational new drug safety reporting requirements for human drug and biological products and safety reporting requirements for bioavailability and bioequivalence studies in humans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing safety reporting requirements for human drug and biological products subject to an investigational new drug application (IND). The final rule codifies the agency's expectations for timely review, evaluation, and submission of relevant and useful safety information and implements internationally harmonized definitions and reporting standards. The revisions will improve the utility of IND safety reports, reduce the number of reports that do not contribute in a meaningful way to the developing safety profile of the drug, expedite FDA's review of critical safety information, better protect human subjects enrolled in clinical trials, subject bioavailability and bioequivalence studies to safety reporting requirements, promote a consistent approach to safety reporting internationally, and enable the agency to better protect and promote public health.

  12. 76 FR 52330 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ...). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703) 684-5900, Fax... convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to...

  13. 77 FR 51810 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703) 684-5900, Fax... convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to...

  14. 78 FR 56235 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ..., 2013 (Closed). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703... meeting will convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study...

  15. 77 FR 4048 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ...). Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone: (703) 684-5900, Fax... convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to...

  16. 76 FR 3908 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS); National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ..., 2011 (Closed). Place: Embassy Suites Hotel, 1900 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Telephone... address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study section to consider...

  17. Patient safety risk factors in minimally invasive surgery : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Ter Kuile, M.; Dankelman, J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to adapt and validate a patient safety (PS) framework for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as a first step in understanding the clinical relevance of various PS risk factors in MIS. Eight patient safety risk factor domains were identified using frameworks from a systems

  18. Indicators of Faculty and Staff Perceptions of Campus Safety: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfolk, Willie A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of a critical increase in campus crime between 1999 and 2009, a period during which overall crime in the United States declined. Further the research explored the perceptions of campus safety among faculty and staff at an institution where campus safety initiatives are nationally ranked as exemplary and incidents of…

  19. Studying Patient Safety Culture from the Viewpoint of Nurse in educational hospitals Ilam City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Borji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient safety culture is the first necessary step to reduce medical errors and improve patient's condition. In this context, this article aims at studying the condition of patient safety culture in hospitals in Elam in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 150 nurses in Ilam were randomly selected. The Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety (HSOPSC was used and its reliability and validity had been confirmed by the previous studies. The data were analyzed by SPSS17. Results: The results showed that the nurses' safety was at positive(62.37± 8.70 and there could be found no significant difference in patient safety among the studied hospitals in this article (P<.05. Extra-organizational teamwork and non-punitive response, among the aspects of patient safety, had the lowest means and organizational learning and general understanding had the highest. Conclusion: Considering the importance of patient safety, the interventions need to be performed in order to improve the patient safety condition among nurses, especially in two aspects of extra-organizational teamwork and non-punitive response that had the lowest means.

  20. Patient safety improvement programmes for primary care. Review of a Delphi procedure and pilot studies by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Wim; Gaal, Sander; Esmail, Aneez; Wensing, Michel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: To improve patient safety it is necessary to identify the causes of patient safety incidents, devise solutions and measure the (cost-) effectiveness of improvement efforts. Objective: This paper provides a broad overview with practical guidance on how to improve patient safety. Methods: We used modified online Delphi procedures to reach consensus on methods to improve patient safety and to identify important features of patient safety management in primary care. Two pilot studies were carried out to assess the value of prospective risk analysis (PRA), as a means of identifying the causes of a patient safety incident. Results: A range of different methods can be used to improve patient safety but they have to be contextually specific. Practice organization, culture, diagnostic errors and medication safety were found to be important domains for further improvement. Improvement strategies for patient safety could benefit from insights gained from research on implementation of evidence-based practice. Patient involvement and prospective risk analysis are two promising and innovative strategies for improving patient safety in primary care. Conclusion: A range of methods is available to improve patient safety, but there is no ‘magic bullet.’ Besides better use of the available methods, it is important to use new and potentially more effective strategies, such as prospective risk analysis. PMID:26339837

  1. A Quantitative Feasibility Study on Potential Safety Improvement Effects of Advanced Safety Features in APR-1400 when Applied to OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ualikhan Zhiyenbayev [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dae Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to test the feasibility of the applications using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Particularly, three of those advanced safety features are selected as follows: 1. Providing an additional Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG); 2. Increasing the capacity of Class 1E batteries; 3. Placing a Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) inside containment, i.e., change from RWST to IRWST. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR-1400) adopts several advanced safety features compared to its predecessor, the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR-1000), which includes an additional Emergency Diesel Generator, increase in battery capacity, in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST), and so on. Considering the remarkable advantages of these safety features in safety improvement and the design similarities between APR-1400 and OPR-1000, it is feasible to apply key advanced safety features of APR-1400 to OPR-1000 to enhance the safety. The selected safety features are incorporated into OPR-1000 PSA model using the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) for PSA and CDFs are re-evaluated for each application and combination of three applications. Based on current results, it is concluded that three of key advanced safety features of APR-1400 can be effectively applied to OPR-1000, resulting in considerable safety improvement. In aggregate, three advanced safety features, which are an additional EDG, increased battery capacity and IRWST, can reduce the CDF of OPR-1000 by more than 15% when applied altogether.

  2. A Quantitative Feasibility Study on Potential Safety Improvement Effects of Advanced Safety Features in APR-1400 when Applied to OPR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ualikhan Zhiyenbayev; Chung, Dae Wook

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the feasibility of the applications using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Particularly, three of those advanced safety features are selected as follows: 1. Providing an additional Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG); 2. Increasing the capacity of Class 1E batteries; 3. Placing a Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) inside containment, i.e., change from RWST to IRWST. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR-1400) adopts several advanced safety features compared to its predecessor, the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR-1000), which includes an additional Emergency Diesel Generator, increase in battery capacity, in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST), and so on. Considering the remarkable advantages of these safety features in safety improvement and the design similarities between APR-1400 and OPR-1000, it is feasible to apply key advanced safety features of APR-1400 to OPR-1000 to enhance the safety. The selected safety features are incorporated into OPR-1000 PSA model using the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) for PSA and CDFs are re-evaluated for each application and combination of three applications. Based on current results, it is concluded that three of key advanced safety features of APR-1400 can be effectively applied to OPR-1000, resulting in considerable safety improvement. In aggregate, three advanced safety features, which are an additional EDG, increased battery capacity and IRWST, can reduce the CDF of OPR-1000 by more than 15% when applied altogether

  3. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  5. Validation study of safety assessment model for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munakata, Masahiro; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    The JAERI-AECL collaboration research program has been conducted to validate a groundwater flow and radionuclide transport models for safety assessment. JAERI have developed a geostatistical model for radionuclide transport through a heterogeneous geological media and verify using experimental results of field tracer tests. The simulated tracer plumes explain favorably the experimental tracer plumes. A regional groundwater flow and transport model using site-scale parameter obtained from tracer tests have been verified by comparing simulation results with observation ones of natural environmental tracer. (author)

  6. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  7. Work Practice, Safety and Heedfulness. Studies of Organizational Reliability in Hospitals and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthereau, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    The study of safety in complex systems has focused on different issues over the past decades. This focus was often linked to the conclusions of previous accidents'/incidents' analyses. When accidents were attributed to technical causes, safety research focused on technical developments. When they were later attributed to 'human errors', safety research focused on this 'component'. And when, since the mid-eighties accidents have been attributed to 'organizational factors', safety research has focused on these very same 'organizational factors'. The present thesis argues for a 'practice view' over safety to be taken. This view is mainly drawn from the field of research on High Reliability Organizations (HRO). HRO theorists' point of view on safety is that we can operate complex systems safely despite the fact that we have made them so complex that they are prone to 'normal accidents'. Humans involved in the operation of our systems actually create safety. Safety is formed through the adaptation of work practice to local conditions, and this adaptation is part of safe operation. Safety is not only a substantial quality of our socio-technical systems: the discursive dimension of safety actually seems to be a central component of safety creation. However, the adaptive ability of HRO can sometimes become their downfall. Adaptation, which is the backbone of safety, can sometimes be a drawback as well. Consequently, the practice view of safety, proposed in the present work, argues that we need to further comprehend how work practice evolves over time, and more specifically what are the inherent characteristics of work practice that create this evolution. Empirical studies from health-care and nuclear power generation highlight different details about organizational reliability. For instance, one study of planning at a nuclear power plant draws our attention to the different roles of planning in the organization. Another study, within heath-care, underlines the evolution of

  8. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization

  9. Changes in patient safety culture after restructuring of intensive care units: Two cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vifladt, Anne; Simonsen, Bjoerg O; Lydersen, Stian; Farup, Per G

    2016-02-01

    Compare changes in registered nurses' perception of the patient safety culture in restructured and not restructured intensive care units during a four-year period. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed, in 2008/2009 (time 1) and 2012/2013 (time 2). During a period of 0-3 years after time 1, three of six hospitals merged their general and medical intensive care units (restructured). The other hospitals maintained their structure of the intensive care units (not restructured). Intensive care units in hospitals at one Norwegian hospital trust. The safety culture was measured with Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. At times 1 and 2, 217/302 (72%) and 145/289 (50%) registered nurses participated. Restructuring was negatively associated with change in the safety culture, in particular, the dimensions of the safety culture within the unit level. The dimensions most vulnerable for restructuring were manager expectations and actions promoting safety, teamwork within hospital units and staffing. In this study, the restructuring of intensive care units was associated with a negative impact on the safety culture. When restructuring, the management should be particularly aware of changes in the safety culture dimensions manager expectations and actions promoting safety, teamwork within hospital units and staffing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  11. Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory's fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company's (WHC's) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described

  12. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN)

  13. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an open-quotes Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missionsclose quotes. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system

  14. How to communicate safety? Some reflections from European project studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Philip; Galson, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Attempts to site geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste - and associated public reactions - indicate that communicating safety and demonstrating safety are very different things. The three different approaches to stakeholder engagement undertaken in the context of the PAMINA, ARGONA and CIP projects have provided valuable insights into how risk communication processes and tools can be improved. The approaches used in these projects all involve the participation of interested stakeholders in identifying concerns and issues, which are then examined in a co-operative fashion between stakeholders and developers acting in partnership. Such approaches offer avenues for dialogue and confidence building where such channels were previously not well developed, Full results from the projects will be available in late 2009 for PAMINA and ARGONA and in early 2010 for CIP. The comments and interim insights outlined here will be developed further and incorporated in the overall project outputs, and help inform developing European policy in this area. It is already clear, however, that the approaches used in these projects offer great promise in helping to develop the trust in the institutions and organisations involved that is essential in gaining support and acceptance for the waste management activities now underway across Europe

  15. [Study on the safety of blue light leak of LED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong-Yu; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Su-Ling; Huang, Qing-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the blue light properties of LED illumination devices have been investigated. Against the status quo of China's LED lighting, we measured the spectrum component of LED lamps and analyzed the photobiological safety under the current domestic and international standards GB/T 20145-2006/CIE S009/E: 2002 and IEC62471: 2006 standards as well as CTL-0744_2009-laser resolution, which provides the reference to the manufacture of LED lighting lamps as well as related safety standards and laws. If the radiance intensity of blue light in LED is lower than 100 W x m(-2) x Sr(-1), there is no harm to human eyes. LEDs will not cause harm to human eyes under normal use, but we should pay attention to the protection of special populations (children), and make sure that they avoid looking at a light source for a long time. The research has found that the blue-rich lamps can affect the human rule of work and rest, and therefore, the LED lamps with color temperature below 4 000 K and color rendering index of 80 are suitable for indoor use. At the same time, the lamps with different parameters should be selected according to the different distances.

  16. 78 FR 75922 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ..., 2014 (Closed) 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m., February 21, 2014 (Closed) Place: Embassy Suites, 1900 Diagonal Road... meeting will convene to address matters related to the conduct of Study Section business and for the study...

  17. Safety culture assessment in petrochemical industry: a comparative study of two algerian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-06-01

    To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance.

  18. [Efficacy and safety of levofloxacin to non-gonorrheal urethritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shoichi; Onoe, Yasuhiko; Hosobe, Takahide; Kato, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Masaki

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of levofloxacin (LVFX) 500mg once a day in patients with non-gonorrheal urethritis. Men, aged 20 years or older, with urethritis symptoms, and detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) or Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) by a microbiological examination were eligible for this study. Patients were administered LVFX 500mg, orally, once a day and the dosage period was seven days. We assumed 22 patients for a safety and efficacy analysis. In 22 patients, 17 patients had urethritis with C. trachomatis, 4 patients urethritis with M. genitalium, and one patient mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium. In the clinial study, the primary endpoint was set as the bacteriological eradication rate at two to four weeks after completion of treatment. The bacterial eradication rate in the urethritis was 86.4% (19/22). The bacterial eradication rate in the urethritis with C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, and mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were 94.1% (16/17), 50.0% (2/4), 100% (1/1), respectively. A significant difference was not recognized among the three groups. The clinical efficacy at two to four weeks after completion of treatment was 90.9% (20/22). The clinical efficacy rates in the urethritis with C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, and mixed infection of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were 100% (17/17), 50.0% (2/4), 100% (1/1), respectively. The efficacy rate of urethritis with M. genitalium was significantly low. No adverse drug reactions were observed. These results suggest that once-a-day levofloxacin (500mg) is effective and safe treatment for non-gonorrheal urethritis.

  19. A distributed research network model for post-marketing safety studies: the Meningococcal Vaccine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velentgas, Priscilla; Bohn, Rhonda L; Brown, Jeffrey S; Chan, K Arnold; Gladowski, Patricia; Holick, Crystal N; Kramer, Judith M; Nakasato, Cynthia; Spettell, Claire M; Walker, Alexander M; Zhang, Fang; Platt, Richard

    2008-12-01

    We describe a multi-center post-marketing safety study that uses distributed data methods to minimize the need for covered entities to share protected health information (PHI). Implementation has addressed several issues relevant to creation of a large scale post-marketing drug safety surveillance system envisioned by the FDA's Sentinel Initiative. This retrospective cohort study of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following meningococcal conjugate vaccination incorporates the data and analytic expertise of five research organizations closely affiliated with US health insurers. The study uses administrative claims data, plus review of full text medical records to adjudicate the status of individuals with a diagnosis code for GBS (ICD9 357.0). A distributed network approach is used to create the analysis files and to perform most aspects of the analysis, allowing nearly all of the data to remain behind institutional firewalls. Pooled analysis files transferred to a central site will contain one record per person for approximately 0.2% of the study population, and contain PHI limited to the month and year of GBS onset for cases or the index date for matched controls. The first planned data extraction identified over 9 million eligible adolescents in the target age range of 11-21 years. They contributed an average of 14 months of eligible time on study over 27 months of calendar time. MCV4 vaccination coverage levels exceeded 20% among 17-18-year olds and 16% among 11-13 and 14-16-year-old age groups by the second quarter of 2007. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a distributed data network approach to perform large scale post-marketing safety analyses and is scalable to include additional organizations and data sources. We believe these results can inform the development of a large national surveillance system. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The interplay between teamwork, clinicians' emotional exhaustion, and clinician-rated patient safety: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Meier, Laurenz L; Manser, Tanja

    2016-04-19

    Effectively managing patient safety and clinicians' emotional exhaustion are important goals of healthcare organizations. Previous cross-sectional studies showed that teamwork is associated with both. However, causal relationships between all three constructs have not yet been investigated. Moreover, the role of different dimensions of teamwork in relation to emotional exhaustion and patient safety is unclear. The current study focused on the long-term development of teamwork, emotional exhaustion, and patient safety in interprofessional intensive care teams by exploring causal relationships between these constructs. A secondary objective was to disentangle the effects of interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork. We employed a longitudinal study design. Participants were 2100 nurses and physicians working in 55 intensive care units. They answered an online questionnaire on interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral aspects of teamwork, emotional exhaustion, and patient safety at three time points with a 3-month lag. Data were analyzed with cross-lagged structural equation modeling. We controlled for professional role. Analyses showed that emotional exhaustion had a lagged effect on interpersonal teamwork. Furthermore, interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork mutually influenced each other. Finally, cognitive-behavioral teamwork predicted clinician-rated patient safety. The current study shows that the interrelations between teamwork, clinician burnout, and clinician-rated patient safety unfold over time. Interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral teamwork play specific roles in a process leading from clinician emotional exhaustion to decreased clinician-rated patient safety. Emotionally exhausted clinicians are less able to engage in positive interpersonal teamwork, which might set in motion a vicious cycle: negative interpersonal team interactions negatively affect cognitive-behavioral teamwork and vice versa. Ultimately, ineffective cognitive

  1. Monitoring road safety development at regional level: A case study in the ASEAN region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Faan; Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zegras, P Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Persistent monitoring of progress, evaluating the results of interventions and recalibrating to achieve continuous improvement over time is widely recognized as being crucial towards the successful development of road safety. In the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region there is a lack of well-resourced teams that contain multidisciplinary safety professionals, and specialists in individual countries, who are able to carry out this work effectively. In this context, not only must the monitoring framework be effective, it must also be easy to use and adapt. This paper provides a case study that can be easily reproduced; based on an updated and refined Road Safety Development Index (RSDI), by means of the RSR (Rank-sum ratio)-based model, for monitoring/reporting road safety development at regional level. The case study was focused on the road safety achievements in eleven Southeast Asian countries; identifying the areas of poor performance, potential problems and delays. These countries are finally grouped into several classes based on an overview of their progress and achievements regarding to road safety. The results allow the policymakers to better understand their own road safety progress toward their desired impact; more importantly, these results enable necessary interventions to be made in a quick and timely manner. Keeping action plans on schedule if things are not progressing as desired. This would avoid 'reinventing the wheel' and trial and error approaches to road safety, making the implementation of action plans more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research study about the establishment of safety culture. Effects of organizational factors in construction industry's safety indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Humiko; Takano, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Naoko

    1999-01-01

    To find the relationships between safety related activities (such as safety patrol' or '4s/5s activities') and accidents rate in the workplace, questionnaires were sent to 965 construction companies and 120 answers were returned. In this questionnaire, safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies of the companies were asked and organizational climates, company policies, philosophies and the number of accidents in workplace were also asked. There seems some relationships between accidents rate and safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies in the companies, but the deviations between estimate values and observed values are so great that it seems impossible to estimate the accidents rate in the working place from the safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies of the companies. On the other hand, some characteristics of safety activities and organizational climates in the construction industry were identified using multi variants analysis. More detailed researches using sophisticated questionnaire will be conducted in the construction industry and petrochemical industry and relationships between the accidents rate and the safety activities will be compared between different industries. (author)

  3. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness.

  4. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karns, J.J.; Fragola, J.R.; Kahan, L.; Pelaccio, D.

    1993-01-01

    The central purpose of this analysis is to assess the ''achievability'' of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system in a given mission. ''Achievability'' is a concept introduced to indicate the extent to which a system that meets or achieves its design goals might be implemented using the existing technology base. In the context of this analysis, the objective is to assess the achievability of an NEP system for a manned Mars mission as it pertains to operational reliability and crew safety goals. By varying design parameters, then examining the resulting system achievability, the design and mission risk drivers can be identified. Additionally, conceptual changes in design approach or mission strategy which are likely to improve overall achievability of the NEP system can be examined

  6. Parametric study for the fire safety design of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiuti, Riccardo; Giuliani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    the considered time of fire exposure. A deeper knowledge on the failure mode of steel structure is however important in order to ensure the safety of the people and properties outside the building. Aim of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of single elements, sub-assemblies and frames exposed to fire...... or hindered thermal expansion induced on the element by the rest of the structure. Nevertheless, restrained thermal expansion is known to significantly affect the behaviour of steel structures in fire, and the compliance with a prescribed resistance class doesn’t ensure the integrity of the building after...... and find out the basic collapse mechanisms of structural elements in fire conditions, considering the rest of the construction with appropriate constraints. The analysis is carried out taking into account material and geometrical nonlinearities as well as the degradation of steel properties at high...

  7. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Insufficiencies in the fire protection system of the nuclear reactor facilities were pointed out when the fire occurred due to the Niigata prefecture-Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in July, 2007. This prompted the revision of the fire protection safety examination guideline for nuclear reactors as well as commercial guidelines. The commercial guidelines have been endorsed by the regulatory body. Now commercial fire protection standards for nuclear facilities such as the design guideline and the management guideline for protecting fire in the Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are available, however, those to apply to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility (MFFF) have not been established. For the improvement of fire protection system of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the development of a standard for the fire protection, corresponding to the commercial standard for LWRs were required. Thus, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) formulated a fire protection guidelines for nuclear fuel cycle facilities as a standard relevant to the fire protection of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considering functions specific to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In formulating the guidelines, investigation has been conduced on the commercial guidelines for nuclear reactors in Japan and the standards relevant to the fire protection of nuclear facilities in USA and other countries as well as non-nuclear industrial fire protection standards. The guideline consists of two parts; Equipments and Management, as the commercial guidances of the nuclear reactor. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (an electric cabinet, cable, oil etc.) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  8. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety.

  9. Measurement tools and process indicators of patient safety culture in primary care. A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianne; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is little guidance available to healthcare practitioners about what tools they might use to assess the patient safety culture. Objective: To identify useful tools for assessing patient safety culture in primary care organizations in Europe; to identify those aspects of performance that should be assessed when investigating the relationship between safety culture and performance in primary care. Methods: Two consensus-based studies were carried out, in which subject matter experts and primary healthcare professionals from several EU states rated (a) the applicability to their healthcare system of several existing safety culture assessment tools and (b) the appropriateness and usefulness of a range of potential indicators of a positive patient safety culture to primary care settings. The safety culture tools were field-tested in four countries to ascertain any challenges and issues arising when used in primary care. Results: The two existing tools that received the most favourable ratings were the Manchester patient safety framework (MaPsAF primary care version) and the Agency for healthcare research and quality survey (medical office version). Several potential safety culture process indicators were identified. The one that emerged as offering the best combination of appropriateness and usefulness related to the collection of data on adverse patient events. Conclusion: Two tools, one quantitative and one qualitative, were identified as applicable and useful in assessing patient safety culture in primary care settings in Europe. Safety culture indicators in primary care should focus on the processes rather than the outcomes of care. PMID:26339832

  10. Identifying research priorities for patient safety in mental health: an international expert Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kevin; Thibaut, Bethan; Ramtale, Sonny Christian; Adam, Sheila; Darzi, Ara; Archer, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Objective Physical healthcare has dominated the patient safety field; research in mental healthcare is not as extensive but findings from physical healthcare cannot be applied to mental healthcare because it delivers specialised care that faces unique challenges. Therefore, a clearer focus and recognition of patient safety in mental health as a distinct research area is still needed. The study aim is to identify future research priorities in the field of patient safety in mental health. Design Semistructured interviews were conducted with the experts to ascertain their views on research priorities in patient safety in mental health. A three-round online Delphi study was used to ascertain consensus on 117 research priority statements. Setting and participants Academic and service user experts from the USA, UK, Switzerland, Netherlands, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore were included. Main outcome measures Agreement in research priorities on a five-point scale. Results Seventy-nine statements achieved consensus (>70%). Three out of the top six research priorities were patient driven; experts agreed that understanding the patient perspective on safety planning, on self-harm and on medication was important. Conclusions This is the first international Delphi study to identify research priorities in safety in the mental field as determined by expert academic and service user perspectives. A reasonable consensus was obtained from international perspectives on future research priorities in patient safety in mental health; however, the patient perspective on their mental healthcare is a priority. The research agenda for patient safety in mental health identified here should be informed by patient safety science more broadly and used to further establish this area as a priority in its own right. The safety of mental health patients must have parity with that of physical health patients to achieve this. PMID:29502096

  11. The reactor safety study of experimental multi-purpose VHTR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuno, T.; Mitake, S.; Ezaki, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1981-01-01

    Over the past years, the design works of the Experimental Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) plant have been conducted at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The conceptual design has been completed and the more detailed design works and the safety analysis of the experimental VHTR plant are continued. The purposes of design studies are to show the feasibility of the experimental VHTR program, to specify the characteristics and functions of the plant components, to point out the R and D items necessary for the experimental VHTR plant construction, and to analyze the feature of the plant safety. In this paper the summary of system design and safety features of the experimental reactor are indicated. Main issues are the safety philosophy for the design basis accident, the accidents assumed and the engineered safety systems adopted in the design works

  12. Comparative assessment of the efficacy and safety of sertaconazole (2% cream versus terbinafine cream (1% versus luliconazole (1% cream in patients with dermatophytoses: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H R Jerajani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Sertaconazole is a new, broad spectrum, fungicidal and fungistatic imidazole with added antipruritic and anti-inflammatory activity that would provide greater symptomatic relief and hence would be beneficial in improving the quality of life for the patient with dermatophytoses. Aims and Objectives : To compare efficacy and safety of sertaconazole, terbinafine and luliconazole in patients with dermatophytoses. Materials and Methods : 83 patients with tinea corporis and tinea cruris infections were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open label parallel study. The initial ′Treatment Phase′ involved three groups receiving either sertaconazole 2% cream applied topically twice daily for four weeks, terbinafine 1% cream once daily for two weeks, luliconazole 1% cream once daily for two weeks. At the end of treatment phase, there was a ′Follow-up Phase′ at end of 2 weeks, where the patients were assessed clinically and mycologically for relapse. Results : Of the 83 patients, 62 completed the study, sertaconazole (n = 20, terbinafine (n = 22 and luliconazole (n = 20. The primary efficacy variables including change in pruritus, erythema, vesicle, desquamation and mycological cure were significantly improved in all the three groups, as compared to baseline, in the Treatment and Follow-up phase. Greater proportion of patients in sertaconazole group (85% showed resolution of pruritus as compared to terbinafine (54.6%; and luliconazole (70%, (P < 0.05 sertaconazole vs terbinafine. There was a greater reduction in mean total composite score (pruritus, erythema, vesicle and desquamation in sertaconazole group (97.1% as compared to terbinafine (91.2% and luliconazole (92.9%. All groups showed equal negative mycological assessment without any relapses. All three study drugs were well tolerated. Only one patient in sertaconazole group withdrew from the study due to suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Conclusion : Sertaconazole was

  13. Study on real working performance and overload safety factor of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that high arch dams have problems such as complicated stress,high cost,and hazards after being damaged,this paper intends to study the effects of load,material strength,and safety analysis method on dam safety and working performance of arch dams.In this article,the effects of temperature,self weight exaction way and water loading on structure response are first discussed,and a more reasonable way of considering is then put forward.By taking into consideration the mechanical property of materials and comparing the effects of different yield criteria on overloading safety of high arch dams,this paper concludes that brittle characteristics of concrete should be fully considered when conducting safety assessment for high arch dams to avoid overestimating the bearing capacity of the dams.By comparing several typical projects,this paper works out a safety assessment system of multiple safety and relevant engineering analogical analysis methods,which is closer to the actual situation,and thus is able to assess the response of high arch dam structure in a more comprehensive way,elicit the safety coefficients in different situations,and provide a new way of considering the safety assessment of high arch dams.

  14. A study on enforcement effects of radiation safety control regulations for diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mo IL; Park, Myeong Hwan; Kwon, Duk Moon; Lee, Joon IL

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to analyze the realities after enforcements of safety control regulations for diagnostic X-ray equipment and to suggest means for an improvement of low radiation safety control. A questionnaire survey for medical radiologic technologists was carried out to determine enforcement effects of the safety control regulations. The results of analysis from the survey are as follows. That is, most of he respondents realized the importance of the radiation safety control system, but about a half of them revealed that regulations were not well observed in accordance with their purposes. Only 43.9 percent of the respondents took an active part in quality control of radiation. And responsibility, sex, age, and knowledge for safety control were important indicators for observations of the regulations. Training for the safety control regulations are needed to ensure safety control and proper usage of diagnostic X-ray equipment. And management of organizations using diagnostic X-ray equipment have to understand and stress the importance of radiation safety control system. (author)

  15. A study to develop the domestic functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Park, Kun Chul [Handong Global Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    The present research has been made to develop and review critically the functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU such as SDS-1, SDS2, ECCS, and containment. Based on R documents for this, a systematic study was made to develop the domestic regulation statements. Also, the conventional laws are carefully reviewed to see the compatibility to CANDU. Also, the safety assessment method for CANDU was studied by reviewing C documents and recommendation of IAEA. Through the present works, the vague policy in the CANDU safety regulation is cleaning up in a systematic form and a new frame to measure the objective risk of nuclear power plants was developed.

  16. A study to develop the domestic functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Woong; Lee, Jae Young; Bang, Kwang Hyun [Handong Global Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-03-15

    The present research has been made to develop and review critically the functional requirements of the specific safety systems of CANDU such as SOS-1, SOS-2, ECCS and containment. Based on R documents for this, a systematic study was made to develop the domestic regulation statements. Also, the conventional laws are carefully reviewed to see the compatibility to CANDU. Also, the safety assessment method for CANDU was studied by reviewing C documents and recommendation of IAEA. Through the present works, the vague policy in the CANDU safety regulation is cleaning up in a systematic form and a new frame to measure the objective risk of nuclear power plants was developed.

  17. Safety and security in acute admission psychiatric wards in Ireland and London: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Seamus; Bowers, Len

    2009-05-01

    The comparative element of this study is to describe safety and security measures in psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London; to describe differences and similarities in terms of safety and security patterns in the Republic of Ireland and London; and to make recommendations on safety and security to mental health services management and psychiatric nurses. Violence is a serious problem in psychiatric services and staff experience significant psychological reactions to being assaulted. Health and Safety Authorities in the UK and Ireland have expressed concern about violence and assault in healthcare, however, there remains a lack of clarity on matters of procedure and policy pertaining to safety and security in psychiatric hospitals. A descriptive survey research design was employed. Questionnaires were circulated to all acute wards in London and in Ireland and the resulting data compared. A total of 124 psychiatric wards from London and 43 wards from Ireland were included in this study and response rates of 70% (London) and 86% (Ireland) were obtained. Differences and similarities in safety and security practices were identified between London and Ireland, with Irish wards having generally higher and more intensive levels of security. There is a lack of coherent policy and procedure in safety and security measures across psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London. Given the trends in European Union (EU) regulation, there is a strong argument for the publication of acceptable minimum guidelines for safety and security in mental health services across the EU. There must be a concerted effort to ensure that all policy and procedure in safety and security is founded on evidence and best practice. Mental health managers must establish a review of work safety and security procedures and practices. Risk assessment and environmental audits of all mental health clinical environments should be mandatory.

  18. Alternative perspectives of safety in home delivered health care: a sequential exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power plant (2). Safety design study of FNPP. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Shimazaki, Junya; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Masao [Niigata Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sato, Kazuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    In the previous report of 'Conceptual Design Study of FNPP (Floating Nuclear Power Plant)', a design study on a concept for FNPP, which is sited off the sea coast on the open sea with water depth of 20m and it is moored on protected sea by the breakwater was conducted and the floating platform guarded by the breakwater was found to be stable enough to install the nuclear power plant from analysis simulating the movement of the platform due to sea wave or wind. In this report, studies on a basic safety design concept of the FNPP, setting natural phenomena for design condition, required safety functions and a review on dynamic analysis of the large floating structure are presented. The studies revealed that the stability of the floating platform is an essential issue for the FNPP soundness, and the design base natural phenomena such as S1 and S2-class storm including S1 and S2-class earthquake should be considered in evaluation of the stability of the floating platform, and it is one of key technical subjects how to set the magnitude of these storm in application of design evaluation on each FNPP case. (J.P.N.)

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Studying the Safety of Transitions in Emergency Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behara, Ravi; Wears, Robert L; Perry, Shawna J; Eisenberg, Eric; Murphy, Lexa; Vanderhoef, Mary; Shapiro, Marc; Beach, Christopher; Croskerry, Pat; Cosby, Karen

    2005-01-01

    .... We observed transitions of care in five hospital emergency departments as part of a larger study on safety in emergency care and found that in addition to many other differences in work patterns...

  1. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-clinical models: validation, study design and statistical consideration in safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Towart, R; Authier, S; Gallacher, D J; Curtis, M J

    2010-01-01

    The current issue of the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) focuses exclusively on safety pharmacology methods. This is the 7th year the Journal has published on this topic. Methods and models that specifically relate to methods relating to the assessment of the safety profile of a new chemical entity (NCE) prior to first in human (FIH) studies are described. Since the Journal started publishing on this topic there has been a major effort by safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and regulatory scientists within Industry (both large and small Pharma as well as Biotechnology companies) and also from Contract Research Organizations (CRO) to publish the surgical details of the non-clinical methods utilized but also provide important details related to standard and non-standard (or integrated) study models and designs. These details from core battery and secondary (or ancillary) drug safety assessment methods used in drug development programs have been the focus of these special issues and have been an attempt to provide validation of methods. Similarly, the safety pharmacology issues of the Journal provide the most relevant forum for scientists to present novel and modified methods with direct applicability to determination of drug safety-directly to the safety pharmacology scientific community. The content of the manuscripts in this issue includes the introduction of additional important surgical methods, novel data capture and data analysis methods, improved study design and effects of positive control compounds with known activity in the model. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety Improvements on Wood Chippers Currently in Use: A Study on Feasibility in the Italian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Bagagiolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following formal opposition by France, the harmonized safety standards regarding manually-loaded wood chippers (EN 13525:2005+A2:2009 which presumed compliance with the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR required by the Machine Directive (Directive 2006/42/EC, have recently been withdrawn, and a new draft of the standard is currently under revision. In order to assess the potential impact of the expected future harmonized standards within the Italian context, this study has examined the main issues in implementing EHSRs on wood chippers already being used. Safety issues regarding wood chippers already in use were identified in an analysis of the draft standard, through the observation of a number of case studies, and qualitative analysis of the essential technical interventions. A number of agricultural and forestry operators and companies participated in the study, pointing out the technical and economic obstacle facing the safety features requested by the pending new standard. It emerged that the main safety issues concerned the implementation of the reverse function, the stop bar, and the protective devices, the infeed chute dimension, the emergency stop function, and the designated feeding area. The possibility of adopting such solutions mainly depends on technical feasibility and costs, but an important role is also played by the attitude towards safety and a lack of adequate information regarding safety obligations and procedures among users.

  4. Safety Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management in Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policies, a Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad Allah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand of energy worldwide, and due to the depletion of conventional natural energy resources, energy policies in many countries have been devoted to nuclear energy option. On the other hand, adopting a safe and reliable nuclear fuel cycle concept guarantees future nuclear energy sustain ability is a vital request from environmental and economic point of views. The safety aspects of radioactive waste management in the nuclear fuel cycle is a topic of great importance relevant to public acceptance of nuclear energy and the development of nuclear technology. As a part of nuclear fuel cycle safety evaluation studies in the department of nuclear fuel cycle safety, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), this study evaluates the radioactive waste management policies and radiological safety aspects of three different nuclear fuel cycle policies. The once-through fuel cycle (OT- fuel cycle) or the direct spent fuel disposal concept for both pressurized light water reactor ( PWR) and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR or CANDU) systems and the s elf-generated o r recycling fuel cycle concept in PWR have been considered in the assessment. The environmental radiological safety aspects of different nuclear fuel cycle options have been evaluated and discussed throughout the estimation of radioactive waste generated from spent fuel from these fuel cycle options. The decay heat stored in the spent fuel was estimated and a comparative safety study between the three fuel cycle policies has been implemented

  5. Light-water reactors. Safety problems and related studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, J.

    1975-01-01

    The program of theoretical and experimental studies developed by the CEA on the safety of PWR reactors is presented: studies relative to the consequences of a LOCA following a rupture of the primary system, studies relative to fuel element behavior, studies on steels, reliability studies and studies of non-destructive testing methods [fr

  6. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A; Movahedi, M M; Reza, M

    2016-09-01

    Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient's safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public) was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  7. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient’s safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. Material and Methods: The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. Results: The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Conclusion: Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  8. Patients' evaluations of patient safety in English general practices: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Marsden, Kate S; Avery, Anthony J; Bell, Brian G; Kadam, Umesh T; Reeves, David; Slight, Sarah P; Perryman, Katherine; Barnett, Jane; Litchfield, Ian; Thomas, Sally; Campbell, Stephen M; Doos, Lucy; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2017-07-01

    Description of safety problems and harm in general practices has previously relied on information from health professionals, with scarce attention paid to experiences of patients. To examine patient-reported experiences and outcomes of patient safety in primary care. Cross-sectional study in 45 general practices across five regions in the north, centre, and south of England. A version of the Patient Reported Experiences and Outcomes of Safety in Primary Care (PREOS-PC) questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 6736 patients. Main outcome measures included 'practice activation' (what a practice does to create a safe environment); 'patient activation' (how proactive are patients in ensuring safe healthcare delivery); 'experiences of safety events' (safety errors); 'outcomes of safety' (harm); and 'overall perception of safety' (how safe patients rate their practice). Questionnaires were returned by 1244 patients (18.4%). Scores were high for 'practice activation' (mean [standard error] = 80.4 out of 100 [2.0]) and low for 'patient activation' (26.3 out of 100 [2.6]). Of the patients, 45% reported experiencing at least one safety problem in the previous 12 months, mostly related to appointments (33%), diagnosis (17%), patient provider communication (15%), and coordination between providers (14%). Twenty-three per cent of the responders reported some degree of harm in the previous 12 months. The overall assessment of level of safety of practices was generally high (86.0 out of 100 [16.8]). Priority areas for patient safety improvement in general practices in England include appointments, diagnosis, communication, coordination, and patient activation. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  9. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Fokau, Andrei; Persson, Calle; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang

    2008-05-01

    Within the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation', research on design and safety of sub-critical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2007, the reactor physics division at KTH has calculated safety parameters for EFIT-400 with cermet fuel, permitting to start the transient safety analysis. The accuracy of different reactivity meters applied to the YALINA facility was assessed and neutron detection studies were performed. A model to address deviations from point kinetic behaviour was developed. Studies of basic radiation damage physics included calculations of vacancy formation and activation enthalpies in bcc niobium. In order to predict the oxygen potential of inert matrix fuels, a thermo-chemical model for mixed actinide oxides was implemented in a phase equilibrium code

  10. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Fokau, Andrei; Persson, Calle; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang (Div. of Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    Within the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation', research on design and safety of sub-critical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2007, the reactor physics division at KTH has calculated safety parameters for EFIT-400 with cermet fuel, permitting to start the transient safety analysis. The accuracy of different reactivity meters applied to the YALINA facility was assessed and neutron detection studies were performed. A model to address deviations from point kinetic behaviour was developed. Studies of basic radiation damage physics included calculations of vacancy formation and activation enthalpies in bcc niobium. In order to predict the oxygen potential of inert matrix fuels, a thermo-chemical model for mixed actinide oxides was implemented in a phase equilibrium code

  11. Ageing study of the engineered safety features actuation system of the Loviisa NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Maskuniitty, M.

    1995-06-01

    An ageing study of the engineered safety features actuation system of the Loviisa nuclear power plant has been performed. The operating experience, including failure and maintenance histories of analog measuring devices, logics for safety signal formation and individual control electronics of pumps and valves, has been collected and analysed. The safety importance of system components has been studied with a fault tree analysis of a selected safety function. Based on the results of the analysis of operating experiences and the fault tree analysis, some components were selected for deeper analyses. According to the operating experience, the amount of failures in the Loviisa plant safety system has been low and no increasing trend in the failure history can yet be observed. Only a few failures had prohibited the propagation of the safety signal, mostly the failures have caused a false alarm. The failures reported have concerned mainly limit signal units, transmitters, and priority units. According to the fault tree analysis of one safety function, the most important components of this subsystem are individual control units and pulse/DC converters. Failure modes and effect analyses were performed for priority and individual control unit, limit signal unit and comparator and pulse/DC converter in order to identify the critical failure modes of these devices. (orig.) (15 refs., 26 figs., 9 tabs.)

  12. Sensemaking and the co-production of safety: a qualitative study of primary medical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; McDonald, Ruth; Campbell, Stephen; Daker-White, Gavin; Sanders, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    This study explores the ways in which patients make sense of 'safety' in the context of primary medical care. Drawing on qualitative interviews with primary care patients, we reveal patients' conceptualisation of safety as fluid, contingent, multi-dimensional, and negotiated. Participant accounts drew attention to a largely invisible and inaccessible (but taken for granted) architecture of safety, the importance of psycho-social as well as physical dimensions and the interactions between them, informal strategies for negotiating safety, and the moral dimension of safety. Participants reported being proactive in taking action to protect themselves from potential harm. The somewhat routinised and predictable nature of the primary medical care consultation, which is very different from 'one off' inpatient spells, meant that patients were not passive recipients of care. Instead they had a stock of accumulated knowledge and experience to inform their actions. In addition to highlighting the differences and similarities between hospital and primary care settings, the study suggests that a broad conceptualisation of patient safety is required, which encompasses the safety concerns of patients in primary care settings. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  13. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  14. Study of system safety evaluation on LTO of national project. NISA safety research project on system safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masayuki; Sekimura, Naoto; Miyano, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Katsunobu

    2012-01-01

    Japanese safety regulatory body, that is, Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) started a 5-year national safety research project as 'the first stage' from 2006 FY to 2010 FY whose objective is 'Improve the technical information basis in order to utilize knowledge as well as information related to ageing management and maintenance of NPPs. Fukushima disaster happened in March 2011, and the priority of research needs for ageing management dramatically changed in Japan. The second-stage national project started in October 2011 with the concept of 'system safety' of NNPs where not only ageing management on degradation phenomena of important components but also safety management on total plant systems are paid attention to. The second-stage project is so called 'Japanese Ageing Management Program for System Safety (JAMPSS)'. (author)

  15. A Study on the Safety Evaluation of Real-Time Operating System in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Tae; Jeong, Choong Heui; Kim, Dail Il

    2008-01-01

    Along with the digitalisation of the nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system, Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) is being widely used. The RTOS used in nuclear I and C system should satisfy strict performance requirements and resolve various technical issues under complicated conditions. In this regard a careful safety evaluation of RTOS is important for the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this study is to provide a guideline for safety evaluation of RTOS appropriate to the nuclear I and C system. In this paper, we suggest evaluation approach for the RTOS

  16. A Study on the Safety Evaluation of Real-Time Operating System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Tae; Jeong, Choong Heui; Kim, Dail Il [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Along with the digitalisation of the nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system, Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) is being widely used. The RTOS used in nuclear I and C system should satisfy strict performance requirements and resolve various technical issues under complicated conditions. In this regard a careful safety evaluation of RTOS is important for the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this study is to provide a guideline for safety evaluation of RTOS appropriate to the nuclear I and C system. In this paper, we suggest evaluation approach for the RTOS.

  17. Tritium safety study using Caisson Assembly (CATS) at TPL/JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Shu, W.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium confinement is required as the most important safety Junction for a fusion reactor. In order to demonstrate the confinement performance experimentally, an unique equipment, called CATS: Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety study, was installed in Tritium Process Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency and operated for about 10 years. Tritium confinement and migration data in CATS have been accumulated and dynamic simulation code was accumulated using these data. Contamination and decontamination behavior on various materials and new safety equipment functions have been investigated under collaborations with a lot of laboratories and universities. (authors)

  18. [Clinical safety audits for primary care centers. A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Sánchez, Míriam; Borrell-Carrió, Francisco; Ortodó Parra, Cristina; Fernàndez I Danés, Neus; Fité Gallego, Anna

    2013-01-01

    To identify organizational processes, violations of rules, or professional performances that pose clinical levels of insecurity. Descriptive cross-sectional survey with customized externally-behavioral verification and comparison of sources, conducted from June 2008 to February 2010. Thirteen of the 53 primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalonian Health Institute (ICS Costa de Ponent, Barcelona). Employees of 13 PCT classified into: director, nurse director, customer care administrators, and general practitioners. Non-random selection, teaching (TC)/non-teaching, urban (UC)/rural and small/large (LC) health care centers (HCC). A total of 33 indicators were evaluated; 15 of procedures, 9 of attitude, 3 of training, and 6 of communication. Level of uncertainty: <50% positive answers for each indicator. no collaboration. A total of 55 professionals participated (84.6% UC, 46.2% LC and 76.9% TC). Rank distribution: 13 customer care administrators, 13 nurse directors, 13 HCC directors, and 16 general practitioners. Levels of insecurity emerged from the following areas: reception of new medical professionals, injections administration, nursing weekend home calls, urgent consultations to specialists, aggressive patients, critical incidents over the agenda of the doctors, communication barriers with patients about treatment plans, and with immigrants. Clinical safety is on the agenda of the health centers. Identified areas of uncertainty are easily approachable, and are considered in the future system of accreditation of the Catalonian Government. General practitioners are more critical than directors, and teaching health care centers, rural and small HCC had a better sense of security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Materials and Methods: The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Results: Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  20. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A; Movahedi, M M; Reza, M

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public) in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  1. Child safety in parks' playgrounds (a case study in Tehran’s sub-district parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Mirlouhi Falavarjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsSafety is a complex concept and multidisciplinary science which is included some difference areas from industrial sectors to urban public arenas. Parks and playgrounds as important public places should be considered in terms of health and safety, especially for kids as prominent social vulnerable citizens. According to CPSC, 147 deaths havebeen reported for under 15 year old child during Jan 1990 to Aug 2000. Every 2.5 minute, kid suffers playground related accident. The main objective in this study is safety assessment ofplaygrounds among the selected parks.MethodsIn this case study, deductive approach and cross-sectional survey was followed, and some parks and playgrounds were selected among five urban counties in Tehran. Our volunteered samples were 160 parents. Playgrounds and related equipment were assessed in terms of safety, as well.ResultsOur findings show that more than 68% of playground equipment might create hazardous condition for kids. Lack of sustain maintenance for both of equipment and playground surface make some risky area for the mentioned group. Statistical analysis by SPSSWin 13 showed that more than 78 % of parents are worry about their child in terms of playground safetyproblems. Safety assessment of swings and slides showed that there are safety based problems in 89% of cases. Due to statistical reports of Tehran Emergency center, 10-12 and 8-10 year old kids suffer play based accident more than others. Reported traumas showed that face and skull and then feet suffered mechanical injury more than other limbs.ConclusionSurely, safety and health considerations are known as Municipality responsibilities, so for safety improvement in parks an integration safety system should be happened. HSE_MS seems a reliable approach for the mention goal. For improvement of exist parks and playground some related standard should be follows such as CPSC standards, EN 1176, and EN 1177. Also anthropometric data development

  2. Environmental Health and Safety Status of Schools: Case Study in Paveh City of Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Alireza Mousavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A most part of children time is spent in a school environment. Important part of the basic mission of schools is promoting the health and safety. So assessing the existing conditions is an important factor in promotion and this study conducted to investigate the environmental health and safety status of Paveh city schools in Kermanshah province. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive-cross sectional study and has performed in Paveh city of Kermanshah province. The study population consisted of primary, secondary and high schools of Paveh city. Data has been collated by referring to schools, direct observation and completion of environmental health and safety checklist. Schools conditions were determined according to the environmental health and safety checklist in desirable, semi-desirable and undesirable. The collected data were analyzed using Excel software, and data means and frequencies sign in tables and were drawn by charts. Results: From the 28 schools have visited 35.6% of school building is old and 63.7% of school building is new built. In the study of all schools in 8% of schools environmental health status were undesirable and in 21% semi-desirable and in 71% were desirable, also safety status in 4% of all schools were undesirable  and in 21% semi-desirable and in 75% were desirable. Undesirable safety conditions related to adjacent to waste accumulation areas, brick buildings without footing beam, inappropriate distance of  first row bench from the boards, lack of green spaces Conclusion: Given the importance of safety in schools, more attention should be paid to this issue. It is essential to compliance with the principles of health and safety in schools, also any consideration and action in this field can be effective in reducing the risk of many related health problems.

  3. Why is patient safety so hard? A selective review of ethnographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic studies are valuable in studying patient safety. This is a narrative review of four reports of ethnographic studies of patient safety in UK hospitals conducted as part of the Patient Safety Research Programme. Three of these studies were undertaken in operating theatres and one in an A&E Department. The studies found that hospitals were rarely geared towards ensuring perfect performances. The coordination and mobilization of the large number of inter-dependent processes and resources needed to support the achievement of tasks was rarely optimal. This produced significant strain that staff learned to tolerate by developing various compensatory strategies. Teamwork and inter-professional communication did not always function sufficiently well to ensure that basic procedural information was shared or that the required sequence of events was planned. Staff did not always do the right things, for a wide range of different reasons, including contestations about what counted as the right thing. Structures of authority and accountability were not always clear or well-functioning. Patient safety incidents were usually not reported, though there were many different reasons for this. It can be concluded that securing patient safety is hard. There are multiple interacting influences on safety, and solutions need to be based on a sound understanding of the nature of the problems and which approaches are likely to be best suited to resolving them. Some solutions that appear attractive and straightforward are likely to founder. Addressing safety problems requires acknowledgement that patient safety is not simply a technical issue, but a site of organizational and professional politics.

  4. The influence of environmental conditions on safety management in hospitals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alingh, Carien W; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Huijsman, Robbert; Paauwe, Jaap

    2018-05-02

    Hospitals are confronted with increasing safety demands from a diverse set of stakeholders, including governmental organisations, professional associations, health insurance companies, patient associations and the media. However, little is known about the effects of these institutional and competitive pressures on hospital safety management. Previous research has shown that organisations generally shape their safety management approach along the lines of control- or commitment-based management. Using a heuristic framework, based on the contextually-based human resource theory, we analysed how environmental pressures affect the safety management approach used by hospitals. A qualitative study was conducted into hospital care in the Netherlands. Five hospitals were selected for participation, based on organisational characteristics as well as variation in their reputation for patient safety. We interviewed hospital managers and staff with a central role in safety management. A total of 43 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 respondents. The heuristic framework was used as an initial model for analysing the data, though new codes emerged from the data as well. In order to ensure safe care delivery, institutional and competitive stakeholders often impose detailed safety requirements, strong forces for compliance and growing demands for accountability. As a consequence, hospitals experience a decrease in the room to manoeuvre. Hence, organisations increasingly choose a control-based management approach to make sure that safety demands are met. In contrast, in case of more abstract safety demands and an organisational culture which favours patient safety, hospitals generally experience more leeway. This often results in a stronger focus on commitment-based management. Institutional and competitive conditions as well as strategic choices that hospitals make have resulted in various combinations of control- and commitment-based safety management. A balanced

  5. Multimedia for occupational safety and health training: a pilot study examining a multimedia learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Erik S; Mulloy, Karen B

    2006-10-01

    Occupational diseases are a significant problem affecting public health. Safety training is an important method of preventing occupational illness. Training is increasingly being delivered by computer although theories of learning from computer-based multimedia have been tested almost entirely on college students. This study was designed to determine whether these theories might also be applied to safety training applications for working adults. Participants viewed either computer-based multimedia respirator use training with concurrent narration, narration prior to the animation, or unrelated safety training. Participants then took a five-item transfer test which measured their ability to use their knowledge in new and creative ways. Participants who viewed the computer-based multimedia trainings both did significantly better than the control group on the transfer test. The results of this pilot study suggest that design guidelines developed for younger learners may be effective for training workers in occupational safety and health although more investigation is needed.

  6. A Study on Enhancement of Understanding of Radiation and Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Uk; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2014-01-01

    Concerns for radiation exposure have been increased from small and big radiation works or experiments with radiation generator (RG) or radiation isotopes (RI) at institutions using radiation in Korea. Actually, due to radiation exposure occurred on the process of handling RI, etc., The exposure should be maintained as low as reasonably possible. To do this, above all, suitable training and establishment of safety culture have to be preceded. In this respect, an education institution is a place where people learn first about handling radiations in various specialties with purposes including academic research, and the first learned habits and practices acts as the basis for safety management of radiation when they continue to do radiation work after going into the society. Hereford, it is needed to establish the right safety culture on radiation for its safe managing. In the present study, the direction for the right understandings and safety improvement are suggested through the radiation survey on education institutions and preparation of safety guidances for users. The basic guidance at the radiation experiment was prepared for the right understanding of the radiation to prevent radiation accidents from careless handling by workers based on the surveyed results for education institutions. It is expected to be used as fundamentals for improvement for radiation safety management of workers and researchers and, further, safety policy for national nuclear energy and radiations

  7. A Study on Enhancement of Understanding of Radiation and Safety Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Uk; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Concerns for radiation exposure have been increased from small and big radiation works or experiments with radiation generator (RG) or radiation isotopes (RI) at institutions using radiation in Korea. Actually, due to radiation exposure occurred on the process of handling RI, etc., The exposure should be maintained as low as reasonably possible. To do this, above all, suitable training and establishment of safety culture have to be preceded. In this respect, an education institution is a place where people learn first about handling radiations in various specialties with purposes including academic research, and the first learned habits and practices acts as the basis for safety management of radiation when they continue to do radiation work after going into the society. Hereford, it is needed to establish the right safety culture on radiation for its safe managing. In the present study, the direction for the right understandings and safety improvement are suggested through the radiation survey on education institutions and preparation of safety guidances for users. The basic guidance at the radiation experiment was prepared for the right understanding of the radiation to prevent radiation accidents from careless handling by workers based on the surveyed results for education institutions. It is expected to be used as fundamentals for improvement for radiation safety management of workers and researchers and, further, safety policy for national nuclear energy and radiations.

  8. Food safety issues in China: a case study of the dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents have occurred frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained the attention of the Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers' response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Until 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from this influence. Using the random effects model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consumption. Overall, the results show that consumers in the low-income group are more sensitive to safety risk than those in the high-income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents' dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption, which was affected by the melamine incident, was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for the high-income group even increased. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Focus on the studies in support of fire safety analysis. IRSN modelling approach for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espargilliere, Julien; Meyrand, Raphael; Vinot, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-12-15

    For a fire safety analysis, in order to comply with nuclear safety goals, a nuclear fuel facility operator has to define the elements important for safety to be maintained, even in the case of a fire. One of the key points of this fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. This paper presents the IRSN method applied to a case study to assess fire scenarios which have the most harmful effects on safety targets. The layout consists in a central room (fire cell) containing three glove boxes with radioactive material and three electrical cabinets. This room is linked to two connecting compartments (the fire cell and these two compartments define the containment cell) and then to two corridors. Each room is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, and a pressure cascade is established from the corridors to the central room. A fire scenario was studied with fire ignition occurring in an electrical cabinet. This scenario has a set of safety goals (prevention of fire cell and containment device failure, propagation of the fire). This case study was conducted with the IRSN code SYLVIA based on two zones modelling. Safety goals were associated with key parameters and performance criteria to be fulfilled. Modelling assumptions were defined in order to maximize physical effects of the fire. Sensitivity studies were also conducted on key parameters such as oxygen limitation, equivalent-fuel definition. Eventually, a critical analysis of the code models was carried out.

  10. LMFBR conceptual design study: an overview of environmental and safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenchley, D.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder (LMFBR) Conceptual Design Study (CDS) with the objective of maintaining a viable breeder option. The project is scheduled to be completed in FY-1981 but decisions regarding plant construction will be delayed until at least 1985. This report provides a review of the potential environmental and safety engineering concerns for the CDS and recommends specific action for the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division of DOE

  11. LMFBR conceptual design study: an overview of environmental and safety concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder (LMFBR) Conceptual Design Study (CDS) with the objective of maintaining a viable breeder option. The project is scheduled to be completed in FY-1981 but decisions regarding plant construction will be delayed until at least 1985. This report provides a review of the potential environmental and safety engineering concerns for the CDS and recommends specific action for the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division of DOE.

  12. A review on food safety and food hygiene studies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, P. F.; Lovatt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Food safety and hygiene in Ghana was studied using desk top literature review. Food research was highly concentrated in the capital city of the country and most research focus were on commercial food operations specifically street foods and microbiological safety with limited information from institutional catering and other forms of food hazards. The media currently serves as the main source for reporting of food borne diseases. Food establishments and other sources contributing to food born...

  13. Study of radiation safety education practices in acute care Texas hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemley, A.A.; Hedl, J.J. Jr.; Griffin, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A survey study was performed to assess the extent of radiation safety education and training in acute care Texas hospitals for radiologic technologists and other hospital personnel. The findings revealed a self-perceived need by hospital administrative personnel and were interpreted to suggest a quantitative need for increased radiation safety education for several classes of hospital personnel. The findings are discussed relative to potential certification requirements for technologists and implications for the training of other personnel

  14. Application of patient safety indicators internationally: a pilot study among seven countries

    OpenAIRE

    Drösler, Saskia E.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Romano, Patrick S.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gogorcena Aoiz, Maria A.; Hewitt, Moira C.; Scobie, Sarah; Soop, Michael; Wen, Eugene; Quan, Hude; Ghali, William A.; Mattke, Soeren; Kelley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential for international comparison of patient safety as part of the Health Care Quality Indicators project of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by evaluating patient safety indicators originally published by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting Acute care hospitals in the USA, UK, Sweden, Spain, Germany, Canada and Australia in 2004 and 2005/2006. Data source...

  15. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: a study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Mohd A.; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions. Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and ...

  16. Safety sign designs for children by considering effect of the colors preferences: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftadi, Irwan; Nugraha, Dian Cahya; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Color has become a major consideration in ergonomics. Color conveys a message and it is an important element in safety signs. The importance of colors usage in safety sign designs makes the colors research into one of the things that must be done before designing them. So far, research in the related field only focused on the adult's perspective without involving children's perspective in designing the safety signs. This paper aims to find out how children's perception towards colors affects the safety sign designs. This study consist of eight sections which are literature study, direct observation, determining referents and other parameters, determining research respondents, making the booklet, assessing the colors preferences, determining the design's parameter value and creating the safety sign designs. Limitation of the research are the objects are the students with the age of 10 - 11 years old in Grade IV and then the research is conducted in the school day and hours that apply to the school. Chi square test and odds ratio are employed to assess the colors preferences. Twelve safety sign designs are proposed by considering the children's colors perception. The designs are grouped into three types of sign which are Mandatory Action Sign, Warning Sign and Prohibition Sign. Six colors are used to draw the safety signs i.e. red, orange, yellow, green, blue and black. On the basis of the study, it is concluded that the colors that often appears in safety signs is green with the percentage of 75% and that rarely appears is red with the percentage of 8.33%.

  17. The Efficacy and Safety of Add-on Ginko TD (Ginkgo Biloba Treatment for PTSD: Results of a 12-Week Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Koohi Habibi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Exposure to traumatic stressors lead to activation of arousal responses mediated by serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and it may cause a change in numerous neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine systems. There is ample experimental and clinical evidence to suggest that Ginkgo biloba extract is neuroprotective and has antioxidant properties and can restore stress-induced elevation in brain levels of catecholamines, 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to normal level. "nMethod: In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the efficacy and safety of adding-on a fixed-dose (200mg of Ginkgo TD to the previous treatment regime of adults with PTSD were examined. Subjects were forty male and female outpatients from a public-owned psychiatric clinic who met criteria for PTSD seven month after a 6.3 Richter earthquake in Bam city on December 26, 2003. The changes in five symptom domains including posttraumatic stress, anxiety and affective symptoms, general health and subjective stress after trauma were ssessed at weeks 0, 12 and 16 to examine effectiveness of the added-on Ginkgo TD and stability of its effects. "nResults: Ginkgo TD was associated with a significantly greater improvement than placebo in PTSD patients as measured by five symptom domain scales including: GHQ-28; Watson PTSD Scale; HAM-D; HAM-A and IES (p= 0.02, 0.01, 0.001, 0.01, 0.02 respectively Four weeks after the discontinuation of intervention, no significant difference was determined between the two groups in the five outcome measures (p= 0.005, 0.01, 0.004, 0.005, 0.01 respectively. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of side effects. "nConclusions: We found Ginkgo TD to be superior to placebo as an adding-on in the treatment of PTSD. Although we did not examine the comparative efficacy of Ginkgo TD on the three main elements of PTSD, beneficial effects both on specific PTSD symptomatology and general conditions including

  18. Multi-sectoral action for child safety-a European study exploring implicated sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Förster, Katharina; MacKay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 19414 - Pipeline Safety: Public Comment on Leak and Valve Studies Mandated by the Pipeline Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials.... Background: The recent passage of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 has... consider upstream and downstream controls, automation, supervisory control and data acquisition systems...

  20. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Sun; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The scope of this study consists of : in relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A., a determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material, a tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  1. Topical session proceedings of the 5. IGSC meeting on: observations regarding the safety case in recent safety assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Alan J.; Voinis, Sylvie; Van Luik, Abraham E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the NEA, the IGSC (Integration Group for the Safety Case) has, as an essential role, to develop common views on such key aspects of the safety case. Therefore, since the inauguration of the IGSC in 2000, four meetings were organised with topical sessions to explore various of these key aspects. This is a report on the fifth such topical session, held as part of the 5. plenary meeting of the IGSC. The session was attended by 36 participants, representing waste management organisations and regulatory authorities from 16 NEA member countries, the IAEA and the European Commission. The purpose of this topical session was to provide support to the finalising of the IGSC safety case brochure by getting a description of the safety case content of the IAEA Draft Safety Requirements document and by getting an overview of progress that could be observed from national organisations on developing their cases for system safety and/or developing the required methodologies. The objective was that the IGSC safety case brochure should be supportive of the IAEA/NEA document, and be reflective of the experience of the IGSC member programmes and organisations. The topical session was mainly aimed at exchanging information on: - The safety case related content of the proposed IAEA/NEA document (currently titled: 'IAEA Safety Standards Series, Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Draft Safety Requirements (DS-154)'). - National programmes where safety assessments have recently been completed, e.g. ONDRAF/NIRAS, Nagra and Andra. - Feedback from international peer reviews, e.g. the Andra Dossier 2001 Argile, the Belgian SAFIR 2 report, the SR 97 report and the US-DOE Yucca Mountain TSPA. - The evolution of some national assessment methods and approaches e.g. SKB and Nagra. - The content of the draft IGSC safety case brochure entitled: 'The Nature and Purpose of the Post-closure Safety Case in Geological Disposal'. This document presents the various

  2. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayabo, Lynette B.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, G overnment, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, R adiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards . The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and

  3. A study on the safety of spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Lee, Hoo Kuen; Park, Kuen Il; Jung, Myung Soo; Kim, You Sun

    1992-03-01

    In order to establish the effective removal system of radioactive iodine compound generated from the nuclear facilities, study on adsorption and desorption of organic iodine by impregnated active carbon was carried out. Physical characteristics of impregnated active carbon was identified, and the adsorption of water vapor and the methyl iodide adsorption and desorption characteristics by impregnated active carbon were studied. Also, the weathering effects on impregnated active carbon was analyzed to evaluate the long-term capacity of impregnated active carbon. In addition, the existing test facility of impregnated active carbon was partly updated by incorporating sophisticated temperature and humidity controling system. (Author)

  4. Immunogenicity of biologically-derived therapeutics: assessment and interpretation of nonclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Rafael; Abad, Leslie; Amaravadi, Lakshmi; Gelzleichter, Thomas; Gore, Elizabeth; Green, James; Gupta, Shalini; Herzyk, Danuta; Hurst, Christopher; Ivens, Inge A; Kawabata, Thomas; Maier, Curtis; Mounho, Barbara; Rup, Bonita; Shankar, Gopi; Smith, Holly; Thomas, Peter; Wierda, Dan

    2009-07-01

    An evaluation of potential antibody formation to biologic therapeutics during the course of nonclinical safety studies and its impact on the toxicity profile is expected under current regulatory guidance and is accepted standard practice. However, approaches for incorporating this information in the interpretation of nonclinical safety studies are not clearly established. Described here are the immunological basis of anti-drug antibody formation to biopharmaceuticals (immunogenicity) in laboratory animals, and approaches for generating and interpreting immunogenicity data from nonclinical safety studies of biotechnology-derived therapeutics to support their progression to clinical evaluation. We subscribe that immunogenicity testing strategies should be adapted to the specific needs of each therapeutic development program, and data generated from such analyses should be integrated with available clinical and anatomic pathology, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic data to properly interpret nonclinical studies.

  5. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... of these changes in risk factors on accident occurrence cannot be predicted. On the whole, the research that has been reported so far regarding road safety effects of porous asphalt is inconclusive. The studies are not of high quality and the findings are inconsistent.......This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...

  6. An observational study of road safety around selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the ...

  7. Study of the Operational Safety of a Vascular Interventional Surgical Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an operation safety early warning system based on LabView (2014, National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA for vascular interventional surgery (VIS robotic system. The system not only provides intuitive visual feedback information for the surgeon, but also has a safety early warning function. It is well known that blood vessels differ in their ability to withstand stress in different age groups, therefore, the operation safety early warning system based on LabView has a vascular safety threshold function that changes in real-time, which can be oriented to different age groups of patients and a broader applicable scope. In addition, the tracing performance of the slave manipulator to the master manipulator is also an important index for operation safety. Therefore, we also transformed the slave manipulator and integrated the displacement error compensation algorithm in order to improve the tracking ability of the slave manipulator to the master manipulator and reduce master–slave tracking errors. We performed experiments “in vitro” to validate the proposed system. According to previous studies, 0.12 N is the maximum force when the blood vessel wall has been penetrated. Experimental results showed that the proposed operation safety early warning system based on LabView combined with operating force feedback can effectively avoid excessive collisions between the surgical catheter and vessel wall to avoid vascular puncture. The force feedback error of the proposed system is maintained between ±20 mN, which is within the allowable safety range and meets our design requirements. Therefore, the proposed system can ensure the safety of surgery.

  8. Patient safety culture in China: a case study in an outpatient setting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the patient safety culture in an outpatient setting in Beijing and explore the meaning and implications of the safety culture from the perspective of health workers and patients. A mixed methods approach involving a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews was adopted. Among the 410 invited staff members, 318 completed the Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture (HSOPC). Patient safety culture was described using 12 subscale scores. Inter-subscale correlation analysis, ANOVA and stepwise multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of the patient safety culture scores. Interviewees included 22 patients selected through opportunity sampling and 27 staff members selected through purposive sampling. The interview data were analysed thematically. The survey respondents perceived high levels of unsafe care but had personally reported few events. Lack of 'communication openness' was identified as a major safety culture problem, and a perception of 'penalty' was the greatest barrier to the encouragement of error reporting. Cohesive 'teamwork within units', while found to be an area of strength, conversely served as a protective and defensive mechanism for medical practice. Low levels of trust between providers and consumers and lack of management support constituted an obstacle to building a positive patient safety culture. This study in China demonstrates that a punitive approach to error is still widespread despite increasing awareness of unsafe care, and managers have been slow in acknowledging the importance of building a positive patient safety culture. Strong 'teamwork within units', a common area of strength, could fuel the concealment of errors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Study on the operational safety performance indicator of nuclear power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shirong

    2005-01-01

    The operational Safety Performance Indicator system (SPI) has been more and more regarded recently for their clear and effective characteristic in safety assessment for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). A large developing plan for NPPs construction is being discussed and considered in P.R. China. As one of important nuclear country, China expects to ensure the normal operation of NPPs and improve the safety level. National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA), National Nuclear Regulatory Agency of China, has put high attention on safety and SPI area, and many endeavours and attempts have been done or being carried out for an establishment of SPI system in China. NNSA intends to build an integrated SPI system to monitor all of the NPPs operation in China, based on the SPI system currently used in the world. NNSA believes that the SPI system will help to more effectively enforce the function of surveillance and management. The paper will introduces the status of study on the operational safety performance indicator of Nuclear Power Plants in China. (author)

  10. Study on safety educations against individual causal factors of unsafe acts and specification of target trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Ayako; Takeda, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Many accidents and incidents are caused by unsafe acts. It is important to reduce these unsafe acts for preventing the accidents. The countermeasures for each causal factor behind unsafe acts are needed, however, comparing with improvement of facilities, workers-oriented measures such as safety educations are not sufficient. Then the purposes of this study are as follows: 1) to investigate the individual factors which have great impact of unsafe acts and the existing safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these factors, 2) to specify the target trainees to perform these safety educations. To identify common factors that affect unsafe act significantly, a web survey was conducted to 500 workers who have regularly carried out accident prediction training (i.e. Kiken-Yochi training). They were asked the situation which they were apt to act unsafely by free description. As the result, the following three main factors were extracted: impatience, overconfidence, and bothersome. Also, it was found that there were few existing safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these factors except for overconfidence. To specify the target trainees to perform safety educations which aim to mitigate the impact of these three factors, another web survey was conducted to 200 personnel in charge of safety at the workplace. They were asked the features of workers who tended to act unsafely by age group. The relationship between the factor that need to mitigate and the trainee who need to receive the education were clarified from the survey. (author)

  11. Understanding parental motivators and barriers to uptake of child poison safety strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Sherrard, J; Ozanne-Smith, J; Robinson, J; Young, S; Hutchinson, A

    2005-12-01

    To develop an understanding of factors acting as barriers and motivators to parental uptake of child poison safety strategies. A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews and focus groups. A grounded theory approach was used for the collection and analysis of data. Sixty five parents of children under 5 years of age, some of whom had experienced an unintentional child poisoning incident. A range of knowledge based, environmental, and behavioral barriers to comprehensive parental uptake of poison safety practices were identified. As a result there tended to be only partial implementation of safety initiatives in the home. Selection of safety practices was often guided by the interests and behaviors of the child. This made the child vulnerable to changes in the home environment, inadequate supervision, and/or shifts in their own behavior and developmental ability. Personal or vicarious exposure of a parent to a child poisoning incident was a significant motivator for parental review of safety practices. Environmental measures targeting child resistant containers, warning labels, and lockable poisons cupboards will support parents' efforts to maintain poison safety. Additional education campaigns using stories of actual poisoning incidents may help to increase awareness of risk and encourage increased uptake.

  12. Conceptual design study for the demonstration reactor of JSFR. (3) Safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Akihiro; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Kubo, Shigenobu; Fujimura, Ken; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the result of conceptual safety design and evaluation for the demonstration plant of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR), which was preliminarily conducted for providing information necessary to decide the plant specification for further design study. The plant major specifications except for output power and safety design concept are almost the same as those of the commercial JSFR. A set of safety evaluation for typical design basis events (DBEs) is mainly focused here, which was conducted for the 750 MWe design. Safety analyses for DBEs evaluation were performed on the basis of conservative assumptions using a one-dimensional flow network code with point kinetics. For representative DBEs, transient over power type events and loss of flow type events were analyzed. The long-term loss-of-offsite power event was also calculated to evaluate the natural circulation decay heat removal system. All analytical results showed to meet tentative safety criteria, thus it was confirmed that the safety design concept of JSFR is feasible against DBEs. (author)

  13. Use of a probabilistic safety study in the design of the Italian reference PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, D.C.; Russino, G.; Valentini, V.

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide a description of the experience gained in having performed a Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) on the proposed Italian reference pressurized water reactor. The experience revealed that through careful application of probabilistic techniques, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can be used as a tool to develop an optimum plant design in terms of safety and cost. Furthermore, the PSS can also be maintained as a living document and a tool to assess additional regulatory requirements that may be imposed during the construction and operational life of the plant. Through the use of flexible probabilistic techniques, the probabilistic safety model can provide a living safety assessment starting from the conceptual design and continuing through the construction, testing and operational phases. Moreover, the probabilistic safety model can be used during the operational phase of the plant as a method to evaluate the operational experience and identify potential problems before they occur. The experience, overall, provided additional insights into the various aspects of the plants design and operation that would not have been identified through the use of traditional safety evaluation techniques

  14. Feasibility studies of safety assessment methods for programmable automation systems. Final report of the AVV project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Pulkkinen, U.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.; Tuulari, E.

    1995-10-01

    Feasibility studies of two different groups of methodologies for safety assessment of programmable automation systems has been executed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The studies concerned the dynamic testing methods and the fault tree (FT) and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methods. In order to get real experience in the application of these methods, an experimental testing of two realistic pilot systems were executed and a FT/FMEA analysis of a programmable safety function accomplished. The purpose of the studies was not to assess the object systems, but to get experience in the application of methods and assess their potentials and development needs. (46 refs., 21 figs.)

  15. Safety-related topics from the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) evaluated innovative reactor concepts, and this article reviews NPOVS findings, with emphasis on safety and licensing. The reactors studied were of light-water, liquid-metal, and helium-cooled concepts, and most were of modular design. Prelicensed standard plants offer an important step toward regulatory stability and early licensing approvals with public participation before major expenditures. Advanced reactors with passive safety features offer the possibility of performance-based regulation. The concepts studied appear to be potentially viable, but more complete designs will be required before economic evaluations can be definitive

  16. Safety and safeguards aspects on retrievability: A German study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Engelmann, H.-J.; Brennecke, P.; Kranz, H.

    2000-01-01

    The article refers shortly to the definition of the term 'retrievability' and shows two different possibilities of retrieval scenarios, their advantages and detriments. The second part lists the Safeguards aspects of retrievability, gives a short outlook on the present German Safeguards Reference Concept in the post-closure phase of a repository in a salt dome and about the results of German studies concerning some proposed Safeguards methods. Furthermore, Planned investigations on Safeguards in the post-closure phase of a repository are mentioned. The third and main part finally describes the results of the German Retrievability Study, which was elaborated in the middle of the nineties by DBE on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology, BMBF, under an R and D contract. (author)

  17. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  18. Safety study of the integrity of steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillot, B.; Goetsch, D.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops the two following points: the characterization of the materials and the analysis of the behaviour of the structures for which the evaluation of the various parameters is essential. The facilities and tests carried out at the C.E.A. for determining K1c, J1c, K1d, are presented. The application made to characterize the irradiated materials is then indicated. The analysis of the behaviour of the structures makes it possible to verify at several levels that the dimensioning of the appliances is right: assessment of the dimensioning rules, calculation methods, calculation hypotheses and execution of additional calculations. These various aspects are illustrated with concrete examples: calculation of a valve and fittings component, study of a tube-sleeve connection, calculation of pipework and study of the whipping of an instrumentation pipe [fr

  19. Explosion approach for external safety assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Michael; Halford, Ann [Germanischer Lloyd, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Several questions related to the potential for explosions are explored as this became an important subject during an enterprise risk analysis. The understanding of explosions underwent a substantial evolution in the final 20 years of the 20{sup th} century following international research projects in Europe involving several research institutes, as well gas and oil companies. This led to the development of techniques that could be used to assess the potential consequences of explosions on oil, gas and petrochemical facilities. This paper presents an overview of the potential for explosions in communities close to industrial sites or pipelines right of way (RoW), where the standard explosion assessment methods cannot be applied. With reference to experimental studies, the potential for confined explosions in buildings and Vapor Cloud Explosions is explored. Vapor Cloud Explosion incidents in rural or urban areas are also discussed. The method used for incorporating possible explosion and fire events in risk studies is also described using a case study. Standard explosion assessment methodologies and a revised approach are compared as part of an on going evaluation of risk (author)

  20. THE STUDY THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Effective treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes often involves the use of antimicrobial agents.The purpose of the study was an in vitro estimation of cytotoxicity and the efficiency of national resources for local use: gel with bacteriophages («Otofag», «Fagogin», «Fagoderm», «Fagodent» and antiseptic — «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin».Materials and Methods. To study the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents they used to provide crop strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes as one of the most common representatives of pathogens. The study of cell viability and cytotoxicity antimicrobials performed on cell lines KB — epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity of a human. For this purpose we use mikrotetrazoly test, which is widely used in the assessment of the effects on the cells of toxins, pharmaceuticals, adverse environmental factors, allowing to evaluate the toxicity of investigational drugs in vitro.The results showed that the efficacy against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, has even a 10‑fold dilution of «Сhlorhexidine» 0.05% and gels with bacteriophages. Antiseptic «Miramistin» is effective only on the initial concentration. The study of cytotoxicity showed that the processing of epidermoid carcinoma cells with «Chlorhexidine» and «Мiramistin» invokes the irreversible reactions, while the composition processing of gels based on bacteriophages not further affect cell viability.Conclusions The results of the experiment confirmed the significant toxicity of tools such as «Сhlorhexidine» and «Miramistin» in proposed concentrations in the pharmacy network. Despite the high efficiency of these vehicles with regard to the studied pathogens, their long-term use in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes can cause a slowing of repair processes. Gel means with bacteriophages

  1. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  2. French study and research program on water cooled reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammite, R.

    1985-05-01

    Electricite de France and the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), joined to obtain, in several fields, the knowledge and qualified calculation tools, they need to develop new means to face the potential consequences of accidents. The bringing on of an important number of PWR units in France in the eightys involves a focusing on these studies. The main fields concerned are the following ones: core cooling accidents and severe accident prevention; fuel behavior in case of accident; containment behavior in accidental situation; emission, transfer and release of fission products in case of accident; probabilistic risk analysis, human factor and earthquakes [fr

  3. Construction Site Workers’ Awareness on Using Safety Equipment: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the important means to protect the wearer from hazards in the workplace. Since this equipment is the last frontier of the wearer from worksite hazards, it is important to select it based on the job scope and the intended protection. Therefore, this study was formulated to find out the level of knowledge and awareness of construction workers on PPE usage. It was also important to know what make the workers would want or do not want to use the PPE. It was found in this study that the level of awareness and knowledge among workers on the proper use of PPE is moderate. Construction sites accident can be further be reduced with proper implementation of PPE voluntarily by all workers.

  4. [Safety study of long-term video-electroencephalogram monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, M; Vivanco, R; Massot, A; Jiménez, J; Roquer, J; Rocamora, R

    2014-01-01

    The increased morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life associated with drug-resistant epilepsy justify admitting patients to epilepsy monitoring units (EMU). These units employ methods that promote the occurrence of seizures, which involves a risk of secondary adverse events. The aim of our study is to characterise and quantify these adverse events in a Spanish EMU. A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of patients admitted consecutively to our EMU. Patients admitted due to status epilepticus, clusters of seizures, or as participants in a clinical trial were excluded. We included 175 patients, of whom 92.1% (161) did not suffer any adverse events. Status epilepticus was present in 3.4% (6); 1.7% (3) had traumatic injury, 1.7% (3) had interictal or postictal psychosis, and 1.1% (2) had cardiorespiratory impairment. There were no risk factors associated with these adverse events. The most frequently-identified adverse events were status epilepticus, traumatic injury, interictal or postictal psychosis, and cardiorespiratory disorders. The frequency of these adverse events was similar to that seen in international literature. The complications detected do not contraindicate VEEGM. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study is to develop the technical criteria and regulatory system for establishing the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally. Up to this point, domestically, though many byproduct materials are distributed and used already, it seems that there are no related technical criteria and regulatory system and it becomes an obstacle in the development of relating industry. Since this kind of situation may give negative impact on the proper recognizance of the radiation to public, it is very urgent to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material. In relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A. A determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material. A tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  6. Participants' safety versus confidentiality: A case study of HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel; Feijoo-Cid, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Background When conducting qualitative research, participants usually share lots of personal and private information with the researcher. As researchers, we must preserve participants' identity and confidentiality of the data. Objective To critically analyze an ethical conflict encountered regarding confidentiality when doing qualitative research. Research design Case study. Findings and discussion one of the participants in a study aiming to explain the meaning of living with HIV verbalized his imminent intention to commit suicide because of stigma of other social problems arising from living with HIV. Given the life-threatening situation, the commitment related to not disclosing the participant's identity and/or the content of the interview had to be broken. To avoid or prevent suicide, the therapist in charge of the case was properly informed about the participant's intentions. One important question arises from this case: was it ethically appropriate to break the confidentiality commitment? Conclusion confidentiality could be broken if a life-threatening event is identified during data collection and participants must know that. This has to be clearly stated in the informed consent form.

  7. Safety probabilistic study of Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant-Unit I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.; Arrieta, L.A.I.; Fernandes Filho, T.L.; Gibelli, S.M.O.; Berthoud, J.S.; Ambros, P.C.; Soares, H.V.; Camargo, C.T.M.

    1985-04-01

    The phase A of probabilistic safety study of Angra I nuclear power plant is presented, to be used by CNEN and FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A. as standard model in operational and safety analysis. The methodology applied is a modernization of WASH 1400/2.11/ study. Angra I safety systems are described. The selection and qualification of initiating sequence accident events which can damage the reactor core are done. The accident scenes are developed using the method of event trees. The reactor in subcritical condition (pressure, fuel temperature within limits and controlled level of reactor vessel) is studied during 24 hours. The uncertainness in failure probabilities of systems and in the determination of sequence frequencies for core danification are evaluated. Total frequency of sequences which cause the fusion of reactor core are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Safety Management. An Introduction to a Frame of Reference Exemplified with Case Studies from Non-Nuclear Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ola (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Salo, Ilkka (Dept. of Psychology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2004-11-15

    A systems perspective on safety management is introduced followed by two briefly presented case studies of safety management in non-nuclear contexts. The first study concerns a car manufacturer and the second study a road traffic tunnel system. The risks of a car accident in the first case study are evident. The great exposure generates many incidents and accidents. In the second study, the rather low traffic intensity through the tunnel produces few incidents and accidents and only a few fatal accidents over the years. Yet, the risk of the individual traveler is much greater in the tunnel than on the average road. The case studies are presented in a systems perspective with emphasis on information feedback about the risks of the systems. The first case study illustrates high quality safety management, while the second case study shows many weaknesses of the safety management in the tunnel system. Some differences in safety management between the case studies are noted. The last part of the study presents an organizational perspective on safety management and offers alternative theoretical perspectives on the concept of safety management. The report shows that further studies are needed both (1) to develop a frame of reference for describing safety management across industries and activities and (2) to collect data illustrating of good and poor safety management. Then, the results can be used to strengthen and/or improving safety management in the nuclear power industry and its regulators

  9. Safety Management. An Introduction to a Frame of Reference Exemplified with Case Studies from Non-Nuclear Contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka

    2004-11-01

    A systems perspective on safety management is introduced followed by two briefly presented case studies of safety management in non-nuclear contexts. The first study concerns a car manufacturer and the second study a road traffic tunnel system. The risks of a car accident in the first case study are evident. The great exposure generates many incidents and accidents. In the second study, the rather low traffic intensity through the tunnel produces few incidents and accidents and only a few fatal accidents over the years. Yet, the risk of the individual traveler is much greater in the tunnel than on the average road. The case studies are presented in a systems perspective with emphasis on information feedback about the risks of the systems. The first case study illustrates high quality safety management, while the second case study shows many weaknesses of the safety management in the tunnel system. Some differences in safety management between the case studies are noted. The last part of the study presents an organizational perspective on safety management and offers alternative theoretical perspectives on the concept of safety management. The report shows that further studies are needed both (1) to develop a frame of reference for describing safety management across industries and activities and (2) to collect data illustrating of good and poor safety management. Then, the results can be used to strengthen and/or improving safety management in the nuclear power industry and its regulators

  10. A study on periodic safety verification on MOV performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Du Eon; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Jae Seob; Kang, Hyeon Taek; Lee, Jeong Min; Song, Kyu Jo; Shin, Wan Sun; Lee, Taek Sang [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objectives of this study, therefore, are to define the optimized valve diagnostic variances which early detect the abnormal conditions during the surveillance of the valve and consequently reduce the radiation exposure. The major direction of the development is to detect in advance the valve degradation by monitoring the motor current and power signals which can be obtained remotely at Motor Control Center (MCC). A series of valve operation experiments have been performed under several kinds of abnormal conditions by using the test apparatus which consists of a 3-inch gate valve, a motor(0.33 Hp, 460V, 0.8A, 1560rpm), actuator(SMB-000-2 type), some measuring devices(power analyzer, oscilloscope, data recorder and current transformer, AC current and voltage transducer) and connection cables.

  11. Application of patient safety indicators internationally: a pilot study among seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drösler, Saskia E; Klazinga, Niek S; Romano, Patrick S; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gogorcena Aoiz, Maria A; Hewitt, Moira C; Scobie, Sarah; Soop, Michael; Wen, Eugene; Quan, Hude; Ghali, William A; Mattke, Soeren; Kelley, Edward

    2009-08-01

    To explore the potential for international comparison of patient safety as part of the Health Care Quality Indicators project of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by evaluating patient safety indicators originally published by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). A retrospective cross-sectional study. Acute care hospitals in the USA, UK, Sweden, Spain, Germany, Canada and Australia in 2004 and 2005/2006. Routine hospitalization-related administrative data from seven countries were analyzed. Using algorithms adapted to the diagnosis and procedure coding systems in place in each country, authorities in each of the participating countries reported summaries of the distribution of hospital-level and overall (national) rates for each AHRQ Patient Safety Indicator to the OECD project secretariat. Each country's vector of national indicator rates and the vector of American patient safety indicators rates published by AHRQ (and re-estimated as part of this study) were highly correlated (0.821-0.966). However, there was substantial systematic variation in rates across countries. This pilot study reveals that AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators can be applied to international hospital data. However, the analyses suggest that certain indicators (e.g. 'birth trauma', 'complications of anesthesia') may be too unreliable for international comparisons. Data quality varies across countries; undercoding may be a systematic problem in some countries. Efforts at international harmonization of hospital discharge data sets as well as improved accuracy of documentation should facilitate future comparative analyses of routine databases.

  12. Adolescent and Parent Willingness to Participate in Microbicide Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallozzi, Marina; de Roche, Ariel M; Hu, Mei-Chen; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Chang, Jane; Ipp, Lisa S; Francis, Jenny K R; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2017-02-01

    To understand adolescents' and parents' willingness to participate (WTP) in a hypothetical phase I prevention study of sexually transmitted infections, discordance within adolescent-parent dyads, and expectations of each other during decision-making. Adolescent-parent dyads were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study about research participation attitudes. Adolescents (14-17 years old) and their parents (n = 301 dyads) participated. None. Individual interviews at baseline assessed WTP on a 6-level Likert scale. WTP was dichotomized (willing/unwilling) to assess discordance. WTP was reported by 60% (182 of 301) of adolescents and 52% (156 of 300) of parents. In bivariate analyses, older adolescent age, sexual experience, and less involvement of parents in research processes were associated with higher level of WTP for adolescents; only sexual experience remained in the multivariable analysis. For parents, older adolescent age, perceived adolescent sexual experience, and conversations about sexual health were significant; only conversations remained. Dyadic discordance (44%, 132 of 300) was more likely in dyads in which the parent reported previous research experience, and less likely when parents reported higher family expressiveness. Adolescents (83%, 248 of 299) and parents (88%, 263 of 300) thought that the other would have similar views, influence their decision (adolescents 66%, 199 of 300; parents 75%, 224 of 300), and listen (adolescents 90%, 270 of 300; parents 96%, 287 of 300). There were no relationships between these perceptions and discordance. Inclusion of adolescents in phase I clinical trials is necessary to ensure that new methods are safe, effective, and acceptable for them. Because these trials currently require parental consent, strategies that manage adolescent-parent discordance and support adolescent independence and parental guidance are critically needed. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent

  13. Patient safety priorities in mental healthcare in Switzerland: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascherek, Anna C; Schwappach, David L B

    2016-08-05

    Identifying patient safety priorities in mental healthcare is an emerging issue. A variety of aspects of patient safety in medical care apply for patient safety in mental care as well. However, specific aspects may be different as a consequence of special characteristics of patients, setting and treatment. The aim of the present study was to combine knowledge from the field and research and bundle existing initiatives and projects to define patient safety priorities in mental healthcare in Switzerland. The present study draws on national expert panels, namely, round-table discussion and modified Delphi consensus method. As preparation for the modified Delphi questionnaire, two round-table discussions and one semistructured questionnaire were conducted. Preparative work was conducted between May 2015 and October 2015. The modified Delphi was conducted to gauge experts' opinion on priorities in patient safety in mental healthcare in Switzerland. In two independent rating rounds, experts made private ratings. The modified Delphi was conducted in winter 2015. Nine topics were defined along the treatment pathway: diagnostic errors, non-drug treatment errors, medication errors, errors related to coercive measures, errors related to aggression management against self and others, errors in treatment of suicidal patients, communication errors, errors at interfaces of care and structural errors. Patient safety is considered as an important topic of quality in mental healthcare among experts, but it has been seriously neglected up until now. Activities in research and in practice are needed. Structural errors and diagnostics were given highest priority. From the topics identified, some are overlapping with important aspects of patient safety in medical care; however, some core aspects are unique. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Language barriers and patient safety risks in hospital care. A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rosse, Floor; de Bruijne, Martine; Suurmond, Jeanine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Wagner, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    A language barrier has been shown to be a threat for quality of hospital care. International studies highlighted a lack of adequate noticing, reporting, and bridging of a language barrier. However, studies on the link between language proficiency and patient safety are scarce, especially in Europe.

  15. Language barriers and patient safety risks in hospital care: a mixed methods study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosse, F. van; Bruijne, M. de; Suurmond, J.; Essink-Bot, M.L.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A language barrier has been shown to be a threat for quality of hospital care. International studies highlighted a lack of adequate noticing, reporting, and bridging of a language barrier. However, studies on the link between language proficiency and patient safety are scarce,

  16. Effects of perioperative briefing and debriefing on patient safety: a prospective intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, K.B.M.S.L.; Hanskamp-Sebregts, M.E.; Wal, R.A. van der; Wolff, AP

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to improve patient safety in the operating theatre by the introduction of perioperative briefing and debriefing, which focused on an optimal collaboration between surgical team members. DESIGN: A prospective intervention study with one pretest and two post-test

  17. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, R.; Badano, A.; Dellepere, A.; Artucio, G.; Bertolotti, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps

  18. Exploring the relationship between quality of management and safety climate in a large scale Danish cross‐sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Carlsen, Kathrine; Kines, Pete

    2011-01-01

    . In addition, we consider the impact of age, gender, education, job type and seniority as well as company size and industrial sector on the rating of safety climate. Predictors of safety climate ratings are analysed by use of multiple regression analysis. Our results show that the leadership style measured...... and transformational leadership and safety climate, and to explore how safety climate is affected by a number of socio-demographic factors and within different industries and company sizes. The analyses are based on data from a recent Danish work environment cross-sectional study including 3681 employees from a wide...... range of industries and who report that safety climate is relevant for their job. We use two safety climate items, (one regarding management safety empowerment; one regarding co-workers’ safety priority), one question about transactional leadership and two scales concerning transformational leadership...

  19. Demonstration study on shielding safety analysis code. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Sadashi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-01

    Dose evaluation for direct radiation and skyshine from nuclear fuel facilities is one of the environment evaluation items. This evaluation is carried out by using some shielding calculation codes. Because of extremely few benchmark data of skyshine, the calculation has to be performed very conservatively. Therefore, the benchmark data of skyshine and the well-investigated code for skyshine would be necessary to carry out the rational evaluation of nuclear facilities. The purpose of this study is to obtain the benchmark data of skyshine and to investigate the calculation code for skyshine. In this fiscal year, the followings are investigated; (1) To improve the detection sensitivity of pulse neutron measurement, two neutron detectors and some electronic circuits are added to the system constructed last year. (2) To estimate the neutron dose at the distant point from the facility instead of the commercialized rem-counter, a {sup 3}He detector with paraffin moderator is equipped to the system. (3) Using the new detection system, the skyshine of neutrons from 45 MeV LINAC facility was measured in the distance up to 300 m. The results show that the time structure of pulsed neutrons almost disappears at the further points than 150 m. (4) In the distance from 90 m to 300 m ordinal total counting method without gate pulse are applied to detect the neutrons. (5) The experimental results of space dependency up to 300 m is fitted fairly well by the Gui's response function. (author)

  20. The accident consequence model of the German safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    The accident consequence model essentially describes a) the diffusion in the atmosphere and deposition on the soil of radioactive material released from the reactor into the atmosphere; b) the irradiation exposure and health consequences of persons affected. It is used to calculate c) the number of persons suffering from acute or late damage, taking into account possible counteractions such as relocation or evacuation, and d) the total risk to the population from the various types of accident. The model, the underlying parameters and assumptions are described. The bone marrow dose distribution is shown for the case of late overpressure containment failure, which is discussed in the paper of Heuser/Kotthoff, combined with four typical weather conditions. The probability distribution functions for acute mortality, late incidence of cancer and genetic damage are evaluated, assuming a characteristic population distribution. The aim of these calculations is first the presentation of some results of the consequence model as an example, in second the identification of problems, which need possibly in a second phase of study to be evaluated in more detail. (orig.) [de

  1. Organic tanks safety program FY95 waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Lenihan, B.D.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report gives the second year's findings of a study of how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds in the underground tanks at Hanford. Efforts were focused on the global reaction kinetics in a simulated waste exposed to γ rays and the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion. The gas production is predominantly radiolytic. Decarboxylation of carboxylates is probably an aging pathway. TBP was totaly consumed in almost every run. Radiation clearly accelerated consumption of the other compounds. EDTA is more reactive than citrate. Oximes and possibly organic nitro compounds are key intermediates in the radiolytic redox reactions of organic compounds with nitrate/nitrite. Observations are consistent with organic compounds being progressively degraded to compounds with greater numbers of C-O bonds and fewer C-H and C-C bonds, resulting in an overall lower energy content. If the radwaste tanks are adequately ventilated and continually dosed by radioactivity, their total energy content should have declined. Level of risk depends on how rapidly carboxylate salts of moderate energy content (including EDTA fragments) degrade to low energy oxalate and formate

  2. Structural Safety Assessment of Existing Multiarch Tunnel: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health assessment is one of the key activities in maintaining the performance of a tunnel during its service life. Due to the development of modern detection technology, comprehensive structural health assessment system is being established for operating tunnels. To evaluate the actual operational state of Shitigou tunnel, overall detection of the liner crack, tunnel seepage, and liner void was conducted by employing the modern detection technology, such as crack width monitoring technology, concrete strength monitoring technology, and electromagnetic wave nondestructive monitoring technology. Through the statistical analysis of the detection results, the distribution characteristic, development law, and damage grade of structural defects were obtained. Tunnel liner cracks are mainly located on the middle wall; serious water leakage is encountered on the side wall, middle wall, and vault; the strength of foundation and liner structure of left tunnel does not meet the design requirement; the liner voids are mostly located at the tunnel entrance section, especially, on the tunnel vault; and the proportion of influence factors of structural defects should be considered. The research results presented for this study can serve as references for effective design and health assessment of existing multiarch tunnel projects.

  3. Alberta Environment's weir safety program : options for rehabilitation to improve public safety : a case study of the Calgary weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, D. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Alberta Environment Water Management Operations (WMO) owns and operates 46 dams and 800 kilometres of canals in Alberta. The WMO consists of 120 staff and several contract operators to take care of this infrastructure. Most of the infrastructure supplies water for irrigation use, which adds 5 billion dollars to the provincial economy annually. Other water uses include stock watering, domestic use, municipal use, recreational use and habitat. Alberta Environment's weir safety program was also discussed along with options for rehabilitation to improve public safety. A case study of Calgary's Weir Dam on the Bow River was highlighted. A brief history of the dam was offered and safety programs around provincially-owned weirs were discussed. Photographs were included to illustrate some of the additional safety measures at the Calgary weir, such as suspended safety buoys upstream of the boom directing paddlers to the portage trail, and signage on the river that can be activated when the boom is out. Typical river users on the Calgary Bow River and safety history at the Calgary Weir were discussed along with other topics such as the Calgary Bow River weir project criteria; project design progress; pre-feasibility options; scale modelling; final design analysis; construction funding; and proposed changes to the safety program for the new weir configuration. figs.

  4. Measuring patient safety culture in maternal and child health institutions in China: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Huifeng; Liu, Chaojie; Wang, Yan

    2017-07-12

    Patient safety culture (PSC) plays a critical role in ensuring safe and quality care. Extensive PSC studies have been undertaken in hospitals. However, little is known about PSC in maternal and child health (MCH) institutions in China, which provide both population-based preventive services as well as individual care for patients. This study aimed to develop a theoretical framework for conceptualising PSC in MCH institutions in China. The study was undertaken in six MCH institutions (three in Hebei and three in Beijing). Participants (n=118) were recruited through stratified purposive sampling: 20 managers/administrators, 59 care providers and 39 patients. In-depth interviews were conducted with the participants. The interview data were coded using both inductive (based on the existing PSC theory developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) and deductive (open coding arising from data) approaches. A PSC framework was formulated through axial coding that connected initial codes and selective coding that extracted a small number of themes. The interviewees considered patient safety in relation to six aspects: safety and security in public spaces, safety of medical services, privacy and information security, financial security, psychological safety and gap in services. A 12-dimensional PSC framework was developed, containing 69 items. While the existing PSC theory was confirmed by this study, some new themes emerged from the data. Patients expressed particular concerns about psychological safety and financial security. Defensive medical practices emerged as a PSC dimension that is associated with not only medical safety but also financial security and psychological safety. Patient engagement was also valued by the interviewees, especially the patients, as part of PSC. Although there are some common features in PSC across different healthcare delivery systems, PSC can also be context specific. In MCH settings in China, the meaning of 'patient safety

  5. Selection and ranking of occupational safety indicators based on fuzzy AHP: A case study in road construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janackovic, Goran Lj.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP. A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational safety risks in these companies. The case study confirmed that organisational factors have a dominant effect on the quality of the occupational health and safety management system in Serbian road construction companies.

  6. Demonstration study on shielding safety analysis code (8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Sadashi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Dose evaluation for direct radiation and skyshine from nuclear fuel facilities is one of the environment evaluation items. This evaluation is carried out by using some shielding calculation codes. Because of extremely few benchmark data of skyshine, the calculation has to be performed very conservatively. Therefore, the benchmark data of skyshine and the well-investigated code for skyshine would be necessary to carry out the rational evaluation of nuclear facilities. The purpose of this study is to obtain the benchmark data of skyshine and to investigate the calculation code for skyshine. In this fiscal year, the followings are investigated. (1) A {sup 3}He detector and some instruments are added to the former detection system to increase the detection sensitivity in pulsed neutron measurements. Using the new detection system, the skyshine of neutrons from 45 MeV LINAC facility are measured in the distance up to 350 m. (2) To estimate the spectrum of leakage neutron from the facility, {sup 3}He detector with moderators is constructed and the response functions of the detector are calculated using the MCNP simulation code. The leakage spectrum in the facility are measured and unfolded using the SAND-II code. (3) Using the EGS code and/or MCNP code, neutron yields by the photo-nuclear reaction in the lead target are calculated. Then, the neutron fluence at some points including the duct (from which neutrons leaks and is considered to be a skyshine source) is simulated by MCNP MONTE CARLO code. (4) In the distance up to 350 m from the facility, neutron fluence due to the skyshine process are calculated and compared with the experimental results. The comparison gives a fairly good agreement. (author)

  7. Public perception of radiation safety - a case study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, P.; Steinhaeusler, F.; Xavier, A.M.; Unterbruner, U.

    1998-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Brazil has been operating installations which run the gamut of the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining and milling to a nuclear power plant. A second power plant is under construction and is planned to come on stream in 1999. In 1987, Brazil was shaken by the largest radiological accident on record involving a unit of radiotherapy equipment. This accident contaminated large areas of Goiania, a city of some 1 million inhabitants, and generated 3500 m 3 of radioactive waste. At present, apart from the facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, close to 2600 installations in Brazil utilize radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research. Following the Goiania accident, the Brazilian authorities built a final subsurface disposal facility, which is currently in operation, for the waste generated by the cleanup of the city. Studies are now under way for the selection of a national waste repository. However, in spite of all the activities mentioned, the Brazilian public is largely unaware of both the benefits and the real risks of radiation. In order to assist in the development of an appropriate communication strategy focusing on radiation issues and directed at the public, a survey was undertaken. The survey contained questions on basic knowledge, the credibility of information sources dealing with radiation issues, recollections of the Goiania accident, reacting to an emergency situation in general and Goiania in particular and on waste related risk comparison. An analysis of this survey is presented. Practical issues are reviewed, including a target oriented communication programme involving the nuclear community, the regulatory authority, educational centres, the media and the public. The topics addressed are the present crisis of confidence, limitations, misconceptions and requirements, and communicating in a situation of crisis. (author)

  8. Study on safety evaluation for unrestricted recycling criteria of radioactive waste from dismantling operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimori, Michiro; Ohkoshi, Minoru; Abe, Masayoshi

    1995-01-01

    The study on safety evaluation was done, under contracting with the Science and Technology Agency, for recycling scrap metal arising from dismantling of reactor facilities. An object of this study is to contribute to the examination of establishing criteria and safety regulation for unrestricted recycling steel scrap. To define amount of market flow of iron material in Japan and the amount of radioactive waste generated from dismantling of reactor facilities, investigation had been carried out. On basis of these investigation results and data in several literature, individual doses to workers and to the members of the public have been calculated as well as collective doses. (author)

  9. Forced convection boiling of sodium. Study carried out in the framework of fast neutrons reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Within the framework of the safety of fast neutron reactors, this research thesis reports the study of sodium boiling in order to assess safety margins, and to predict the consequences of some accidents. The author thus addresses issues related to sodium boiling by notably focussing on boiling physics. He first defines these issues and presents the adopted approach for this research, and then describes the experimental installation. He reports the experimental study which comprised different types of tests, and presents experimental results. He reports the development of a calculation model which could report phenomena which have been experimentally noticed [fr

  10. Learning from positively deviant wards to improve patient safety: an observational study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Ruth; Taylor, Natalie; Kellar, Ian; Lawton, Rebecca

    2015-12-11

    Positive deviance is an asset-based approach to improvement which has recently been adopted to improve quality and safety within healthcare. The approach assumes that solutions to problems already exist within communities. Certain groups or individuals identify these solutions and succeed despite having the same resources as others. Within healthcare, positive deviance has previously been applied at individual or organisational levels to improve specific clinical outcomes or processes of care. This study explores whether the positive deviance approach can be applied to multidisciplinary ward teams to address the broad issue of patient safety among elderly patients. Preliminary work analysed National Health Service (NHS) Safety Thermometer data from 34 elderly medical wards to identify 5 'positively deviant' and 5 matched 'comparison' wards. Researchers are blinded to ward status. This protocol describes a multimethod, observational study which will (1) assess the concurrent validity of identifying positively deviant elderly medical wards using NHS Safety Thermometer data and (2) generate hypotheses about how positively deviant wards succeed. Patient and staff perceptions of safety will be assessed on each ward using validated surveys. Correlation and ranking analyses will explore whether this survey data aligns with the routinely collected NHS Safety Thermometer data. Staff focus groups and researcher fieldwork diaries will be completed and qualitative thematic content analysis will be used to generate hypotheses about the strategies, behaviours, team cultures and dynamics that facilitate the delivery of safe patient care. The acceptability and sustainability of strategies identified will also be explored. The South East Scotland Research Ethics Committee 01 approved this study (reference: 14/SS/1085) and NHS Permissions were granted from all trusts. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed, scientific journals, and presented at academic conferences. This study

  11. Study On Safety Analysis Of PWR Reactor Core In Transient And Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dai Dien; Hoang Minh Giang; Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy; Nguyen Thi Tu Oanh; Le Thi Thu; Pham Tuan Nam; Tran Van Trung; Le Van Hong; Vo Thi Huong

    2014-01-01

    The cooperation research project on the Study on Safety Analysis of PWR Reactor Core in Transient and Severe Accident Conditions between Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), VINATOM and Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Korea has been setup to strengthen the capability of researches in nuclear safety not only in mastering the methods and computer codes, but also in qualifying of young researchers in the field of nuclear safety analysis. Through the studies on the using of thermal hydraulics computer codes like RELAP5, COBRA, FLUENT and CFX the thermal hydraulics research group has made progress in the research including problems for safety analysis of APR1400 nuclear reactor, PIRT methodologies and sub-channel analysis. The study of severe accidents has been started by using MELCOR in collaboration with KAERI experts and the training on the fundamental phenomena occurred in postulated severe accident. For Vietnam side, VVER-1000 nuclear reactor is also intensively studied. The design of core catcher, reactor containment and severe accident management are the main tasks concerning VVER technology. The research results are presented in the 9 th National Conference on Mechanics, Ha Noi, December 8-9, 2012, the 10 th National Conference on Nuclear Science and Technology, Vung Tau, August 14-15, 2013, as well as published in the journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vietnam Nuclear Society and other journals. The skills and experience from using computer codes like RELAP5, MELCOR, ANSYS and COBRA in nuclear safety analysis are improved with the nuclear reactors APR1400, Westinghouse 4 loop PWR and especially the VVER-1000 chosen for the specific studies. During cooperation research project, man power and capability of Nuclear Safety center of INST have been strengthen. Three masters were graduated, 2 researchers are engaging in Ph.D course at Hanoi University of Science and Technology and University of Science and Technology, Korea

  12. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  13. Nurses' experiences and perspectives on medication safety practices: an explorative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeulers, Marian; Onderwater, Astrid T; van Zwieten, Myra C B; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-04-01

    To explore nurses' experiences with and perspectives on preventing medication administration errors. Insight into nurses' experiences with and perspectives on preventing medication administration errors is important and can be utilised to tailor and implement safety practices. A qualitative interview study of 20 nurses in an academic medical centre was conducted between March and December of 2011. Three themes emerged from this study: (1) nurses' roles and responsibilities in medication safety: aside from safe preparation and administration, the clinical reasoning of nurses is essential for medication safety; (2) nurses' ability to work safely: knowledge of risks and nurses' work circumstances influence their ability to work safely; and (3) nurses' acceptance of safety practices: advantages, feasibility and appropriateness are important incentives for acceptance of a safety practice. Nurses' experiences coincide with the assumption that they are in a pre-eminent position to enable safe medication management; however, their ability to adequately perform this role depends on sufficient knowledge to assess the risks of medication administration and on the circumstances in which they work. Safe medication management requires a learning climate and professional practice environment that enables further development of professional nursing skills and knowledge. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Study of the development of a safety culture by describing routine work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Miho; Maeda, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we considered safety culture as how an organization and its employees pay attention to risks, and how it reduces them. Our study is based on Schein's model of organizational culture. The theory of organizational culture maintains that if we change level 1 (behavior), then level 3 (assumption) changes. We considered a method to foster a safety culture based on this theory. To begin, we described the routine work of an organization by using the functional resonance analysis method (FRAM). Then, we confirmed the risk reduction behaviors being done there. We found that it is necessary for the organization to be involved in a positive fashion to reduce risks, and we offered some behaviors that the organization can encourage during routine work. We thought that when these new behaviors become habits of organization members, the safety culture of the organization will be fostered. (author)

  15. Healthcare databases in Europe for studying medicine use and safety during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Sue

    2014-01-01

    data recorded by primary-care practitioners. All databases captured maternal co-prescribing and a measure of socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that within Europe, electronic healthcare databases may be valuable sources of data for evaluating medicine use and safety during pregnancy......PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a number of electronic healthcare databases in Europe in terms of the population covered, the source of the data captured and the availability of data on key variables required for evaluating medicine use and medicine safety during pregnancy. METHODS....... The suitability of a particular database, however, will depend on the research question, the type of medicine to be evaluated, the prevalence of its use and any adverse outcomes of interest. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  16. Sociocultural contexts and worker safety and health: findings of a study with Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny; Bruck, Annie

    2009-02-01

    More immigrants are seeking employment in restaurants. Drawing data from an ethnographic study, this article discusses what and how sociocultural contexts shape the safety and health of immigrant restaurant workers. Eighteen Chinese immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan participated in the study. Data generation methods included a questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews, and participant observations. Ethnographic analysis revealed that immigration mechanisms, demands of English proficiency for employment, and existence of networks and ethnic communities shaped the participants' employment choices. Working hours and schedules, interpersonal relationships at work, job design and training, occupational safety and health training, and national events and economy further influenced the participants' occupational experiences and well-being. Issues were noted with job security, mental health, family relationships, and risks for occupational injuries and illnesses. Implications for occupational health nursing research and practice to reduce immigrant workers' vulnerability to poor safety and health outcomes conclude this article.

  17. An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

  18. Patient safety climate profiles across time: Strength and level of safety climate associated with a quality improvement program in Switzerland—A cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascherek, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Safety Climate has been acknowledged as an unspecific factor influencing patient safety. However, studies rarely provide in-depth analysis of climate data. As a helpful approach, the concept of “climate strength” has been proposed. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that even if safety climate remains stable on mean-level across time, differences might be evident in strength or shape. The data of two hospitals participating in a large national quality improvement program were analysed for differences in climate profiles at two measurement occasions. We analysed differences on mean-level, differences in percent problematic response, agreement within groups, and frequency histograms in two large hospitals in Switzerland at two measurement occasions (2013 and 2015) applying the Safety Climate Survey. In total, survey responses of 1193 individuals were included in the analyses. Overall, small but significant differences on mean-level of safety climate emerged for some subgroups. Also, although agreement was strong at both time-points within groups, tendencies of divergence or consensus were present in both hospitals. Depending on subgroup and analyses chosen, differences were more or less pronounced. The present study illustrated that taking several measures into account and describing safety climate from different perspectives is necessary in order to fully understand differences and trends within groups and to develop interventions addressing the needs of different groups more precisely. PMID:28753633

  19. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beuzekom Martie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that

  20. Holes in the safety net: a case study of access to prescription drugs and specialty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ava; Cantor, Joel C; Guarnaccia, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The health care safety net in the United States is intended to fill gaps in health care services for uninsured and other vulnerable populations. This paper presents a case study of New Brunswick, NJ, a small city rich in safety net resources, to examine the adequacy of the American model of safety net care. We find substantial gaps in access to care despite the presence of a medical school, an abundance of primary care and specialty physicians, two major teaching hospitals, a large federally qualified health center and other safety net resources in this community of about 50,000 residents. Using a blend of random-digit-dial and area probability sampling, a survey of 595 households was conducted in 2001 generating detailed information about the health, access to care, demographic and other characteristics of 1,572 individuals. Confirming the great depth of the New Brunswick health care safety net, the survey showed that more than one quarter of local residents reported a hospital or community clinic as their usual source of care. Still, barriers to prescription drugs were reported for 11.0% of the area population and more than two in five (42.8%) local residents who perceived a need for specialty care reported difficulty getting those services. Bivariate analyses show significantly elevated risk of access problems among Hispanic and black residents, those in poor health, those relying on hospital and community clinics or with no usual source of care, and those living at or below poverty. In multivariate analysis, lack of health insurance was the greatest risk factor associated with both prescription drug and specialty access problems. Few local areas can claim the depth of safety net resources as New Brunswick, NJ, raising serious concerns about the adequacy of the American safety net model, especially for people with complex and chronic health care needs.

  1. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  2. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, N A; Abdullah, M H R O; Said, M A; Ch'ng, P E

    2014-01-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia

  3. Safety in home care: A research protocol for studying medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easty Anthony

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is an ongoing global priority, with medication safety considered a prevalent, high-risk area of concern. Yet, we have little understanding of the supports and barriers to safe medication management in the Canadian home care environment. There is a clear need to engage the providers and recipients of care in studying and improving medication safety with collaborative approaches to exploring the nature and safety of medication management in home care. Methods A socio-ecological perspective on health and health systems drives our iterative qualitative study on medication safety with elderly home care clients, family members and other informal caregivers, and home care providers. As we purposively sample across four Canadian provinces: Alberta (AB, Ontario (ON, Quebec (QC and Nova Scotia (NS, we will collect textual and visual data through home-based interviews, participant-led photo walkabouts of the home, and photo elicitation sessions at clients' kitchen tables. Using successive rounds of interpretive description and human factors engineering analyses, we will generate robust descriptions of managing medication at home within each provincial sample and across the four-province group. We will validate our initial interpretations through photo elicitation focus groups with home care providers in each province to develop a refined description of the phenomenon that can inform future decision-making, quality improvement efforts, and research. Discussion The application of interpretive and human factors lenses to the visual and textual data is expected to yield findings that advance our understanding of the issues, challenges, and risk-mitigating strategies related to medication safety in home care. The images are powerful knowledge translation tools for sharing what we learn with participants, decision makers, other healthcare audiences, and the public. In addition, participants engage in knowledge exchange

  4. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  5. Driver characteristics associated with child safety seat usage in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; Razak, Ahmad; Schenk, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    The rapidly motorizing environment in Malaysia has made child occupant safety a current public health concern. The usage of child safety seats (CSS) is a widely regarded intervention to enhance child occupant safety, yet no study has been conducted on CSS in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the CSS usage rates in Malaysia and to assess driver characteristics that are associated with CSS usage. Nine variables - urban versus rural study location, age, gender, marital status, educational status, monthly family income, number of children present in the vehicle, distance traveled to the study location, and attitude - were examined through a cross-sectional study of interviewing drivers of 230 vehicles transporting at least one child safety in Malaysia. The results indicate that interventional efforts should focus on educational programs geared toward drivers that are less educated or extended family members who inconsistently transport young children. Furthermore, any educational efforts could be strongly enhanced by legislation mandating the use of CSS. Every effort should be made to thoroughly assess the effectiveness of any educational or legislative activities that are implemented. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Collaboration and patient safety at an emergency department - a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Anna Helene Meldgaard; Rasmussen, Kurt; Grytnes, Regine; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2018-03-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how conflicts about collaboration between staff at different departments arose during the establishment of a new emergency department and how these conflicts affected the daily work and ultimately patient safety at the emergency department. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative single case study draws on qualitative semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The theoretical concepts "availability" and "receptiveness" as antecedents for collaboration will be applied in the analysis. Findings Close collaboration between departments was an essential precondition for the functioning of the new emergency department. The study shows how a lack of antecedents for collaboration affected the working relation and communication between employees and departments, which spurred negative feelings and reproduced conflicts. This situation was seen as a potential threat for the safety of the emergency patients. Research limitations/implications This study presents a single case study, at a specific point in time, and should be used as an illustrative example of how contextual and situational factors affect the working environment and through that patient safety. Originality/value Few studies provide an in-depth investigation of what actually takes place when collaboration between professional groups goes wrong and escalates, and how problems in collaboration may affect patient safety.

  7. The safety designs for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Grotz, S.P.; Blanchard, J.; Sharafat, S.; Najmabadi, F.

    1989-01-01

    TITAN is a study to investigate the potential of the reversed-field pinch concept as a compact, high-power density energy system. Two reactor concepts were developed, a self-cooled lithium design with vanadium structure and an aqueous solution loop-in-pool design, both operating at 18 MW/m 2 . The key safety features of the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium blanket design are in material selection, fusion power core configuration selection, lithium piping connections, and passive lithium drain tank system. Based on these safety features and results from accident evaluation, TITAN-I can at least be rated at a level 3 of safety assurance. For the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design, the key passive feature is the complete submersion of the fusion power core and the corresponding primary coolant loop system into a pool of low temperature water. Based on this key safety design feature, the TITAN-II design can be rated at a level 2 of safety assurance. (orig.)

  8. Studies of the relationship between employee's safety consciousness, morale, and supervisor's leadership in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, Jyuji; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Michio; Misumi, Emiko; Tokudome, Eiji.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between employee's safety consciousness, morale, and supervisor's leadership using multiple regression analysis. Respondents were 2152 male employees who were working at nuclear power plants (operation division, maintenance division, and joint companies). Main results were as follows. (1) Individual morale variables, such as 'work motivation' and 'mental hygine', were correlated with leadership M behavior rather than with P behavior. On the other hand, group morale variables, such as 'teamwork' and 'meeting quality', were correlated with both P and M behavior. These results shows P and M leadership affect the employee's morale. (2) With regard to safety consciousness variables, 'communication' and 'work place norm' to ensure safety were strongly correlated to leadership both P and M behavior. However, neither 'sense of tension to ensure safety' nor 'experiencing cold shiver' were related to leadership P or M behavior. It was suggested that practices for accidents prevention in workplace are related to supervisor's P and M leadership behavior. (3) 'Sense of tension' to ensure safety and 'experiencing cold shiver' were negatively correlated with 'mental hygine', but positively correlated with 'work motivation'. These results suggest that increase of the work motivation might improve employee's awareness and ability for detecting human errors. (author)

  9. A Study on the Holding Capacity Safety Factors for Torpedo Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís V. S. Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of powerful numerical tools based on the finite-element method has been improving the prediction of the holding capacity of fixed anchors employed by the offshore oil industry. One of the main achievements of these tools is the reduction of the uncertainty related to the holding capacity calculation of these anchors. Therefore, it is also possible to reduce the values of the associated design safety factors, which have been calibrated relying on models with higher uncertainty, without impairing the original level of structural safety. This paper presents a study on the calibration of reliability-based safety factors for the design of torpedo anchors considering the statistical model uncertainty evaluated using results from experimental tests and their correspondent finite-element-based numerical predictions. Both working stress design (WSD and load and resistance factors design (LRFD design methodologies are investigated. Considering the WSD design methodology, the single safety is considerably lower than the value typically employed in the design of torpedo anchors. Moreover, a LRFD design code format for torpedo anchors is more appropriate since it leads to designs having less-scattered safety levels around the target value.

  10. A study on quantitative V and V of safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Chang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.; Son, H. S.

    2004-03-01

    Recently practical needs have required quantitative features for the software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment which is one of the important methods being used in assessing the overall safety of nuclear power plant. But the conventional assessment methods of software reliability could not provide enough information for PSA of NPP, therefore current assessments of a digital system which includes safety-critical software usually exclude the software part or use arbitrary values. This paper describes a Bayesian Belief Networks based method that models the rule-based qualitative software assessment method for a practical use and can produce quantitative results for PSA. The framework was constructed by utilizing BBN that can combine the qualitative and quantitative evidence relevant to the reliability of safety-critical software and can infer a conclusion in a formal and a quantitative way. The case study was performed by applying the method for assessing the quality of software requirement specification of safety-critical software that will be embedded in reactor protection system

  11. The safety designs for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Grotz, S.P.; Blanchard, J.P.; Sharafat, S.; Najmabadi, F.

    1988-01-01

    TITAN is a study to investigate the potential of the reversed-field pinch concept as a compact, high-power density energy system. Two reactor concepts were developed, a self-cooled lithium design with vanadium structure and an aqueous solution loop-in-pool design, both operating at 18 MW/m 2 . The key safety features of the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium blanket design are in material selection, fusion power core configuration selection, lithium piping connections and passive lithium drain tank system. Based on these safety features and results from accident evaluation, TITAN-I can at least be rated as level 3 of safety assurance. For the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design, the key passive feature is the complete submersion of the fusion power core and the corresponding primary coolant loop system into a pool of low temperature water. Based on this key safety design feature, the TITAN-II design can be rated as level 2 of safety assurance. 7 refs., 2 figs

  12. Study on attitudes of students of Islamic Azad University Tehran Medical Branch toward food safety, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Ali; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Baneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Biglari, Hamed; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Khammar, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    Given the importance of high-quality healthy food for humans, contamination control is the most important concern for healthy staff. To determine the attitudes of students at Islamic Azad University (Tehran Medical Branch) toward food safety. This cross-sectional and analytic-descriptive study was conducted on 326 students of Azad University of Medical Sciences in 2016. A self-made questionnaire consisting of 40 questions was used. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using internal consistency method (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80). After collecting data, we use descriptive statistical indexes (mean and standard deviation) among demographic variables and the level of knowledge to describe and analyze the data. The participants' attitudes and operation are measured by Spearman tests, and the analytical results are given using SPSS version 20. According to the findings, 55.3, 30 and 14.7 percent of students had high, moderate and low attitude scores toward food safety, respectively. In addition, male and female students had equal attitudes toward food safety, and no significant relationship between sex and attitude was observed a significant difference (p>0.05), but between educational levels (p=0.008) and ages (p=0.001) of students significance was a positive correlation. Due to the low attitudes score of about half of the students of Islamic Azad University Tehran Medical Branch toward food safety, it can be claimed, food safety training in this community is required.

  13. Validation study on reliability analysis of main safety system in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Jin; Cho, Chang Keun; Kim, Yong Hui; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Hong, Seo Kee; Park, Keon Woo; Park, Chang Jea [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Woo Sik [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Kyu [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The scope and contents of this validation study are to review the design changes of the four main safety systems in Wolsong 2/3/4 Nuclear Power Plants, to review the consideration of the above design changes in the AECL reports, the structure of fault trees, and the data base used in the quantification of the fault trees, to quantify the unavailabilities of main safety systems and check them if they meet the requirements, and to recommend desirable design changes in the emergency core cooling system to reduce the unavailability.

  14. A Study of Time Response for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Non-LOCA Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Seok; Lee, Sang Seob; Park, Min Soo; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The classification of initiating events for safety analysis report (SAR) chapter 15 is categorized into moderate frequency events (MF), infrequent events (IF), and limiting faults (LF) depending on the frequency of its occurrence. For the non-LOCA safety analysis with the purpose to get construction or operation license, however, it is assumed that the operator response action to mitigate the events starts at 30 minutes after the initiation of the transient regardless of the event categorization. Such an assumption of corresponding operator response time may have over conservatism with the MF and IF events and results in a decrease in the safety margin compared to its acceptance criteria. In this paper, the plant conditions (PC) are categorized with the definitions in SAR 15 and ANS 51.1. Then, the consequence of response for safety-related operator action time is determined based on the PC in ANSI 58.8. The operator response time for safety analysis regarding PC are reviewed and suggested. The clarifying alarm response procedure would be required for the guideline to reduce the operator response time when the alarms indicate the occurrence of the transient.

  15. Consumer food handling in the home: a review of food safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological data from Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand indicate that a substantial proportion of foodborne disease is attributable to improper food preparation practices in consumers' homes. International concern about consumer food safety has prompted considerable research to evaluate domestic food-handling practices. The majority of consumer food safety studies in the last decade have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland (48%) and in the United States (42%). Surveys (questionnaires and interviews), the most frequent means of data collection, were used in 75% of the reviewed studies. Focus groups and observational studies have also been used. One consumer food safety study examined the relationship between pathogenic microbial contamination from raw chicken and observed food-handling behaviors, and the results of this study indicated extensive Campylobacter cross-contamination during food preparation sessions. Limited information about consumers' attitudes and intentions with regard to safe food-handling behaviors has been obtained, although a substantial amount of information about consumer knowledge and self-reported practices is available. Observation studies suggest that substantial numbers of consumers frequently implement unsafe food-handling practices. Knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and self-reported practices did not correspond to observed behaviors, suggesting that observational studies provide a more realistic indication of the food hygiene actions actually used in domestic food preparation. An improvement in consumer food-handling behavior is likely to reduce the risk and incidence of foodborne disease. The need for the development and implementation of food safety education strategies to improve specific food safety behaviors is reviewed in this paper.

  16. Development of Behavioral Indicators of Competences for Safety Culture of Nuclear Power Plants: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kwangsu; Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Youmin; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong Il

    2015-01-01

    The term of safety competency in nuclear field was presented in the OECD/NEA workshop held in 1999. A model of the safety culture competencies in nuclear power plants was developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In general, a competency (competence) is defined as 'cluster of employee's attribute, knowledge, skill, ability or other characteristic that contributes to successful job performance'. We also defined safety culture competency as 'cluster of various internal characteristics (e.g., knowledge, skill, ability, motive, attitude and etc.) of employee that contribute to perform job safely and shape a healthy and strong safety culture.' By this definition, the safety culture competency is the broader construct including job competency. An employee having high level of safety culture competency shows extra discretionary effort to improve safety of peer, team and organization in addition to the individual's successful and safe job accomplishment. The behavioral indicators for each of the competencies are focal points of conversations on progress and are monitored continuously by self-assessment and managers or supervisors' intervention. Deficiencies in any of these indicators can point to coaching, training or other learning opportunities that employees may be required in order to improve. The purpose of this study was to derive a model of safety competencies for improving safety culture of NPPs and develop a set of behavioral indicators of each competency. In addition, the method of measuring behavioral indicators was suggested. For the application of developed safety culture competences and behavioral indicators, the most suitable measuring method for behavioral indicators must be developed. In the case of behavioral observations, behavioral dimensions (frequency, persistence and latency), observation possibility, occurrence basis of behavior (daily job performance, situational dependent) are considered to

  17. Preclosure radiological safety assessment for the ground support system in the exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.; Tsai, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    An initial probabilistic safety assessment was performed for the exploratory studies facility underground opening to determine whether the ground support system should be classified as an item important to safety. The initiating event was taken to be a rock fall in an operational facility impacting a loaded waste transporter. Rock fall probability rates were estimated from data reported by commercial mining operations. This information was retrieved from the data base compiled by the Mining Safety and Health Administration from the mandatory reporting of incidents. The statistical distribution of the rock fall magnitude was estimated from the horizontal and vertical spacing fractures measured at the Yucca Mountain repository horizon. Simple models were developed to estimate container deformation and radionuclide releases arising from the projected distribution of impacts. Accepted techniques were used to calculate atmospheric dispersion and obtain the committed dose to individuals

  18. Study on personnel qualification for non-destructive tests in the field of reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusch, K.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1977-01-01

    The training system for non-destructive testing is described, and the available and necessary personnel is analyzed; the personnel required for reactor safety problems is treated separately. On this basis, the subjects discussed in the study - available personnel, personnel requirements, training, training requirements, and suggestions for realisation - are treated in a general manner to begin with and afterwards with a view to specific problems of reactor safety. The methods employed are adapted to this situation. To obtain the necessary empirical data, questionnaires were set up and distributed, and experts in selected business companies and institutions were interviewed who work in the field of reactor safety or do same training in non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  19. Development of Behavioral Indicators of Competences for Safety Culture of Nuclear Power Plants: A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kwangsu; Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Youmin; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The term of safety competency in nuclear field was presented in the OECD/NEA workshop held in 1999. A model of the safety culture competencies in nuclear power plants was developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In general, a competency (competence) is defined as 'cluster of employee's attribute, knowledge, skill, ability or other characteristic that contributes to successful job performance'. We also defined safety culture competency as 'cluster of various internal characteristics (e.g., knowledge, skill, ability, motive, attitude and etc.) of employee that contribute to perform job safely and shape a healthy and strong safety culture.' By this definition, the safety culture competency is the broader construct including job competency. An employee having high level of safety culture competency shows extra discretionary effort to improve safety of peer, team and organization in addition to the individual's successful and safe job accomplishment. The behavioral indicators for each of the competencies are focal points of conversations on progress and are monitored continuously by self-assessment and managers or supervisors' intervention. Deficiencies in any of these indicators can point to coaching, training or other learning opportunities that employees may be required in order to improve. The purpose of this study was to derive a model of safety competencies for improving safety culture of NPPs and develop a set of behavioral indicators of each competency. In addition, the method of measuring behavioral indicators was suggested. For the application of developed safety culture competences and behavioral indicators, the most suitable measuring method for behavioral indicators must be developed. In the case of behavioral observations, behavioral dimensions (frequency, persistence and latency), observation possibility, occurrence basis of behavior (daily job performance, situational dependent) are considered to

  20. Testing the feasibility and safety of the Nintendo Wii gaming console in orthopedic rehabilitation: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklscherer, Andreas; Stapf, Jonas; Meissner, Kay Michael; Niethammer, Thomas; Lahner, Matthias; Wagenhäuser, Markus; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2016-12-01

    The Nintendo Wii game console is already used as an additional training device for e.g. neurological wards. Still there are limited data available regarding orthopedic rehabilitation. The authors' objective was to examine whether the Nintendo Wii is an appropriate and safe tool in rehabilitation after orthopedic knee surgery. A prospective, randomized, controlled study comparing standard physiotherapy vs. standard physiotherapy plus game console training (Wii group) in patients having anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair or knee arthroplasty was conducted. The subjects of the Wii group ( n = 17; mean age: 54 ±19 years) performed simple knee exercises daily under the supervision of a physiotherapist in addition to the normal rehabilitation program. The patients of the control group ( n = 13; 52 ±18 years) were treated with physiotherapy only. The participants of both groups completed a questionnaire including the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, the Modified Cincinnati Rating System and the Tegner Lysholm Knee Score prior to the operation, before discharge from hospital and four weeks after treatment. There was no significant difference in the score results between the Wii and the control group ( p > 0.05). We demonstrated that physiotherapy using the Nintendo Wii gaming console after ACL reconstruction and knee arthroplasty does not negatively influence outcome. Because training with the Wii device was highly accepted by patients, we see an opportunity whereby additional training with a gaming console for a longer period of time could lead to even better results, regarding the training motivation and the outcome after orthopedic surgery.

  1. The Effect of Safety Costs on Productivity and Quality: A Case Study of Five Steel Companies in Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamabbas Shirali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The implementation of a safety program is one of the most effective factors in increasing productivity. A look to safety from the perspective of efficiency can indicate necessary investment in safety for all, especially the managers of companies. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of safety costs on some indicators of productivity and quality in industrial companies. Methods This study was a retrospective analysis and was implemented in five steel companies in Ahvaz. The data relating to the safety costs such as staffing costs and total safety costs, and productivity and quality indicators were collected in five years. This information and data were collected according to statistics from documents and archives of safety, accounting, and production sectors of companies. Costs as well as numbers and figures of variables were expressed in the form of per capita and percentage to make the data comparable. Linear and generalized regression models and Wald Chi-Square test were used by the SPSS 22 software to determine the relationships between them. Results Safety costs such as capita labor safety costs and capita total safety costs or percentage safety labor costs to labor costs, showed a significant positive effect on labor productivity, labor competitiveness, total factor productivity, quality index and production rates (in some cases, P = 0.001. Conclusions The total safety cost and safety labor compensation generally, regardless of the nature and quality of the safety management system, can impact productivity, quality and quantity of production in addition to other factors of production. Surely if safety programs are targeted and codified, the effect of the investment will be doubled.

  2. Evaluating effectiveness and safety toward electronic cigarette among Malaysian vapers: One-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A month follow-up showed a good smoking cessation rate among Malaysian vapers mainly in single users, whereas less number of quitters but the high reduction in tobacco cigarette consumption observed in dual users without any harmful effects. Furthermore, extended period studies are warranted to confirm its long-term safety and effectiveness among different Malaysian population.

  3. Consumer purchase habits and views on food safety: A Brazilian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, J.H.; Barcellos, M.N.; Frewer, L.J.; Nunes, T.P.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes towards food safety among consumers in the city of São Paulo, the major consumer market in Brazil. Focus group sessions were conducted with 30 adults responsible for food choices and purchases. Results indicated a preference for supermarkets over street

  4. Evolution of human factors research and studies of health information technologies: the role of patient safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M. C.; Borycki, E.; Carayon, P.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Pelayo, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this survey paper is to present and explain the impact of recent regulations and patient safety initiatives (EU, US and Canada) on Human Factors (HF)/Usability studies and research focusing on Health Information Technology (HIT). The authors have selected the most prominent of these

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Multi-Institutional Case Studies-Based Course in Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Chapin, Travis K.; Hammons, Susan R.; Stelten, Anna Van; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Wiedmann, Martin; Johnston, Lynette M.; Oliver, Haley F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing novel, engaging courses in food safety is necessary to train professionals in this discipline. Courses that are interactive and case-based encourage development of critical thinking skills necessary for identifying and preventing foodborne disease outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a case study…

  6. Patients' experiences of safety during haemodialysis treatment--a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, Marleen H; Kars, Marijke C; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the experiences of safety of adult patients during their haemodialysis treatment. BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis is a complex treatment with a risk for harm that causes anxiety among many patients. To date, no in-depth study of haemodialysis patients' emotional responses to conditions of

  7. Safety of telmisartan in patients with arterial hypertension - An open-label observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Bohner, Herbert; Köster, Jürgen; Schäfers, Rafael; Heemann, Uwe

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether age, gender, concomitant disease and/or previous or present antihypertensive medication affect the safety or antihypertensive efficacy of telmisartan in the treatment of arterial hypertension. Study Design and Methods: In this large-scale, open-label postmarketing

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods.

  9. Efficacy and safety assessment of microbiological feed additive for chicken broilers in tolerance studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupryś-Caruk Marta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One aim of the study was to evaluate the impact when added to feed of the two potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB Lactobacillus plantarum K KKP 593/p and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KKP 825 on production performance, health, and the composition of gut microbiota. The complementary aim was to assess the safety of these strains in broiler rearing.

  10. Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Ruchi); A.D. Wijnhoud (Annemarie); H. Carton; W. Hacke (Werner); M. Kaste; R.J. Przybelski; K.N. Stern; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in

  11. Perceptions of Psychological and Physical Safety Environments of Information Technology Employees: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sheila C.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of psychological and safety environments of an oil and gas multinational enterprise. Twenty information technology professionals were interviewed to explore their feelings, perceptions, beliefs, and values of the phenomenon. The interviews elicited data about facets…

  12. A review of case studies evaluating economic incentives to promote occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Treutlein, D.; Rydlewska, I.; Frusteri, L.; Krüger, H.; Veerman, T.; Eeckelaert, L.; Roskams, N.; Broek, K. van den; Taylor, T.N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: In many European countries, external economic incentives are discussed as a policy instrument to promote occupational safety and health (OSH) in enterprises. This narrative case study review aims to support policy-makers in organizations providing such incentives by supplying information

  13. Applying ethnography to the study of context in healthcare quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Myles; Paradis, Elise; Gropper, Michael A; Reeves, Scott; Kitto, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Translating and scaling healthcare quality improvement (QI) and patient safety interventions remains a significant challenge. Context has been identified as a major factor in this. QI and patient safety research have begun to focus on context, with ethnography seen as a promising methodology for understanding the professional, organisational and cultural aspects of context. While ethnography is used to investigate the context of a variety of QI and safety interventions, the challenges inherent in effectively importing a qualitative methodology and its social science practitioners into this work have been largely unexamined. We explain ethnography as a research practice grounded in theory and dependent on observations gathered and interpreted in particular ways. We then review the approach of health services literature to evaluating this sort of qualitative research. Although the study of context is an interest shared by both social scientists and healthcare QI and safety researchers, we identify three key points at which those 'exporting' ethnography as a methodology and those 'importing' it to deal with QI and safety challenges may diverge. We describe perspectival divergences on the methodology's mission, form and scale. At the level of mission we demonstrate how ethnography has been adapted to a 'describe and feed back' role in the service of QI. At the level of form, we show how the long-term embedded observation at the heart of ethnography can be adapted only so far to accommodate QI interests if both data quality and ethical standards are to be upheld. Finally, at the level of scale, we demonstrate one ethnographic study design that balances breadth of exposure with depth of experience in its observations and so generates a particular type of scalable findings. The effective export of ethnography into QI and safety research requires discussion and negotiation between social scientific and health services research perspectives, as well as creative approaches

  14. Toxicological study on the safety of DTPA as a drug, (1). Teratological study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1983-03-01

    In order to clarify the safety of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA recommended to use as drugs in the therapeutic removal of incorporated radionuclides from the human body, the teratological study on these two agents was carried out in rats as one of a series of the toxicological tests. The teratological effects of DTPA were observed because the fetus is highly susceptible to any drug. The pregnant females of Wistar rat were injected subcutaneously daily on days 9-13 of gestation with 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 H.D. (H.D. = human dose, 1 H.D. = 30..mu..mol/kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA, respectively. In the dams, no toxic effects were observed. In the fetuses, the decrease of the survival rate was observed in only the group injected daily with 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. Some cases of gross defects of fetuses: the exencephaly, microphthalmia, anophthalmia and fusion of ribs were observed in the groups injected daily with 12, 24 and 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. The results obtained show that Ca-DTPA should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, no toxic effects of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA observed in the dams or of Zn-DTPA even in the fetuses indicate that these agents can be used by a radiation worker who usually is an adult man.

  15. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix XI. Analysis of comments on the draft WASH-1400 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning comments on reactor safety by governmental agencies and civilian organizations; reactor safety study methodology; consequence model; probability of accident sequences; and various accident conditions

  16. A study on the establishment of safety assessment guidelines of commercial grade item dedication in digitalized safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H. S.; Kim, B. R.; Oh, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Because of obsolescing the components used in safety related systems of nuclear power plants, decreasing the number of suppliers qualified for the nuclear QA program and increasing maintenance costs of them, utilities have been considering to use commercial grade digital computers as an alternative for resolving such issues. However, commercial digital computers use the embedded pre-existing software, including operating system software, which are not developed by using nuclear grade QA program. Thus, it is necessary for utilities to establish processes for dedicating digital commercial grade items. A regulatory body also needs guidance to evaluate the digital commercial products properly. This paper surveyed the regulations and their regulatory guides, which establish the requirements for commercial grade items dedication, industry standards and guidances applicable to safety related systems. This paper provides some guidelines to be applied in evaluating the safety of digital upgrades and new digital plant protection systems in Korea

  17. Renal studies in safety pharmacology and toxicology: A survey conducted in the top 15 pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amanda; Gallacher, David J; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Kasai, Cheiko; Ledieu, David; Levesque, Paul; Prelle, Katja; Ratcliffe, Sian; Sannajust, Frederick; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of more sensitive biomarkers to assess kidney injury preclinically, a survey was designed i) to investigate what strategies are used to investigate renal toxicity in both ICH S7A compliant Safety Pharmacology (SP) studies after a single dose of a compound and within repeat-dose toxicity studies by large pharmaceutical companies today; ii) to understand whether renal SP studies have impact or utility in drug development and/or if it may be more appropriate to assess renal effects after multiple doses of compounds; iii) to ascertain how much mechanistic work is performed by the top 15 largest pharmaceutical companies (as determined by R&D revenue size); iv) to gain an insight into the impact of the validation of DIKI biomarkers and their introduction in the safety evaluation paradigm; and v) to understand the impact of renal/urinary safety study data on progression of projects. Two short anonymous surveys were submitted to SP leaders of the top 15 pharmaceutical companies, as defined by 2012 R&D portfolio size. Fourteen multiple choice questions were designed to explore the strategies used to investigate renal effects in both ICH S7A compliant SP studies and within toxicology studies. A 67% and 60% response rate was obtained in the first and second surveys, respectively. Nine out of ten respondent companies conduct renal excretory measurements (eg. urine analysis) in toxicology studies whereas only five out of ten conduct specific renal SP studies; and all of those 5 also conduct the renal excretory measurements in toxicology studies. These companies measure and/or calculate a variety of parameters as part of these studies, and also on a case by case basis include regulatory qualified and non-qualified DIKI biomarkers. Finally, only one company has used renal/urinary functional data alone to stop a project, whereas the majority of respondents combine renal data with other target organ assessments to form an integrated decision-making set

  18. Review of the American Physical Society light water reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.

    1975-11-01

    The issue of light-water reactor (LWR) safety has been the subject of a part-time, year-long study sponsored by the American Physical Society and supported by the National Science Foundation and the former Atomic Energy Commission. The 1974-1975 study produced a Report by the Study Group to the Society. The Report's ''Summary of Conclusions and Major Recommendations'' section is presented

  19. Studies and research relatives to the safety of the Super-Phenix project