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Sample records for fossil galaxy group

  1. Disturbed Fossil Group Galaxy NGC 1132

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Doug; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jen; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Doug; Mossman, Amy; O’Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed the Chandra archival data of NGC 1132, a well-known fossil group, i.e., a system expected to be old and relaxed long after the giant elliptical galaxy assembly. Instead, the Chandra data reveal that the hot gas morphology is disturbed and asymmetrical, with a cold front following a possible bow shock. We discuss possible origins of the disturbed hot halo, including sloshing by a nearby object, merger, ram pressure by external hotter gas, and nuclear outburst. We consider that the first two mechanisms are likely explanations for the disturbed hot halo, with a slight preference for a minor merger with a low impact parameter because of the match with simulations and previous optical observations. In this case, NGC 1132 may be a rare example of unusual late mergers seen in recent simulations. Regardless of the origin of the disturbed hot halo, the paradigm of the fossil system needs to be reconsidered.

  2. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L 1.4GHz > 10 23 W Hz –1 ) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  3. The First Galaxies and the Likely Discovery of Their Fossils in the Local Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ricotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower bound for the mass of a galaxy is unknown, as are the typical luminosity of the smallest galaxies and their numbers. The answers depend on the extent to which star formation in the first population of small mass halos may be suppressed by radiative feedback loops. If early populations of dwarf galaxies did form in significant number before reionization, their “fossils” should be found today in the Local Group. This paper reviews our ongoing efforts to simulate and identify fossil dwarfs in the Local Group. It is widely believed that reionization stopped star formation in fossil dwarfs. However, here we dispute this idea and discuss a physical mechanism whereby recent episodes of star formation would be produced in some fossil dwarfs that, hence, may characterized by a bimodal star formation history. The same mechanism could turn dark halos that failed to form stars before reionization into gas-rich “dark galaxies”. We believe that current observational data supports the thesis that a fraction of the new ultra-faint dwarfs discovered in the Local Group are fossil dwarfs and we predict the existence of a population of ultra-faint dwarfs with lower surface brightness than currently observed.

  4. ESO 3060170: A massive fossil galaxy group with a heated gas core?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, M.; Forman, W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2004-01-01

    10 kpc. The region between 10 and 50 kpc (the cooling radius) has the same temperature as the gas from 50 to 400 kpc, although the gas cooling time between 10 and 50 kpc (2-6 Gyr) is shorter than the Hubble time. Thus, the ESO 3060170 group does not have a group-sized cooling core. We suggest...

  5. Using Strong Gravitational Lensing to Identify Fossil Group Progenitors

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    Johnson, Lucas E.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, W. Peter; Dupke, Renato A.; Miller, Eric D.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2018-04-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group/cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil criteria within the look forward time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong-lensing events with the goal of determining whether lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We find that ∼13% of lensing groups are identified as traditional fossils while only ∼3% of nonlensing control groups are. We also find that ∼23% of lensing systems are traditional fossil progenitors compared to ∼17% for the control sample. Our findings show that strong-lensing systems are more likely to be fossil/pre-fossil systems than comparable nonlensing systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and nonlensing groups also indicate a possible, fundamental difference between strong-lensing and nonlensing systems’ galaxy populations, with lensing systems housing a greater number of bright galaxies even in the outskirts of groups.

  6. Concentrated Dark Matter at the Cores of Fossil Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Researchers at the University of Birmingham have used the new generation of X-ray space observatories to study "fossil galaxies" - ancient galaxy groups in which all of the large galaxies have gradually merged to form one central giant galaxy. The astronomers discovered a remarkable concentration of dark and normal matter in the cores of these isolated star systems, compared with the mass distribution in normal galaxy groups. Many galaxies, including our Milky Way, reside in groups. Sometimes they experience close encounters with other members of the group. Computer simulations predict that such interactions cause large galaxies to spiral slowly towards the centre of the group, where they can merge to form a single giant galaxy, which progressively swallows all its neighbours. Since many galaxy groups possess extended halos of hot gas and dark matter, it was predicted ten years ago that a class of systems dubbed "fossil groups" should exist, in which all the major galaxies have merged to form one central giant galaxy. This would be surrounded by an X-ray-bright cloud of hot gas that extends outward to many galactic radii. "When we first discovered the large halos of hot gas in which some very compact groups of galaxies are embedded, we realised that just a few billion years of further evolution would leave a single, giant, merged galaxy sitting at the centre of a bright X-ray halo," said Trevor Ponman, the leader of the Birmingham group who made this prediction and then discovered the first fossil group in 1994. Theories also suggested that fossil groups which fall into even larger clusters of galaxies may account for the giant elliptical galaxies which are often found in the centres of such clusters. The Birmingham team has observed six likely "fossil groups" in the past two years, taking advantage of the sharp vision of NASA's Chandra X-Ray Space Observatory and the high sensitivity of ESA's orbiting XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. The six "fossil groups" are

  7. Fossil Groups in the Local Universe

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    OSullivan, Ewan

    2005-01-01

    The two galaxies observed as part of this project were originally selected as fossil group candidates because of their isolation from other galaxies and their apparent high X-ray luminosity and extended X-ray emission. However, the X-ray data available was minimal, being drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We have performed an initial analysis of the XMM data from both galaxies and found that their gaseous halos are smaller, cooler, and less luminous than expected. In the case of NGC 57, the RASS estimate of extent and luminosity was biased because of a previously unidentified background group which is visible in the XMM data to one side of the galaxy. In the case of IC 153 1, the contribution from background point sources near the galaxy appears to be to blame. This suggests that both galaxies should be reclassified as isolated ellipticals. Such systems are very rare, and currently poorly understood; for comparison, there are now 6-10 known fossil groups, but only one isolated elliptical with useful X-ray data. We are currently re-analyzing the data for the two galaxies to take advantage of the calibration improvements of SAS 6.1, and to include calculations of the mass profiles of the two systems. A paper is currently in preparation dealing with the X-ray properties and environment of the galaxies, and we expect to submit this to the Astrophysical Journal within the next two months. Multi-band optical imaging of the field surrounding NGC 57 has been acquired to confirm its isolated status and provide more information on the background group. IC 1531 was accepted as a target in Chandra cycle 6 as part of a related proposal, and we intend to add this new observation to our XMM data when it becomes available. A second paper is planned to include the results of this combined analysis.

  8. Testing Homogeneity with the Galaxy Fossil Record

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Heavens, Alan; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Observationally confirming spatial homogeneity on sufficiently large cosmological scales is of importance to test one of the underpinning assumptions of cosmology, and is also imperative for correctly interpreting dark energy. A challenging aspect of this is that homogeneity must be probed inside our past lightcone, while observations take place on the lightcone. The history of star formation rates (SFH) in the galaxy fossil record provides a novel way to do this. We calculate the SFH of stacked Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) spectra obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We divide the LRG sample into 12 equal area contiguous sky patches and 10 redshift slices (0.2

  9. Fossil group origins. VIII. RX J075243.6+455653 a transitionary fossil group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Longobardi, A.; Zarattini, S.; Kundert, A.; D'Onghia, E.; Domínguez-Palmero, L.

    2018-01-01

    Context. It is thought that fossil systems are relics of structure formation in the primitive Universe. They are galaxy aggregations that have assembled their mass at high redshift with few or no subsequent accretion. Observationally these systems are selected by large magnitude gaps between their 1st and 2nd ranked galaxies (Δm12). Nevertheless, there is still debate over whether or not this observational criterium selects dynamically evolved ancient systems. Aims: We have studied the properties of the nearby fossil group RX J075243.6+455653 in order to understand the mass assembly of this system. Methods: Deep spectroscopic observations allow us to construct the galaxy luminosity function (LF) of RX J075243.6+455653 down to Mr*+6. The analysis of the faint-end of the LF in groups and clusters provides valuable information about the mass assembly of the system. In addition, we have analyzed the nearby large-scale structure around this group. Results: We identified 26 group members within r200 0.96 Mpc. These galaxies are located at Vc = 15551 ± 65 km s-1 and have a velocity dispersion of σc = 333 ± 46 km s-1. The X-ray luminosity of the group is LX = 2.2 × 1043 h70-2 erg s-1, resulting in a mass of M = 4.2 × 1013 h70-1 within 0.5r200. The group has Δm12 = 2.1 within 0.5r200, confirming the fossil nature of this system. RX J075243.6+455653 has a central brightest group galaxy (BGG) with Mr = -22.67, one of the faintest BGGs observed in fossil systems. The LF of the group shows a flat faint-end slope (α = -1.08 ± 0.33). This low density of dwarf galaxies is confirmed by the low value of the dwarf-to-giant ratio (DGR = 0.99 ± 0.49) for this system. Both the lack of dwarf galaxies and the low luminosity of the BGG suggests that RX J075243.6+455653 still has to accrete mass from its nearby environment. This mass accretion will be achieved because it is the dominant structure of a rich environment formed by several groups of galaxies (15) within 7 Mpc from the

  10. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic

  11. REVISITING THE FOSSIL GROUP CANDIDATES UGC 842 AND NGC 6034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, R. Lopes; De Oliveira, C. Mendes; Bortoletto, D. R.; Cypriano, E.; Sodre, L.; Neto, G B. Lima; Carrasco, E. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new insight on NGC 6034 and UGC 842, two groups of galaxies previously reported in the literature as being fossil groups. The study is based on optical photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the CTIO Blanco telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey archival data. We find that NGC 6034 is embedded in a large structure, dominated by three rich clusters and other small groups. Its first and next four ranked galaxies have magnitude differences in the r band and projected distances which violate the optical criteria to classify it as a fossil group. We confirm that the UGC 842 group is a fossil group, but with about half the velocity dispersion that is reported in previous works. The velocity distribution of its galaxies reveals the existence of two structures in its line of sight, one with σ v ∼ 223 km s -1 and another with σ v ∼ 235 km s -1 , with a difference in velocity of ∼820 km s -1 . The main structure is dominated by passive galaxies, while these represent ∼60% of the second structure. The X-ray temperature for the intragroup medium of a group with such a velocity dispersion is expected to be kT ∼0.5-1 keV, against the observed value of kT ∼1.9 keV reported in the literature. This result makes UGC 842 a special case among fossil groups because (1) it represents more likely the interaction between two small groups, which warms the intragroup medium and/or (2) it could constitute evidence that member galaxies lost energy in the process of spiraling toward the group center, and decreased the velocity dispersion of the system. As far as we know, UGC 842 is the first low-mass fossil group studied in detail.

  12. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G 1 be any galaxy and G 2 be its nearest neighbor at a distance R 2 . If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G 1 is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G 1 and G 2 be O 2 and r 2 =R 2 2. For the volume V 2 , defined with the radius r 2 , the density D 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G 2 is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3)), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten

  13. FINDING FOSSIL GROUPS: OPTICAL IDENTIFICATION AND X-RAY CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rykoff, Eli S. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dupke, Renato A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Proctor, Robert N. [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Garmire, Gordon P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); McKay, Timothy A., E-mail: milleric@mit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We report the discovery of 12 new fossil groups (FGs) of galaxies, systems dominated by a single giant elliptical galaxy and cluster-scale gravitational potential, but lacking the population of bright galaxies typically seen in galaxy clusters. These FGs, selected from the maxBCG optical cluster catalog, were detected in snapshot observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We detail the highly successful selection method, with an 80% success rate in identifying 12 FGs from our target sample of 15 candidates. For 11 of the systems, we determine the X-ray luminosity, temperature, and hydrostatic mass, which do not deviate significantly from expectations for normal systems, spanning a range typical of rich groups and poor clusters of galaxies. A small number of detected FGs are morphologically irregular, possibly due to past mergers, interaction of the intra-group medium with a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), or superposition of multiple massive halos. Two-thirds of the X-ray-detected FGs exhibit X-ray emission associated with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), although we are unable to distinguish between AGN and extended thermal galaxy emission using the current data. This sample representing a large increase in the number of known FGs, will be invaluable for future planned observations to determine FG temperature, gas density, metal abundance, and mass distributions, and to compare to normal (non-fossil) systems. Finally, the presence of a population of galaxy-poor systems may bias mass function determinations that measure richness from galaxy counts. When used to constrain power spectrum normalization and {Omega}{sub m}, these biased mass functions may in turn bias these results.

  14. EVOLUTION OF GALAXY GROUPS IN THE ILLUSTRIS SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Khosroshahi, Habib G. [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, 19395-5746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dariush, A., E-mail: m.raouf@ipm.ir [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    We present the first study of the evolution of galaxy groups in the Illustris simulation. We focus on dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups representing dynamically evolved and evolving galaxy systems, respectively. The evolutionary state of a group is probed from its luminosity gap and separation between the brightest group galaxy and the center of mass of the group members. We find that the Illustris simulation overproduces galaxy systems with a large luminosity gap, known as fossil systems, in comparison to observations and the probed semi-analytical predictions. However, this simulation is just as successful as the probed semi-analytic model in recovering the correlation between luminosity gap and offset of the luminosity centroid. We find evolutionary tracks based on luminosity gap that indicate that a group with a large luminosity gap is rooted in one with a small luminosity gap, regardless of the position of the brightest group galaxy within the halo. This simulation helps to explore, for the first time, the black hole mass and its accretion rate in galaxy groups. For a given stellar mass of the brightest group galaxies, the black hole mass is larger in dynamically relaxed groups with a lower rate of mass accretion. We find this to be consistent with the latest observational studies of radio activity in the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups. We also find that the intragalactic medium in dynamically evolved groups is hotter for a given halo mass than that in evolving groups, again consistent with earlier observational studies.

  15. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE X-RAY BRIGHTEST FOSSIL GROUP ESO 3060170

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; White, Raymond E. III; Miller, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    'Fossil' galaxy groups, each dominated by a relatively isolated giant elliptical galaxy, have many properties intermediate between groups and clusters of galaxies. We used the Suzaku X-ray observatory to observe the X-ray brightest fossil group, ESO 3060170, out to R 200 , in order to better elucidate the relation between fossil groups, normal groups, and clusters. We determined the intragroup gas temperature, density, and metal abundance distributions and derived the entropy, pressure, and mass profiles for this group. The entropy and pressure profiles in the outer regions are flatter than in simulated clusters, similar to what is seen in observations of massive clusters. This may indicate that the gas is clumpy and/or the gas has been redistributed. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, the total mass is estimated to be ∼1.7 × 10 14 M ☉ within a radius R 200 of ∼1.15 Mpc, with an enclosed baryon mass fraction of 0.13. The integrated iron mass-to-light ratio of this fossil group is larger than in most groups and comparable to those of clusters, indicating that this fossil group has retained the bulk of its metals. A galaxy luminosity density map on a scale of 25 Mpc shows that this fossil group resides in a relatively isolated environment, unlike the filamentary structures in which typical groups and clusters are embedded

  16. Nuclear Activity of Compact Group Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubee, Sohn; Hwang, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Lee, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a study on nuclear activities of compact group galaxies in the local universe. The triggering mechanism of AGN is an intriguing proble, and one of the suggested AGN triggering mechanism is galaxy interaction. In this regard, compact groups are a great laboratory to study the connection between galaxy interaction and nuclear activities. To study the environmental effects on nuclear activity, we estimate the fraction of AGN-host galaxies for a spectroscopic sample of 238 member galaxies in 59 compact groups from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the emission-line ratio diagnostic diagrams in comparison with field and cluster regions. We derive the 17-42% of AGN fraction of the compact groups depending on the AGN classification methods. The AGN fraction of compact groups is not the highest among the galaxy environments for both early and late type galaxies. We also examine the environmental dependence of nuclear activity using the surface galaxy number density. For early type galaxies, the AGN fraction decreases with increasing galaxy number density, while the AGN fraction of late-type galaxies barely changes. Moreover, we do not find any mid-infrared detected AGN-host compact group galaxies in our sample using WISE photometry. These results imply that the compact group galaxies is not stronngly active because of lack of gas supply, in contrast to the expectation that they may experience frequent galaxy-galaxy interactions.

  17. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups

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    Mohamed, Sabry A.; Fouad, Ahmed M.

    2017-12-01

    Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients) to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009) depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004). It is based on a modified version of Hickson's criteria (Hickson, 1982). The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included. Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group.

  18. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009 depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004. It is based on a modified version of Hickson’s criteria (Hickson, 1982. The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included.Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group. Keywords: Galaxies, Cluster analysis, Galaxy groups, Lee galaxy groups

  19. The group environment of Seyfert galaxies. II. Spectrophotometry of galaxies in groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.J.; Kollatschny, W.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-resolution spectrophotometric data of 104 galaxies have been obtained. These galaxies are members of 22 loose groups of < 1 Mpc size. Thirteen of these groups contain Seyfert galaxies. In this paper we present calibrated emission-line data and absolute optical spectra of the individual galaxies as well as plates of each group

  20. Occurrence of LINER galaxies within the galaxy group environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Pereyra, Luis; Alonso, Sol; Donoso, Emilio; Duplancic, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    We study the properties of a sample of 3967 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR7, with respect to their proximity to galaxy groups. The host galaxies of LINERs have been analysed and compared with a well-defined control sample of 3841 non-LINER galaxies matched in redshift, luminosity, colour, morphology, age and stellar mass content. We find no difference between LINER and control galaxies in terms of the colour and age of stellar population as a function of the virial mass and distance to the geometric centre of the group. However, we find that LINERs are more likely to populate low-density environments in spite of their morphology, which is typical of high-density regions such as rich galaxy clusters. For rich (poor) galaxy groups, the occurrence of LINERs is approximately two times lower (higher) than the occurrence of matched, non-LINER galaxies. Moreover, LINER hosts do not seem to follow the expected morphology-density relation in groups of high virial mass. The high frequency of LINERs in low-density regions could be due to the combination of a sufficient gas reservoir to power the low-ionization emission and/or enhanced galaxy interaction rates benefiting the gas flow towards their central regions.

  1. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; van de Weijgaert, Marinus; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This indicates the fact that the action of large-scale tidal torques affected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic filaments. To this

  2. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications

  3. Clusters and Groups of Galaxies : International Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Giuricin, G; Mezzetti, M

    1984-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe and systems Clusters, and Groups of galaxies are topics like Superclusters, They fully justify the meeting on "Clusters of great interest. and Groups of Galaxies". The topics covered included the spatial distribution and the clustering of galaxies; the properties of Superclusters, Clusters and Groups of galaxies; radio and X-ray observations; the problem of unseen matter; theories concerning hierarchical clustering, pancakes, cluster and galaxy formation and evolution. The meeting was held at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste (Italy) from September 13 to September 16, 1983. It was attended by about 150 participants from 22 nations who presented 67 invited lectures (il) and contributed papers (cp), and 45 poster papers (pp). The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of F. Bertola, P. Biermann, A. Cavaliere, N. Dallaporta, D. Gerba1, M. Hack, J . V . Peach, D. Sciama (Chairman), G. Setti, M. Tarenghi. We are particularly indebted to D. Scia...

  4. Kinematic analysis of Sculptor Group galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, RHM; Valtonen, MJ; Flynn, C

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the kinematics of the five major spiral galaxies in the Sculptor Group is presented. These galaxies are analyzed using the method of harmonic expansion of the velocity field as described in Schoenmakers, Franx and de Zeeuw (1997). Three different types of kinematic distortions were

  5. Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Paul; De Oliveira, Claudia M.; Huchra, John P.; Palumbo, Giorgio G.

    1992-01-01

    Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hickson compact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured have velocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group. Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groups have at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from 1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to a median distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systems ranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds the densities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projected separation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of the galaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossing time and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weak anticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminosity contrast of the first-ranked galaxy.

  6. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  7. Galaxies Die in Groups: An IRAC Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilman, D. J.; Pierini, D.; Tyler, K.; McGee, S. L.; Oemler, A., Jr.; Morris, S. L.; Balogh, M. L.; Bower, R. G.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2008-10-01

    The most massive galaxies in the Universe are also the oldest. To overturn this apparent contradiction with hierarchical growth models, we focus on the group-scale haloes which host most of these galaxies. Our z˜0.4 group sample is selected in redshift space from the CNOC2 redshift survey. A stellar mass selected M_{*} ≲ 2×10^{10}M_{⊙} sample is constructed using IRAC observations. A sensitive Mid InfraRed (MIR) IRAC colour is used to isolate passive galaxies. It produces a bimodal distribution, in which passive galaxies (highlighted by morphological early-types) define a tight MIR colour sequence (Infrared Passive Sequence, IPS). This is due to stellar atmospheric emission from old stellar populations. Significantly offset from the IPS are galaxies where reemission by dust boosts emission at λ_{obs}=8 micron. We term them InfraRed-Excess galaxies whether star formation and/or AGN activity are present. They include all known morphological late-types. The fraction of InfraRed Excess galaxies, f(IRE) drops with M_{*}, such that f(IRE)=0.5 at a ``crossover mass'' of M_{cr}˜ 1.3×10^{11}M_{⊙}. Within our optically-defined group sample there is a strong and consistent deficit in f(IRE) at all masses, but most clearly at M_{*} ≲ 10^{11}M_{⊙}. Suppression of star formation must mainly occur in groups, and the observed trend of f(IRE) with M_{*} can be explained if suppression of M_{*} ≲ 10^{11}M_{⊙} galaxies occurs primarily in the group environment.

  8. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  9. The galaxy luminosity function around groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. E.; Padilla, N. D.; Galaz, G.; Infante, L.

    2005-11-01

    We present a study on the variations of the luminosity function of galaxies around clusters in a numerical simulation with semi-analytic galaxies, attempting to detect these variations in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We subdivide the simulation box into equal-density regions around clusters, which we assume can be achieved by selecting objects at a given normalized distance (r/rrms, where rrms is an estimate of the halo radius) from the group centre. The semi-analytic model predicts important variations in the luminosity function out to r/rrms~= 5. In brief, variations in the mass function of haloes around clusters (large dark matter haloes with M > 1012h-1Msolar) lead to cluster central regions that present a high abundance of bright galaxies (high M* values) as well as low-luminosity galaxies (high α) at r/rrms~= 3 there is a lack of bright galaxies, which shows the depletion of galaxies in the regions surrounding clusters (minimum in M* and α), and a tendency to constant luminosity function parameters at larger cluster-centric distances. We take into account the observational biases present in the real data by reproducing the peculiar velocity effect on the redshifts of galaxies in the simulation box, and also by producing mock catalogues. We find that excluding from the analysis galaxies which in projection are close to the centres of the groups provides results that are qualitatively consistent with the full simulation box results. When we apply this method to mock catalogues of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the 2PIGG catalogue of groups, we find that the variations in the luminosity function are almost completely erased by the Finger of God effect; only a lack of bright galaxies at r/rrms~= 3 can be marginally detected in the mock catalogues. The results from the real 2dFGRS data show a clearer detection of a dip in M* and α for r/rrms= 3, consistent with the semi-analytic predictions.

  10. Are fossil groups a challenge of the cold dark matter paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibetti, Stefano; Pierini, Daniele; Pratt, Gabriel W.

    2009-01-01

    We study six groups and clusters of galaxies suggested in the literature to be `fossil' systems (i.e. to have luminous diffuse X-ray emission and a magnitude gap of at least 2mag R between the first and the second ranked member within half of the virial radius), each having good quality X-ray data and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic or photometric coverage out to the virial radius. The poor cluster AWM4 is clearly established as a fossil system, and we confirm the fossil nature of four other systems (RXJ1331.5+1108, RXJ1340.6+4018, RXJ1256.0+2556 and RXJ1416.4+2315), while the cluster RXJ1552.2+2013 is disqualified as fossil system. For all systems, we present the luminosity functions within 0.5 and 1 virial radius that are consistent, within the uncertainties, with the universal luminosity function of clusters. For the five bona fide fossil systems, having a mass range 2 × 1013-3 × 1014Msolar, we compute accurate cumulative substructure distribution functions (CSDFs) and compare them with the CSDFs of observed and simulated groups/clusters available in the literature. We demonstrate that the CSDFs of fossil systems are consistent with those of normal observed clusters and do not lack any substructure with respect to simulated galaxy systems in the cosmological Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) framework. In particular, this holds for the archetype fossil group RXJ1340.6+4018 as well, contrary to earlier claims.

  11. AN OPTICAL AND X-RAY STUDY OF THE FOSSIL GROUP RX J1340.6+4018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia L.; Cypriano, Eduardo S.; Sodre, Laerte; Dupke, Renato A.

    2009-01-01

    Fossil groups are systems with one single central elliptical galaxy and an unusual lack of luminous galaxies in the inner regions. The standard explanation for the formation of these systems suggests that the lack of bright galaxies is due to galactic cannibalism. In this study, we show the results of an optical and X-ray analysis of RX J1340.6+4018, the prototype fossil group. The data indicate that RX J1340.6+4018 is similar to clusters in almost every sense (dynamical mass, X-ray luminosity, M/L, and luminosity function) except for the lack of L* galaxies. There are claims in the literature that fossil systems have a lack of small mass halos, compared to predictions based on the lambda cold dark matter scenario. The observational data gathered on this and other fossil groups so far offer no support for this idea. Analysis of the SN Ia/SN II ejecta ratio in the inner and outer regions shows a marginally significant central dominance of SN Ia material. This suggests that either the merger which originated in the central galaxy was dry or the group has been formed at early epochs, although better data are needed to confirm this result.

  12. Fossil wood flora from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The plant fossil records from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India are far from satisfactory due to remoteness and dense vegetation of the area. We report seven fossil woods of which three belong to the Middle Siwalik (Subansiri Formation), while the rest are from the Upper Siwalik (Kimin Formation). The modern ...

  13. Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, L.; Makarov, D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider star formation properties of dwarf galaxies in Cen A group observed within our HST/ACS projects number 9771 and 10235. We model color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies under consideration and measure star formation rate and metallicity dependence on time. We study environmental dependence of the galaxy evolution and probable origin of the dwarf galaxies in the group.

  14. Diverse Group of Galaxy Types, NGC 3190 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image of a diverse group of galaxy types. NGC 3190 is a dusty edge on spiral galaxy. NGC 3187 is highly distorted. The two are separated by only 35 kilo-parsecs (about half the diameter of our own Milky Way galaxy). A ring, elliptical, and other irregular galaxies are also present.

  15. The global warming of group satellite galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies adopting λRe, a proxy for specific angular momentum, have highlighted how early-type galaxies (ETGs) are composed of two kinematical classes for which distinct formation mechanisms can be inferred. With upcoming surveys expected to obtain λRe from a broad range of environments (e.g. SAMI, MaNGA), we investigate in this numerical study how the λRe-ɛe distribution of fast-rotating dwarf satellite galaxies reflects their evolutionary state. By combining N-body/SPH simulations of progenitor disc galaxies (stellar mass ≃109 M⊙), their cosmologically-motivated sub-halo infall history and a characteristic group orbit/potential, we demonstrate the evolution of a satellite ETG population driven by tidal interactions (e.g. harassment). As a general result, these satellites remain intrinsically fast-rotating oblate stellar systems since their infall as early as z = 2; mis-identifications as slow rotators often arise due to a bar/spiral lifecycle which plays an integral role in their evolution. Despite the idealistic nature of its construction, our mock λRe-ɛe distribution at z < 0.1 reproduces its observational counterpart from the ATLAS3D/SAURON projects. We predict therefore how the observed λRe-ɛe distribution of a group evolves according to these ensemble tidal interactions.

  16. Galaxy Groups in HST/COS-SDSS Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Matthew; Hamill, Colin; Apala, Elizabeth; Scott, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    We extend the results of a study of the sightlines of 45 low redshift quasars (0.06 footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have used photometric data from the SDSS DR12, along with the known absorption characteristics of the intergalactic medium and circumgalactic medium, to identify the most probable galaxy matches to absorbers in the spectroscopic dataset. Here, we use an existing catalog of galaxy group candidates in the SDSS DR8 to identify galaxy groups within our HST/COS-SDSS fields that may show line of sight absorption due to an intergroup medium. To identify galaxy group candidates that lie within the impact parameter of our quasar fields (< 3 degrees), we calculate the angular separation between the quasar coordinates and the galaxy group centroid coordinates. We investigate differences in galaxy and absorber properties among the galaxy-absorber pairs likely arising in groups and those likely associated with individual field galaxies.

  17. Fossil wood flora from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaurav Srivastava

    MS received 17 January 2017; revised 23 June 2017; accepted 3 July 2017; published online 10 February 2018. The plant fossil records from the Siwalik Group of ..... (Pearson and Brown 1932;. Metcalfe and Chalk 1950; Kribs 1959; Miles 1978; ..... tidal forests of Sunderbans, Andaman Islands and. Myanmar. 5. Discussion.

  18. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 6. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram India and their palaeoenvironmental significance. Raghavendra P Tiwari Chinmoy Rajkonwar Lalchawimawii Paul Lalnuntluanga Jehova Malsawma Victor Z ...

  19. Old stellar populations how to study the fossil record of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    The book discusses the theoretical path to decoding the information gathered from observations of old stellar systems. It focuses on old stellar systems because these are the fossil record of galaxy formation and provide invaluable information ont he evolution of cosmic structures and the universe as a whole. The aim is to present results obtained in the past few years for theoretical developments in low mass star research and in advances in our knowledge of the evolution of old stellar systems. A particularly representative case is the recent discovery of multiple stellar populations in galac

  20. Infalling groups and galaxy transformations in the cluster A2142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einasto, Maret; Deshev, Boris; Lietzen, Heidi; Kipper, Rain; Tempel, Elmo; Park, Changbom; Gramann, Mirt; Heinämäki, Pekka; Saar, Enn; Einasto, Jaan

    2018-03-01

    Context. Superclusters of galaxies provide dynamical environments for the study of the formation and evolution of structures in the cosmic web from galaxies, to the richest galaxy clusters, and superclusters themselves. Aims: We study galaxy populations and search for possible merging substructures in the rich galaxy cluster A2142 in the collapsing core of the supercluster SCl A2142, which may give rise to radio and X-ray structures in the cluster, and affect galaxy properties of this cluster. Methods: We used normal mixture modelling to select substructure of the cluster A2142. We compared alignments of the cluster, its brightest galaxies (hereafter BCGs), subclusters, and supercluster axes. The projected phase space (PPS) diagram and clustercentric distributions are used to analyse the dynamics of the cluster and study the distribution of various galaxy populations in the cluster and subclusters. Results: We find several infalling galaxy groups and subclusters. The cluster, supercluster, BCGs, and one infalling subcluster are all aligned. Their orientation is correlated with the alignment of the radio and X-ray haloes of the cluster. Galaxy populations in the main cluster and in the outskirts subclusters are different. Galaxies in the centre of the main cluster at the clustercentric distances 0.5 h-1 Mpc (Dc/Rvir evolution of rich galaxy clusters.

  1. WHERE ARE THE FOSSILS OF THE FIRST GALAXIES? I. LOCAL VOLUME MAPS AND PROPERTIES OF THE UNDETECTED DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovill, Mia S.; Ricotti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for generating initial conditions for ΛCDM N-body simulations which provides the dynamical range necessary to follow the evolution and distribution of the fossils of the first galaxies on Local Volume, 5-10 Mpc, scales. The initial distribution of particles represents the position, velocity, and mass distribution of the dark and luminous halos extracted from pre-reionization simulations. We confirm previous results that ultra-faint dwarfs have properties compatible with being well-preserved fossils of the first galaxies. However, because the brightest pre-reionization dwarfs form preferentially in biased regions, they most likely merge into non-fossil halos with circular velocities >20-30 km s -1 . Hence, we find that the maximum luminosity of true fossils in the Milky Way is L V 6 L sun , casting doubts on the interpretation that some classical dSphs are true fossils. In addition, we argue that most ultra-faints at small galactocentric distance, R V ) 50 (∼400 kpc) up to 1 Mpc from the Milky Way contains about a hundred true fossils of the first galaxies with V-band luminosity 10 3 -10 5 L sun and half-light radii, r hl ∼ 100-1000 pc.

  2. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP GALAXIES IN CNOC1 CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, I. H.; Yee, H. K. C.; Ellingson, E.

    2009-01-01

    Using wide-field BVR c I imaging for a sample of 16 intermediate redshift (0.17 red ) to infer the evolutionary status of galaxies in clusters, using both individual galaxies and galaxies in groups. We apply the local galaxy density, Σ 5 , derived using the fifth nearest neighbor distance, as a measure of local environment, and the cluster-centric radius, r CL , as a proxy for global cluster environment. Our cluster sample exhibits a Butcher-Oemler effect in both luminosity-selected and stellar-mass-selected samples. We find that f red depends strongly on Σ 5 and r CL , and the Butcher-Oemler effect is observed in all Σ 5 and r CL bins. However, when the cluster galaxies are separated into r CL bins, or into group and nongroup subsamples, the dependence on local galaxy density becomes much weaker. This suggests that the properties of the dark matter halo in which the galaxy resides have a dominant effect on its galaxy population and evolutionary history. We find that our data are consistent with the scenario that cluster galaxies situated in successively richer groups (i.e., more massive dark matter halos) reach a high f red value at earlier redshifts. Associated with this, we observe a clear signature of 'preprocessing', in which cluster galaxies belonging to moderately massive infalling galaxy groups show a much stronger evolution in f red than those classified as nongroup galaxies, especially at the outskirts of the cluster. This result suggests that galaxies in groups infalling into clusters are significant contributors to the Butcher-Oemler effect.

  3. Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Bruzual, GA; Charlot, S

    2010-01-01

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star. The Color-Magnitude Diagram synthesis analysis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine the detailed star formation history of galaxies going back to the earliest times. This approach received a

  4. The Evolution of Neutral Hydrogen in Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Kelly Nicole; Wilcots, Eric; Hess, Kelley M.

    2018-01-01

    The Illustris suite of simulations is held as the standard of large scale gravitational and hydro-dynamical simulations and allows us to make a better comparisons with physical processes at the gaseous level by providing a higher mass resolution than previously available through the Millenium-II simulation. We present a comparison of an analysis on the HI content and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their group dark matter halo to the results of a large scale cosmological simulation. From the simulation we select optical group members above a Mr=-18 r-band magnitude and HI group members with HI above 109.5M⊙. We find that 74% of the HI detected galaxies are in groups or clusters and 84% of the optically detected galaxies are in groups or clusters. In the Hess & Wilcots (2013) paper it was found that as group membership, or group dark matter halo mass, increased, the fraction of galaxies detected in HI decreased and the spatial distribution of galaxies in these groups increased. We show the spatial distributions of galaxies, HI and optically detected, in order to reproduce these results. We find that Illustris qualitatively reproduces these trends, however, the simulation seems to be overestimating the mass of HI gas in all of its galaxies as well as the number of galaxies above the 109.5M⊙ limit.

  5. Evolution of dwarf galaxy properties in local group environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza Sigrid

    primary galaxy. We found that the inclusion of these relevant physical processes aligned the velocity functions and star formation histories of the dwarf galaxy populations closer to observations of the Local Group dwarf galaxies. By reproducing observations of dwarf galaxies we show how the inclusion of baryons in simulations relieves many of the discovered tensions between dark matter-only simulations and observations.

  6. SPIDER - IX. Classifying galaxy groups according to their velocity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Trevisan, M.; Capelato, H. V.; La Barbera, F.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Schilling, A. C.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a new method to study the velocity distribution of galaxy systems, the Hellinger Distance (HD), designed for detecting departures from a Gaussian velocity distribution. Testing different approaches to measure normality of a distribution, we conclude that HD is the least vulnerable method to type I and II statistical errors. We define a relaxed galactic system as the one with unimodal velocity distribution and a normality deviation below a critical value (HD ) and the Gaussianity of the velocity distribution of the groups. Bright galaxies (Mr ≤ -20.7) residing in the inner and outer regions of groups do not show significant differences in the listed quantities regardless if the group has a Gaussian (G) or a Non-Gaussian (NG) velocity distribution. However, the situation is significantly different when we examine the faint galaxies (-20.7 < Mr ≤ -17.9). In G groups, there is a remarkable difference between the galaxy properties of the inner and outer galaxy populations, testifying how the environment is affecting the galaxies. Instead, in NG groups there is no segregation between the properties of galaxies in the inner and outer regions, showing that the properties of these galaxies still reflect the physical processes prevailing in the environment where they were found earlier.

  7. The field luminosity function and nearby groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchra, J.

    1978-01-01

    A catalog of radial velocities and magnitudes on a homogeneous system (the corrected Harvard, B(o) magnitudes of de Vaucouleurs) has been assembled for over 4000 galaxies. Using this catalog, a magnitude limited sample of approximately 1000 galaxies with nearly complete radial velocity data was compiled. The magnitude limit is 13.0 and the galaxies are primarily from the Shapley-Ames catalog plus a few low and high surface brightness objects properly included in a magnitude limited sample. A new determination of the field luminosity function and density plus initial experiments with the use of a redshift catalog to select groups of galaxies, are briefly described. (Auth.)

  8. A classical N-Body simulation of groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pech, G.; Chung, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Groups of galaxies are simulated by Monte Carlo technique. The mass distribution of the groups is assumed to follow a power-law. A linear relationship between mass and luminosity is considered. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  9. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  10. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Voronoi-Delaunay Method Catalog of Galaxy Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; /UC, Berkeley; Newman, Jeffrey A.; /LBNL, NSD; Davis, Marc; /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Marinoni, Christian; /Brera Observ.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Conroy, Charlie; Cooper, Michael C.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.Dept.; Faber, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; /Lick Observ.; Kaiser, Nick; /Hawaii U.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; /Lick Observ.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; /Maryland U.

    2012-02-14

    We use the first 25% of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey spectroscopic data to identify groups and clusters of galaxies in redshift space. The data set contains 8370 galaxies with confirmed redshifts in the range 0.7 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, over one square degree on the sky. Groups are identified using an algorithm (the Voronoi-Delaunay Method) that has been shown to accurately reproduce the statistics of groups in simulated DEEP2-like samples. We optimize this algorithm for the DEEP2 survey by applying it to realistic mock galaxy catalogs and assessing the results using a stringent set of criteria for measuring group-finding success, which we develop and describe in detail here. We find in particular that the group-finder can successfully identify {approx}78% of real groups and that {approx}79% of the galaxies that are true members of groups can be identified as such. Conversely, we estimate that {approx}55% of the groups we find can be definitively identified with real groups and that {approx}46% of the galaxies we place into groups are interloper field galaxies. Most importantly, we find that it is possible to measure the distribution of groups in redshift and velocity dispersion, n({sigma}, z), to an accuracy limited by cosmic variance, for dispersions greater than 350 km s{sup -1}. We anticipate that such measurements will allow strong constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy in the future. Finally, we present the first DEEP2 group catalog, which assigns 32% of the galaxies to 899 distinct groups with two or more members, 153 of which have velocity dispersions above 350 km s{sup -1}. We provide locations, redshifts and properties for this high-dispersion subsample. This catalog represents the largest sample to date of spectroscopically detected groups at z {approx} 1.

  11. Measuring the accreting stellar and intermediate mass black hole populations in the Galaxy and Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grindlay, J.; Barret, D.; Belloni, T.; Corbel, S.; Kaaret, P.; Allen, B.; Bazzano, A.; Berger, E.; Bignami, G.; Caraveo, P.; De Luca, A.; Fabbiano, P.; Finger, M.; Feroci, M.; Hong, J.; Jernigan, G.; van der Klis, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kutyrev, A.; Loeb, A.; Paizis, A.; Pareschi, G.; Skinner, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Ubertini, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    The population of stellar black holes (SBHs) in the Galaxy and galaxies generally is poorly known in both number and distribution. SBHs are the fossil record of the massive stars in galaxy evolution and may have produced some (if not all) of the intermediate mass (≳100M⊙) black holes (IMBHs) and, in

  12. Galaxy Groups : Proceedings from a Swinburne University Wokshop

    CERN Document Server

    Brough, S; Doyle, M T; Evstigneeva, E A; Forbes, D A; Koribalski, B S; Owers, M S; Power, C; Kilborn, V A; Kilborn, Virginia A.; Bekki, Kenji; Brough, Sarah; Doyle, Marianne T.; Evstigneeva, Ekaterina A.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Koribalski, Baerbel; Owers, Matthew S.; Power, Chris

    2005-01-01

    We present the proceedings from a 2-day workshop held at Swinburne University on the 24th-25th of May 2005. The workshop participants highlighted current Australian research on both theoretical and observational aspects of galaxy groups. These proceedings include short 1-page summaries of a number of the talks presented at the workshop. The talks presented ranged from reconciling N-body simulations with observations, to the HI content of galaxies in groups and the existence of ``dark galaxies''. The formation and existence of ultra-compact dwarfs in groups, and a new supergroup in Eridanus were also discussed.

  13. Finding the Progenitors to Today's Fossil Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas Edward; Irwin, Jimmy; White, Raymond; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, Walter Peter; Dupke, Renato; Miller, Eric; Carrasco, Eleazar

    2018-01-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group and cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil progenitors are expected to be systems with imminent or ongoing major merging near the brightest group galaxy (BGG) that, when concluded, will meet the fossil criteria within the look back time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong lensing events with the goal of determining if lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We present an analysis of 53 systems from the CASSOWARY catalog of strong lenses with redshifts ranging from 0.1 fossils while only 3% of non-lensing control groups are. We also find that 23% of the lensing groups are traditional fossil progenitors compared to 17% for the control sample. This suggests that searching for groups that exhibit strong gravitational lensing may be a more efficient way of finding fossil and pre-fossil systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and non-lensing groups also indicate there may be, on average, a fundamental difference between the initial conditions of strong lensing and non-lensing systems for fossils, fossil progenitors, and even normal galaxy systems. This could point to not fossils but lensing systems as possibly having different initial group conditions than non-lensing systems. Future work will involve studying recently obtained Chandra and HST snapshots of eight previously unobserved fossil progenitors in the CASSOWARY catalog to see how the hot gas evolves as a function of time until fossil BGG formation.

  14. Probing satellite galaxies in the Local Group by using FAST

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Wang, Yougang; Kong, Minzhi; Wang, Jie; Chen, Xuelei; Guo, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of neutral hydrogen (HI) in satellite galaxies in the Local Group is important for studying the formation history of our Local Group. In this work, we generated mock HI satellite galaxies in the Local Group using the high mass resolution hydrodynamic \\textsc{apostle} simulation. The simulated HI mass function agrees with the ALFALFA survey very well above $10^6M_{\\odot}$, although there is a discrepancy below this scale because of the observed flux limit. After carefully checkin...

  15. N-body simulations of galaxy clustering. II. Groups of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, E.L.; Aarseth, S.J.; Gott, J.R. III; Blanchard, N.T.; Mathieu, R.D.

    1979-03-15

    Two of the previously presented N-body simulations of galaxy clustering are analyzed in terms of the detailed dynamical and morphological properties of their binaries, groups, and clusters. The analysis is closely analogous to the studies of groups among bright Zwicky catalog galaxies by Turner and Gott. The simulated groups, particularly those in the ..cap omega../sub 0/=0.1 and n= -1 model, resemble the observed groups. The models provide complete (position, velocity, mass) information on group and field ''galaxies'' identified using the Turner and Gott surface density enhancement procedure. These data are used to assess the validity of the membership assignments, the influence of non-Hubble motions on descriptions of the clustering, the accuracy and stability of various M/L estimators, the significance of field galaxies, and the statistical properties of binary systems.

  16. Galaxy evolution in Local Group analogs. I. A GALEX study of nearby groups dominated by late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A.; Bianchi, L.; Rampazzo, R.; Buson, L. M.; Bettoni, D.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Understanding the astrophysical processes acting within galaxy groups and their effects on the evolution of the galaxy population is one of the crucial topics of modern cosmology, as almost 60% of galaxies in the Local Universe are found in groups. Aims: We aim at learning about galaxy evolution within nearby groups dominated by late-type galaxies, specifically by studying their ultraviolet-emitting stellar population. Methods: We imaged in the far (FUV, λ_eff = 1539 Å) and near ultraviolet (NUV, λ_eff = 2316 Å) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) three nearby groups, namely LGG 93, LGG 127 and LGG 225. We obtained the UV galaxy surface photometry and, for LGG 225, the only group covered by the SDSS, the photometry in u, g, r, i, z bands. We discuss galaxy morphologies looking for interaction signatures and we analyze the spectral energy distribution of galaxies to infer their luminosity-weighted ages. The UV and optical photometry was also used to perform a luminosity-weighted kinematical and dynamical analysis of each group and to evaluate the stellar mass. Results: A few member galaxies in LGG 225 show a distorted UV morphology due to ongoing interactions. (FUV-NUV) colors suggest that spirals in LGG 93 and LGG 225 host stellar populations in their outskirts younger than that of M 31 and M 33 in the Local Group or with less extinction. The irregular interacting galaxy NGC 3447A has a significantly younger stellar population (a few Myr old) than the average of the other irregular galaxies in LGG 225 suggesting that the encounter triggered star formation. The early-type members of LGG 225, NGC 3457 and NGC 3522, have masses of the order of a few 10^9~M_⊙, comparable to the Local Group ellipticals. For the most massive spiral in LGG 225, we estimate a stellar mass of ≈4 × 1010~M_⊙, comparable to M 33 in the Local Group. Ages of stellar populations range from a few to ≈7 Gyr for the galaxies in LGG 225. The kinematical and dynamical

  17. Small-Scale Systems of Galaxies. II. Properties of the NGC 4756 Group of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützbauch, R.; Kelm, B.; Focardi, P.; Trinchieri, G.; Rampazzo, R.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is part of a series that focuses on investigating galaxy formation and evolution in small-scale systems of galaxies in low-density environments. We present results from a study of the NGC 4756 group, which is dominated by the elliptical galaxy NGC 4756. The characteristics of the group are investigated through (1) the detailed investigation of the morphological, photometric, and spectroscopic properties of nine galaxies among the dominant members of the group; (2) the determination of the photometric parameters of the faint galaxy population in an area of 34'×34' centered on NGC 4756 and (3) an analysis of the X-ray emission in the area based on archival data. The nine member galaxies are located in the core part of the NGC 4756 group (a strip ~300 kpc in diameter, H0=70 km s-1 Mpc-1), which has a very loose configuration. The central part of the NGC 4756 group contains a significant fraction of early-type galaxies. Three new group members with previously unknown systemic velocities are identified, one of which is type dE. At about 7.5 arcmin southwest of NGC 4756 a substructure of the group is detected, including IC 829, MCG -2-33-35, MCG -2-33-36, and MCG -2-33-38, that meets the Hickson criteria for being a compact group. Most of the galaxies in this substructure show interaction signatures. We do not detect apparent fine structure and signatures of recent interaction events in the early-type galaxy population, with the exception of a strong dust lane in the elliptical galaxy MCG -2-33-38. However, this galaxy displays signatures of nuclear activity. Strong [O III], [N II], and [S II] line emission, combined with comparatively weak but broad Hα emission, suggests an intermediate Seyfert type classification. Although the area is heavily contaminated by the background cluster A1631, X-ray data suggest the presence of a hot intergalactic medium related to the detected X-ray emission of the group. The present results are discussed in the context of

  18. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. III. A catalog of galaxies in five nearby groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, H.C.; Sandage, A.

    1990-01-01

    Five nearby groups of galaxies have been surveyed using large-scale plates from the 2.5 m duPont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Catalogs of galaxies brighter than B(T) = 20 are presented for the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, and Antlia groups. A total of 1044 galaxies are included, from visual inspection of 14 plates, covering 31 deg square. Galaxies have been classified in the extended Hubble system, and group memberships have been assigned based on velocity (where available) and morphology. About half the galaxies listed are likely members of one of the nearby groups. The catalogs are complete to B(T) = 18, although the completeness limits vary slightly from group to group. Based on King model fits to the surface density profiles, the core radii of the groups range from 0.3 to 1 Mpc, and central densities range from 120 to 1900 galaxies Mpc exp-3 brighter than M(BT) = -12.5. Dynamical analysis indicates that all of the groups are likely to be gravitationally bound. 64 refs

  19. HI Deficiency Estimates in Galaxy Group AWM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jaclyn; Nichols, N.; Weigel, C.; Troischt, P.; ALFALFA Team

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. As part of this project, we examine HI deficiency in the region surrounding galaxy group AWM3 using HI fluxes from ALFALFA and optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The galaxy group includes 165 galaxies, of which 66 have 21cm line detections. The HI deficiency calculations reported here are based on comparisons to a sample of 1,624 reference galaxies in low-density environments recently reported by other members of the ALFALFA team. Their sample is taken from the alpha.40 data release and has several advantages over previous HI samples including a large number of high-quality detections and homogeneously measured HI fluxes. It provides a reliable set of reference galaxies for the HI deficiency calculations performed here. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  20. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE VORONOI-DELAUNAY METHOD CATALOG OF GALAXY GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Konidaris, Nicholas; Lin, Lihwai; Noeske, Kai; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin

    2012-01-01

    We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0 0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. Twenty-five percent of EGS galaxies and fourteen percent of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). We also confirm that the VDM catalog reconstructs the abundance of galaxy groups with velocity dispersions above ∼300 km s –1 to an accuracy better than the sample variance, and this successful reconstruction is not strongly dependent on cosmology. This makes the DEEP2 group catalog a promising probe of the growth of cosmic structure that can potentially be used for cosmological tests.

  1. Mass-to-light ratios of nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1980-01-01

    The application of a probability density function gives the possibility of determining groups of galaxies and membership probabilities of the galaxies in a reliable unbiased way. For the five nearest groups so defined, the mean mass-to-light ratio was derived using the concept of negative energy. These groups have a mass-to- light ratio of 16 M/sub (.)//L/sub (.)/. The probability function gives also the possibility of deriving masses of groups in a direct and independent way. (22 refs).

  2. A targeted survey for HI clouds in galaxy groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA

    2001-01-01

    Five galaxy groups with properties similar to those of the Local Group have been surveyed for H I clouds with the Arecibo Telescope. In total 300 pointings have been observed on grids of approximately 2.5 x 1.5 Mpc(2) centred on the groups. The 4.5 sigma detection limit on the minimal detectable H I

  3. The Origin of the Galaxy and Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Freeman, Ken; Matteucci, Francesca

    This volume contains the updated and expanded lecture notes of the 37th Saas-Fee Advanced Course organised by the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. It offers the most comprehensive and up to date review of one of the hottest research topics in astrophysics - how our Milky Way galaxy formed. Joss Bland-Hawthorn & Ken Freeman lectured on Near Field Cosmology - The Origin of the Galaxy and the Local Group. Francesca Matteucci's chapter is on Chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its Satellites. As designed by the SSAA, books in this series - and this one too - are targeted at graduate and PhD students and young researchers in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Lecturers and researchers entering the field will also benefit from the book. *%K Physics, Astrophysics, Near Field Cosmology, Galaxy, Local Group *%O Milky Way

  4. The 16 most common fossil groups from Danian found in Faxe Quarry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg

    2009-01-01

    Twelve folders dealing with the 16 most common fossil groups from Danian found in Faxe Quarry. The folders are for sale at the museum and designated for visitor......Twelve folders dealing with the 16 most common fossil groups from Danian found in Faxe Quarry. The folders are for sale at the museum and designated for visitor...

  5. Most Distant Group of Galaxies Known in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    New VLT Discovery Pushes Back the Beginnings Summary Using the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers from The Netherlands, Germany, France and the USA [1] have discovered the most distant group of galaxies ever seen , about 13.5 billion light-years away. It has taken the light now recorded by the VLT about nine-tenths of the age of the Universe to cover the huge distance. We therefore observe those galaxies as they were at a time when the Universe was only about 10% of its present age . The astronomers conclude that this group of early galaxies will develop into a rich cluster of galaxies, such as those seen in the nearby Universe. The newly discovered structure provides the best opportunity so far for studying when and how galaxies began to form clusters after the initial Big Bang , one of the greatest puzzles in modern cosmology. PR Photo 11a/02 : Sky field with the distant cluster of galaxies. PR Photo 11b/02 : Spectra of some of the galaxies in the cluster. Radio Galaxies as cosmic signposts A most intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first groupings or "clusters" of galaxies emerged from the gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theoretical models predict that densely populated galaxy clusters ("rich clusters" in current astronomical terminology) are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in the primeval gas, and stars condense out of these clumps to form small galaxies. Then these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. The peculiar class of "radio galaxies" is particularly important for investigating such scenarios. They are called so because their radio emission - a result of violent processes believed to be related to massive black holes located at the centres of these galaxies - is stronger by 5 - 10 orders of magnitude than that of our own Milky Way galaxy. In fact, this radio emission is often so intense that the galaxies can be spotted at extremely large distances, and thus at the remote epoch when

  6. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The effect of galaxy group environment on active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Yjan A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Owers, Matt S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Croom, Scott M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Loveday, Jonathan; Mahajan, Smriti; Wang, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    In galaxy clusters, efficiently accreting active galactic nuclei (AGN) are preferentially located in the infall regions of the cluster projected phase-space, and are rarely found in the cluster core. This has been attributed to both an increase in triggering opportunities for infalling galaxies, and a reduction of those mechanisms in the hot, virialised, cluster core. Exploiting the depth and completeness (98 per cent at r 9.9 in 695 groups with 11.53 ≤ log10(M200/M⊙) ≤ 14.56 at z 13.5, AGN are preferentially found in the infalling galaxy population with 3.6σ confidence. At lower halo masses we observe no difference in AGN fraction between core and infalling galaxies. These observations support a model where a reduced number of low-speed interactions, ram pressure stripping and intra-group/cluster medium temperature, the dominance of which increase with halo mass, work to inhibit AGN in the cores of groups and clusters with log10(M200/M⊙) > 13.5, but do not significantly affect nuclear activity in cores of less massive structures.

  7. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the effect of galaxy group environment on active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Yjan A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Owers, Matt S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Croom, Scott M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Loveday, Jonathan; Mahajan, Smriti; Wang, Lingyu

    2018-04-01

    In galaxy clusters, efficiently accreting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially located in the infall regions of the cluster projected phase-space, and are rarely found in the cluster core. This has been attributed to both an increase in triggering opportunities for infalling galaxies, and a reduction of those mechanisms in the hot, virialized, cluster core. Exploiting the depth and completeness (98 per cent at r 9.9 in 695 groups with 11.53 ≤ log10(M200/M⊙) ≤ 14.56 at z 13.5, AGNs are preferentially found in the infalling galaxy population with 3.6σ confidence. At lower halo masses, we observe no difference in AGN fraction between core and infalling galaxies. These observations support a model where a reduced number of low-speed interactions, ram pressure stripping and intra-group/cluster medium temperature, the dominance of which increase with halo mass, work to inhibit AGN in the cores of groups and clusters with log10(M200/M⊙) > 13.5, but do not significantly affect nuclear activity in cores of less massive structures.

  8. Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Safdi, Benjamin R.

    2018-03-01

    We use 413 weeks of publicly available Fermi Pass 8 gamma-ray data combined with recently developed galaxy group catalogs to search for evidence of dark matter annihilation in extragalactic halos. In our study, we use luminosity-based mass estimates and mass-to-concentration relations to infer the J factors and associated uncertainties for hundreds of galaxy groups within a redshift range z ≲0.03 . We employ a conservative substructure boost factor model, which only enhances the sensitivity by an O (1 ) factor. No significant evidence for dark matter annihilation is found, and we exclude thermal relic cross sections for dark matter masses below ˜30 GeV to 95% confidence in the b b ¯ annihilation channel. These bounds are comparable to those from Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies. The results of our analysis increase the tension but do not rule out the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center excess. We provide a catalog of the galaxy groups used in this study and their inferred properties, which can be broadly applied to searches for extragalactic dark matter.

  9. Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Galaxy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Rodd, Nicholas L; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2018-03-09

    We use 413 weeks of publicly available Fermi Pass 8 gamma-ray data combined with recently developed galaxy group catalogs to search for evidence of dark matter annihilation in extragalactic halos. In our study, we use luminosity-based mass estimates and mass-to-concentration relations to infer the J factors and associated uncertainties for hundreds of galaxy groups within a redshift range z≲0.03. We employ a conservative substructure boost factor model, which only enhances the sensitivity by an O(1) factor. No significant evidence for dark matter annihilation is found, and we exclude thermal relic cross sections for dark matter masses below ∼30  GeV to 95% confidence in the bb[over ¯] annihilation channel. These bounds are comparable to those from Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies. The results of our analysis increase the tension but do not rule out the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center excess. We provide a catalog of the galaxy groups used in this study and their inferred properties, which can be broadly applied to searches for extragalactic dark matter.

  10. Integrated HI emission in galaxy groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Mei; Zhu, Ming; Fu, Jian

    2017-09-01

    The integrated HI emission from hierarchical structures such as groups and clusters of galaxies can be detected by FAST at intermediate redshifts. Here we propose to use FAST to study the evolution of the global HI content of clusters and groups over cosmic time by measuring their integrated HI emissions. We use the Virgo Cluster as an example to estimate the detection limit of FAST, and have estimated the integration time to detect a Virgo type cluster at different redshifts (from z = 0.1 to z = 1.5).We have also employed a semi-analytic model (SAM) to simulate the evolution of HI contents in galaxy clusters. Our simulations suggest that the HI mass of a Virgo-like cluster could be 2-3 times higher and the physical size could be more than 50% smaller when redshift increases from z = 0.3 to z = 1. Thus the integration time could be reduced significantly and gas rich clusters at intermediate redshifts can be detected by FAST in less than 2 hours of integration time. For the local Universe, we have also used SAM simulations to create mock catalogs of clusters to predict the outcomes from FAST all sky surveys. Comparing with the optically selected catalogs derived by cross matching the galaxy catalogs from the SDSS survey and the ALFALFA survey, we find that the HI mass distribution of the mock catalog with 20 s of integration time agrees well with that of observations. However, the mock catalog with 120 s of integration time predicts many more groups and clusters that contain a population of low mass HI galaxies not detected by the ALFALFA survey. A future deep HI blind sky survey with FAST would be able to test such prediction and set constraints on the numerical simulation models. The observational strategy and sample selections for future FAST observations of galaxy clusters at high redshifts are also discussed.

  11. H I debris in the IC 1459 galaxy group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Juliana; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Benaglia, Paula; Fernández López, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    We present H I synthesis imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy IC 1459 and its surroundings with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Our search for extended H I emission revealed a large complex of H I clouds near IC 1459, likely to be the debris from tidal interactions with neighbouring galaxies. The total H I mass (∼109 M⊙) in the detected clouds spans 250 kpc from the north-east of the gas-rich spiral NGC 7418A to the south-east of IC 1459. The extent and mass of the H I debris, which shows rather irregular morphology and kinematics, are similar to those in other nearby groups. Together with H I clouds recently detected near two other IC 1459 group members, namely IC 5270 and NGC 7418, using phased-array feeds on the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, the detected debris make up a significant fraction of the group's intergalactic medium.

  12. Probing satellite galaxies in the Local Group by using FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, You-Gang; Kong, Min-Zhi; Wang, Jie; Chen, Xuelei; Guo, Rui

    2018-01-01

    The abundance of neutral hydrogen (HI) in satellite galaxies in the local group is important for studying the formation history of our local group. In this work, we generated mock HI satellite galaxies in the Local Group using the high mass-resolution hydrodynamic APOSTLE simulation. The simulated HI mass function agrees with the ALFALFA survey very well above 106 M ⊙, although there is a discrepancy below this scale because of the observed flux limit. After carefully checking various systematic elements in the observations, including fitting of line width, sky coverage, integration time and frequency drift due to uncertainty in a galaxy’s distance, we predicted the abundance of HI in galaxies in a future survey that will be conducted by FAST. FAST has a larger aperture and higher sensitivity than the Arecibo telescope. We found that the HI mass function could be estimated well around 105 M ⊙ if the integration time is 40 minutes. Our results indicate that there are 61 HI satellites in the Local Group and 36 in the FAST field above 105 M ⊙. This estimation is one order of magnitude better than the current data, and will put a strong constraint on the formation history of the Local Group. Also more high resolution simulated samples are needed to achieve this target.

  13. Star Formation in Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Haynes, Martha P.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Troischt, Parker; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) Groups project is a coordinated study of gas and star formation properties of galaxies in and around 36 nearby (zALFALFA HI observations, optical observations, and digital databases like SDSS, and incorporates work undertaken by faculty and students at different institutions within the UAT. Here we present results from our wide area Hα and broadband R imaging project carried out with the WIYN 0.9m+MOSAIC/HDI at KPNO, including an analysis of radial star formation rates and extents of galaxies in the NGC 5846, Abell 779, NRGb331, and HCG 69 groups/clusters. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  14. Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...

  15. The origin of the galaxy and local group

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the updated and expanded lecture notes of the 37th Saas-Fee Advanced Course organised by the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. It offers the most comprehensive and up to date review of one of the hottest research topics in astrophysics - how our Milky Way galaxy formed. Joss Bland-Hawthorn & Ken Freeman lectured on Near Field Cosmology - The Origin of the Galaxy and the Local Group. Francesca Matteucci’s chapter is on Chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its Satellites. As designed by the SSAA, books in this series – and this one too – are targeted at graduate and PhD students and young researchers in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Lecturers and researchers entering the field will also benefit from the book.

  16. Ultra-faint dwarfs: The living fossils of the first galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania

    The nature of the faintest dwarf galaxies and their connection with the recently discovered very metal-poor Damped Lyα Absorption systems (DLAs) is investigate in the context of the Milky Way formation. By using a cosmological model I will discuss the theoretical implications of the observed

  17. FOSSIL EVIDENCE FOR THE TWO-PHASE FORMATION OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Song [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [Giant Magellan Telescope Organization, 251 South Lake Avenue, Suite 300, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Li Zhaoyu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) have undergone dramatic structural evolution over the last 10 Gyr. A companion paper shows that nearby elliptical galaxies with M{sub *} {>=} 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} generically contain three photometric subcomponents: a compact inner component with effective radius R{sub e} {approx}< 1 kpc, an intermediate-scale middle component with R{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 kpc, and an extended outer envelope with R{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 10 kpc. Here we attempt to relate these substructures with the properties of ETGs observed at higher redshifts. We find that a hypothetical structure formed from combining the inner and middle components of local ellipticals follows a strikingly tight stellar mass-size relation, one that resembles the distribution of ETGs at z Almost-Equal-To 1. Outside of the central kpc, the median stellar mass surface density profiles of this composite structure agree closest with those of massive galaxies that have similar cumulative number density at 1.5 < z < 2.0 within the uncertainty. We propose that the central substructures in nearby ellipticals are the evolutionary descendants of the ''red nuggets'' formed under highly dissipative (''wet'') conditions at high redshifts, as envisioned in the initial stages of the two-phase formation scenario recently advocated for massive galaxies. Subsequent accretion, plausibly through dissipationless (''dry'') minor mergers, builds the outer regions of the galaxy identified as the outer envelope in our decomposition. The large scatter exhibited by this component on the stellar mass-size plane testifies to the stochastic nature of the accretion events.

  18. Groups of galaxies. III. the CfA survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    We present a statistically homogeneous group catalog (CfA) based on the CfA redshift survey (Huchra et al.). Groups in the catalog are all density enhancements in redshift space of a factor greater than 20. Group members are identified according to the procedure described in our previous study (Huchra and Geller) of a shallower whole-sky sample. All groups contain at least three members. Of the 176 groups in the CfA catalog, 102 have been identified in one or more previous studies. Because our algorithm searches for volume rather than surface density enhancements, the groups in a given region generally change only through the addition of fainter members when the magnitude limit of the galaxy catalog increases. In the region of overlap, agreement between our shallow catalog and the CfA catalog is excellent

  19. Evidence for AGN Feedback in Galaxy Clusters and Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Gitti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of flagship X-ray missions, Chandra and XMM-Newton, has changed our understanding of the so-called “cool-core” galaxy clusters and groups. Instead of the initial idea that the thermal gas is cooling and flowing toward the center, the new picture envisages a complex dynamical evolution of the intracluster medium (ICM regulated by the radiative cooling and the nongravitational heating from the active galactic nucleus (AGN. Understanding the physics of the hot gas and its interplay with the relativistic plasma ejected by the AGN is key for understanding the growth and evolution of galaxies and their central black holes, the history of star formation, and the formation of large-scale structures. It has thus become clear that the feedback from the central black hole must be taken into account in any model of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we draw a qualitative picture of the current knowledge of the effects of the AGN feedback on the ICM by summarizing the recent results in this field.

  20. THE FOSSIL RECORD OF TWO-PHASE GALAXY ASSEMBLY: KINEMATICS AND METALLICITIES IN THE NEAREST S0 GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Chomiuk, Laura; Strader, Jay; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Benson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a global analysis of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging from Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope, and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs) obtained using Keck-DEIMOS/LRIS and Magellan-IMACS. Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly (v/σ ∼> 1.5). At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically to v/σ ∼ 0.7, but remains well aligned with the inner regions. The radial decrease in characteristic metallicity of both the metal-rich and metal-poor GC subpopulations produces strong gradients with power-law slopes of -0.17 ± 0.04 and -0.38 ± 0.06 dex dex -1 , respectively. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers with typical mass ratios of ∼15-20:1.

  1. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  2. Environments of galaxies in groups within the supercluster-void network

    OpenAIRE

    Lietzen, Heidi; Tempel, Elmo; Heinämäki, Pekka; Nurmi, Pasi; Einasto, Maret; Saar, Enn

    2012-01-01

    Majority of all galaxies reside in groups of less than 50 member galaxies. These groups are distributed in various large-scale environments from voids to superclusters. Evolution of galaxies is affected by the environment in which they reside. Our aim is to study the effects that the local group scale and the supercluster scale environment have on galaxies. We use a luminosity-density field to determine density of the large-scale environment of galaxies in groups of various richness. We calcu...

  3. Investigating the cores of fossil systems with Chandra

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, V.; Reiprich, T. H.; Sanders, J. S.; Schellenberger, G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cores of fossil galaxy groups and clusters (`fossil systems') using archival Chandra data for a sample of 17 fossil systems. We determined the cool-core fraction for fossils via three observable diagnostics, the central cooling time, cuspiness, and concentration parameter. We quantified the dynamical state of the fossils by the X-ray peak/brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the X-ray peak/emission weighted centre separations. We studied the X-ray emission coincident with th...

  4. The H ${\\rm\\tiny I} $ Content of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The H I content of galaxies in the Eridanus group is studied using the GMRT observations and the HIPASS data. A significant H I ... Furthermore, galaxies with larger optical diameters are predominantly in the lower galaxy density regions. ... Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080, India. Present ...

  5. Searching for diffuse light in the M96 galaxy group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Aaron E.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Feldmeier, John J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    We present deep, wide-field imaging of the M96 galaxy group (also known as the Leo I Group). Down to surface brightness limits of μ{sub B} = 30.1 and μ{sub V} = 29.5, we find no diffuse, large-scale optical counterpart to the 'Leo Ring', an extended H I ring surrounding the central elliptical M105 (NGC 3379). However, we do find a number of extremely low surface brightness (μ{sub B} ≳ 29) small-scale streamlike features, possibly tidal in origin, two of which may be associated with the Ring. In addition, we present detailed surface photometry of each of the group's most massive members—M105, NGC 3384, M96 (NGC 3368), and M95 (NGC 3351)—out to large radius and low surface brightness, where we search for signatures of interaction and accretion events. We find that the outer isophotes of both M105 and M95 appear almost completely undisturbed, in contrast to NGC 3384 which shows a system of diffuse shells indicative of a recent minor merger. We also find photometric evidence that M96 is accreting gas from the H I ring, in agreement with H I data. In general, however, interaction signatures in the M96 Group are extremely subtle for a group environment, and provide some tension with interaction scenarios for the formation of the Leo H I Ring. The lack of a significant component of diffuse intragroup starlight in the M96 Group is consistent with its status as a loose galaxy group in which encounters are relatively mild and infrequent.

  6. MID-INFRARED EVIDENCE FOR ACCELERATED EVOLUTION IN COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hibbard, John E.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Charlton, Jane C.; Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Compact galaxy groups are at the extremes of the group environment, with high number densities and low velocity dispersions that likely affect member galaxy evolution. To explore the impact of this environment in detail, we examine the distribution in the mid-infrared (MIR) 3.6-8.0 μm color space of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) in comparison with several control samples, including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are strongly bimodal, with statistically significant evidence for a gap in their distribution. In contrast, none of the other samples show such a marked gap, and only galaxies in the Coma infall region have a distribution that is statistically consistent with the HCGs in this parameter space. To further investigate the cause of the HCG gap, we compare the galaxy morphologies of the HCG and LVL+SINGS galaxies, and also probe the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the HCG galaxies. While galaxy morphology in HCG galaxies is strongly linked to position with MIR color space, the more fundamental property appears to be the SSFR, or star formation rate normalized by stellar mass. We conclude that the unusual MIR color distribution of HCG galaxies is a direct product of their environment, which is most similar to that of the Coma infall region. In both cases, galaxy densities are high, but gas has not been fully processed or stripped. We speculate that the compact group environment fosters accelerated evolution of galaxies from star-forming and neutral gas-rich to quiescent and neutral gas-poor, leaving few members in the MIR gap at any time.

  7. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H.; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10 13 -10 14 M ☉ and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M * /M ☉ ) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  8. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  9. BRIGHTEST SATELLITE GALAXY ALIGNMENT OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GALAXY GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhigang; Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yang Xiaohu [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xie Lizhi [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xin, E-mail: zgli@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: wangygcluster@gmail.com, E-mail: xuelei@cosmology.bao.ac.cn, E-mail: lzxie@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: xhyang@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: wangxin@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We study the alignment signal between the distribution of the brightest satellite galaxies (BSGs) and the major axes of their host groups using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog constructed by Yang et al. After correcting for the effect of group ellipticity, a statistically significant ({approx}5{sigma}) major-axis alignment is detected and the alignment angle is found to be 43. Degree-Sign 0 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 4. More massive and richer groups show a stronger BSG alignment. The BSG alignment around blue brightest central galaxies (BCGs) is slightly stronger than that around red BCGs. Red BSGs have a much stronger major-axis alignment than blue BSGs. Unlike BSGs, other satellites do not show very significant alignment with their group's major axis. We further explore BSG alignment using the semi-analytic model (SAM) constructed by Guo et al. In general, we found good agreement of the model with observations: BSGs in the SAM show a strong major-axis alignment that depends on group mass and richness in the same way as in observations and none of the other satellites exhibit prominent alignment. However, a discrepancy also exists in that the SAM shows a BSG color dependence opposite of that in observations, which is most probably induced by a missing large-scale environment ingredient in the SAM. The combination of two popular scenarios can explain the BSG alignment we detected. First, satellites merged into the group along the surrounding filaments, which are strongly aligned with the major axis of the group. Second, BSGs entered their host group more recently than other satellites, so they have preserved more information about their assembling history and major-axis alignment. In the SAM, we found positive evidence for the second scenario in the fact that BSGs merged into groups statistically more recently than other satellites. We also found that most of the BSGs (80%) were BCGs before they merged into groups and earlier merging BSGs tend to be

  10. Brightest Satellite Galaxy Alignment of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Yougang; Yang, Xiaohu; Chen, Xuelei; Xie, Lizhi; Wang, Xin

    2013-05-01

    We study the alignment signal between the distribution of the brightest satellite galaxies (BSGs) and the major axes of their host groups using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog constructed by Yang et al. After correcting for the effect of group ellipticity, a statistically significant (~5σ) major-axis alignment is detected and the alignment angle is found to be 43.°0 ± 0.°4. More massive and richer groups show a stronger BSG alignment. The BSG alignment around blue brightest central galaxies (BCGs) is slightly stronger than that around red BCGs. Red BSGs have a much stronger major-axis alignment than blue BSGs. Unlike BSGs, other satellites do not show very significant alignment with their group's major axis. We further explore BSG alignment using the semi-analytic model (SAM) constructed by Guo et al. In general, we found good agreement of the model with observations: BSGs in the SAM show a strong major-axis alignment that depends on group mass and richness in the same way as in observations and none of the other satellites exhibit prominent alignment. However, a discrepancy also exists in that the SAM shows a BSG color dependence opposite of that in observations, which is most probably induced by a missing large-scale environment ingredient in the SAM. The combination of two popular scenarios can explain the BSG alignment we detected. First, satellites merged into the group along the surrounding filaments, which are strongly aligned with the major axis of the group. Second, BSGs entered their host group more recently than other satellites, so they have preserved more information about their assembling history and major-axis alignment. In the SAM, we found positive evidence for the second scenario in the fact that BSGs merged into groups statistically more recently than other satellites. We also found that most of the BSGs (80%) were BCGs before they merged into groups and earlier merging BSGs tend to be closer to their BCGs than other BSGs. On the

  11. A multi-wavelength analysis of Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study on the impact of the environment of compact galaxy groups on the evolution of their members using a multi-wavelength analysis, from the UV to the infrared, for a sample of 32 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) containing 135 galaxies. Fitting the SEDs of all galaxies with the state-of-the-art model of da Cunha (2008) we can accurately calculate their mass, SFR, and extinction, as well as estimate their infrared luminosity and dust content. We compare our findings with samples of field galaxies, early-stage interacting pairs, and cluster galaxies with similar data. We find that classifying the groups as dynamically "old" or "young", depending on whether or not at least one quarter of their members are early-type systems, is physical and consistent with past classifications of HCGs based on their atomic gas content. Dynamically "old" groups are more compact and display higher velocity dispersions than "young" groups. Late-type galaxies in dynamically "young" groups have specific star formation rates (sSFRs), NUV-r, and mid-infrared colors which are similar to those of field and early stage interacting pair spirals. Late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups have redder NUV-r colors, as they have likely experienced several tidal encounters in the past building up their stellar mass, and display lower sSFRs. We identify several late-type galaxies which have sSFRs and colors similar to those of elliptical galaxies, since they lost part of their gas due to numerous interactions with other group members. Also, 25% of the elliptical galaxies in these groups have bluer UV/optical colors than normal ellipticals in the field, probably due to star formation as they accreted gas from other galaxies of the group, or via merging of dwarf companions. Finally, our SED modeling suggests that in 13 groups, 10 of which are dynamically "old", there is diffuse cold dust in the intragroup medium. All this evidence point to an evolutionary scenario in which

  12. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkic, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Cardiff, Ann H.; Durell, Pat R.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 m photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 m photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-red), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-blue) have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M yr1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  13. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  14. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  15. GMRT Hv Observations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... ... curves are presented. The velocity fields are analysed separately for the approaching and the receding sides of the galaxies. These data will be used to study the H I and the radio continuum properties, the Tully–Fisher relations, the dark matter halos, and the kinematical and H I lopsidedness in galaxies.

  16. Understanding `galaxy groups' as a unique structure in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; John, R. S.; Gupta, P.; Kumar, H.

    2017-10-01

    'Galaxy groups' have hardly been realized as a separate class of objects with specific characteristics in the structural hierarchy. The presumption that the self-similarity of dark matter structures is a valid prescription for the baryonic universe at all scales has rendered smaller structures undetectable by current observational facilities, leading to lesser dedicated studies on them. Some recent reports that indicate a deviation from LX-T scaling in groups compared to clusters have motivated us to study their physical properties in depth. In this article, we report the extensive study on physical properties of groups in comparison to the clusters through cosmological hydrodynamic plus N-body simulations using enzo 2.2 code. As additional physics, radiative cooling, heating due to supernova and star motions, star formation and stellar feedback have been implemented. We have produced a mock sample of 362 objects with mass ranging from 5 × 1012 M⊙ to 2.5 × 1015 M⊙. Strikingly, we have found that objects with mass below ˜8 × 1013 M⊙ do not follow any of the cluster self-similar laws in hydrostatics, not even in thermal and non-thermal energies. Two distinct scaling laws are observed to be followed with breaks at ˜8 × 1013 M⊙ for mass, ˜1 keV for temperature and ˜1 Mpc for radius. This places groups as a distinct entity in the hierarchical structures, well demarcated from clusters. This study reveals that groups are mostly far away from virialization, suggesting the need for formulating new models for deciphering their physical parameters. They are also shown to have high turbulence and more non-thermal energy stored, indicating better visibility in the non-thermal regime.

  17. Understanding 'Galaxy Groups' as a Unique Structure in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Reju Sam; Paul, Surajit; Gupta, Prateek; Kumar, Harish

    2017-07-01

    'Galaxy groups' have hardly been realized as a separate class of objects with specific characteristics in the structural hierarchy of the universe. The presumption that the self-similarity of dark matter structures is a valid prescription for the baryonic universe also at all scales has rendered smaller structures undetectable by current observational facilities, leading to lesser dedicated studies on them. Some recent reports on deviation of {L_x}-T scaling in groups from that of clusters have motivated us to study their physical properties in depth. In this article, we report the extensive study on physical properties of groups in comparison with clusters through cosmological hydrodynamic plus N-body simulations using ENZO 2.2 code. We have included cooling and heating physics and star formation feedback in the simulation. And produced a mock sample of 362 objects with mass ranging from 5×10^{12} M_{⊙} to 2.5×10^{15} M_{⊙}. Strikingly, we have found that objects with a mass below ˜ 8×10^{13} M_{⊙} do not follow any of the cluster self-similar laws in hydrostatics, not even in thermal and non-thermal regimes. Two distinct scaling laws are observed to be followed with breaks at ˜ 6-8× 10^{13} M_{⊙} for mass, ˜1 keV for temperature and ˜1 Mpc for radius. This places groups as a distinct entity in the hierarchical structures, well demarcated from clusters. This study reveals that groups are mostly far away from virialization, suggesting the need for formulating new models for deciphering their physical parameters. They are also shown to have high turbulence and more non-thermal energy stored, indicating better visibility in the non-thermal regime.

  18. Stellar population gradients in isolated, local group dwarf galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo S.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the detailed star formation as a function of radius that we have derived for the LCID galaxies, with particular emphasis on the stellar populations gradient and the effect of the UV-background.

  19. The masses of satellites in GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Brouwer, Margot; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Baldry, Ivan; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Grado, Aniello; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Kuijken, Konrad; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2015-01-01

    We use the first 100 deg2 of overlap between the Kilo-Degree Survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey to determine the average galaxy halo mass of ˜10 000 spectroscopically confirmed satellite galaxies in massive (M > 1013 h-1 M⊙) galaxy groups. Separating the sample as a function of projected

  20. A KiDS weak lensing analysis of assembly bias in GAMA galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornik, Andrej; Cacciato, Marcello; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo; Hoekstra, Henk; Nakajima, Reiko; van Uitert, Edo; Brouwer, Margot; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Farrow, Daniel J.; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; McFarland, John; Norberg, Peder; Schneider, Peter; Sifón, Cristóbal; Valentijn, Edwin; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-07-01

    We investigate possible signatures of halo assembly bias for spectroscopically selected galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey using weak lensing measurements from the spatially overlapping regions of the deeper, high-imaging-quality photometric Kilo-Degree Survey. We use GAMA groups with an apparent richness larger than 4 to identify samples with comparable mean host halo masses but with a different radial distribution of satellite galaxies, which is a proxy for the formation time of the haloes. We measure the weak lensing signal for groups with a steeper than average and with a shallower than average satellite distribution and find no sign of halo assembly bias, with the bias ratio of 0.85^{+0.37}_{-0.25}, which is consistent with the Λ cold dark matter prediction. Our galaxy groups have typical masses of 1013 M⊙ h-1, naturally complementing previous studies of halo assembly bias on galaxy cluster scales.

  1. The environmental history of group and cluster galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Weinmann, Simone; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We use publicly available galaxy merger trees, obtained applying semi-analytic techniques to a large high-resolution cosmological simulation, to study the environmental history of group and cluster galaxies. Our results highlight the existence of an intrinsic history bias which makes the nature versus nurture (as well as the mass versus environment) debate inherently ill posed. In particular, we show that (i) surviving massive satellites were accreted later than their less massive counterparts, from more massive haloes and (ii) the mixing of galaxy populations is incomplete during halo assembly, which creates a correlation between the time a galaxy becomes satellite and its present distance from the parent halo centre. The weakest trends are found for the most massive satellites, as a result of efficient dynamical friction and late formation times of massive haloes. A large fraction of the most massive group/cluster members are accreted on to the main progenitor of the final halo as central galaxies, while about half of the galaxies with low and intermediate stellar masses are accreted as satellites. Large fractions of group and cluster galaxies (in particular those of low stellar mass) have therefore been ‘pre-processed’ as satellites of groups with mass ˜1013 M⊙. To quantify the relevance of hierarchical structure growth on the observed environmental trends, we have considered observational estimates of the passive galaxy fractions and their variation as a function of halo mass and clustercentric distance. Comparisons with our theoretical predictions require relatively long times (˜5-7 Gyr) for the suppression of star formation in group and cluster satellites. It is unclear how such a gentle mode of strangulation can be achieved by simply relaxing the assumption of instantaneous stripping of the hot gas reservoir associated with accreting galaxies, or if the difficulties encountered by recent galaxy formation models in reproducing the observed trends

  2. Properties of simulated Milky Way-mass galaxies in loose group and field environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C. G.; Gibson, B. K.; Courty, S.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Brook, C. B.; Stinson, G. S.

    2012-11-01

    Aims: We test the validity of comparing simulated field disk galaxies with the empirical properties of systems situated within environments more comparable to loose groups, including the Milky Way's Local Group. Methods: Cosmological simulations of Milky Way-mass galaxies have been realised in two different environment samples: in the field and in loose groups environments with similar properties to the Local Group. Apart from the differing environments of the galaxies, the samples are kept as homogeneous as possible with equivalent ranges in last major merger time, halo mass and halo spin. Comparison of these two samples allow for systematic differences in the simulations to be identified. A kinematic decomposition is employed to objectively quantify the spheroid-to-disk ratio and to isolate the disk-star population. Metallicity gradients, disk scale lengths, colours, magnitudes and age-velocity dispersion relations are studied for each galaxy in the suite and the strength of the link between these and environment of the galaxies is studied. Results: Metallicity gradients are consistent with observations of HII regions in spiral galaxies and, in agreement with observations, correlate with total galaxy mass. The bulge-to-disk ratio of the galaxies show that these galaxies are less spheroid dominated than many other simulated galaxies in literature with the majority of both samples being disk dominated. We find that secular evolution and mergers dominate the spread of morphologies and metallicity gradients with no visible differences between the two environment samples. In contrast with this consistency in the two samples there is tentative evidence for a systematic difference in the velocity dispersion-age relations of galaxies in the different environments. Loose group galaxies appear to have more discrete steps in their velocity dispersion-age relations, if this is true it suggests that impulsive heating is more efficient in the stars of galaxies in denser

  3. Constraints on the dynamical evolution of the galaxy group M81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehm, W.; Thies, I.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-05-01

    According to the standard model of cosmology, galaxies are embedded in dark matter haloes that are made of particles beyond the standard model of particle physics, thus extending the mass and the size of the visible baryonic matter by typically two orders of magnitude. The observed gas distribution throughout the nearby M81 group of galaxies shows evidence for past significant galaxy-galaxy interactions but without a merger between the present-day members having occurred. This group is here studied for possible dynamical solutions within the dark matter standard model. In order to cover a comprehensive set of initial conditions, the inner three core members M81, M82 and NGC 3077 are treated as a three-body model based on Navarro-Frenk-White profiles. The possible orbits of these galaxies are examined statistically taking into account dynamical friction. Long living, non-merging initial constellations that allow multiple galaxy-galaxy encounters comprise unbound galaxies only, which are arriving from a far distance and happen to simultaneously encounter each other within the recent 500 Myr. Our results are derived by the employment of two separate and independent statistical methods, namely a Markov chain Monte Carlo method and the genetic algorithm using the sap system environment. The conclusions reached are confirmed by high-resolution simulations of live self-consistent systems (N-body calculations). Given the observed positions of the three galaxies, the solutions found comprise predictions for their proper motions.

  4. Lost but not forgotten: intracluster light in galaxy groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Tahlia; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zabludoff, Ann; Zaritsky, Dennis; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Mulchaey, John S.

    2018-03-01

    With Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we investigate the progenitor population and formation mechanisms of the intracluster light (ICL) for 23 galaxy groups and clusters at 0.29 ≤ z ≤ 0.89. The colour gradients of the BCG+ICL become bluer with increasing radius out to 53-100 kpc for all but one system, suggesting that violent relaxation after major mergers with the BCG cannot be the dominant source of ICL. The BCG+ICL luminosities and stellar masses are too large for the ICL stars to come from the dissolution of dwarf galaxies alone, given the observed evolution of the faint end of the cluster galaxy luminosity function, implying instead that the ICL grows from the stripping of more massive galaxies. Using the colours of cluster members from the CLASH high-mass sample, we place conservative lower limits on the luminosities of galaxies from which the ICL at r galaxies with L > 0.2 L* (log(M★ [M⊙])>10.4), assuming conservatively that these galaxies are completely disrupted. We conclude that the tidal stripping of massive galaxies is the likely source of the intracluster light from 10 to 100 kpc for galaxy groups and clusters.

  5. SHAM beyond clustering: new tests of galaxy–halo abundance matching with galaxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-27

    We construct mock catalogs of galaxy groups using subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) and undertake several new tests of the SHAM prescription for the galaxy-dark matter connection. All SHAM models we studied exhibit significant tension with galaxy groups observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The SHAM prediction for the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) is systematically too dim, and the group galaxy LF systematically too bright, regardless of the details of the SHAM prescription. SHAM models connecting r-band luminosity, Mr, to Vacc, the maximum circular velocity of a subhalo at the time of accretion onto the host, faithfully reproduce galaxy group abundance as a function of richness, g(N). However, SHAM models connecting Mr with Vpeak, the peak value of Vmax over the entire merger history of the halo, over-predict galaxy group abundance. Our results suggest that no SHAM model can simultaneously reproduce the observed g(N) and two-point projected galaxy clustering. Nevertheless, we also report a new success of SHAM: an accurate prediction for Phi(m12), the abundance of galaxy groups as a function of magnitude gap m12, defined as the difference between the r-band absolute magnitude of the two brightest group members. We show that it may be possible to use joint measurements of g(N) and Phi(m12) to tightly constrain the details of the SHAM implementation. Additionally, we show that the hypothesis that the luminosity gap is constructed via random draws from a universal LF provides a poor description of the data, contradicting recent claims in the literature. Finally, we test a common assumption of the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) formalism, that the satellite LF need only be conditioned by the brightness of the central galaxy. We find this assumption to be well-supported by the observed Phi(m12).

  6. RADIO GALAXY FEEDBACK IN X-RAY-SELECTED GROUPS FROM COSMOS: THE EFFECT ON THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giodini, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Pierini, D.; Smolcic, V.; Massey, R.; BIrzan, L.; Zamorani, G.; Oklopcic, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Schinnerer, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Thompson, D.

    2010-01-01

    We quantify the importance of the mechanical energy released by radio galaxies inside galaxy groups. We use scaling relations to estimate the mechanical energy released by 16 radio-active galactic nuclei located inside X-ray-detected galaxy groups in the COSMOS field. By comparing this energy output to the host groups' gravitational binding energy, we find that radio galaxies produce sufficient energy to unbind a significant fraction of the intragroup medium. This unbinding effect is negligible in massive galaxy clusters with deeper potential wells. Our results correctly reproduce the breaking of self-similarity observed in the scaling relation between entropy and temperature for galaxy groups.

  7. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [NOAO, 950 Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J., E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  8. Discovery of a group of star-forming dwarf galaxies in A1367

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, S; Kennicutt, RC; van der Hulst, JM; Moss, C

    2002-01-01

    We describe the properties of a remarkable group of actively star-forming dwarf galaxies and H II galaxies in the A1367 cluster, which were discovered in a large-scale Halpha imaging survey of the cluster. Approximately 30 Halpha-emitting knots were identified in a region approximately 150 kpc

  9. X-ray Cavities in Galaxy Groups and Clusters: Central Gas Entropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Observations of X-ray jets and cavities in clusters of galaxies observed by Chandra are briefly reviewed. A recent study on the excess of central gas entropy, which can be considered as direct evidence for AGN feedback in galaxy groups and clusters is presented. An expanded account of this study has been ...

  10. EVOLUTION OF GROUP GALAXIES FROM THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I. H. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Hsieh, B. C. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Gladders, M., E-mail: tli@astro.swin.edu.au, E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: bchsieh@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: gladders@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We study the evolution of the red-galaxy fraction (f{sub red}) in 905 galaxy groups with 0.15 {<=} z < 0.52. The galaxy groups are identified by the 'probability friends-of-friends' algorithm from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1) photometric-redshift sample. There is a high degree of uniformity in the properties of the red sequence of the group galaxies, indicating that the luminous red-sequence galaxies in the groups are already in place by z {approx} 0.5 and that they have a formation epoch of z {approx}> 2. In general, groups at lower redshifts exhibit larger f{sub red} than those at higher redshifts, showing a group Butcher-Oemler effect. We investigate the evolution of f{sub red} by examining its dependence on four parameters, one of which can be classified as intrinsic and three of which can be classified as environmental: galaxy stellar mass (M{sub *}), total group stellar mass (M{sub *,grp}, a proxy for group halo mass), normalized group-centric radius (r{sub grp}), and local galaxy density ({Sigma}{sub 5}). We find that M{sub *} is the dominant parameter such that there is a strong correlation between f{sub red} and galaxy stellar mass. Furthermore, the dependence of f{sub red} on the environmental parameters is also a strong function of M{sub *}. Massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) show little dependence of f{sub red} on r{sub grp}, M{sub *,grp}, and {Sigma}{sub 5} over the redshift range. The dependence of f{sub red} on these parameters is primarily seen for galaxies with lower masses, especially for M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun }. We observe an apparent 'group down-sizing' effect, in that galaxies in lower-mass halos, after controlling for galaxy stellar mass, have lower f{sub red}. We find a dependence of f{sub red} on both r{sub grp} and {Sigma}{sub 5} after the other parameters are controlled. At a fixed r{sub grp}, there is a significant dependence of f{sub red} on {Sigma}{sub 5

  11. Mapping extragalactic dark matter annihilation with galaxy surveys: A systematic study of stacked group searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2018-03-01

    Dark matter in the halos surrounding galaxy groups and clusters can annihilate to high-energy photons. Recent advancements in the construction of galaxy group catalogs provide many thousands of potential extragalactic targets for dark matter. In this paper, we outline a procedure to infer the dark matter signal associated with a given galaxy group. Applying this procedure to a catalog of sources, one can create a full-sky map of the brightest extragalactic dark matter targets in the nearby Universe (z ≲0.03 ), supplementing sources of dark matter annihilation from within the local group. As with searches for dark matter in dwarf galaxies, these extragalactic targets can be stacked together to enhance the signals associated with dark matter. We validate this procedure on mock Fermi gamma-ray data sets using a galaxy catalog constructed from the DarkSky N -body cosmological simulation and demonstrate that the limits are robust, at O (1 ) levels, to systematic uncertainties on halo mass and concentration. We also quantify other sources of systematic uncertainty arising from the analysis and modeling assumptions. Our results suggest that a stacking analysis using galaxy group catalogs provides a powerful opportunity to discover extragalactic dark matter and complements existing studies of Milky Way dwarf galaxies.

  12. The influence of the environment in compact galaxy groups: an infrared perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandaris, V.; Bitsakis, T.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study on the influence of the environment of compact galaxy groups to the evolution of their members using a multi-wavelength analysis, from the UV to the far-IR, on a sample of 32 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) containing 135 galaxies. Fitting the SEDs of all galaxies with the state-of-the-art model of da Cunha et al. (2008) we can accurately calculate their mass, SFR, and extinction, as well as estimate their infrared luminosity and dust content. We contrast our findings with control samples of field galaxies, early-stage interacting pairs, and galaxies in clusters. We find that classifying the evolutionary state of HCGs as dynamically ``old'' or ``young'' depending on whether or not they contain more than 25% or early-type galaxies is physical and consistent with past classifications based on their gas content. Late-type galaxies in dynamically ``young" groups have sSFR, as well as NUV-r and mid-infrared colors, which are similar to those of field and early stage interacting pairs. However, late-type galaxies in dynamically ``old'' groups have redder NUV-r colors, as they have likely experienced several tidal encounters in the past and built up their stellar mass, and they display lower sSFRs. Finally our model suggests that in 13 groups, 10 of which are dynamically ``old``, there is diffuse dust in the intragroup medium. All these evidence point to an evolutionary scenario in which it takes time for the group environment to visibly affect the properties of its members. Early on the influence of close companions to group galaxies is similar to the one of galaxy pairs in the field. However, as the time progresses, the effects of tidal torques and minor merging shape the morphology and star formation history of the group galaxies, leading to an increase of the fraction of early type members and a rapid built up of the stellar mass in the remaining late type galaxies.

  13. Chemical analysis of carbon stars in the local group - l.  The small magnetic cloud and the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laverny...[], P.; Abia, C.; Dominguez, I

    2006-01-01

    Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb.......Stars: abundances, stars: carbon, nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances, galaxies: Local Group Udgivelsesdato: Feb....

  14. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF SEVEN IRREGULAR AND THREE TIDAL DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croxall, Kevin V.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Henry; Miller, Bryan W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Lee, Janice C.; Cote, Stephanie; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    We have derived nebular abundances for 10 dwarf galaxies belonging to the M81 Group, including several galaxies which do not have abundances previously reported in the literature. For each galaxy, multiple H II regions were observed with GMOS-N at the Gemini Observatory in order to determine abundances of several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, neon, and argon). For seven galaxies, at least one H II region had a detection of the temperature sensitive [O III] λ4363 line, allowing a 'direct' determination of the oxygen abundance. No abundance gradients were detected in the targeted galaxies, and the observed oxygen abundances are typically in agreement with the well-known metallicity-luminosity relation. However, three candidate 'tidal dwarf' galaxies lie well off this relation: UGC 5336, Garland, and KDG 61. The nature of these systems suggests that UGC 5336 and Garland are indeed recently formed systems, whereas KDG 61 is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy which lies along the same line of sight as the M81 tidal debris field. We propose that these H II regions formed from previously enriched gas which was stripped from nearby massive galaxies (e.g., NGC 3077 and M81) during a recent tidal interaction.

  15. THE MERGER HISTORY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS, AND DWARF GALAXIES OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Hill, A. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zabludoff, A. I. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Maier, M. L. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, Colina el Pino S/N, La Serena (Chile); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P. O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Maybhate, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); English, J. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN (Canada); Mulchaey, J. S., E-mail: iraklis@astro.psu.edu [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (Hubble Space Telescope), infrared (Spitzer), and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other are two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic H II regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at {approx}1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in HCG 59A by its {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR spectral energy distribution. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  16. The Merger History, AGN and Dwarf Galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hill, A. R.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Charlton, J. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 x 10(exp 13) Stellar Mass), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic HII regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at approx. 1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity AGN in HCG 59A by its approx. 10(exp 40) erg/s X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR SED. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  17. Fossil record of stem groups employed in evaluating the chronogram of insects (Arthropoda: Hexapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Engel, Michael S.; Rafael, José A.; Wu, Hao-yang; Rédei, Dávid; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiao-guang; Bu, Wen-jun

    2016-01-01

    Insecta s. str. (=Ectognatha), comprise the largest and most diversified group of living organisms, accounting for roughly half of the biodiversity on Earth. Understanding insect relationships and the specific time intervals for their episodes of radiation and extinction are critical to any comprehensive perspective on evolutionary events. Although some deeper nodes have been resolved congruently, the complete evolution of insects has remained obscure due to the lack of direct fossil evidence. Besides, various evolutionary phases of insects and the corresponding driving forces of diversification remain to be recognized. In this study, a comprehensive sample of all insect orders was used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and estimate deep divergences. The phylogenetic relationships of insect orders were congruently recovered by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses. A complete timescale of divergences based on an uncorrelated log-normal relaxed clock model was established among all lineages of winged insects. The inferred timescale for various nodes are congruent with major historical events including the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the Late Silurian and earliest Devonian, the radiation of vascular plants in the Devonian, and with the available fossil record of the stem groups to various insect lineages in the Devonian and Carboniferous. PMID:27958352

  18. INTRAGROUP AND GALAXY-LINKED DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Hornschemeier, Ann E. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Johnson, Kelsey E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3813, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zabludoff, Ann I., E-mail: tdesjar@uwo.ca [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 95721 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Isolated compact groups (CGs) of galaxies present a range of dynamical states, group velocity dispersions, and galaxy morphologies with which to study galaxy evolution, particularly the properties of gas both within the galaxies and in the intragroup medium. As part of a large, multiwavelength examination of CGs, we present an archival study of diffuse X-ray emission in a subset of nine Hickson compact groups (HCGs) observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We find that seven of the groups in our sample exhibit detectable diffuse emission. However, unlike large-scale emission in galaxy clusters, the diffuse features in the majority of the detected groups are linked to the individual galaxies, in the form of both plumes and halos likely as a result of vigourous star formation or activity in the galaxy nucleus, as well as in emission from tidal features. Unlike previous studies from earlier X-ray missions, HCGs 31, 42, 59, and 92 are found to be consistent with the L{sub X} -T relationship from clusters within the errors, while HCGs 16 and 31 are consistent with the cluster L{sub X} -{sigma} relation, though this is likely coincidental given that the hot gas in these two systems is largely due to star formation. We find that L{sub X} increases with decreasing group H I to dynamical-mass ratio with tentative evidence for a dependence in X-ray luminosity on H I morphology whereby systems with intragroup H I indicative of strong interactions are considerably more X-ray luminous than passively evolving groups. We also find a gap in the L{sub X} of groups as a function of the total group specific star formation rate. Our findings suggest that the hot gas in these groups is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and these systems are not low-mass analogs of rich groups or clusters, with the possible exception of HCG 62.

  19. A comparative study of frontal bone morphology among Pleistocene hominin fossil groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, Sheela

    2009-12-01

    Features of the frontal bone that are conventionally used to distinguish among fossil hominin groups were quantitatively examined. Fifty-five fossil crania dating from the early to the late Pleistocene were analyzed. Using a modified pantograph, outlines of the frontal bone were collected along the midsagittal and two parasagittal planes. The profile from nasion to bregma, as well as two profiles above the medial and lateral sections of the orbit, respectively, extending from the orbital margin to the coronal suture were traced. The outlines were measured using Elliptical Fourier Function Analysis (EFFA), which enabled a quantification of aspects of the frontal bone that have historically been described primarily in nonmetric or linear terms. Four measurements were obtained: 1) overall morphology as expressed in the Fourier harmonic amplitudes; 2) maximum projection of the supraorbital torus at three points along the browridge (glabella and the medial and lateral aspects of the torus above the orbit); 3) maximum distance of the frontal squama from the frontal chord, capturing forehead curvature; and 4) nasion-bregma chord length. The results indicate that the midsagittal profile is significantly different among all Pleistocene groups in analyses that include both size and shape, as well as size-adjusted data. Homo erectus is significantly different from the late Pleistocene groups (Neandertals and early modern H. sapiens) in glabellar projection. Anatomically modern humans are significantly different from all other groups in both raw and size-standardized analyses of all three outlines that captured overall morphology, as well as forehead curvature and lateral supraorbital torus prominence, and middle Pleistocene Homo are significantly different in both medial and lateral overall parasagittal form. However, for the majority of analyses there were no significant differences among the Pleistocene archaic groups in supraorbital torus projection, frontal squama

  20. Optical observations of M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and Hα filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and Hα filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their Hα emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H® emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  1. A 3D analysis of the metal distribution in the compact group of galaxies HCG 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Flores, Sergio; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Alfaro-Cuello, Mayte; Rodrigo Carrasco, Eleazar; de Mello, Duilia; Amram, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We present new Gemini/GMOS integral field unit observations of the central region of the merging compact group of galaxies HCG 31. Using this data set, we derive the oxygen abundances for the merging galaxies HCG 31A and HCG 31C. We found a smooth metallicity gradient between the nuclei of these galaxies, suggesting a mixing of metals between these objects. These results are confirmed by high-resolution Fabry-Perot data, from which we infer that gas is flowing between HCG 31A and HCG 31C.

  2. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  3. The tree clustering technique and the physical reality of galaxy groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sabry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients is suggested to test how the Hickson compact groups of galaxies (HCGs are really physical groups. The method is applied on groups of 5 members only in Hickson’s catalog.

  4. The tree clustering technique and the physical reality of galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, M. A.; Issa, I. A.; Abdelrahman, H.; Shaker, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients) is suggested to test how the Hickson compact groups of galaxies (HCGs) are really physical groups. The method is applied on groups of 5 members only in Hickson’s catalog.

  5. A Minuet of Galaxies: Hickson Compact Group 87 as Viewed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J.; Hunsberger, S.; Charlton, J.; Hamilton, F.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L.; Levay, Z.; Noll, K.

    2000-05-01

    HCG 87 was selected from 3 visually, and scientifically, intriguing compact groups for HST WFPC2 imaging by members of the public who visited the Hubble Heritage website (http://heritage.stsci.edu) and registered their votes. The HST exposures in four filters (F450W, F555W, F675W and F814W) of the winning target were used to create a color image, released in September 1999 as part of the Hubble Heritage Team's program to provide images for public outreach and education. Along with these data and image, we present a preliminary determination of colors and brightness profiles for the large galaxies in this group. The pair of apparently interacting galaxies each harbour AGN. One is a ``boxy'' spiral with a prominent dust lane and the other a lenticular galaxy. Another group member is a smaller starbursting spiral galaxy. Our goal is to study their stellar populations and examine the influence of active nuclei on star formation histories. In addition, a similar analysis is being performed on all faint, extended objects distributed throughout the group. For those determined to be tidal dwarf galaxies, we plan to appraise the role gravitational instabilities play during their formation. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number GO-07632.01-96A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  6. Fossil wood flora from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India and its climatic and phytogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srikarni, C.

    2018-02-01

    The plant fossil records from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India are far from satisfactory due to remoteness and dense vegetation of the area. We report seven fossil woods of which three belong to the Middle Siwalik (Subansiri Formation), while the rest are from the Upper Siwalik (Kimin Formation). The modern analogues of the fossils from the Middle Siwalik are Lophopetalum littorale (Celastraceae), Afzelia-Intsia and Sindora siamensis (Fabaceae) and from the Upper Siwalik are Miliusa velutina (Annonaceae), Calophyllum tomentosum and Kayea (Calophyllaceae) and Diospyros melanoxylon (Ebenaceae). The dominance of diffuse porosity in the fossil woods indicates a tropical climate with low seasonality (little variation) in temperature, while a high proportion of large vessels and simple perforation plates in the assemblage infer high precipitation during the deposition of the sediments. The aforesaid inference is in strong agreement with the previous quantitative reconstruction based on fossil leaves. Several modern analogues of the fossil taxa are now growing in low latitudes possibly due to an increase in seasonality (increased variation) in temperature caused by the rising Himalaya.

  7. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop…

  8. A KiDS weak lensing analysis of assembly bias in GAMA galaxy groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dvornik, Andrej; Cacciato, Marcello; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo; Hoekstra, Henk; Nakajima, Reiko; van Uitert, Edo; Brouwer, Margot; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Farrow, Daniel J.; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew. M.; McFarland, John; Norberg, Peder; Schneider, Peter; Sifón, Cristóbal; Valentijn, Edwin; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    We investigate possible signatures of halo assembly bias for spectroscopically selected galaxy groups from the GAMA survey using weak lensing measurements from the spatially overlapping regions of the deeper, high-imaging-quality photometric KiDS survey. We use GAMA groups with an apparent richness

  9. NGC 741—Mergers and AGN Feedback on a Galaxy-group Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L.; O’Sullivan, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S. W. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6140 (New Zealand); Raychaudhury, S., E-mail: gerrit.schellenberger@cfa.harvard.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-08-10

    Low-mass galaxy cluster systems and groups will play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies, such as those to be carried out with eROSITA. Though the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes are of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium, they are poorly understood on the galaxy-group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741 that provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly bent jets, a 100-kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas-sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas-stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  10. On the Nature of Compact Groups of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.

    Based on the spectroscopic survey of de Carvalho et al. (1997), we analyse the structural and dynamical properties of 17 Hickson Compact Groups (HCG). This analysis probes a region of 0.5o times 0.5o around each group and shows that most are part of larger structures. Our results also suggest that the Hickson sample is composed of different dynamical stages of the group's evolution. Specifically, we identify three possible evolutionary phases among groups in the sample: loose groups, [core+halo] systems and compact groups, each one presenting a distinct surface density profile. This sequence is consistent with the replenishment scenario for the formation and evolution of compact groups within larger and less dense systems.

  11. State-of-the-art multi-wavelength observations of nearby brightest group/cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron-Marsolais, Marie-Lou; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Nearby galaxy groups and clusters are crucial to our understanding of the impact of nuclear outbursts on the intracluster medium as their proximity allows us to study in detail the processes of feedback from active galactic nuclei in these systems. In this talk, I will present state-of-the-art multi-wavelength observations signatures of this mechanism.I will first show results on multi-configuration 230-470 MHz observations of the Perseus cluster from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, probing the non-thermal emission from the old particle population of the AGN outflows. These observations reveal a multitude of new structures associated with the “mini-halo” and illustrate the high-quality images that can be obtained with the new JVLA at low radio-frequencies.Second, I will present new observations with the optical imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SITELLE (CFHT) of NGC 1275, the Perseus cluster's brightest galaxy. With its wide field of view, it is the only integral field unit spectroscopy instrument able to cover the large emission-line filamentary nebula in NGC 1275. I will present the first detailed velocity map of this nebula in its entirety and tackle the question of its origin (residual cooling flow or dragged gas).Finally, I will present deep Chandra observations of the nearby early-type massive elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, the most optically luminous galaxy in the local Universe, lying on the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. Enhanced X-ray rims around the radio lobes are detected and interpreted as gas uplifted from the core by the buoyant rise of the radio bubbles. We estimate the energy required to lift the gas to constitute a significant fraction of the total outburst energy.I will thus show how these high-fidelity observations of nearby brightest group/cluster galaxies are improving our understanding of the AGN feedback mechanism taking place in galaxy groups and clusters.

  12. Redshift Survey of Galaxies around a Selected Sample of Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; Ribeiro, André L. B.; Capelato, Hugo V.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    We report the results of a spectroscopic survey of faint galaxies in the regions surrounding Hickson compact groups. Our sample is composed of 17 groups within 9000 km s-1. The spectra were taken at the prime focus of the Tololo 4 m telescope, using the ARGUS fiber-fed spectrograph. From these observations, redshifts were determined for the faint galaxies previously identified by de Carvalho, Ribeiro, & Zepf in the surroundings of the groups. Statistical methods were applied to the resultant catalog in order to determine the kinematical structure of each group. This analysis confirms the idea that the Hickson sample of compact groups contains a wide variety of projection and dynamical configurations. Our results demonstrate the necessity of new spectroscopic surveys around compact groups in order to assess their complete velocity distribution.

  13. CLASS B 1359+ 154: Modelling Lensing by a Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The recently discovered gravitationally lensed system CLASS B1359+154 appears to have six detectable images of a single background source at a redshift of 3.235. A group of galaxies acts as the lens, at a redshift of ∼ 1. The present work identifies two distinct, physically plausible image configurations, ...

  14. Weak Lensing Calibrated M-T Scaling Relation of Galaxy Groups in the COSMOS Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J.; Spinelli, P.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10

  15. First description of a fossil chamaeleonid from Greece and its relevance for the European biogeographic history of the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalis, Georgios L; Villa, Andrea; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The fossil record of Chamaeleonidae is very scarce and any new specimen is therefore considered important for our understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the group. New specimens from the early Miocene of Aliveri (Evia Island), Greece constitute the only fossils of these lizards from southeastern Europe. Skull roofing material is tentatively attributed to the Czech species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi, revealing a range extension for this taxon, whereas tooth-bearing elements are described as indeterminate chamaeleonids. The Aliveri fossils rank well among the oldest known reptiles from Greece, provide evidence for the dispersal routes of chameleons out of Africa towards the European continent and, additionally, imply strong affinities with coeval chamaeleonids from Central Europe.

  16. Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, J. A.; Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all of the spectrochemical studies involving Carboniferous foliage of seed-ferns are based on a limited number of pinnules, mainly compressions. In contrast, in this paper we illustrate working with a larger pinnate segment, i.e., a 22-cm long neuropteroid specimen, compression-preserved with cuticle, the compression map. The objective is to study preservation variability on a larger scale, where observation of transparency/opacity of constituent pinnules is used as a first approximation for assessing the degree of pinnule coalification/fossilization. Spectrochemical methods by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry furnish semi-quantitative data for principal component analysis.The compression map shows a high degree of preservation variability, which ranges from comparatively more coalified pinnules to less coalified pinnules that resemble fossilized-cuticles, noting that the pinnule midveins are preserved more like fossilized-cuticles. A general overall trend of coalified pinnules towards fossilized-cuticles, i.e., variable chemistry, is inferred from the semi-quantitative FTIR data as higher contents of aromatic compounds occur in the visually more opaque upper location of the compression map. The latter also shows a higher condensation of the aromatic nuclei along with some variation in both ring size and degree of aromatic substitution. From principal component analysis we infer correspondence between transparency/opacity observation and chemical information which correlate with varying degree to fossilization/coalification among pinnules. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Estimating the Turn-around Radii of Six Isolated Galaxy Groups in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun

    2018-03-01

    Estimates of the turn-around radii of six isolated galaxy groups in the nearby universe are presented. From the Tenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we first select those isolated galaxy groups at redshifts z ≤ 0.05 in the mass range [0.3–1] × {10}14 {h}-1 {M}ȯ whose nearest-neighbor groups are located at distances larger than 15 times their virial radii. Then, we search for a gravitationally interacting web-like structure around each isolated group, which appears as an inclined streak pattern in the anisotropic spatial distribution of the neighboring field galaxies. Out of 59 isolated groups, only seven are found to possess such web-like structures in their neighbor zones, but one of them turns out to be NGC 5353/4, whose turn-around radius was already measured in a previous work and was thus excluded from our analysis. Applying the Turn-around Radius Estimator algorithm devised by Lee et al. to the identified web-like structures of the remaining six target groups, we determine their turn-around radii and show that three out of the six targets have larger turn-around radii than the spherical bound limit predicted by Planck cosmology. We discuss possible sources of the apparent violations of the three groups, including the underestimated spherical bound limit due to the approximation of the turn-around mass by the virial mass.

  18. Observational Test of Environmental Effects on the Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura; Hirashita

    1999-11-01

    In this Letter, we examine whether tidal forces exerted by the Galaxy or M31 have an influence on the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) that are their companions. We focus on the surface brightness profiles of the dSph's, especially their core radii, because it is suggested, based on the numerical simulations, that tidal disturbance can make core radii extended. We examine the correlation for the dSph's between the distances from their parent galaxy (the Galaxy or M31) and the compactnesses of their surface brightness profiles by using a parameter C defined newly in this Letter. Consequently, we find no significant correlation. We make some remarks on the origin of this result by considering three possible scenarios-the tidal picture, the dark matter picture, and the heterogeneity of the group of dSphs-each of which has been often discussed as a way of understanding the fundamental properties and formation processes of dSphs.

  19. Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Santiago de Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; Borissova, Jordanka

    2007-01-01

    For every galaxy in the field or in clusters, there are about three galaxies in groups. The Milky Way itself resides in a group, and groups can be found at high redshift. The current generation of 10-m class telescopes and space facilities allows the observation of the members of nearby groups with exquisite detail, and their properties can be correlated with the global properties of their host group. Groups in the local Universe offer us the chance to study galaxies in environments characterized by strong interactions. In the cosmological context, groups trace large-scale structures better than clusters, and the evolution of groups and clusters appears to be related. All these aspects of research on groups of galaxies are summarized in this book written by scientists working in various fields.

  20. Mass of the Local Group from Proper Motions of Distant Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2010-09-01

    The Local Group and its two dominant spirals, the Milky Way and M31, have become the benchmark for testing many aspects of cosmological and galaxy formation theories, due to many exciting new discoveries in the past decade. However, it is difficult to put results in a proper cosmological context, because our knowledge of the mass M of the Local Group remains uncertain by a factor 4. In units of 10^{12} solar masses, a spherical infall model for the zero-velocity surface gives M 1.3; the sum of estimates for the Milky Way and M31 masses gives M 2.6; and the Local Group Timing argument for the M31 orbit gives M 5.6. It is possible to discriminate between the proposed masses by calculating the orbits of galaxies at the edge of the Local Group, which requires knowledge of transverse velocity components. We therefore propose to use ACS/WFC to determine the proper motions of the 4 dwarf galaxies near the edge of the Local Group {Cetus, Leo A, Tucana, Sag DIG} for which deep first epoch data {with 5-7 year time baselines} already exist in the HST Archive. Our team has extensive expertise with HST astrometric science, and our past/ongoing work for, e.g., Omega Cen, LMC/SMC and M31 show that the necessary astrometric accuracy is within the reach of HST's demonstrated capabilities. We have developed, tested, and published a new technique that uses compact background galaxies as astrometric reference sources, and we have already reduced the first epoch data. The final predicted transverse velocity accuracy, 36 km/s when averaged over the sample, will be sufficient to discriminate between each of the proposed Local Group masses at 2-sigma significance {4-sigma between the most extreme values}. Our project will yield the most accurate Local Group mass determination to date, and only HST can achieve the required accuracy.

  1. Evolution of Star Formation and H I Gas Content in Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, Adam; Hess, K. M.; Wilcots, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen gas (H I) content, star formation histories, and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey α.40 data release allows us to study the H I properties of 742 galaxy groups in the volume of sky common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and ALFALFA surveys. The ALFALFA galaxies have been identified with SDSS optical counterparts and we assigned H I detected objects that fall below the limiting optical magnitude-thereby not contributing substantially to the estimate of the group stellar mass, but significantly to the total group H I mass. We found the gas fraction and the star formation histories as a function of group halo mass to reveal strong evidence for evolution in the gas content and spatial distribution of the high gas fraction members. It is evident that the infall of gas rich objects is important to the continuing growth of large scale structure at the present epoch.

  2. Fossil Hunting: Intracluster Stars in Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eric; Bridge, Carrie; Desai, Vandana; Kenney, Jeffrey; Krick, Jessica; Surace, Jason; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    In dense clusters, galaxy interactions and mergers play a significant role in galaxy evolution. During these interactions, tidal forces can lead to the ejection of stars from their parent galaxies; these stars are a fossil record of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution. We propose to map the

  3. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  4. Investigating the Relation between Galaxy Properties and the Gaussianity of the Velocity Distribution of Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, R. R.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.; Stalder, D. H.; Rosa, R. R.; Costa, A. P.; Moura, T. C.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the dependence of stellar population properties of galaxies on group dynamical stage for a subsample of the Yang catalog. We classify groups according to their galaxy velocity distribution into Gaussian (G) and Non-Gaussian (NG). Using two totally independent approaches, we have shown that our measurement of Gaussianity is robust and reliable. Our sample covers Yang’s groups in the redshift range 0.03 ≤slant z ≤slant 0.1, with mass ≥slant {10}14{M}⊙ . The new method, called Hellinger Distance, to determine whether a group has a velocity distribution Gaussian or NG is very effective in distinguishing between the two families. NG groups present halo masses higher than the G ones, confirming previous findings. Examining the skewness and kurtosis of the velocity distribution of G and NG groups, we find that faint galaxies in NG groups are mainly infalling, for the first time, into the groups. We show that considering only faint galaxies in the outskirts; those in NG groups are older and more metal-rich than those in G groups. Also, examining the Projected Phase Space of cluster galaxies, we see that bright and faint galactic systems in G groups are in dynamical equilibrium—which does not seem to be the case in NG groups. These findings suggest that NG systems have a higher infall rate, assembling more galaxies that have experienced preprocessing before entering the group.

  5. Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Analysis of Spatially-Resolved Star-Formation in Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Rose; Collova, Natasha; Spicer, Sandy; Whalen, Kelly; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, we are conducting a survey of the gas and star-formation properties of galaxies in 36 groups and clusters in the local universe. The galaxies in our sample span a large range of galactic environments, from the centers of galaxy groups and clusters to the surrounding infall regions. One goal of the project is to map the spatial distribution of star-formation; the relative extent of the star-forming and stellar disks provides important information about the internal and external processes that deplete gas and thus drive galaxy evolution. We obtained wide-field H-alpha observations with the WIYN 0.9m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for galaxies in the vicinity of the MKW11 and NRGb004 galaxy groups and the Abell 1367 cluster. We present a preliminary analysis of the relative size of the star-forming and stellar disks as a function of galaxy morphology and local galaxy density, and we calculate gas depletion times using star-formation rates and HI gas mass. We will combine these results with those from other UAT members to determine if and how environmentally-driven gas depletion varies with the mass and X-ray properties of the host group or cluster. This work has supported by NSF grants AST-0847430, AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  6. Gas contents of galaxy groups from thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seunghwan; Mo, Houjun; Li, Ran; Liu, Yue; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Wang, Huiyuan; Yang, Xiaohu

    2017-01-01

    A matched filter technique is applied to the Planck all-sky Compton y-parameter map to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect produced by galaxy groups of different halo masses selected from large redshift surveys in the low-z Universe. Reliable halo mass estimates are available for all the groups, which allows us to bin groups of similar halo masses to investigate how the tSZ effect depends on halo mass over a large mass range. Filters are simultaneously matched for all groups t...

  7. GMRT HI Observations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies A. Omar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 3σ detection limit of HI mass is ∼1.2 × 107 M⊙ for a line-width of 50 km s. −1 . Total HI images, HI velocity fields, global HI line profiles, HI mass surface densi- ties, HI disk .... dynamical connection between the Fornax cluster and the Eridanus group. .... Figure 1. Positions of galaxies in the velocity-cone diagrams.

  8. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON MILKY-WAY-MASS GALAXIES IN A CONSTRAINED SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creasey, Peter; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Yepes, Gustavo [Grupo de Astrofísica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    In this Letter, we present, for the first time, a study of star formation rate (SFR), gas fraction, and galaxy morphology of a constrained simulation of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) galaxies compared to other MW-mass galaxies. By combining with unconstrained simulations, we cover a sufficient volume to compare these galaxies’ environmental densities ranging from the field to that of the Local Group (LG). This is particularly relevant as it has been shown that, quite generally, galaxy properties depend intimately upon their environment, most prominently when galaxies in clusters are compared to those in the field. For galaxies in loose groups such as the LG, however, environmental effects have been less clear. We consider the galaxy’s environmental density in spheres of 1200 kpc (comoving) and find that while environment does not appear to directly affect morphology, there is a positive trend with SFRs. This enhancement in star formation occurs systematically for galaxies in higher density environments, regardless whether they are part of the LG or in filaments. Our simulations suggest that the richer environment at megaparsec scales may help replenish the star-forming gas, allowing higher specific SFRs in galaxies such as the MW.

  9. Model-based monitoring and fault diagnosis of fossil power plant process units using Group Method of Data Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Upadhyaya, Belle R; Coffey, Lonnie A

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents an incipient fault diagnosis approach based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) technique. The GMDH algorithm provides a generic framework for characterizing the interrelationships among a set of process variables of fossil power plant sub-systems and is employed to generate estimates of important variables in a data-driven fashion. In this paper, ridge regression techniques are incorporated into the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator to solve regression coefficients at each layer of the GMDH network. The fault diagnosis method is applied to feedwater heater leak detection with data from an operating coal-fired plant. The results demonstrate the proposed method is capable of providing an early warning to operators when a process fault or an equipment fault occurs in a fossil power plant.

  10. Studying the late evolution of a radio-loud AGN in a galaxy group with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, F.; Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.; Wilber, A.; Harwood, J. J.; Murgia, M.; Shimwell, T.; Rafferty, D.; Shulevski, A.; Brienza, M.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H.; Clarke, A. O.; de Gasperin, F.; van Weeren, R.; Best, P. N.; Botteon, A.; Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.

    2018-03-01

    Feedback by radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in galaxy groups is not fully understood. Open questions include the duty cycle of the AGN, the spatial extent of the radio lobes, the effect they have on the intragroup medium and the fate of the cosmic rays. We present the discovery of a 650 kpc-radio galaxy embedded in steep diffuse emission at z = (0.18793 ± 5) × 10-5 located at the centre of the galaxy group MaxBCG J199.31832+51.72503 using an observation from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) at the central frequency of 144 MHz. Subsequently, we performed a Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope observation at the central frequency of 607 MHz to study the spectral properties of the source. The observations reveal a radio galaxy with a total radio power Ptot, 1.4 ˜ 2.1 × 1024 W Hz-1, exhibiting two asymmetrical jets and lobes. The derived spectral index map shows a steepening towards the inner regions and a steep-spectrum core region. We model the integrated radio spectrum, providing two possible interpretations: the radio source is evolved but still active or it is just at the end of its active phase. Finally, in the same field of view we have discovered Mpc-sized emission surrounding a close pair of AGN located at a redshift z = (0.0587 ± 2) × 10-4 (SDSS J131544.56+521213.2 and SDSS J131543.99+521055.7) which could be a radio remnant source.

  11. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-79-000] Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC; Notice of Complaint...) filed a complaint against PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC, PSEG Fossil LLC and PSEG Power LLC (PSEG...

  12. The satellite galaxy planes of the Milky Way and Andromeda in the context of the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    The satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) are confined to a vast polar structure (VPOS), a thin plane perpendicular to the MW disc. Young halo globular clusters and streams tracing the orbital planes of disrupted systems in the MW halo also align with VPOS. The proper motions of the 11 'classical' MW satellites reveal that most of them co-orbit within the plane. A similar thin plane of co-orbiting satellite galaxies was recently discovered around M31, the only other system for which the three-dimensional distribution of satellite galaxies is known. Motivated by the fact that both major Local Group (LG) galaxies harbor similar satellite planes I investigate the dwarf galaxy distribution in the LG. The non-satellite LG galaxies are found in two thin planes which are strikingly symmetric: both are very thin (50-60 kpc), have diameters of 1-2 Mpc, are parallel to the MW-M31 line and both are only 20 degree inclined relative to the galactic disc of M31. Comparing the dwarf galaxy structures and features in the LG reveals intriguing alignments. The satellite planes around the MW and M31 have the same orbital sense and the most-likely MW-M31 orbit is also prograde with respect to them. Both satellite galaxy planes are almost parallel to the Magellanic Stream, which in addition coincides with one of the non-satellite galaxy structures in projected position and velocity. The over-density of hypervelocity stars in the MW halo also align with the VPOS. Thin, coherently rotating planes of satellite galaxies are not expected in common galaxy formation theories derived from cold dark matter cosmologies. They are, however, naturally produced if the satellite galaxies were born as dark matter free tidal dwarf galaxies in the debris of a galaxy collision. The LG-wide alignments seem to favor this second interpretation, in which the dwarf galaxies would trace the structure of an ancient tidal tail connecting the MW and M31. This realization has severe implications for the current

  13. Modelling chemical abundance distributions for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: the impact of turbulent metal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Ivanna; Wetzel, Andrew; Kirby, Evan N.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Ma, Xiangcheng; Wheeler, Coral; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-02-01

    We investigate stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs), including Fe and α-element abundances, in dwarf galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) project. We examine both isolated dwarf galaxies and those that are satellites of a Milky Way-mass galaxy. In particular, we study the effects of including a sub-grid turbulent model for the diffusion of metals in gas. Simulations that include diffusion have narrower MDFs and abundance ratio distributions, because diffusion drives individual gas and star particles towards the average metallicity. This effect provides significantly better agreement with observed abundance distributions in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, including small intrinsic scatter in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of ≲0.1 dex. This small intrinsic scatter arises in our simulations because the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies is well mixed at nearly all cosmic times, such that stars that form at a given time have similar abundances to ≲0.1 dex. Thus, most of the scatter in abundances at z = 0 arises from redshift evolution and not from instantaneous scatter in the ISM. We find similar MDF widths and intrinsic scatter for satellite and isolated dwarf galaxies, which suggests that environmental effects play a minor role compared with internal chemical evolution in our simulations. Overall, with the inclusion of metal diffusion, our simulations reproduce abundance distribution widths of observed low-mass galaxies, enabling detailed studies of chemical evolution in galaxy formation.

  14. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  15. Tidal stripping and the structure of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu

    2018-02-01

    The shallow faint-end slope of the galaxy mass function is usually reproduced in ΛCDM galaxy formation models by assuming that the fraction of baryons that turns into stars drops steeply with decreasing halo mass and essentially vanishes in haloes with maximum circular velocities Vmax small enough to probe only the rising part of the halo circular velocity curve (i.e., half-mass radii, r1/2 ≪ 1 kpc). Many dwarfs have properties in disagreement with this prediction: they are large enough to probe their halo Vmax but their characteristic velocities are well below 20 km s-1. These `cold faint giants' (an extreme example is the recently discovered Crater 2 Milky Way satellite) can only be reconciled with our ΛCDM models if they are the remnants of once massive objects heavily affected by tidal stripping. We examine this possibility using the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group. Assuming that low velocity dispersion satellites have been affected by stripping, we infer their progenitor masses, radii, and velocity dispersions, and find them in remarkable agreement with those of isolated dwarfs. Tidal stripping also explains the large scatter in the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation in the dwarf galaxy regime: tides remove preferentially dark matter from satellite galaxies, lowering their accelerations below the amin ˜ 10-11 m s-2 minimum expected for isolated dwarfs. In many cases, the resulting velocity dispersions are inconsistent with the predictions from Modified Newtonian Dynamics, a result that poses a possibly insurmountable challenge to that scenario.

  16. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  17. xGASS: gas-rich central galaxies in small groups and their connections to cosmic web gas feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Saintonge, Amélie; Brown, Toby; Wang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We use deep H I observations obtained as part of the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS survey (xGASS) to study the cold gas properties of central galaxies across environments. We find that below stellar masses of 1010.2 M⊙, central galaxies in groups have an average atomic hydrogen gas fraction ˜0.3 dex higher than those in isolation at the same stellar mass. At these stellar masses, group central galaxies are usually found in small groups of N = 2 members. The higher H I content in these low-mass group central galaxies is mirrored by their higher average star formation activity and molecular hydrogen content. At larger stellar masses, this difference disappears and central galaxies in groups have similar (or even smaller) gas reservoirs and star formation activity compared to those in isolation. We discuss possible scenarios able to explain our findings and suggest that the higher gas content in low-mass group central galaxies is likely due to the contributions from the cosmic web or H I-rich minor mergers, which also fuel their enhanced star formation activity.

  18. Galaxy interactions in compact groups - II. Abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Heckman, Timothy M.; Yun, Min S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2015-07-01

    Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star-forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of H II regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star-forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three H II regions harbour an oxygen abundance ˜0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star-forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km s-1 with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. H I observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broad-band optical images from Pan-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System) suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain the origin of the peculiar star-forming regions detected with WiFeS, and show that evidence points towards infalling and collapsing extraplanar gas clouds at the disc-halo interface, possibly as a consequence of long-range gravitational perturbations of HCG 91c from the other group members. As such, HCG 91c provides evidence that some of the perturbations possibly associated with the early phase of galaxy evolution in compact groups impact the star-forming disc locally, and on sub-kpc scales.

  19. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$alpha$ emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  20. Neutral Hydrogen Clouds near Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies of the Local Group

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, A.; Carignan, C.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2006-01-01

    Parkes neutral hydrogen 21 cm line (HI) observations of the surroundings of 9 early-type Local Group dwarfs are presented. We detected numerous HI clouds in the general direction of those dwarfs and these clouds are often offset from the optical center of the galaxies. Although all the observed dwarfs, except Antlia, occupy phase-space regions where the High-Velocity Cloud (HVC) density is well above average, the measured offsets are smaller than one would expect from a fully random cloud dis...

  1. Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and the Star Formation Law at High Redshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedin

    2000-06-01

    I show how the existing observational data on Local Group dwarf galaxies can be used to estimate the average star formation law during the first 3 Gyr of the history of the universe. I find that the observational data are consistent with the orthodox Schmidt law with a star formation efficiency of about 4% if the star formation is continuous (during the first 3 Gyr). The efficiency is proportionally higher if most of the gas in the dwarfs was consumed (and never replenished) in a short time interval well before the universe turned 3 Gyr.

  2. Fossil systems in the 400d cluster catalog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voevodkin, Alexey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Heitmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of seven new fossil systems in the 400d cluster survey. Our search targets nearby, z ≤ 0.2, and X-ray bright, LX ≥ 10^43 erg s-1, clusters of galaxies. Where available, we measure the optical luminosities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, thereby obtaining uniform sets...... of both X-ray and optical data. Our selection criteria identify 12 fossil systems, out of which five are known from previous studies. While in general agreement with earlier results, our larger sample size allows us to put tighter constraints on the number density of fossil clusters. It has been...... previously reported that fossil groups are more X-ray bright than other X-ray groups of galaxies for the same optical luminosity. We find, however, that the X-ray brightness of massive fossil systems is consistent with that of the general population of galaxy clusters and follows the same LX-Lopt scaling...

  3. FOSSIL SYSTEMS IN THE 400d CLUSTER CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodkin, Alexey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Mescheryakov, Alexander; Burenin, Rodion; Hornstrup, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of seven new fossil systems in the 400d cluster survey. Our search targets nearby, z ≤ 0.2, and X-ray bright, L X ≥ 10 43 erg s -1 , clusters of galaxies. Where available, we measure the optical luminosities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, thereby obtaining uniform sets of both X-ray and optical data. Our selection criteria identify 12 fossil systems, out of which five are known from previous studies. While in general agreement with earlier results, our larger sample size allows us to put tighter constraints on the number density of fossil clusters. It has been previously reported that fossil groups are more X-ray bright than other X-ray groups of galaxies for the same optical luminosity. We find, however, that the X-ray brightness of massive fossil systems is consistent with that of the general population of galaxy clusters and follows the same L X -L opt scaling relation.

  4. Correlation between the Total Gravitating Mass of Groups and Clusters and the Supermassive Black Hole Mass of Brightest Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) residing in the brightest cluster galaxies are over-massive relative to the stellar bulge mass or central stellar velocity dispersion of their host galaxies. As BHs residing at the bottom of the galaxy cluster’s potential well may undergo physical processes that are driven by the large-scale characteristics of the galaxy clusters, it is possible that the growth of these BHs is (indirectly) governed by the properties of their host clusters. In this work, we explore the connection between the mass of BHs residing in the brightest group/cluster galaxies (BGGs/BCGs) and the virial temperature, and hence total gravitating mass, of galaxy groups/clusters. To this end, we investigate a sample of 17 BGGs/BCGs with dynamical BH mass measurements and utilize XMM-Newton X-ray observations to measure the virial temperatures and infer the {M}500 mass of the galaxy groups/clusters. We find that the {M}{BH}{--}{kT} relation is significantly tighter and exhibits smaller scatter than the {M}{BH}{--}{M}{bulge} relations. The best-fitting power-law relations are {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ )=0.20+1.74{{log}}10({kT}/1 {keV}) and {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ ) = -0.80+1.72{{log}}10({M}{bulge}/{10}11 {M}ȯ ). Thus, the BH mass of BGGs/BCGs may be set by physical processes that are governed by the properties of the host galaxy group/cluster. These results are confronted with the Horizon-AGN simulation, which reproduces the observed relations well, albeit the simulated relations exhibit notably smaller scatter.

  5. Mergers in galaxy groups. I. Structure and properties of elliptical remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranu, Dan S.; Dubinski, John; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present collisionless simulations of dry mergers in groups of 3 to 25 galaxies to test the hypothesis that elliptical galaxies form at the centers of such groups. Mock observations of the central remnants confirm their similarity to ellipticals, despite having no dissipational component. We vary the profile of the original spiral's bulge and find that ellipticals formed from spirals with exponential bulges have too low Sersic indices. Mergers of spirals with de Vaucouleurs (classical) bulges produce remnants with larger Sersic indices correlated with luminosity, as with Sloan Digital Sky Survey ellipticals. Exponential bulge mergers are better fits to faint ellipticals, whereas classical bulge mergers better match luminous ellipticals. Similarly, luminous ellipticals are better reproduced by remnants undergoing many (>5) mergers, and fainter ellipticals by those with fewer mergers. The remnants follow tight size-luminosity and velocity dispersion-luminosity (Faber-Jackson) relations (<0.12 dex scatter), demonstrating that stochastic merging can produce tight scaling relations if the merging galaxies also follow tight scaling relations. The slopes of the size-luminosity and Faber-Jackson relations are close to observations but slightly shallower in the former case. Both relations' intercepts are offset—remnants are too large but have too low dispersions at fixed luminosity. Some remnants show substantial (v/σ > 0.1) rotational support, although most are slow rotators and few are very fast rotators (v/σ > 0.5). These findings contrast with previous studies concluding that dissipation is necessary to produce ellipticals from binary mergers of spirals. Multiple, mostly minor and dry mergers can produce bright ellipticals, whereas significant dissipation could be required to produce faint, rapidly rotating ellipticals.

  6. Star-Formation Histories, Abundances, and Kinematics of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Hill, Vanessa; Tosi, Monica; Blandford, R; Kormendy, J; VanDishoeck, E

    2009-01-01

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star, and here we review the results of quantitative studies in nearby dwarf galaxies. The color-magnitude diagram synthesis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine star-formation histories of galaxies

  7. The Tully–Fisher Relations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    constant rotation velocity in the outer regions of galaxies is believed to be due to dark matter, and the stellar luminosity directly correlates with the stellar mass, which is the dominant component of the baryonic mass in a galaxy. The cold dark matter mod- els of galaxy formation predict a relation (Mbaryon ∼ V α rot) between ...

  8. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  9. A multi-wavelength study of the evolution of early-type galaxies in groups: the ultraviolet view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Bianchi, L.; Plana, H.; Trinchieri, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Wolter, A.

    2018-04-01

    The ultraviolet-optical colour magnitude diagram of rich galaxy groups is characterised by a well developed Red Sequence, a Blue Cloud and the so-called Green Valley. Loose, less evolved groups of galaxies which are probably not virialised yet may lack a well defined Red Sequence. This is actually explained in the framework of galaxy evolution. We are focussing on understanding galaxy migration towards the Red Sequence, checking for signatures of such a transition in their photometric and morphological properties. We report on the ultraviolet properties of a sample of early-type (ellipticals+S0s) galaxies inhabiting the Red Sequence. The analysis of their structures, as derived by fitting a Sérsic law to their ultraviolet luminosity profiles, suggests the presence of an underlying disk. This is the hallmark of dissipation processes that still must have a role to play in the evolution of this class of galaxies. Smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementations able to match the global properties of our targets are used to derive their evolutionary paths through ultraviolet-optical colour magnitude diagrams, providing some fundamental information such as the crossing time through the Green Valley, which depends on their luminosity. The transition from the Blue Cloud to the Red Sequence takes several Gyrs, being about 3-5 Gyr for the brightest galaxies and longer for fainter ones, if occurring. The photometric study of nearby galaxy structures in the ultraviolet is seriously hampered by either the limited field of view of the cameras (e.g., in Hubble Space Telescope) or by the low spatial resolution of the images (e.g., in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer). Current missions equipped with telescopes and cameras sensitive to ultraviolet wavelengths, such as Swift- UVOT and Astrosat-UVIT, provide a relatively large field of view and a better resolution than the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. More powerful ultraviolet instruments (size, resolution

  10. First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: the stellar mass content of groups and clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillepich, Annalisa; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Torrey, Paul; Weinberger, Rainer; Genel, Shy; Naiman, Jill P.; Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2018-03-01

    The IllustrisTNG project is a new suite of cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation performed with the AREPO code and updated models for feedback physics. Here, we introduce the first two simulations of the series, TNG100 and TNG300, and quantify the stellar mass content of about 4000 massive galaxy groups and clusters (1013 ≤ M200c/M⊙ ≤ 1015) at recent times (z ≤ 1). The richest clusters have half of their total stellar mass bound to satellite galaxies, with the other half being associated with the central galaxy and the diffuse intracluster light. Haloes more massive than about 5 × 1014 M⊙ have more diffuse stellar mass outside 100 kpc than within 100 kpc, with power-law slopes of the radial mass density distribution as shallow as the dark matter's ( - 3.5 ≲ α3D ≲ -3). Total halo mass is a very good predictor of stellar mass, and vice versa: at z = 0, the 3D stellar mass measured within 30 kpc scales as ∝(M500c)0.49 with a ˜0.12 dex scatter. This is possibly too steep in comparison to the available observational constraints, even though the abundance of The Next Generation less-massive galaxies ( ≲ 1011 M⊙ in stars) is in good agreement with the measured galaxy stellar mass functions at recent epochs. The 3D sizes of massive galaxies fall too on a tight (˜0.16 dex scatter) power-law relation with halo mass, with r^stars_0.5 ∝ (M_200c)^{0.53}. Even more fundamentally, halo mass alone is a good predictor for the whole stellar mass profiles beyond the inner few kiloparsecs, and we show how on average these can be precisely recovered given a single-mass measurement of the galaxy or its halo.

  11. Shaken Snow Globes: Kinematic Tracers of the Multiphase Condensation Cascade in Massive Galaxies, Groups, and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, M.; McDonald, M.; Hamer, S. L.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.; Gendron-Marsolais, M.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Edge, A. C.; Werner, N.; Tozzi, P.; Sun, M.; Stone, J. M.; Tremblay, G. R.; Hogan, M. T.; Eckert, D.; Ettori, S.; Yu, H.; Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel method to constrain turbulence and bulk motions in massive galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters, exploring both simulations and observations. As emerged in the recent picture of top-down multiphase condensation, hot gaseous halos are tightly linked to all other phases in terms of cospatiality and thermodynamics. While hot halos (∼107 K) are perturbed by subsonic turbulence, warm (∼104 K) ionized and neutral filaments condense out of the turbulent eddies. The peaks condense into cold molecular clouds (runs, and is corroborated by the combined Hitomi and new Integral Field Unit measurements in the Perseus cluster. The ensemble multiphase gas distributions (from the UV to the radio band) are characterized by substantial spectral line broadening (σ v,los ≈ 100–200 {km} {{{s}}}-1) with a mild line shift. On the other hand, pencil-beam detections (as H I absorption against the AGN backlight) sample the small-scale clouds displaying smaller broadening and significant line shifts of up to several 100 {km} {{{s}}}-1 (for those falling toward the AGN), with increased scatter due to the turbulence intermittency. We present new ensemble σ v,los of the warm Hα+[N II] gas in 72 observed cluster/group cores: the constraints are consistent with the simulations and can be used as robust proxies for the turbulent velocities, in particular for the challenging hot plasma (otherwise requiring extremely long X-ray exposures). Finally, we show that the physically motivated criterion C ≡ t cool/t eddy ≈ 1 best traces the condensation extent region and the presence of multiphase gas in observed clusters and groups. The ensemble method can be applied to many available spectroscopic data sets and can substantially advance our understanding of multiphase halos in light of the next-generation multiwavelength missions.

  12. Halo ellipticity of GAMA galaxy groups from KiDS weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Schneider, Peter; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Schrabback, Tim; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We constrain the average halo ellipticity of ˜2600 galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, using the weak gravitational lensing signal measured from the overlapping Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). To do so, we quantify the azimuthal dependence of the stacked lensing signal around seven different proxies for the orientation of the dark matter distribution, as it is a priori unknown which one traces the orientation best. On small scales, the major axis of the brightest group/cluster member (BCG) provides the best proxy, leading to a clear detection of an anisotropic signal. In order to relate that to a halo ellipticity, we have to adopt a model density profile. We derive new expressions for the quadrupole moments of the shear field given an elliptical model surface mass density profile. Modelling the signal with an elliptical Navarro-Frenk-White profile on scales R < 250 kpc, and assuming that the BCG is perfectly aligned with the dark matter, we find an average halo ellipticity of ɛh = 0.38 ± 0.12, in fair agreement with results from cold dark matter only simulations. On larger scales, the lensing signal around the BCGs becomes isotropic and the distribution of group satellites provides a better proxy for the halo's orientation instead, leading to a 3σ-4σ detection of a non-zero halo ellipticity at 250 < R < 750 kpc. Our results suggest that the distribution of stars enclosed within a certain radius forms a good proxy for the orientation of the dark matter within that radius, which has also been observed in hydrodynamical simulations.

  13. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stellar populations and massive halos, the properties of individual galaxies, and the clusters of galaxies are discussed. Baade's concept of the two stellar populations in our Galaxy had an important influence on the theories of stellar evolution. In Baade's day, there were two puzzling questions. Population II stars manage to form more rapidly than population I stars. Population II has lower rotational velocity than population I. This story is affected by the presence of an extended, massive halo which was not known in Baade's day. It is known from galaxy rotation curves that massive halos extend much further out. The most striking feature about the variation amongst galaxies is the separation between elliptical and spiral galaxies, with SO-galaxies occupying an intermediate position. The absolute luminosity L of a galaxy provides the second parameter in a two-dimensional classification scheme. In many ways, elliptical galaxies bear the same relationship to late-type spirals as does our stellar population II to population I. Most galaxies occur in some kind of groupings, ranging from a small group such as Local Group to a rich and dense cluster such as the Coma cluster. The formation of galaxies is connected with the formation of clusters. Various models are presented and discussed. (Kato, T.)

  14. Functional groups of fossil marattialeans: chemotaxonomic implications for Pennsylvanian tree ferns and pteridophylls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenička, J.; Zodrow, E. L.; Mastalerz, M.; Bek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2005), s. 259-280 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : interdisciplinary approach * functional groups * FTIR Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.397, year: 2005

  15. Galaxy evolution in groups. NGC 3447/NGC 3447A: the odd couple in LGG 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Rampazzo, R.; Plana, H.; Rosado, M.; Arias, L.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Local Group (LG) analogs (LGAs) are galaxy associations dominated by a few bright spirals reminiscent of the LG. The NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system is a member of the LGG 225 group, a nearby LGA. This system is considered a physical pair composed of an intermediate-luminosity late-type spiral, NGC 3447 itself, and an irregular companion, NGC 3447A, linked by a faint, short filament of matter. A ring-like structure in the NGC 3447 outskirts has been emphasised by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observations. Aims: This work aims to contribute to the study of galaxy evolution in low-density environments, a favourable habitat to highly effective encounters, shedding light on the evolution of the NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system. Methods: We performed a multi-λ analysis of the surface photometry of this system to derive its spectral energy distribution and structural properties using ultraviolet (UV), Swift UVOT, and optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images complemented with available far-IR observations. We also characterised the velocity field of the pair using two-dimensional Hα kinematical observations of the system obtained with PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (Mexico). All these data are used to constrain smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation to shed light on the evolution of this system. Results: The luminosity profiles, from UV to optical wavelengths, are all consistent with the presence of a disc extending and including NGC 3447A. The overall velocity field does not emphasise any significant rotation pattern, rather a small velocity gradient between NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A. Our simulation, detached from a large grid explored to best-fit the global properties of the system, suggests that this arises from an encounter between two halos of equal mass. Conclusions: NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A belong to the same halo, NGC 3447A being a substructure of the same disk including NGC

  16. H I studies of the Sculptor group galaxies. V. NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puche, D.; Carignan, C.; Van Gorkom, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the H I properties and mass distribution of the Sculptor group galaxy NGC 253, from VLA obserations, is presented. The detected H I disk is fairly small with a diameter of about 0.8 D HO. The rotation curve, derived from the velocity field using a full tilted ring model, is still rising at the last observed point. The maximum observed rotation velocity is 224 km/s at a radius of 8.5 kpc. From this analysis, a systematic velocity of 245 km/s, a mean inclination of 72 deg, and a mean position angle of 229 deg are derived. The study of the mass distribution shows that a two-component (luminous and dark) mass model is needed to explain the observed rotation curve over the whole radius range. 24 refs

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF THE DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY d0994+71 AS A MEMBER OF THE M81 GROUP OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, Elisa; Sand, David; Crnojević, Denija [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Chiboucas, Kristin [Gemini Observatory, 670 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Simon, Joshua D., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    We use Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to measure the first velocity and metallicity of a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy beyond the Local Group using resolved stars. Our target, d0944+71, is a faint dSph found in the halo of the massive spiral galaxy M81 by Chiboucas et al. We coadd the spectra of 27 individual stars and measure a heliocentric radial velocity of −38 ± 10 km s{sup −1}. This velocity is consistent with d0944+71 being gravitationally bound to M81. We coadd the spectra of the 23 stars that are consistent with being red giant branch stars and measure an overall metallicity of [Fe/H] = −1.3 ± 0.3 based on the calcium triplet lines. This metallicity is consistent with d0944+71 following the metallicity−luminosity relation for Local Group dSphs. We investigate several potential sources of observational bias but find that our sample of targeted stars is representative of the metallicity distribution function of d0944+71 and any stellar contamination due to seeing effects is negligible. The low ellipticity of the galaxy and its position in the metallicity−luminosity relation suggest that d0944+71 has not been affected by strong tidal stripping.

  18. The origin of the X-ray, radio and H I structures in the NGC 5903 galaxy group

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ewan; Kolokythas, Konstantinos; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Raychaudhury, Somak; David, Laurence P.; Vrtilek, Jan M.

    2018-02-01

    The NGC 5903 galaxy group is a nearby (∼30 Mpc) system of ∼30 members, dominated by the giant ellipticals NGC 5903 and NGC 5898. The group contains two unusual structures: a ∼110 kpc long H I filament crossing NGC 5903 and a ∼75 kpc wide diffuse, steep-spectrum radio source of unknown origin that overlaps NGC 5903 and appears to be partly enclosed by the H I filament. Using a combination of Chandra, XMM-Newton, Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations, we detect a previously unknown ∼0.65 keV intra-group medium filling the volume within 145 kpc of NGC 5903 and find a loop of enhanced X-ray emission extending ∼35 kpc south-west from the galaxy, enclosing the brightest part of the radio source. The northern and eastern parts of this X-ray structure are also strongly correlated with the southern parts of the H I filament. We determine the spectral index of the bright radio emission to be α _{150}^{612} = 1.03 ± 0.08, indicating a radiative age >360 Myr. We discuss the origin of the correlated radio, X-ray and H I structures, either through an interaction-triggered active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst with enthalpy 1.8 × 1057 erg, or via a high-velocity collision between a galaxy and the H I filament. While neither scenario provides a complete explanation, we find that an AGN outburst is the most likely source of the principal X-ray and radio structures. However, it is clear that galaxy interactions continue to play an important role in the development of this relatively highly evolved galaxy group. We also resolve the question of whether the group member galaxy ESO 514-3 hosts a double-lobed radio source, confirming that the source is a superposed background AGN.

  19. Deep Chandra observations of the stripped galaxy group falling into Abell 2142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, D.; Gaspari, M.; Owers, M. S.; Roediger, E.; Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Paltani, S.; Ettori, S.; Venturi, T.; Rossetti, M.; Rudnick, L.

    2017-09-01

    In the local Universe, the growth of massive galaxy clusters mainly operates through the continuous accretion of group-scale systems. The infalling group in Abell 2142 is the poster child of such an accreting group, and as such, it is an ideal target to study the astrophysical processes induced by structure formation. We present the results of a deep (200 ks) observation of this structure with Chandra that highlights the complexity of this system in exquisite detail. In the core of the group, the spatial resolution of Chandra reveals a leading edge and complex AGN-induced activity. The morphology of the stripped gas tail appears straight in the innermost 250 kpc, suggesting that magnetic draping efficiently shields the gas from its surroundings. However, beyond 300 kpc from the core, the tail flares and the morphology becomes strongly irregular, which could be explained by a breaking of the drape, for example, caused by turbulent motions. The power spectrum of surface-brightness fluctuations is relatively flat (P2D ∝ k-2.3), which indicates that thermal conduction is strongly inhibited even beyond the region where magnetic draping is effective. The amplitude of density fluctuations in the tail is consistent with a mild level of turbulence with a Mach number M3D 0.1 - 0.25. Overall, our results show that the processes leading to the thermalization and mixing of the infalling gas are slow and relatively inefficient.

  20. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  1. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GALAXY GROUPS: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HCGs 16, 22, AND 42, THEIR STAR CLUSTERS, AND DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Maybhate, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fedotov, K.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Mulchaey, J. S. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); English, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3813, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Tzanavaris, P., E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 ''associates'' (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  2. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GALAXY GROUPS: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HCGs 16, 22, AND 42, THEIR STAR CLUSTERS, AND DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Fedotov, K.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 ''associates'' (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  3. The Origin of Stellar Species: constraining stellar evolution scenarios with Local Group galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbadhicary, Sumit; Badenes, Carles; Chomiuk, Laura; Maldonado, Jessica; Caprioli, Damiano; Heger, Mairead; Huizenga, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of the progenitors of many stellar species, such as supernovae, massive and low-mass He-burning stars, is limited because of many poorly constrained aspects of stellar evolution theory. For my dissertation, I have focused on using Local Group galaxy surveys to constrain stellar evolution scenarios by measuring delay-time distributions (DTD). The DTD is the hypothetical occurrence rate of a stellar object per elapsed time after a brief burst of star formation. It is the measured distribution of timescales on which stars evolve, and therefore serves as a powerful observational constraint on theoretical progenitor models. The DTD can be measured from a survey of stellar objects and a set of star-formation histories of the host galaxy, and is particularly effective in the Local Group, where high-quality star-formation histories are available from resolved stellar populations. I am currently calculating a SN DTD with supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to provide the strongest constraints on the progenitors of thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae. However, most SNRs do not have reliable age measurements and their evolution depends on the ambient environment. For this reason, I wrote a radio light curve model of an SNR population to extract the visibility times and rates of supernovae - crucial ingredients for the DTD - from an SNR survey. The model uses observational constraints on the local environments from multi-wavelength surveys, accounts for missing SNRs and employs the latest models of shock-driven particle acceleration. The final calculation of the SN DTD in the Local Group is awaiting completion of a systematic SNR catalog from deep radio-continuum images, now in preparation by a group led by Dr. Laura Chomiuk. I have also calculated DTDs for the LMC population of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables, which serve as important distance calibrators and stellar population tracers. We find that Cepheids can have delay-times between 10 Myrs - 1 Gyr

  4. Dark matter halo properties of GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viola, M.; Cacciato, M.; Brouwer, M.; Kuijken, K.; Hoekstra, H.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; van Uitert, E.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Choi, A.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Driver, S. P.; Erben, T.; Grado, A.; Graham, Alister W.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Loveday, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Schneider, P.; Sifón, C.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey is an optical wide-field survey designed to map the matter distribution in the Universe using weak gravitational lensing. In this paper, we use these data to measure the density profiles and masses of a sample of ˜1400 spectroscopically identified galaxy groups and clusters

  5. The space density of primordial gas clouds near galaxies and groups and their relation to galactic high-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA; Briggs, FH

    2000-01-01

    The Arecibo H I Strip Survey probed the halos of similar to 300 cataloged galaxies and the environments of similar to 14 groups with sensitivity to neutral hydrogen masses greater than or equal to 10(7) M-circle dot. The survey detected no objects with properties resembling the high-velocity clouds

  6. Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Tomer; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Oesch, Pascal; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Marchesini, Danilo; Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z ∼ 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M * /M ☉ = 6.5 × 10 10 ) to nearby massive ellipticals (M * /M ☉ = 1.5 × 10 11 ). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M * /M ☉ = 6.5 × 10 9 ). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10 12 and 10 13 M ☉ , consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  7. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2011-07-08

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  8. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspari, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Brighenti, F. [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Temi, P. [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ettori, S., E-mail: mgaspari@mpa-garching.mpg.de [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L {sub x}-T {sub x} relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R {sub 500}, while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L {sub x}-T {sub x} at T {sub 500} ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit.

  9. The virial mass distribution of ultradiffuse galaxies in clusters and groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorisco, N. C.

    2018-03-01

    We use the observed abundances of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) in clusters and groups and Λ cold dark matter subhalo mass functions to put constraints on the distribution of present-day halo masses of satellite UDGs. If all of the most massive subhaloes in the cluster host a UDG, UDGs occupy all subhaloes with log Msub/M⊙ ≳ 11. For a model in which the efficiency of UDG formation is higher around some characteristic halo mass, higher fractions of massive UDGs require larger spreads in the UDG mass distribution. In a cluster with a virial mass of 1015 M⊙, the 90 per cent upper limit for the fraction of UDGs with log Msub/M⊙ > 12 is 7 per cent, occupying 70 per cent of all cluster subhaloes above the same mass. To reproduce the observed abundances, however, the mass distribution of satellite UDGs has to be broad, with > 30 per cent having log Msub/M⊙ continuous distribution in which a majority are hosted by low-mass haloes. The abundance of satellite UDGs may fall short of the linear relation with the cluster/group mass Mhost in low-mass hosts, log Mhost/M⊙ ˜ 12. Characterizing these deviations - or the lack thereof - will allow for stringent constraints on the UDG virial mass distribution.

  10. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.; Ettori, S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L x -T x relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R 500 , while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L x -T x at T 500 ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit

  11. Tidal stripping and the structure of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu

    2018-05-01

    The shallow faint-end slope of the galaxy mass function is usually reproduced in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) galaxy formation models by assuming that the fraction of baryons that turn into stars drops steeply with decreasing halo mass and essentially vanishes in haloes with maximum circular velocities Vmax galaxies, lowering their accelerations below the amin ˜ 10-11 m s-2 minimum expected for isolated dwarfs. In many cases, the resulting velocity dispersions are inconsistent with the predictions from Modified Newtonian Dynamics, a result that poses a possibly insurmountable challenge to that scenario.

  12. Development of a hot intergalactic medium in spiral-rich galaxy groups: the example of HCG 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; David, Laurence P.; Giacintucci, Simona; Zezas, Andreas; Mamon, Gary; Ponman, Trevor J; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2014-08-01

    Galaxy groups provide the environment in which the majority of galaxies evolve, with low velocity dispersions and small galaxy separations that are conducive to tidal interactions and mergers between group members. X-ray observations reveal the frequent presence of hot gas in groups, with larger quantities linked to early-type galaxies, whereas cold gas is common in spiral-dominated groups. Clarification of the origin and role of the hot medium is central to the understanding of the evolution of the galaxy population and of all phases of the IGM.We here report on the nuclear activity, star formation and the high luminosity X-ray binary populations of the spiral-dominated, likely not yet virialized, group HCG 16, as well as on its intra-group medium, based principally on deep (150 ks) Chandra X-ray observations of the group, as well as new Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 610 MHz radio data. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify what may be a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838; all are variable. NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with galactic superwinds that show X-ray and radio evidence of IGM interaction, but only weak nuclear activity; NGC 848 is also dominated by emission from its starburst.We confirm the existence of a faint, extended low-temperature (0.3 keV) intra-group medium, a subject of some uncertainty in earlier studies. The diffuse emission is strongest in a ridge linking the four principal galaxies, and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale HI tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We conclude that starburst winds and shock-heating of stripped HI may play an important role in the early stages of IGM formation, with galactic winds contributing 20-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  13. "Fossil" Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Michael J.; deOnis, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Presents a density study in which students calculate the density of limestone substrate to determine if the specimen contains any fossils. Explains how to make fossils and addresses national standards. (YDS)

  14. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  15. Fossil Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; McLaughlin, Cheryl; MacFadden, Bruce; Jacobbe, Elizabeth; Poole, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many young learners are fascinated with fossils, particularly charismatic forms such as dinosaurs and giant sharks. Fossils provide tangible, objective evidence of life that lived millions of years ago. They also provide a timescale of evolution not typically appreciated by young learners. Fossils and the science of paleontology can, therefore,…

  16. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stricted geologic time range, easily preservable, of short species duration and found in multiple environment. Index fossils are used by geologists and palaeontologists as significant aids to determine the correlation and age of rock sequences [2]. Geologists use both large fossils or 'macrofossils' and microscopic fossils or ...

  17. Marquee Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2008-01-01

    Professors of an online graduate-level paleontology class developed the concept of marquee fossils--fossils that have one or more unique characteristics that capture the attention and direct observation of students. In the classroom, Marquee fossils integrate the geology, biology, and environmental science involved in the study of fossilized…

  18. GAS SLOSHING AND RADIO GALAXY DYNAMICS IN THE CORE OF THE 3C 449 GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Dharam V.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Randall, Scott W.; Forman, William R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Roediger, Elke; ZuHone, John A.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Croston, Judith H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a 140 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the hot gas around the canonical FR I radio galaxy 3C 449. An earlier, shorter 30 ks Chandra observation of the group gas showed an unusual entropy distribution and a surface brightness edge in the gas that could be a strong shock around the inner radio lobes. In our deeper data we find no evidence for a temperature increase inside of the brightness edge, but a temperature decrease across part of the edge. This suggests that the edge is a 'sloshing' cold front due to a merger within the last ∼<1.3-1.6 Gyr. Both the northern and southern inner jets are bent slightly to the west in projection as they enter their respective lobes, suggesting that the sloshing core is moving to the east. The straight inner jet flares at approximately the position where it crosses the contact edge, suggesting that the jet is entraining and thermalizing some of the hot gas as it crosses the edge. We also detect filaments of X-ray emission around the southern inner radio jet and lobe which we attribute to low entropy entrained gas. The lobe flaring and gas entrainment were originally predicted in simulations of Loken et al. and are confirmed in our deep observation.

  19. A challenge to dSph formation models: are the most isolated Local Group dSph galaxies truly old?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    What is the origin of the different dwarf galaxy types? The classification into dwarf irregular (dIrr), spheroidal (dSph), and transition (dT) types is based on their present-day properties. However, star formation histories (SFHs) reconstructed from deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) provide details on the early evolution of galaxies of all these types, and indicate only two basic evolutionary paths. One is characterized by a vigorous but brief initial star-forming event, and little or no star formation thereafter (fast evolution), and the other one by roughly continuous star formation until (nearly) the present time (slow evolution). These two paths do not map directly onto the dIrr, dT and dSph types. Thus, the present galaxy properties do not reflect their lifetime evolution. Since there are some indications that slow dwarfs were assembled in lower-density environments than fast dwarfs, Gallart et al (2015) proposed that the distinction between fast and slow dwarfs reflects the characteristic density of the environment where they formed. This scenario, and more generally scenarios where dSph galaxies formed through the interaction with a massive galaxy, are challenged by a small sample of extremely isolated dSph/dT in the outer fringes of the Local Group. This proposal targets two of these objects (VV124, KKR25) for which we will infer their SFH - through a novel technique that combines the information from their RR Lyrae stars and deep CMDs sampling the intermediate-age population - in order to test these scenarios. This is much less demanding on observing time than classical SFH derivation using full depth CMDs.

  20. Understanding the physics of gas stripping and star-formation quenching of the satellite dwarf galaxies in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The Milky Way (MW) and M31 are among the best systems to study the physics of the halo environment on galaxy evolution. Nearly all of the satellite dwarf galaxies of the MW and M31 are gas-poor and have quenched star formation. Over 1200 orbits of HST observations of these satellites now provide detailed star-formation histories and proper-motion velocities for full 6-D orbital phase-space, informing both when and where each satellite quenched. However, the lack of sufficiently realistic theoretical models of gas stripping represents a severe limitation to leveraging the astrophysical returns of these HST observations.We propose to use the new Latte cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations of MW- and M31-mass systems to understand the environmental processes that strip gas from satellite dwarf galaxies and quench their star formation. Our initial Latte simulations form realistic satellite populations, with star-formation histories that agree well HST measurements. These simulations use the state-of-the-art FIRE model for star formation and feedback: this feedback drives strong gas outflows within dwarf galaxies that can enhance the efficiency of ram-pressure stripping within the halo. We will run a new suite of simulations carefully targeted to the Local Group, and we will investigate how the combination of internal feedback and external stripping leads to rapid quenching, as observed by HST. Finally, we will publicly release our satellite galaxy/subhalo catalogs, including their full orbital and star-formation histories, to compare with existing/upcoming HST observations, providing detailed insight into the physics of environmental quenching.

  1. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  2. Metal distributions out to 0.5 r {sub 180} in the intracluster medium of four galaxy groups observed with Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sato, Kosuke, E-mail: j1213703@ed.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: matusita@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2014-01-20

    We studied the distributions of metal abundances and metal-mass-to-light ratios in the intracluster medium (ICM) of four galaxy groups, MKW 4, HCG 62, the NGC 1550 group, and the NGC 5044 group, out to ∼0.5 r {sub 180} observed with Suzaku. The iron abundance decreases with radius and is about 0.2-0.4 solar beyond 0.1 r {sub 180}. At a given radius in units of r {sub 180}, the iron abundance in the ICM of the four galaxy groups was consistent with or smaller than those of clusters of galaxies. The Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios in the ICM are nearly constant at the solar ratio out to 0.5 r {sub 180}. We also studied systematic uncertainties in the derived metal abundances, comparing the results from two versions of atomic data for astrophysicists (ATOMDB) and single- and two-temperature model fits. Since the metals have been synthesized in galaxies, we collected K-band luminosities of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and calculated the integrated iron-mass-to-light-ratios (IMLR), or the ratios of the iron mass in the ICM to light from stars in galaxies. The groups with smaller gas-mass-to-light ratios have smaller IMLR values and the IMLR is inversely correlated with the entropy excess. Based on these abundance features, we discussed the past history of metal enrichment processes in groups of galaxies.

  3. The Tully–Fisher Relations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Tully–Fisher relation can possibly be best attributed to a tight correlation between dark matter and the total baryonic matter embedded in it. This is because the constant rotation velocity in the outer regions of galaxies is believed to be due to dark matter, and the stellar luminosity directly correlates with the stellar mass, ...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Group of early-type galaxies (Fraix-Burnet+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.; Dugue, M.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Davoust, E.

    2011-03-01

    We thus chose the data compiled and standardized by Hudson et al. (2001, Cat. J/MNRAS/327/265) for 699 early-type galaxies in 56 clusters, in the redshift range from 0.007 to 0.053 (Streaming Motions of Abell Clusters (SMAC) catalogue). (1 data file).

  5. CLASS B 1359 + 154: Modelling Lensing by a Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    systems: CLASS B1359 + 154—galaxy groups—dark matter. 1. Introduction. A find of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS; Myers et al. 1995), the radio lensed system B1359 + 154 was at first identified as a quadruply-imaged ('quad') system (Myers et al. 1999), although six compact radio features had been detected in.

  6. Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI Imaging of HI-selected Local Group Galaxy Candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Elizabeth A.; Cannon, J. M.; Oosterloo, T.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    The paucity of low mass galaxies in the Universe is a long-standing problem. We recently presented a set of isolated ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) identified within the dataset of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) HI line survey that are consistent with representing low mass

  7. Are the oldest 'fossils', fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative statistical study has been carried out on populations of modern algae, Precambrian algal microfossils, the 'organized elements' of the Orgueil carbonaceous meteorite, and the oldest microfossil-like objects now known (spheroidal bodies from the Fig Tree and Onverwacht Groups of the Swaziland Supergroup, South Africa). The distribution patterns exhibited by the more than 3000 m.y.-old Swaziland microstructures bear considerable resemblance to those of the abiotic 'organized elements' but differ rather markedly from those exhibited by younger, assuredly biogenic, populations. Based on these comparisons, it is concluded that the Swaziland spheroids could be, at least in part, of nonbiologic origin; these oldest known fossil-like microstructures should not be regarded as constituting firm evidence of Archean life.

  8. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saremi, E; Abedi, A; Javadi, A; Khosroshahi, H; Molaei Nezhad, A; Van Loon, J Th; Bamber, J; Hashemi, S A; Nikzat, F

    2017-01-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss. (paper)

  9. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.

    2017-06-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.

  10. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  11. Ediacara Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Now, a research team from Virginia Tech and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology has discovered uniquely well-preserved fossil forms from 550-million-year-old rocks of the Ediacaran Period. The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The discovery of these unusually preserved fossils reveals unprecedented…

  12. The High Velocity Galaxy Challenge to ΛCDM in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil

    2017-06-01

    In the Local Group (LG), Andromeda (M31) is approaching the Milky Way (MW) at ˜110 km/s despite the large scale cosmic expansion. To turn it around locally to this extent, their combined mass must lie in a narrow range of values. This constrains the gravitational field in the LG as there are no other objects of similar masses. We have conducted calculations solving test particle trajectories in this gravitational field using a 2D dynamical model including Cen A and the LMC (MNRAS, 459, 2237). Although few objects have radial velocities (RVs) much below the predictions of the best-fitting model, some have RVs much above them, sometimes by as much as 100 km/s. This situation persists even when we used a 3D model including perturbers and satellites (MNRAS, 467, 2180).The observations may be explained by a past close flyby of the MW and M31, which arises in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) but not ΛCDM. In this context, a simplified calculation suggests that the recently discovered plane of satellites around the MW and a similar plane around M31 could be explained by a past MW-M31 flyby, but only if they orbit within a particular plane. We used this information in a more detailed MOND simulation of the flyby and its effect on the rest of the LG, treating it as a cloud of ˜3×105 test particles. The high speeds of the MW and M31 at pericentre allow for efficient gravitational slingshots of these particles. Those flung out to the greatest distance tend to lie very close to the MW-M31 orbital plane, probably because the greatest impulses occur for objects flung out almost parallel to the motion of the perturber.I will describe this simulation and recent work (Arxiv: 1701.06559) showing that LG dwarfs with the most anomalously high RVs (relative to our 3D model) indeed lie close to a plane oriented similarly to our expected MW-M31 orbital plane based on considering their satellite systems. This plane of distant LG dwarfs passes within 140 kpc of the MW and M31 and

  13. The Araucaria Project. The Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 7793 from Near-infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zgirski, Bartlomiej; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Wielgorski, Piotr; Narloch, Weronika; Graczyk, Dariusz [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Gieren, Wolfgang; Gorski, Marek [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Karczmarek, Paulina [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio, E-mail: bzgirski@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pietrzyn@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pwielgor@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: wnarloch@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: mgorski@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: pkarczmarek@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Following the earlier discovery of classical Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793 from an optical wide-field imaging survey, we have performed deep near-infrared J - and K -band follow-up photometry of a subsample of these Cepheids to derive the distance to this galaxy with a higher accuracy than what was possible from optical photometry alone, by minimizing the effects of reddening and metallicity on the distance result. Combining our new near-infrared period–luminosity relations with previous optical photometry, we obtain a true distance modulus to NGC 7793 of (27.66 ± 0.04) mag (statistical) ±0.07 mag (systematic), i.e., a distance of (3.40 ± 0.17) Mpc. We also determine the mean reddening affecting the Cepheids to be E(B − V) = (0.08 ± 0.02) mag, demonstrating that there is significant dust extinction intrinsic to the galaxy in addition to the small foreground extinction. A comparison of the new, improved Cepheid distance to earlier distance determinations of NGC 7793 from the Tully–Fisher and TRGB methods is in agreement within the reported uncertainties of these previous measurements.

  14. The Araucaria Project. The Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 7793 from Near-infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgirski, Bartlomiej; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Karczmarek, Paulina; Gorski, Marek; Wielgorski, Piotr; Narloch, Weronika; Graczyk, Dariusz; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    Following the earlier discovery of classical Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793 from an optical wide-field imaging survey, we have performed deep near-infrared J- and K-band follow-up photometry of a subsample of these Cepheids to derive the distance to this galaxy with a higher accuracy than what was possible from optical photometry alone, by minimizing the effects of reddening and metallicity on the distance result. Combining our new near-infrared period-luminosity relations with previous optical photometry, we obtain a true distance modulus to NGC 7793 of (27.66 ± 0.04) mag (statistical) ±0.07 mag (systematic), I.e., a distance of (3.40 ± 0.17) Mpc. We also determine the mean reddening affecting the Cepheids to be E(B - V) = (0.08 ± 0.02) mag, demonstrating that there is significant dust extinction intrinsic to the galaxy in addition to the small foreground extinction. A comparison of the new, improved Cepheid distance to earlier distance determinations of NGC 7793 from the Tully-Fisher and TRGB methods is in agreement within the reported uncertainties of these previous measurements.

  15. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. I. Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ~ 5 Gyr (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ~ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M 107 M ⊙) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between "ultra-faint" and "classical" dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Groups of galaxies from from SDSS-DR7 (de Carvalho+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, R. R.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.; Stalder, D. H.; Rosa, R. R.; Costa, A. P.; Moura, T. C.

    2017-11-01

    To study the updated group catalog of Yang et al. (2007ApJ...671..153Y), we select galaxies from SDSS-DR7 (see Adelman-McCarthy et al. 2009, Cat. II/294) with 0.03{<=}z{<=}0.1 and r magnitudes brighter than 17.78, which is the spectroscopic completeness limit of the survey, guaranteeing that we probe the luminosity function up to M*+1 for all systems. The lower limit in redshift is imposed to avoid aperture effects in the stellar population parameters measured within a fixed aperture of 3arcsec (diameter) used in the SDSS. (1 data file).

  17. Natural Product Molecular Fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Heinz; Wolkenstein, Klaus

    The natural products synthesized by organisms that were living a long time ago gave rise to their molecular fossils. These can consist of either the original unchanged compounds or they may undergo peripheral transformations in which their skeletons remain intact. In cases when molecular fossils can be traced to their organismic source, they are termed "geological biomarkers".This contribution describes apolar and polar molecular fossils and, in particular biomarkers, along the lines usually followed in organic chemistry textbooks, and points to their bioprecursors when available. Thus, the apolar compounds are divided in linear and branched alkanes followed by alicyclic compounds and aromatic and heterocyclic molecules, and, in particular, the geoporphyrins. The polar molecular fossils contain as functional groups or constituent units ethers, alcohols, phenols, carbonyl groups, flavonoids, quinones, and acids, or are polymers like kerogen, amber, melanin, proteins, or nucleic acids. The final sections discuss the methodology used and the fundamental processes encountered by the biomolecules described, including diagenesis, catagenesis, and metagenesis.

  18. CHANDRA observations of the NGC 1550 galaxy group: Implication for the temperature and entropy profiles of 1 keV galaxy groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, M.; Forman, W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2003-01-01

    is remarkably similar to those of two other 1 keV groups with accurate temperature determination. The temperature begins to decline at 0.07r(vir) - 0.1r(vir), while in hot clusters the decline begins at or beyond 0.2rvir. Thus, there are at least some 1 keV groups that have temperature profiles significantly...... different from those of hot clusters, which may reflect the role of nongravitational processes in intracluster medium/intergalactic medium evolution. NGC 1550 has no isentropic core in its entropy pro. le, in contrast to the predictions of "entropy floor'' simulations. We compare the scaled entropy profiles...

  19. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  20. The abundance of ultra-diffuse galaxies from groups to clusters : UDGs are relatively more common in more massive haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Hoekstra, Henk; Muzzin, Adam; Sifon, Cristobal; Viola, Massimo; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; McGee, Sean; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola; Norberg, Peder; Taylor, Edward N.; Valentijn, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have reported substantial populations of large, low-surface-brightness galaxies in local galaxy clusters. Various theories that aim to explain the presence of such ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) have since been proposed. A key question that will help to differentiate

  1. Dark and luminous matter in the NGC 3992 group of galaxies - I. The large barred spiral NGC 3992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R; Verheijen, MAW

    Detailed neutral hydrogen observations have been obtained of the large barred spiral galaxy NGC 3992 and its three small companion galaxies, UGC 6923, UGC 6940, and UGC 6969. For the main galaxy, the Hi distribution is regular with a low level radial extension outside the stellar disc. However, at

  2. The Oldest Stars of the Extremely Metal-Poor Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Leo A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Hopp, Ulrich; Drozdovsky, Igor O.; Greggio, Laura; Crone, Mary M.

    2002-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) single-star photometry of Leo A in B, V, and I. Our new field of view is offset from the centrally located field observed by Tolstoy et al. in order to expose the halo population of this galaxy. We report the detection of metal-poor red horizontal branch stars, which demonstrate that Leo A is not a young galaxy. In fact, Leo A is as least as old as metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters that exhibit red horizontal branches and are considered to have a minimum age of about 9 Gyr. We discuss the distance to Leo A and perform an extensive comparison of the data with stellar isochrones. For a distance modulus of 24.5, the data are better than 50% complete down to absolute magnitudes of 2 or more. We can easily identify stars with metallicities between 0.0001 and 0.0004, and ages between about 5 and 10 Gyr, in their post-main-sequence phases, but we lack the detection of main-sequence turnoffs that would provide unambiguous proof of ancient (>10 Gyr) stellar generations. Blue horizontal branch stars are above the detection limits but difficult to distinguish from young stars with similar colors and magnitudes. Synthetic color-magnitude diagrams show it is possible to populate the blue horizontal branch in the halo of Leo A. The models also suggest ~50% of the total astrated mass in our pointing to be attributed to an ancient (>10 Gyr) stellar population. We conclude that Leo A started to form stars at least about 9 Gyr ago. Leo A exhibits an extremely low oxygen abundance, only 3% of solar, in its ionized interstellar medium. The existence of old stars in this very oxygen-deficient galaxy illustrates that a low oxygen abundance does not preclude a history of early star formation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Index Fossils - Evidences from Plant Sources. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Dipanjan Ghosh1. Biological Science Department Kirnahar Shib Chandra High School Kirnahar, Birbhum 731302, West Bengal, India.

  4. Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geomitridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Willy De; Neiber, Marco T; Groh, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 is revised on the basis of conchological, anatomical and genetic characteristics. A new genus Wollastonia gen. n. , two recent species, W. jessicae sp. n. and W. klausgrohi sp. n ., and one recent subspecies, W. jessicae monticola ssp. n. are described as new to science, as well as five fossil taxa, H. microcarinata sp. n. , W. beckmanni sp. n. , W. falknerorum sp. n. , W. ripkeni sp. n. , and W. inexpectata sp. n. For Helix vermetiformis R. T. Lowe, 1855, H. leacockiana Wollaston, 1878, H. oxytropis R. T. Lowe, 1831, H. duplicata R. T. Lowe, 1831 and H. oxytropis var. ß subcarinulata Wollaston, 1878 lectotypes are designated. For the taxa Helix bicarinata G. B. Sowerby I, 1824, Helix bicarinata var. ß aucta Wollaston, 1878 and Discula bulverii W. Wood, 1828 neotypes are selected. The taxa aucta and subcarinulata are elevated to specific rank. For the hitherto monospecific (sub-) genus Callina R. T. Lowe, 1855 it is shown that it is not closely related to the genus Discula but to the Hystricella -group and its generic rank is confirmed. The taxon D. bulverii W. Wood, 1828 is transferred from the genus Discula s. str. to the genus Callina . A further fossil taxon C. waldeni sp. n. is described as new to science.

  5. Modern subsurface bacteria in pristine 2.7 Ga-old fossil stromatolite drillcore samples from the Fortescue Group, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Gérard

    Full Text Available Several abiotic processes leading to the formation of life-like signatures or later contamination with actual biogenic traces can blur the interpretation of the earliest fossil record. In recent years, a large body of evidence showing the occurrence of diverse and active microbial communities in the terrestrial subsurface has accumulated. Considering the time elapsed since Archaean sedimentation, the contribution of subsurface microbial communities postdating the rock formation to the fossil biomarker pool and other biogenic remains in Archaean rocks may be far from negligible.In order to evaluate the degree of potential contamination of Archean rocks by modern microorganisms, we looked for the presence of living indigenous bacteria in fresh diamond drillcores through 2,724 Myr-old stromatolites (Tumbiana Formation, Fortescue Group, Western Australia using molecular methods based on the amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNAs. We analyzed drillcore samples from 4.3 m and 66.2 m depth, showing signs of meteoritic alteration, and also from deeper "fresh" samples showing no apparent evidence for late stage alteration (68 m, 78.8 m, and 99.3 m. We also analyzed control samples from drilling and sawing fluids and a series of laboratory controls to establish a list of potential contaminants introduced during sample manipulation and PCR experiments. We identified in this way the presence of indigenous bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria in aseptically-sawed inner parts of drillcores down to at least 78.8 m depth.The presence of modern bacterial communities in subsurface fossil stromatolite layers opens the possibility that a continuous microbial colonization had existed in the past and contributed to the accumulation of biogenic traces over geological timescales. This finding casts shadow on bulk analyses of early life remains and makes claims for morphological, chemical

  6. Brightest group galaxies - II: the relative contribution of BGGs to the total baryon content of groups at z < 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozaliasl, Ghassem; Finoguenov, Alexis; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Ilbert, Olivier; Wuyts, Stijn; McCracken, Henry J.; Montanari, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    We performed a detailed study of the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) and their relative contribution to the total baryon budget within R200 (f^{BGG}_{b,200}). The sample comprises 407 BGGs selected from X-ray groups (M200 = 1012.8-1014 M⊙) out to z ˜ 1.3 identified in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), XMM Large-Scale Structure survey (XMM-LSS), and the All-Wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS) fields. We find that BGGs constitute two distinct populations of quiescent and star-forming galaxies and their mean SFR is ˜2 dex higher than the median SFR at z 2 dex. We take into account the halo mass growth of groups in selecting the sample of BGGs and find that the mean (median) stellar mass of BGGs has grown by 0.3 dex since z = 1.3 to the present day. We show that up to ˜ 45 per cent of the stellar mass growth in a star-forming BGG can be due to its star formation activity. With respect to f^{BGG}_{b,200}, we find it to increase with decreasing redshift by ˜0.35 dex, while decreasing with halo mass in a redshift-dependent manner. We show that the slope of the relation between f^{BGG}_{b,200} and halo mass increases negatively with decreasing redshift. This trend is driven by an insufficient star formation in BGGs, compared to the halo growth rate. We separately show the BGGs with the 20 per cent highest f^{BGG}_{b,200} are generally non-star-forming galaxies and grow in mass by processes not related to star formation (e.g. dry mergers and tidal striping). We present the M⋆-Mh and M⋆/Mh-Mh relations and compare them with semi-analytic model predictions and a number of results from the literature. We quantify the intrinsic scatter in stellar mass of BGGs at fixed halo mass (σ _{log M_{\\star}}) and find that σ _{{log }M_{\\star}} increases from 0.3 dex at z ˜ 0.2-0.5 dex at z ˜ 1.0 due to the bimodal distribution of stellar mass.

  7. Variable stars in Local Group Galaxies - II. Sculptor dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Stetson, P. B.; Monelli, M.; Bernard, E. J.; Fiorentino, G.; Gallart, C.; Bono, G.; Cassisi, S.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present the identification of 634 variable stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite Sculptor based on archival ground-based optical observations spanning ˜24 yr and covering ˜2.5 deg2. We employed the same methodologies as the `Homogeneous Photometry' series published by Stetson. In particular, we have identified and characterized one of the largest (536) RR Lyrae samples so far in a Milky Way dSph satellite. We have also detected four Anomalous Cepheids, 23 SX Phoenicis stars, five eclipsing binaries, three field variable stars, three peculiar variable stars located above the horizontal branch - near to the locus of BL Herculis - that we are unable to classify properly. Additionally, we identify 37 long period variables plus 23 probable variable stars, for which the current data do not allow us to determine the period. We report positions and finding charts for all the variable stars, and basic properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude) and light curves for 574 of them. We discuss the properties of the RR Lyrae stars in the Bailey diagram, which supports the coexistence of subpopulations with different chemical compositions. We estimate the mean mass of Anomalous Cepheids (˜1.5 M⊙) and SX Phoenicis stars (˜1 M⊙). We discuss in detail the nature of the former. The connections between the properties of the different families of variable stars are discussed in the context of the star formation history of the Sculptor dSph galaxy.

  8. Tiny vampires in ancient seas: evidence for predation via perforation in fossils from the 780-740 million-year-old Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Susannah M

    2016-05-25

    One explanation for the Early Neoproterozoic expansion of eukaryotes is the appearance of eukaryovorous predators-i.e. protists that preyed on other protists. Evidence for eukaryovory at this time, however, is indirect, based on inferences from character state reconstructions and molecular clocks, and on the presence of possible defensive structures in some protistan fossils. Here I describe 0.1-3.4 µm circular holes in seven species of organic-walled microfossils from the 780-740 million-year-old Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, that are similar to those formed today by predatory protists that perforate the walls of their prey to consume the contents inside. Although best known in the vampyrellid amoebae, this 'vampire-like' behaviour is widespread among eukaryotes, making it difficult to infer confidently the identity of the predator. Nonetheless, the identity of the prey is clear: some-and perhaps all-of the fossils are eukaryotes. These holes thus provide the oldest direct evidence for predation on eukaryotes. Larger circular and half-moon-shaped holes in vase-shaped microfossils from the upper part of the unit may also be the work of 'tiny vampires', suggesting a diversity of eukaryovorous predators lived in the ancient Chuar sea. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s –1 , median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s –1 . We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of ∼1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of ∼10 5 -10 6 M ☉ , H I diameters of ∼2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of ∼10 7 -10 8 M ☉ , similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  10. Constraining the Nature of Dark Matter with the Star-formation History of the Faintest Local Group Dwarf Galaxy Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Alice; Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Governato, Fabio [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Λ warm dark matter (ΛWDM), realized by collisionless particles of 1–3 keV, has been proposed as an alternative scenario to Λ-Cold-Dark Matter (ΛCDM) for the dwarf galaxy scale discrepancies. We present an approach to test the viability of such WDM models using star-formation histories (SFHs) of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high-time-resolution SFHs with the collapse redshift of their dark halos in CDM and WDM. Collapse redshift is inferred after determining the subhalo infall mass. This is based on the dwarf current mass inferred from stellar kinematics, combined with cosmological simulation results on subhalo evolution. WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale, forming significantly later than CDM, are the most difficult to reconcile with early truncation of star formation ( z ≥ 3). The ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) provide the most stringent constraints. Using six UFDs and eight classical dSphs, we show that a 1 keV particle is strongly disfavored, consistently with other reported methods. Excluding other models is only hinted for a few UFDs. Other UFDs for which the lack of robust constraints on halo mass prevents us from carrying out our analysis rigorously, show a very early onset of star formation that will strengthen the constraints delivered by our method in the future. We discuss the various caveats, notably the low number of dwarfs with accurately determined SFHs and the uncertainties when determining the subhalo infall mass, most notably the baryonic physics. Our preliminary analysis may serve as a pathfinder for future investigations that will combine accurate SFHs for local dwarfs with direct analysis of WDM simulations with baryons.

  11. Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    between the galaxies, as expected for a true galaxy cluster rather than one that has been caught in the act of forming. Also, without the X-ray observations, the possibility remained that this object could have been a blend of different groups of galaxies along the line of sight, or a filament, a long stream of galaxies and gas, viewed front on. The mass and temperature of the hot gas detected estimated from the Chandra observations rule out both of those alternatives. The extent and shape of the X-ray emission, along with the lack of a central radio source argue against the possibility that the X-ray emission is caused by scattering of cosmic microwave background light by particles emitting radio waves. It is not yet possible, with the detection of just one extremely distant galaxy cluster, to test cosmological models, but searches are underway to find other galaxy clusters at extreme distances. "This discovery is exciting because it is like finding a Tyrannosaurus Rex fossil that is much older than any other known," said co-author Ben Maughan, from the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. "One fossil might just fit in with our understanding of dinosaurs, but if you found many more, you would have to start rethinking how dinosaurs evolved. The same is true for galaxy clusters and our understanding of cosmology." The previous record holder for a galaxy cluster was 9.2 billion light years away, XMMXCS J2215.9-1738, discovered by ESA's XMM-Newton in 2006. This broke the previous distance record by only about 0.1 billion light years, while JKCS041 surpasses XMMXCS J2215.9 by about ten times that. "What's exciting about this discovery is the astrophysics that can be done with detailed follow-up studies," said Andreon. Among the questions scientists hope to address by further studying JKCS041 are: What is the build-up of elements (such as iron) like in such a young object? Are there signs that the cluster is still forming? Do the temperature and X-ray brightness of

  12. Fossils and decapod phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating

  13. A revised catalog of CfA galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolthenius, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfAl Catalog of Huchra, et al. (1983) is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identify density enhancements. The procedure differs from that of the original Geller and Huchra (1983; GH) catalog in several important respects; galaxy distances are calculated from the Virgo-Great Attractor flow model of Faber and Burnstein (1988), the adopted distance linkage criteria is only approx. 1/4 as large as in the Geller and Huchra catalog, the sky link relation is taken from Nolthenius and White (1987), correction for interstellar extinction is included, and 'by-hand' adjustments to group memberships are made in the complex regions of Virgo/Coma I/Ursa Major and Coma/A1367 (to allow for varying group velocity dispersions and to trim unphysical 'spider arms'). Since flow model distances are poorly determined in these same regions, available distances from the IR Tully-Fisher planetary nebula luminosity function and surface brightness resolution methods are adopted if possible.

  14. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HCG and RSCG compact group galaxies with WISE (Zucker+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, C.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K.; Gallagher, S.; Alatalo, K.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2016-07-01

    For this study, we draw our sample from groups in the HCG catalog (Hickson 1982, VII/213) and the Redshift Survey Compact Group catalog (RSCG; Barton et al. 1996AJ....112..871B). We utilize new ALLWISE coadds from Lang (unWISE; 2014AJ....147..108L), which preserve the native resolution of the raw frames (~6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" for bands W1, W2, W3, and W4). (1 data file).

  16. Clean fossil or refuse dump. Results of focus groups with citizens on CO2-storage in depleted natural gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzevles, J.H.; Kets, A.; Van Est, Q.C.

    2008-09-01

    This report gives an account of a meeting with four focus groups - 31 citizens in Total - held at the Rathenau Institute on 7 July 2007. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in depleted natural gas fields was the main topic. The goal of this meeting was to explore the public opinion on CCS, to gauge their attitude towards new technology and to examine the influence of information services on their opinion. The analysis has resulted in a comprehensive overview of arguments in favor of and against the development of CO2 capture and storage in the Netherlands. The study illustrates how all questions and points of interest can be classified based on three different angles, i.e. (1) the promise of CCS as instrument for handling environmental problems, energy problems and offering economic opportunities for the Netherlands; (2) the implementation process of CCS; and (3) possible side effects of CCS. [mk] [nl

  17. Method of investigating the structures of observed groups of objects of the Galaxy and Metagalaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The random quantities-geometrical characteristics of a group of objects are proposed for estimating the reality and investigating the visible structure features of galactic and metagalactic fields. The method was applied for solving the problem of reality of the stellar Orion and Aquila rings. One comes to the conclusion: the Orion ring is real and the Aquila ring can be a consequense of illusion

  18. A new measurement of the baryonic fraction using the sparse NGC 3258 group of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian; Yoshii, Y.; Sommer-Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    )(-1) kpc is found to be 0.065(-0.020)(+0.051) for h(50) = 1, where h(50) = H-0/50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), in good agreement with the universal value of 0.05 +/- 0.01 predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis for a universe with Omega(0) = 1 and h(50) = 1. Since the deep potential of the NGC 3258 group...

  19. Detection of Hot Gas in Galaxy Groups via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Moodley, K.; Warne, R.; Goheer, N.; Trac, H.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the observed shortfall of baryons in the local universe, we investigate the ability of high resolution cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to detect hot gas in the outer regions of nearby group halos. We construct hot gas models with the gas in hydrostatic equilibrium with the dark matter and described by a polytropic equation of state. We also consider models that add entropy to the gas in line with constraints from X-ray observations. We calculate the thermal Sunyaev-...

  20. Ratio of extinction to reddening for interstellar matter using galaxies. I. A limit on the neutral extinction from photometry of the 3C 129 group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandage, A.

    1975-01-01

    The ratio of total extinction to reddening of interstellar matter has been determined by a new method applied to galaxies in the highly obscured 3C 129 and 3C 129.1 group (l = 160 0 , b = 0 0 ). The difference between the observed magnitude of the first-ranked group member and the magnitude calculated from the redshift-apparent magnitude (Hubble) diagram (at the known redshift of the group) is the total extinction A/sub v/ to within the sigma(M/sub v/) that applies to the first-ranked cluster member. Comparison of the observed color with the known intrinsic color of giant E galaxies gives E(B--V), and therefore R. Photometry of the 3C 129 group gives R identical with A/sub v//E(B--V) = 3.72 +- 0.32(sigma). Correction for the finite bandwidth of the BV system gives R (O star base) = 3.35 +- 0.29 (sigma). Comparison with R determined from the color-difference method gives a limit for the fraction of neutral-to-selective extinction of f = A/sub v/ (neutral)/A/sub v/ (selective) = 0.10 +- 0.15(sigma) which is a null result (f = 0) to within the statistics. Hence, no neutral extinction has been detected at the 1 sigma level of the experiment. Use of the method on many additional groups of galaxies is expected to substantially reduce the error of this limit

  1. Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Penney, David; Dunlop, Jason; Marusik, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Spiders (Araneae) are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant). Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa) were compiled from current...

  2. Clustering fossils in solid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhshik, Mohammad, E-mail: m.akhshik@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    In solid inflation the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. As a result, the long tenor perturbation induces observable clustering fossils in the form of quadrupole anisotropy in large scale structure power spectrum. In this work we revisit the bispectrum analysis for the scalar-scalar-scalar and tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum for the general parameter space of solid. We consider the parameter space of the model in which the level of non-Gaussianity generated is consistent with the Planck constraints. Specializing to this allowed range of model parameter we calculate the quadrupole anisotropy induced from the long tensor perturbations on the power spectrum of the scalar perturbations. We argue that the imprints of clustering fossil from primordial gravitational waves on large scale structures can be detected from the future galaxy surveys.

  3. Interactions between intergalactic medium and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Saar, E.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of galaxies with the environmental gas both in clusters and in small groups of galaxies is investigated. Interaction between galaxies and the ambient medium can be considered simply as final touches in the process of galaxy formation. Large relative velocities of galaxies in their clusters and of the intercluster gas result in a loss of the intergalactic gas, that in its turn affects the morphology of cluster galaxies. Interaction between the coronal clouds and the gas in the disk of spiral galaxies may result in regular patterns of star formation and in the bending of planes of galaxies

  4. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime; Brough, Sarah; Croton, Darren J.; Driver, Simon; Graham, Alister; Baldry, Ivan; Brown, Michael; Prescott, Matt; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between

  5. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  6. Phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography reveals the internal morphology of a new fossil species of the Corticaria-sylvicola-group (Coleoptera: Latridiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reike, Hans-Peter; Bukejs, Andris; Arlt, Tobias; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Manke, Ingo

    2017-03-13

    Corticaria amberica sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Latridiidae) from Baltic amber is described and illustrated using the features of the male genitalia. To study these features, phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography was used for the first time with a member of this family. A literature-based checklist of fossil and subfossil Latridiidae is provided. The following new synonymy is established: Latridius alexeevi Bukejs, Kirejtshuk & Rücker, 2011 = Latridius usovae Sergi & Perkovsky, 2014 syn. nov. New fossil records for the species Latridius alexeevi Bukejs, Kirejtshuk & Rücker, Latridius jantaricus Borowiec, Revelieria groehni Sergi, Perkovsky & Reike, and Corticarina palaeominuta Reike are also presented.

  7. Fossil Invertebrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beginning with a very brief mention of ideas on the origin of life, and whether there are two kingdoms of organisms or five, this book soon gets down to its main task: to provide a con- cise systematic-cwn-morphological summary of invertebrate groups, with an idea of their geological and geographical oc- currence. Depth of ...

  8. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Detection or Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Decrement in Groups and Clusters Associated with Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Nick; Appel, John William; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y(sub 200) and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity bins to mass. We also use a relation between BCG luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be in the range approx.10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14)/h Stellar Mass, a lower range than has been previously probed.

  9. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  10. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  11. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  12. Study of fossil tracks due to 50<=Z<=92 galactic cosmic ray nuclei in meteoritic crystals: Results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Perelygin, V P; Stetsenko, S G; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Rebetez, M; Spohr, R; Vetter, J; Perron, C

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of investigation of charge and energy spectra of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei, based on fossil track study of extraterrestrial olivine crystals has been developed. The results of an investigation of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei (Z=50-92) in meteoritic olivine crystals are presented. The technique was based on calibration of olivine crystals with accelerated Xe, Au, Pb and U ions and well-controlled partial annealing of 'fresh' and 'fossil' tracks. It allows us to determine the charge spectra and abundances of cosmic ray nuclei based on fossil track length study in meteoritic and Moon crystals. The comparative studies of the spectra of ''fossil' tracks and tracks due to sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U nuclei have shown that the group of 210 mu m 'fossil' tracks, first observed in 1980 at JINR is due to Th-U nuclei-products of recent r-process nucleosyntesis in our Galaxy. The method in principle allows one to resolve Pt-Pb peaks in fossil tracks, t...

  13. The Fossile Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an inital pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form expr...

  14. The Fossil Episode

    OpenAIRE

    John Hassler; Hans-Werner Sinn

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

  15. Overcoming Fossilized English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Janet G.

    Causes of language fossilization and ways to overcome it are considered. Fossilization is the relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competence. The discussion is focused on fossilization of incorrect syntactical rules, based on experiences with learners of English as a second language at…

  16. Dark and luminous matter in the NGC 3992 group of galaxies - II. The dwarf companions UGC 6923, UGC 6940, UGC 6969, and the Tully-Fisher relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    Detailed neutral hydrogen observations have been obtained of the large barred spiral galaxy NGC 3992 and its three small companion spiral galaxies, UGC 6923, UGC 6940, and UGC 6969. Contrary to the large galaxy, for the companions the Hi distribution ends quite abruptly at the optical edges.

  17. The dynamics of aggregates of galaxies as related to their main galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Kaasik, A.; Vennik, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of the aggregates of galaxies is compared with the dynamics of their member galaxies. It is demonstrated that within a factor 1.5-2 the dispersion of relative line-of-sight velocities is constant from the nuclei of main galaxies to the periphery of an aggregate. This isothermality of aggregates of galaxies is observed in all aggregates studied so far, from poor groups to rich clusters. The fact that the velocity dispersion of stars in galaxies is equal to that of galaxies in aggregates applies only to main galaxies. The stars in all companion galaxies have a smaller velocity dispersion of stars. The dynamical evolution of both galaxies and aggregates of galaxies is very slow. Thus the above data suggest that galaxies and their aggregates were formed together. (orig.) [de

  18. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Jian, Hung-Yu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P.; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M * ) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M * relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10 14 M ☉ ), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent galaxies for more

  19. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  20. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  1. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  2. Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [α/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices Hβ, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [α/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z⊙, and [α/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the α-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ∝ σ0.39 ± 0.22, Z ∝ σ0.80 ± 0.16, and α/Fe ∝ σ0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [α/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[α/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  3. Dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  4. Fossilization as Simplification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinker, Larry

    This article examines the phenomenon of fossilization in second language (SL) learning and instruction, discussing this process as a form of simplification. Fossilization occurs when particular linguistic forms become permanently established in the interlanguage of SL learners in a form that is deviant from the target language norm and that…

  5. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  6. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  7. Study of fossil tracks due to 50≤Z≤92 galactic cosmic ray nuclei in meteoritic crystals: Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.; Petrova, R.I.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.; Rebetez, M.; Spohr, R.; Vetter, J.; Perron, C.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of investigation of charge and energy spectra of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei, based on fossil track study of extraterrestrial olivine crystals has been developed. The results of an investigation of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei (Z=50-92) in meteoritic olivine crystals are presented. The technique was based on calibration of olivine crystals with accelerated Xe, Au, Pb and U ions and well-controlled partial annealing of 'fresh' and 'fossil' tracks. It allows us to determine the charge spectra and abundances of cosmic ray nuclei based on fossil track length study in meteoritic and Moon crystals. The comparative studies of the spectra of ''fossil' tracks and tracks due to 208 Pb and 238 U nuclei have shown that the group of 210 μm 'fossil' tracks, first observed in 1980 at JINR is due to Th-U nuclei-products of recent r-process nucleosyntesis in our Galaxy. The method in principle allows one to resolve Pt-Pb peaks in fossil tracks, to establish the upper limit of the abundance of Z>110 nuclei in the Galactic cosmic rays at the level ≤10 -3 to the abundance of actinide nuclei and to get information on the history of Z>50 cosmic ray nuclei in time interval up to 220 M.Y

  8. Relics as Probes of Galaxy Cluster Mergers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/joaa/032/04/0505-0508. Keywords. Cosmology: large-scale structure of Universe; galaxies: clusters: general, intracluster medium. Abstract. Galaxy clusters grow by mergers with other clusters and galaxy groups. These mergers create shocks within the intracluster medium ...

  9. Stars at Low Metallicity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Cole, Andrew; Hunt, LK; Madden, S; Schneider, R

    2008-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies offer an opportunity to understand the properties of low metallicity star formation both today and at the earliest times at the, epoch of the formation of the first stars. Here we concentrate on two galaxies in the Local Group: the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A, which has been the

  10. Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way. Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky. The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight. Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila. Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered. This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the visible-light image (left) shows a dark sky speckled

  11. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  12. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  13. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  14. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  15. The fossil history of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Harms

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoscorpions, given their resemblance to scorpions, have attracted human attention since the time of Aristotle, although they are much smaller and lack the sting and elongated tail. These arachnids have a long evolutionary history but their origins and phylogenetic affinities are still being debated. Here, we summarise their fossil record based on a comprehensive review of the literature and data contained in other sources. Pseudoscorpions are one of the oldest colonisers of the land, with fossils known since the Middle Devonian (ca. 390 Ma. The only arachnid orders with an older fossil record are scorpions, harvestmen and acariform mites, plus two extinct groups. Pseudoscorpions do not fossilise easily, and records from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic consist almost exclusively of amber inclusions. Most Mesozoic fossils come from Archingeay and Burmese ambers (Late Cretaceous and those from the Cenozoic are primarily from Eocene Baltic amber, although additional fossils from, for example, Miocene Dominican and Mexican ambers, are known. Overall, 16 of the 26 families of living pseudoscorpions have been documented from fossils and 49 currently valid species are recognised in the literature. Pseudoscorpions represent a case of morphological stasis and even the Devonian fossils look rather modern. Indeed, most amber fossils are comparable to Recent groups despite a major gap in the fossil record of almost 250 Myr. Baltic amber inclusions indicate palaeofauna inhabiting much warmer climates than today and point to climatic shifts in central Europe since the Eocene. They also indicate that some groups (e.g. Feaellidae and Pseudogarypidae had much wider Eocene distributions. Their present-day occurrence is relictual and highlights past extinction events. Faunas from younger tropical amber deposits (e.g. Dominican and Mexican amber are comparable to Recent ones. Generally, there is a strong bias in the amber record towards groups that live under tree

  16. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among extinct and extant turtles: the position of Pleurodira and the effects of the fossils on rooting crown-group turtles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterli, J.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the crown-group of turtles (Cryptodira + Pleurodira) is one of the most interesting topics in turtle evolution, second perhaps only to the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. The present contribution focuses on the former problem, exploring the phylogenetic

  18. MASSIVE+: The Growth Histories of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies from their Globular Cluster Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, John

    2017-08-01

    The MASSIVE survey is targeting the 100 most massive galaxies within 108 Mpc that are visible in the northern sky. These most massive galaxies in the present-day universe reside in a surprisingly wide variety of environments, from rich clusters to fossil groups to near isolation. We propose to use WFC3/UVIS and ACS to carry out a deep imaging study of the globular cluster populations around a selected subset of the MASSIVE targets. Though much is known about GC systems of bright galaxies in rich clusters, we know surprisingly little about the effects of environment on these systems. The MASSIVE sample provides a golden opportunity to learn about the systematics of GC systems and what they can tell us about environmental drivers on the evolution of the highest mass galaxies. The most pressing questions to be addressed include: (1) Do isolated giants have the same constant mass fraction of GCs to total halo mass as BCGs of similar luminosity? (2) Do their GC systems show the same color (metallicity) distribution, which is an outcome of the mass spectrum of gas-rich halos during hierarchical growth? (3) Do the GCs in isolated high-mass galaxies follow the same radial distribution versus metallicity as in rich environments (a test of the relative importance of growth by accretion)? (4) Do the GCs of galaxies in sparse environments follow the same mass function? Our proposed second-band imaging will enable us to secure answers to these questions and add enormously to the legacy value of existing HST imaging of the highest mass galaxies in the universe.

  19. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  20. Galaxies in the Local Volume symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Jerjen, H; Galaxies in the Local Volume

    2008-01-01

    Studies of Nearby Galaxies are currently the focus of many observations and numerical simulations. This book presents an overview of the galaxies within the Local Volume (D < 10 Mpc), including the Local Group (D < 1 Mpc) and our closest neighbours, the Andromeda Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Presented are the latest results from radio, infrared and optical surveys as well as detailed multi-wavelength studies of individual galaxies. Accurate distances are now available for the majority of Local Volume galaxies providing a true 3-dimensional view of their distribution and flow pattern as well as their star formation.

  1. Reconciling molecular phylogenies with the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlon, Hélène; Parsons, Todd L; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2011-09-27

    Historical patterns of species diversity inferred from phylogenies typically contradict the direct evidence found in the fossil record. According to the fossil record, species frequently go extinct, and many clades experience periods of dramatic diversity loss. However, most analyses of molecular phylogenies fail to identify any periods of declining diversity, and they typically infer low levels of extinction. This striking inconsistency between phylogenies and fossils limits our understanding of macroevolution, and it undermines our confidence in phylogenetic inference. Here, we show that realistic extinction rates and diversity trajectories can be inferred from molecular phylogenies. To make this inference, we derive an analytic expression for the likelihood of a phylogeny that accommodates scenarios of declining diversity, time-variable rates, and incomplete sampling; we show that this likelihood expression reliably detects periods of diversity loss using simulation. We then study the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), a group for which standard phylogenetic inferences are strikingly inconsistent with fossil data. When the cetacean phylogeny is considered as a whole, recently radiating clades, such as the Balaneopteridae, Delphinidae, Phocoenidae, and Ziphiidae, mask the signal of extinctions. However, when isolating these groups, we infer diversity dynamics that are consistent with the fossil record. These results reconcile molecular phylogenies with fossil data, and they suggest that most extant cetaceans arose from four recent radiations, with a few additional species arising from clades that have been in decline over the last ~10 Myr.

  2. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  3. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  4. Investigation of fossil resins and amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Makarova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil resins and amber are a product of lithogenesis of resinous substances of higher plants – resinite. These components of plants, like other lipoid ingredients (suberins, coutines, sporinins, natural rubbers are resistant to microbial action, so they are well preserved in bacterial processing of organic matter in the stages of sedimento- and diagenesis, and are well diagnosed in microscopic studies. They occur in a rather wide age range of sedimentary rocks. The amber of the Baltic region of the Eocene age is most fully studied. The article presents the results of a study of the collection of fossil resins and amber from various regions of the world. Samples were studied microscopically; carbon isotope analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy were performed. The most informative analysis of high-molecular polymeric compounds is IR spectroscopy. It was found that in the analyzed samples of fossil resins of different ages, aromatic compounds are not observed, most of which are first volatilized in fossilization processes. The possibility of influencing the group composition of amber and amber-like resins for sedimentation, diagenesis and catagenesis is discussed. The IR spectra of fossil and modern resin conifers are compared. Using the IR spectroscopy method, an attempt was made to identify the botanical origin of fossil resins.

  5. Fossil energy research meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.

    1977-12-01

    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  6. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  7. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined

  8. Cross sections in 25 groups obtained from ENDF/B-IV and ENDL/78 libraries, processed with GALAXY and NJOY computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalhoub, E.S.; Corcuera, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The discrepancies existing between ENDF/B-IV and ENDL/78 libraries, in diferent energy regions are identified, and the order of the differences in multigroup sections are determined, when GALAXY or NJOY computer codes are used. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. I. Kinematically Decoupled Cores and Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc),

  10. Centering on Fossils and Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; McCall, Gregory K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of 10 activities which introduce mainstreamed junior high school students to concepts relating to fossils and dinosaurs. Provides students with opportunities for learning the concepts of change and adaptation, as well as fossil facts and terminology. (TW)

  11. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ‘Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital’ (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administra...

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  13. Eumetazoan fossils in terminal Proterozoic phosphorites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuhai; Yuan, Xunlai; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2000-01-01

    Phosphatic sedimentary rocks preserve a record of early animal life different from and complementary to that provided by Ediacaran fossils in terminal Proterozoic sandstones and shales. Phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation, South China, contain eggs, egg cases, and stereoblastulae that document animals of unspecified phylogenetic position; small fossils containing putative spicules may specifically record the presence of sponges. Microfossils recently interpreted as the preserved gastrulae of cnidarian and bilaterian metazoans can alternatively be interpreted as conventional algal cysts and/or egg cases modified by diagenetic processes known to have had a pervasive influence on Doushantuo phosphorites. Regardless of this interpretation, evidence for Doushantuo eumetazoans is provided by millimeter-scale tubes that display tabulation and apical budding characteristic of some Cnidaria, especially the extinct tabulates. Like some Ediacaran remains, these small, benthic, colonial fossils may represent stem-group eumetazoans or stem-group cnidarians that lived in the late Proterozoic ocean. PMID:11095754

  14. Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tommy L F

    2017-02-01

    Parasites are common in many ecosystems, yet because of their nature, they do not fossilise readily and are very rare in the geological record. This makes it challenging to study the evolutionary transition that led to the evolution of parasitism in different taxa. Most studies on the evolution of parasites are based on phylogenies of extant species that were constructed based on morphological and molecular data, but they give us an incomplete picture and offer little information on many important details of parasite-host interactions. The lack of fossil parasites also means we know very little about the roles that parasites played in ecosystems of the past even though it is known that parasites have significant influences on many ecosystems. The goal of this review is to bring attention to known fossils of parasites and parasitism, and provide a conceptual framework for how research on fossil parasites can develop in the future. Despite their rarity, there are some fossil parasites which have been described from different geological eras. These fossils include the free-living stage of parasites, parasites which became fossilised with their hosts, parasite eggs and propagules in coprolites, and traces of pathology inflicted by parasites on the host's body. Judging from the fossil record, while there were some parasite-host relationships which no longer exist in the present day, many parasite taxa which are known from the fossil record seem to have remained relatively unchanged in their general morphology and their patterns of host association over tens or even hundreds of millions of years. It also appears that major evolutionary and ecological transitions throughout the history of life on Earth coincided with the appearance of certain parasite taxa, as the appearance of new host groups also provided new niches for potential parasites. As such, fossil parasites can provide additional data regarding the ecology of their extinct hosts, since many parasites have

  15. Contributions to Exceptional Fossil Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Muscente, Anthony Drew

    2016-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils—or fossils preserved with remains of originally non-biomineralized (i.e. soft) tissues—constitute a key resource for investigating the history of the biosphere. In comparison to fossils of biomineralized skeletal elements, which represent the majority of the fossil record but only a fraction of the total diversity that existed in the past, exceptionally preserved fossils are comparatively rare because soft tissues are rapidly destroyed in typical...

  16. A fossils detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffetaut, E.

    1998-01-01

    Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  18. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  19. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  20. An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving "living fossils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ni, Xijun

    2016-01-14

    Treeshrews are widely considered a "living model" of an ancestral primate, and have long been called "living fossils". Actual fossils of treeshrews, however, are extremely rare. We report a new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene (~34 Ma) of China that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group of treeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record. The fossil species is strikingly similar to the living Ptilocercus lowii, a species generally recognized as the most plesiomorphic extant treeshrew. It demonstrates that Ptilocercus treeshrews have undergone little evolutionary change in their morphology since the early Oligocene. Morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis support the long-standing idea that Ptilocercus treeshrews are morphologically conservative and have probably retained many characters present in the common stock that gave rise to archontans, which include primates, flying lemurs, plesiadapiforms and treeshrews. This discovery provides an exceptional example of slow morphological evolution in a mammalian group over a period of 34 million years. The persistent and stable tropical environment in Southeast Asia through the Cenozoic likely played a critical role in the survival of such a morphologically conservative lineage.

  1. Galaxy Collisions Forging New Worlds from Cosmic Crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Struck, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy collisions are the key process in building galaxies, triggering the formation of stars and the build-up of heavy elements that allow the formation of planets and solar systems. This book presents the revolutionary research advances achieved in the last decade and lucidly explains the underlying dynamical processes. Galaxy Collisions takes a comprehensive trip through the visually spectacular world of galaxy collisions; investigates the interactions of stars, gas clouds, and dark matter in galaxy collisions; uses analogies and metaphors to help comprehend the bizarre world of galaxies; presents recent research results to enhance the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution; includes discoveries of minor collisions within our own group of galaxies; shows how a galaxy collision might affect a solar system, or a planet like ours.

  2. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  3. Amphibian development in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbisch, Nadia B; Olori, Jennifer C; Schoch, Rainer R; Witzmann, Florian

    2010-06-01

    Ontogenetic series of extinct taxa are extremely rare and when preserved often incomplete and difficult to interpret. However, the fossil record of amphibians includes a number of well-preserved ontogenetic sequences for temnospondyl and lepospondyl taxa, which have provided valuable information about the development of these extinct groups. Here we summarize the current knowledge on fossil ontogenies of amphibians, their potential and limitations for relationship assessments, and discuss the insights they have provided for our understanding of the anatomy, life history, and ecology of extinct amphibians. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  5. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): probing the merger histories of massive galaxies via stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, I.; Hopkins, A. M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Sansom, A. E.; Owers, M. S.; Driver, S.; Davies, L.; Robotham, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Brough, S.; Norberg, P.; Croom, S.; Loveday, J.; Wang, L.; Bremer, M.

    2017-06-01

    The merging history of galaxies can be traced with studies of dynamically close pairs. These consist of a massive primary galaxy and a less massive secondary (or satellite) galaxy. The study of the stellar populations of secondary (lower mass) galaxies in close pairs provides a way to understand galaxy growth by mergers. Here we focus on systems involving at least one massive galaxy - with stellar mass above 1011M⊙ in the highly complete Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our working sample comprises 2692 satellite galaxy spectra (0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3). These spectra are combined into high S/N stacks, and binned according to both an 'internal' parameter, the stellar mass of the satellite galaxy (I.e. the secondary), and an 'external' parameter, selecting either the mass of the primary in the pair, or the mass of the corresponding dark matter halo. We find significant variations in the age of the populations with respect to environment. At fixed mass, satellites around the most massive galaxies are older and possibly more metal-rich, with age differences ˜1-2 Gyr within the subset of lower mass satellites (˜1010 M⊙). These variations are similar when stacking with respect to the halo mass of the group where the pair is embedded. The population trends in the lower mass satellites are consistent with the old stellar ages found in the outer regions of massive galaxies.

  6. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  7. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  8. Evidence for AGN feedback in low-mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen; Penny, Sam; Smethurst, Rebecca; Krawczyk, Coleman; Nichol, Bob; SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    Despite being the dominant galaxy population by number in groups and clusters, the formation and quenching mechanism of dwarf galaxies remains unknown. We present evidence for AGN feedback in a subset of 69 quenched low-mass galaxies (M* less than 5e9 Msun, fainter than Mr = -19) selected from the first two years of the MaNGA survey. The majority (85 per cent) of these quenched galaxies appear to reside in a group environment. We find 6 galaxies in our sample that appear to have an active AGN that is preventing on-going star-formation; this is the first time such a feedback mechanism has been observed in this mass range. Interestingly, five of these six galaxies have an ionised gas component that is kinematically offset from their stellar component, suggesting the gas is either recently accreted or outflowing. We hypothesise these six galaxies are low-mass equivalents to the “red geysers” observed in more massive galaxies. Of the other 62 galaxies in the sample, we find 8 do appear to have some low-level, residual star formation, or emission from hot, evolved stars. The remaining galaxies in our sample have no detectable ionised gas emission throughout their structures, consistent with them being quenched. I will show that despite being the "simplest" galaxies in our current models of galaxy formation, these quenched dwarf galaxies are a diverse population.

  9. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  10. The extended structure of the dwarf irregular galaxies Sextans A and Sextans B. Signatures of tidal distortion in the outskirts of the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, M.; Beccari, G.; Fraternali, F.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Sollima, A.; Testa, V.; Galleti, S.; Perina, S.; Faccini, M.; Cusano, F.

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the stellar and H i structure of the dwarf irregular galaxies Sextans A and Sextans B, members of the NGC 3109 association. We use newly obtained deep (r ≃ 26.5) and wide-field g and r photometry to extend the surface brightness (SB) profiles of the two galaxies down to μV ≃ 31.0 mag/arcsec2. We find that both galaxies are significantly more extended than previously traced with surface photometry, out to ~4 kpc from their centres along their major axes. Older stars are found to have more extended distribution than younger populations. We obtain the first estimate of the mean metallicity for the old stars in Sex B, from the colour distribution of the red giant branch, ⟨[Fe/H]⟩ = -1.6. The SB profiles show significant changes of slope and cannot be fitted with a single Sérsic model. Both galaxies have HI discs as massive as their respective stellar components. In both cases the H i discs display solid-body rotation with maximum amplitude of ~50 km s-1 (albeit with significant uncertainty due to the poorly constrained inclination), implying a dynamical mass ~109 M⊙, a mass-to-light ratio M / LV ~ 25, and a dark-to-baryonic mass ratio of ~10. The distribution of the stellar components is more extended than the gaseous disc in both galaxies. We find that the main, approximately round, stellar body of Sex A is surrounded by an elongated low-SB stellar halo that can be interpreted as a tidal tail, similar to that found in another member of the same association (Antlia). We discuss these, as well as other evidence of tidal disturbance, in the framework of a past passage of the NGC 3109 association close to the Milky Way, which has been hypothesised by several authors and is also supported by the recently discovered filamentary configuration of the association itself. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable of stellar photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  11. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  12. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Farmer, C. [111 Broadway, Suite 133, Unit 251, Boise, ID 83702 (United States); Kathren, Ronald L. [Washington State University at Tri-Cities, 137 Spring Street, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)], E-mail: kathren@bmi.net; Christensen, Craig [1705 Charlott Avenue, Missoula, MT 59801 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  13. Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mass-observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J.; Saro, A.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gangkofner, D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.;  uhada, R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-02-25

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg2 of the XMM–Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥1042 erg s-1) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y_500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8σ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17 ± 9)per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter

  14. GALAXY ENVIRONMENTS OVER COSMIC TIME: THE NON-EVOLVING RADIAL GALAXY DISTRIBUTIONS AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z = 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Tomer; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the environments of massive galaxies in four redshift bins between z = 0.04 and z = 1.6, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey. We measure the projected radial distribution of galaxies in cylinders around a constant number density selected sample of massive galaxies and utilize a statistical subtraction of contaminating sources. Our analysis shows that massive primary galaxies typically live in group halos and are surrounded by 2-3 satellites with masses more than one-tenth of the primary galaxy mass. The cumulative stellar mass in these satellites roughly equals the mass of the primary galaxy itself. We further find that the radial number density profile of galaxies around massive primaries has not evolved significantly in either slope or overall normalization in the past 9.5 Gyr. A simplistic interpretation of this result can be taken as evidence for a lack of mergers in the studied groups and as support for a static evolution model of halos containing massive primaries. Alternatively, there exists a tight balance between mergers and accretion of new satellites such that the overall distribution of galaxies in and around the halo is preserved. The latter interpretation is supported by a comparison to a semi-analytic model, which shows a similar constant average satellite distribution over the same redshift range.

  15. Security of supply: a neglected fossil fuel externality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Various groups have attempted to set a monetary value on the externalities of fossil fuel usage based on damages caused by emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and carbon. One externality that has been neglected in this type of analysis, however, is the cost of maintaining a secure supply of fossil fuels. Military expenditures for this purpose are relatively easy to quantify based on US Department of Defense and Office of Management and Budget figures, and amount to between $1 and more than $3 per million Btu, based on total fossil fuel consumption in the US. Open acknowledgment of such expenses would, at the very least, have a profound effect on the perceived competitiveness of all non-fossil fuel technologies. It should also provide a simple and easily comprehended rationale for an energy content (Btu) charge on all fossil fuels. (Author)

  16. Polar ring galaxies in the Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Ido; Funes, José G.; Brosch, Noah

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of 16 candidate polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) identified by the Galaxy Zoo project in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base. Deep images of five galaxies are available in the SDSS Stripe82 data base, while to reach similar depth we observed the remaining galaxies with the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We derive integrated magnitudes and u-r colours for the host and ring components and show continuum-subtracted Hα+[N II] images for seven objects. We present a basic morphological and environmental analysis of the galaxies and discuss their properties in comparison with other types of early-type galaxies. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow a kinematic confirmation of the nature of these systems and a more detailed analysis of their stellar populations.

  17. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  18. Green valley galaxies as a transition population in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenda, Valeria; Martínez, Héctor J.; Muriel, Hernán

    2018-02-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the properties of passive, star-forming and transition (green valley) galaxies in four discrete environments: field, groups, the outskirts and the core of X-ray clusters. We construct samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in these environments so that they are bound to have similar redshift distributions. The classification of galaxies into the three sequences is based on the UV-optical colour NUV - r. We study a number of galaxy properties: stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation. The analysis of green valley (GV) galaxies reveals that the physical mechanisms responsible for external quenching become more efficient moving from the field to denser environments. We confirm previous findings that GV galaxies have intermediate morphologies; moreover, we find that this appears to be independent of the environment. Regarding the stellar mass of GV galaxies, we find that they tend to be more massive in the field than in denser environments. On average, GV galaxies account for ∼ 20 per cent of all galaxies in groups and X-ray clusters. We find evidence that the field environment is inefficient in transforming low-mass galaxies. GV galaxies have average star formation histories intermediate between passive and star-forming galaxies, and have a clear and consistent dependence on the environment: both, the quenching time and the amplitude of the star formation rate, decrease towards higher density environments.

  19. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  20. The global and local stellar mass assembly histories of galaxies from the MaNGA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Medel, Hétor J.; Sánchez,, Sebastián F.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M., J.; González, J. Jesús; Drory, Niv; Bundy, Kevin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    By means of the fossil record method implemented through Pipe3D we reconstruct the global and radial stellar mass growth histories (MGHs) of a large sample of galaxies in the mass range 10^{8.5}M⊙-10^{11.5}M⊙ from the MaNGA survey. We find that: (1) The main driver of the global MGHs is mass, with more massive galaxies assembling their masses earlier (downsizing). (2) For most galaxies in their late evolutionary stages, the innermost regions formed earlier than the outermost ones (inside-out). This behaviour is stronger for blue/late-type galaxies.

  1. Galaxy Structure, Dark Matter, and Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, David H.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of galaxies, the nature of dark matter, and the physics of galaxy formation were the interlocking themes of DM 1996: Dark and Visible Matter in Galaxies and Cosmological Implications. In this conference summary report, I review recent observational and theoretical advances in these areas, then describe highlights of the meeting and discuss their implications. I include as an appendix the lyrics of The Dark Matter Rap: A Cosmological History for the MTV Generation.

  2. The first darter (Aves: Anhingidae) fossils from India (late Pliocene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Thomas; Patnaik, Rajeev; Krishan, Kewal; Singh, Bahadur; Ghosh, Abhik; Singla, Ankita; Kotla, Simran S

    2017-01-01

    New fossils from the latest Pliocene portion of the Tatrot Formation exposed in the Siwalik Hills of northern India represent the first fossil record of a darter (Anhingidae) from India. The darter fossils possibly represent a new species, but the limited information on the fossil record of this group restricts their taxonomic allocation. The Pliocene darter has a deep pit on the distal face of metatarsal trochlea IV not reported in other anhingids, it has an open groove for the m. flexor perforatus et perforans digiti II tendon on the hypotarsus unlike New World anhingid taxa, and these darter specimens are the youngest of the handful of Neogene records of the group from Asia. These fossil specimens begin to fill in a significant geographic and temporal gap in the fossil record of this group that is largely known from other continents and other time periods. The presence of a darter and pelican (along with crabs, fish, turtles, and crocodilians) in the same fossil-bearing horizon strongly indicates the past presence of a substantial water body (large pond, lake, or river) in the interior of northern India in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.

  3. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, 19395-5746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brough, Sarah [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Croton, Darren J.; Graham, Alister [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Driver, Simon [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Baldry, Ivan [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Brown, Michael [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Prescott, Matt [Astrophysics Group, The University of Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Wang, Lingyu, E-mail: habib@ipm.ir [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-06-20

    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between the two most luminous members, and the offset between the position of the BGG and the luminosity centroid of the group. We find that the radio luminosity of the largest galaxy in the group strongly depends on its environment, such that the BGGs in dynamically young (evolving) groups are an order of magnitude more luminous in the radio than those with a similar stellar mass but residing in dynamically old (relaxed) groups. This observation has been successfully reproduced by a newly developed semi-analytic model that allows us to explore the various causes of these findings. We find that the fraction of radio-loud BGGs in the observed dynamically young groups is ∼2 times that of the dynamically old groups. We discuss the implications of this observational constraint on the central galaxy properties in the context of galaxy mergers and the super massive black hole accretion rate.

  4. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  5. Organic molecules as chemical fossils - The molecular fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.

    1983-01-01

    The study of biochemical clues to the early earth and the origin of life is discussed. The methods used in such investigation are described, including the extraction, fractionation, and analysis of geolipids and the analysis of kerogen. The occurrence of molecular fossils in the geological record is examined, discussing proposed precursor-product relationships and the molecular assessment of deep sea sediments, ancient sediments, and crude petroleums. Alterations in the molecular record due to diagenesis and catagenesis are considered, and the use of microbial lipids as molecular fossils is discussed. The results of searches for molecular fossils in Precambrian sediments are assessed.

  6. ENVIRONMENTALLY DRIVEN GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing high-resolution large-scale galaxy formation simulations of the standard cold dark matter model, we examine global trends in the evolution of galaxies due to gravitational shock heating by collapse of large halos and large-scale structure. We find two major global trends. (1) The mean specific star formation rate (sSFR) at a given galaxy mass is a monotonically increasing function with increasing redshift. (2) The mean sSFR at a given redshift is a monotonically increasing function of decreasing galaxy mass that steepens with decreasing redshift. The general dimming trend with time merely reflects the general decline of gas inflow rate with increasing time. The differential evolution of galaxies of different masses with redshift is a result of gravitational shock heating of gas due to formation of large halos (groups and clusters) and large-scale structure that moves a progressively larger fraction of galaxies and their satellites into environments where gas has too high an entropy to cool to continue feeding resident galaxies. Overdense regions where larger halos are preferentially located begin to be heated earlier and have higher temperatures than lower density regions at any given time, causing sSFR of larger galaxies to fall below the general dimming trend at higher redshift than less massive galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR to gradually shift to lower density environments at lower redshift. We find that several noted cosmic downsizing phenomena are different manifestations of these general trends. We also find that the great migration of galaxies from blue cloud to red sequence as well as color-density relation, among others, may arise naturally in this picture.

  7. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  8. Investigation of morphological features of six interacting galaxies. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroviakovskaia, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphology of six groups of interacting galaxies in Vorontsov-Vel'iaminov's atlas is investigated by digital filtering methods using large-scale photographs obtained with the 6-m telescope. It is shown that of five groups of galaxies that might appear as chains in direct photographs, only one is probably a real chain. In the group VV 551, which was previously classified as a blue nest consisting of four or five members, only two spiral galaxies have been found

  9. Probing the Environment with Galaxy Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2006-01-01

    I present various projects to study the halo dynamics of elliptical galaxies. This allows one to study the outer mass and orbital distributions of ellipticals in different environments, and the inner distributions of groups and clusters themselves.

  10. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  11. Some problems of the origin of galaxy nests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of galaxy nests have been studied. The nests of galaxies consist of a few (more than two) galaxies in contact with each other and strongly distorted by mutual interaction. Their colour, geometrical and morphological characteristics are compared with ones of ordinary galaxies and groups of galaxies. Conclusions are drawn that 5% to 15% of the total number of nests may be the evolutionary products of tight groups of galaxies (with diameter 11 Msub(Sun)). About half of such objects consist of elliptical galaxies. Galaxies in sufficiently tight groups may merge in consequence of dynamical friction. The remaining (85-95%) nests origin may be possibly explained by different kinds of instabilities in certain flat galaxies, with transformation of one galaxy to the nest, or by interaction of two galaxies containing large amounts of gas and consequent intensive star formation in very large regions, or by other causes. To establish relative contribution of each possible phenomenon in nests origin, it is required to carry out further detailed investigations of these objects

  12. Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; van Dongen, Bart E; Lockyer, Nick P; Bull, Ian D; Orr, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we use pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to assess the mode of preservation of fossil microstructures, confirmed as melanosomes based on the presence of melanin, preserved in frogs from the Late Miocene Libros biota (NE Spain). Our results reveal a high abundance of organosulfur compounds and non-sulfurized fatty acid methyl esters in both the fossil tissues and host sediment; chemical signatures in the fossil tissues are inconsistent with preservation of phaeomelanin. Our results reflect preservation via the diagenetic incorporation of sulfur, i.e. sulfurization (natural vulcanization), and other polymerization processes. Organosulfur compounds and/or elevated concentrations of sulfur have been reported from melanosomes preserved in various invertebrate and vertebrate fossils and depositional settings, suggesting that preservation through sulfurization is likely to be widespread. Future studies of sulfur-rich fossil melanosomes require that the geochemistry of the host sediment is tested for evidence of sulfurization in order to constrain interpretations of potential phaeomelanosomes and thus of original integumentary colour in fossils.

  13. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

  14. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  15. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  16. On order and chaos in the mergers of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoort, Peter O.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes a low-dimensional model of the merger of two galaxies. The governing equations are the complete sets of moment equations of the first and second orders derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equations representing the galaxies. The moment equations reduce to an equation governing the relative motion of the galaxies, tensor virial equations, and equations governing the kinetic energy tensors. We represent the galaxies as heterogeneous ellipsoids with Gaussian stratifications of their densities, and we represent the mean stellar motions in terms of velocity fields that sustain those densities consistently with the equation of continuity. We reduce and solve the governing equations for a head-on encounter of a dwarf galaxy with a giant galaxy. That reduction includes the effect of dynamical friction on the relative motion of the galaxies. Our criterion for chaotic behaviour is sensitivity of the motion to small changes in the initial conditions. In a survey of encounters and mergers of a dwarf galaxy with a giant galaxy, chaotic behaviour arises mainly in non-linear oscillations of the dwarf galaxy. The encounter disrupts the dwarf, excites chaotic oscillations of the dwarf, or excites regular oscillations. Dynamical friction can drive a merger to completion within a Hubble time only if the dwarf is sufficiently massive. The survey of encounters and mergers is the basis for a simple model of the evolution of a `Local Group' consisting of a giant galaxy and a population of dwarf galaxies bound to the giant as satellites on radial orbits.

  17. Fossilized bioelectric wire - the trace fossilTrichichnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzierski, M; Uchman, A; Sawlowicz, Z; Briguglio, A

    2015-04-16

    The trace fossil Trichichnus is proposed as an indicator of fossil bioelectric bacterial activity at the oxic-anoxic interface zone of marine sediments. This fulfils the idea that such processes, commonly found in the modern realm, should be also present in the geological past. Trichichnus is an exceptional trace fossil due to its very thin diameter (mostly less than 1 mm) and common pyritic filling. It is ubiquitous in some fine-grained sediments, where it has been interpreted as a burrow formed deeper than any other trace fossils, below the redox boundary. Trichichnus , formerly referred to as deeply burrowed invertebrates, has been found as remnant of a fossilized intrasediment bacterial mat that is pyritized. As visualized in 3-D by means of X-ray computed microtomography scanner, Trichichnus forms dense filamentous fabric, which reflects that it is produced by modern large, mat-forming, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, belonging mostly to Thioploca -related taxa, which are able to house a complex bacterial consortium. Several stages of Trichichnus formation, including filamentous, bacterial mat and its pyritization, are proposed to explain an electron exchange between oxic and suboxic/anoxic layers in the sediment. Therefore, Trichichnus can be considered a fossilized "electric wire".

  18. Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Sagittarius DWARF GALAXY is the closest member of the Milky Way's entourage of satellite galaxies. Discovered by chance in 1994, its presence had previously been overlooked because it is largely hidden by the most crowded regions of our own Galaxy with which it is merging....

  19. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated

  20. The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell J; Dunlop, Jason A; Knecht, Brian J; Hegna, Thomas A

    2017-04-21

    Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK. Using X-ray microtomography, our principal aim was to resolve details of the limbs and mouthparts which would allow us to test whether this fossil belongs in the extant, relict family Paracharontidae; represented today by a single, blind species Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921. Tomography reveals several novel and significant character states for G. anglicus; most notably in the chelicerae, pedipalps and walking legs. These allowed it to be scored into a phylogenetic analysis together with the recently described Paracharonopsis cambayensis Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from the Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) Cambay amber, and Kronocharon prendinii Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber. We recovered relationships of the form ((Graeophonus (Paracharonopsis + Paracharon)) + (Charinus (Stygophrynus (Kronocharon (Charon (Musicodamon + Paraphrynus)))))). This tree largely reflects Peter Weygoldt's 1996 classification with its basic split into Paleoamblypygi and Euamblypygi lineages; we were able to score several of his characters for the first time in fossils. Our analysis draws into question the monophyly of the family Charontidae. Our data suggest that Graeophonus is a crown group amblypygid, and falls within a monophyletic Paleoamblypgi clade, but outside the family Paracharontidae (= Paracharonopsis + Paracharon). Our results also suggest a new placement for the Burmese amber genus Kronocharon, a node further down from its original position. Overall, we offer a

  1. Evolution of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baade, W.

    1975-01-01

    Transcriptions of recorded lectures given by the author have been edited into book form. Topics covered include: historical introduction, classification of galaxies; observation of galaxies; photography of galaxies; the andromeda nebula, spiral structure; dust and gas in galaxies; outline of stellar evolution; the distances to the galaxies; galactic clusters; stellar associations; the T Tauri stars; globular clusters: color-magnitude diagrams; spectra of population II stars; variable stars in globular clusters; elliptical galaxies; irregular galaxies and star formation; the magellanic clouds; the andromeda nebula, photometry; evolution of galaxies; the structure of the galaxy; the galactic nucleus; the galactic disk; and kinematics and evolution of the galaxy. 27 tables, 26 figures

  2. STELLAR MASS-GAP AS A PROBE OF HALO ASSEMBLY HISTORY AND CONCENTRATION: YOUTH HIDDEN AMONG OLD FOSSILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wetzel, A. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Tinker, J. L., E-mail: alis@ucolick.org [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ∼ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 10{sup 12.5} < M{sub halo}/M{sub ☉} < 10{sup 14.5}. In agreement with previous work, we find that halo mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to {sup f}ossil groups{sup )} are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  3. Suites of dwarfs around Nearby giant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ∼1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ 1 , depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ 1 . All suite members with positive Θ 1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ∼ n –2 . The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at M B = –18 m . We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not

  4. The future of fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, H. (ed.) (Calgary Institute for the Humanities, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    This book contains six chapters by different authors on the topics of our current and future use of fossil fuel. The three chapters in the first part of the book deal with the scientific analysis of the current situation and Part Two covers future possibilities from the perspectives of population growth, ethical and economic considerations. The chapters are: earth rhythms through out geological time; the global carbon-cycle, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere; fossil fuels-global resources; energy conservation and energy alternatives; fossil fuels and future generations; and reducing global carbon emissions: developed versus developing countries. These are the proceedings of the symposium entitled 'The future of fossil fuel', which was cosponsored by the Royal Society of Canada and the University of Calgary. 67 refs., 42 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Further Fossil finds from Flores

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Daniel Eric

    2005-01-01

    New fossil discoveries on Flores, Indonesia, bolster the evidence that Homo floresiensiswas a dwarfed human species that lived at the end of the last ice age. But the species’ evolutionary origins remain obscure.

  6. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Right-handed fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Marina; Estalrrich, Almudena; Bondioli, Luca; Fiore, Ivana; Bermúdez de Castro, José-Maria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Rosas, Antonio; Frayer, David W

    2017-11-01

    Fossil hominids often processed material held between their upper and lower teeth. Pulling with one hand and cutting with the other, they occasionally left impact cut marks on the lip (labial) surface of their incisors and canines. From these actions, it possible to determine the dominant hand used. The frequency of these oblique striations in an array of fossil hominins documents the typically modern pattern of 9 right- to 1 left-hander. This ratio among living Homo sapiens differs from that among chimpanzees and bonobos and more distant primate relatives. Together, all studies of living people affirm that dominant right-handedness is a uniquely modern human trait. The same pattern extends deep into our past. Thus far, the majority of inferred right-handed fossils come from Europe, but a single maxilla from a Homo habilis, OH-65, shows a predominance of right oblique scratches, thus extending right-handedness into the early Pleistocene of Africa. Other studies show right-handedness in more recent African, Chinese, and Levantine fossils, but the sample compiled for non-European fossil specimens remains small. Fossil specimens from Sima del los Huesos and a variety of European Neandertal sites are predominately right-handed. We argue the 9:1 handedness ratio in Neandertals and the earlier inhabitants of Europe constitutes evidence for a modern pattern of handedness well before the appearance of modern Homo sapiens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Spinrad, Hyron

    2005-01-01

    The evolution in the form and structure of galaxies which has taken place since the universe was in its infancy is one of the most closely studied by astrophysicists and cosmologists today. It has profound implications for our understanding of how the universe itself has evolved over the past 12 billion years or so. This book will discuss the evolution of galaxies in detail, emphasising the boundaries of our knowledge about the most distant galaxies, but demonstrating how it is possible to make important comparisons between nearby galaxies and the most distant current observed. The author will also review galaxy morphology and its likely (but as yet unproven) history.

  9. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  10. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  11. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  12. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies star

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24 276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3 mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into ‘bulgy’ (early-type) and ‘discy’ (late-typ...

  13. The influence of environment on galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Dennis William

    We study the influence of environment on galaxy evolution by focusing on two galaxy types known for their connection to dense environments, S0s and Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs). Our goal is to identify the mechanisms responsible for the properties of galaxies in groups and clusters. We first examine the effects of environment on S0 formation over the past ~7 Gyr by tracing the increasing S0 fraction in clusters at two mass scales. We find the build-up of S0s driven by groups/clusters with velocity dispersions of σ less-massive halos identified as the site for S0 formation, we test whether another route to S0 formation exists, not in isolated groups but rather in a system of four merging groups (SG1120). We place limits on how recent the S0s in that system could have formed, and finding no star formation, conclude they formed > 1 Gyr prior to SG1120's current configuration, when they were in more isolated groups. We next explore cluster outskirts to constrain the number of infalling galaxies that need to be transformed and whether that process has already begun. We find the red fraction of infalling galaxies is elevated relative to the field, and that red galaxies are more clustered than blue ones, a signature of "pre-processing". We disentangle the relative strength of global versus local environment on galaxy transformation by comparing the correlation of red fraction with radius and local density. We find that both parameters are connected with the red fraction of galaxies. Finally, we measure the frequency of galaxies falling into the cluster that are bright enough to supplant the current BCG and compare the results to models. We find in ~85% of our clusters that the BCG is secure and remains in its priviledged state until z ~ 0. From these analyses, we find that intermediate density environments (groups and cluster outskirts) are the key site to forming S0 galaxies, and that BCGs, while not exclusively a cluster phenomenon, are well established by the

  14. VISTA Views the Sculptor Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    A spectacular new image of the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) has been taken with the ESO VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile as part of one of its first major observational campaigns. By observing in infrared light VISTA's view is less affected by dust and reveals a myriad of cooler stars as well as a prominent bar of stars across the central region. The VISTA image provides much new information on the history and development of the galaxy. The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) lies in the constellation of the same name and is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is prominent enough to be seen with good binoculars and was discovered by Caroline Herschel from England in 1783. NGC 253 is a spiral galaxy that lies about 13 million light-years away. It is the brightest member of a small collection of galaxies called the Sculptor Group, one of the closest such groupings to our own Local Group of galaxies. Part of its visual prominence comes from its status as a starburst galaxy, one in the throes of rapid star formation. NGC 253 is also very dusty, which obscures the view of many parts of the galaxy (eso0902). Seen from Earth, the galaxy is almost edge on, with the spiral arms clearly visible in the outer parts, along with a bright core at its centre. VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope. After being handed over to ESO at the end of 2009 (eso0949) the telescope was used for two detailed studies of small sections of the sky before it embarked on the much larger surveys that are now in progress. One of these "mini surveys" was a detailed study of NGC 253 and its environment. As VISTA works at infrared wavelengths it can see right through most of the dust that is such a prominent feature of the Sculptor Galaxy when viewed in visible light. Huge numbers of cooler stars that are barely detectable with visible

  15. Uranium concentrations in fossils measured by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeda, Chiaki; Okano, Jun

    1988-01-01

    Semiquantitative analyses of uranium in fossil bones and teeth were carried out by SIMS. The results show a tendency that uranium concentrations in the fossils increase with the ages of the fossils. It is noticed that fossil bones and teeth having uranium concentration of more than several hundred ppm are not rare. (author)

  16. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis Read, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  17. New record of a fossil haplotilapiine cichlid from Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie B. R. Penk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available African freshwater cichlids (Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae are well known for their exceptionally great diversity and their capability of rapid speciation as well as diverse adaptations. The extant Pseudocrenilabrinae can be grouped into 27 tribes, with more than 2000 species harbored in the Great Lakes and surrounding water bodies of the East African Rift System. However, this unique diversity is not reflected in the fossil record because fossil cichlids were predominantly reported based on isolated teeth and bones. Moreover, the few articulated specimens that are known have not been analyzed sufficiently with regard to their systematic position due to lack of comparative material. Here we present a new extraordinarily well-preserved cichlid fish fossil from the Middle Miocene (c. 12.5 Ma Lagerstaette Kabchore, which was recovered during recent fieldwork in the Tugen Hills (Baringo County, Central Kenya Rift. Based on the evidence of tricuspid teeth, the Kabchore fossil can be assigned to the subclade of the Haplotilapiines within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. The multivariate analysis of a large meristic data set, derived from 1014 extant specimens (encompassing all main lineages of Haplotilapiines and usage of available osteological data suggest that this fossil is most likely related to one of the three haplotilapiine tribes Tilapiini, Haplochromini or Oreochromini. Moreover, the fossil specimen closely resembles the extinct cichlid Oreochromis martyni (Van Couvering, 1982, previously described as species of Sarotherodon from the Middle Miocene alkaline Kapkiamu Lake in the Tugen Hills. The analysis of the greatly preserved fossil fish specimen from Kabchore definitely supplements the fragmentary fossil record of Africa’s Cichlidae and will afford new insights into its evolutionary history. We also expect that this fossil will be useful as calibration point for new divergence-time estimates.

  18. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  19. An automatic taxonomy of galaxy morphology using unsupervised machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Alex; Geach, James E.; Sun, Yi; Davey, Neil

    2018-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine learning technique that automatically segments and labels galaxies in astronomical imaging surveys using only pixel data. Distinct from previous unsupervised machine learning approaches used in astronomy we use no pre-selection or pre-filtering of target galaxy type to identify galaxies that are similar. We demonstrate the technique on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields. By training the algorithm using galaxies from one field (Abell 2744) and applying the result to another (MACS 0416.1-2403), we show how the algorithm can cleanly separate early and late type galaxies without any form of pre-directed training for what an 'early' or 'late' type galaxy is. We then apply the technique to the HST Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) fields, creating a catalogue of approximately 60 000 classifications. We show how the automatic classification groups galaxies of similar morphological (and photometric) type and make the classifications public via a catalogue, a visual catalogue and galaxy similarity search. We compare the CANDELS machine-based classifications to human-classifications from the Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS project. Although there is not a direct mapping between Galaxy Zoo and our hierarchical labelling, we demonstrate a good level of concordance between human and machine classifications. Finally, we show how the technique can be used to identify rarer objects and present lensed galaxy candidates from the CANDELS imaging.

  20. ECO and RESOLVE: Galaxy Disk Growth in Environmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David V.; Hendel, David; Norris, Mark A.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2015-10-01

    We study the relationships between galaxy environments and galaxy properties related to disk (re)growth, considering two highly complete samples that are approximately baryonic mass limited into the high-mass dwarf galaxy regime, the Environmental COntext catalog (data release herein) and the B-semester region of the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE survey. We quantify galaxy environments using both group identification and smoothed galaxy density field methods. We use by-eye and quantitative morphological classifications plus atomic gas content measurements and estimates. We find that blue early-type (E/S0) galaxies, gas-dominated galaxies, and UV-bright disk host galaxies all become distinctly more common below group halo mass ˜ {10}11.5 {M}⊙ , implying that this low group halo mass regime may be a preferred regime for significant disk growth activity. We also find that blue early-type and blue late-type galaxies inhabit environments of similar group halo mass at fixed baryonic mass, consistent with a scenario in which blue early-types can regrow late-type disks. In fact, we find that the only significant difference in the typical group halo mass inhabited by different galaxy classes is for satellite galaxies with different colors, where at fixed baryonic mass red early- and late-types have higher typical group halo masses than blue early- and late-types. More generally, we argue that the traditional morphology-environment relation (i.e., that denser environments tend to have more early-types) can be largely attributed to the morphology-galaxy mass relation for centrals and the color-environment relation for satellites.

  1. Galaxy evolution. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: stellar systems that ran away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-04-24

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Superclusters of galaxies in the 2dF redshift survey. 3. The properties of galaxies in superclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einasto, Maret; Einasto, J.; Tago, E.; Saar, E.; Liivamagi, L.J.; oeveer, M.J; Hutsi, G.; /Tartu Observ.; Heinamaki, P.; /Tuorla Observ.; Muller, V.; /Potsdam, Astrophys.; Tucker, D.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    We use catalogues of superclusters of galaxies from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey to study the properties of galaxies in superclusters. We compare the properties of galaxies in high and low density regions of rich superclusters, in poor superclusters and in the field, as well as in groups, and of isolated galaxies in superclusters of various richness. We show that in rich superclusters the values of the luminosity density smoothed on a scale of 8 h{sup -1} Mpc are higher than in poor superclusters: the median density in rich superclusters is {sigma} {approx} 7.5, in poor superclusters {delta} {approx} 6.0. Rich superclusters contain high density cores with densities {sigma} > 10 while in poor superclusters such high density cores are absent. The properties of galaxies in rich and poor superclusters and in the field are different: the fraction of early type, passive galaxies in rich superclusters is slightly larger than in poor superclusters, and is the smallest among the field galaxies. Most importantly, in high density cores of rich superclusters ({delta} > 10) there is an excess of early type, passive galaxies in groups and clusters, as well as among those which do not belong to groups or clusters. The main galaxies of superclusters have a rather limited range of absolute magnitudes. The main galaxies of rich superclusters have larger luminosities than those of poor superclusters and of groups in the field (the median values are correspondingly M{sub bj} = -21.02, M{sub bj} = -20.9 and M{sub bj} = -19.7 for rich and poor superclusters and groups in the field). Our results show that both the local (group/cluster) environments and global (supercluster) environments influence galaxy morphologies and their star formation activity.

  3. The structure of nearby clusters of galaxies Hierarchical clustering and an application to the Leo region

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1978-01-01

    A new method of classifying groups of galaxies, called hierarchical clustering, is presented as a tool for the investigation of nearby groups of galaxies. The method is free from model assumptions about the groups. The scaling of the different coordinates is necessary, and the level from which one accepts the groups as real has to be determined. Hierarchical clustering is applied to an unbiased sample of galaxies in the Leo region. Five distinct groups result which have reasonable physical properties, such as low crossing times and conservative mass-to-light ratios, and which follow a radial velocity- luminosity relation. Only 4 out of 39 galaxies were adopted as field galaxies. (27 refs).

  4. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  5. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  6. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan

    1995-07-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFPC2 `BVI' color-magnitude diagrams {CMDs} for the dwarf irregular {dI} Local Group galaxies GR 8, Leo A, Pegasus, and Sextans A. In addition to resolved stars, we will use star clusters, and especially any globulars, to probe the history of intense star formation. These data will allow us to map the Pop I and Pop II stellar components, and thereby construct the first detailed star formation histories for non-interacting dI galaxies. Our results will bear on a variety of astrophysical problems, including the evolution of small galaxies, distances in the Local Group, age-metallicity distributions in small galaxies, ages of dIs, and the physics of star formation. The four target galaxies are typical dI systems in terms of luminosity, gas content, and H II region abundance, and represent a range in current star forming activity. They are sufficiently near to allow us to reach to stars at M_V = 0, have 0.1 of the luminosity of the SMC and 0.25 of its oxygen abundance. Unlike the SMC, these dIs are not near giant galaxies. This project will allow the extension of our knowledge of stellar populations in star forming galaxies from the spirals in the Local Group down to its smallest members. We plan to take maximum advantage of the unique data which this project will provide. Our investigator team brings extensive and varied experience in studies of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations, imaging photometry, and stellar evolution to this project.

  7. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume II provides the model equations with each of their variables defined, while Volume III lists the equations, and a one line definition for equations, in a shorter, more readable format.

  8. The origin of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The existence of galaxies implies that the early Universe must have contained initial density fluctuations. Overdense regions would then expand more slowly than the background and eventually - providing the fluctuations were not damped out first - they would stop expanding altogether and collapse to form bound objects. To understand how galaxies form we therefore need to know: how the initial density fluctuations arise, under what circumstances they evolve into bound objects, and how the bound objects develop the observed characteristics of galaxies. (author)

  9. HI in elliptical galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Elaine M.; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen is an important component of the interstellar medium in elliptical galaxies as well as a potentially valuable mass tracer. Until recently, HI surveys of early-type galaxies have been sparse and inhomogeneous but this has changed with the advent of the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS; Barnes et al. 2001). We discuss HIPASS observations of a sample of ~2500 nearby E/S0 galaxies, as well as detailed HI imaging of a range of individual objects.

  10. Amazing Andromeda Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The many 'personalities' of our great galactic neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, are exposed in this new composite image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The wide, ultraviolet eyes of Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveal Andromeda's 'fiery' nature -- hotter regions brimming with young and old stars. In contrast, Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes show Andromeda's relatively 'cool' side, which includes embryonic stars hidden in their dusty cocoons. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detected young, hot, high-mass stars, which are represented in blue, while populations of relatively older stars are shown as green dots. The bright yellow spot at the galaxy's center depicts a particularly dense population of old stars. Swaths of red in the galaxy's disk indicate areas where Spitzer found cool, dusty regions where stars are forming. These stars are still shrouded by the cosmic clouds of dust and gas that collapsed to form them. Together, Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Spitzer complete the picture of Andromeda's swirling spiral arms. Hints of pinkish purple depict regions where the galaxy's populations of hot, high-mass stars and cooler, dust-enshrouded stars co-exist. Located 2.5 million light-years away, the Andromeda is our largest nearby galactic neighbor. The galaxy's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, our Milky Way galaxy's disk is about 100,000 light-years across. This image is a false color composite comprised of data from Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far-ultraviolet detector (blue), near-ultraviolet detector (green), and Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer at 24 microns (red).

  11. Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, J

    2000-01-01

    ... (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULICs...

  12. Phylogeny of the Infraorder Pentatomomorpha based on fossil and extant morphology, with description of a new fossil family from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhi Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An extinct new family of Pentatomomorpha, Venicoridae Yao, Ren & Cai fam. nov., with 2 new genera and 2 new species (Venicoris solaris Yao, Ren & Rider gen. & sp. nov. and Clavaticoris zhengi Yao, Ren & Cai gen. & sp. nov. are described from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cladistic analysis based on a combination of fossil and extant morphological characters clarified the phylogenetic status of the new family and has allowed the reconstruction of intersuperfamily and interfamily relationships within the Infraorder Pentatomomorpha. The fossil record and diversity of Pentatomomorpha during the Mesozoic is discussed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pentatomomorpha is a monophyletic group; Aradoidea and the Trichophora are sister groups; these fossils belong to new family, treated as the sister group of remainder of Trichophora; Pentatomoidea is a monophyletic group; Piesmatidae should be separated as a superfamily, Piesmatoidea. Origin time of Pentatomomorpha should be tracked back to the Middle or Early Triassic.

  13. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  14. Evolutionary phenomena in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.E.; Pagel, B.E.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the subject of evolutionary phenomena in galaxies, bringing together contributions by experts on all the relevant physics and astrophysics necessary to understand galaxies and how they work. The book is based on the proceedings of a conference held in July 1988 in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife which was timed to coincide with the first year of operation of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. The broad topics covered include formation of galaxies and their ages, stellar dynamics, galactic scale gas and its role in star formation and the production and distribution of the chemical elements within galaxies. (author)

  15. LOW CO LUMINOSITIES IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Leroy, Adam K.; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl; Usero, Antonio; Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of 12 COJ = 2-1 emission covering the entire star-forming disks of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies observed by the IRAM HERACLES survey. The data have 13'' angular resolution, ∼250 pc at our average distance of D = 4 Mpc, and sample the galaxies by 10-1000 resolution elements. We apply stacking techniques to perform the first sensitive search for CO emission in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group ranging from individual lines of sight, stacking over IR-bright regions of embedded star formation, and stacking over the entire galaxy. We detect five galaxies in CO with total CO luminosities of L CO2-1 = (3-28) × 10 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . The other 11 galaxies remain undetected in CO even in the stacked images and have L CO2-1 ∼ 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . We combine our sample of dwarf galaxies with a large sample of spiral galaxies from the literature to study scaling relations of L CO with M B and metallicity. We find that dwarf galaxies with metallicities of Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ have L CO of 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than massive spiral galaxies and that their L CO per unit L B is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller. A comparison with tracers of star formation (FUV and 24 μm) shows that L CO per unit star formation rate (SFR) is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller in dwarf galaxies. One possible interpretation is that dwarf galaxies form stars much more efficiently: we argue that the low L CO /SFR ratio is due to the fact that the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, α CO , changes significantly in low-metallicity environments. Assuming that a constant H 2 depletion time of τ dep = 1.8 Gyr holds in dwarf galaxies (as found for a large sample of nearby spirals) implies α CO values for dwarf galaxies with Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ that are more than one order of magnitude higher than those found in solar metallicity spiral galaxies. Such a significant increase of α CO at low metallicity is consistent with previous studies, in particular those of Local Group dwarf

  16. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  17. First fossil evidence of Connaraceae R. Br. from Indian Cenozoic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fossil leaflet and their nearest living relative were taken using an incident light compound microscope. (Stemi SV 11, Zeiss), a transmitted light compound ..... Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [APG] 2003 An update of the. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II; Bot.

  18. Fossilization of bermuda patch reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffin, T P

    1972-12-22

    Living corals on Bermuda patch reefs build a primary framework which, in places, is so destroyed by boring organisms that the reef surface subsides. Organisms that encrust the reef cavities are preferentially preserved as the framework is bored. Burial by loose sediment stops framework growth, encrustation, and boring. Finally, cementation completes fossilization.

  19. Rule Fossilization: A Tentative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Neddy A.; Oller, John W.

    1976-01-01

    A cybernetic model of factors involved in the fossilization of grammatical and lexical forms in learner grammars is offered. A distinction is made between affective and cognitive dimensions of a multidimensional channel of human communication; and the effect of expected and unexpected feedback on these two dimensions is discussed. (Author/POP)

  20. Fossil Polypodiaceae and their spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1991-01-01

    In this publication emphasis is laid on the modern definition of the family Polypodiaceae (Filicales), which is based on an extensive study of Recent material and which is much restricted with respect to older circumscriptions of the family as usually applied by palaeobotanists. Fossils of fems

  1. Giving the early fossil record of sponges a squeeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliffe, Jonathan B; Callow, Richard H T; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-11-01

    Twenty candidate fossils with claim to be the oldest representative of the Phylum Porifera have been re-analysed. Three criteria are used to assess each candidate: (i) the diagnostic criteria needed to categorize sponges in the fossil record; (ii) the presence, or absence, of such diagnostic features in the putative poriferan fossils; and (iii) the age constraints for the candidate fossils. All three criteria are critical to the correct interpretation of any fossil and its placement within an evolutionary context. Our analysis shows that no Precambrian fossil candidate yet satisfies all three of these criteria to be a reliable sponge fossil. The oldest widely accepted candidate, Mongolian silica hexacts from c. 545 million years ago (Ma), are here shown to be cruciform arsenopyrite crystals. The oldest reliable sponge remains are siliceous spicules from the basal Cambrian (Protohertzina anabarica Zone) Soltanieh Formation, Iran, which are described and analysed here in detail for the first time. Extensive archaeocyathan sponge reefs emerge and radiate as late as the middle of the Fortunian Stage of the Cambrian and demonstrate a gradual assembly of their skeletal structure through this time coincident with the evolution of other metazoan groups. Since the Porifera are basal in the Metazoa, their presence within the late Proterozoic has been widely anticipated. Molecular clock calibration for the earliest Porifera and Metazoa should now be based on the Iranian hexactinellid material dated to c. 535 Ma. The earliest convincing fossil sponge remains appeared at around the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, associated with the great radiation events of that interval. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. The Evolution of Galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2007), s. 34-40 ISSN 1220-5168. [Heliospere and galaxy. Sinaia, 03.05.2007-05.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ISM structure * stars formation * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  3. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble's Managerie of Galaxies. Biman Nath. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 226-235. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0226-0235. Keywords. Galaxies ...

  4. Our galaxy is exploding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closets, Francois de.

    1977-01-01

    Improvements made in radioastronomy, and infrared, X and γ emission studies of the Galaxy have allowed to study the galactic nucleus, which is characterized by an intense activity. The most recent hypotheses made to explain this activity and replace it in the general context of the evolution of the galaxies are presented [fr

  5. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, N.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES were first identified by Shapley, who had noticed two very diffuse collections of stars on Harvard patrol plates. Although these systems had about as many stars as a GLOBULAR CLUSTER, they were of much lower density, and hence much larger radius, and thus were considered distinct galaxies. These two, named Fornax and Sculptor after the constellations in which they ap...

  6. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    astronom ers have even w ondered ifH ubble's galaxy typ es form an evolutionary sequence: does one type of galaxy evolve into another? 1. T he D iscovery of G alaxies. A stronom ers began to ponder these issues only after they discovered w hat ...

  7. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  8. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jets in active galaxies are signatures of energy supply via collimatedbeams of plasma from the galactic nucleus to the extendedregions of emission. These jets, which occur acrossthe electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassiveblack holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seenon the scale of parsecs ...

  9. The Mutable Galaxies -10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of spectacular explosions, called supernovae. The next generation stars which ... nova explosion of massive stars. Galaxies then must go throug;h this 'chemical' evolution, slowly changing the abundance of heavy elements in its gas and in stars. A spectacular .... small, which is the case in our galaxy. One finds that p is of ...

  10. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled 'Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital' (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administration׳s International Energy Statistics (http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2) and the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset (http://www.barrolee.com). These data can be used to examine the relationships between economic growth and different forms of energy consumption. The dataset is made publicly available to promote further analyses.

  11. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  12. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  13. Starbursts and IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several observational hints suggest that most of the IRAS galaxies are undergoing bursts of star formation. A simple photometric model of starburst galaxy was developed in order to check whether starburst events are really able to account for the far-infrared and optical properties of all the IRAS galaxies with HII region-like spectra. FIR activities up to a few hundred are actually easily reached with rather small bursts in red host-galaxies, and L IR /L B , EW(Hα) and U-B) versus (B-V) diagrams can be used to estimate burst strength and extinction. But more observations are required to conclude about the most extreme cases. Four typical infrared-selected IRAS galaxies are presented and their burst strength and extinction estimated

  14. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  15. A Biological Time Capsule. Fossil Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolph, Gary E.; Dolph, Laura L.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity where students prepare high-quality fossil specimens to demonstrate the theory of evolution. The technique needed for fossil removal, the geologic and paleoclimatic setting, and the fish morphology are discussed. (KR)

  16. The galaxy ancestor problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  17. The distribution of matter around luminous galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.C.; Laflamme, R.; Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H.

    1996-06-01

    The authors discuss the dynamical implications of a measure proposed by Jim Peebles which is the cosmic mass density of material within some fixed distance of a luminous galaxy. If all the matter in the Universe were strongly correlated with galaxies, then this measure rises rapidly to the standard cosmic mass density as expressed in the parameter{Omega}. With numerical simulations they show that in both standard and low-mass CDM models only half of the mass of the Universe lies within a megaparsec or so of a galaxy of luminosity of roughly L{sub *} or brighter. The implications of this clustering property are considerable for conventional mass measures which treat galaxies as point particles. They explore two such measures, based on the Least Action Method and the Cosmic Virial Theorem. In the former case, the method is not likely to work on scales of a typical intergalaxy spacing; however, it may perform nicely in estimating the mass of an isolated set of galaxy groups or poor clusters. In the case of the Cosmic Virial Theorem, they find that having a large fraction of the mass in the Universe located at some distance from galaxies brings in potentially severe problems of bias which can introduce large uncertainties in the estimation of {Omega}.

  18. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  19. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  20. Looking at Fossils in New Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    Existing fossils could be studied from a different prospective with the use of new methods of analysis for gathering more information. The new techniques of studying fossils binds the new and the old techniques and information and provides another way to look at fossils.

  1. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišanová Monika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel – “alternative energy“ is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel – power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

  2. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  3. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  4. Extinction and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, ,. J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The author examines evidence of mass extinctions in the fossil record and searches for reasons for such large extinctions. Five major mass extinctions eliminated at least 40 percent of animal genera in the oceans and from 65 to 95 percent of ocean species. Questions include the occurrence of gradual or catastrophic extinctions, causes, environment, the capacity of a perturbation to cause extinctions each time it happens, and the possibility and identification of complex events leading to a mass extinction.

  5. Spatially-resolved star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies. Implications for galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; López Fernández, R.; Vale Asari, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the spatially resolved star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies with the aim of furthering our understanding of the different processes involved in the formation and evolution of galaxies. To this end, we apply the fossil record method of stellar population synthesis to a rich and diverse data set of 436 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy in the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, with stellar masses ranging from M⋆ 109 to 7 × 1011 M⊙. Spectral synthesis techniques are applied to the datacubes to retrieve the spatially resolved time evolution of the star formation rate (SFR), its intensity (ΣSFR), and other descriptors of the 2D SFH in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd) and five bins of stellar mass. Our main results are that (a) galaxies form very fast independently of their current stellar mass, with the peak of star formation at high redshift (z > 2). Subsequent star formation is driven by M⋆ and morphology, with less massive and later type spirals showing more prolonged periods of star formation. (b) At any epoch in the past, the SFR is proportional to M⋆, with most massive galaxies having the highest absolute (but lowest specific) SFRs. (c) While today, the ΣSFR is similar for all spirals and significantly lower in early-type galaxies (ETG), in the past, the ΣSFR scales well with morphology. The central regions of today's ETGs are where the ΣSFR reached the highest values (> 103 M⊙ Gyr-1 pc-2), similar to those measured in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. (d) The evolution of ΣSFR in Sbc systems matches that of models for Milky Way-like galaxies, suggesting that the formation of a thick disk may be a common phase in spirals at early epochs. (e) The SFR and ΣSFR in outer regions of E and S0 galaxies show that they have undergone an extended phase of growth in mass between z = 2 and 0.4. The mass assembled in this phase is in agreement with

  6. THE SLOAN GREAT WALL. MORPHOLOGY AND GALAXY CONTENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, M.; Liivamaegi, L. J.; Tempel, E.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Einasto, P.; Enkvist, I.; Einasto, J.; MartInez, V. J.; Heinaemaeki, P.; Nurmi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the morphology and galaxy content of the Sloan Great Wall (SGW), the richest galaxy system in the nearby universe. We use the luminosity density field to determine superclusters in the SGW, and the fourth Minkowski functional V 3 and the morphological signature (the K 1 -K 2 shapefinder curve) to show the different morphologies of the SGW, from a single filament to a multibranching, clumpy planar system. We show that the richest supercluster in the SGW, SCl 126, and especially its core, resembles a very rich filament, while another rich supercluster in the SGW, SCl 111, resembles a 'multispider'-an assembly of high-density regions connected by chains of galaxies. We study the substructure of individual galaxy populations determined by their color in these superclusters using Minkowski functionals and find that in the high-density core of the SGW the clumpiness of red and blue galaxies is similar, but in the outskirts of superclusters the distribution of red galaxies is clumpier than that of blue galaxies. At intermediate densities, the systems of blue galaxies have tunnels through them. We assess the statistical significance of our results using the halo model and smoothed bootstrap. We study the galaxy content and the properties of groups of galaxies in the two richest superclusters of the SGW, paying special attention to bright red galaxies (BRGs) and the first ranked (the most luminous) galaxies in SGW groups. The BRGs are the nearby luminous red galaxies; they are mostly bright and red and typically reside in groups (several groups host five or more BRGs). About one-third of the BRGs are spirals. The scatter of colors of elliptical BRGs is smaller than that of spiral BRGs. About half of the BRGs and of first ranked galaxies in groups have large peculiar velocities. Groups with elliptical BRGs as their first ranked galaxies populate superclusters more uniformly than the groups that have a spiral BRG as their first ranked

  7. Radio Continuum and Far-infrared Emission from the Galaxies in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/joaa/026/01/0089-0102 ... Galaxy: radio continuum, radio; FIR correlation; galaxies: groups; individual: Eridanus. ... The galaxies that have a significant excess of radio emission are identified as low luminosity AGNs based on their radio morphologies obtained from the ...

  8. Anomalous evolution of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritzl, BJ; Knezek, PM; Gallagher, JS; Grossi, M; Disney, MJ; Minchin, RF; Freeman, KC; Tolstoy, E; Saha, A

    2003-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of the dwarf galaxy HIPASS J1321-31. This unusual galaxy lies in the direction of the Centaurus A group of galaxies and has a color-magnitude diagram with a distinctive red plume of luminous stars. This feature could arise from (1) a red giant

  9. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E

    2003-01-01

    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  10. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  11. New Ediacara fossils preserved in marine limestone and their ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhou, Chuanming; Xiao, Shuhai; Wang, Wei; Guan, Chengguo; Hua, Hong; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-02-25

    Ediacara fossils are central to our understanding of animal evolution on the eve of the Cambrian explosion, because some of them likely represent stem-group marine animals. However, some of the iconic Ediacara fossils have also been interpreted as terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Our ability to test these hypotheses is limited by a taphonomic bias that most Ediacara fossils are preserved in sandstones and siltstones. Here we report several iconic Ediacara fossils and an annulated tubular fossil (reconstructed as an erect epibenthic organism with uniserial arranged modular units), from marine limestone of the 551-541 Ma Dengying Formation in South China. These fossils significantly expand the ecological ranges of several key Ediacara taxa and support that they are marine organisms rather than terrestrial lichens or microbial colonies. Their close association with abundant bilaterian burrows also indicates that they could tolerate and may have survived moderate levels of bioturbation.

  12. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. WHERE DO WET, DRY, AND MIXED GALAXY MERGERS OCCUR? A STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENTS OF CLOSE GALAXY PAIRS IN THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Cooper, Michael C.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Jian, Hung-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong; Koo, David C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Patton, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Croton, Darren J.; Gerke, Brian F.; Lotz, Jennifer; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the environments of wet, dry, and mixed galaxy mergers at 0.75 c ) is observed to increase with overdensity, using N-body simulations, we find that the fraction of pairs that will eventually merge decreases with the local density, predominantly because interlopers are more common in dense environments. After taking into account the merger probability of pairs as a function of local density, we find only marginal environment dependence of the galaxy merger rate for wet mergers. On the other hand, the dry and mixed merger rates increase rapidly with local density due to the increased population of red galaxies in dense environments, implying that the dry and mixed mergers are most effective in overdense regions. We also find that the environment distribution of K+A galaxies is similar to that of wet mergers alone and of wet+mixed mergers, suggesting a possible connection between K+A galaxies and wet and/or wet+mixed mergers. Based on our results, we therefore expect that the properties, including structures and masses, of red-sequence galaxies should be different between those in underdense regions and those in overdense regions since the dry mergers are significantly more important in dense environments. We conclude that, as early as z ∼ 1, high-density regions are the preferred environment in which dry mergers occur, and that present-day red-sequence galaxies in overdense environments have, on average, undergone 1.2 ± 0.3 dry mergers since this time, accounting for (38 ± 10)% of their mass accretion in the last 8 billion years. The main uncertainty in this finding is the conversion from the pair fraction to the galaxy merger rate, which is possibly as large as a factor of 2. Our findings suggest that dry mergers are crucial in the mass assembly of massive red galaxies in dense environments, such as brightest cluster galaxies in galaxy groups and clusters.

  14. Conchostracans: Living and Fossil from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasch, P; Shaffer, B L

    1964-02-21

    In August 1963, living conchostracans (branchipod Crustacea) of the genera Leptestheria and Eulimnadia were collected at three stations in Chihuahua. One Sonoran locality yielded Triassic fossils of the family Cyzicidae, a widespread North American group. The geographic rangeof the geologically younger families Leptestheriidae and Limnadidae (particularly the genus Eulimnadia) thus extended to Chihuahua during post-Mesozoic time.

  15. Fossil Fuel and Food Tax Incidence in Ethiopia | Mekonnen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most studies suggest that environmental taxes are regressive, making them less attractive policy options. The general objective of this paper is to analyze and compare fossil fuel and food tax incidence in Ethiopia in different expenditure groups of households considering urban and rural parts of Ethiopia separately. We use ...

  16. A Catalog of Edge-on Disk Galaxies: From Galaxies with a Bulge to Superthin Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kautsch, S. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Barazza, F. D.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    The formation and evolution of disk-dominated galaxies is difficult to explain, yet these objects exist. We therefore embarked on a study aimed at a better understanding of these enigmatic objects. We used data from the SDSS DR1 in order to identify edge-on galaxies with disks in a uniform, reproducible, automated fashion. We identified 3169 edge-on disk galaxies, which we subdivided into disk galaxies with bulge, intermediate types, and simple disk galaxies without any obvious bulge componen...

  17. Deep spectroscopy of nearby galaxy clusters: IV The quench of the star formation in galaxies in the infall region of Abell 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Agulli, I.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2018-03-01

    Our aim is to understand the role of the environment in the quenching of star formation of galaxies located in the infall cluster region of Abell 85 (A 85). This is achieved by studying the post-starburst galaxy population as tracer of recent quenching. By measuring the equivalent width (EW) of the [OII] and Hδ spectral lines, we classify the galaxies in three groups: passive (PAS), emission line (EL), and post-starburst (PSB) galaxies. The PSB galaxy population represents ˜4.5% of the full sample. Dwarf galaxies (Mr > -18.0) account for ˜70 - 80% of PSBs, which indicates that most of the galaxies undergoing recent quenching are low-mass objects. Independently of the environment, PSB galaxies are disk-like objects with g - r colour between the blue ELs and the red PAS ones. The PSB and EL galaxies in low-density environments show similar luminosities and local galaxy densities. The dynamics and local galaxy density of the PSB population in high density environments are shared with PAS galaxies. However, PSB galaxies inside A 85 are at shorter clustercentric radius than PAS and EL ones. The value of the EW(Hδ) is larger for those PSBs closer to the cluster centre. We propose two different physical mechanisms producing PSB galaxies depending on the environment. In low density environments, gas-rich minor mergers or accretions could produce the PSB galaxies. For high density environments like A 85, PSBs would be produced by the removal of the gas reservoirs of EL galaxies by ram-pressure stripping when they pass near to the cluster centre.

  18. Dwarf elliptical galaxies with kinematically decoupled cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Hau, G. K. T.

    2004-10-01

    We present, for the first time, photometric and kinematical evidence, obtained with FORS2 on the VLT, for the existence of kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf elliptical galaxies; FS76 in the NGC 5044 group and FS373 in the NGC 3258 group. Both kinematically peculiar subcomponents rotate in the same sense as the main body of their host galaxy but betray their presence by a pronounced bump in the rotation velocity profiles at a radius of about 1''. The KDC in FS76 rotates at 10 ± 3 km s-1, with the host galaxy rotating at 15 ± 6 km s-1; the KDC in FS373 has a rotation velocity of 6 ± 2 km s-1 while the galaxy itself rotates at 20 ± 5 km s-1. FS373 has a very complex rotation velocity profile with the velocity changing sign at 1.5 Re. The velocity and velocity dispersion profiles of FS76 are asymmetric at larger radii. This could be caused by a past gravitational interaction with the giant elliptical NGC 5044, which is at a projected distance of 50 kpc. We argue that these decoupled cores are most likely not produced by mergers in a group or cluster environment because of the prohibitively large relative velocities. A plausible alternative is offered by flyby interactions between a dwarf elliptical or its disky progenitor and a massive galaxy. The tidal forces during an interaction at the relative velocities and impact parameters typical for a group environment exert a torque on the dwarf galaxy that, according to analytical estimates, transfers enough angular momentum to its stellar envelope to explain the observed peculiar kinematics.

  19. Revision of the fossil Echini from the tertiary strata of Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1880-01-01

    In the year 1854 J. A. Herklots published a description of the fossil Echini, which had been found by Junghuhn in the tertiary strata of Java, in the fourth part of a publication, entitled «Fossiles de Java.” I have been occupied in working out the other groups of animals from these deposits, which

  20. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Gonzalez, E.M.

    1985-05-01

    The aim of the present series of lectures is to be unashamedly pedagogical and present, in simple terms, an overview of our current thinking about our universe and the way in which we believe galaxies have formed. (orig./WL)

  1. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroczkin, D.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of Truran and Cameron concerning the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is described, as well as the photometric properties obtained from the galactic models calculations. Also few observational facts are given. (author)

  2. Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. E.

    2014-10-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  3. Automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional surface photometry of a very large number of galaxies on a deep Schmidt plate has been obtained using the Automatic Plate Measuring System (APM). A method of photometric calibration, suitable for APM measurements, via pixel-by-pixel comparison with CCD frames of a number of the brighter galaxies is described and its advantages are discussed. The same method is used to demonstrate the consistency of measurement of the APM machine when used for surface photometry. (author)

  4. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    and barred spirals, in a se- quence of gradually loos- ening of spiral arms and diminishing brightness of the central bulge. one cannot infer its true shape. A galaxy m ay look °at- tened by a di®erent degree if view ed from a di®erent d irectio n . Spiral galaxies are m arked by spiral `arm s' around a bright,nuclear region,often ...

  5. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H 2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  6. Paired and interacting galaxies: Conference summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a summary of the conference proceedings. The conference began with the presentation of the basic data sets on pairs, groups, and interacting galaxies with the latter being further discussed with respect to both global properties and properties of the galactic nuclei. Then followed the theory, modelling and interpretation using analytic techniques, simulations and general modelling for spirals and ellipticals, starbursts and active galactic nuclei. Before the conference the author wrote down the three questions concerning pairs, groups and interacting galaxies that he hoped would be answered at the meeting: (1) How do they form, including the role of initial conditions, the importance of subclustering, the evolution of groups to compact groups, and the fate of compact groups; (2) How do they evolve, including issues such as relevant timescales, the role of halos and the problem of overmerging, the triggering and enhancement of star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei, and the relative importance of dwarf versus giant encounters; and (3) Are they important, including the frequency of pairs and interactions, whether merging and interactions are very important aspects of the life of a normal galaxy at formation, during its evolution, in forming bars, shells, rings, bulges, etc., and in the formation and evolution of active galaxies? Where possible he focuses on these three central issues in the summary

  7. Dinosaur Fossils Predict Body Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Charnov, Eric L

    2006-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 °C at 12 kg to approximately 41 °C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy. PMID:16817695

  8. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  9. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  10. Galaxy Clustering and Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.

    2011-09-01

    Cosmic structure formation and galaxy evolution are important subjects in astrophysics. The thesis consists of two parts: (1) identification of galaxy clusters and studies of their properties; (2) identification of the mergers of luminous early-type galaxies and gravitational waves (GWs). Most of the galaxy clusters in the previous catalogs have redshifts z≤0.3 with richnesses not well determined. Using the photometric redshifts of galaxies from the Sixth Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR6), we identify 39716 clusters in the redshift range of 0.05contamination rate and the completeness of member galaxies are found to be ˜20% and ∼90%, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations show that the cluster detection rate is larger than 90% for the massive (M_{200}>2×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with z≤0.42. The false detection rate is ˜5%. We obtain the richness, the summed luminosity and the gross galaxy number. They are tightly correlated with the X-ray luminosity and the temperature of clusters. The cluster mass is also found to be tightly related to the richness and summed luminosity in the form of M_{200}∝ R^{1.90±0.04} and M_{200}∝ L_r^{1.64±0.03}, respectively. In addition, 790 new candidates of X-ray clusters are found by cross-identification of our clusters with the unidentified source list of the ROSAT X-ray survey. By visual inspections of the detected clusters, we recognize 13 gravitational lensing candidates. Among all the candidates, four can be sure strong lensing systems even without further spectroscopic identification, five are more probable and four are possible lenses. In the second part, we discuss the merger rates of luminous early-type galaxies and GWs from the mergers of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The merger rates of massive galaxies in the local universe are still not clear so far. We select a large sample (1209) of close pairs of galaxies with projected separations 7 kpc

  11. Sustainable Development and the Relative Prices of Fossil and Non-fossil Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

      According to the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) the actual international political measures within the Kyoto-group towards the Greenhouse-effect are quite insufficient to prevent serious climatic disturbances at the end of this Century. The study aims to evaluate the potential...... and wind are the most plentiful sources of non-fossil energy of which wind energy is the most economic. Large parks of mega-powered wind mills have been constructed both on- and offshore with better and better cost-effectiveness during the last decades (2) Actually, onshore wind mill parks...

  12. STScI-PRC02-11a FARAWAY GALAXIES PROVIDE A STUNNING 'WALLPAPER' BACKDROP FOR A RUNAWAY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    galaxies represent twice the number of those discovered in the legendary Hubble Deep Field, the orbiting observatory's 'deepest' view of the heavens, taken in 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The ACS picture, however, was taken in one-twelfth the time it took to observe the original Hubble Deep Field. In blue light, ACS sees even fainter objects than were seen in the 'deep field.' The galaxies in the ACS picture, like those in the deep field, stretch back to nearly the beginning of time. They are a myriad of shapes and represent fossil samples of the universe's 13-billion-year evolution. The ACS image is so sharp that astronomers can identify distant colliding galaxies, the 'building blocks' of galaxies, an exquisite 'Whitman's Sampler' of galaxies, and many extremely faraway galaxies. ACS made this observation on April 1 and 9, 2002. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in near-infrared, orange, and blue filters. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M.Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA The ACS Science Team: (H. Ford, G. Illingworth, M. Clampin, G. Hartig, T. Allen, K. Anderson, F. Bartko, N. Benitez, J. Blakeslee, R. Bouwens, T. Broadhurst, R. Brown, C. Burrows, D. Campbell, E. Cheng, N. Cross, P. Feldman, M. Franx, D. Golimowski, C. Gronwall, R. Kimble, J. Krist, M. Lesser, D. Magee, A. Martel, W. J. McCann, G. Meurer, G. Miley, M. Postman, P. Rosati, M. Sirianni, W. Sparks, P. Sullivan, H. Tran, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, and R. Woodruff)

  13. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  14. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T R; McDonough, Molly M; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-09-28

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly recognized characters that demonstrate lineage separation in the fossil record of Siwalik murines and examines the most reasonable nodal placement of the diverging lineages in a molecular phylogenetic tree by ancestral state reconstruction. Our specimen-based approach strongly indicates that Siwalik murines of the Karnimata clade are fossil members of the Arvicanthini-Otomyini-Millardini clade, which excludes Rattus and its relatives. Combining the new interpretation with the widely accepted hypothesis that the Progonomys clade includes Mus, the lineage separation event in the Siwalik fossil record represents the Mus/Arvicanthis split. Our test analysis on Bayesian age estimates shows that this new calibration point provides more accurate estimates of murine divergence than previous applications. Thus, we define this fossil calibration point and refine two other fossil-based points for molecular dating.

  15. The proterozoic and earliest cambrian trace fossil record; patterns, problems and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sören

    2003-02-01

    The increase in trace fossil diversity across the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian boundary often is presented in terms of tabulations of ichnogenera. However, a clearer picture of the increase in diversity and complexity can be reached by combining trace fossils into broad groups defined both on morphology and interpretation. This also focuses attention on looking for similarites between Neoproterozoic and Cambrian trace fossils. Siliciclastic sediments of the Neoproterozoic preserve elongate tubular organisms and structures of probable algal origin, many of which are very similar to trace fossils. Such enigmatic structures include Palaeopascichnus and Yelovichnus, previously thought to be trace fossils in the form of tight meanders.A preliminary two or tripartite terminal Neoproterozoic trace fossil zonation can be be recognized. Possibly the earliest trace fossils are short unbranched forms, probably younger than about 560 Ma. Typical Neoproterozoic trace fossils are unbranched and essentially horizontal forms found associated with diverse assemblages of Ediacaran organisms. In sections younger than about 550 Ma a modest increase in trace fossil diversity occurs, including the appearance of rare three-dimensional burrow systems (treptichnids), and traces with a three-lobed lower surfaces.

  16. Origin of Disk Lopsidedness in Spiral Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angiras, R. A.; Jog, C. J.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Omar, A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Saikia, D.J.; Green, D.A.; Gupta, Y.; Venturi, T.

    2009-01-01

    In our work we have used the atomic hydrogen [H I] gas distribution in the H I 21-cm line emission to study the dark matter halo perturbations. For this analysis, the 2-D H I surface density and velocity maps (archival) of the galaxies in the Eridanus group (obtained using the GMRT) and in the Ursa

  17. Neutral hydrogen observations of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorsel, G.A. van.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation concerns a detailed neutral hydrogen study of a carefully selected sample of 16 double spiral galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The observational data provide useful material for a number of questions concerning the dynamics of double galaxies, in particular the question of the mass distribution. In Chapter 2 the criteria used to select a sample of double galaxies for observation with the WSRT are discussed. Observing techniques and the reduction of the data using the GIPSY system are described in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 through 7 contain the observational results. In Chapter 8 the method of analysis is described. Masses for the individual galaxies derived from rotation curves are compared with the ''total'' masses estimated from the orbital motion. In this fashion a direct estimate of the amount of dark matter is obtained that avoids the use of mean M/L values. In Chapter 9 a mass estimator for groups is developed in a way analogous to the binary galaxy mass estimator described in Chapter 8. The question of selection effects and the bias of the mass estimator for the point mass model are discussed extensively in Chapter 10. The final results are discussed in Chapter 11. It is shown that the orbital mass exceeds the sum of the individual masses by a large factor for several pairs, indicating either that there is a large amount of dark matter or that something is amiss with the concept of a physical pair. (Auth.)

  18. Preface: The Evolving ISM in the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, K.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ingalls, J.; Paladini, R.

    2009-01-01

    The fourth Spitzer Science Symposium "The Evolving ISM in the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies" was held in Pasadena, CA from 2-5 December, 2007. The conference focused on synthesizing recent results for the interstellar medium (ISM) and its interplay with star formation in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. In the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies we have an unparalleled view of the astrophysics of the interstellar medium, where one can study in detail the spatially-resolved energetics and the complex interplay of physical and chemical processes that govern the ISM. The ISM is both a fossil record of past star formation and evolutionary processes and a natal medium for future star formation.The Spitzer Space Telescope has provided a plethora of exciting results that have revolutionized our understanding of the ISM and star formation, particularly from large programs such as MIPSGAL, GLIMPSE, C2D, etc. How do these new discoveries of the local processes governing the ISM impact our understanding of nearby galaxies? How important are local processes when averaged over an entire galaxy? Legacy programs like SINGS and SAGE are two examples of rich and diverse sets of data for nearby galaxies where such questions may be examined?. ISM physics is the critical ingredient for turning gas and dust diagnostics into information about evolutionary processes such as star formation. The exceptional view of the far-infrared Milky way captured by Spitzer and the extraordinary data gathered from nearby galaxies was the main reason for organizing this conference to synthesize the most recent developments in the coupled fields of the ISM and Nearby Galaxies. Over the three days, we heard invited and contributed talks from over fifty participants. The poster session had over 100 posters and results from nearly a quarter of them were also presented in an abbreviated one to two minute format. The conference also had some firsts. We tried to be as environmentally sensitive as possible by

  19. A vast, thin plane of corotating dwarf galaxies orbiting the Andromeda galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A; Lewis, Geraint F; Conn, Anthony R; Irwin, Michael J; McConnachie, Alan W; Chapman, Scott C; Collins, Michelle L; Fardal, Mark; Ferguson, Annette M N; Ibata, Neil G; Mackey, A Dougal; Martin, Nicolas F; Navarro, Julio; Rich, R Michael; Valls-Gabaud, David; Widrow, Lawrence M

    2013-01-03

    Dwarf satellite galaxies are thought to be the remnants of the population of primordial structures that coalesced to form giant galaxies like the Milky Way. It has previously been suspected that dwarf galaxies may not be isotropically distributed around our Galaxy, because several are correlated with streams of H I emission, and may form coplanar groups. These suspicions are supported by recent analyses. It has been claimed that the apparently planar distribution of satellites is not predicted within standard cosmology, and cannot simply represent a memory of past coherent accretion. However, other studies dispute this conclusion. Here we report the existence of a planar subgroup of satellites in the Andromeda galaxy (M 31), comprising about half of the population. The structure is at least 400 kiloparsecs in diameter, but also extremely thin, with a perpendicular scatter of less than 14.1 kiloparsecs. Radial velocity measurements reveal that the satellites in this structure have the same sense of rotation about their host. This shows conclusively that substantial numbers of dwarf satellite galaxies share the same dynamical orbital properties and direction of angular momentum. Intriguingly, the plane we identify is approximately aligned with the pole of the Milky Way's disk and with the vector between the Milky Way and Andromeda.

  20. The Smallest Galaxies in the Universe: Investigating the Origins of Ultra-faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuewen; Graus, Andrew; Bullock, James

    2018-01-01

    One outstanding question in cosmology is, what are the smallest galaxies that can form? The answer to this question can tell us much about galaxy formation, and even of the properties of dark matter itself. A candidate for the smallest galaxies that can form are the ultrafaint galaxies. The star formation of ultrafaints appears to have been shut off during the epoch of reionization, when radiation from the first stars ionized all the free hydrogen in the universe. This would imply ultrafaints should exist everywhere in the universe. However, we can only observe ultrafaints as satellites of the Milky Way, due to their low brightness. This will change with the next generation of telescopes such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). The focus of this work is to predict the number of ultrafaints that should be seen with future surveys. To that end, we use the ELVIS suite, which contains 14 dark matter only simulations of Local Group like systems containing a Milky Way and Andromeda-like galaxy and the substructure out to around 1 Mpc of the barycenter. We mock observe the simulations in order to mimic current surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and use the population of galaxies found by those surveys to project the population of dwarf galaxies out beyond the virial radius of either galaxy. This number will depend sensitively on the formation mechanism of ultrafaint dwarfs, and comparisons of future surveys to this work could help rule out certain formation scenarios.

  1. The role of galaxy merging in the life of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Allison W. S.; Zirm, Andrew; Toft, Sune

    2015-08-01

    In the local Universe, the most massive galaxies of above 10^11 solar masses are typically situated at the centres of galaxy clusters or groups, and have elliptical light profiles. They have uniformly old stellar populations with the majority of stars formed when the Universe was only 2-3 Gyrs old. Merging has been invoked as an important driver for their evolution, possibly responsible for morphological transformations, size growth, ignition of active galactic nuclei as well as both triggering and quenching of star formation. Accurate measurements of the merging history of massive galaxies is thus instrumental to understand their evolution. While several measurements of the merging fraction of massive galaxies up to z~3 exist to date, they lead to discrepant conclusions of whether the fraction is increasing or diminishing.My recent work resolves these discrepancies through the accurate measurement of the galaxy merger fraction up to z=3 in the COSMOS field. Combining the large area, near-infrared survey of UltraVISTA with the smaller area, but deeper and higher resolution HST/CANDELS dataset, yields the largest, most complete photometrically identified sample of mergers at z>1. The discrepancy of previous studies is found to be due to a selection effect. Selecting galaxy pairs by stellar mass ratio leads to a diminishing merger fraction at z~2, while selecting by flux ratio leads to an increasing trend. Flux-ratio selection is biased towards low M/L satellites, while stellar mass ratio selected mergers are likely biased against gas-rich satellites at z>2. I argue that the total baryon mass ratio is the least biased probe of the "true" merger rate of galaxies, and discuss future plans for examining the role of galaxy merging in the global star formation history, as well as its relation to star formation quenching.

  2. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  3. Non-Retroviral Fossils in Vertebrate Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Horie; Keizo Tomonaga

    2011-01-01

    Although no physical fossils of viruses have been found, retroviruses are known to leave their molecular fossils in the genomes of their hosts, the so-called endogenous retroviral elements. These have provided us with important information about retroviruses in the past and their co-evolution with their hosts. On the other hand, because non-retroviral viruses were considered not to leave such fossils, even the existence of prehistoric non-retroviral viruses has been enigmatic. Recently, we di...

  4. The small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. P.; Sandage, Allan

    1991-01-01

    Two results on the small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies are reported, which were identified in the vicinity of early-type Shapley-Ames galaxies on high-resolution photographic plates. The first result indicates that dwarf galaxies display the same trend of stronger clustering toward earlier morphological type on small scales as their giant counterparts on larger scales. It is suggested that early-type dwarfs can be used as dynamical probes of dark halos around early-type giant galaxies and as tracers of the dynamical evolution of such halos in dense environments. The second result pertains to the trend of increasing early-type dwarf frequency per early-type giant with environment richness previously established for rich groups. It is found that a minimum value of isolated early-type galaxies is approximately 0.25, as compared to a maximum of approximately 8 in rich environments like the Virgo Cluster.

  5. CHEMODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF DWARF GALAXIES IN TIDAL FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Romeo, Alessandro B., E-mail: david-john.williamson.1@ulaval.ca [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    The mass–metallicity relation shows that the galaxies with the lowest mass have the lowest metallicities. As most dwarf galaxies are in group environments, interaction effects such as tides could contribute to this trend. We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies in external tidal fields to examine the effects of tides on their metallicities and metallicity gradients. In our simulated galaxies, gravitational instabilities drive gas inwards and produce centralized star formation and a significant metallicity gradient. Strong tides can contribute to these instabilities, but their primary effect is to strip the outer low-metallicity gas, producing a truncated gas disk with a large metallicity. This suggests that the effect of tides on the mass–metallicity relation is to move dwarf galaxies to higher metallicities.

  6. Molecules and fossils reveal punctuated diversification in Caribbean "faviid" corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sonja A; Budd, Ann F; Carlon, David B

    2012-07-25

    Even with well-known sampling biases, the fossil record is key to understanding macro-evolutionary patterns. During the Miocene to Pleistocene in the Caribbean Sea, the fossil record of scleractinian corals shows a remarkable period of rapid diversification followed by massive extinction. Here we combine a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear introns with an updated fossil stratigraphy to examine patterns of radiation and extinction in Caribbean corals within the traditional family Faviidae. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis showed most species of Caribbean faviids were monophyletic, with the exception of two Manicina species. The time-calibrated tree revealed the stem group originated around the closure of the Tethys Sea (17.0 Ma), while the genus Manicina diversified during the Late Miocene (8.20 Ma), when increased sedimentation and productivity may have favored free-living, heterotrophic species. Reef and shallow water specialists, represented by Diploria and Favia, originate at the beginning of the Pliocene (5 - 6 Ma) as the Isthmus of Panama shoaled and regional productivity declined. Later origination of the stem group than predicted from the fossil record corroborates the hypothesis of morphological convergence in Diploria and Favia genera. Our data support the rapid evolution of morphological and life-history traits among faviid corals that can be linked to Mio-Pliocene environmental changes.

  7. Optical emission line spectra of Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra, similar to the emission lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. The range of ionization extends from [O I] and [N I] through [Ne V] and [Fe VII] to [Fe X]. The emission-line spectra of radio galaxies divide into two types, narrow-line radio galaxies whose spectra are indistinguishable from Seyfert 2 galaxies, and broad-line radio galaxies whose spectra are similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies. However on the average the broad-line radio galaxies have steeper Balmer decrements, stronger [O III] and weaker Fe II emission than the Seyfert 1 galaxies, though at least one Seyfert 1 galaxy not known to be a radio source has a spectrum very similar to typical broad-line radio galaxies. Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies exist that show various mixtures of the Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 properties, and the narrow-line or Seyfert 2 property seems to be strongly correlated with radio emission. (Auth.)

  8. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  9. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  10. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  11. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  12. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.

  13. Modelling the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Katy

    Since Lick indices were introduced in 1994, they have been used as a source of observational data against which computer models of galaxy evolution have been compared. However, as this thesis demonstrates, observed Lick indices lead to mathematical ill-conditioning: small variations in observations can lead to very large differences in population synthesis models attempting to recreate the observed values. As such, limited reliance should be placed on any results currently or historically in the literature purporting to give the star formation history of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, where this is deduced from Lick observations taken from a single instrument, without separate verification from at least one other source. Within these limitations, this thesis also constrains the star formation histories of 21 nearby elliptical galaxies, finding that they formed 13.26 +0.09 -0.06 Gyrs ago, that all mergers are dry, and that galactic winds are formed from AGN activity (rather than being supernovae-driven). This thesis also finds evidence to support the established galaxy-formation theory of "downsizing". An existing galactic model from the literature is examined and evaluated, and the reasons for it being unable to establish star formation histories of individual galaxies are ascertained. A brand-new model is designed, developed, tested and used with two separate data sets, corroborated for 10 galaxies by data from a third source, and compared to results from a Single Stellar Population model from the literature, to model the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies.

  14. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  15. Detection of Lyman/alpha emission from a DLA galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Fall, S.M

    2004-01-01

    HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY......HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY...

  16. Retrofitting for fossil fuel flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.; Trueblood, R.C.; Lukas, R.W.; Worster, C.M.; Marx, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    Described in this paper are two fossil plant retrofits recently completed by the Public Service Company of New Hampshire that demonstrate the type of planning and execution required for a successful project under the current regulatory and budget constraints. Merrimack Units 1 and 2 are 120 MW and 338 MW nominal cyclone-fired coal units in Bow, New Hampshire. The retrofits recently completed at these plants have resulted in improved particulate emissions compliance, and the fuel flexibility to allow switching to lower sulphur coals to meet current and future SO 2 emission limits. Included in this discussion are the features of each project including the unique precipitator procurement approach for the Unit 1 Retrofit, and methods used to accomplish both retrofits within existing scheduled maintenance outages through careful planning and scheduling, effective use of pre-outage construction, 3-D CADD modeling, modular construction and early procurement. Operating experience while firing various coals in the cyclone fired boilers is also discussed

  17. Paleoradiology. Imaging mummies and fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhem, Rethy K.; Brothwell, Don R.

    2008-01-01

    This is an important work on a topic of huge interest to archaeologists and related scientists, since the use of imaging techniques in the field has been expanding rapidly in recent decades. Paleoradiology involves the use of X-rays and advanced medical imaging modalities to evaluate ancient human and animal skeletons as well as biological materials from archaeological sites. Paleoradiological studies have been performed on mummies, skeletal remains and fossils to determine their sex and age at death. Diagnostic paleoradiology is the use of X-ray studies to detect ancient diseases. The broad range of themes and imaging techniques in this volume reflects four decades of research undertaken by Don Brothwell in the fields of anthropology, human paleopathology, and zooarchaeology, combined with two decades of skeletal radiology experience during which Rethy Chhem read over 150,000 skeletal X-ray and CT studies. (orig.)

  18. WINGS: WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin

    WFIRST's combination of wide field and high resolution will revolutionize the study of nearby galaxies. We propose to produce and analyze simulated WFIRST data of nearby galaxies and their halos to maximize the scientific yield in the limited observing time available, ensuring the legacy value of WFIRST's eventual archive. We will model both halo structure and resolved stellar populations to optimize WFIRST's constraints on both dark matter and galaxy formation models in the local universe. WFIRST can map galaxy structure down to ~35 mag/square arcsecond using individual stars. The resulting maps of stellar halos and accreting dwarf companions will provide stringent tests of galaxy formation and dark matter models on galactic (and even sub-galactic) scales, which is where the most theoretical tension exists with the Lambda-CDM model. With a careful, coordinated plan, WFIRST can be expected to improve current sample sizes by 2 orders of magnitude, down to surface brightness limits comparable to those currently reached only in the Local Group, and that are >4 magnitudes fainter than achievable from the ground due to limitations in star-galaxy separation. WFIRST's maps of galaxy halos will simultaneously produce photometry for billions of stars in the main bodies of galaxies within 10 Mpc. These data will transform studies of star formation histories that track stellar mass growth as a function of time and position within a galaxy. They also will constrain critical stellar evolution models of the near-infrared bright, rapidly evolving stars that can contribute significantly to the integrated light of galaxies in the near-infrared. Thus, with WFIRST we can derive the detailed evolution of individual galaxies, reconstruct the complete history of star formation in the nearby universe, and put crucial constraints on the theoretical models used to interpret near-infrared extragalactic observations. We propose a three-component work plan that will ensure these gains by

  19. The Effect of Filaments and Tendrils on the H I Content of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone Odekon, Mary; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Haynes, Martha P.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Phi, An; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois

    2018-01-01

    We use the ALFALFA H I survey to examine whether the cold gas reservoirs of galaxies are inhibited or enhanced in large-scale filaments. Our sample includes 9947 late-type galaxies with H I detections and 4236 late-type galaxies with well-determined H I detection limits that we incorporate using survival analysis statistics. We find that, even at fixed local density and stellar mass, and with group galaxies removed, the H I deficiency of galaxies in the stellar mass range 8.5 < log(M/M ⊙) < 10.5 decreases with distance from the filament spine, suggesting that galaxies are cut off from their supply of cold gas in this environment. We also find that, at fixed local density and stellar mass, the galaxies that are the most gas-rich are those in small, correlated “tendril” structures within voids: although galaxies in tendrils are in significantly denser environments, on average, than galaxies in voids, they are not redder or more H I deficient. This stands in contrast to the fact that galaxies in tendrils are more massive than those in voids, suggesting a more advanced stage of evolution. Finally, at fixed stellar mass and color, galaxies closer to the filament spine, or in high-density environments, are more deficient in H I. This fits a picture where, as galaxies enter denser regions, they first lose H I gas and then redden as star formation is reduced.

  20. A Subhalo-Galaxy Correspondence Model of Galaxy Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2008-08-01

    We propose a model for allocating galaxies in cosmological N-body simulations. We identify each subhalo with a galaxy and assign luminosity and morphological type, assuming that the galaxy luminosity is a monotonic function of the host subhalo mass. Morphology is assigned using two simple relations between the subhalo mass and galaxy luminosity for different galaxy types. The first uses a constant luminosity ratio between early-type (E/SO) and late-type (S/Irr) galaxies at a fixed subhalo mass. The other assumes that galaxies of different morphological types but equal luminosity have a constant ratio of subhalo mass. We made a series of comparisons of the properties of these mock galaxies with those of SDSS galaxies. The resulting mock galaxy sample is found to successfully reproduce the observed local number density distribution except in high-density regions. We study the luminosity function as a function of local density, and find that the observed luminosity functions in different local density environments are overall well reproduced by the mock galaxies. A discrepancy is found at the bright end of the luminosity function of early types in the underdense regions and at the faint end of both morphological types in very high density regions. A significant fraction of the observed early-type galaxies in voids seem to have undergone relatively recent star formation and become brighter. The lack of faint mock galaxies in dense regions may be due to the strong tidal force of the central halo, which destroys less massive satellite subhalos around the simulation. The mass-to-light ratio is found to depend on the local density in a way similar to that observed in the SDSS sample. We have found an impressive agreement between our mock galaxies and the SDSS galaxies in the dependence of central velocity dispersion on the local density and luminosity.

  1. Optical photometry of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of the optical and near-infrared photometry of galaxies is reviewed. Part I introduces to the goals and general methods of both photographic surface photometry and integrated multicolor aperture photoelectric photometry for extended stellar systems, with a summary of the necessary corrections to the observed magnitudes and colors. Part II (surface photometry) summarizes recent results on the empirical luminosity laws for spheroidal systems and the separation of components in disk-plus-bulge systems. Part III (color problems) discusses integrated color effects (color and gas content, color-absolute magnitude relation for early-type systems, colors of interacting galaxies) and color gradient across spheroidal and disk galaxies. In part IV are summarized some constraints on the luminosity function of the stellar population in spheroidal systems given by narrow-band photometry [fr

  2. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  3. Phalangeal morphology of Shanghuang fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebo, Daniel L; Dagosto, Marian; Ni, Xijun; Beard, K Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Here, we describe hundreds of isolated phalanges attributed to middle Eocene fossil primates from the Shanghuang fissure-fillings from southern Jiangsu Province, China. Extending knowledge based on previous descriptions of postcranial material from Shanghuang, this sample of primate finger and toe bones includes proximal phalanges, middle phalanges, and over three hundred nail-bearing distal phalanges. Most of the isolated proximal and middle phalanges fall within the range of small-bodied individuals, suggesting an allocation to the smaller haplorhine primates identified at Shanghuang, including eosimiids. In contrast to the proximal and middle phalanges from Shanghuang, there are a variety of shapes, sizes, and possible taxonomic allocations for the distal phalanges. Two distal phalangeal morphologies are numerically predominant at Shanghuang. The sample of larger bodied specimens is best allocated to the medium-sized adapiform Adapoides while the smaller ones are allocated to eosimiids on the basis of the commonality of dental and tarsal remains of these taxa at Shanghuang. The digit morphology of Adapoides is similar morphologically to that of notharctines and cercamoniines, while eosimiid digit morphology is unlike living anthropoids. Other primate distal phalangeal morphologies at Shanghuang include grooming "claws" as well as specimens attributable to tarsiids, tarsiiforms, the genus Macrotarsius, and a variety of adapiforms. One group of distal phalanges at Shanghuang is morphologically indistinguishable from those of living anthropoids. All of the phalanges suggest long fingers and toes for the fossil primates of Shanghaung, and their digit morphology implies arboreality with well-developed digital flexion and strong, grasping hands and feet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cold gas accretion in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, Renzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    Evidence for the accretion of cold gas in galaxies has been rapidly accumulating in the past years. HI observations of galaxies and their environment have brought to light new facts and phenomena which are evidence of ongoing or recent accretion: (1) A large number of galaxies are accompanied by

  5. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Putko, Joseph; Dewberry, Janosz; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana

    2012-01-01

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from ∼10 5 M ☉ at galaxy absolute magnitude U = –13 mag to 10 9 M ☉ at U = –20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M ☉ pc –2 locally to 10-100 M ☉ pc –2 at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from ∼0.01 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 locally to ∼1 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  6. Spectroscopy of the galaxy components of N and Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroson, T.A.; Oke, J.B.; Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear and off-nuclear spectra of nine active galaxies are presented. The sample consists of four Seyfert galaxies, two N galaxies, one Seyfert radio galaxy, and one liner/Seyfert 2 galaxy. All of the objects show continuum emission off the nucleus. Four clearly show absorption features from a stellar population. Velocities have been measured for the off-nuclear emission and absorption lines. In the case of I Zw 1, the absorption-line velocities are inconsistent with 21-cm H I measurements of this object. 26 references

  7. Stellar Evolution in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The main thrust of the program was to obtain UV spectroscopy of a number of massive and hot luminous (OB type) stars in the nearby galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The objective was to analyze their atmospheres and winds so as to determine the effect of the lower abundance of the SIVIC on these parameters. Furthermore, the differences in evolution could be investigated. Additionally, the UV spectra themselves would be suitably weighted and systematically combined to provide a template for comparison to very distant galaxies formed in the early history of the Universe which also have a low abundance of elements. The spectra have been obtained and the analysis is proceeding, primarily by the groups in Munich and at STScl who are the leads for this project. Given the important role of the nearby SMC galaxy as a template of low metal abundance, I have begun to investigate the YOUNGEST phases of massive star birth, before the most massive and hottest stars become optically visible. Typically these stars form in clusters, in some cases having tens to hundreds of OB type stars. In this phase, each star is still buried in its natal cloud and visible only in the infrared (IR) from its self-heated dust and/or from radio free-free emission of the surrounding hydrogen (HII) region. Efforts to find and identify these buried clusters were conducted using a large radio telescope. A number of these were found and further analysis of the data is underway. These clusters are not visible optically, but ought to be seen in the IR, and are a likely topic for HST photometry on NICMOS. A proposal to do this will be made next semester. These objects are the precursors of the optically visible clusters that contain massive and hot luminous stars.

  8. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  9. SDSS IV MaNGA: the global and local stellar mass assemby histories of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Medel, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M.; González, J. Jesús; Drory, Niv; Bundy, Kevin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Using the fossil record method implemented through Pipe3D, we reconstruct the global and radial stellar mass growth histories (MGHs) of a large sample of galaxies, ranging from dwarf to giant objects, from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We confirm that the main driver of the global MGHs is mass, with more massive galaxies assembling earlier (downsizing), though for a given mass, the global MGHs segregate by colour, specific star formation rate and morphological type. From the inferred radial mean MGHs, we find that at fractions of assembled mass larger than ˜80 per cent, the innermost regions formed stars, on average, in the inside-out mode. At earlier epochs, when the age estimation of the method becomes poor, the MGHs seem to be spatially homogeneous or even in the outside-in mode, especially for the red/quiescent/early-type galaxies. The innermost MGHs are, in general, less scattered around the mean than the outermost MGHs. For dwarf and low-mass galaxies, we do not find evidence of an outside-in formation mode; instead, their radial MGHs are very diverse most of the time, with periods of outside-in and inside-out modes (or strong radial migration), suggesting this is an episodic star formation history. Blue/star-forming/late-type galaxies present, on average, a significantly more pronounced inside-out formation mode than red/quiescent/early-type galaxies, independently of mass. We discuss our results in the light of the processes of galaxy formation, quenching and radial migration. We also discuss the uncertainties and biases of the fossil record method and how these could affect our results.

  10. First report of fossil "keratose" demosponges in Phanerozoic carbonates: preservation and 3-D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cui; Reitner, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Fossil record of Phanerozoic non-spicular sponges, beside of being important with respect to the lineage evolution per se, could provide valuable references for the investigation of Precambrian ancestral animal fossils. However, although modern phylogenomic studies resolve non-spicular demosponges as the sister group of the remaining spiculate demosponges, the fossil record of the former is extremely sparse or unexplored compared to that of the latter; the Middle Cambrian Vauxiidae Walcott 1920, is the only confirmed fossil taxon of non-spicular demosponges. Here, we describe carbonate materials from Devonian (Upper Givetian to Lower Frasnian) bioherms of northern France and Triassic (Anisian) microbialites of Poland that most likely represent fossil remnants of keratose demosponges. These putative fossils of keratose demosponges are preserved as automicritic clumps. They are morphologically distinguishable from microbial fabrics but similar to other spiculate sponge fossils, except that the skeletal elements consist of fibrous networks instead of assembled spicules. Consistent with the immunological behavior of sponges, these fibrous skeletons often form a rim at the edge of the automicritic aggregate, separating the inner part of the aggregate from foreign objects. To confirm the architecture of these fibrous networks, two fossil specimens and a modern thorectid sponge for comparison were processed for three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction using serial grinding tomography. The resulting fossil reconstructions are three-dimensionally anastomosing, like modern keratose demosponges, but their irregular and nonhierarchical meshes indicate a likely verongid affinity, although a precise taxonomic conclusion cannot be made based on the skeletal architecture alone. This study is a preliminary effort, but an important start to identify fossil non-spicular demosponges in carbonates and to re-evaluate their fossilization potential.

  11. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    merger candidates. Merger events may lead to anisotropic velocity distributions in systems of any luminosity, including dwarfs. The RSA sample of dwarf galaxies is more likely to contain mergers because, in contrast to earlier dwarf galaxy surveys that have focused on clusters and rich groups of galaxies, the RSA dwarfs are typically located in low density environments. The occurrence of mergers among dwarf galaxies is of interest in connection with the rapid evolution of faint blue galaxy counts at redshift z less than 1 which suggests that dwarf galaxies were about five times more numerous in the recent past. Finally, our sample contains several examples of late-type dwarfs and 'transition' types that are potential precursors of nucleated early-type dwarfs. All the above processes--mass loss, mergers, astration--are likely to have contributed to the formation of the current population of diffuse early-type dwarfs. A few new redshifts of dwarf galaxies are reported in this paper.

  12. Dwarf galaxy evolution within the environments of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Ceverino, Daniel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structure determined by the ΛCDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have the smallest potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences including the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too-big-to-fail problems. We have run a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations using the ART code to examine the evolution of dwarf galaxies in massive host environments. These are cosmological zoom-in simulations including deterministic star formation and stellar feedback in the form of supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure. We simulates galaxies with final halo masses on the order of 1012 M⊙ with high resolution, allowing us to examine the satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each primary galaxy. We analyzed the abundance and structure of these dwarfs specifically the velocity function, their star formation rates, core creation and the circumgalactic medium. By reproducing observations of dwarf galaxies in simulations we show how including baryons in simulations relieves tensions seen in comparing dark matter only simulations with observations.

  13. Giant Galaxy Messier 87 finally sized up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    population in general. As they are relatively short-lived (a few tens of thousands of years -- a mere blip on astronomical timescales), astronomers can estimate that one star in about 8000 million of Sun-like stars is visible as a planetary nebula at any given moment. Thus planetary nebulae can provide a unique handle on the number, types of stars and their motions in faint outer galaxy regions that may harbour a substantial amount of mass. These motions contain the fossil record of the history of galaxy interaction and the formation of the galaxy cluster. This research is presented in a paper to appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics: "The Edge of the M87 Halo and the Kinematics of the Diffuse Light in the Virgo Cluster Core," by Michelle Doherty et al. The team is composed of Michelle Doherty and Magda Arnaboldi (ESO), Payel Das and Ortwin Gerhard (Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany), J. Alfonso L. Aguerri (IAC, Tenerife, Spain), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University, USA), John J. Feldmeier (Youngstown State University, USA), Kenneth C. Freeman (Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia), George H. Jacoby (WIYN Observatory, Tucson, AZ, USA), and Giuseppe Murante (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Pino Torinese, Italy). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in the Atacama Desert region of Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor.

  14. Fossil Fuels, Backstop Technologies, and Imperfect Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the transition from fossil fuels to backstop technologies in a general equilibrium model in which growth is driven by research and development. The analysis generalizes the existing literature by allowing for imperfect substitution between fossil fuels and the new energy

  15. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved

  16. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene. (Chattian 28.4–23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the ...

  17. Crustacean biodiversity through the marine fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepkoski Jr., J. John

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 2,600 genera of marine crustaceans have been recognized in the fossil record, and crustaceans constitute the major component of marine arthropod diversity from the mid-Paleozoic to the Recent. Despite problems of sporadic fossil preservation and/or taxonomic ambiguity, some general

  18. Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ZhaoHong

    2013-01-01

    A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

  19. Precambrian biota: protistan origin of trace fossils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Gooday, Andrew J

    2009-01-13

    Some Precambrian trace fossils have been presented as evidence for the early origin of bilaterians; the recent finding that large amoeboid protists leave macroscopic traces at the bottom of the deep ocean questions the metazoan nature of early trace fossils, stressing the importance of single-cell organisms in Precambrian biota.

  20. Eumetazoan Fossils in Terminal Proterozoic Phosphorites?

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xunlai; Xiao, Shuhai; Knoll, Andrew Herbert

    2000-01-01

    Phosphatic sedimentary rocks preserve a record of early animal life different from and complementary to that provided by Ediacaran fossils in terminal Proterozoic sandstones and shales. Phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation, South China, contain eggs, egg cases, and stereoblastulae that document animals of unspecified phylogenetic position; small fossils containing putative spicules may specifically record the presence of sponges. Microfossils recently interpreted a...

  1. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  2. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated

  4. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R ampersand D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R ampersand D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based

  5. Only marginal alignment of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, René; Jahnke, Knud

    2011-12-01

    Testing theories of angular-momentum acquisition of rotationally supported disc galaxies is the key to understanding the formation of this type of galaxies. The tidal-torque theory aims to explain this acquisition process in a cosmological framework and predicts positive autocorrelations of angular-momentum orientation and spiral-arm handedness, i.e. alignment of disc galaxies, on short distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1. This disc alignment can also cause systematic effects in weak-lensing measurements. Previous observations claimed discovering these correlations but are overly optimistic in the reported level of statistical significance of the detections. Errors in redshift, ellipticity and morphological classifications were not taken into account, although they have a significant impact. We explain how to rigorously propagate all the important errors through the estimation process. Analysing disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base, we find that positive autocorrelations of spiral-arm handedness and angular-momentum orientations on distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1 are plausible but not statistically significant. Current data appear not good enough to constrain parameters of theory. This result agrees with a simple hypothesis test in the Local Group, where we also find no evidence for disc alignment. Moreover, we demonstrate that ellipticity estimates based on second moments are strongly biased by galactic bulges even for Scd galaxies, thereby corrupting correlation estimates and overestimating the impact of disc alignment on weak-lensing studies. Finally, we discuss the potential of future sky surveys. We argue that photometric redshifts have too large errors, i.e. PanSTARRS and LSST cannot be used. Conversely, the EUCLID project will not cover the relevant redshift regime. We also discuss the potentials and problems of front-edge classifications of galaxy discs in order to improve the autocorrelation estimates of angular-momentum orientation.

  6. New Palaeogene horntail wasps (Hymenoptera, Siricidae) and a discussion of their fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmann, Sonja; Pouillon, Jean-Marc; Nel, André

    2014-09-29

    The phylogenetic placement of siricid hymenopterans and especially the relationships among Siricidae are not resolved, and are in need of further investigation. The fossil record helps to illuminate the evolutionary history of this group. In this paper, Xoanon? eocenicus sp. nov. is newly described from the Eocene Fossillagerstätte Grube Messel (Germany). Although several characters of the wing venation of this fossil are similar to the extant genus Xoanon, there remain some doubts concerning the generic placement. A newly found fossil is attributed to Urocerus ligniticus (Piton, 1940) from the Paloecene Fossillagerstätte Menat (France) and provides more morphological information on this species. An overview of the fossil record of Siricidae in the strict sense is given and the state of knowledge on the different fossils is reviewed.

  7. Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, M S; Teeling, E C; Madsen, O; Stanhope, M J; de Jong, W W

    2001-05-22

    Molecular and morphological data have important roles in illuminating evolutionary history. DNA data often yield well resolved phylogenies for living taxa, but are generally unattainable for fossils. A distinct advantage of morphology is that some types of morphological data may be collected for extinct and extant taxa. Fossils provide a unique window on evolutionary history and may preserve combinations of primitive and derived characters that are not found in extant taxa. Given their unique character complexes, fossils are critical in documenting sequences of character transformation over geologic time and may elucidate otherwise ambiguous patterns of evolution that are not revealed by molecular data alone. Here, we employ a methodological approach that allows for the integration of molecular and paleontological data in deciphering one of the most innovative features in the evolutionary history of mammals-laryngeal echolocation in bats. Molecular data alone, including an expanded data set that includes new sequences for the A2AB gene, suggest that microbats are paraphyletic but do not resolve whether laryngeal echolocation evolved independently in different microbat lineages or evolved in the common ancestor of bats and was subsequently lost in megabats. When scaffolds from molecular phylogenies are incorporated into parsimony analyses of morphological characters, including morphological characters for the Eocene taxa Icaronycteris, Archaeonycteris, Hassianycteris, and Palaeochiropteryx, the resulting trees suggest that laryngeal echolocation evolved in the common ancestor of fossil and extant bats and was subsequently lost in megabats. Molecular dating suggests that crown-group bats last shared a common ancestor 52 to 54 million years ago.

  8. Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, W.; Siegrist, S.; Schaefli, M.; Eichenberger, U.

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

  9. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  10. What Are S0 Galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2009-01-01

    The data collected in the Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies show that lenticular (S0) galaxies are typically about a magnitude fainter than both elliptical (E) and early spiral (Sa) galaxies. Hubble (1936) was therefore wrong to regard S0 galaxies as being intermediate between morphological types E and Sa. The observation that E5-E7 galaxies are significantly fainter than objects of sub-types E0-E5 suggests that many of the flattest 'ellipticals' may actually be misclassified lenticular...

  11. Supergalactic studies. I. Supergalactic distribution of the nearest galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.

    1975-01-01

    The supergalactic distribution of the nearest galaxies is investigated to test the nature of the Local Supercluster and to determine whether the Local Group is inside or outside its boundaries. Objectively selected samples of galaxies generally nearer than 10 Mpc are defined by members of the Local Group, the largest and/or brightest galaxies (mag 10', with V 0 -1 ), low-velocity galaxies (V 0 -1 ), the DDO dwarfs. The great majority of these objects are distributed in a broad belt well populated in both hemispheres and inclined 14degree to the supergalactic equator. This belt, including the Local Group, the Sculptor ring, the Centaurus chain, the M51, M81, M101, and IC 342 groups, and several others as well as isolated, nearby field galaxies, is a supergalactic analog to the Gould belt in galactic structure. Its north pole is at L=172degree, B=+76degree, and there is a small dip of about -4degree indicating that the Galaxy is approx.0.3 Mpc to the north of the equatorial plane of this Local Cloud of galaxies. The nearby intergalactic H i clouds, and in particular the Magellanic Stream, are also close to the same plane. The probability that the observed distributions could arise by chance if nearby groups and galaxies were randomly distributed is in the range P -3 to P -5 for the varous classes of objects. It is concluded that the Local Supercluster is a disklike physical and dynamical system, and the Local Group is well within the borders of the system. The alternative hypothesis that it is an appearance resulting from a random clumping accident has negligibly small probability

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY-DARK MATTER CONNECTION AND THE ASSEMBLY OF GALAXIES IN DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaohu; Zhang Youcai; Han Jiaxin [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Van den Bosch, Frank C., E-mail: xhyang@shao.ac.cn [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We present a new model to describe the galaxy-dark matter connection across cosmic time, which unlike the popular subhalo abundance-matching technique is self-consistent in that it takes account of the facts that (1) subhalos are accreted at different times and (2) the properties of satellite galaxies may evolve after accretion. Using observations of galaxy stellar mass functions (SMFs) out to z {approx} 4, the conditional SMF at z {approx} 0.1 obtained from Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy group catalogs, and the two-point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies at z {approx} 0.1 as a function of stellar mass, we constrain the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos over the entire cosmic history from z {approx} 4 to the present. This relation is then used to predict the median assembly histories of different stellar mass components within dark matter halos (central galaxies, satellite galaxies, and halo stars). We also make predictions for the 2PCFs of high-z galaxies as function of stellar mass. Our main findings are the following: (1) Our model reasonably fits all data within the observational uncertainties, indicating that the {Lambda}CDM concordance cosmology is consistent with a wide variety of data regarding the galaxy population across cosmic time. (2) At low-z, the stellar mass of central galaxies increases with halo mass as M{sup 0.3} and M{sup {approx}>4.0} at the massive and low-mass ends, respectively. The ratio M{sub *,c}/M reveals a maximum of {approx}0.03 at a halo mass M {approx} 10{sup 11.8} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun }, much lower than the universal baryon fraction ({approx}0.17). At higher redshifts the maximum in M{sub *,c}/M remains close to {approx}0.03, but shifts to higher halo mass. (3) The inferred timescale for the disruption of satellite galaxies is about the same as the dynamical friction timescale of their subhalos. (4) The stellar mass assembly history of central galaxies is completely decoupled from the assembly history of its host

  13. The Globular Cluster System of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of a wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system of the edge-on Sab spiral NGC 7814. This is the first spiral to be fully analyzed from our survey of the GC systems of a large sample of galaxies beyond the Local Group. NGC 7814 is of particular interest because a previous study estimated that it has 500-1000 GCs, giving it the largest specific frequency (SN) known for a spiral. Understanding this galaxy's GC system is important in terms of our understanding of the GC populations of spirals in general and has implications for the formation of massive galaxies. We observed the galaxy in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and used image classification and three-color photometry to select GC candidates. We also analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of NGC 7814, both to help quantify the contamination level of the WIYN GC candidate list and to detect GCs in the inner part of the galaxy halo. Combining HST data with high-quality ground-based images allows us to trace the entire radial extent of this galaxy's GC system and determine the total number of GCs directly through observation. We find that rather than being an especially high-SN spiral, NGC 7814 has <~200 GCs and SN~1, making it comparable to the two most well-studied spiral galaxies, the Milky Way and M31. We explore the implications of these results for models of the formation of galaxies and their GC systems. The initial results from our survey suggest that the GC systems of typical elliptical galaxies can be accounted for by the merger of two or more spirals, but that for highly luminous elliptical galaxies, additional physical processes may be needed.

  14. Featured Image: Identifying Weird Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Hoags Object, an example of a ring galaxy. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team/Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)]The above image (click for the full view) shows PanSTARRSobservationsof some of the 185 galaxies identified in a recent study as ring galaxies bizarre and rare irregular galaxies that exhibit stars and gas in a ring around a central nucleus. Ring galaxies could be formed in a number of ways; one theory is that some might form in a galaxy collision when a smaller galaxy punches through the center of a larger one, triggering star formation around the center. In a recent study, Ian Timmis and Lior Shamir of Lawrence Technological University in Michigan explore ways that we may be able to identify ring galaxies in the overwhelming number of images expected from large upcoming surveys. They develop a computer analysis method that automatically finds ring galaxy candidates based on their visual appearance, and they test their approach on the 3 million galaxy images from the first PanSTARRS data release. To see more of the remarkable galaxies the authors found and to learn more about their identification method, check out the paper below.CitationIan Timmis and Lior Shamir 2017 ApJS 231 2. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa78a3

  15. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  16. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied...

  17. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002): · Isophotal shapes in a lopsided potential. Distribution of ...

  18. Simulations of galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villumsen, J.V.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1982-01-01

    A number of N-body simulations of mergers of equal and unequal galaxies are presented. A new code is presented which determines the potential from a mass distribution by a fourth-order expansion in Tesseral harmonics in three dimensions as an approximation to a collisionless system. The total number of particles in the system is 1200. Two galaxies, each a spherical non-rotating system with isothermal or Hubble density profile, are put in orbit around each other where tidal effects and dynamical friction lead to merging. The final system has a Hubble profile, and in some mergers an 'isothermal' halo forms as found in cD galaxies. Equal mass mergers are more flattened than unequal mass mergers. The central surface brightness decreases except in a merger of isothermal galaxies which shows a major redistribution of energy towards a Hubble profile. Mixing is severe in equal mass mergers, where radial gradients are weakened, while in unequal mass encounters gradients can build up due to less mixing and the formation of a halo. Oblate systems with strong rotation form in high angular momentum encounters while prolate systems with little rotation are formed in near head-on collisions. (author)

  19. Outskirts of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice; Paz, Armando

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews written by world-renowned experts on the subject of the outskirts of galaxies, an upcoming field which has been understudied so far. These regions are faint and hard to observe, yet hide a tremendous amount of information on the origin and early evolution of galaxies. They thus allow astronomers to address some of the most topical problems, such as gaseous and satellite accretion, radial migration, and merging. The book is published in conjunction with the celebration of the end of the four-year DAGAL project, an EU-funded initial training network, and with a major international conference on the topic held in March 2016 in Toledo. It thus reflects not only the views of the experts, but also the scientific discussions and progress achieved during the project and the meeting. The reviews in the book describe the most modern observations of the outer regions of our own Galaxy, and of galaxies in the local and high-redshift Universe. They tackle disks, haloes, streams, and a...

  20. From gas to galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J.M.; Sadler, E.M.; Jackson, C.A.; Hunt, L.K.; Verheijen, M.; van Gorkom, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The unsurpassed sensitivity and resolution of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will make it possible for the first time to probe the continuum emission of normal star forming galaxies out to the edges of the universe. This opens the possibility for routinely using the radio continuum emission from