WorldWideScience

Sample records for fossil energy environments

  1. Fossil energy use and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Energy demand projections indicate that fossil energy will provide some ninety per cent of global primary energy demand for the foreseeable future. This paper considers the principal environmental impacts associated with fossil energy use and describes approaches to minimise them. Technologies are now available to reduce significantly pollutant emissions from fossil fuel use. Emerging technologies offer higher conversion efficiencies to reduce still further specific emissions per unit of energy output. It is essential, particularly in those areas of rapid growth in energy use, that best practice and technology are deployed. Technology transfer and training will help to achieve this and enable fossil energy use to be fully compatible with increasingly stringent environmental requirements. (author) 4 figs., 12 refs

  2. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides in fossil energy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification and combustion is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} and chlorine as HCl. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys, including iron aluminides, in multicomponent gas environments of typical coal-conversion systems. Mechanisms of scale development/breakdown, performance envelopes for long-term usage of these materials, approaches to modifying the surfaces of engineering alloys by cladding or coating them with intermetallics, and in-service experience with these materials are emphasized. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the electrospark deposition process or by weld overlay techniques.

  3. Fossil energy research meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.

    1977-12-01

    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  4. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO 2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  5. Fossil energy and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folke, G.

    2001-01-01

    To fulfil the basic goal of delivering food for the tables of the citizens, modern Western agriculture is extremely dependent on supporting material flows, infrastructure, and fossil energy. According to several observers, fossil fuel production is about to peak, i.e., oil extraction is no longer capable of keeping pace with the increasing demand. This situation may trigger an unprecedented increase in fossil energy prices, which may make the current highly energy dependent food production-distribution system highly vulnerable. The paper starts with a survey of this vulnerability. Also, the supply of phosphorus, a key factor in agriculture, may be at stake under such circumstances. The paper analyses this situation and discusses settlement structures integrated with agriculture that might increase food security by reducing energy demands. In the proposed ideal societal structure, agriculture is integrated with settlements and most of the food needed by the population is produced locally, and the nutrients for food production are recycled from households and animals by means of biological processes demanding considerably less mechanical investment and fossil support energy than the conventional type of agriculture. The vulnerability of this structure would be considerably lower, than that of the current system. (author)

  6. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  7. Fossil Energy Planning for Navajo Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acedo, Margarita [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This project includes fossil energy transition planning to find optimal solutions that benefit the Navajo Nation and stakeholders. The majority of the tribe’s budget currently comes from fossil energy-revenue. The purpose of this work is to assess potential alternative energy resources including solar photovoltaics and biomass (microalgae for either biofuel or food consumption). This includes evaluating carbon-based reserves related to the tribe’s resources including CO2 emissions for the Four Corners generating station. The methodology for this analysis will consist of data collection from publicly available data, utilizing expertise from national laboratories and academics, and evaluating economic, health, and environmental impacts. Finally, this report will highlight areas of opportunities to implement renewable energy in the Navajo Nation by presenting the technology requirements, cost, and considerations to energy, water, and environment in an educational structure.

  8. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  9. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R ampersand D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R ampersand D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based

  10. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume II provides the model equations with each of their variables defined, while Volume III lists the equations, and a one line definition for equations, in a shorter, more readable format.

  11. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. (comp.)

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrere, M.

    1978-01-01

    Energy problems will play a fundamental role in the near future and researchers, engineers, economists and ecologists must work together to increase existing non-fossil energy sources and to develop new sources or techniques using less energy without pollution of the environment. Four aspects of future activities in this field are considered. First, energy sources, ie solar, fossil, nuclear, geothermal, and others such as wind energy or wave energy are considered in relation to the environment. Secondly the use of these sources by industry and by transportation, domestic, and agricultural sectors are examined. The problem of energy conservation in all fields is then considered. Finally the overall optimisation is analysed. This is the search for a compromise between the cost of usable energy and that of a degradation function taking into account the effect on the environment. (U.K.)

  14. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  15. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  16. Fossil Fuels: Factors of Supply Reduction and Use of The Renewable Energy As A Suitable Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Askari Mohammad Bagher,

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will review the consumption of fossil fuels in the world. According to the exhaustible resources of fossil fuels, and the damaging effects of these fuels on the environment and nature, we introduce renewable energy sources as perfect replacement for fossil fuels.

  17. Influence of fossil energy applications on environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M.; Ayar, G.; Oguzhan, C.; Uluduz, H.; Faiz, U. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate influence of fossil energy applications on the environmental pollution. Turkey's high rate of economic growth experienced during much of the 1990s, besides resulting in booming industrial production, also led to higher levels of energy consumption, imports, air and water pollution, and greater risks to the country's environment. Air pollution is a major problem in Turkey, with key pollutants including sulfur dioxide, suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide. In Turkey, carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels totaled about 50.07 million tons in 2001. However, fuel share of carbon emissions in 2001 was oil 44.2%, coal 38.8%, and natural gas 16.9%. Total carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are expected to be 104 million tons in 2025.

  18. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991. Fossil Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C. [comps.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  19. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  20. Fossil fuel usage and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerted environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air

  1. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 2: Fossil energy in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keeville, H. [and others

    1993-12-01

    In Task 2, the authors establish a baseline for evaluating energy use in Hawaii, and examine key energy and economic indicators. They provide a detailed look at fossil energy imports by type, current and possible sources of oil, gas and coal, quality considerations, and processing/transformation. They present time series data on petroleum product consumption by end-use sector, though they caution the reader that the data is imperfect. They discuss fuel substitutability to identify those end-use categories that are most easily switched to other fuels. They then define and analyze sequential scenarios of fuel substitution in Hawaii and their impacts on patterns of demand. They also discuss energy security--what it means to Hawaii, what it means to neighboring economies, whether it is possible to achieve energy security. 95 figs., 48 tabs.

  2. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  3. Biofuels, fossil energy ratio, and the future of energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, David

    2017-05-01

    Two hundred years ago, much of humanity's energy came from burning wood. As energy needs outstripped supplies, we began to burn fossil fuels. This transition allowed our civilization to modernize rapidly, but it came with heavy costs including climate change. Today, scientists and engineers are taking another look at biofuels as a source of energy to fuel our ever-increasing consumption.

  4. Nuclear energy and the fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, R E

    1970-01-01

    The energy phenomenon of the first half of this century has been the increase in the use of petroleum and natural gas as fuels. World demand for petroleum energy has been increasing at the rate of 11% per yr. This demand is unsustainable, for the supply, as with any exhaustible resource, is limited. The continental energy policy is essentially one of integrating the North American supply and demand picture for the fossil fuels, using oil and gas from the interior of the continent to supply demand from the interior and using overseas supplies, up the limit of national security, for energy users farthest removed from these sources. The economics of expensive pipeline transportation as against cheap supertankers dictates this policy. Beyond any shadow of a doubt, the fuel of the future will be nuclear, and for this century almost entirely the energy of fission rather than of fusion. Recent estimates suggest that as much as 50% of the energy for the U.S. will be nuclear by the year 2,000, and for Canada the more modest National Energy Board estimate holds that in 1990, 35% of Canadian electric generation will be by nuclear power reactors concentrated in the fuel-starved province of Ontario. (17 refs.)

  5. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  6. Fossil fuels, uranium, and the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playford, P E

    1977-01-01

    Relevant data on the world energy picture are presented to indicate present energy sources and resources, especially fossil fuels and the role of uranium in energy production, with some predictions for the future. World energy is presently being derived from petroleum (some 62%), coal (31%), hydropower (6%), and nuclear (1%). The fundamental cause of the present world energy crisis is attributed to the increase in consumption of petroleum over the past 20 yr, compared with the relatively small size and unequal distribution of the world's remaining reserves. The reserves/production ratio for petroleum has fallen steadily from a general level of 60 to 80 yr from 1920 to 1955, to about 31 yr today. New oil is becoming harder and more expensive to find and produce, the size of discoveries is declining. There is no reason to believe that this trend will be substantially altered, and production is expected to begin to decline between 1985 and 1990. Gas resources also are expected to fall short after the mid-1980s. Coal reserves are enormous, but their full utilization is doubtful because of economic and environmental problems. Tar sands and oil shale resources are potentially major sources of oil, and they are expected to become more competitive with petroleum as higher oil prices occur.

  7. Energy, environment and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E

    1977-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important prerequisites of life. The growing socio-economic activities and the rising standard of living have led to a rapid increase in energy consumption. The limited resources of fossil fuels and the recent geopolitical developments activated the exploration of ways and means for energy conservation and exploitation of unconventional renewable sources of energy. Of the renewable energy sources (geothermal, solar, tidal, hydropower, etc), hydro-power production has some potential environmental effects. Man-made lakes have several physical, biological, geochemical and biogeochemical impacts on the environment both in the area of the lake and downstream. From the socio-economic point of view, the harnessing of renewable sources of energy will not only lead to the enhancement of the human environment, particularly in remote rural areas in developing countries, but will also lead to substantial savings in the use of non-renewable sources of energy.

  8. Improving energy consumption structure: A comprehensive assessment of fossil energy subsidies reform in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Li Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fossil energy subsidies reform would be an effective way to improve the energy consumption structure; however, the reform needs to be assessed comprehensively beforehand as it would exert uncertain impacts on economy, society and environment. In this paper, we use price-gap approach to estimate the fossil energy subsidies of China, then establish CGE model that contains pollutant emissions accounts and CO 2 emissions account to stimulate the fossil energy subsidies reform under different scenarios, and the environmental economic analysis concept is introduced to monetize the pollutant reduction benefits. Furthermore, we analyze the possibility and scope of improving the energy consumption structure from the perspective of technical and economic analysis. Analytical results show that the energy consumption structure could be improved by different extent by removing coal or oil subsidies, while the economic and social indexes will be influenced distinctively. Meanwhile, the effects of cutting coal subsidies are more feasible than that of cutting oil subsidies overall. It is recommended to implement fossil energy subsidies gradually, cut the coal first and then cut oil subsidies successively. - Research highlights: → This paper estimates the scale of fossil energy subsidies of China in 2007 with price-gap approach. → We establish a Social Accounting Matrix and a CGE model extended with pollutant accounts. → We simulate the impacts of removing or cutting subsidies under three different scenarios. → We discuss the possibility and potential of improving energy consumption structure.

  9. Towards a fossil free energy future. The next energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M.; Greber, L.; Hall, J.; Bartels, C.; Bernow, S.; Hansen, E.; Raskin, P.; Von Hippel, D. (Stockholm Environment Institute, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The report provides technical analysis and documentation as input to the Greenpeace project 'Towards a fossil free energy future'. It presents a main scenario and several variants for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the technical methods and assumptions used to develop them. The goal is to investigate the technical, economic and policy feasibility to phasing out fossil fuels over the next century as part of a strategy to avert unacceptably high levels or rates of global warming. 209 refs., 42 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  11. Ancient wet aeolian environments on Earth: clues to presence of fossil/live microorganisms on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Milner, Michael W.; Netoff, D. I.; Malloch, David; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Hare, Trent M.; Komatsu, Goro

    2004-09-01

    Ancient wet aeolian (wet-sabkha) environments on Earth, represented in the Entrada and Navajo sandstones of Utah, contain pipe structures considered to be the product of gas/water release under pressure. The sediments originally had considerable porosity allowing the ingress of living plant structures, microorganisms, clay minerals, and fine-grained primary minerals of silt and sand size from the surface downward in the sedimentary column. Host rock material is of a similar size and porosity and presumably the downward migration of fine-grained material would have been possible prior to lithogenesis and final cementation. Recent field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and EDS (energy-dispersive spectrometry) examination of sands from fluidized pipes in the Early Jurassic Navajo Sandstone reveal the presence of fossil forms resembling fungal filaments, some bearing hyphopodium-like structures similar to those produced by modern tropical leaf parasites. The tropical origin of the fungi is consistent with the paleogeography of the sandstone, which was deposited in a tropical arid environment. These fossil fungi are silicized, with minor amounts of CaCO 3 and Fe, and in some cases a Si/Al ratio similar to smectite. They exist as pseudomorphs, totally depleted in nitrogen, adhering to the surfaces of fine-grained sands, principally quartz and orthoclase. Similar wet aeolian paleoenvironments are suspected for Mars, especially following catastrophic sediment-charged floods of enormous magnitudes that are believed to have contributed to rapid formation of large water bodies in the northern plains, ranging from lakes to oceans. These events are suspected to have contributed to a high frequency of constructional landforms (also known as pseudocraters) related to trapped volatiles and water-enriched sediment underneath a thick blanket of materials that were subsequently released to the martian surface, forming piping structures at the near surface and

  12. Say no to fossil fuels and yes to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava Chari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Mistaken notion and wrongful fear of nuclear energy based on the horrors of the second world war bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima and accidents at Chernobyl and Three mile island and lately the Fukushima nuclear plant meltdown to earthquake and and tsunami have developed antagonism to nuclear energy (NE) and clouded its usefulness as a practical, clean, environment friendly and affordable alternate source of energy. Such antagonism has slowed down research on NE and its adoption on a much wider scale, the crying need of the day. There is a motivated disinformation campaign against nuclear energy in India as witnessed from the ongoing agitation at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu and Jaitapur in Maharashtra. In fact nuclear energy is the only practical alternative energy source to meet the ever increasing energy needs of the world particularly the developing nations, and to save the world from the greenhouse ill effects of massive carbon dioxide and other emissions from burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. Emissions from fossil fuel burning including radioactive emissions are hundreds of times more in weight and volume and far more hazardous than from an equal capacity nuclear plant. In fact there are no greenhouse gases (CO 2 ), acid rain gases (SO 2 ) or carcinogen emissions (NO x ) from nuclear plants. The accident rates and severity of accidents owing to nuclear plants is much lower as compared to fossil fuel power generation. Last but not the least NE offers economic freedom from the clutches of the few monopolistic oil producing countries, which charge exorbitant oil prices and cripple the finances of developing nations. (author)

  13. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  14. Environmental audit: Fossil energy sites in Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit completed for Selected Fossil Energy Sites in Wyoming. During this Audit, facilities, field sites, and activities were investigated and inspected in several areas of Wyoming that are considered to be representative of offsite work falling under the purview of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at METC and at the Liquid Fuels Technology Branch (LFTB) in Laramie, Wyoming were interviewed as were DOE contractors and Federal and state regulators. Extensive document review was also a key part of this Audit. The on-site portion of the Audit occurred in Morgantown from May 18 to 22, 1992, and throughout Wyoming from May 26 through June 10, 1992. EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and DOE-funded off-site activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. That program is designed to evaluate the status of facilities and activities regarding compliance with environmental laws, regulations, DOE Directives, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Audit stresses the fact that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is beyond the purview of EH-24. Specifically included within this Audit were Air, Soils/Sediment/Biota, Surface Water/Drinking Water, Groundwater, Waste Management, Toxic and Chemical Materials, Quality Assurance, Radiation, Inactive Waste Sites, and Environmental Management

  15. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  16. Instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The 1982 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes was held June 7 through 9, 1982, at Adam's Mark Hotel, Houston, Texas. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; and the Society for Control and Instrumentation of Energy Processes. Fifty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; eleven papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  17. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  18. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef; Kolkova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  19. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  20. The global environment effects of fossil and nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    The relative risks and environmental impacts of coal and uranium fueled power plants are dicussed. Fossil-fuel power plants are associated with a build-up of carbon dioxide levels and consequent climatic changes, release of sulphur dioxide and resultant acid rains and radioactive emissions. In comparing the discharges per megawatt year of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and radioactive Ra-226 and Ra-225 in fly ash from coal and other fossil plants with Kr-85 and I-131 from nuclear plants, the fossil plants have a much poorer performance. Estimates indicate that nuclear energy can be adopted on a large scale as an alternative to coal without any increase in hazards and with a probability of a substantial reduction

  1. Energy and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfe, W.S.; Powell, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    At present about 90% of the world's energy consumption is met by the fossil carbon fuel used in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. This results into release of vast amounts of waste gas CO 2 into the atmosphere posing a threat to the global environment. Moreover this energy source is not sustainable (renewable) and its use amounts to spending Earth's capital resources. The options to this energy source are biomass energy, hydro power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear energy. The potentials, limitations, geological impact and environmental dangers, if any, of these sources are discussed in brief. Energy conservation through energy efficient systems is also one more option. Problems and potential for change to sustainable energy systems with respect to India and Canada are examined. Finally it is pointed out that the ultimate solution to the world's energy problem lies in population control and population reduction. This will make possible for the world to have a sustainable energy system primarily based on solar energy. (M.G.B.). 15 refs

  2. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  3. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N. (comps.)

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  4. China's INDC and non-fossil energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change promotes the energy system reform. Achieving a high proportion of renewable energy becomes the major countries' energy strategy. As proposed in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC, China intends to raise the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption to about 20% by 2030. That ambitious goal means the non-fossil energy supplies by 2030 will be 7–8 times that of 2005, and the annual increase rate is more than 8% within the 25 years. Besides, the capacity of wind power, solar power, hydropower and nuclear power reaches 400 GW, 350 GW, 450 GW, and 150 GW respectively, and China's non-fossil power capacity is even greater than the U.S.'s total power capacity. In addition, the scale of natural gas increases. Consequently, by 2030, the proportion of coal falls from the current 70% to below 50%, and the CO2 intensity of energy consumption decreases by 20% compared with the level of 2005, which play important roles in significantly reducing the CO2 intensity of GDP. Since China has confirmed to achieve the CO2 emissions peak around 2030, at that time, the newly added energy demand will be satisfied by non-fossil energy, and the consumption of fossil fuel will stop growing. By 2030, non-fossil energy accounts for 20%, and the large scale and sound momentum of new and renewable energy industry will support the growth of total energy demand, which plays a key role in CO2 emissions peaking and beginning to decline, and lays the foundation for establishing a new energy system dominated by new and renewable energy in the second half of the 21st century as well as finally achieving the CO2 zero-emission.

  5. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1994-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the world will need more energy and not less in the coming decades but that this enormous energy consumption entails dangers to the environment not only locally but regionally and internationally through the emissions from the burning of fossil fuels which now provide 85% of the world's commercial energy supply. The solution to this problem is nuclear power. It does not contribute to global warming. 12 figs

  6. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1993-07-01

    Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  8. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  9. Proceedings of the eleventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. These proceedings contain 34 papers organized under the following topical sections: Ceramic composites and functional materials; Ceramics, new alloys, and functional materials; and New alloys. Also included is a summary of a workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and in high efficiency coal-fired cycles. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Proceedings of the tenth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1996-08-01

    The Tenth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on May 14-16, 1996. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the program. The final program for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  11. Proceedings of the ninth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1995-08-01

    The Ninth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 16--18, 1995. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology assessment and transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  12. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption [[Page 66009

  13. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1992-- September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development.

  14. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  15. FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA Wolela Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    KEY WORDS: Coal, Energy, Ethiopia, Fossil fuel, Oil shale, Oil and gas. INTRODUCTION .... The marginal faults favoured the accumulation of alluvial fan sandy ... sediments towards the western marginal areas of the basin. ...... subsiding East African continental margin initiated to deposit fluvio-lacustrine sediments. A.

  16. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R&D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  17. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  18. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  19. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. However, these all, like the fossil energy sources, have great impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, the comparison of the environmental effects of these alternative energy sources is not easy. The effects are of considerable different natures and their spatial and the time distributions vary on large scales. The present work overviews the principles and the methodological prerequisites of performing a comparative analysis of the environmental effects for the non-fossil energy production methods. After establishing the basic principles for comparison, we shall go through all the non-fossil energy sources and analyze the most important environmental impacts of each energy production method. In conclusion, the comparison of the environmental effects will be discussed.

  20. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. However, these all, like the fossil energy sources, have great impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, the comparison of the environmental effects of these alternative energy sources is not easy. The effects are of considerable different natures and their spatial and the time distributions vary on large scales. The present work overviews the principles and the methodological prerequisites of performing a comparative analysis of the environmental effects for the non-fossil energy production methods. After establishing the basic principles for comparison, we shall go through all the non-fossil energy sources and analyze the most important environmental impacts of each energy production method. In conclusion, the comparison of the environmental effects will be discussed.

  1. Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

  2. The energy challenge of a post-fossil world: Seasonal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Fossil fuels are an energy source and an energy storage system. The demand for electricity and heat varies daily, weekly, and seasonally with seasonal variations often varying by a factor of two or more. The variable demand is met by fossil fuels because 1) fossil fuels are inexpensive to store in coal piles, oil tanks, and underground natural gas storage facilities and 2) the capital cost of the equipment to burn fossil fuels and convert the energy to heat or electricity is small relative to the cost of the fossil fuels. Concerns about climate change may limit the conventional use of fossil fuels. The alternative low-carbon energy production systems (nuclear, fossil fuels with carbon dioxide sequestration, wind, and solar) are capital-intensive energy sources with low operating costs. To obtain favorable economics these technologies must operate at full capacity; but, their output does not match energy demand. We have energy alternatives to fossil fuels but no replacements for the energy storage capabilities or fossil fuels. Proposed strategies and technologies to address the grand storage challenge (including seasonal storage of electricity) are described. The options suggest a nuclear-renewable future to address seasonal energy storage needs in a low-carbon world.

  3. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Mateials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  4. Economic competitiveness of seawater desalinated by nuclear and fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2001-01-01

    The levelized discounted production water cost method and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) were used to compare the economics of desalination using nuclear or fossil energy. The results indicate that nuclear desalination is more economic than fossil desalination with reverse osmosis (RO), multi-effect distillation (MED) and multi-stage flash (MSF). The desalination water cost varies depending on the desalination technology and the water plant size from 0.52-1.98 USD·m -3 with the lowest water price by RO and the highest by MSF. The sensitivity factors for the economic competitiveness increases in order of the discounted rate, desalination plant scale, fossil fuel price, specific power plant investment, seawater temperature and total dissolve solid (TDS). The highest water cost is about 22.6% more than the base case

  5. Energy use and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1992-01-01

    A global review is presented with particular reference to energy use, society, environment, resources and the future. The text has been prepared as a course of lectures in scientifically accurate but nontechnical language for the student in general education. The first chapters cover the nature of energy, energy use in the global context and energy technologies, resources and uses. A chapter is devoted to each of the different energy types including fossil-carbon based energy, biomass fuels, alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal and water, and nuclear based power. After covering the technical basics, the author moves on to the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of energy use. Topics discussed include: energy, agriculture, forestry and fisheries; global trends, problems and needs; sustainable agriculture, food, water, and environmental quality; and energy use, attitudes, and conservation. Finally, the author looks to the future in discussions on education and peaceful planetary management

  6. Role of non-fossil energy in meeting China's energy and climate target for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Tong, Qing; Yu, Sha; Wang, Yu; Chai, Qimin; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15% and reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% from 2005 levels. To explore the role of non-fossil energy in achieving these two targets, this paper first provides an overview of current status of non-fossil energy development in China; then gives a brief review of GDP and primary energy consumption; next assesses in detail the role of the non-fossil energy in 2020, including the installed capacity and electricity generation of non-fossil energy sources, the share and role of non-fossil energy in the electricity structure, emissions reduction resulting from the shift to non-fossil energy, and challenges for accomplishing the mitigation targets in 2020; finally, conclusions and policy measures for non-fossil energy development are proposed.

  7. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  8. Advanced Researech and Technology Development fossil energy materials program: Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the ARandTD Fossil Energy Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined semiannual progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure in which projects are organized according to materials research thrust areas. These areas are (1) Structural Ceramics, (2) Alloy Development and Mechanical Properties, (3) Corrosion and Erosion of Alloys, and (4) Assessments and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Advanced research and technology development fossil energy materials program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.A. (comp.)

    1981-12-01

    This is the fourth combined quarterly progress report for those projects that are part of the Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. The objective is to conduct a program of research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Work performed on the program generally falls into the Applied Research and Exploratory Development categories as defined in the DOE Technology Base Review, although basic research and engineering development are also conducted. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating cntractor organizations. All subcontractor work is monitored by Program staff members at ORNL and Argonne National Laboratory. This report is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1981 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  10. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics discussed are under the following projects: materials research and developments; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; and fossil fuels supplies modeling and research.

  11. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2001-06-14

    This report covers progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The ORNL Fossil Energy Program research and development activities cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the SPR. An important part of the Fossil Energy Program is technical management of all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research (AR) Materials Program. The AR Materials Program involves research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  12. Investments in Fossil Energy Technology: How the Government's Fossil Energy R&D Program Has Made a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  13. Life cycle inventory analysis of fossil energies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Sungyee; Yamada, Tatsuya

    1999-01-01

    Given growing concerns over global warming problems in recent years, a matter of great importance has been to grasp GHG emissions from fossil energy use as accurately as possible by figuring out how much GHGs result from a life cycle (production, transportation and consumption) of various fossil energies. The objective of this study is to make a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis of major fossil energies (coal, oil, LNG, LPG) consumed in Japan pursuant to ISO 14040. On these fossil energies imported to Japan in 1997, LCI analysis results of GHG emissions (specifically carbon dioxide and methane) put CO 2 intensity during their combustion stage (gross heat value basis) at 100:121:138:179 among LNG:LPG:oil:coal. But, in life cycle terms, the ratios turned to be 100:110:120:154. The world average (gross heat value basis) gained from IPCC data, among others, puts the ratios among LNG:LPG:oil:coal at 100:105:110:151. In comparison, our study that focused on Japan found their corresponding figures at 100:110:120:154. COP 3 set forth country-by-country targets. Yet, global warming, that is a worldwide problem, also requires a more comprehensive assessment based on a life cycle analysis (LCA). The estimation results of our study can be of some help in shaping some criteria when considering energy and environmental policies from a global viewpoint. In addition, our study results suggest the importance of the best energy mix that is endorsed by LCI analysis results, if global warming abatement efforts should successfully be in advance. As specific institutional designs of Kyoto Mechanism are currently under examination, the introduction of LCI method deserves to be considered in discussing the baseline issue of joint implementation and clean development mechanism. In the days ahead, by gathering and analysing detailed-ever data, and through fossil-energy LCA by use, we had better consider supply and demand of the right energies in the right uses. (author)

  14. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  15. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  16. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  17. How do the stock prices of new energy and fossil fuel companies correlate? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiaoqian; Guo, Yanfeng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the return and volatility spillover effect between the stock prices of Chinese new energy and fossil fuel companies using the asymmetric BEKK model. Based on daily samples taken from August 30, 2006 to September 11, 2012, the dynamics of new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are found to be significant and asymmetric. Compared with positive news, negative news about new energy and fossil fuel stock returns leads to larger return changes in their counter assets. News about both new energy and fossil fuel stock returns spills over into variances of their counter assets, and the volatility spillovers depend complexly on the respective signs of the return shocks of each asset. The empirical results demonstrate that new energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets, that positive news about new energy stocks could affect the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks and that new energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment. These results have potential implications for asset allocation, financial risk management and energy policymaking. - Highlights: • The dynamics of Chinese new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are significant and asymmetric. • New energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets. • Positive news about new energy stocks affects the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks. • New energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment

  18. Energy research and energy technologies. Fossil energy sources. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    After an introduction into the research programme and an overview of the sponsored projects, the main part of the book gives a description of the projects in the research area fossile energy sources. Several indexes provide access to this comprehensive compilation: a project number index, an index of interconnected projects, and an index of companies. The organization plan of ''BEO'', the project group biology, energy, ecology, is appended. (UA) [de

  19. Sustainable energy development material management team report. Fossil business unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, P.; Keller, P.; Manning, P.; Nolan, M.; Ricci, A.; Turnbull, F.; Varadinek, H.

    1995-01-01

    Report of the Material Management Sustainable Energy Development (SED) Team was presented, outlining strategic directions and initiative for embedding SED principles in the materials management function. Six principles underlying SED were prescribed, accompanied by a framework for analysis. Excerpts from position papers used in the formulation of SED recommendations and initiatives were provided. The general theme of the recommendations was: (1) materials management activities should be review to ensure consistency with SED, (2) strategic alliances should be developed where appropriate and (3) staff in the Fossil Business Unit should promote SED among industry suppliers

  20. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  1. Nuclear energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The film stresses that a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, must be achieved to limit a dangerous concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It compares the environmental costs of different energy sources, in particular the wastes of a coal-fired versus a nuclear plant, and mentions the measures taken to reinforce protection against the risk of nuclear accidents

  2. Global climate change: a synopsis of current activities in the Office of Fossil Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.; Kane, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the US DOE Office of Fossil Energy investigation and monitoring of several aspects of global climate change as it relates to fossil fuels. The paper consists of the overheads from the presentation. The topics of this paper include greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, scientific uncertainties, legislation and protocols, mitigation strategies and policies, energy and economic impacts, and the role of clean coal technologies and fossil fuels in global climate change

  3. Energy price comparison of new, renewable, and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun; Sunardi

    2014-01-01

    Low cost transportation for people and goods is essential to the economic well-being of the nation. Until now, if the oil prices rise, the cost of transportation will automatically follow and most of the people suffering due to soaring prices of food and other items. Almost 100 percent of Indonesian transportation energy demand is supported by oil. Supply disruption - or even the threat of disruption - in the Middle East or elsewhere may lead to a shift in consumer prices and the cost of the industry in significant numbers. While costs in the energy sector, especially electricity in developed countries that also contribute significantly to support the transport sector, is much more stable and predictable. Energy requirements are so high in the transport sector tends to force people to seek the source and means of energy in other forms such as electricity or hydrogen that can match or exceed the performance of fuel oil. This paper aims to analyze the economics of energy price comparison to see the extent of the economic opportunities some kind of energy to play a significant role in the transport sector and the subsequent impact on the energy system. From the results obtained by the analysis that will be increasingly necessary role of nuclear energy and other specific energy as a source of electrical energy considering its economical aspects are relatively better. (author)

  4. Risoe energy report 9. Non-fossil energy technologies in 2050 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2010-11-01

    This Risoe Energy Report, the ninth in a series that began in 2002, analyses the long-term outlook for energy technologies in 2050 in a perspective where the dominating role of fossil fuels has been taken over by non-fossil fuels, and CO 2 emissions have been reduced to a minimum. Against this background, the report addresses issues like: 1) How much will today's non-fossil energy technologies have evolved up to 2050? 2) Which non-fossil energy technologies can we bring into play in 2050, including emerging technologies? 3) What are the implications for the energy system? Further, Volume 9 analyses other central issues for the future energy supply: 4) The role of non-fossil energy technologies in relation to security of supply and sustainability 5) System aspects in 2050 6) Examples of global and Danish energy scenarios in 2050 The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe DTU, together with available international literature and reports. (Author)

  5. Risoe energy report 9. Non-fossil energy technologies in 2050 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2010-11-15

    This Risoe Energy Report, the ninth in a series that began in 2002, analyses the long-term outlook for energy technologies in 2050 in a perspective where the dominating role of fossil fuels has been taken over by non-fossil fuels, and CO{sub 2} emissions have been reduced to a minimum. Against this background, the report addresses issues like: 1) How much will today's non-fossil energy technologies have evolved up to 2050? 2) Which non-fossil energy technologies can we bring into play in 2050, including emerging technologies? 3) What are the implications for the energy system? Further, Volume 9 analyses other central issues for the future energy supply: 4) The role of non-fossil energy technologies in relation to security of supply and sustainability 5) System aspects in 2050 6) Examples of global and Danish energy scenarios in 2050 The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe DTU, together with available international literature and reports. (Author)

  6. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1994 through March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1995, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, and DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The following research areas are covered in this report: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis support; Bioprocessing research; Coal combustion research; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science an Technology database.

  7. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus of Unconventional Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, L.; Davis, K. F.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2017-12-01

    Extraction of unconventional fossil fuels has increased human pressure on freshwater resources. Shale formations are globally abundant and widespread. Their extraction through hydraulic fracturing, a water-intensive process, may be limited by water availability, especially in arid and semiarid regions where stronger competition is expected to emerge with food production. It is unclear to what extent and where shale resource extraction could compete with local water and food security. Although extraction of shale deposits materializes economic gains and increases energy security, in some regions it may exacerbate the reliance on food imports, thereby decreasing regional food security. We consider the global distribution of known shale deposits suitable for oil and gas extraction and evaluate their impacts on water resources for food production and other human and environmental needs. We find that 17% of the world's shale deposits are located in areas affected by both surface water and groundwater stress, 50% in areas with surface water stress, and about 30% in irrigated areas. In these regions shale oil and shale gas production will likely threaten water and food security. These results highlight the importance of hydrologic analyses in the extraction of fossil fuels. Indeed, neglecting water availability as one of the possible factors constraining the development of shale deposits around the world could lead to unaccounted environmental impacts and business risks for firms and investors. Because several shale deposits in the world stretch across irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions, an adequate development of these resources requires appropriate environmental, economic and political decisions.

  8. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C. (comps.)

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  9. Energy, pollution, environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Many of the major environmental problems of today, such as climate change, air pollution, acidification of lakes and forests, deforestation and desertification, share a common causal factor: energy - its production, transformation and final use. The burning of fossil fuels has already contributed to acidification of lakes and forests, and threatens to alter the world's climate. Traditional open fires cause indoor air pollution, thereby harming the health of women and children in the Third World. In many developing countries, the disappearing forest base is increasingly unable to supply enough wood for energy needs, leading to even greater pressure on forests, which in turn can lead to desertification. Nuclear reactor accidents may release large quantities of radioactive materials, and hydro dams may fail and inundate large areas of land. Indeed, every energy system has some impact on health and the environment, either affecting the same group of people who enjoy the benefits: the exposure of a small group to fumes from a poorly vented common cooking device; or a different group: acid rain in one country caused by the burning of fossil fuels in another, or harm to the health of future generations from today's radioactive nuclear waste. During the past two decades, these energy- environment impacts have become so serious that they may limit further growth of the world's energy economy. Consequently, these problems are now being examined more closely by decision makers throughout the world, as well as by the general public. In addition, it has become clear that energy cannot be viewed in isolation and that pollution, environment and health issues must be integrated into the development of national and international energy policies, so that the adverse impacts of energy can be reduced. To do this, the relationships among different energy systems and their impacts need to be defined clearly. To that end, UNEP has convened conferences on this topic and prepared several

  10. Publications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program, October 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, P.T.

    1993-06-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fossil Energy Program, organized in FY 1974 as the Coal Technology Program, involves research and development activities for the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy that cover a wide range of fossil energy technologies. The principal focus of the Laboratory's fossil energy activities relates to coal, with current emphasis on materials research and development; environmental, health, and safety research; and the bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels. This bibliography covers the period of October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1993

  11. Energy research at DOE, was it worth it?: energy efficiency and fossil energy research 1978 to 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... from the R&D conducted since 1978 in DOE's energy efficiency and fossil energy programs. In response to the congressional charge, the National Research Council formed the Committee on Benefits of DOE...

  12. Power plant engineering for the use of fossil, regenerative and nuclear energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, K.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power is the motor for technical advance and for the development of the standard of living in industrial countries. It has been provided for about 110 years on the industrial scale for general use by energy conversion in powerstations. This book gives the present state of technology for this and points out possible future developments. The author deals with the following aspects: Survey of available energy sources (fossil, regenerative, nuclear) the principles for the conversion of primary energy into electricity contamination of the environment resulting from energy conversion statements on the efficiency, availability of plant and costs. The reader can estimate the order of magnitude of energy and material flows and the dimensions of components and units from examples with answers. The book is intended for students and practical engineers in energy and powerstation technology. (orig.) With 210 figs [de

  13. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  14. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  15. Wood-energy: success depends on the price of fossil energies and on the carbon tax level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by several graphs indicating the structure of fossil energy prices, the comparison between domestic fuel and wood-energy for public network exploitation, the levels of fossil prices and carbon tax for non-subsidised projects, this article analyses the development of biomass (and more particularly wood-energy), the success of which depends on the price of fossil energies and on the carbon tax level. It outlines the differences of price-building elements between fossil and renewable heat, that subsidies are necessary if reference prices are low. It discusses the influence of carbon tax level and of fossil prices. It finally identifies conditions to be met (reduction of fossil energy supply and therefore higher fossil prices, introduction of a carbon tax) to reach COP objectives

  16. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

  17. Proceedings of the 1980 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, R.W. (comp.)

    1980-01-01

    The 1980 symposium on Instrumentation and Control for Fossil Energy Processes was held June 9-11, 1980, New Cavalier, Virginia Beach, Virginia. It was sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Forty-five papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; nine papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  18. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy decreases of share of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources decreases of share of fossil fuels.

  19. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from....... Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus...... imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  20. Energy, economics, environment and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The pressure on the Earth's environment and resources is the ultimate result of population growth and the only humane means available for stabilizing world population is to increase per capita living standards in the developing countries. However, this will require a very large increase in global energy consumption. If, as at present, the energy demand is met largely by fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 will rise rapidly. Until the end of the century, and perhaps beyond it, any actions to control CO 2 emissions will be taken for precautionary reasons alone, because no reliable basis will exist for predicting their global (or regional) impact on the climate. The sustainability of the natural environment is also under threat from human activities such as the clearing of forests for crop-growing and grazing. The resulting elimination of habitats for, and genetic variability in, the victor is as serious a concern as global warming. The economic and social consequences of rigidly curtailing the growth of energy use in developed countries would be severe, and in developing countries extreme; even then greenhouse gas build up could only be slowed not prevented. On the other hand, a wealthier world would be more able to bear the financial burden of protecting biodiversity. It is concluded that since the developed countries on whom the main cost would have to fall, adequate effort into both biodiversity and greenhouse gas reduction, biodiversity must take procedence. (1 figure, 2 tables). (UK)

  1. Publications of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program: April 1, 1993--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, P.T. [comp.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with a focus on the longer-term needs for materials with general applicability to the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed at a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and on the development of new materials capable of substantial improvement in plant operations and reliability. The scope of the Program addresses materials requirements for all fossil energy systems, including materials for coal preparation, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, heat engines and heat recovery, combustion systems, and fuel cells. Work on the Program is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities. This bibliography covers the period of April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1995, and is a supplement to previous bibliographies in this series. It is the intent of this series of bibliographies to list only those publications that can be conveniently obtained by a researcher through relatively normal channels. The publications listed in this document have been limited to topical reports, open literature publications in refereed journals, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, full-length papers in unrefereed journals, and books and book articles. 159 refs.

  2. Energy revolution: From a fossil energy era to a new energy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caineng Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to predict the future situation of global energy development. In view of this, we reviewed the history of energy use and understood that new energy sources will usher in a new era following oil & gas, coal and wood one after another in the past time. Although the fossil energy sources are still plenty in the world, great breakthroughs made in some key technologies and the increasing demand for ecological environmental protection both impel the third time of transformation from oil & gas to new energy sources. Sooner or later, oil, gas, coal and new energy sources will each account for a quarter of global energy consumption in the new era, specifically speaking, accounting for 32.6%, 23.7%, 30.0% and 13.7% respectively. As one of the largest coal consumer, China will inevitably face up to the situation of tripartite confrontation of the coal, oil & gas and new energy. The following forecasting results were achieved. First, the oil will be in a stable period and its annual production peak will be around 2040, reaching up to 45 × 108 t. Second, the natural gas will enter the heyday period and its annual production peak will be around 2060, reaching up to 4.5 × 1012 m3, which will play a pivotal role in the future energy sustainable development. Third, the coal has entered a high-to-low-carbon transition period, and its direct use and the discharged pollutants will be significantly reduced. In 2050, the coal will be dropped to 25% of the primary energy mix. Last, the development and utilization of new energy sources has been getting into the golden age and its proportion in the primary energy mix will be substantially enhanced. On this basis, we presented some proposals for the future energy development in China. At first, we should understand well that China's energy production and consumption has its own characteristics. Under the present situation, we should strengthen the clean and efficient use of coal resources, which

  3. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives and the proceedings are presented of the conference ''Energy and the environment'' held in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia, on 9-10 June, 1987. A total of 31 papers were presented; 4 papers were centred on nuclear power: an assessment of the impact of ionizing radiation from power generation on the health of the population and on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the nuclear power plant complex in the Jaslovske Bohunice locality on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the Vychodni Cechy (Eastern Bohemia) plant on the environment; and a paper on the ecological optimization of the landscape during the development of the uranium industry. (J.B.)

  4. Proceedings of the 1981 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes was held June 8-10, 1981, at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel, San Francisco, California. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy; Office of Fossil Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; and the Society for Control and Instrumentation of Energy Processes. Sixty-seven articles from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; thirteen articles had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  5. Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

  6. Using energy efficiency and alternative energy to extend fossil resources or what if tomorrow actually comes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the role of energy in maintaining and advancing society, and what happens if we run out of energy. The author provided a glimpse into the energy world through the display of a series of graphs depicting world energy consumption, world energy production, world population distribution, growth rates in Asia, coal use per capita, the United States energy consumption by source, percent of air emissions in the United States from fossil fuel use, and others. It was argued that alternative energy and energy efficiency diminish growth in demand and peak load, supports portfolio diversity, lowers cost, and diminishes environmental impacts. The advances in wind power and solar power were reviewed, as well as advances in bioenergy and hydrogen. The author also argued the case for energy efficiency and conservation. A discussion of various pricing schemes was offered. The first option examined was time of use price, defined as 3 time blocks published in advance for entire seasons. The second option was critical peak pricing, involving a high price imposed for a few days per year when system conditions are critical or near critical. The third option discussed was real-time prices, implying an hourly real-time marginal cost of a kilowatt hour. It was suggested that the system should be changed, since subsidizing energy consumption distorts demand. Energy efficiency and renewables extend fossil energy availability, helping in the transition to a more sustainable world. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Energy - environment - nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons. (HSCH) [de

  8. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rombouts, Linda J A; Hellweg, Stefanie; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hendriks, A Jan; Meent, Dik van de; Ragas, Ad M J; Reijnders, Lucas; Struijs, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories

  9. Incorporating Informal Learning Environments and Local Fossil Specimens in Earth Science Classrooms: A Recipe for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2009-01-01

    In an online graduate paleontology course taken by practicing Earth Science teachers, we designed an investigation using teachers' local informal educational environments. Teachers (N = 28) were responsible for photographing, describing, and integrating fossil specimens from two informal sites into a paleoenvironmental analysis of the landscape in…

  10. Energy, Environment and IMCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the important role that the ionic and mixed conducting ceramics (IMCC) type of materials will play in the R&D of energy and environment technologies of the - presumably - near future. IMCC materials based technologies for energy harvesting, conversion...... and storage as well as for monitoring and protection of our environment are exemplified. The strong impact of the international IMCC research on development of devices based on such materials is illustrated, and some recent trends in the scientific exploration of IMCC are highlighted. Important groups...

  11. Co-combustion for fossil fuel replacement and better environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Abelha, Pedro; Teixeira, P.; Crujeira, Teresa; Boavida, Dulce; Marques, F.; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    The growing demand for energy and the requirements regarding CO{sub 2} emissions to comply with the Kyoto targets, together with crisis associated with the fuel supply, can be, to some degree, met by the use of renewable fuel sources, such as biomass. Although the use of biomass, originating from forests, could be beneficial, particularly in preventing fires, there are obstacles to achieve a sustainable supply of biomass in most European countries. In addition, there are also technical barriers as biomass combustion conditions may differ from those of coal, which could mean significant retrofitting of existing installations. The significance of this problem was recognized in the EU and a Project is being financed by the 6th Framework Programme, INETI from Portugal being the coordinator. Five EU countries plus Turkey participate in the project which aims at evaluating both the sustainable chain supply in the several countries, taking profit of the experience of northern European countries and the technical issues related with the co-combustion process, pollutant emission control and operational problems, such as fouling and slagging inside the boilers. At INETI, experimental work is being carried out, involving the characterization of several types of biomass and non-toxic residues. These materials are being burned on a pilot fluidized bed combustor, in order to evaluate combustion performance and improve conditions and synergies of fuel blends to control pollutant emissions and slagging tendency. Ashes produced are also being characterized, for composition and leachability, in order to evaluate possibilities of reutilization and compliance with landfilling regulations. In this paper a description of the project is presented, along with some of the results already obtained.

  12. Co-combustion for fossil fuel replacement and better environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Helena Lopes; I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; P. Teixeira; T. Crujeira; D. Boavida; F. Marques; I. Cabrita [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    The growing demand for energy and the requirement regarding CO{sub 2} emissions, to comply with the Kyoto targets, together with crisis associated with the fuel supply, can be, to some degree, met by the use of renewable fuel sources, such as biomass. Although the use of biomass, originating from forests, could be beneficial, there are obstacles to achieve a sustainable supply of biomass in most European countries. In addition, there are also technical barriers as biomass combustion conditions may differ from those of coal, which could mean significant retrofitting of existing installations. The significance of this problem was recognized in the EU and a Project is being financed by the 6th Framework Programme, INETI from Portugal being the coordinator. Five EU countries plus Turkey participate in the project which aims at evaluating both the sustainable chain supply in the several countries, taking profit of the experience of northern European countries and the technical issues related with the co-combustion process, pollutant emission control and operational problems, such as fouling and slagging inside the boilers. At INETI, experimental work is being carried out, involving the characterization of several types of biomass and non-toxic residues. These materials are being burned on a pilot fluidized bed combustor, in order to evaluate combustion performance and improve conditions and synergies of fuel blends to control pollutant emissions and slagging tendency. Ashes produced are also being characterized, for composition and leachability, in order to evaluate possibilities of reutilization and compliance with landfilling regulations. In this paper a description of the project is presented, along with some of the results already obtained. 19 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Croatian non-fossil energy programme (NFE Program); Program nefosilnih energenata u Hrvatskoj (Program NFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenski, M; Potocnik, V [Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    Proposed NFE Program (rational energy use and renewable energy) takes into account European Union experience and the facts of scarce fossil fuel reserves and relatively low energy efficiency in Croatia. Implementation of the NFE Program is expected to reduce fossil fuels import growth and environmental pollution, to improve import-export trade balance and to contribute to the new local jobs. (author). 4 figs., 11 refs.

  14. Allocation of fossil and nuclear fuels. Heat production from chemically and physically bound energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the book presents the broad field of allocation, transformation, transport and distribution of the most important energy carriers in the modern power industry. The following chapters cover solid fossil fuel, liquid fuel, gaseous fuel and nuclear fuel. The final chapters concern the heat production from chemically and physically bound energy, including elementary analysis, combustion calculations, energy balance considerations in fossil fuel fired systems, and fundamentals of nuclear physics

  15. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  16. Sustainable Development and the Relative Prices of Fossil and Non-fossil Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    direction of the market forces relevant to a sustainable supply of physical energy for a globalized HiTec-culture taking into account the redoubling of the price of crude oil during the last years.      Changes in the supply pattern of physical energy is supposed to be ruled by the relative unit costs...

  17. A revisit of fossil-fuel subsidies in China: Challenges and opportunities for energy price reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We measure fossil-fuel subsidies and effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010. • Fossil-fuel subsidies scale of China was CNY 881.94 billion in 2010, equivalent to 2.59% of GDP. • Impacts of removing subsidies on macroeconomic variables are examined by the CGE model. • Future policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies. - Abstract: Fossil-fuel subsidies contribute to the extensive growth of energy demand and the related carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, the process of energy price reform is slow, even though China faces increasing problems of energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on analyzing fossil fuel subsidies in China by estimating subsidies scale and the implications for future reform. We begin by measuring fossil-fuel subsidies and the effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010 using a price-gap approach. Results indicate that the oil price reform in 2009 significantly reduced China’s fossil-fuel subsidies and modified the subsidy structure. Fossil-fuel subsidies scale in China was 881.94 billion CNY in 2010, which was lower than the amount in 2006, equivalent to 2.59% of the GDP. The macro-economic impacts of removing fossil-fuel subsidies are then evaluated by the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Results demonstrate that the economic growth and employment will be negatively affected as well as energy demand, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Finally, policy implications are suggested: first, risks of government pricing of energy are far from negligible; second, an acceptable macroeconomic impact is a criterion for energy price reform in China; third, the future energy policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies

  18. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  19. Fossil fuel subsidies and the new EU Climate and Energy Governance Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    There is currently no dedicated process to track the extent of fossil fuel subsidies, nor to ensure that Member States phase them out. This situation is inconsistent with the European Union's stated decarbonization and energy efficiency dimensions under the Energy Union. The EU is therefore in need of an alternative process for tracking and ensuring the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies by the Member States. The new Energy Union governance mechanism presents an opportunity for creating this alternative. Providing the right price signals is essential part of the policy mix that is needed to achieve Europe's climate policy goals. Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies in the EU is an important part of aligning energy prices with the EU's climate and energy goals. Depending on how they are measured, combined fossil fuel subsidies in the EU range from 39 to over euro 200 billion per annum (European Commission, 2014). They therefore constitute a significant source of incoherence between the EU's climate mitigation and fiscal policies for energy. However, there has recently been mixed progress in addressing fossil fuel subsidies in Europe. For instance, under the Europe 2020 Strategy, Member States had committed to begin developing plans for phasing out fossil fuel subsidies by 2020. Progress on implementing these plans was supposed to be monitored under the European Semester. However, the decision was taken to remove the focus on energy and fossil fuel subsidies from the European Semester in 2015. As yet, no new system for governing the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies has been advanced, leaving the question of fossil fuel subsidy reform in limbo. The advent of the EU's Energy Union project creates an opportunity for putting the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies back on track in Europe. This could be done by including requirements for national goal setting on specific kinds of fossil fuel subsidies in a dedicated sub-section of the National Climate and Energy Plans

  20. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1995 through March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1996-06-01

    This report covers progress for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Attention is focused on the following areas: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research for coal, oil, and natural gas; coal combustion research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and advanced turbine systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Energy, environment and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO 2 and NO x emissions and CFCs triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicals used as refrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. It was therefore considered desirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of depletion of world energy reserves and pollution of the environment. One way of reducing building energy consumption is to design building, which are more economical in their use of energy for heating, lighting, cooling, ventilation and hot water supply. Passive measures, particularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning, can dramatically reduce primary energy consumption. However, exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses can, also, significantly contribute towards reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Therefore, promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing the renewable energy market will contribute to preservation of the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels. This will also contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions by replacing conventional fuels with renewable energies that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases. The provision of good indoor environmental quality while achieving energy and cost-efficient operation of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) plants in buildings represents a multi-variant problem. The comfort of building occupants is dependent on many environmental parameters including air speed, temperature, relative humidity and quality in addition to lighting and noise. The overall objective is to provide a high

  2. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels at a meeting in Warsaw, the first in a series of UNEP undertakings, to be followed by studies on nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. The major issues examined at the meeting were human health effects of atmospheric emissions, especially SO/sub 2/; effects of SO/sub 2/ on vegetation and bodies of fresh water; long-term ecologic effects of oil spills in the sea; and potential effects on climate from atmospheric CO/sub 2/ arising from fossil fuel combustion. A doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration would cause an estimated 1.5/sup 0/-3.0/sup 0/C increase in the surface air temperature. With an amount of CO/sub 2/ equivalent to 0.5 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes of carbon annually injected into the atmosphere from fossil fuels, of which only 0.27 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes are removed by some exchange processes with ocean or land. A 17% increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ over the 1976 concentration of 332 ppm is expected by the year 2000.

  3. Synergistic production of hydrogen using fossil fuels and nuclear energy application of nuclear-heated membrane reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, M.; Matsui, K.; Tashimo, M.; Yasuda, I.

    2004-01-01

    Processes and technologies to produce hydrogen synergistically by the steam reforming reaction using fossil fuels and nuclear heat are reviewed. Formulas of chemical reactions, required heats for reactions, saving of fuel consumption or reduction of carbon dioxide emission, possible processes and other prospects are examined for such fossil fuels as natural gas, petroleum and coal. The 'membrane reformer' steam reforming with recirculation of reaction products in a closed loop configuration is considered to be the most advantageous among various synergistic hydrogen production methods. Typical merits of this method are: nuclear heat supply at medium temperature below 600 deg. C, compact plant size and membrane area for hydrogen production, efficient conversion of feed fuel, appreciable reduction of carbon dioxide emission, high purity hydrogen without any additional process, and ease of separating carbon dioxide for future sequestration requirements. With all these benefits, the synergistic production of hydrogen by membrane reformer using fossil fuels and nuclear energy can be an effective solution in this century for the world which has to use. fossil fuels any way to some extent while reducing carbon dioxide emission. For both the fossil fuels industry and the nuclear industry, which are under constraint of resource, environment and economy, this production method will be a viable symbiosis strategy for the coming hydrogen economy era. (author)

  4. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2007-11-22

    The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

  5. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  6. Fossil Energy Research and Development Program of the U. S. Department of Energy, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) focuses energy Research and Development efforts on new and promising ways to provide for our future energy needs. This document focuses on DOE's programs and projects related to the nation's Fossil Energy resources: coal, oil, natural gas and oil shale. Fossil Energy programs have grown rapidly from about $58 million in FY 1973 to the $802 million requested for FY 1979. As those programs have matured, there have been significant shifts in emphasis. For example, by FY 1979, gasification technologies will have matured sufficiently to enter the demonstration phase. Then we will have to make critical decisions as to which candidate processes to pursue and to encourage industry's active participation as early as possible. We will present the rationale for those changes and others at the beginning of each section describing a particular grouping of similar projects, e.g., coal liquefaction. We will then discuss each project and present its current status along with past and future milestones. Emphasis is on projects with early payoff potential, particularly the direct utilization of coal. However, this near-term emphasis will not overshadow the need for a stong technological base for development of longer-term promising technologies and the need for a strong environmental concern.

  7. Renewable energy to the Indian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world. Greenhouse gas emissions, climatic changes and global warming have a direct impact on the environment. A secure and accessible supply of energy is very crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. There is an urgent need for a quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewable that are sustainable and can meet the present and projected world energy demand. Renewable energy has a large potential to become the fuel of the future. The present study is aimed to explore such potential and achievements in India. India is expected to have high growth rate in energy demand over the coming years due to its huge population and rapid economic development. The renewable energy prospects/spectrums of India have been highlighted. (author)

  8. From fossil fuels to energies-of-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, C.J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Energon - Winter (C.J.) GmbH, Leonberg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Energies-of-light are the final result on the ongoing decarbonisation of carbonaceous fuels, their hydrogenation and, thus, dematerialization (coal -> petroleum -> natural gas -> hydrogen). Energies-of-light utilise all sorts of renewable energies and the chemical secondary energy carrier hydrogen for energy storage and transport, as well as a transportation fuel.

  9. The unstudied barriers to widespread renewable energy deployment: Fossil fuel price responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Edward; Contestabile, Marcello; Blazquez, Jorge; Manzano, Baltasar; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy policy focuses on supporting the deployment of renewable power generators so as to reduce their costs through scale economies and technological learning. It is expected that, once cost parity with fossil fuel generation is achieved, a transition towards renewable power should continue without the need for further renewable energy subsidies. However, this reasoning implicitly assumes that the cost of fossil fuel power generation does not respond to the large scale penetration of renewable power. In this paper we build a standard economic framework to test the validity of this assumption, particularly in the case of coal and gas fired power generation. We find that it is likely that the cost of fossil fuel power generation will respond to the large scale penetration of renewables, thus making the renewable energy transition slower or more costly than anticipated. More analysis is needed in order to be able to quantify this effect, the occurrence of which should be considered in the renewable energy discourse. - Highlights: • Renewables are increasingly competing with fossil fuel power generation. • This may have various effects on the fossil fuel generation value chain. • One such possible effect is a response of fossil fuel prices to renewables deployment. • We have tested this hypothesis using a supply-demand analytical framework. • We found that the effect is likely to occur and should be further investigated.

  10. Environmental, economic and exergetic sustainability assessment of power generation from fossil and renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Giustozzi, N.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Stoppato, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Energy conversion systems have assumed a crucial role in current society. The threat of climate change, fossil fuel depletion and the growing world energy demand ask for a more sustainable way of electricity production, eg, by using renewable energy sources, by improving the conversion efficiency

  11. Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethig, Ruediger; Wittlich, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

  12. The role of nuclear energy in the more efficient exploitation of fossil fuel resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1978-01-01

    The energy theory of value, being a valuable addition to the debate on the rational exploitation of man's energy reserves, is applied in order to clarify the presently confused energy input/output relations for nuclear and solar systems as they interact with fossil fuel. It is shown on the basis of purely energetics considerations that the nuclear route - at present and in future - is a very efficient way to stretch out and finally to substitute for the limited fossil fuel resources. This is particularly true if one considers the transitory phase where the substituting process has to exhibit a rapid exponential growth rate. The energetical effectiveness of the production of a synthetic fuel, as for example hydrogen by water splitting processes, is addressed at the end and serves to give an idea how effectively the energy available in fossil fuels can be amplified by virtue of the coupling of nuclear energy into the process. (author)

  13. Atomic and nuclear methods in fossil energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, R.H.; Carpenter, B.S.; Ragaini, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: analysis of oil shale products and effluents using a multitechnique approach; nuclear methods for trace elements in petroleum and petroleum products; uranium content of petroleum by fission; fast neutron activation analysis of fossil fuels and liquefaction products; determination of trace element forms in solvent refined coal products; an automated multidetector system for instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological and environmental materials; on-line nuclear analysis of coal and its uses; investigation of coal hydrogenation using deuterium as an isotopic tracer; the natural permeability reduction in porous media due to the presence of kaolinite; the application of photon induced x-ray fluorescence for the simultaneous determinations of cobalt, nickel and molybdenum in hydrodesulfurization catalysts; and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance of oil shale evaluation and processing

  14. Environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, H.; Kneller, P.

    1981-01-01

    FACIT is a periodical intended to provide the reader with a survey of outstanding publications on topical subjects. At the same time, it offers a first insight into the subject field, enabling the reader to select among the literature cited the publications he may need to enhance his knowledge and information. The periodical is aimed at serving as a guide to the complex variety of publications in a subject field, and to offer information in brief. Vol. 1, Environment and Energy, cites representative statements and samples from the German-language literature in this field and gives hints for further reading. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1997 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This report covers progress made on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies, covering the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and oil and gas production.

  16. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss Adam

    2014-01-01

    The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. Howev...

  17. Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.G.; Wilson, J.V.; Klepper, O.H.

    1977-01-01

    As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service

  18. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  19. Fossil-energy program. Quarterly progress report for June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1983-08-01

    This quarterly report covers the progress made during the period March 31 through June 30 for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research and development projects that are carried out in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuels as sources of clean energy. These projects are supported by various parts of DOE including Fossil Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, the Electric Power Research Institute, and by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the EPA Office of Research and Development through inter-agency agreement with DOE.

  20. Energy and the transport sector. [For countries with no fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, P E

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the current energy situation from both the global viewpoint and the viewpoint of countries with no indigenous sources of fossil fuels. The lack of fossil fuels necessitates a substitution with indigenous sources of energy, where feasible. Long-distance railway transport is a self-evident element in the expanding transport sector. In view of the proven high energy efficiency of electric railway systems, there is every incentive for a more active investment policy in railway electrification. This applies to both medium-distance transportation of freight and passengers and different electric mass transit systems.

  1. Past, present and future of the fossil energies; Pasado, presente y futuro de las energias fosiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Fernandez, J. L.

    2004-07-01

    This article discusses on the energy that is the motor of the world, without which it would not be possible to enjoy the quality of life that we have. It will be centred fundamentally in the fossil energies, so insulted today but that are the ones that have allowed the extraordinary economic developing of the Humanity. (Author) 29 refs.

  2. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  3. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  4. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  5. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1996 through March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1997-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fossil Energy Program research and development activities, performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The coal activities include materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels; and coal combustion research. The work in support of gas technologies includes activities on the Advanced Turbine Systems Program, primarily in the materials and manufacturing aspects. Several activities are contributing to petroleum technologies in the areas of computational tools for seismic analysis and the use of bioconversion for the removal of impurities from heavy oils. This report contains 32 papers describing the various research activities, arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supply modeling and research; and advanced turbine systems.

  6. The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    A high energy return on energy investment (EROI) of an energy production process is crucial to its long-term viability. The EROI of conventional thermal electricity from fossil fuels has been viewed as being much higher than those of renewable energy life-cycles, and specifically of photovoltaics (PVs). We show that this is largely a misconception fostered by the use of outdated data and, often, a lack of consistency among calculation methods. We hereby present a thorough review of the methodology, discuss methodological variations and present updated EROI values for a range of modern PV systems, in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel based electricity life-cycles. - Highlights: ► We perform a review of the EROI methodology. ► We provide new calculations for PV compared to oil- and coal-based energy systems. ► If compared consistently, PV sits squarely in the same range of EROI as conventional fossil fuel life cycles.

  7. A PESTLE Policy Mapping and Stakeholder Analysis of Indonesia’s Fossil Fuel Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Widya Yudha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a long-standing history of reliance on fossil fuels, which reflects the country’s vast reserves of crude oil, natural gas, coal, and other resources. Consequently, the potential of Indonesia’s fossil energy industry is both complex and multi-layered. This paper aims to carry out a policy mapping and stakeholder analysis of Indonesia’s fossil energy industry, adopting a PESTLE (Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal, and Environmental approach, which allows identification of multidisciplinary stakeholders and underlying relationships across the sector. The outcomes from the analysis indicated the importance of strategically aligning the stakeholders’ policies to the needs of other relevant stakeholders. Furthermore, the central and regional governments need to work closely in order to better sense if there is a change in the policy, be receptive to anticipating the potential impacts, and to avoid policies being executed in an isolated manner.

  8. Energy, environment and technological innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Pereira da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development problems can not be addressed without taking account of the environmental and energy issues, as well as the intimate relationship and the intense interaction between the two. In fact, the energy issue can not be analyzed separately from environmental issues, nor the advances in technological innovation, integrating dynamic-systemic way and so positioning address the issue of the development model to set the bulge the transition process experienced by the world since the seventies of the twentieth century. This transition, in turn, implies the passage of Paradigm of Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy also called the Paradigm of renewable sources of energy, not just holding the energy problem, but towards to environmental and technological components. It is within this relatively slow and long process, instigator of high levels of volatility, turbulence inducing and motor of technological innovation, which is (re raises the question of the development model that defines how a new model/style development.

  9. Neutron activation analysis applied to energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to a number of problems concerned with energy production and the environment. Burning of fossil fuel, the search for new sources of uranium, possible presence of toxic elements in food and water, and the relationship of trace elements to cardiovascular disease are some of the problems in which neutron activation was used. (auth)

  10. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  11. Energy networks for fossil fuel; Reti energetiche per combustibili fossili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bologna, S; Vignolini, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-12-01

    The document, after an overview of the present national energy situation, covers in detail the actual situation of the national networks of pipelines for oil and gas transportations, with emphasis to the aspects most relevant from the technology innovation point of view. Design, construction, operation and maintenance of oil and gas networks of pipelines is quite challenging and requires very advanced engineering solutions and technologies, above all for remote control, operation, diagnostic and safety systems.

  12. Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Visser, E.; Winkel, T.; De Jager, D.; De Vos, R.; Blom, M.; Afman, M.

    2011-06-01

    This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap. [nl

  13. Scope of fossil energy resources in Mexico and the Andean Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa Vega, F. de la; Boesl, B.

    1997-01-01

    The article focuses on fossil energy resources in the Andean Group and Mexico, and argues for a dynamic approach to calculating reserves to production ratios. Individual countries are surveyed in terms of estimated reserves of fossil energy, resources, current production rates and future prospects; energy policy options for individual countries are analysed. As a primary objective of energy policy is to ensure security of supply, it is important that that calculations of reserves to production ratios accurately, estimate the desired level of investment in exploration. The calculations need to take into account a variety of parameters, including different energy sources, availability and risk; geographic considerations including proximity, transport, storage capacity and commercial aspects; the competitive and environmental implications of developing indigenous resources; and the use of instruments to establish contingency plans for emergencies

  14. Energy and fossil fuels as a topic in WTO accession protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna; Weiss, Friedl; Bungenberg, M; Krajewski, M; Tams, C; Terhechte, JP; Ziegler, AR

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse and compare WTO Accession Protocols, particularly the interpretations given relevant commitments made in them regarding energy and fossil fuels. Much has changed in global trade relations since the launch of the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations in November

  15. Innovation in the energy sector – The role of fossil fuels and developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutschin, Elina; Fleig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of fossil fuel rents on R&D expenditures and patent grants in the field of energy-related technology. We argue that an increasing share of fossil fuel rents lessens the innovation of new energy technologies. We consider a sample of countries beyond the common selection of OECD members and investigate innovation efforts in the energy sector of 116 countries from 1980 to 2012. We observe the gradually growing influence of resource-abundant countries on global R&D expenditures and find that increasing fossil fuel rents have a negative effect on patent grants. This study contributes to the ongoing debate concerning the potential effects of resource abundance. More importantly, it increases our understanding of innovation activities within the energy sector and further underscores the need to extend future research to countries that have not been taken into account thus far. - Highlights: • We investigate a sample of 116 countries, a pool beyond the commonly considered OECD members. • We find that high oil prices induce increased R&D expenditures in developed countries. • Fossil rents are associated with decreasing patent grants when developing economies are included. • We use multiple imputation to handle the problem of missing data.

  16. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-79-000] Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC; Notice of Complaint...) filed a complaint against PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC, PSEG Fossil LLC and PSEG Power LLC (PSEG...

  17. To break away from fossil fuels : a contribution to solve climatic change and energy security for Quebec; S'affranchir des carburants fossiles : une contribution a la lutte aux changements climatiques et a la securite energetique du Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, P.; Seguin, H.; Waridel, L.

    2006-06-15

    In response to growing energy demands, Quebec has proposed the construction of 3 deep water terminals to accommodate methane tankers which transport liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper focused on the proposed Gros Cacouna Port project in the St. Lawrence Seaway which is currently under study and subject to approval. Equiterre, questioned the energy security aspect of the proposal and argued that increasing Quebec's reliance on increasingly expensive energy would decrease energy security. In addition, importation of LNG would bring a clear exit of capital outside the province. Equiterre also argued that reliance on fossil fuels should be decreased in order to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to climate change. The organization questioned whether the economic and social need for the proposed project justifies a greater dependency on fossil fuels and the associated impact on the environment and fragile ecosystems of the St. Lawrence. It was suggested that alternative solutions such as renewable energy sources and energy efficiency should be explored in order to promote sustainable development, increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gases. Equiterre argued that Quebec can and must decrease, and even eliminate, its dependence on fossil fuels, including natural gas, for Quebec's economic, social and environmental well-being. For these reasons, Equiterre recommended that the proposed project be rejected, particularly since the project proponents failed to show the real impact that the project would have on Quebec markets. 72 refs., 10 tabs., 21 figs.

  18. Dark energy: a quantum fossil from the inflationary universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of dark energy (DE) as the physical cause for the accelerated expansion of the Universe is the most remarkable experimental finding of modern cosmology. However, it leads to insurmountable theoretical difficulties from the point of view of fundamental physics. Inflation, on the other hand, constitutes another crucial ingredient, which seems necessary to solve other cosmological conundrums and provides the primeval quantum seeds for structure formation. One may wonder if there is any deep relationship between these two paradigms. In this work, we suggest that the existence of the DE in the present Universe could be linked to the quantum field theoretical mechanism that may have triggered primordial inflation in the early Universe. This mechanism, based on quantum conformal symmetry, induces a logarithmic, asymptotically free, running of the gravitational coupling. If this evolution persists in the present Universe, and if matter is conserved, the general covariance of Einstein's equations demands the existence of dynamical DE in the form of a running cosmological term, Λ, whose variation follows a power law of the redshift

  19. Energy, ecology, and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Richard F

    1974-01-01

    Energy, Ecology, and the Environment discusses how our need for energy and the different means required to obtain it affect the environment and the harnessing of different natural resources. The book also aims to show more efficient ways to use and generate energy. The book, after a brief introduction to the concept of energy, covers topics such as the different energy resources and the demands, costs, and policies regarding energy. The book also discusses the problems brought about by the production of energy such as the hazards to nature and man; environmental problems and pollution; and

  20. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Young, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  1. The impact for households of a carbon component in the price of fossil energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Olivier; Thao Khamsing, Willy

    2016-03-01

    A carbon component has been introduced in tax on fossil energies in 2014 in France in order to support energy transition, and resulted in a higher cost of fossil energies for households in their transport and heating expenses. This publication aims at illustrating and commenting these consequences of a carbon component. It shows that expenses increase with the standard of living, that modest households are more affected, notably as far as heating expenses are concerned, that households using domestic fuel for heating and diesel fuel for their vehicles are the most affected, that the additional cost is particularly a burden for single-parent families and singles, and that rural households are more affected. A cross-criterion analysis (household type, location, heating type, fuel type) is proposed to assess the impact of 2016 on the energy bill of typical households. Methodological hypotheses, data origins and calculation method are briefly presented

  2. CH50% - A Switzerland with a consumption of fossil energy split in half

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences has investigated the possibilities and the consequences of a consumption reduction by 50 % of fossil energy agents within a time frame of 20 to 40 years. A working group of the Academy has made a study on the subject of if and when it would be possible to reduce the consumption of fossil energy in Switzerland by 50 % compared to 1990. The working group came to the conclusion that a reduction of well over 40 % would be feasible by the year 2020, principally due to an improvement in efficiency. This takes into account the substitution potential by renewable energy alternatives. A reduction by 50% will be possible in the second quarter of the 21st century under the condition that both today's known technologies are indeed exploited and that energy prices are increased. For Switzerland's economy and society no unacceptable impacts will thereby result. (author) [de

  3. Energy Comes Together in Denmark: The Key to a Future Fossil-Free Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The transition of the Danish energy system to a system based only on renewable energy in 2050 carries many challenges. For Denmark to become independent of fossil energy sources, wind power and biomass are expected to become the main sources of energy. Onshore and offshore wind farms are expected...... to provide the majority of electricity, and biomass and electricity are expected to become the major sources of heating. On the way toward the 100% renewable goal in 2050, the Danish government has proposed a 2035 midterm goal to cover the energy consumption for power and heat with renewables....

  4. The influence of the switch from fossil fuels to solar and wind energy on the electricity prices in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Dorsman (Andre); A. Khoshrou (Abdolrahman); E.J. Pauwels (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGermany is actively pursuing a switch from fossil fuel to renewables, the so-called Energiewende (energy transition). Due to the fact that the supply of wind and solar energy is less predictable than the supply of fossil fuel, stabilizing the grid has become more challenging. On sunny

  5. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  6. Energy, environment, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B

    1979-09-01

    In this interview, Dr. Barry Commoner discusses his analysis of energy problems as a function of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, i.e., that energy is necessary in order to perform work. As outlined in his book The Poverty of Power, a good thermodynamic approach matches the amount of energy expended with the task to be done. Electric transport is more energy efficient than private automobiles and illustrates how capital is wasted and social harm done to increase private profit. Inefficient energy use is the result of basing conservation efforts on the First rather than the Second Law. Commoner advocates social changes that give society more control over the means of production and the way resources are used. He feels the relative merits of solar energy and breeder reactors should be debated and a choice made, preferably for solar, to make a gradual transition to renewable resources. (DCK)

  7. Program energy research and energy technologies. Annual report 1987. Fossil energy carriers, renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy. Programm Energieforschung und Energietechnologien. Jahresbericht 1987. Fossile Energietraeger, erneuerbare Energiequellen, rationelle Energieverwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    After a general introduction and a short overview of financial contributions in 1987 there is a description of the projects sponsored. The main section contains project descriptions of the partial programmes Fossil Energy Carriers, Renewable Energy Sources and Efficient Use of Energy. The ordering of the wide-ranging material is carried out essentially via two indices: the index of project numbers and the index of companies. Then an overview is given of final reports published in 1987. A list of 1987 patents forms the final section.

  8. Does Non-Fossil Energy Usage Lower CO2 Emissions? Empirical Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL to examine the dynamic impact of non-fossil energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China for a given level of economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage between 1965 and 2014. The results suggest that the variables are in a long-run equilibrium. ARDL estimation indicates that consumption of non-fossil energy plays a crucial role in curbing CO2 emissions in the long run but not in the short term. The results also suggest that, in both the long and short term, energy consumption and trade openness have a negative impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, while gross domestic product (GDP per capita increases CO2 emissions only in the short term. Finally, the Granger causality test indicates a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption. In addition, this study suggests that non-fossil energy is an effective solution to mitigate CO2 emissions, providing useful information for policy-makers wishing to reduce atmospheric CO2.

  9. International environment, enterprise environment and energy environment giving different look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    0he international environment, enterprise environment and energy environment surrounding Japan are changing their looks. In such situation, what Japan should do for the development of the world was discussed. Internationally, in the Western Pacific economical block including Japan and Asian NICs, Japan promotes the international exchange of materials, capital, technology, information and people, and creates various international public properties. Enterprisers should have global mind, and cope with the internationalization, technical innovation and information orientation which are in progress at present through international exchange, interindustrial exchange, industry-university-government exchange and so on. In the aspect of energy environment, Japan carries out the technical development of energy conservation, energy, creation and the exploration of energy resources, in this way, contributes to the stabilization of energy in the world. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  10. Energy and the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1996-01-01

    Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to reduction targets for CO2 emission. Official Danish energy plans are reviewed in the light of the actual energy development. The EU Commission has been promoting a liberalisation of the electricity market for some years. At a...

  11. Nuclear energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    A general view about the use of energy for brazilian development is presented. The international situation of the nuclear field and the pacific utilization of nuclear energy in Brazil are commented. The safety concepts used for reactor and nuclear facilities licensing, the environmental monitoring program and radiation protection program used in Brazil are described. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strategic place within the structure of the country’s energy system. The energy transformation technology as well as the extremely high requirements regarding nuclear safety call for the availability of scientific, applied, and operational potential, and for an adequate culture of safe use of nuclear energy. In that aspect, the research reactor as a material base, and its scientific and technical personnel, represent a solid basis for the development of nuclear energy in our country. The acquired scientific experience and qualification in reactor operation are a precondition for the equal in rights participation of the country in the international cooperation and the approaching to the European structures, and assurance of the national interests

  13. Net fossil energy savings for alternative mixes in various electric supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essam, P.; Stocks, K.J.

    1978-11-01

    The actual and projected electric power station building programs of several countries and regions have been examined to determine what effect the introduction of nuclear power has on fossil fuel usage by the electricity system. It was found that (1) nuclear power leads directly to savings in fossil fuel usage, a larger nuclear component leading to larger savings; (2) individual nuclear stations rapidly wipe out the energy 'debt' incurred during building; and (3) the relatively short periods of consolidation in the early stages of a nation's building program usually prevent the nuclear component from going into energy 'debt'. Assessments of the energy requirements to build and run various types of power station have been made from the available literature

  14. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  15. Man - Energy - Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.

    1975-01-01

    In the present work an introduction is given on the coal, oil and energy demand of mankind, and the emissions due to coal and oil combustion are dealt with. Nuclear energy is then introduced as a new energy source, the nuclear fuel supplies are estimated and the radiation and environmental impact of nuclear power plants is discussed. Furthermore, the possibility of nuclear accidents and the role of the atomic waste is dealt with. Finally, prognoses are made on the future development. (RW/LH) [de

  16. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (2) manure management; and (3) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork. (author)

  17. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork.

  18. Fossil energy. Program report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The Fossil Energy program is now in its second year under the Department of Energy. This document describes the Fossil Energy-supported contract and project activity for FY 1978. The primary thrust of the Program is on coal - especially direct coal combustion and what can be done to increase the environmental acceptability of coal. We are concerned with developing cleaner technologies, and we are working on precombustion cleanup, fluidized-bed combustion, and post-combustion cleanup. Longer range technologies are being developed to use coal more efficiently; for example, magnetohydrodynamics, fuel cells, and high-temperature turbine utilization. Another Fossil Energy priority is the development of a capability to produce synthetic fuels from coal. We are also engaged in a coal mining research and development program that focuses on increased mine productivity and workers' safety through the development of improved technologies. Our activity in the petroleum and gas research areas is intended to complement efforts in the private sector, which are to be further stimulated by new pricing or Federal incentives. Our present enhanced oil recovery efforts represent a shift in emphasis toward longer range, high-technology development projects instead of numerous field demonstrations and tests. The enhanced gas program emphasis activities to increase our knowledge of the size and economic productivity of the unconventional gas resources. We are also involved in oil shale development. We are continually assessing our program. Total annual funding has increased from $58 million in FY 1973 to $881 million in FY 1979.Fossil Energy is working closely with all parts of the Department of Energy, other appropriate Federal agencies, industry, and universities to insure that we maintain a balanced, aggressive, and responsive program suited to our national needs.

  19. Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.A.; Rincon, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Energy has been the fundamental tool in the development of the humanity for the production of estates and essential services in its nourishment and general welfare. In the measure that that has increased the population, it has been generated greater demand of energy to produce the necessary estates for the survival mainly in the urban centers or of consumption. This situation has generated the accelerated intervention of the energetic resources not renewable, originating imbalances in the natural ecosystems, during the exploration stages, development of large projects or in the direct consumption (when is tried of a primary consumption of energy as the firewood). Of other side, catastrophic environmental effects in the urban or industrial concentrations have been generated, caused by the combustion or burnt in a way primary or secondary of energy as the hot gases emission and radiations in concentrations that the troposphere can not dilute or deaden

  20. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study on the understanding of inpending scientific, technical, and economic problems as well as the standards and criteria that have to be set from a Christian point of view in order to serve an ethics of progress. In the field of energy demand and its coverage, security and environmental impacts of energy conversion, and of the securing of energy supply, 12 theses are laid down. Among other things they vote for the further development of nuclear energy utilization - with circumspection and caution, however -, for new technologies, technical improvements, the electrification of coal, and for better information of the citizens. The development of the THTR-300 reactor ought to be urged. (HSCH) [de

  1. Energy and environment policies. International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of how energy policies can be adapted to environmental concerns. The efficiency of measures solving environmental problems is investigated, in particular measures substituting energy carriers, improving energy efficiency rates, postfitting pollution control devices, and applying clean energy technologies. In connection with methods of state control the report deals with questions of taxation and regularization which are to induce the private sector to actively to something for the protection of the environment. (orig.) [de

  2. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of pollution at the different stages of exploitation of the primary energy sources is examined. According to Holdren, the social and environmental constraints much more than fuel supply will be the factor limiting the energy utilization rate for the next hundred years. Energy sources can be divided on one hand in non-renewable raw materials (coal, oil, natural gas, fissile and fusion materials) and, on the other hand, in renewable sources (hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind). With regard to the appraisal of the environmental effects, the different steps of the fuel cycle have been considered: production or extraction, transport, treatment (enrichment, refining, purification etc.). The radiation dose rate from airborne releases of radionuclides are compared for geothermal, coal-fired and nuclear power plants

  3. Energy in Italian regions. Energy environment situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, E.; Coralli, L.; Porpiglia, V.; Perrella, G.; De Lauretis, R.; Romagnoli, A.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a representative picture of the choice regions in energy and environment field. Are singled out the laws and regulations of some regions and concrete territorial applications [it

  4. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, L.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-03-01

    This bulletin discusses the following: decontamination of polluted water by using a photocatalyst to convert ultraviolet energy into electrochemical energy capable of destroying organic waste and removing toxic metals; monitoring oil spills with SAR by collecting data in digital form, processing the data, and creating digital images that are recorded for post-mission viewing and processing; revitalization of a solar industrial process heat system which uses parabolic troughs to heat water for foil production of integrated circuits; and an electronic information system, EnviroTRADE (Environmental Technologies for Remedial Actions Data Exchange) for worldwide exchange of environmental restoration and waste management information

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Magnetic Resonance : Introduction, Advanced Topics and Applications to Fossil Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fraissard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at an Advanced Study Institute on "Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Fossil Energy Problems," which was held at the village of Maleme, Crete, in July of 1983. As of this writing, a different popular attitude prevails from that when the ASI was proposed as far as how critical the world energy picture is. In the popular press, a panglossian attitude (the "petroleum glut" of the 80's) has replaced the jeremiads of the 70's ( a catastrophic "energy crisis"). Yet, there are certain important constants: (a) for the foreseeable future, fossil energy sources (petroleum, coal, oil shale, etc. ) will continue to be of paramount importance; and (b) science and technology of the highest order are needed to extend the fossil ener~y resource base and to utilize it in a cost-effective manner that is also environmentally acceptable. It is precisely this second item that this volume addresses. The volume introduces the phenomenology of magnetic resonance ~n a unified and detailed man...

  6. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

  7. Reducing use of fossil energy by biological N fixation; Biologinen typensidonta fossiilisen energian saeaestaejaenae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankanen, H.; Suokannas, A.; Tiilikkala, K.; Nykanen, A.

    2013-06-01

    be used to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture and horticulture. The report is based on high amount of data from different projects in MTT, being synthesized and analyzed from perspective of energy use. Special objective was to support policy making concerning fertilization, and to aid focusing research on greatest gaps in knowledge. The maximal use of biological N fixation probably has positive effects on farm economy in a long run. According to the newest literature, profitability of farming was higher with than without legumes. Further, for instance grass-based production of biogas could still improve the profitability. Fertilizers got as secondary products from bioenergy sources should be studied further. Although great lack in knowledge concerning effects on environment occurs, it seems obvious that increased use of legumes would improve C content and structure of soils. Decreasing production of synthetic fertilizers would diminish greenhouse gas emissions from industry, but effect of different plant materials and cultivation techniques on emissions from agriculture needs research. next in HiiliN project we focus on studying effects of legumes on greenhouse gas emissions, both according literature and experiments. Also management of the legume N needs studies to keep leaching as small as possible. Further, many aspects concerning practices and economy in legume usage would be worth of careful examination. In spite of above mentioned need for further studies, and of many assumptions made in our analysis, conclusions of this report are clearly justifiable. Results can be used in policy, when decisions concerning mitigating climate change are made. The report shows that use of synthetically produced fertilizer N, and thus consumption of fossil energy, is possible to be decreased markedly with help of biological N fixation. Policy making aiming at energy saves can support the change. Motivation of farmers has a great influence, when farming systems are

  8. The energy-development-environment nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Bertrand

    1992-01-01

    Energy is the key factor in tackling two of the major problems now facing humanity: the environment and development. Adequate and appropriate energy supplies are essential to economic and social development, especially for Third World countries, but at the same time energy production and utilization are responsible for much of the damage being done to the environment. As everyone now knows, the combustion of fossil fuels is the main source of greenhouse gases and of the threat to the stability of world climate. Nuclear power, which once seemed an answer to the constantly increasing demand for energy, is now challenged by public opinion in many countries as a result of various nuclear accidents and the problems of processing and storing nuclear waste. So how do we extricate ourselves from the energy environment-development tangle? Clearly, advanced countries have an interest in transferring environment-friendly technologies to developing countries in order to reduce the pollution which puts the global as well as the local environment at risk. The North is, by and large, becoming aware of the choices involved in protecting the environment versus industrial growth and unlimited use of motor vehicles. For the South, these choices are a luxury they can ill afford, given the imperative of rapid development. The solution must be for greater international co-operation, with the North assisting the South (and the former Communist bloc) financially and through transfer of appropriate technologies at affordable cost. Reconciling the environment and development with respect to the energy cycle is a task of fundamental importance for the future. The prime responsibility for this task obviously lies with industries, but action is also required from governments, to enable them to play their part effectively. Advanced countries must demonstrate that development is fully compatible with protecting the environment. They can do so by using market forces, provided that the appropriate

  9. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.

    1993-01-01

    The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.) [de

  10. Free Switzerland from fossil energy sources - Clear proposals for the building, transportation and electrical power sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, R.

    2010-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the current situation of energy resources and consumption and of the prevailing framework like climate change is given, with a focus on Switzerland. The author, a member of the Lower House of the Swiss Parliament, presents facts and figures in a simple language, illustrated by tables and diagrams, in a well structured, easy-to-read book, with detailed indications of his data sources. Starting from the limited character of fossil energy sources, 'peak-oil' and the necessary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the author states that nuclear energy is not the solution. Action is absolutely needed, but which policy should be adopted? A global strategy is required that includes the stabilization of the world population as a key factor. An international agreement signed by as many states as possible should create stringent commitments. The developed countries have to demonstrate that prosperity and high life standard are compatible with an economy based on renewable energy sources. This will give to the most ambitious countries a significant advantage on new markets created by renewable energy use and energy efficiency. The author goes on by describing the current status of the technologies needed. What regards the particular case of Switzerland, this country is strongly dependent on energy import - mainly fossil - and CO 2 emissions arise mainly from the building and transportation sectors. A 50% efficiency improvement until 2030 is needed in fossil energy use. Electricity use has to become more efficient as well. Electricity generation - today about 60% renewable - shall move towards 100% renewable. The next chapters discuss clear realistic proposals on how to achieve these goals in the transportation sector ('Intelligent mobility'), the building sector ('Retrofitting the buildings to get them up-to-date') and the electrical power sector ('Entirely renewable electricity'). The title of the conclusion chapter: 'Focus again on the general

  11. Balancing energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the energy policy statement presented by the Queensland Minister for Minerals and Energy for the 'Great Energy Debate' in Brisbane. The Queensland Government is committed to achieving a responsible balance between protecting the environment and meeting community expectations. A broad and integrated framework is under development for guiding energy policies consistent with the market enhancement approach. Some of the recent initiatives and the expected outcome are highlighted

  12. The determination of B and Sr isotopes of quaternary biologic fossils in Yanghuzhuang Yanqing basin and their living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yingkai; Xiao Jun; Zhao Zhiqi; He Maoyong; Li Shizhen

    2007-01-01

    The B and Sr isotopic compositions of early Quaternary biologic fossils in Yanghuzhuang and living bivalves in Weishui river were measured. Comparing with the data of marine foraminifer, the results show a non-marine living environment for these foraminifers lived in early Quaternary in Yanghuzhuang, Yanqing; Basin. (authors)

  13. Energy - environment - nutrition. Energie - Umwelt - Ernaehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons.

  14. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hermansen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    ) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular......In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG...

  15. Energy law and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemary Lyster; Adrian Bradbrook [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    The current unsustainable practices worldwide in energy production and consumption have led to a plethora of environmental problems. Until recently environmental law largely overlooked the relevance of energy production and consumption; energy was seen to be of little significance to the advancement of sustainable development. This has changed since 2000 with the global concern attached to climate change, the publication by the United Nations of the World Energy Assessment and the detailed consideration given to this issue at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. Australia has been seen to be lagging behind the other major industrialised nations of the world in addressing sustainable energy issues. Contents are: Overview of energy production and use in Australia; 2. Energy technologies and sustainable development; 3. Energy, international environmental law and sustainable development; 4. Evaluating Australian government initiatives relating to energy, climate change and the environment; 5. Sustainable energy in the Australian electricity and gas sectors; 6. State government initiatives relating to energy and the environment; 7. A sustainable energy law future for Australia. 2 apps.

  16. A “Grammar” for assessing the performance of power-supply systems: Comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Maurin, François; Giampietro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates an innovative approach for the characterization and comparison of the performance of power-supply systems. The concept of ‘grammar’ forces to declare the pre-analytical decisions about: (i) semantic and formal categories used for the accounting – primary energy sources (PES), energy carriers (EC), and production factors; (ii) the set of functional and structural elements of the power-supply system included in the analysis. After having tamed the systemic ambiguity associated with energy accounting, it becomes possible to generate a double assessment referring to: (i) external constraints – the consumption of PES and the generation of waste and pollution; and (ii) internal constraints – the requirements of production factors such as human labor, power capacity, internal consumption of EC for making EC. The case study provided compares the production of EC (electricity) with “nuclear energy” and “fossil energy”. When considering internal constraints, nuclear energy requires about twice as much power capacity (5.9–9.5 kW/GWh vs. 2.6–2.9 kW/GWh) and 5–8 times more labor (570–640 h/GWh vs. 80–115 h/GWh). Things do not improve for nuclear energy when looking at external constraints – e.g. the relative scarcity of PES. This may explain the difficulties faced by nuclear energy to gain interest from investors. -- Highlights: ► A new approach to assess the performance of power-supply systems is provided. ► A biophysical analysis of the production process is based on the concept of grammar. ► A grammar is capable of handling the inherent ambiguity associated with energy. ► The performance of nuclear energy and fossil energy is compared using this grammar. ► Nuclear energy demonstrates a lower performance than fossil energy in making electricity.

  17. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernice, I.

    1993-01-01

    Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on environment and energy: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the conference has great relevance to address various emerging Environmental and Energy issues under growing economies of developing countries like India. Energy consumption and environmental protection go hand-in-hand, and pollution problems posed by the use of fossil fuels are major concern throughout world. Global consensus has now emerged on the need for implementation of radical technological and structural changes on both the generation and energy usage sectors in-order to protect the environment even as we maintain economic growth where renewable and clean energy technologies are expected to play vital role. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Fossil Energy Program report, 1 October 1976--30 September 1977. [Objectives, progress and plans for each contract or project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, H. Neal; Batchelor, James; Crim, Winfred; Furlong, Leroy; Harvie, Robert; Hunter, Juanita; Jones, William; Karnes, Anita; Ludwig, Linda; Miller, C. Lowell; Mills, G. Alex; Sacks, Stephen; Watkins, J. Wade; Watson, Coni; Weaver, Val

    1978-08-01

    This report is an integral part of the documentation system of the Fossil Energy Program of the Department of Energy. It contains descriptions of each contract and project, arranged in conformance with planning and budgetary documents. The results of contracts are reported at various intervals, depending on the type of contract, but at least annually. These reports are not listed individually in the ''Publications'' sections but are available from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The Department of Energy also publishes several abstract journals: Fossil Energy Update, Energy Research Abstracts, and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis.

  20. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSSVM (QHSA-LSSVM energy forecasting model is proposed. The QHSA which combines the quantum computation theory and harmony search algorithm is applied to searching the optimal values of and C in LSSVM model to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The case study on annual fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation in China shows that the proposed model outperforms other four comparative models, namely regression, grey model (1, 1 (GM (1, 1, back propagation (BP and LSSVM, in terms of prediction accuracy and forecasting risk.

  1. A Transition Strategy from Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy Sources in the Mexican Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Vidal-Amaro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources exploitation acquires special importance for creating low-carbon energy systems. In Mexico a national regulation limits the fossil fuel-based electricity generation to 65%, 60% and 50% by years 2024, 2030 and 2050 respectively. This study evaluates several scenarios of renewables incorporation into the Mexican electricity system to attend those targets as well as a 75% renewables-based electricity share target towards a 100% renewable system. By its size, the Mexican electricity system, with a generation of 260.4 TWh/year (85% based on fossil fuels, can be regarded as an illustrating reference. The impact of increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaic solar, biomass, biogas, geothermal, hydro and concentrating solar power on the system’s capacity to attend demand on a one-hour timescale resolution is investigated utilizing the EnergyPLAN model and the minimum total mix capacity method. Possible excess of electricity production is also assessed. For every target year, a solution is obtained corresponding to the combination resulting in the minimum total generation capacity for the electricity system. A transition strategy to a system with a high share of renewables-based electricity is designed where every transition step corresponds to the optimal energy mix for each of the target years.

  2. Man, environment and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardan, J

    1978-10-01

    The acceptability of nuclear fission as energy source is governed by three factors, economic, ecological and sociological. the economic context the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels is a result of ever-increasing demands. The biological risk concept which determines the acceptable industrial application level is the second factor to be considered. The danger of radioactive contamination is almost unexistent except in the accident hypothesis, and power stations are built with excessive safeguards against hypothetical accidents. The idea of systematic processing of all working effluent to reduce radioactive waste discharge by several orders of magnitude is being examined. The only serious problems seem to be the disposal of radioactive wastes and the plutonium non-proliferation question bound up with breeder reactors. Whereas vitrification offers some solution to the radioactive waste conditioning problem, responsibility for the proliferation of nuclear weapons rests with the human conscience alone. The development of nuclear power stations over several decades seems to present no inacceptable danger and offers the best compromise betweengrowth and minimum risk requirements. The third factor to be accounted for is the opposition displayed by a fraction of the population to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful applications.

  3. Man, environment and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardan, Jacques.

    1978-10-01

    The acceptability of nuclear fission as energy source is governed by three factors, economic, ecological and sociological. It is necessary to account first for the economic context and for the state of natural resources: gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels as a result of ever-increasing demands. The biological risk concept which determines the acceptable industrial application level is the second factor to be considered. The danger of radioactive contamination is almost inexistent except in the accident hypothesis, and power stations are built with excessive safeguards against hypothetical accidents. The idea of systematic processing of all working effluent to reduce radioactive waste discharge by several orders of magnitude (zero release principle) is being examined. At present, the waste discharge levels are always well below the limits set by the CIPR and present no danger to the population. The only serious problems seem to be the disposal of radioactive wastes and the plutonium non-proliferation question bound up with breeder reactors. Whereas vitrification, the new 'Synroc' process, offer some solution to the radioactive waste conditioning problem, responsibility for the proliferation of nuclear weapons rests with the human conscience alone. The development of nuclear power stations over several decades seems to present no inacceptable danger and offers the best compromise between growth and minimum risk requirements. The third factor to be accounted for is the opposition displayed by a fraction of the population to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful applications [fr

  4. The change from fossil fuel dependence to sustainable energy sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwu, C.; Ajedegba, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria faces a serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants. Although the country is highly dependent on fossil fuel resources, Nigeria has a range of unexploited biomass and hydro power resources, as well as extensive solar energy potential. This paper presented a current energy balance of Nigeria and examined ways of reaching an environmentally sustainable energy balance through the use of a mix of renewable resources. Supply and consumption details of domestic, industrial and transportation sectors as well as electricity production statistics were presented. Total hydropower potential based on the country's river system was estimated to be 10,000 MW. It was estimated that Nigeria has an average of 1.804 x 10 15 of incident solar energy annually, which is 27 times the nation's total conventional energy resources in energy units. It was noted that Nigeria also possesses a significant amount of biomass resources from several large forests that may be used to supply domestic cooking and heating needs as well as for ethanol production. It was noted that wind energy may not be a viable alternative for large scale electricity production in Nigeria. Recommendations to promote the use of renewable resources in the national energy mix included encouraging the decentralization of energy supplies; discouraging the use of wood as fuel; promoting efficient methods in the use of biomass energy resources; private sector participation; and global partnerships. 15 refs., 7 tabs

  5. Energy and environment in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, P.; Capra, M.; D'Acunto, A.; Del Ciello, R.; Molinas, P.; Virdis, M.

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the Studies Department of ENEA (the Italian National board for new technologies, energy and environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment. In this paper, it is only provided a summary of the whole work. The complete report can be downloaded from the ENEA main page (www.enea.it). Italy gross domestic product (Gdp) grew by almost 3% in the year 2000, mostly sustained by an increase in the industrial production and services, as well. At the same time the total energy consumption rose to almost 185 Mtoe (+1% over 1999). Because Gdp grew more than the energy consumption, the energy intensity decreases in the year 2000. Almost 82% of the Italian energy needs (mainly oil and gas, even if electricity imports are increasing) depend upon imports. This heavy burden makes Italy particularly sensitive to both the oil price fluctuations and the euro/dollar exchange rate. Transportation absorbs a large and growing share of the energy consumption while showing quite an impact on the environment. From the supply side, renewable energy sources appear very promising because they allow the use of local resources, promote local development and may create new jobs, in area of the country with less favourable economic conditions. First among the European countries, a market mechanism to increase the use of renewable by establishing that a share of the whole electricity production (currently set at 2%) has to come from renewable has been introduced. However among the OECD countries, Italy records the lowest rate of R/D investments to GDP. This rate should more than double if the new opportunities coming from the development of innovative energy technologies have to be fully exploited [it

  6. Is trade openness good for environment in South Korea? The role of non-fossil electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun

    2018-04-01

    The paper investigates the linkage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, per capita real output, share of non-fossil electricity consumption, and trade openness in South Korea from 1971 to 2013. The empirical results indicate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is supported by autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test. Both short- and long-run estimates indicate that increasing non-fossil electricity consumption can mitigate environmental degradation, and increasing trade aggravates carbon dioxide emissions. By Granger causality, long-run causalities are found in both equations of CO 2 emissions and trade openness, as well as exports and imports. In the short-run, evidence indicates feedback linkage between output and trade, unidirectional linkages from trade to emissions, from emissions to output, and from output to non-fossil electricity use. Therefore, South Korea should strengthen the sustainable economy, consume clean energy, and develop green trade.

  7. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-05-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  8. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-01-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  9. Nuclear energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    This issue of the Bulletin contains a series of articles discussing various aspects of the interplay between the use of nuclear energy for electricity production, and the acknowledged need to protect the human environment, to conserve natural resources for the benefit of mankind. This article, the keynote to the series, has been contributed by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, immediate past Chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission and now of the University of California, Berkeley, California. (author)

  10. Fossil energy savings and GHG mitigation potentials of ethanol as a gasoline substitute in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    One of the Thai government's measures to promote ethanol use is excise tax exemption, making gasohol cheaper than gasoline. The policy in favour of biofuels is being supported by their contribution to fossil energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. An analysis of energy balance (EnB), GHG balance and GHG abatement cost has been done to evaluate molasses-based ethanol (MoE) in Thailand. A positive EnB of 19.2 MJ/L implies that MoE is a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy savings. GHG balance assessment based on the baseline scenario shows that emissions are most likely to increase with the substitution. Scenarios using biogas captured from spent wash treatment and rice husk to substitute coal used in ethanol conversion give encouraging results in improving the GHG balance. However, the higher price of MoE over gasoline currently has resulted in high GHG abatement costs, even under the best-case scenario. Compared to the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand, MoE is much less cost effective. Governed by the rule of supply and demand, a strong fluctuation in molasses price is considered the main cause of volatile MoE price. Once supplies are stable, the trend of price drops would make MoE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  11. Renewables vs fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, K. (Energy Research and Development Corporation (Australia))

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines some of the factors which will influence the future mix of energy from fossil fuels and renewable sources in Australia. Aspects covered include: the present energy situation; impact of environmental issues; potential for renewable energy; motivators for change; and research and development. It is concluded that the future for fossil fuels and renewable energy is dependent on a number of complex factors, many of which are currently unknown. The key factor is economic viability and that will be influenced by a range of factors such as policies of the Australian and overseas governments in relation to pollution and environment protection (reflected in the cost of meeting such requirements), exploration and production costs (also influenced by government policies), availability of supply, rate of technological development and the size of export markets. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Green energy. Biomass fuels and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme has been concerned with energy/environment issues since it was first set up after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. In the late 1970s, UNEP compiled three comprehensive reports on the the environmental impacts of the production and use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. In 1987 it was decided to update the volume on renewable energy since knowledge of biofuels and their effects on the environment had greatly improved. Among many innovations, Brazil's decision to embark on a major, and now successful, programme to produce ethanol from sugarcane as a substitute vehicle fuel is one of the most significant. At the same time, energy tree crops, agroforestry systems and the use of plantations for environmental improvement have become issues of key importance to sustainable development in developing countries. Biomass fuels, of course, have always been important in terms of the numbers of people who use them; the significant change during the 1980s was that the potential advantages of these fuels took on a new significance in the light of environmental degradation and related issues such as greenhouse warming. The biomass fuels began to be considered as attractive energy sources in their own right - not simply as 'last resort' fuels for developing countries with only limited energy options. While this development may solve some environmental problems, it certainly raises others - the improper utilization of biomass fuels in the past has been responsible for deforestation, desertification and the ill health of many millions of the women in developing countries who use biomass fuels in unventilated huts. These issues currently affect about half of the world population. The new UNEP study was intended to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental issues raised by the use of biomass fuels, and hence to reduce or eliminate their adverse impacts while

  13. Participation of the fossil energy in cotton agro-ecosystem in family agricultural explorations; Participacao da energia fossil no agroecossistema algodao em exploracoes agricolas familiares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Cabrera Romero, Maria Gloria [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2006-07-01

    With the objective of presenting the participation of the several energy sources employees in the cotton agro-ecosystem, this work is constituted in a contribution regarding the subject of the sustain grow.As the focal point of this research, family exploitation is analyzed, with the use of the categorization done by the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture - ('Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar - PRONAF). Use was made of primary and secondary data from three family exploitations in the municipality of Leme/SP, Brazil. To construct the energy expenditure structure of the cotton agro-ecosystem, the mean values obtained were considered, since these agriculturalists present the same technical itinerary and are within the typification proposed in this study. The results were presented by the energy expenditure structure by type, source, form of energy. Considering the cotton agro-ecosystem from the technical itinerary presented, the input energy equal to 51.961,63 MJ . ha{sup -1} was observed, with a participation of 34,21% and 65,79% of the direct and indirect energy respectively. The studied agro ecosystem fundamentally depended on the industrial source of energy, particularly insecticides (39,71%) and chemical fertilizers (19,88%) and fossil sources (33,80%). It was verified like this that the dependence of the industrial energy and of the fossil energy in the cotton agro ecosystem. In that way, we suggest himself the search of the use of another types of energy that they allow the energy sustainability of this agro-ecosystems in family agricultural systems. (author)

  14. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil carbon effects, of producing agriculture and forestry feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Canter; Zhangcai Qin; Hao Cai; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Wang; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    The GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with producing potential biomass sup­ply in the select BT16 scenarios include emissions and energy consumption from biomass production, harvest/collection, transport, and pre-processing activities to the reactor throat. Emissions associated with energy, fertilizers, and...

  16. The importance of fossil-fired power plants for the future energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czychon, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the nuclear disaster in Fukushima and the phasing out of nuclear energy in Germany which is planned up to the year 2022, in addition to the already decommissioned nuclear power plants, a further outage capacity of approximately 13 MW will result. Against the background of the unresolved storage problem, regardless of further expansion of the use of renewable energy sources, the need arises for additional fossil-fueled power plants, i.e. gas and coal power plants. The development of gas prices shows that a further expansion of the gas turbine power plants is limited for economic reasons. This leads to the consequence that the future coal-fired power plants are needed to produce electricity. To meet the requirements for a reduction of CO 2 emissions laws, new power plants must be built with increased efficiency compared to previous systems. In order to meet the challenges of future fossil fuel power plant generations, the Grosskraftwerk Mannheim (Large-scale Power Plant Mannheim) is involved in numerous research projects to increase efficiency, reduce harmful emissions and economic implementation of ambitious technologies.

  17. Low energy buildings – the basis for realizing the strategy for independency of fossil fuels in 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces how low energy buildings can be developed, designed, optimized, constructed and operated in the future and thereby make a significant contribution to the realization of aim of the energy policy of EU: to become independent of fossil fuels in 2050. The paper describes how low...... energy buildings can become independent of fossil fuels in 2020 based on the following activities. Innovation of building components and systems with improved energy performance. Heating of low energy building with low temperature district heating based on renewable heat. Integrated design...... without use of fossil fuels can be accomplished by the building sector by 2020. The building sector may in the process be transformed from an experience based sector to knowledge and research based sector with high quality sustainable products and very good business....

  18. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  19. Trace Fossils as Indicators of Depositional Sequence Boundaries in Lower Carboniferous Deep-Sea Fan Environment Moravice Formation, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehotský, T.; Bábek, O.; Mikuláš, Radek; Zapletal, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2002), s. 59-60 ISSN 1210-9606. [Áelazno 2002. Meeting of the Czech Tectonic Studies Group /7./. Áelazno, 09.05.2002-12.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/0118 Keywords : trace fossils * Carboniferous * Deep- Sea Environment Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume14/G14-059.pdf

  20. Energy and environment design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, K. [Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    The Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) released an Environment Policy for architects in September 1994 which forms part of the RAIA Code of Professional Conduct. Prior to releasing the policy, it was recognised that members needed information and education in the area of energy and environment in order to adopt and implement the guide. This document is a report on the scope, work programme and achievements of a project to provide an easy reference resource for architects and other building designers, and bring together a wide range of information and research. It includes the Environment Policy as an appendix. The project produced 24 notes entitled the `Environment Design Guide - energy/environment notes` covering a wide range of topics, and four newsletters. Feedback received from architects to date indicates that the development of the notes has had a positive effect on their knowledge of these issues, resulting in the making of informed design decisions. The topics covered by the notes are expected to expand in 1996 with the preparation of additional notes which provide information on products and sustainable construction.

  1. The effect of size-control policy on unified energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fanbin; Choi, Yongrok; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of size control policy on the energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power industry. For this purpose, we propose two non-radial directional distance functions for energy/carbon efficiency analysis of fossil fuel electricity generation. One is named a total-factor directional distance function that incorporates the inefficiency of all input and output factors to measure the unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of fossil fuel power plants, and the other is called an energy–environmental directional distance function that can be used to measure the energy–environmental performance of fossil fuel electric power plants. Several standardized indicators for measuring unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance are derived from the two directional distance functions. An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted by using the proposed approach. Our empirical results show that there exists a significant positive relationship between the plant size and unified efficiency, the five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance than other companies. It is suggested that Chinese government might need to consider private incentives and deregulation for its state-owned enterprises to improve their performance proactively. - Highlights: • Two non-radial directional distance functions are presented for energy/carbon efficiency analysis. • An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted. • The five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance

  2. Fossil energy versus nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass: Insights from an Italian national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicia, Gianni; Cembalo, Luigi; Del Giudice, Teresa; Palladino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In Italy there has been considerable political debate around the new energy policy, which is specifically designed to contribute to climate change mitigation. While there is renewed interest in nuclear energy generation, there has been heated debate concerning wind farms that have rapidly expanded and are dramatically changing the landscape in many rural areas. Finally, interest has also increased in biomass as an energy source. However, in this case, a significant part of the population is worried about landscape change and primary crop reduction. In this study we report the results from a nation-wide survey (=504 households) in Italy undertaken during summer 2009. A Latent Class Choice Experiment was used to quantify household preferences over different energy sources. Our results show that Italian households can be split into three segments with homogeneous preferences. The first segment (35% of the population) shows strong preference for wind and solar energy and dislikes both biomass and nuclear. The second (33% of the population) shows moderate preference for solar and wind energy and, as with the first segment, dislikes both nuclear and biomass. The third (32% of the population) shows a strong preference for green energy (solar, wind and biomass) and is very much against nuclear energy. The three segments were also characterized in terms of household socio-economic characteristics. - Highlights: ► We quantify Italian household preferences over different energy sources. ► Results come from a nation-wide survey undertaken during summer 2009. ► Energy sources tested: fossil fuel, nuclear, wind, solar and agricultural biomass. ► A latent class choice experiment was used. ► Italians can be split into three segments with different energy source preferences.

  3. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    effects of injecting excess carbon into the environment need to be eliminated before fossil fuels can be considered sustainable. Sustainable fossil fuel use would likely rely on abundant, low-grade hydrocarbons like coal, tar, and shale. It would require a closed cycle approach in which carbon is extracted from the ground, processed for its energy content, and returned into safe and stable sinks for permanent disposal. Such sequestration technologies already exist and more advanced approaches that could maintain access to fossil energy for centuries are on the drawing boards. I will review these options and outline a pathway towards a zero emission fossil fuel based economy that could provide energy at prices comparable to those of today for several centuries. A successful implementation will depend not only on technological advances but also on the development of economic institutions that allow one to pay for the required carbon management. If done correctly the markets will decide whether renewable energy, or sustainable fossil energy provides a better choice.

  4. Energy and Environment : volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, Michel; SAMARAS, Zissis; JACOB, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This book is part of a set of six books called the 'Research for Innovative Transports' set. This collection presents an update of the latest academic and applied research, case studies, best practices and user perspectives on transport carried out in Europe and worldwide. The volumes are made up of a selection of the best papers presented at TRA2014. In this volume 1, recent research works are reported around the triptych : 'transport, energy and environment', which demonstrates that vehicl...

  5. AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined quarterly progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1982-1986 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. This report is divided into parts and chapters with each part describing projects related to a particular fossil energy technology. Chapters within a part provide details of the various projects associated with that technology. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program. Plans for the program will be issued annually. A draft of the program plan for FY 1982 to 1986 has been prepared and is in the review process. The implementation of these plans will be reflected by these quarterly progress reports, and this dissemination of information will bw augmented by topical or final reports as appropriate.

  6. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  7. Model-Based Sensor Placement for Component Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis in Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobed, Parham [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Pednekar, Pratik [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Turton, Richard [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rengaswamy, Raghunathan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Design and operation of energy producing, near “zero-emission” coal plants has become a national imperative. This report on model-based sensor placement describes a transformative two-tier approach to identify the optimum placement, number, and type of sensors for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in fossil energy system operations. The algorithms are tested on a high fidelity model of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. For a condition monitoring network, whether equipment should be considered at a unit level or a systems level depends upon the criticality of the process equipment, its likeliness to fail, and the level of resolution desired for any specific failure. Because of the presence of a high fidelity model at the unit level, a sensor network can be designed to monitor the spatial profile of the states and estimate fault severity levels. In an IGCC plant, besides the gasifier, the sour water gas shift (WGS) reactor plays an important role. In view of this, condition monitoring of the sour WGS reactor is considered at the unit level, while a detailed plant-wide model of gasification island, including sour WGS reactor and the Selexol process, is considered for fault diagnosis at the system-level. Finally, the developed algorithms unify the two levels and identifies an optimal sensor network that maximizes the effectiveness of the overall system-level fault diagnosis and component-level condition monitoring. This work could have a major impact on the design and operation of future fossil energy plants, particularly at the grassroots level where the sensor network is yet to be identified. In addition, the same algorithms developed in this report can be further enhanced to be used in retrofits, where the objectives could be upgrade (addition of more sensors) and relocation of existing sensors.

  8. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  9. Good use of the resources natural fossils in the energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Jimmy; Rodriguez, Claudia; Pinilla, Elcy; Torres, Jorge; Boneth, Manuel

    1997-01-01

    The present document is based on the analysis of the different scenarios that shorten and medium term will have the energy generation by means of the use of these fuels. The true reason of the growing energy demand is the continuous demographic growth, what bears to an increase in the degradation of the environment, to short and medium term is expected that the world population is duplicated with the consequent demand of energy and ecological resources, the biggest rat of growth will have in the developing countries. An insufficient energy supply would worsen more the economic situation increasing social tensions and with the consequent detriment of the environment

  10. Improvement of CO2 emission estimates from the non-energy use of fossil fuels in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, M.; Patel, M.; De Feber, M.

    2003-04-01

    Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions originating from the non-energy use of fossil fuels are generally considered to be a rather uncertain part in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. For this reason, the NEAT (Non-energy use Emission Accounting Tables) model has been developed which represents a bottom-up carbon flow analysis to calculate the CO2 emissions that originate from the non-energy use of fossil fuels. The NEAT model also provides estimates for the total fossil CO2 emissions by deducting the non-energy use carbon storage from the total fuel consumption. In this study, an extended version of the NEAT model (NEAT 2.0) has been developed and applied to the Netherlands for the period 1993-1999. For this analysis, confidential production and trade statistics were provided by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) within the CEREM framework. The main conclusion of this study is that the total fossil CO2 emissions are very likely to be overestimated in the official CO2 emission inventories for the Netherlands (as reported to the UNFCCC). According to the NEAT model, the total fossil CO2 emissions in the Netherlands range between 158-173 Mt CO2 (varying per year), whereas the results according to the IPCC Reference Approach (IPCC-RA, a top down method based on the total primary energy supply in a country) are 2.9-7.5 Mt CO2 (2-7%) higher. The difference results from a different estimate for non-energy use carbon storage that is deducted from the total primary energy supply to yield an estimate for total national CO2 emissions of fossil origin

  11. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  12. Energy, environment and sustainable rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, G [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1992-12-01

    This paper addresses the energy needs of the three quarters of the World's population living in the rural populations of many developing countries whose daily struggle to obtain the energy needed for survival is unaffected by international energy politics. It aims to identify energy-related actions in certain policy and technical areas which may contribute to ending rural poverty. The mutual benefits of a transition to modern technologies is stressed both for rural and urban groups, especially in terms of a more efficient use of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources such as biomass or solar power. Recommendations for sustainable rural and agricultural development are made. (UK)

  13. The greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy requirement of bioplastics from cradle to gate of a biomass refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Chen, Lilian X L

    2008-09-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are promising eco-friendly bioplastics that can be produced from cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as value-added coproducts. A cradle-to-factory-gate life cycle assessment is performed with two important categories: the greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and fossil energy requirement per kg of bioplastics produced. The analysis indicates that PHA bioplastics contribute clearly to the goal of mitigating GHG emissions with only 0.49 kg CO(2-e) being emitted from production of 1 kg of resin. Compared with 2-3 kg CO(2-e) of petrochemical counterparts, it is about 80% reduction of the global warming potential. The fossil energy requirement per kg of bioplastics is 44 MJ, lowerthan those of petrochemical counterparts (78-88 MJ/kg resin). About 62% of fossil energy is used for processing utilities and wastewater treatment, and the rest is required for raw materials in different life cycle stages.

  14. The energy for the 21. century: techniques, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    12 papers have been presented. 1) Climate changing. The atmospheric circulation model coupled to the ocean model is the most powerful current tool to explain climate processes and to validate possible climate evolutions. 2) Health hazards due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The effects of atmospheric particles on mortality, cancer risks and on respiratory organs, are considered. 3) The evaluation of external effects of transport on the environment. The paper gives examples of exposure-response function relating to impacts on the built environment, atmospheric visibility, vegetation and human health. 4) Energy consumption and economic growth. 5) Impact of low radiation doses on human health. 6) Hydrogen: production methods and costs. 7) Fossil energies reserves: incertitude on definition, volume and forecasting. 8) Energetic valorization of biomass by thermo-chemical way. 9) Technical and economic aspects of wind energy. 10) Nuclear energy: the French example. 11) The future of photovoltaic energy, its actual growth rate is about 25-35 % a year and its main asset is to benefit technological progress that allows a sharp 50 % cut in costs every 10 years. 12) Fuel cells, their operating principle, the fuel used, their applications and perspective. (A.C.)

  15. Energy quality and energy surplus in the extraction of fossil fuels in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of net energy analysis is to assess the amount of useful energy delivered by an energy system, net of the energy costs of delivery. The standard technique of aggregating energy inputs and outputs by their thermal equivalents diminish the ability of energy analysis to achieve the goal because different types of energy have different abilities to do work per heat equivalent. This paper describes physical and economic methods of calculating energy quality, and incorporate economic estimates of quality in the analysis of the energy return on investment (EROI) for the extraction of coal and petroleum resources in the US from 1954 to 1987. EROI is the ratio of energy delivered to energy used in the delivery process. The quality- adjusted EROI is used to answer the following questions: (1) are coal and petroleum resources becoming more scarce in the US? (2) is society's capability of doing useful economic work changing? and (3) is society's allocation of energy between the extraction of coal and petroleum optimal? The results indicate that petroleum and coal become more scarce in the 1970s, although the degree of scarcity depends on the type of quality factor used. The quality-adjusted EROI shed light on the coal-petroleum paradox: when energy inputs and outputs are measured in thermal equivalents, coal extraction has a much larger EROI than petroleum. The adjustment for energy quality reduces substantially the difference between the two fuels. The results also suggest that when corrections are made for energy quality, society's allocation of energy between coal and petroleum extraction meets the efficiency criteria described by neoclassical and biophysical economists. 3 figs., 1 tab., 40 refs

  16. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The legacy of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaroli, N.; Balzani, V. [CNR, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  18. Nuclear energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Despite a generally excellent history of protecting man and his environment against the harmful effects of radioactive and thermal contamination from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, civilian nuclear programmes in many countries are beset by a doubting and, in some cases, highly critical reaction from some sections of the public. The genesis and evolution of public controversy over nuclear power were explored in a number of papers presented at general and technical sessions during the Fourth Geneva Conference, and were the subject of a panel discussion on one afternoon. (author)

  19. Contenu énergétique des alcools d'origine fossile ou biomasse Energy Content of Alcohols of Fossil Or Biomass Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En utilisant une méthode basée sur le contenu énergétique, défini comme étant la quantité d'énergie mise en oeuvre dans le processus de fabrication depuis la matière première jsuqu'au produit considéré, on compare les filières de production basées sur des matières premières soit d'origine fossile, soit d'origine biomasse. Ces filières peuvent être utilisées pour produire les divers alcools que sont le méthanol, l'éthanol et le butanol. II est montré, qu'en l'état actuel des technologies de fabrication, la comparaison énergétique est très en faveur de la filière matière première renouvelable qui fait apparaître un gain énergétique qui varie suivant les cas étudiés entre 0,1 et 1,5 tep par tonne de produit. Production routes based on raw materials from either fossil or biomass origin are compared using a method based on the energy content, which is defined as being the amount of energy implemented in the manufacturing process starting with the raw material and going to the product being considered. These routes can be used to produce different alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. Given the current state of manufacturing technologies, this article shows that an energy comparison is highly in favor of the renewable raw-material route which shows an energy gain that varies, according to the cases examined, between 0. 1 and 1. 5 tOE per ton of product.

  20. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  1. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae.

  2. Competitive dynamics of energy, environment, and economy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Chen, Haipeng; Li, Yi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies the Lotka–Volterra model to investigate the competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy (3Es) in the U.S. The proposed LV-COMSUD (Lotka–Volterra COmpetition Model for SUstainable Development) has satisfactory performance for model fitting and provides a useful multivariate framework to predict outcomes concerning these interactions. Our key findings include a pure competition between emissions and GDP (Gross Domestic Product), neutralisms between renewable and fossil/nuclear energy, and commensalisms between GDP and renewable/fossil energy and between nuclear energy and fossil energy/emissions. These results indicate that renewable/fossil energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions, that an environmental Kuznets curve exists, and that the amount of produced nuclear energy correlates with emission. The U.S. is dependent on non-clean energy sources and its energy efficiency has room for improvement. The results provide unique insights for policy makers to craft up sustainable economic development plans. Overall, it is suggested that for developed markets such as the U.S., to enhance energy security and mitigate climate changes, improving energy efficiency and developing low-carbon clean energy should be top priorities. - Highlights: • The competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy are examined. • A pure competition between emissions and GDP exists and an EKC exists. • Energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions. • Nuclear energy was used to tackle the growth of emissions/fossil energy use. • Improved energy efficiency is a viable policy to enhance energy security in U.S

  3. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  4. Energy and environment. Annual report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.G.; Lizama, L.R. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: geothermal and geosciences; controlled thermonuclear research; chemical processing; instrument development; environment; energy use and conservation; energy analysis; and engineering sciences.

  5. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kunmin

    1993-01-01

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  6. Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David; Herring, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation

  7. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  8. Cost and prices of electricity. Fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources in comparison; Kosten und Preise fuer Strom. Fossile, Atomstrom und Erneuerbare Energien im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2011-09-15

    Consumers of electricity pay for production, transport and distribution as well as for taxes and dues. Electricity rates depend on various influencing factors, e.g. different fuel and capital cost of the power plants and the ratio of supply and demand in the electricity stock markets. End user electricity rats also include taxes and dues as well as the cost of power transmission. The publication presents background information on the formation of electricity rates in Germany. In a second step, the different cost factors of fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources are compared. In particular, the external cost is gone into which often tends to be neglected in the electricity markets.

  9. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  10. Fossil fuels, renewable and nuclear options to meet the energy and the environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Moncomble, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to meet the world strongly growing energy demand, and especially electricity demand, there are a number of primary energy sources: hydro and new renewable, oil, natural gas, coal and nuclear. The energy mix adopted in each country will depend on a number of factors, such as geography, security of supply, financing capacity, environment, etc. Shares of the different fuels in electricity output are reviewed. Nuclear energy facts and issues are discussed from safety, environment and economics points of view, with a particular view on long-lived wastes that can be and are strictly controlled; properly managed, a nuclear program can be very cost efficient as demonstrated in France, Belgium or Canada, and it has many advantages: site selection, security of supply, no air pollution. 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

    2000-10-01

    The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

  12. Species-energy relationship in the deep sea: A test using the Quaternary fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Roy, K.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the processes regulating species richness in deep-sea communities. Here we take advantage of natural experiments involving climate change to test whether predictions of the species-energy hypothesis hold in the deep sea. In addition, we test for the relationship between temperature and species richness predicted by a recent model based on biochemical kinetics of metabolism. Using the deep-sea fossil record of benthic foraminifera and statistical meta-analyses of temperature-richness and productivity-richness relationships in 10 deep-sea cores, we show that temperature but not productivity is a significant predictor of species richness over the past c. 130 000 years. Our results not only show that the temperature-richness relationship in the deep-sea is remarkably similar to that found in terrestrial and shallow marine habitats, but also that species richness tracks temperature change over geological time, at least on scales of c. 100 000 years. Thus, predicting biotic response to global climate change in the deep sea would require better understanding of how temperature regulates the occurrences and geographical ranges of species. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Special document: which energies for tomorrow? Fossil, renewable, nuclear, hydrogen energies; the CEA of Saclay at the heart of the research; energy, greenhouse effect, climate; Dossier special: quelles energies pour demain? Energies fossiles, renouvelables, nucleaires, hydrogene; le Centre CEA de Saclay au coeur de la recherche; energie, effet de serre, climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-04-01

    The Cea devotes many research programs in the energy domain and especially in the development of new energetic solutions: hydrogen program, photovoltaic program, energy conservation domain and improvement of energy production systems. In this framework, this document presents synthetical information on the France situation in the world energy space and on the Cea Saclay researches. The energy policy and the electric power in France, the fossil energies, the nuclear energy, the renewable energies, the hydrogen and the fuel cell, the greenhouse effect and the climatology are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Economy, energy and environment in the Netherlands, 1980-2000. Economie, energie en milieu in Nederland, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driehuis, W; van Ierland, E C; van den Noord, P J

    1983-01-01

    The CE (Center for Energy conservation) has developed an energy policy plan based on energy conservation (families and industries), total energy systems, intensivation of non fossil energy sources like wind power, solar energy, biogas, geothermal energy and non use of nuclear energy in the Netherlands (CE-scenario). This energy plan is compared with the Netherlands Energy Plan developed for the Broad Public Discussion and meant as unchanged policy (Reference-scenario) and an energy policy plan based on a somewhat different energy plan with a somewhat lower aggregation level based on the same starting points. A summary is given of the data of the Reference-scenario, the basic projection and the CE-scenario. Among others the data refer to the Netherlands' energy consumption in million ton oil equivalents MTOE, welfare, unemployment and environment indicators. As environment indicators are summed up sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and radioactive waste.

  15. Conflicting energy, environment, economy policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Quintanilla, J.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental concerns, both at the local and global levels, have been present in Mexico's energy planning and national and international commitments. However, deregulation policies and financial constraints in the public sector seem to come in conflict with respect to greenhouse gas emissions in the development of the Mexican energy system. This is specially noticeable in the power sector where expansion of non fossil fuel generation has been essentially postponed at present and only the substitution of fuel oil and diesel by natural gas is contemplated. (Author)

  16. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  17. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  18. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  19. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahid, E J M; Peng, L Y; Siang, C Ch

    2013-01-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  20. Biogas - a new energy source saves fossil resources; Biogas - mit neuer Energie Ressourcen schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoss, C. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) of 2000 made conditions for biogas more favourable - small wonder, as the German Biogas Association (Fachverband Biogas e.V.) co-operated with written expert opinions and many discussions with decision-makers. The subjects discussed at the 10th Biogas Conference reflect the current situation and will provide a basis for committee work in 2001. [German] Im Jahr 2000 haben sich die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Biogasbereich mit dem Inkrafttreten des erneuerbaren Energiegesetz (EEG) sehr positiv entwickelt. Der Fachverband Biogas e.V. hat mit schriftlichen Stellungnahmen und in vielen Gespraechen mit Entscheidungstraegern diese Bedingungen mitgestaltet. In Zukunft gibt es noch viele Aufgaben fuer eine effektive Interessenvertretung der Biogasbranche auf Laender- und Bundesebene. Die Themen, die auf der 10. Biogastagung diskutiert werden, spiegeln die Fragen wieder, die unter Experten derzeit intensiv diskutiert werden. Die Ergebnisse des Erfahrungsaustausches auf dieser Tagung werden die Grundlage fuer die Arbeit der Gremien im Fachverband Biogas im Jahr 2001 sein. Mit dem vorliegenden Tagungsband ist es gelungen, die Basis fuer die fachlichen Gespraeche waehrend und nach der Tagung schaffen. (orig.)

  1. Elucidating the consumption and CO_2 emissions of fossil fuels and low-carbon energy in the United States using Lotka–Volterra models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Chang, Chih-Jen; Chang, Chun-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    By using the Lotka–Volterra model, this work examines for the first time the feasibility of using low-carbon energy to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the United States and, ultimately, to decrease CO_2 emissions. The research sample in this work consists of data on energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in the United States. Parameter estimation results reveal that although the consumption of low-carbon energy increases the consumption of fossil fuels, the latter does not affect the former. Low-carbon energy usage, including nuclear energy and solar photovoltaic power, increases fossil fuel consumption because the entire lifetime of a nuclear or solar energy facility, from the construction of electricity plants to decommissioning, consumes tremendous amounts of fossil fuels. This result verifies the infeasibility of low-carbon energy to replace fossil fuels under the current mining technology, electricity generation skills and governmental policy in the United States and explains why the United States refused to become a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol. Equilibrium analysis results indicate that the annual consumption of fossil fuels will ultimately exceed that of low-carbon energy by 461%. Since our proposed Lotka–Volterra model accurately predicts the consumption and CO_2 emission of different energy sources, this work contributes to the energy policies. - Highlights: • Our Lotka–Volterra model accurately predicts consumption of different energy sources. • We find the current infeasibility of using low-carbon energy to reduce fossil fuels. • The set-up of nuclear and solar plants increases fossil fuel usage in the U.S. • The consumption of fossil fuels will exceed that of low-carbon energy by 435%. • United States government prefers economic development over environmental protection.

  2. Sweden's primary production and supplies of food - Possible consequences of a lack of fossil energy; Sveriges primaerproduktion och foersoerjning av livsmedel - Moejliga konsekvenser vid en brist paa fossil energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Widerberg, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Norberg, Ida; Berlin, Johanna; Engstroem, Jonas; Svanaeng, Karin; Lorentzon, Katarina; Cronholm, Lars-Aake; Pettersson, Ola

    2013-07-01

    This report provides an insight into what may be the consequences for Sweden's food supply if the ability to import sufficient quantities of fossil energy decreases. The situation described is an imaginary situation that arose quickly and unexpectedly by political unrest or natural disaster. There has thus been no preparation for the situation. The length of the crisis is set to a period of 3-5 years. During that time, there is assumed no technological development or other structural change, that will change conditions compared to the current situation. If the crisis becomes more prolonged it will however gradually force major changes. Today's food supply in Sweden and much of the world depends on a constant supply of fossil energy. In the production of food is used, for example, large amounts of diesel, heating oil and mineral fertilizers. This applies to primary production of vegetables and animal breeding but also to a high degree of for user-industries , which ensures that the raw materials become finished food products for consumers. Between the different stages there are transport's in many directions that depend on fossil energy. Three different scenarios are termed low deprivation, lack of resources and high deprivation. They represent different failure scenarios where the availability of fossil energy is assumed to decrease. The three levels are tentatively set as a decrease of 25%, 50% and 75% compared with current levels. These percentages are set as initial discussion-levels from which calculations have been made of how the different stages of production will be affected.

  3. Fossil and renewable energy consumption, GHGs (greenhouse gases) and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of EU (European Union) countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bölük, Gülden; Mert, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently a great number of empirical research studies have been conducted on the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income. The EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis has been tested for various types of environmental degradation. The EKC hypothesis states that the relationship between environmental degradation and income per capita takes the form of an inverted U shape. In this paper the EKC hypothesis was investigated with regards to the relationship between carbon emissions, income and energy consumption in 16 EU (European Union) countries. We conducted panel data analysis for the period of 1990–2008 by fixing the multicollinearity problem between the explanatory variables using their centered values. The main contribution of this paper is that the EKC hypothesis has been investigated by separating final energy consumption into renewable and fossil fuel energy consumption. Unfortunately, the inverted U-shape relationship (EKC) does not hold for carbon emissions in the 16 EU countries. The other important finding is that renewable energy consumption contributes around 1/2 less per unit of energy consumed than fossil energy consumption in terms of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in EU countries. This implies that a shift in energy consumption mix towards alternative renewable energy technologies might decrease the GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We investigate the EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis for 16 EU (European Union) countries. • We fix the multicollinearity problem between explanatory variables. • We found no evidence to support the EKC hypothesis in EU between 1990 and 2008 periods. • Renewable energy contributes less to GHGs (greenhouse gases) around ½ that of a unit of fossil energy

  4. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  5. Nuclear energy, radiation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, energy has been the subject of much debate. Energy is the backbone of technology and economic development. Today, most machines run on electricity and they are needed to make anything and everything. Hence, our energy requirements have spiraled in the years following the industrial revolution. This rapid increase in use of energy has created problems of demand and supply in addition to the environmental consciousness which picked momentum in last decades of 20 th century. The impending crisis the world over due to overuse of nonrenewable energy sources to reduce this gap shall soon lead to a situation for all concerned to take a prudent decision to tap other sources of energy, including relatively new renewable sources. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. The drive for more energy has had the happy consequences of spawning new technologies and improving earlier ones. Emphasis on renewable sources has resulted in viable harnessing of solar, wind and tidal energies. Even though these sources offer relatively clean energy, their potential to supply reliable energy in large scale in an economically viable way is limited. Nuclear energy offers a major source of commercial energy, which is economic, reliable and environmentally benign

  6. Quantitative palynofacies analysis as a new tool to study transfers of fossil organic matter in recent terrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graz, Y.; Di-Giovanni, C. [Universite d' Orleans, Universite Francois Rabelais - Tours, CNRS/INSU, Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans - UMR 6113 Campus Geosciences, 1A, rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Copard, Y. [M2C, UMR 6143 CNRS/Universite de Rouen, place E. Blondel, Bat. Irese A, Universite de Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laggoun-Defarge, F.; Boussafir, M.; Lallier-Verges, E.; Baillif, P.; Perdereau, L.; Simonneau, A. [Universite d' Orleans, Universite Francois Rabelais - Tours, CNRS/INSU, Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans - UMR 6113 Campus Geosciences, 1A, rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2010-10-01

    Classical palynofacies method, which consists of an organic concentrate microscopic qualitative observation after mineral phase dissolution, is commonly used in order to study sedimentary organic matter. In the present study we develop a new quantitative palynofacies method that allows organic particles mass concentrations to be determined in studied samples. This method was developed to help quantify the input of fossil organic matter (FOM) into modern environments as a result of sedimentary rocks weathering. Studied samples were collected from different pools, like bedrocks, weathering profiles, soils and riverine particles in an experimental watershed ''Le Laval''. This watershed overlying Callovo-Oxfordian marls (1 km{sup 2} in area) is located near Digne, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in France. In addition to palynofacies techniques, Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content measurements (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry) were carried out on the samples. Obtained results show that this quantitative palynofacies method is suitable for FOM studies in modern environments, and FOM particles are quantified in the different pools. Results also give evidence that FOM alteration depends on the type of weathering, but also on the kind of organic particles. Soil formation under vegetation, resulting from the (bio)chemical weathering, lead to fossil organic particles concentration losses that do not exceed 30%. Elsewhere, mechanical weathering appears extremely fast and has no qualitative or quantitative influence on the observed FOM particles, which feeds directly into riverine stocks. FOM appears to be very resistant to weathering processes, this highlights its occurrence into supergene pools and then into carbon cycle. Quantitative palynofacies analysis is a new method adapted to such study, but can also be applied to other palynological, paleoenvironmental or archeological studies. (author)

  7. Water-use responses of 'living fossil' conifers to CO2 enrichment in a simulated Cretaceous polar environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Laura; Osborne, Colin P; Beerling, David J

    2009-07-01

    During the Mesozoic, the polar regions supported coniferous forests that experienced warm climates, a CO(2)-rich atmosphere and extreme seasonal variations in daylight. How the interaction between the last two factors might have influenced water use of these conifers was investigated. An experimental approach was used to test the following hypotheses: (1) the expected beneficial effects of elevated [CO(2)] on water-use efficiency (WUE) are reduced or lost during the 24-h light of the high-latitude summer; and (2) elevated [CO(2)] reduces plant water use over the growing season. Measurements of leaf and whole-plant gas exchange, and leaf-stable carbon isotope composition were made on one evergreen (Sequoia sempervirens) and two deciduous (Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum) 'living fossil' coniferous species after 3 years' growth in controlled-environment simulated Cretaceous Arctic (69 degrees N) conditions at either ambient (400 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 micromol mol(-1)) [CO(2)]. Stimulation of whole-plant WUE (WUE(P)) by CO(2) enrichment was maintained over the growing season for the three studied species but this pattern was not reflected in patterns of WUE inferred from leaf-scale gas exchange measurements (iWUE(L)) and delta(13)C of foliage (tWUE(L)). This response was driven largely by increased rates of carbon uptake, because there was no overall CO(2) effect on daily whole-plant transpiration or whole-plant water loss integrated over the study period. Seasonal patterns of tWUE(L) differed from those measured for iWUE(L). The results suggest caution against over simplistic interpretations of WUE(P) based on leaf isotopic composition. The data suggest that the efficiency of whole-tree water use may be improved by CO(2) enrichment in a simulated high-latitude environment, but that transpiration is relatively insensitive to atmospheric CO(2) in the living fossil species investigated.

  8. The development of energy and its influences on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunhua; Wang DeLi; Zhu Jiaheng.

    1989-01-01

    Energy consumption is increasing substantially as the world economy rapidly develops. The influences of energy development on the environment will become more conspicuous. Among them, pollution caused by burning fossil fuels draws the greatest attention from all nations. Some experts hold that, since the early eighties, a second upsurge of environmental concern has occurred because of the increasing environmental pollution and damage to the ecological balance on a large scale. The first environmental movement occurred between the fifties and the sixties. At that time, environmental pollution in industrialized countries was so serious that it threatened directly the life and security of people, exerted a tremendous influence on economic development, and caused serious social disturbances. Despite all these disadvantages, however, it appeared only in some factories and districts in those countries. Comparatively, both the pollution sources and their range were more limited. The United Nations held the Conference of Human Environment at Stockholm in Sweden at this time. It was a milestone for mankind to recognize the importance of and make efforts for environmental improvement. In the recent environmental movement, people are more concerned about problems that have an extremely harmful impact on large areas, including the problems of acid rain, ozonosphere destruction, greenhouse effects, etc. These problems attract a great deal of attention in countries all over the world. Concerned authorities in China have also begun to attach importance to these problems. This is especially true of energy consumption in China, as the main fuels in cities and large industrial bases coal and other fossil fuels, whereas 75 percent of the energy in the countryside is dependent on biomass energy. Such a pattern undoubtedly exerts a big influence on environmental pollution and undermines the ecological balance

  9. The influence of weather and environment on pulmonary embolism: pollutants and fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Ralf; Mayes, Julian; Hilton, Paul; Lawrenson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Previous publications have highlighted seasonal variations in the incidence of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and that weather patterns can influence these. While medical risk factors for pulmonary thrombo-embolism such as age, obesity, hypercoagulable states, cancer, previous thrombo-embolism, immobility, limb paralysis, surgery, major illness, trauma, hypotension, tachypnoea and right ventricular hypokinesis are not directly implicated regarding environmental factors such as weather, they could be influenced indirectly by these. This would be especially relevant in polluted areas that are associated with a higher pulmonary embolism risk. Routine nuclear medicine lung ventilation/perfusion studies (V/Q scans) of 2071 adult patients referred to the nuclear medicine department of the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford, UK, between January 1998 and October 2002 were reviewed and 316 of these patients were classified as positive for pulmonary embolism with high probability scan on PIOPED criteria. The occurrence of positive scans was compared to environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, vapour pressure, air pressure and rainfall. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the significance of these relations. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was positively related to vapour pressure and rainfall. The most significant relation was to vapour pressure (p=0.010) while rainfall was less significant (p=0.017). There was no significant relation between pulmonary embolism and air pressure, humidity or temperature. It is postulated that rainfall and water vapour may be contributary factors in thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by way of pollutants that are carried as condensation nuclei in micro-droplets of water. In particular, fossil fuel pollutants are implicated as these condensation nuclei. Pollutants may be inhaled by populations exposed to windborne vapour droplets in cities or airports. Polluted vapour droplets may be absorbed by the lung

  10. Solar energy: an environment friendly reliable and sustainable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.A.; Akhtar, W.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid enhancement in consumption of fossil fuels in order to meet the day-to day increasing energy requirements has blown a danger sign for all nations. Global warming effect has compelled researchers to discover other techniques of energy generation instead of traditional ways in order to reduce adverse effects on global terrain. Renewable energy resources have got attention of global entrepreneurs due to their long lasting availability and environment friendliness. Solar technology is finding increased application in both domestic and military application. This paper discusses the ideas behind the art of design of solar cells and their historical developments. It also covers the kind of techniques/ methodologies used for solar energy conversion into electrical energy with comparison between different renewable technologies and solar technology. This paper gives the brief review of world energy resources and their consumption v/s Solar energy production percentage. Researchers in the field of energy generation have impressed by the Prodigious results of Renewable Energies. Today's most of the high ranked international universities of developed countries in collaboration with government/ industries have been carrying on advance researches in the field of renewable technologies. (author)

  11. Energy and the environment: the impact of fossil fuels on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    In coal-fired electricity generation, much can be achieved with current technologies. Modern designs offer levels of efficiency and economy in advance of older plant in many developing countries - the steady construction of such plant to meet new demand, and to replace plant at the end of its life, will greatly reduce emissions. Such technologies can be resourced by the human and financial means available to most countries. Newer technologies are under development, with the world's first commercial units now being commissioned. These technologies will undoubtedly undergo development and cost improvement over the next decade, leading to world-wide application. (author)

  12. The 2005 Energy/Environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Report, of which we publish the compendium, is the annual analysis of the energy/environment situation in Italy. After an overview of the international economic and energy scene, the Report investigates energy supply and demand in Italy, the scenarios until 2020 in the presence of high prices, greenhouse gas emission, the role of the Regions in energy planning, and research expenditure [it

  13. Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Hizam, Hashim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2010-01-01

    generation in 2030 would be produced from fossil fuels. This global dependence on fossil fuels is dangerous to our environment in terms of their emissions unless specific policies and measures are put in place. Nevertheless, recent research reveals that a reduction in the emissions of these gases is possible...... on fossil fuels to our environment. The study finally justifies how DG technologies could substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions when fully adopted; hence, reducing the public concerns over human health risks caused by the conventional method of electricity generation....

  14. New fossil fuel combustion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minghetti, E.; Palazzi, G.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our Planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this efforts are: 1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; 2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this article the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environmental problems and alternative fuels, such as bio masses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increase fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) Engineering Branch, in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented

  15. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Chapters are presented concerning the environmental impact of mining and milling of radioactive ores, upgrading processes, and fabrication of nuclear fuels; environmental impacts of nuclear power plants; non-radiological environmental implications of nuclear energy; radioactive releases from nuclear power plant accidents; environmental impact of reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; fuel cycle; and the future of nuclear energy

  16. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  17. Energy supply and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.; Geiger, B.; Rudolph, M.

    1995-01-01

    Today we know that there is no such thing as an ecologically harmless energy source. This applies also to the industrial-scale utilisation of alternative energy sources. In the case of nuclear power, a reevaluation of its risks may be useful in view of the impending global climate change which, however, the author denies. It is an illusion to think that the causes of the exorbitant increase in energy consumption can be remedied on a medium-term basis, so the only possible solution is an optimum utilisation of energy and maximum energy conservation. The book discusses key problems of environmental protechtion and environmental policy from a global point of view. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Housing, energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In 1985 the Association published An Energy Policy for Housing, setting out recommendations for action by local authorities and central Government to tackle the problem of fuel poverty and the improvement of the energy efficiency of the nation's housing. Based on a survey of Association members and discussions with other relevant organisations, the report then concluded that, ''the Government has yet to demonstrate any real commitment to positive investment in an energy efficient housing stock''. Five years later, the Association decided to undertake another survey to establish the extent to which its recommendations have been acted upon and to assess other factors which might have affected the achievement of any energy efficient housing stock. This report is the result of that new survey and it shows that, whilst many more authorities have made progress in developing good practice, much local authority housing is still energy inefficient and many low income households still suffer from fuel poverty. (author).

  19. Large scale simulations of the mechanical properties of layered transition metal ternary compounds for fossil energy power system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Advanced materials with applications in extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive environments play a critical role in the development of new technologies to significantly improve the performance of different types of power plants. Materials that are currently employed in fossil energy conversion systems are typically the Ni-based alloys and stainless steels that have already reached their ultimate performance limits. Incremental improvements are unlikely to meet the more stringent requirements aimed at increased efficiency and reduce risks while addressing environmental concerns and keeping costs low. Computational studies can lead the way in the search for novel materials or for significant improvements in existing materials that can meet such requirements. Detailed computational studies with sufficient predictive power can provide an atomistic level understanding of the key characteristics that lead to desirable properties. This project focuses on the comprehensive study of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn+1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al or other group III, IV, and V elements, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with a rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and special types of bonding, these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most outstanding properties. We used a genomic approach in screening a large number of potential MAX phases and established a database for 665 viable MAX compounds on the structure, mechanical and electronic properties and investigated the correlations between them. This database if then used as a tool for materials informatics for further exploration of this class of intermetallic compounds.

  20. Environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection: methodology and user's guide. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    This report is designed to facilitate assessments of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of fossil energy conversion facilities which might be implemented at potential sites. The discussion of methodology and the User's Guide contained herein are presented in a format that assumes the reader is not an energy technologist. Indeed, this methodology is meant for application by almost anyone with an interest in a potential fossil energy development - planners, citizen groups, government officials, and members of industry. It may also be of instructional value. The methodology is called: Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems (SELECS) and is organized in three levels of increasing sophistication. Only the least complicated version - the Level 1 SELECS - is presented in this document. As stated above, it has been expressly designed to enable just about anyone to participate in evaluating the potential impacts of a proposed energy conversion facility. To accomplish this objective, the Level 1 calculations have been restricted to ones which can be performed by hand in about one working day. Data collection and report preparation may bring the total effort required for a first or one-time application to two to three weeks. If repeated applications are made in the same general region, the assembling of data for a different site or energy conversion technology will probably take much less time.

  1. Energy, environment and the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letta, E.

    2000-01-01

    Policy choices regarding energy and sustainable development need to be geared to the instruments that science and the economy make available in each country, partly because competitiveness restrictions be sustainable for the economy [it

  2. Renewable energy and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, P.; Kesselring, P.

    1993-01-01

    The weak points of environmental balance sheets are indicated: lack of transparency, too narrow system limits, neglect of important pollutants, outdated state of the art, unsuitable energy mix and incorrect weighting of pollutants. tabs., 4 refs

  3. Fossil Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; McLaughlin, Cheryl; MacFadden, Bruce; Jacobbe, Elizabeth; Poole, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many young learners are fascinated with fossils, particularly charismatic forms such as dinosaurs and giant sharks. Fossils provide tangible, objective evidence of life that lived millions of years ago. They also provide a timescale of evolution not typically appreciated by young learners. Fossils and the science of paleontology can, therefore,…

  4. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Gaern Hansen, L.; Bech-Ravn, C.; Ramskov, J.L.

    2006-11-01

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO 2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO 2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  5. Impacts of non-nuclear energy sources on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavkaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal) , which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. If humankind is going to have a future on this planet, at least a high-technology future, with a significant population of several billions of humans continuing to inhabit the Earth, it is absolutely inevitable that we will have to find another energy source. Table 1: The environmental effects for some energy systems; SOURCES: Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Ozone layer depletion - Changes of atmospheric conditions - Decrease of air quality (Coal , petroleum) - Acid rains and destroy of forests (coal, petroleum ) - Pollution from toxic wastes (coal ash, slag and smoke hole gases) - Pollution of surface water - Seaside and sea pollutions (petroleum) - Terrain devolution - Large amount of fuel and transportation requirements - Sources depletion SOURCES: Hydroelectric ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - Large area requirements - Population situation changes - Erosion and usage changes - Ecosystem changes and health effects - Disappearing of biological variety - Downfall of dams - Leave out of production SOURCES: Renewable (sun, wind, geothermal, biomass) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Decrease of air quality (geothermal, biomass) - Large area usage - Ecologic system changes - Fabrication effects (CO 2 effect due to production of photovoltaic cells that work with sun) - Noise (wind) SOURCES: Nuclear (All energy chain) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Radioactive oscillation because of serious reactor accident - Radiation of waste storage. In this study, the environmental effects for some energy systems are investigated with all details

  6. Changing international environments, business environments and energy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    Japan has grown up to an economic superpower with more than 10% of the world GNP. This means that Japan should bear a role to be a member to explore and contribute to the world of the future. In order to attain this, it is necessary to examine how the enterprises which are promoting and leading the Japanese economy are changing. It is also important to consider what Japan can contribute to the world, on the basis of the past experience as a minor power in the natural resources and the energy. (4 figs, 1 tab)

  7. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  8. Problems related to fossil fuels utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, R.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels still present the main energy source in the world since about 90% of the energy produced comes from combustion. This paper, based on the lectures given at the conference of Energy and Environment hold at the Accademia dei Lincei in 1998, presents a short review of some of the problems related to the utilization of fossil fuels, such as their availability in the medium period, the effect of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere as well as the available technologies to deal with such problems [it

  9. Energy options and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1986-01-01

    First, a brief historical sketch of the progress of industrialized society and the change in the quantity and quality of energy system accompanying it is made. It is likely to see a very unstable oil market in future, and it is irresponsible to continue the use of oil simply by burning it to obtain heat and electricity. This time is the opportunity to complete a new energy transition, preserving oil for more effective utilization. There is no single energy source which is as versatile, easy to transport and to use, and cheap as oil, therefore, the relative merits and demerits of various available resources must be carefully assessed. Natural gas, the green-house effect caused by burning fossil fuel, hydroelectric power, nuclear fission power, solar, biomass, wind and geothermal energies are discussed. The important alternatives for the future are nuclear fission power, biomass, and by the middle of the next century, nuclear fusion energy. A pluralistic system is the best suitable to the complex society of the next century, having about 8 billion population. A scenario representing the contribution of nuclear energy in 2050 is illustrated, but the clouds on the nuclear horizon must be dispelled. (Kako, I.)

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  11. European integration, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmento, L.

    1993-01-01

    Today the creation of the internal market in EC is even reaching the field of energy although there are many difficulties caused by differences between the Member States. The Scandinavian Countries are advancing considerably further in liberating the energy market than the EC-outlines in evidence today. Environmental protection has gained more significance in EC recently. The most important regulations and directives are included in the EEA agreement. The directives are included in the EEA agreement. The implementation of the norms would not demand an increase in the level of environmental protection we have in Finland but it seems to be the target of enforcement to issue more strict limits than those in EC-directives. This kind of development can severely weaken Finland's ability to compete: especially as compliance with the directives is still a significant problem in EC

  12. Energy resources and the environment. [6 essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, J; Fletcher, W W [eds.

    1975-01-01

    Exploitation of energy has some impact on the environment. Six essays are presented to examine the variety of problems: (1) Sir Samuel Curran, in Energy and the Needs of Man, concludes that techniques to produce new energy sources will be found, bur conservation and the population explosion must be seriously examined; (2) Dr. Earl Cook, in Flow of Energy Through Technological Society, shows where energy comes from, how it is used and how it returns to the environment; he emphasizes the inefficiency of many energy conversion processes in consequence of the Second law of Thermodynamics; (3) Dr. Andrew Parteous, in Economical Use of Energy and Materials, explains energy not only used in heating, lighting, and transport, but in industry; his accounting of energy shows waste, and he stresses recycling and recovering the energy in domestic waste; (4) Sir Frank McFadzean, in Energy--the International Scene, examines the interplay of economics, technology, and politics in the oil industry; he suggests that more mature international leadership is needed to overcome the current difficulties facing producers and consumers; (5) J. D. Dunster, in The Atom and the Environment, examines the environmental impact of nuclear energy where the safety standards are more strenuous, but are feared more; he is a proponent of nuclear energy, but says an overall energy policy, balancing environmental factors against economic and political considerations, is needed; Dr. B. J. Brinkworth, in Direct Use of Solar Energy, reminds us that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy, and says solar energy can be exploited globally without damaging the environment. (MCW)

  13. Energy and environment: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1993-01-01

    Two problems connected to the concept of 'risk' were analyzed: nuclear power production and global climate changes. In fact, nuclear power, despite of the risk management of the plants, does not produce gaseous emissions and can be used to reduce environmental risks. Even if a cost benefit analysis of nuclear power is very difficult, to perform it is author's opinion that, very probably, industrial countries will continue to use this form of energy

  14. Energy research at DOE, was it worth it?: energy efficiency and fossil energy research 1978 to 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In legislation appropriating funds for DOE's fiscal year (FY) 2000 energy R&D budget, the House Interior Appropriations Subcommittee directed an evaluation of the benefits that have accrued to the nation...

  15. Planning of the district heating system in copenhagen from an economic perspective comparing energy-savings versus fossil-free supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    geothermal heating plants, may lead to oversized heating plants that are too expensive to build compared to implementing energy savings. Therefore reducing heat demand of existing buildings before investing in supply capacity will save society half the investment, indicating the importance of carrying out......The Danish government has adopted a long-term energy policy of being independent of fossil fuels by 2050, and that the energy supply for buildings should be independent of fossil fuels by 2035. Therefore, urgent action is needed to meet the requirements for the future energy system. One way...... of becoming independent of fossil fuels is to energy upgrade the existing building stock and change the energy supply to renewable energy sources. A sustainable way of providing space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW) to buildings in densely populated areas is through the use of district heating (DH...

  16. Development, energy, environment: changing the paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A first set of contributions comments the various risks and challenges which are to be faced in terms of energy, climate and environment: the deadlock of present 'laisser-faire' policies, recent findings in climate science in 2005, oil as the reason of a possible economic crisis in developing countries, recent evolution of energy systems. The next set of contributions discusses the possible solutions and their limits: CO 2 capture and sequestration in coal plants, nuclear renaissance, renewable energies, hydro-electricity, CO 2 capture by biomass, energy sobriety, urban morphology and transports in emerging cities, integration of service demand with energy supply, energy decentralized production

  17. US National energy policy: conservation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michna, J.; Bednarz, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents extracts from an extended review devoted to recent changes and current trends in the national energy policy pursued in the USA. In 2001 the President Bush proposed an energy strategy for the period to 2025 that would promote energy conservation, repair and expand energy infrastructure, and increase energy supply while protecting the environment. The material stresses the importance of a sound national energy policy addressing supply, energy distribution and conservation. Well - illustrated data are given on the energy production and consumption (total, per capita, per $, by category, by fuel, etc.) and on the emissions (by sector, by fuel, by region, etc.). Giving an accurate account of the current situation with energy in America and a vision of its development for the first quarter of our century, these data are helpful for analyzing the national energy policies in other countries, post - transitional included. (authors)

  18. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 1: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, A.L.; Kummler, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. Studies were discussed at the meeting and more than 1000 papers were presented. This first volume covers papers presented on the following topics: solar thermal, heat transfer and thermal applications, storage and bio-conversion, refrigeration and iar conditioning, combustion, fuels and engines, energy and development. tabs., figs

  19. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  20. Intelligent computing for sustainable energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kang [Queen' s Univ. Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Li, Shaoyuan; Li, Dewei [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Niu, Qun (eds.) [Shanghai Univ. (China). School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation

    2013-07-01

    Fast track conference proceedings. State of the art research. Up to date results. This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, ICSEE 2012, held in Shanghai, China, in September 2012. The 60 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and present theories and methodologies as well as the emerging applications of intelligent computing in sustainable energy and environment.

  1. Potential of renewable energy in large fossil-fuelled boilers; Potential erneuerbarer Energien in groesseren fossilen Feuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Baur, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kernen, M. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the findings of a project that examined large heat generation systems used in Switzerland for the supply of heating services to several buildings via small and large district heating systems. Focus is placed on those using fossil fuels and the potential of using combined heat and power plants and renewable forms of energy such as heat-pumps and boilers fired with wood-chippings. The study was also extended to other large-scale, fossil-fuelled heating installations. The report discusses the setting up of a data base, the assessment of the potentials for fuel substitution, the economic viability of wood-fired systems and heat-pumps and the analysis of various factors that can obstruct the use of systems employing renewable forms of energy. Around 20 owners of large installations were interviewed on the subject. Strategic planning, studies, putting to tender, realisation and operation aspects are reviewed.

  2. Relative economic incentives for hydrogen from nuclear, renewable, and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because ''free'' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen. (author)

  3. Methodology for calculation of carbon emission and energy generation efficiency by fossil coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licks, Leticia A.; Pires, Marcal

    2008-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitted by the burning of fossil coal in Brazil. So, a detailed methodology is proposed for calculation of CO 2 emissions from the carbon emission coefficients specific for the Brazilian carbons. Also, the using of secondary fuels (fuel oil and diesel oil) were considered and the power generation for the calculation of emissions and efficiencies of each power plant as well. The obtained results indicate carbon emissions for the year 2002 approximately of the order of 1,794 Gg, with 20% less than the obtained by the official methodology (MCT). Such differences are related to the non consideration of the humidity containment of the coals as well as the using of generic coefficients not adapted to the Brazilian coals. The obtained results indicate the necessity to review the emission inventories and the modernization of the burning systems aiming the increase the efficiency and reduction of the CO 2 and other pollutants, as an alternative for maintaining the sustainable form of using the fossil coal in the country

  4. Wind energy technology: an option for a renewable clean environment energy. Low impact renewable energy: options for a clean environment and healthy Canadian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.

    1999-01-01

    As Canada debates ways to address climate change, the country's low-impact renewable energy industries want to ensure that Canadians are provided with all of the options available to them. Accordingly, they have come together to create Options for a Clean Environment and Healthy Canadian Economy. Recognizing there is no 'silver bullet' solution to climate change, this document identifies an important suite of measures that, along with others, will allow Canada to achieve its long-term economic and environmental goals. The measures described in this document represent an investment in Canada's future. If implemented, they will reduce annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by more than 12 million tonnes (Mt) by the year 2010 (roughly 8% of Canada's reduction target), create thousands of new jobs, and reduce health-care costs by millions of dollars each year. The most significant dividends from these measures, however, will occur after 2010 as a result of having set in motion fundamental changes in the attitudes of Canadians and the nature of the Canadian energy market. By 2020, the spin-off actions prompted by these measures will likely have resulted in GHG reductions twice as great as those achieved in 2010. This document highlights the opportunities associated specifically with Canada's low-impact renewable energy resources. These are non-fossil-fuel resources that are replenished through the earth's natural cycles and have a minimal impact on the environment and human health. They include wind, solar, earth energy, run-of-river hydro and sustainable biomass fuels. These resources can replace fossil fuels in a variety of areas, including electricity and space and water heating. Fuel cells, although not a renewable resource in themselves, are a promising technology that in combination with renewables have the potential to deliver versatile low-impact electricity. The document also identifies opportunities associated with the increased use of passive renewable energy

  5. Nuclear energy and natural environment. Information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The material of the Jadwisin 93' seminar is the collection 20 of 19 articles discussing aspects of the subject of nuclear energy and natural environment. The lectures were presented at six sessions: 1) Nuclear energy applications in medicine, agriculture, industry, food preservation and protection of the environment; 2) Nuclear power in the world; 3) Public attitudes towards different energy options, the example of Sweden; 4) Nuclear power in neighbouring countries; 5) Radiation and human health; 6) Radioactive waste management and potential serious radiological hazards. The general conclusion of the seminar can be as follows. In some cases the nuclear power is a source of environment pollution but very often nuclear techniques are now used and certainly more often in the future will be used for environment and human health protection

  6. Energy, the environment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the author's view on the environmental problems and nuclear power. The world demand for energy has increased rapidly due to the increase of population and the overall rise in living standards, resulting in many signs that the world is experiencing a growing shortage of energy and continuing need for flexible planning and the search for new sources. Fossil fuels are polluting the atmosphere, leading to climate change, acid rain and global warming. This has led many countries to look again at nuclear power. For the widespread opposition to nuclear power, the author lists up the fear of nuclear weapons, the fear of nuclear radiations including reprocessing plants as well as natural radioactivity and cosmic rays, the fear about the safety of nuclear reactors, and production of large amount of radioactive wastes. The author compares various energy sources, and insists that there is a strong reluctance to face the truth, as Governments knowing that nuclear power is politically so unpopular would not advocate the construction of new nuclear stations. (S. Ohno)

  7. Insights into the diagenetic environment of fossil marine vertebrates of the Pisco Formation (late Miocene, Peru) from mineralogical and Sr-isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioncada, A.; Petrini, R.; Bosio, G.; Gariboldi, K.; Collareta, A.; Malinverno, E.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Di Celma, C.; Pasero, M.; Urbina, M.; Bianucci, G.

    2018-01-01

    The late Miocene Pisco Formation of Peru is an outstanding example of richness and high-quality preservation of fossil marine vertebrates. In order to reconstruct the fossilization path, we present new textural, mineralogical and Sr-isotope data of diagenetic minerals formed in correspondence of fossil specimens such as marine vertebrates and mollusks. These fossil specimens were found at Cerro los Quesos, in the Ica Desert, within the diatomaceous strata of the Pisco Formation. Dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite and Mn minerals are the main phases found, while the calcium carbonate originally forming the mollusk valves is replaced by gypsum. An early formation of dolomite and of Mn minerals, triggered by the modifications of the geochemical environment due to organic matter degradation, is suggested by the textural relationships and is confirmed by the Sr isotopic ratio of dolomite, which agrees with that of seawater at the time of sedimentation. Instead, gypsum Sr isotopic ratios indicate a pre-Miocene seawater-derived brine circulating within the sedimentary sequence as a source for Sr. Oxidation of diagenetic sulfide causing a lowering of the pH of porewater is proposed as an explanation for Ca-carbonate dissolution. The diagenetic chemical environment was, nevertheless, favorable to bone preservation.

  8. Polymer-Cement Composites with Self-Healing Ability for Geothermal and Fossil Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, M. Ian; Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Rod, Kenton A.; Koech, Phillip K.; Um, Wooyong; Chun, Jaehun; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Linn, Diana; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Huerta, Nicolas John; Kutchko, Barbara G.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-05-18

    Sealing of wellbores in geothermal and tight oil/gas reservoirs by filling the annulus with cement is a well-established practice. Failure of the cement as a result of physical and/or chemical stress is a common problem with serious environmental and financial consequences. Numerous alternative cement blends have been proposed for the oil and gas industry. Most of these possess poor mechanical properties, or are not designed to work in high temperature environments. This work reports on a novel polymer-cement composite with remarkable self-healing ability that maintains the required properties of typical wellbore cements and may be stable at most geothermal temperatures. We combine for the first time experimental analysis of physical and chemical properties with density functional theory simulations to evaluate cement performance. The thermal stability and mechanical strength are attributed to the formation of a number of chemical interactions between the polymer and cement matrix including covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. Self-healing was demonstrated by sealing fractures with 0.3–0.5 mm apertures, 2 orders of magnitude larger than typical wellbore fractures. This polymer-cement composite represents a major advance in wellbore cementing that could improve the environmental safety and economics of enhanced geothermal energy and tight oil/gas production.

  9. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  10. Energy demand, poverty and the urban environment in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some insights into the prime problems of energy and related environmental issues as well as urbanisation in Jordan. The country has very limited natural resources: water is scarce; arable land is limited; and fossil-fuel sources are few. Moreover, the population is increasing rapidly. Hence, problems are arising. During the last 30 years, the country has experienced vast changes in its infrastructure with respect to the housing, urbanisation, commerce, agriculture and industry. Such developments have led to increasing demographic stresses: unemployment has increased and poverty is experienced by more than half of the population. The pressures have resulted in a high percentage of the population moving from rural to urban areas and so society is becoming less self-sufficient. At present, energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for about one quarter of the kingdom's fuel consumption. Kerosene, bottled LPG, diesel fuel and electricity are the main forms of energy used by households, but kerosene is still the dominant fuel because about 83% of households depend on it for space and water heating. The use of open fires and/or portable stoves has led to an increasing number of people being killed each year by suffocation or suffering health problems due to the inhalation of fumes and gaseous pollutants. Thus a national plan to achieve energy thrift and protect the environment, as well as accomplish the more rational utilisation of the limited natural resources available, is urgently needed and should be enacted soon. (author)

  11. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; Summers, Cathy A [Albany, OR; Gerdemann, Steve [Albany, OR; Oryshchyn, Danylo B [Philomath, OR; Turner, Paul [Independence, OR; Patrick, Brian R [Chicago, IL

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  12. Fossil Crinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Hans; Ausich, William I.; Brett, Carlton E.; Simms, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Crinoids have graced the oceans for more than 500 million years. Among the most attractive fossils, crinoids had a key role in the ecology of marine communities through much of the fossil record, and their remains are prominent rock forming constituents of many limestones. This is the first comprehensive volume to bring together their form and function, classification, evolutionary history, occurrence, preservation and ecology. The main part of the book is devoted to assemblages of intact fossil crinoids, which are described in their geological setting in twenty-three chapters ranging from the Ordovician to the Tertiary. The final chapter deals with living sea lilies and feather stars. The volume is exquisitely illustrated with abundant photographs and line drawings of crinoids from sites around the world. This authoritative account recreates a fascinating picture of fossil crinoids for paleontologists, geologists, evolutionary and marine biologists, ecologists and amateur fossil collectors.

  13. Energy and the environment, Czech energy policy and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, V.

    1995-01-01

    The article is the text of a lecture delivered by the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic. The changes in the Czech energy sector following the political change in 1989 are highlighted. The basic strategic goal in the energy policy of the Czech Government consists in ensuring a stable and reliable power supply while promoting provisions in the production and energy raw material procurement and in the related pricing that would be in support of the strong system provisions within the whole Czech national economy. In the short run, the privatization and restructuring of the Czech power sector will be completed, the share of state ownership in utilities will be reduced, and control mechanisms to affect the function of natural monopolies will be developed. Environmental aspects of the Czech energy policy are particularly aimed at reducing the final consumption of solid fuels, reducing air pollution by flue ashes, phasing-out fossil fuel fired power plants, and increasing power generation by nuclear power plants. The governmental pricing control policy expects that the fuel and power retail prices will be increasing about 15% annually till the year 2000. (J.B.)

  14. Renewable energy for sustainable development and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen

    2010-09-15

    The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.

  15. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  16. Towards a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems in comparison with fossil energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Jungmeier, G.; Apps, M.; Bohlin, F.; Gustavsson, L.; Marland, G.; Pingoud, K.; Savolainen, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, which was prepared as part of IEA Bioenergy Task XV (''Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems''), we outline a standard methodology for comparing the greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems with those of fossil energy systems. Emphasis is on a careful definition of system boundaries. The following issues are dealt with in detail: time interval analysed and changes of carbon stocks; reference energy systems; energy inputs required to produce, process and transport fuels; mass and energy losses along the entire fuel chain; energy embodied in facility infrastructure; distribution systems; cogeneration systems; by-products; waste wood and other biomass waste for energy; reference land use; and other environmental issues. For each of these areas recommendations are given on how analyses of greenhouse gas balances should be performed. In some cases we also point out alternative ways of doing the greenhouse gas accounting. Finally, the paper gives some recommendations on how bioenergy systems should be optimized from a greenhouse-gas emissions point of view. (author)

  17. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, M.; Gasca, J.; Gonzalez, U.

    2006-01-01

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  18. Attributing impacts to emissions traced to major fossil energy and cement producers over specific historical time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Allen, M. R.; Boneham, J.; Heede, R.; Dalton, M. W.; Licker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Given the progress in climate change attribution research over the last decade, attribution studies can inform policymakers guided by the UNFCCC principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." Historically this has primarily focused on nations, yet requests for information on the relative role of the fossil energy sector are growing. We present an approach that relies on annual CH4 and CO2 emissions from production through to the sale of products from the largest industrial fossil fuel and cement production company records from the mid-nineteenth century to present (Heede 2014). Analysis of the global trends with all the natural and human drivers compared with a scenario without the emissions traced to major carbon producers over full historical versus select periods of recent history can be policy relevant. This approach can be applied with simple climate models and earth system models depending on the type of climate impacts being investigated. For example, results from a simple climate model, using best estimate parameters and emissions traced to 90 largest carbon producers, illustrate the relative difference in global mean surface temperature increase over 1880-2010 after removing these emissions from 1980-2010 (29-35%) compared with removing these emissions over 1880-2010 (42-50%). The changing relative contributions from the largest climate drivers can be important to help assess the changing risks for stakeholders adapting to and reducing exposure and vulnerability to regional climate change impacts.

  19. The nuclear energy for the environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair A.M. de.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental question is currently the greater preoccupation all the world, particularly, the atmospheric pollution, generating the acid rains and the heater effect. The transportation, residential, agricultural, industrial and electric sectors contribute for the atmospheric pollution. In this work, the author analyzes important actions in Europe and United States of America in order to reduce this pollution. The paper intends to demystifies that the nuclear energy would be harmful to the environment, demonstrating exactly the contrary - due to the emission cares and controls coming from the nuclear power plants, this source of electric energy generation constitutes is an important factor of environment protection

  20. Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980. Annual report 1977 on efficient uses of energy fossil sources of primary energy new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives within the policy of the Federal Government Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980 can be summarized as follows: guaranteeing the continuity of energy supply in the medium to long term in the Federal Republic at economically favourable costs considering the requirements necessary for the protection of the environment and population. The financial support is effected under the general headings of Development of Energy Resources, Energy Conservation and Efficient Use of Energy. An additional aspect of the support policy is the development of technologies which are of importance for other countries, specifically for the developing countries. Support of a project is effected through a research and development grant from the Federal Government and this can range from less than 50% to 100%. For this the Government receives an irrevocable, free of charge and non-exclusive right to make use of research and development results. In special cases full repayment is agreed subject to commercial success. Based on agreements signed by the Federal Minister of Research and Technology and the Federal Minister of Economic Affairs on the one hand and the Juelich Nuclear Research Establishment (KFA) on the other, the Project Management for Energy Research (PLE) in KFA Juelich is acting on behalf of these Ministries. The Project Management's activities in non-nuclear energy research in general (for the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) and development and innovation in coal mining and preparation (for the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs) have the following general objectives: to improve the efficiency of Government support; to ensure that projects are efficiently handled; and to reduce the workload of the Ministries. The individual projects are listed and described briefly.

  1. Photovoltaic panels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy sources in rural areas of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    India is the second fastest growing economy in the world. Presently, India is the world’s sixth greatest consumer of energy. The Indian energy consumption accounts for slightly more than 3% of the world’s total annual energy consumption. The need for ener

  2. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolow, R.H. [ed.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Anderson, D. [ed.] [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Harte, J. [ed.] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  3. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past. [it

  4. Energy and environment: the ecological debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, I.

    1983-01-01

    The development of man's use of energy, from earliest times to the present, is briefly sketched. The present energy problem is discussed under three headings: availability of energy (standard of living of developed and developing countries; rate of depletion of non-renewable energy sources with special reference to oil); price (effect on practical availability); environmental pollution (hazards to workers and public; 'greenhouse effect' due to carbon dioxide; radioactivity in the environment due to the operations associated with the use of nuclear power; comparison of hazards associated with oil, coal and nuclear power); response to the energy problem (economy of use of existing energy sources; development of renewable sources; nuclear fusion); what future for industrial society; what is a post-industrial society (sociological and ethical aspects). (U.K.)

  5. Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, E.K.; Nikitin, A.T.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Stolyarevskii, A.Ya.; Doroshenko, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The solution of problems related to increasing costs of fossil fuels and application of nuclear energy in the industrial sector could be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes demand that the temperature of heat carrier generated to be in the range from 900-1000 deg. C. In the Soviet Union the strategy adopted for solving energy supply problems was named 'nuclear-hydrogen power engineering and technologies'. Based on analytic research and taking into account the present state of the art, the new alternative energy sources, e.g. nuclear ones, should be introduced into the industry by the following steps: development and mastering of stable operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors; search of rational technical solutions for heat discharge from nuclear reactors; utilisation of meet the power demand of existing production plants; complete substitution of organic raw materials burned now with nuclear energy; review the conditions and development of organizational and engineering solutions acceptable for implementing the nuclear energy in commercial processes

  6. Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarov, E K; Nikitin, A T; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N N; Protsenko, A N; Stolyarevskii, A Ya; Doroshenko, N A [State Institute of Nitrogen Industry, Moscow (USSR); [I.V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow (USSR)

    1990-07-01

    The solution of problems related to increasing costs of fossil fuels and application of nuclear energy in the industrial sector could be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes demand that the temperature of heat carrier generated to be in the range from 900-1000 deg. C. In the Soviet Union the strategy adopted for solving energy supply problems was named 'nuclear-hydrogen power engineering and technologies'. Based on analytic research and taking into account the present state of the art, the new alternative energy sources, e.g. nuclear ones, should be introduced into the industry by the following steps: development and mastering of stable operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors; search of rational technical solutions for heat discharge from nuclear reactors; utilisation of meet the power demand of existing production plants; complete substitution of organic raw materials burned now with nuclear energy; review the conditions and development of organizational and engineering solutions acceptable for implementing the nuclear energy in commercial processes.

  7. Management of fossil natural resources: the impossible challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubens, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    A set of articles addresses various issues related to fossil energies and resources. A first set addresses the general context of fossil resources: the forced wedding between fossil energies and the environment (discussion of an annual report by the IEA on coal reserves), the availability of fossil fuels (discussion about the high share of fossil fuel in an always more renewable world). A second set addresses how to transform resources into reserves: discussion of the annual IEA report on conventional oil and gas reserves, on unconventional oil and gas reserves, and on coal reserves. The next set is a prospective one, and addresses the question of a scenario by 2040: the extremely high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical reality, and the question of the possibility of a world energy transition (discussions of the World Energy Outlook published by the IEA). Other issues are addressed by the last set of articles: the abundance of fossil energies obscures the potential of renewable energies, the evolution of the chemical industry towards alternative solutions in order to limit the use of hydrocarbons, and the territorial claims by Russia in the Arctic region

  8. BUILT ENVIRONMENT: RELATING THE BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, environmental issues have been the focus of much of the world’s attention. This has stimulated a response in many countries, which has led to a closer examination of energy conservation strategies for conventional fossil fuels. One way of reducing building energy consumption is to design buildings, which are more economical in their use of energy for: heating, lighting, cooling, ventilation and hot water supply. Passive measures, particularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning, can dramatically reduce primary energy consumption. However, exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses, can significantly contribute in reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Therefore, promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing the renewable energy market will contribute to preserving the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels. This will also contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions, through a reduction in air pollution and greenhouse gases, by the replacement of conventional fuels with renewable energies.

  9. Solar energy as a viable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.L.; Ewansiha, K.; Enyeribe, E.

    2007-01-01

    A lot of human and natural resources have been put in the energy sector, but the quantity of supply to consumers is quite inadequate. To sustain industrial output and ensure rapid growth, there is a need for a reliable and efficient supply of energy. A survey was carried out to find out the knowledge of consumers on the use of solar energy as an alternative source of energy.The result indicated that although people are aware of existence, the product is not readily available for man

  10. Bio energy - Environment, technique and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohle, Erik Eid

    2001-01-01

    Leading abstract. In this book, a group of experts discusses everything about the use of bio fuels, from the briquettes of dry alder used in automobile gas generators during World War II to the most advanced present-day use. The chapters are: (1) Energy and society, (2) Production of biomass, (3) Bio fuel - properties and production, (4) Bio fuel - conversion and use, (5) Environment and environmental engineering, (6) Economy and planning and (7) Bio energy in the energy system of the future. There is a list of literature and a glossary at the end of the book

  11. The Industrial Engineer and Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichan Thongprasert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Industries have always been a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, causing environmental problems. Concerns about the impact of industries on the environment have led industries to change or adapt their methodologies to be more efficient and environmentally responsible. This article explains the impact that has on the industrial engineer.

  12. Energy and the environment in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that three preeminent factors determine the nexus between energy policies and the environment in Eastern Europe. Economic planners in the region traditionally have emphasized supply-side policies to expand the amount, rather than demand-side policies to limit the consumption, of energy. Consequently, the East European economies have developed, in the words of Hungarian economists, an insatiable appetite for fuels and power that engenders among them a persisting propensity to overconsume these resources. All states in the region continue to devote between 40 and 45 percent of their total investments in industry to increase the indigenous production of fuels and power. The quality of the environment suffers considerably from these policies. The more energy an economy consumes (all other things being equal), the more wastes it creates, and so the more it pollutes the environment. Further, the enormous output of fiscal resources that these states devote to increasing their supply of energy severely constrains their capacity to pursue other investment opportunities, including opportunities to protect the environment

  13. The Industrial Engineer and Energy and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sirichan Thongprasert

    2009-01-01

    Industries have always been a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, causing environmental problems. Concerns about the impact of industries on the environment have led industries to change or adapt their methodologies to be more efficient and environmentally responsible. This article explains the impact that has on the industrial engineer.

  14. Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, E.K.; Nikitin, A.T.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Stolyarevskii, A.Ya.; Doroshenko, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion of fossil fuel resources and the gradual increase in cost of their extraction and transportation to the places of their consumption put forward into a line of the most urgent tasks the problem of rational and economical utilization of fuel and energy resources, as well as introduction of new energy sources into various sectors of the national economy. The nuclear energy sources which are widely spread in power engineering have not yet been used to a proper extent in the sectors of industrial technologies and residential space heating, which are the most energy consuming sectors in the national economy. The most effective way of solving this problem can be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes and those involved in chemico-thermal systems of distant heat transmission demand the temperature of a heat carrier generated by nuclear reactors and assimilated by the above processes to be in the range from 900 0 to 1000 0 C. (author)

  15. Energy survey - What can R&D do by 1985. [fossil fuel utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copps, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development in the field of energy is generally recognized as requiring long lead times before the results are felt. Near term relief from foreign oil dependence will be achieved by reducing energy consumption through conservation and by increasing domestic energy supply through expanded exploration and drilling for oil and natural gas, and by increased coal production. This paper describes the results of an informal survey performed by NASA within its own agency to determine if any research and development activities might be an exception to the general rule of long lead times and thus have significant impact by 1985 on oil and natural gas consumption.

  16. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  17. Energy and environment: a challenge for materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Ch.; Walle, E.; Hody, St.; Alleau, Th.; Bassat, J.M.; Pourcelly, G.; Aitelli, P.; Crepy, Ch. de; Le Douaron, A.; Moussy, F.; Guibert, A. de; Mogensen, P.C.; Beauvy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ESIREM (Ecole Superieure d'Ingenieurs de Recherche en Electronique et en Materiaux) has organized its yearly colloquium in Dijon on the 20. of January 2005. The topic was 'energy and environment: a challenge for materials'. Here are presented the summaries of the speeches of Mr C. Marchand: how to conciliate increasing needs in energy, limited resources in hydrocarbons and to control the releases of greenhouse gases: a main challenge for the 21. century; of Mr E. Walle: materials for the future nuclear systems; of Mr S. Hody: which future prospect for the energy production: the point of view of Gaz de France; of Mr T. Alleau: the hydrogen, the energy of the future; of Mr J.M. Bassat: the specificities of the SOFC, new materials for a carrying out at ambient temperature; of Mr G. Pourcelly: the PEMFC; of Mrs A. Le Douaron and F. Moussy: materials, energy and environment in automotive industry; of Ms A. de Guibert: the key role of materials in the lithium-ion accumulators; of Mr P. C. Mogensen: the photovoltaic materials: the key of the solar energy; and of Mr M. Beauvy: the future reactors: challenges for materials. (O.M.)

  18. Environment and power; Umwelt und Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, W.; Ramser, H.J.; Stadler, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 35th economic seminar with he title '' Environment and power'' held between 18th and 21st September, 2006, at the monastery Ottobeuren (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Environment and power: introduction into the subject matter (Karl Heinrich Opplaender); (b) Theoretical fundamentals of the sustainability (Wolfgang Buchholz); (c) Ecological fiscal reform and double dividend (Ronnie Schoeb); (d) ''My friend, that is all mere theory'' - Notes to the emission trading (Christoph Boehringer); (e) Environmental policy and locational competition (Michael Rauscher); (f) Dynamical incentives of environment political instruments - a survey (Till Requate); (g) Product differentiation in the presence of environmental concern, network effects and compatibility: The automobile market (Klaus Conrad); (h) The liability right as an instrument of environment policy (Alfred Endres); (i) environment economy and experimental evidence (Joachim Weimann); (j) Market design in the energy economy (Felix Muesgen, Axel Ockenfels); (k) Re-regulation of the liberalized energy markets in Europe (Carl Christian von Weizsaecker).

  19. Dilemmas for China: Energy, Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a “world factory”, but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China’s economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China’s dilemma in energy, economy and environment is analyzed from the perspective of its participation in current global supply chains. While China must import a significant proportion of its energy and a large proportion of primary materials, a large share of these imports are returned to the global market as industrial exports. China is bound by its own course of action and unable to radically change its position for the foreseeable future as the road to economic development and employment stability is through policies built on exports and shifting development models, presenting a tough socio-economic trade-off. China’s growth challenges are discussed as an example of challenges more broadly faced in the developing world. China’s success or failure in achieving a sustainable developmental pattern will inevitably have a significant influence on the global environment.

  20. The energy for the 21. century: techniques, economy and environment; Energie au 21. siecle: techniques, economie, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    12 papers have been presented. 1) Climate changing. The atmospheric circulation model coupled to the ocean model is the most powerful current tool to explain climate processes and to validate possible climate evolutions. 2) Health hazards due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The effects of atmospheric particles on mortality, cancer risks and on respiratory organs, are considered. 3) The evaluation of external effects of transport on the environment. The paper gives examples of exposure-response function relating to impacts on the built environment, atmospheric visibility, vegetation and human health. 4) Energy consumption and economic growth. 5) Impact of low radiation doses on human health. 6) Hydrogen: production methods and costs. 7) Fossil energies reserves: incertitude on definition, volume and forecasting. 8) Energetic valorization of biomass by thermo-chemical way. 9) Technical and economic aspects of wind energy. 10) Nuclear energy: the French example. 11) The future of photovoltaic energy, its actual growth rate is about 25-35 % a year and its main asset is to benefit technological progress that allows a sharp 50 % cut in costs every 10 years. 12) Fuel cells, their operating principle, the fuel used, their applications and perspective. (A.C.)

  1. Risky business. Fossil risk mitigation and enhanced energy security from renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awerbuch, S.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that the cost estimates associated with the development and diversification of energy policies may be flawed. The document points out that renewables such as wind can be used as a hedge against risk in a balanced portfolio. The calculation of future generating costs is a crucial factor to be taken into account but the figures for the future are highly uncertain. It is argued that traditional electricity costs, in terms of kWh, are unreliable and should be given little weight in energy policy deliberations. It is suggested that investor groups should be asked to submit firm fixed-price bids for providing wind, coal and gas-base electricity over the next 25-30 years. Wind and other fixed-cost energy sources can help nations avoid costly economic consequences stemming from fluctuation in the price of oil

  2. A model for detailed evaluation of fossil-energy saving by utilizing unused but possible energy-sources on a city scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasuhumi; Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in the utilization of unused, but possible, energy sources to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and fossil-energy consumption, and especially to comply with the Kyoto Protocol which came into effect in 2005. Detailed considerations of plant location, land use and life cycle analysis, however, have not yet been fully estimated with a view to confirming the advantages of the new energy-source usage. A model for heat energy from river water and treated sewage water, and waste-heat energy from municipal solid-waste incineration plants was built and applied to the Tokyo urban area in Japan, considering the spatial and time-related distribution of demands and supplies, the shapes of buildings in the demand area, and life-cycle analysis. The model selected areas were those which should use these energies without prejudice, and sometimes the areas were far from the energy-source point. The reduction of carbon-dioxide emissions resulting from new energy-sources was about 8% of the reduction target for Tokyo in 1990. The model was able to precisely evaluate the new energy-usage, using data from both supply and demand sides. (author)

  3. Energy and the Environment: Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The 24 papers in this volume are entitled: The art of energy efficiency--Protecting the environment with better technology; On the road to global ecology; Best practices for renewable energy implementation--Integrating end-user and commercial-sector opportunities and constraints; Biomass conversion to fuels; Changing trends in greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide; Economic growth, liberalization, and the environment--A review of the evidence; Harmful algal blooms--A model for emergence of pathogenic microorganisms under conditions of ecological stress; Enhancing the performance of nuclear power reactors--Issues and opportunities; Environmental issues along the US-Mexico border--Drivers of change and the response of citizens and institutions; Ethics and international business; Fuel cells; High-level nuclear waste--The status of Yucca Mountain; Hydrogen production, transmission, and distribution; It's not easy being green--Innovative environmental technologies enhance hydropower's role in sustainable development; Megacities and the atmosphere; Methods for attributing ambient air pollutants to emission sources; Nuclear energy in the twenty-first century--Examination of a contentious subject; Pollution and human health in the St. Lawrence estuary; Southern perspectives in technology transfer; The post-Kyoto regime on climate change--Southern perspectives; Flexibility in the timing and mechanisms of greenhouse gas controls--A review of economic arguments; How much is energy R and D worth as insurance; A review of technical change in assessments of climate policy; and Energy technology and global change--Modeling techniques developed at NASA

  4. Green energy - the road to a Danish energy system without fossil fuels. Summary of the work, results and recommendations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    This summary report describes the main outcomes of the deliberations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy. It includes a proposal for how Denmark can become independent of fossil fuels and, at the same time, meet the target of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%-95% compared with 1990. In addition, 40 specific recommendations for initiatives which will contribute to the realisation of the vision are presented. The documentation section of the overall report, which is only available in Danish, presents the Climate Commission's work in more detail, as well as a description of the comprehensive analyses on which the Climate Commission has based its recommendations. Finally, the background documents, which have been prepared at the request of the Climate Commission are available (in Danish) at the Commission's website, www.klimakommissionen.dk. We can both reduce Danish emissions of greenhouse gasses significantly, and make Denmark independent of fossil fuels. This will require a total conversion of the Danish energy system; conversion away from oil, coal and gas, which today account for more than 80% of our energy consumption, and to green energy with wind turbines and bioenergy as the most important elements. The cost of conversion may seem surprisingly low. The low cost means that not only can we maintain our present living standards, we can also have considerable economic growth, so that energy expenditures will constitute less of our budgets in the future than today. The reason the cost is not higher is primarily because we will not have to pay for overpriced fossil fuels and CO{sub 2} reductions, and we will be able to limit our energy consumption through efficiency improvements in all areas in the future. It is difficult to make predictions about the exact design of the green energy system of the future. However, in overall terms it could look like this: 1) Energy will be used far more efficiently, so that we can, for example, heat our houses

  5. Aircraft and Bases Powered by Compact Nuclear Reactors: Solutions to Projecting Power in Highly Contested Environments and Fossil Fuel Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    decline.20 Since 2008, improvements in fossil fuel extraction techniques, such as fracking in the United States, have delayed the inevitable and probably...higher US production due to fracking and inaction by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).25 Assuming this relaxation does not... fracking techniques, eventually even the most ingenious extraction techniques will not be enough for supply to keep up with demand, and humans will

  6. Energy and the environment: 'the nuclear option'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The world's consumption of primary energy continues to rise rapidly, mainly because of the developing countries who cannot yet provide the services essential to improving the quality of life. Increasing energy consumption, the effect it will have on the world's finite resources and, more importantly, on the environment, leave the world's population facing serious challenges. This paper will briefly consider the power generation technology options that offer sustainable development including the role that nuclear power plays today, and will need to play in the next century, to preserve and improve the quality of life worldwide. (author)

  7. Bio energy: Environment and Environmental Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Morten; Noreng, Katrina; Soerensen, Heidi; Teslo, Einar; Daehlen, Knut; Liodden, Ole Joergen; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Hohle, Erik Eid

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 5 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Environmental issues in the use of energy, (2) Environmental issues in the production of biomass, (3) Forestry, (4) Agriculture, (5) Environmental issues in fuel production and storage, (6) Environmental issues in combustion, (7) Environmental issues in using bio fuel, (8) Life cycle analyses, (9) Laws, regulations and norms for the use of bio fuel. Unlike the other sections, the one on laws is mostly concerned with Norwegian conditions

  8. Nuclear, energy, environment, wastes, society - NEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the seven projects based on partnerships between several bodies, companies and agencies (CNRS, CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN, ANDRA, BRGM) on research programmes on nuclear systems and scenarios, on resources (mines, processes, economy), on the processing and packaging of radioactive wastes, on the behaviour of materials for storage, on the impact of nuclear activities on the environment, on the relationship between nuclear, risks and society, and on materials for nuclear energy

  9. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Dijkstra, Arend G.; Lambert, Neill

    2016-01-01

    of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum......We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly...... correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously...

  10. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  11. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  12. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U.

    1999-01-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  13. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U. [University of Dhaka (Bangladesh). Physics Dept.

    1999-06-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  14. Energy efficiency improvement and environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhier, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Massive reliance on polluting sources of energy (coal, traditional biomass and oil) has damaged the environment in China over years. Now, China is the world's first carbon dioxide emitter and air pollution represents between 2 and 7 percent of loss of Gross Domestic Product per year, depending on the studies chosen. In order to reduce the level of pollution, one can either enhance the technology in use or reduce the share of polluting fuels in the energy mix. Indeed, current Chinese technologies are far less efficient than those of developed countries and the energy mix is massively composed of polluting sources of energy. So, they both represent huge potential savings. This article enquires the link between diversification, efficiency in the power sector and the per capita emissions and shows that emissions are negatively correlated to a diversification of the energy mix as well as an improvement of power generating technologies. Hence, it justifies the diversification of the energy mix and technology improvement as viable strategies to tackle pollution

  15. The effects of variable renewable electricity on energy efficiency and full load hours of fossil-fired power plants in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mats; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Harmsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of variable renewable electricity (VRE) on full load hours and energy efficiency of fossil-fired power generation in the European Union from 1990-2014. Member states were aggregated into three groups based on the level of VRE penetration. Average full load hours are

  16. Non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting carbon dioxide emissions: bottom-up estimates for the world as a whole and for major developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Neelis, M.L.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    We present and apply a simple bottom–up model for estimating non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions.We apply this model for the year 2000: (1) to the world as a whole, (2) to the aggregate of Annex I countries and non-Annex I countries, and (3) to the ten

  17. Impact of operational factors on fossil energy inputs in motor-manual tree felling and processing: results of two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ignea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases tree felling and processing operations are carried out motor-manually and knowledge about fossil fuel consumption and direct energy inputs when using such equipment is required for different purposes starting with operational costing and ending with environmental assessment of forest operations. In this study, fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs were evaluated for two chainsaws which were used to fell and process trees in two silvicultural systems. The results of this study suggest that there is a strong dependence relation between selected tree size variables such as the diameter at breast height and tree volume on one hand and the fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs when felling and processing broadleaved hardwood and resinous softwood trees on the other hand. For the broadleaved trees (mean tree volume of 1.50 m3 × tree-1, DBH of 45.5 cm and tree height of 21.84 m the mean direct fossil energy input was of 3.86 MJ m-3 while for resinous trees (mean tree volume of 1.77 m3 tree-1, DBH of 39.28 cm and tree height of 32.49 m it was of 3.93 MJ m-3. Other variables, including but not limited to the technology used, work experience and procedural pattern, may influence the mentioned figures and extensive studies are required to clarify their effects.

  18. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Renewable energy sources allow to anticipate the depletion of fossil energy reserves and to limit the use of fissile resources. Moreover, their use avoids the emission of enormous amounts of pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This document presents the French energy context (national resources, electricity production and uses); the international political commitments (Kyoto protocol); the position of nuclear power in France and the development of renewable energy sources; and the evolution of the share of wind power with respect to other energy sources in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  19. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  20. The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Allan; Ayatakshi, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the underlying supply and demand analysis of fossil energy and other environmental taxes needs further elaboration when a country (a) introduces national fossil energy or environmental taxes and (b) is open to international trade at given world prices. We provide evidence that such conditions are plausible for many sectors in the UK. A key implication is that the short run effects of such taxes should not be felt in final good prices, since these are determined in world markets, but in terms of underlying profitability. These changes in underlying profits provide two key incentives for producers—to change to more environmentally friendly production techniques and to switch resources to production of less environmentally harmful goods. Using input—output techniques we provide evidence for the UK to show how existing fossil energy and other “green” taxes have affected underlying profitability. The evidence shows quite strong profit incentives to shift resources from a small number of energy intensive industries to others. - Highlights: • Energy taxes affect profits more than prices for sectors trading at world prices. • This study suggests that many sectors in the UK satisfy these conditions. • Our evidence suggests that few sectors are strongly affected by energy taxes. • Energy taxes have a strong effect relative to other possible environmental taxes

  1. Chemistry, sun, energy and environment; Chimie, soleil, energie et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchy, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC), 54 - Villers-les-Nancy (France); Enea, O. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France); Flamant, G. [IMP-Odeillo-CNRS (France)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This document provides the 35 papers presented at the 'Chemistry, Sun, Energy and Environment' meeting, held February 3-4, 2000 in Saint-Avold, France. The main studied topic was the use of solar radiation for water treatment, volatile organic compounds decomposition and in some thermochemical processes. These research subjects are tackled in a fundamental and practical point of view. (O.M.)

  2. How to give up fossil energies and reduce CO2 emissions: an incentive for competitive renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After having outlined the relationship between cheap energy and human progress, and the increasing share of electric power in energy consumption (which means that electricity price will be a major determining factor of economic growth), this note briefly discusses the role of different energy sources. Coal appears to be the cheapest, but the most dangerous for mankind, renewable energies are expensive and intermittent and require an intensification of research works. Finally, the French system is presented as being one of the most efficient in the world, specifically in terms of CO 2 emissions. Some proposals are formulated regarding research on renewable energies, extension of nuclear plant lifetime, stability of electric power prices, and determination of a floor price for the CO 2 ton

  3. Renewables, nuclear, or fossil fuels? Scenarios for Great Britain’s power system considering costs, emissions and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Keirstead, James

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare a large number of cost-optimal future power systems for Great Britain. • Scenarios are assessed on cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. • Up to 60% of variable renewable capacity is possible with little cost increase. • Higher shares require storage, imports or dispatchable renewables such as tidal range. - Abstract: Mitigating climate change is driving the need to decarbonize the electricity sector, for which various possible technological options exist, alongside uncertainty over which options are preferable in terms of cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. To reduce this uncertainty, we here quantify two questions for the power system of Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland): First, when compared within the same high-resolution modeling framework, how much do different combinations of technologies differ in these three respects? Second, how strongly does the cost and availability of grid-scale storage affect overall system cost, and would it favor some technology combinations above others? We compare three main possible generation technologies: (1) renewables, (2) nuclear, and (3) fossil fuels (with/without carbon capture and storage). Our results show that across a wide range of these combinations, the overall costs remain similar, implying that different configurations are equally feasible both technically and economically. However, the most economically favorable scenarios are not necessarily favorable in terms of emissions or energy security. The availability of grid-scale storage in scenarios with little dispatchable generation can reduce overall levelized electricity cost by up to 50%, depending on storage capacity costs. The UK can rely on its domestic wind and solar PV generation at lower renewable shares, with levelized costs only rising more than 10% above the mean of 0.084 GBP/kWh for shares of 50% and below at a 70% share, which is 35% higher. However, for more than an 80% renewable

  4. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  5. NASA spinoffs to energy and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ray L.; Lehrman, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Thousands of aerospace innovations have found their way into everyday use, and future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions promise to provide many more spinoff opportunities. Each spinoff has contributed some measure of benefit to the national economy, productivity, or lifestyle. In total, these spinoffs represent a substantial dividend on the national investment in aerospace research. Along with examples of the many terrestrial applications of NASA technology to energy and the environment, this paper presents the mechanisms by which NASA promotes technology transfer. Also discussed are new NASA initiatives in superconductivity research, global warming, and aeropropulsion.

  6. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  7. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, R.E.H.; Rogner, H.-H.; Gregory, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation

  8. Exergy energy, environment and sustainable development

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    This book deals with exergy and its applications to various energy systems and applications as a potential tool for design, analysis and optimization, and its role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered as outlined in the contents. - Comprehensive coverage of exergy and its applications - Connects exergy with three essential areas in terms of energy, environment and sustainable development - Presents the most up-to-date information in the area with recent developments - Provides a number of illustrative examples, practical applications, and case studies - Easy to follow style, starting from the basics to the advanced systems.

  9. Energy-environment scenarios for Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M. [Stockholm Environment Inst. Boston, MA (United States); Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y. [Environment and Development in the Third World, Dakar (Senegal)

    1994-06-01

    This paper explores the energy and environmental dimensions of proposed energy strategies for Senegal. We do so using a quantitative analytical framework, and begin to explore how useful such numerical methods can be in an African context. Based on past studies and the environmental database system, we develop a set of emission factors for use in Senegal. Finally, we address ways to integrate the often unquantifiable environmental and economics cost and benefits for environmentally informed decision making. In summary, we find that polices intended to promote the substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal in households can actually reduce greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to the improvement of more important near-term environmental problems. At the same time, the impacts of LPG substitution on increasing the oil import bill is relatively small when compared to other petroleum product usage.Improving end-use energy efficiency also shows promise, suggesting that new demand-side initiatives are needed. Overall, the integrated energy-environment scenario approach can reveal combined policy impacts that might otherwise be missed in a single project or policy approach. 13 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Renewable energies and environment. Energias renovables y medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Garrido, U

    1994-01-01

    This volume summarizes the conferences about ''Energy and environment: renewable energies'' held in Valladolid and sponsored by the Valladolid and Salamanca Universities. The book focusses on the energy consumption, energy laws, wind power, hydroelectric power, environment, biomass, solar thermal energy and their influence into the Energetic National Plan.

  11. Atomic energy, environment and energy conservation in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Koko

    1990-01-01

    About 12 % of generated electric power is the nuclear power in Eastern European countries. Generally electric power is short in these countries, and as the countermeasures for environment, the promotion of nuclear power generation is considered. However, the public opinion opposing it is also strong. The situation in respective countries is briefly discussed. The prevention of warming of the earth and the reduction of carbon dioxide gas release are the largest environmental problems discussed in western countries, but in Eastern European countries, the far more primitive problem of the damage due to SO 2 is serious. Notwithstanding high sulfur brown coal is the main fuel, the installation of desulfurizing facilities has been neglected. The demand for the countermeasures to environmental pollution by people has become strong. The energy efficiency in Eastern European countries is poor, and it is one of the causes of environmental pollution. The industrial structure is centering around heavy industries which consume much energy, the energy loss arises due to the delay of equipment modernization, and the energy is cheap, so its saving is neglected. Energy conservation is important. (K.I.)

  12. DOE/Fossil Energy`s drilling, completion, and stimulation RD&D: A technologies/products overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, J.R.; Yost, A.B. II

    1995-12-31

    An overview of natural gas drilling, completion, and stimulation RD&D sponsored by the US Department of Energy is reported in this paper. Development of high rate-of-penetration drilling systems and underbalanced drilling technologies are detailed among other RD&D activities. The overview serves as a technology transfer medium and is intended to accelerate the deployment of the products and technologies described.

  13. Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (USEEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the UOG industry in the Appalachian Basin of Pennsylvania and neighboring states, there are still fundamental concerns regarding the environmentally sound and cost efficient extraction of this unique asset. To address these concerns, Ohio State University has established the Department of Energy-funded Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory, a dedicated research program where scientists from the university will work with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), academia, industry, and regulatory partners, to measure and monitor reservoir response to UOG development and any associated environmental concerns. The USEEL site will be located in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in the heart of the deep Utica-Pt. Pleasant Shale play of the Appalachian Basin. The USEEL project team will characterize and quantify the gas-producing attributes of one of the deepest portions of the Utica-Pt. Pleasant formations in the Appalachian Basin via a multi-disciplinary collaboration that leverages state-of-the-art capabilities in geochemistry, core assessment, well design and logging, 3-D and micro-seismic, DTS and DAS fiber optics, and reservoir modelling. Fracture and rock strength analyses will be complemented by a comprehensive suite of geophysical and geochemical logs, water and chip samples, and cores (pressure sidewall and whole core) to evaluate fluids, mineral alteration, microbes, pore structure, and hydrocarbon formation and alteration in the shale pore space. Located on an existing Marcellus drill pads in southwestern Pennsylvania, USEEL will provide an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the economic and environmental effects of Marcellus pad expansion on the integrity of near-by existing production wells, ground disruption and slope stability, and ultimate efforts to conduct site reclamation. Combined with the overall goal of an improved understanding of the Utica-Pt. Pleasant system, USEEL

  14. School education on energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imakita, Manami

    2005-01-01

    In Japanese school, elementary and junior- and senior-high, it is widely agreed that teaching of energy and environment is desirable, as has been adopted in a course of study of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This paper reports the present state of affairs on these problems from elementary schools to high schools, describing of each school year or grade and each lessons separately. It contains the results of the author's investigation on curriculum and syllabus including some classroom practices and measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation with the help of adequate measuring instruments and visits to some related facilities. Methods of learning and teaching are also studied together with some future prospect. (S. Ohno)

  15. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Scott, Brian [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  16. Criteria for the development and use of the methodology for environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, L.; Northrop, G.; Scott, R.

    1980-02-01

    This report serves as a companion document to the report, Volume 1: Environmentally-Acceptable Fossil Energy Site Evaluation and Selection: Methodology and Users Guide, in which a methodology was developed which allows the siting of fossil fuel conversion facilities in areas with the least environmental impact. The methodology, known as SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) does not replace a site specific environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement (EIS), but does enhance the value of an EIS by thinning down the number of options to a manageable level, by doing this in an objective, open and selective manner, and by providing preliminary assessment and procedures which can be utilized during the research and writing of the actual impact statement.

  17. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  18. Public Relations - 2003 Energy and Environment Calendar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Valcic, I.

    2003-01-01

    Ministry of Economy in co-operation with the Ministry of Education and Sport, Croatian Electric Utility and Enconet International during the year 2002 realized the project of preparing the calendar for 2003 containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy and environment and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendations for acting. The calendar is primarily created for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and will be distributed to all pupils of primary schools on that territory. Therefore the collecting of paintings was carried out between pupils from fifth to eight grades in those schools. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings from fifty-two collected and ceremonial promotion of the calendar was held in the Technical museum in Zagreb. This kind of project is only one example of public relations with the purpose of knowledge building about successful living together with energy technologies. In this text the course of the project of realizing the calendar will be presented with the special accent on content and purpose of the text about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendations for acting. (author)

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  20. Straight from the Mouths of Horses and Tapirs: Using Fossil Teeth to Clarify How Ancient Environments Have Changed over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Larisa

    2009-01-01

    Clarifying ancient environments millions of years ago is necessary to better understand how ecosystems change over time, providing insight as to the potential impacts of current global warming. This module engages middle school students in the scientific process, asking them to use tooth measurement to test the null hypothesis that horse and tapir…

  1. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  2. Energy and Environment Division, annual report FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osowitt, M. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    This report covers research in: energy analysis; energy efficiency studies; solar energy; chemical process; energy-efficient buildings; environmental pollutant studies; combustion research; laser spectroscopy and trace elements; and oil shale and coal research. An energy and environment personnel listing is appended. Separate projects are indexed individually for the database. (PSB)

  3. Energy, society and environment. Technology for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.

    1997-04-01

    Energy, Society and Environment examines energy and energy use, and the interactions between technology, society and the environment. The book is clearly structured to examine; Key environmental issues, and the harmful impacts of energy use; New technological solutions to environmental problems; Implementation of possible solutions, and Implications for society in developing a sustainable approach to energy use. Social processes and strategic solutions to problems are located within a clear, technological context with topical case studies. (UK)

  4. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  5. Wind energy in the built environment : Concentrator effects of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with wind energy conversion in the built environment. It gives a description of the wind resources in the built environment that can be converted into energy by a wind turbine. With a focus on maximum energy yield of the wind turbine, it especially deals with the integration of

  6. Renewable energies, development, and environment: discourses, realities, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After two contributions describing the context of renewable energies and their different objectives and roles in the North and in the South, a set of contributions discusses some controversies and generally accepted ideas about renewable energies: fossil energy appraisal and the greenhouse effect of presently used fuels, the issue of irregularity and climate hazards, photovoltaic energy as a development key for South countries, vulnerability of energy systems, renewable energies and energy market privatisation. The next set of contributions deals with different examples: renewable energies in Africa, electricity and high dams, small hydro developments in China, wind energy in Morocco, solar water-heaters in Tunisia, bio-energies and food security, second generation bio-fuels, biomass energy in Cambodia. Sheets are then proposed with a brief historical overview, a description of the state of the art, an indication of the installed power, of market shares, and a brief discussion of perspectives for the different renewable energy sources: large and small hydro, photovoltaic, thermodynamic solar, wind, geothermal, thermal solar, bio-fuels, biomass, and biogas

  7. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities of this Division are reported under nine separate programs, namely: Energy Analysis; Solar Energy; Energy-Efficient Buildings; Chemical Process Research and Development; Environmental Research; Atmospheric Aerosol Research; Oil Shale Research; Instrumentation Development; and Combustion Research. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine programs, each of which contained several individual research summaries, with responsible researchers listed. All of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and five will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  8. Evaluation of social and environment effect of using biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alighardashi, A.; Adl, M.; Karbasi, A.R.; Naeiji, K.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most important sources for clean and renewable energy. International studies show that potential of power generation from biomass has been equal of amount of electricity generated from all centralized sources in the world at 1993. this paper considers social and environmental effects of biomass energy utilization instead of fossil fuels. This study is performed in several sections; destruction of natural resources, emission of pollutants, creation of new job opportunities and public welfare. In each section, some of world experiences and statistics are mentioned. Estimated and calculated results for Iran have been presented. In public welfare section, security cost in different Iranian energy consumption sections have been considered and resulted fuel savings due to biomass energy consumption, are mentioned in detail

  9. Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-11

    Energy-water-environment nexus is very important to attain COP21 goal, maintaining environment temperature increase below 2°C, but unfortunately two third share of CO2 emission has already been used and the remaining will be exhausted by 2050. A number of technological developments in power and desalination sectors improved their efficiencies to save energy and carbon emission but still they are operating at 35% and 10% of their thermodynamic limits. Research in desalination processes contributing to fuel World population for their improved living standard and to reduce specific energy consumption and to protect environment. Recently developed highly efficient nature-inspired membranes (aquaporin & graphene) and trend in thermally driven cycle\\'s hybridization could potentially lower then energy requirement for water purification. This paper presents a state of art review on energy, water and environment interconnection and future energy efficient desalination possibilities to save energy and protect environment.

  10. Impacts of GDP, Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption, Energy Consumption Intensity, and Economic Structure on SO2 Emissions: A Multi-Variate Panel Data Model Analysis on Selected Chinese Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution gradually become a focus of concern all over the world owing to its detrimental influence on human health as well as long range impact on global ecosystem. This paper investigated the relationship among SO2 emissions, GDP, fossil fuel energy consumption, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure of five provinces in China with the highest SO2 emissions spanning from 2002–2015 based on panel data model. Through comparatively analyzing the coefficients in the established panel data model for Hebei, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Shanxi, we can obtain that: (1 fossil fuel energy consumption made the most devotion to SO2 discharge compared with GDP, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure. And the more the fossil fuel energy consumption, the more the devotion made by it to SO2 discharge. (2 GDP devoted less to SO2 emissions than fossil fuel energy consumption, and the larger the scale of the economy, the greater the contribution made by it to SO2 emissions. (3 The higher the proportion of the secondary industry added value accounted in GDP, the more the devotion made by the economic structure and energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions. Through analyzing the Granger causality examination results, it can be concluded that: (1 there existed a bi-directional causal relationship between fossil fuel energy consumption and SO2 emissions among five selected provinces. (2 There existed uni-directional causal nexus running from GDP to SO2 emissions, from energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions, and from economic structure to SO2 emissions among five chosen provinces. Based on the empirical analysis, several policy implications were proposed to provide references for policy makers, which were (1 Giving full play to the guiding role of price signals, and improving the price policy for desulfurization. (2 Formulating a new comprehensive evaluation system to measure the regional development level

  11. Potential for Worldwide Displacement of Fossil-Fuel Electricity by Nuclear Energy in Three Decades Based on Extrapolation of Regional Deployment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25–34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets. PMID:25970621

  12. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan A; Brook, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  13. Potential for worldwide displacement of fossil-fuel electricity by nuclear energy in three decades based on extrapolation of regional deployment data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan A Qvist

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate about the deployment rates and composition of alternative energy plans that could feasibly displace fossil fuels globally by mid-century, as required to avoid the more extreme impacts of climate change. Here we demonstrate the potential for a large-scale expansion of global nuclear power to replace fossil-fuel electricity production, based on empirical data from the Swedish and French light water reactor programs of the 1960s to 1990s. Analysis of these historical deployments show that if the world built nuclear power at no more than the per capita rate of these exemplar nations during their national expansion, then coal- and gas-fired electricity could be replaced worldwide in less than a decade. Under more conservative projections that take into account probable constraints and uncertainties such as differing relative economic output across regions, current and past unit construction time and costs, future electricity demand growth forecasts and the retiring of existing aging nuclear plants, our modelling estimates that the global share of fossil-fuel-derived electricity could be replaced within 25-34 years. This would allow the world to meet the most stringent greenhouse-gas mitigation targets.

  14. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: 6, The Energy We Use, Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lenore; And Others

    This instructional unit contains a set of nine lessons on energy for grade one. Each lesson contains complete teacher and student materials. Reading skills and language experiences are reinforced in each activity. The lessons cover such topics as energy from food, energy from the sun, fossil fuels, the wind, moving water, and energy conservation.…

  15. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  16. Trends of world energy consumption and possibilities of environment protective power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischengruber, K.

    1991-01-01

    The population of the world will duplicate within the next three to four decades. The primary energy consumption will increase accordingly. Considering the limited reach of our fossil energy resources and their negative impact on the global climate, alternative strategies for the power generation have to be developed. The contribution of the renewable energy sources will be important, but not sufficient, due to their high generation costs. The nuclear power, which already today participates essentially in the energy supply, will remain one of the most important options for environment protecting energy generation. Especially for the developing countries, which -in general- have currently a not covered energy demand, the build up of reasonable energy generation structures means enormous volumes of investments, which can only be financed with the assistance of the industrialized countries. Those, on the other hand, have to economize their energy consumption and have to undertake any effort in continuing with the development of clean, safe and competitive renewable resources. To provide increasing world population with sufficient energy and at the same time to reduce CO 2 emissions is one of the biggest challenges that mankind has ever faced. (Author)

  17. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  18. Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Production and Use of Different Wood and Fossil Fuels Employed for Energy Production in North Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Pekkanen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization rate of woody biomass in eastern Finland is high and expected to increase further in the near future as set out in several regional, national and European policies and strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability impacts of changes in fuel consumption patterns. We investigated fossil and woody biomass-based energy production chains in the region of North Karelia, focusing on some economic, environmental and social indicators. Indicators were selected based on stakeholder preferences and evaluated using the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA. The analysis was based on representative values from National Forest Inventory data, scientific publications, national and regional statistics, databases, published policy targets and expert opinion. From the results it became evident that shifting from fossil to wood-based energy production implies some trade-offs. Replacing oil with woody biomass in energy production would increase the local value added remaining in the region, create employment opportunities and would reduce total GHG emissions. However, firewood, wood chips from small-diameter trees from early thinning and wood pellets have high production costs. Moreover, large greenhouse gas emission resulted from wood pellet production. The case study generated valuable reference data for future sustainability assessments and demonstrated the usefulness of ToSIA as a tool presenting existing knowledge on sustainability impacts of alternative energy supply chains to inform decision making.

  19. Biomass and genotype × environment interactions of Populus energy crops in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Bernard G. McMahon; William E. Berguson; Glen R. Stanosz

    2009-01-01

    Using Populus feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts is becoming economically feasible as global fossil fuel prices increase. Maximizing Populus biomass production across regional landscapes largely depends on understanding genotype × environment interactions, given broad genetic variation at strategic (...

  20. Environment friendly use of conventional energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureen, S.; Zaman, T.; Sultana, T.; Ali, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    During recent approach the basic emphasis is on electricity generation from coal. Electricity generated from hydroelectric power plants is not enough to meet today's demands, so it's the necessity of day to seek alternate sources. Coal is the most abundant and versatile fossil fuel. Pakistan's total coal reserves are estimated to be around 184.5 billion tones, which also included recently discovered deposits of low sulphur coal at Thar. Out of these large reserves Pakistan utilizes only 40 million tones per year. The existing coal reserves in the country could meet the requirements of 6 power plants of 1000 MW for next 30 50 years, but currently coal makes merely 1% of electricity generation. In this coherence, coal-burning power plant with zero toxic gases/solids emissions is proposed. The traditional coal power plant can be installed for electricity generation and with use of different environmentally sound technologies, so that emission of toxic gases or solids is captured at the source and finally used for other useful purposes. (author)

  1. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 4, side-notes; Die Energieperspektiven 2035 - Band 4: Exkurse. Einzelthemen, wie fossile Energieressourcen, Einfluss der Klimaerwaermung, Flugverkehr, Ueberblick ueber andere Energieperspektiven des Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a number of side-notes pertaining to the first three volumes of the Energy Perspectives series of reports. Various topics are discussed by the authors of the first three volumes of the perspectives in the meetings held by the Energy Perspectives Working Group. The sixteen side-notes presented here cover the following topics: General conditions, fossil resources, the influence of climate warming, CO{sub 2} emissions trading (Joint Implementation JI and Clean Development Mechanism CDM), definition of potentials, air traffic, imported renewable electricity, hydro power, electricity cost calculation, sensitivity analysis of centralised power production facilities, heat-pumps and their power consumption, cold spells and heat-waves, risk and its perception, the 2000-Watt society and international and national energy perspectives

  2. Renewable energy and environment ally sustainable development in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Memon, M.; Uqaili, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In Pakistan, about two-thirds of the primary energy requirements are met through conventional sources while traditional biomass accounts the remaining one-third The primary commercial energy is largely based on fossil fuels. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the coal available in the country is of poor quality. Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from energy use are becoming significant environmental issues in the country. Achieving solutions to these environmental problems requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions. Pakistan's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This paper presents review of the present energy situation and environmental sustainability, and assesses the potential of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. Also, potential solutions to current environmental problems are identified along with renewable energy technologies. Several problems relating to renewable energy sources, environmentally sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. The present study shows that there is substantial potential of renewables in Pakistan. For achieving environmentally sustainable development, renewables must be developed and utilized. (author)

  3. Wind energy's role in a deregulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind energy in Canada was the focus of this presentation. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of new electrical power in the world. In 1997 the world-wide capacity was 1495 MW, with Germany (535 MW), Spain (263 MW) and Denmark (259 MW) leading the way. It is clear that Canadian markets lag behind the world in recognizing the value of wind energy. The rationale for this is economic downturn, cheap hydrocarbon energy, a closed electricity market, minimal commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, and a significant oversupply of installed capacity. Nevertheless, there are many potential benefits for Canadian grids by wind generated electricity, not the least of which are tangible reductions in carbon emissions per kWh. It was noted that significant risk reductions have resulted from size and technological improvements. Besides being environmentally benign, wind energy also provides unequaled opportunities for load matching, distributed generation, and low operating and ongoing fuel costs. Aggressive marketers such as Enron and Vision Quest have predicted that because of these advantages, and the willingness of many potential customers to pay more for 'green' energy, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, will capture a significant share of the world energy market over the next 20 years. tabs., figs

  4. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  5. Evaluation of influence on environment exerted by nuclear and non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1981-10-01

    Mankind must consume some form of energy, therefore, it is meaningless to discuss the danger or safety of atomic energy only, and the discussion should be made in comparison with the safety when other energy resources are used. The upper limit of the use of fossil fuel is not determined by its amount of deposits, but the danger of changing the climate by the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide is a serious problem. This book is originated from the text for the one-day seminar on the comparison of the influence on environment exerted by atomic energy and other energy resources, held by the Atomic Energy Information Center on August 29, 1980, of which the contents were made more circumstantial by adding many new data and discussions. Almost all influences produced by the use of energy are treated in it. It is the result of discussions with many experts in the world. The logics of introducing atomic energy, radioactivity, ordinary chemical contamination, chemical carcinogen, large accidents, acid rain, the change of climate due to carbon dioxide and other causes, the effect of greenhouse effect on human society, and the actual state of greenhouse effect and the countermeasures are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  6. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Plenary session and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Volume one of the proceedings (Plenary Session and Fossil Fuels) contains papers on environmental pollution control which resulted mainly from US DOE's research programs in coal (preparation, desulfurization, gasification, liquefaction, combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, and pollution control methods with respect to SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and CO/sub 2/ (global effects and feasibility studies); a few papers deal with oil shale operations and the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, with 3 also into EAPA; six papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  7. Energy forum 92: Efficiency, trade and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In 1992 B.C. Hydro's annual Electric Energy Forum was held in conjunction with the National Energy Forum to provide an opportunity for delegates from utilities, government, industry, international development agencies, environmental groups, universities and interested members of the public to discuss major energy issues of today and tomorrow. Three main themes were addressed: Efficiency (the latest developments in energy-efficient technologies and their role in sustainable development), trade (strategies for trade in energy and related technologies), and environment (the effects of energy production, use and trade on the local, regional and global environment). This document presents opening remarks, speeches presented, and panel discussions.

  8. Induced innovation, energy prices, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David Clifford

    The process of developing new technologies is a central question for economic theory as well as for public policy in many areas. For example, the development of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies will play an important role in reducing the threat of global warming. To study how technology evolves over time, this dissertation uses patent data on energy innovations from 1970 to 1991 to examine the impact of energy prices on energy-efficient innovations. Before this can be done, however, information on supply-side factors which influence innovation is also needed. In the case of innovation, supply-side factors are the usefulness of the existing base of scientific knowledge. Patent citations are used for this purpose. Subsequent citations to patents granted each year since 1970 are used to show that the returns to research and development (R&D) fall over time for most of the technologies studied. These estimates are then combined with data on demand-side factors, such as energy prices, to estimate a model of induced innovation in energy technologies. Both energy prices and the supply of knowledge are found to have strongly significant positive effects on innovation. Next, the Yale Technology Concordance (YTC), which maps patents to the industries in which they are used, is employed to construct a stock of energy-related knowledge for 14 energy intensive industries. The effect of changes in this stock on energy consumption in these industries is estimated. On average, the present value of energy savings resulting from a new patent is eight million dollars, with the maximum savings coming about five years after the initial patent application. Finally, the results of each regression are combined to simulate the impact of a ten percent energy tax. Initially, simple factor substitution due to the price change has the largest effect. However, because of the cumulative nature of R&D, induced innovation has a much larger effect than factor substitution in the long run

  9. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  10. Energy and environment scenarios for Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.; Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the energy and environmental dimensions of several proposed energy strategies for Senegal are explored. An analytical framework to compare the energy and measurable environmental impacts of a set of scenarious is developed, and the limitations of the quantitative approach are discussed. It is found that policies to promote substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal use in households may actually reduce greenhouse gas emission, while also improving more important near-term environmental problems. Substitution of LPG for charcoal would not necessarily lead to a significant increase in Senegal's oil import bill, since other petroleum product usage will continue to dominate. Despite past industrial sector initiatives, considerable potential for energy efficiency investment remains, and presents additional opportunities for minimizing environmental impacts. (author). 33 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  11. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  12. Energy behaviour engagement in smart urban environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira, Paulo; Mendes, Gonçalo; Barroca, Bruno; Amaral, Vasco; Honkapuro, Samuli; Prada, Rui

    2018-01-01

    In today’s ubiquitously connected society, citizens are continuously exposed to information energy usage- related. information However, users are not interpreting or taking appropriate action to benefit from the opportunities such information embodies. This concern is particularly relevant when

  13. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  14. Interconnections between energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmstadter, J.; Fri, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually every phase of energy production, delivery, and use exacts some environmental toll: land disturbance from coal mining, toxic residues as a by-product of petroleum extraction, oil spillage from tanker operations, airborne emissions from power pants, buildup of radioactive nuclear wastes. Despite these cost, however, energy delivers services that are essential to economic well-being. The challenge is to mange the energy system to produce both the economic and environmental benefits that people value. Meeting this goal is a global challenge on both fronts. The economic challenge is neither less daunting nor less global. The purpose of this article is to assess whether the energy system can in fact be managed to produce both the economic and environmental services likely to be demanded of it. There is as yet not definitive answer to this question, and we do not provide one here. The authors can, however, sketch some of the prerequisites to a successful outcome

  15. Energy and environment by common language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes how to express difficult matters involved with nuclear energy, irradiation etc. to the general public. The text is a combination of quotations from the book 'Villakoiran Ydin' (Heart of Poodle) written by Wahlstroem in 1986

  16. Energy, environment and development in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Sk Noim; Taplin, Ros [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Yu, Xiaojiang [Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (China)

    2007-12-15

    Bhutan's energy and environmental situation and approaches to development are reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Conservation of natural resources and human happiness have been placed as central strategic policy themes and have been given high priority in the national development plans of Bhutan. Bhutan's unique approach to development via Gross National Happiness (GNH) or the Middle Path of development is being facilitated by the Royal Government of Bhutan as a tool to balance poverty alleviation, environmental conservation and development. However, challenges exist due to the constraints of resources, good governance, legal frameworks, and human capacity. This paper reviews selected sustainable energy projects (e.g. energy from renewables or energy conservation) in Bhutan and finds that in fact, Bhutan's renewable energy resources (e.g. water and forests) which have proved to be indispensable for development are vulnerable due to the adverse impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Appropriate measures in order to reduce potential environmental degradation and mitigate climate change impacts have been acknowledged globally and these have potential for application in Bhutan. For example, implementation of sustainable energy projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol could offer an opportunity for mitigating climate change impacts and also contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  17. CH50% - A Switzerland with a consumption of fossil energy split in half; CH50% - Eine Schweiz mit halbiertem Verbrauch an fossilen Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences has investigated the possibilities and the consequences of a consumption reduction by 50 % of fossil energy agents within a time frame of 20 to 40 years. A working group of the Academy has made a study on the subject of if and when it would be possible to reduce the consumption of fossil energy in Switzerland by 50 % compared to 1990. The working group came to the conclusion that a reduction of well over 40 % would be feasible by the year 2020, principally due to an improvement in efficiency. This takes into account the substitution potential by renewable energy alternatives. A reduction by 50% will be possible in the second quarter of the 21st century under the condition that both today's known technologies are indeed exploited and that energy prices are increased. For Switzerland's economy and society no unacceptable impacts will thereby result. (author) [German] Die Schweizerische Akademie der Technischen Wissenschaften (SATW) hat Moeglichkeiten und Konsequenzen eines um 50 % verringerten Verbrauchs an fossilen Energietraegern in der Schweiz in einem Zeitrahmen von 20-40 Jahren untersucht. Eine Arbeitsgruppe ihrer Kommission Energie unter dem Vorsitz von Hans Jucker (bis 1997 VR-Praesident der Alusuisse-Lonza Holding AG) kam zum Schluss, dass bis zum Jahre 2020 eine Reduktion um gut 40 % primaer durch Effizienzverbesserungen moeglich ist. Dabei ist das Substitutionspotential durch erneuerbare Energien beruecksichtigt. Eine Halbierung ist im Verlaufe des 2. Quartals des 21. Jahrhunderts erreichbar, wobei vorausgesetzt wird, dass die heute bekannten Technologien tatsaechlich genutzt werden und die Energie verteuert wird. Dabei werden f?r Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft keine unzumutbaren Auswirkungen erwartet.

  18. Radioecology: nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Schultz, V.

    1982-01-01

    Radioecology is the field of study in which elements of physical and biological sciences are combined to pursue knowledge of radioactivity in the environment, including movement of radioactive materials and the effects of ionizing radiation on populations and on ecological organization. Volume I contains chapters on ecological principles, radiological principles, environmental radioactivity and radionuclide behavior in ecosystems. Chapter Four on environmental radioactivity characterizes sources, types, and amounts of material and man-made radioactive materials and radiation in the environment. Concepts of radionuclide behavior in ecosystems and behavior (movements and concentrations) of several important element groups in selected ecosystems are surveyed. A chapter on methods used for quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in the environment gives a reasonably complete treatment to environmental transport processes, radionuclide kinetics in ecosystem compartments, and the use of transport models. Two chapters summarize the known effects of ionizing radiation on species, populations, and higher levels of ecological organization. This information is put into perspective in terms of risk and other consequences. Both volumes are well referenced. Appendices contain listings of major proceedings and books, reviews of specific radionuclides in the environment, and physical data used to characterize radionuclides. The authors succeed in presenting an excellent survey of a broad field of study, and these volumes should serve as a standard reference work on radioecology for a long while

  19. Economic and environmental gains of China's fossil energy subsidies reform: A rebound effect case study with EIMO model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Li; Liang, Dong; Di, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption and efficiency emerged as the hottest topic in the context of China's sustainable development. Energy subsidies and “rebound effect” were closely related to this topic while few combinative studies on them with a focus on China. This paper employed a co-thinking approach, focusing on how the energy subsidies reform could mitigate the rebound effect in China, and how to achieve an “economic and environmental gains” that reduced pecuniary spending, improved the distorted energy market and reduced energy consumption simultaneously. Firstly, with price-gap approach we calculated the total energy subsidies scale of China in 2007, which amounted to582.0 billion CNY; then we detected and identified rebound effect of China energy consumption with the features. Furthermore, based on China 2007 monetary input–output table and energy flow analysis, we compiled a hybrid physical energy input and monetary output model (EIMO) to simulate the mitigation effect of subsidies reform. Results showed that removing energy subsidies would decrease ultimate demand of different economy sectors and reduce the accumulatively physical consumption of coal, oil, natural gas and electricity by 17.74, 13.47, 3.64 and 15.82 million tce, respectively. Finally we discussed relevant policy issues on China's energy subsidies reform in depth. - Highlights: ► Analyze the economic and environmental gains of fossil energy subsidies reform in China. ► Energy input and monetary output model was applied for analysis. ► Subsidies reform would help to reduce the rebound effect. ► The benefits of money saving, energy saving and CO 2 mitigation were achieved

  20. Environmental considerations for inclusion in program opportunity notices, requests for proposals, and environmental reports: fossil energy demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; Baird, J.N.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Berry, L.G.; Roop, R.D.; Sanders, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    This document was prepared for the Department of Energy, Division of Coal Conversion, for use in developing Program Opportunity Notices (PON), Requests for Proposals (RFP), and Environmental Reports (ER). Environmental considerations to be addressed by Offerors and Contractors are divided into three parts that correspond to the separate stages of project development: (1) the Offeror's response to the PON or RFP; (2) the Contractor's performance of baseline data collection and environmental impact assessment that results in an Environmental Report (ER) for use by DOE in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); and (3) the Contractor's continuance of environmental monitoring and assessment during construction and operation. Environmental analysis and environmental protection are an integral part of the Offeror's or Contractor's performance under contract to DOE. Consideration should be given to the health and socioeconomic status of man as well as to the physical and biological environment. The Offeror's or Contractor's consideration of and commitment to avoiding adverse environmental impacts must be demonstrated at every stage of the process from planning through construction and operation.

  1. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  2. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  3. Electronic Energy Transfer in Polarizable Heterogeneous Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Kongsted, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    such couplings provide important insight into the strength of interaction between photo-active pigments in protein-pigment complexes. Recently, attention has been payed to how the environment modifies or even controls the electronic couplings. To enable such theoretical predictions, a fully polarizable embedding......-order multipole moments. We use this extended model to systematically examine three different ways of obtaining EET couplings in a heterogeneous medium ranging from use of the exact transition density to a point-dipole approximation. Several interesting observations are made including that explicit use...... of transition densities in the calculation of the electronic couplings - also when including the explicit environment contribution - can be replaced by a much simpler transition point charge description without comprising the quality of the model predictions....

  4. Energy, environment and development in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mexico is a country at the crossroads. It has huge potentials in energy, in natural resources and in human resources. It is currently experiencing one of the most serious crises in its history - economic, ecological, political - and it is making efforts to overcome the problems behind these crises, which may affect us all because of Mexico's importance as energy producer and energy consumer. Mexico is one of the developing countries which has participated actively in finding solutions to the worlds environmental problems not least the problem of climatic changes as a result of increasing energy consumption. Mexico is seeing the consequences at local and national level, and is taking steps to change course. At the same time, it has also expressed interest in participating in international initiatives and cooperation to solve these problem. But Mexico finds itself in a situation not unlike that of many East European countries after the fall of the communist regimes. The old system is tumbling, the will to change is present, but there is a lack of resources. 123 refs., 45 tabs

  5. Energy biomass and environment. The French programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The main themes of the french program for energy from biomass are presented: agriculture and forest products (short rotation plantations, waste products, etc.), enhancement of the biomass production, mobilization of biomass resources, biomass processing technics (biofuels, combustion processes, biotechnologies); vulgarization for diffusion of technics from laboratories to industry or domestic sectors.

  6. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J.; Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L.; Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs

  7. The environment and nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez O, C.

    1989-01-01

    In the last years we have testified the concern about deterioration of environment, especially, for changes in global scale, either measured or calculated, with unlucky predictions for human kind. Phenomena as acid rain, destruction in the ozone layer and Greenhouse effect, has increased successively the state of alarm in global public opinion, which is already translated either in proliferation of International meetings or in the adoption of recommendations not always pondered and justified. With all these preoccupations, many people is rediscovering that nuclear power dose not produce acid rain, neither CO 2 or Greenhouse effect gases. (Author)

  8. Energy and environment: transitions in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings contain 91 abstracts of contributions delivered as lectures and 47 abstracts of contributions presented as posters. Out of them, 4 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with air pollution in Turkey, with impacts of open pit mines in North Bohemia on the quality of air, environmental impacts of the thermal power plant at Drobeta Turnu Severin in Romania, and with Latvia's environmental problems associated with energy supplies. (M.D.)

  9. Energy and environment: an intergovernmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, B.R. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The Ohio River Valley Assembly was convened for round table discussions of the development of the energy resources of the valley and the environmental impacts. The participation was limited to government officials and participants included representatives from local, state, and federal governments and from several regional organizations with particular responsibilities in the Ohio River Valley. The background papers, comments by legislators, speeches, and the final report of the Assembly are compiled. (JSR)

  10. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  11. Energy development and environment: What about solar energy in a long term perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Pharabod, Francois

    After decades of strong growth, the next century might be that in which the world population is stabilized around 11 billion inhabitants. Next century's main concerns include the development hoped for the probable consequences of an increase of the greenhouse effect due to main induced emissions, and the risks posed by possible dissemination of nuclear energy to all the regions of the globe. In order to shed some light on these questions, we propose an energy scenario, based on an analysis of evolution of demographics, energy needs, renewable and fossil reserves, environmental issues, technological possibilities and regional imbalances. This scenario shows that solar energy could contribute significantly in the long term energy mix. We discuss the respective advantages and drawbacks of the different solar technologies: solar power satellites, ground solar power plants and decentralized applications, as they to the needs that must be satisfied.

  12. A worldwide perspective on energy, environment and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    1998-01-01

    Problems with energy supply and use are related not only to global warming, but also to such environmental concerns as air pollution, ozone depletion forest destruction and emission of radioactive substances. These issues must be taken into consideration simultaneously if humanity is to achieve a bright energy future with minimal environmental impacts. Much evidence exists which suggests that the future will be negatively impacted if humans keep degrading the environment. There is an intimate connection between energy, the environment and sustainable development. A society seeking sustainable development ideally must utilise only energy resources which cause no environmental impact (e.g. which release no emissions to the environment). However, since all energy resources lead to some environmental impact, it is reasonable to suggest that some (not all) of the concerns regarding the limitations imposed on sustainable development by environmental emissions and their negative impacts can be part overcome through increased energy efficiency. A strong relation clearly exists between energy efficiency and environmental impact since, for the same services or products, less resource utilisation and pollution is normally associated with higher efficiency processes. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impact (Focusing on acid precipitation, stratospheric ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect) are comprehensively discussed in this paper. Also, some solutions to current environmental issues in terms of energy conservation and renewable energy technologies are identified and some theoretical and practical limitations on increased energy efficiency are explained. The relations between energy and sustainable development, and between the environment and sustainable development, are described, and in illustrative example is presented. Throughout the paper several issues relating to energy, environment and sustainable development are examined

  13. Sacrificed country sides. How the energy revolution degrades the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etscheit, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The volume covers a variety of contributions on the consequences for the environment due to the energy revolution in Germany, including challenges and pitfalls. A realistic survey on the development of the energy revolution is requested in relation to the effectiveness of environmental protection and the legal protection of cultivated landscapes. Architectural aspects concerning wind energy and solar energy plants are discussed in the view of the population.

  14. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  15. A sociology of energy, buildings and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Simon; Shove, Elizabeth

    2000-07-01

    Focusing upon energy conservation and the built environment, this book engages with areas of debate and policy currently dominated by technologists and natural scientists using both empirical research and theory. (Author)

  16. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  17. Environment: renewable energy, environmental protection and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The second in the series of IPPSO policy papers for discussion deals with the place of renewable energy sources and environmental protection in relation to the soon-to-be deregulated electricity industry in Ontario. The paper provides a broad statement of principles, defines the issues, identifies the problems, and discusses the various options under consideration. Some of the more important design questions regarding a renewable portfolio standard were discussed, among them the technologies to be included, the treatment of existing generators and expansions, establishment of minimum amounts and targets, responsibility for and means of compliance, compensation for the intermittent nature of some of the renewable resources, mandatory disclosure and labelling, development by the IMO of environmental dispatch protocols, research and development funding for renewable energy technologies, emission caps with tradeable targets, and concerns about the operation of a system benefits fund for energy efficiency. 5 refs

  18. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  19. Groningen Energy neutral in 2025? Opportunities for an energy neutral built environment in the City of Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, Joep

    2007-01-01

    The use of fossil energy sources and the accompanying emissions are assumed to cause climate change. Initiatives are being taken to avert climate change from occurring. The city of Groningen even has the ambition to become “energy neutral” in 2025 to help

  20. Economy, environment and energy: an application to the construction sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarilla, Beatriz Cecilia

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relationships between energy, environment, economy and the construction sector. An economical evaluation of environmental benefits is presented, discussing different aspects about the environment and the impacts from the constructions. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Environment. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. The major subjects covered include: effect of agrochemical residues on soils and aquatic ecosystems, application of radioisotopes in conservation of the environment, siting of nuclear power plants, environmental isotope data and environmental contamination due to nuclear accidents

  2. Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ang, Li; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    Energy-water-environment nexus is very important to attain COP21 goal, maintaining environment temperature increase below 2°C, but unfortunately two third share of CO2 emission has already been used and the remaining will be exhausted by 2050. A

  3. Energy, ecology and unreason; Energie, Oekologie und Unvernunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, Antonio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Unger, Jochem

    2013-07-01

    The contribution deals with the following issues: the civil use of nuclear power in Germany, the development of nuclear power plants and the actual status of reactor technology in Germany, nuclear waste management, future nuclear reactors, thermonuclear fusion, radioactivity and environments, energy policy - exit from nuclear and fossil-fuel energy, renewable energies for electricity production, infrastructure for renewable energies, objective sight on the exit from nuclear and fossil-fuel energy, futuristic large energy concepts, other civilization threatening hazards, conclusions and hopes.

  4. Energy conservation and the environment: conflict or complement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.

    1978-09-01

    The policy discussion following the Oil Embargo was clouded with fears of a return to a primitive existence based on drastically reduced energy inputs to society, or, on the other hand, an abandoning of environmental goals, allegedly a major barrier to development of new energy supplies. Often the energy use associated with environmental improvements was cited as a reason for expanding energy supplies, as if to say that a conflict existed between a clean environment and reductions in energy use. Or it was argued that a relaxation of environmental goals would lower the direct costs of harvesting and using energy and thereby alleviate the need for energy conservation. It has also been argued that the geopolitics of energy alone will force us to substitute riskier or ''dirtier'' energy sources for relatively clean oil and gas. Indeed, there is no question that the relationship among energy, the environment, and economic well-being is complicated. This essay sorts out many of the confusing aspects in order to show how goals relating to the efficient use of energy are aligned both with traditional economic goals and with modern environmental goals. To do this the author analyzes in depth the role of energy in the economy and, using examples, traces the origins of many of the misconceptions about that role--misconceptions that have inhibited a profound discussion of energy-related goals.

  5. The environment and energy sector in the Czech republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this report is to give Danish investors, consultants, and subcontractors With interest in the Czech environment and energy sector, a basis for evaluating its market opportunities. Furthermore, the report will provide the reader With an overview of potential finance sources for projects within the environment and energy sector. With the prospects of EU membership, the Czech Republic has put a great effort into improving the country's environmental conditions as well as restructuring its energy sector. In particular in the area of the environment, the Czech Republic has experienced considerable progress. However, in several environmental areas, the Czech Republic is still lacking behind other EU countries. The process of meeting the environmental standards of the EU continues to demand large investments, especially within the field of water and waste treatment. In the process of adapting to the requirements of the EU in the field of the environment, the Czech Republic can expect to receive around EUR 615 million in EU funds betaveen 2004 and 2006. The Czech energy sector is the most air-polluting sector in the country and there is a general demand for knove-hove and technology in the field of energy efficiency and udlisation of renewable energy. Renewable energy makes up only 2% of the Czech Republic's total energy production. The goal of the Czech government is to increase the share to 8% before 2010. This report illustrates hove the large investments required in the area of environment and energy combmed with a wide range of national and international financing opportunities open up for significant market opportunities in the Czech Republic for Danish companies specialised within the environment and energy sector. As a foundation of the report there will first be a brief explanation of the inarket conditions in the Czech Republic. Secondly, the report will describe the environmental sector in depth within the areas water, waste, and air, and

  6. Energy and the environment. A global view and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1988-01-01

    It should be recognized that the key to the future is in the rational use of energy, that is, a more efficient use of energy rather than a continuous increase in the supply of energy. Every unit of energy saved is a unit of energy which does not have to be produced, and whose environmental impacts do not have to be dealt with. Massive reductions in the growth rates, and, where possible, in the absolute use of energy will help us to gain time to better understand and develop response strategies to problems like climate change on the acidification of the environment. In this sense the rational use of energy, including intensified energy efficiency measures is the most environmentally sound energy option with which we should move into the next century. 25 refs., 4 figs

  7. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  8. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  9. Using solar energy to arrest the increasing rate of fossil-fuel consumption: The southwestern states of the USA as case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, D.; Raviv, D.; Rosenstreich, R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper first reviews some recently introduced ideas concerning the feasibility of realizing concentrator photovoltaic systems on a very large (state-wide) scale. In particular, energy and cost assumptions are re-discussed, the concepts of double and triple sustainability are recalled and used to perform a sensitivity study of the various assumed parameter values. The model is then applied to each of the southwestern states of the USA in order to assess the economic potential for each state to freeze its fossil fuel consumption at present levels and to provide all future electricity needs entirely from solar. It is found that the scheme is economically feasible for all of the states considered, varying in attractiveness from Utah (where low electricity tariffs are problematic), to California and Nevada, where the economics are by far the most attractive among all the states

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  11. Earth 2075 (CO2) - can Ocean-Amplified Carbon Capture (oacc) Impart Atmospheric CO2-SINKING Ability to CCS Fossil Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, R.; Routh, M.; Chaudhuri, S.; Fry, S.; Ison, M.; Hughes, S.; Komor, C.; Klabunde, K.; Sethi, V.; Collins, D.; Polkinghorn, W.; Wroobel, B.; Hughes, J.; Gower, G.; Shkolnik, J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous attempts to capture atmospheric CO2 by algal blooming were stalled by ocean viruses, zooplankton feeding, and/or bacterial decomposition of surface blooms, re-releasing captured CO2 instead of exporting it to seafloor. CCS fossil energy coupling could bypass algal bloom limits—enabling capture of 10 GtC/yr atmospheric CO2 by selective emiliania huxleyi (EHUX) blooming in mid-latitude open oceans, far from coastal waters and polar seas. This could enable a 500 GtC drawdown, 350 ppm restoration by 2050, 280 ppm CO2 by 2075, and ocean pH 8.2. White EHUX blooms could also reflect sunlight back into outer space and seed extra ocean cloud cover, via DMS release, to raise albedo 1.8%—restoring preindustrial temperature (ΔT = 0°C) by 2030. Open oceans would avoid post-bloom anoxia, exclusively a coastal water phenomenon. The EHUX calcification reaction initially sources CO2, but net sinking prevails in follow-up equilibration reactions. Heavier-than-water EHUX sink captured CO2 to the sea floor before surface decomposition occurs. Seeding EHUX high on their nonlinear growth curve could accelerate short-cycle secondary open-ocean blooming—overwhelming mid-latitude viruses, zooplankton, and competition from other algae. Mid-latitude "ocean deserts" exhibit low viral, zooplankton, and bacterial counts. Thermocline prevents nutrient upwelling that would otherwise promote competing algae. Adding nitrogen nutrient would foster exclusive EHUX blooming. Elevated EHUX seed levels could arise from sealed, pH-buffered, floating, seed-production bioreactors infused with 10% CO2 from carbon feedstock supplied by inland CCS fossil power plants capturing 90% of emissions as liquid CO2. Deep-water SPAR platforms extract natural gas from beneath the sea floor. On-platform Haber and pH processing could convert extracted CH4 to buffered NH4+ nutrient, enabling ≥0.7 GtC/yr of bioreactor seed production and 10 GtC/yr of amplified secondary open-ocean CO2 capture—making CCS

  12. Energy harvesting schemes for building interior environment monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylka, Pawel; Pociecha, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    A vision to supply microelectronic devices without batteries making them perpetual or extending time of service in battery-oriented mobile supply schemes is the driving force of the research related to ambient energy harvesting. Energy harnessing aims thus at extracting energy from various ambient energy "pools", which generally are cost- or powerineffective to be scaled up for full-size, power-plant energy generation schemes supplying energy in electric form. These include - but are not limited to - waste heat, electromagnetic hum, vibrations, or human-generated power in addition to traditional renewable energy resources like water flow, tidal and wind energy or sun radiation which can also be exploited at the miniature scale by energy scavengers. However, in case of taking advantage of energy harvesting strategies to power up sensors monitoring environment inside buildings adaptable energy sources are restrained to only some which additionally are limited in spatial and temporal accessibility as well as available power. The paper explores experimentally an energy harvesting scheme exploiting human kinesis applicable in indoor environment for supplying a wireless indoor micro-system, monitoring ambient air properties (pressure, humidity and temperature).

  13. Industrial energy efficiency: Achieving success in a difficult environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellow, Carl

    2010-09-15

    Energy use and the resulting environmental impacts are major points of concern for the world in the 21st century. Opinions that define the challenges of sustainable energy options are as diverse as the proposed solutions. The industrial sector is a key area both from the standpoint of the amount of energy consumed and the magnitude of the energy options that exist there. However, history has shown that success in the industrial energy sector requires careful planning and consideration of the unique challenges of the manufacturing environment.

  14. The Fossile Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an inital pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form expr...

  15. The Fossil Episode

    OpenAIRE

    John Hassler; Hans-Werner Sinn

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

  16. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised.

  17. An environment for high energy physics code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisinski, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    As the size and complexity of high energy experiments increase there will be a greater need for better software tools and new programming environments. If these are not commercially available, then we must build them ourselves. This paper describes a prototype programming environment featuring a new type of file system, a ''smart'' editor, and integrated file management tools. This environment was constructed under the IBM VM/SP operating system. It uses the system interpreter, the system editor and the NOMAD2 relational database management system to create a software ''shell'' for the programmer. Some extensions to this environment are explored. (orig.)

  18. Energy and society. [Effects of energy development on natural and societal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, C

    1976-04-01

    It is now clear that quality of life, material welfare, health, employment, and income are affected by energy availability and cost and there is no return to the cheap abundant energy of the past. This paper examines the feasibility of adjusting our energy systems so that we simultaneously decrease unemployment, costs, dependence on foreign resources, undesirable effluents and impacts on the biosphere. The major societal effects of energy systems developed by man can be related to four predominant technical sectors: first, the use of work animals; second, the direct conversion into mechanical work of inanimate stored solar energy (hydropower, wood, farm waste, and fossil fuels); third, the use of electricity as an energy form derived from these sources; and fourth, the use of nuclear energy as a primary source. Since the past and potential impacts of these developments are so many, only a few are explored here - chiefly those relationships of energy flow to the societal materialistic targets of health, security, social stability, upward mobility, and leisure. The traditional target of economic growth may be one of best composite means of achieving all of these materialistic goals, thus, industrial growth has been a prime objective. Other contributors to social development have been greater productivity in agriculture, improved transportation and communications, and shorter working hours. Two main topics discussed are: The Industrialization of Society and Food, Population, and Energy. (MCW)

  19. Energy and environment: a primer for scientists and engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorndike, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    The book is written for practicing scientists and engineers and for students to introduce them to the field of energy and the environment; it is concerned with energy and how it affects the Earth's environment and how it affects man. Natural processes (weather and climate and biological systems) and man-made energy processes (such as the generation and distribution of electricity) are discussed. Chapter titles following an introductory chapter are Global Energy Flows; Biological Energy and Ecosystems; Sources of Energy; The Technology of Energy Use; Energy-Related Environmental Problems with five parts (General Considerations, Thermal Pollution, Radioactivity, Air Pollution, and Other Energy-Related Environmental Problems); Energy Use--History and Projections; Energy Conservation and Growth Reduction; and Conclusions and Biased Opinions. Questions are posed at the end of each chapter. Appendixes are entitled: A Short Course in Thermodynamics; A Short Course in Nuclear Physics; Electromagnetic Radiation; Title I of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; Units, Conversion Factors, Physical Constants, and Useful Numerical Data; and Answers to Selected Problems. (MCW)

  20. A Review of Solar Energy and the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Sulaiman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar Energy has been acknowledged as a free and infinite source of energy. In Built Environment (BE, solar energy has been used since pre-historic time. Many improvements and technologies .have been developed with respect to their potential. As solar supplies free energy, the issues with regard to their development in the BE will be examined. The solar energy is used in building either in Passive Solar Design (PSD or Active Solar Design (ASD. Rapid development in BE has caused global warming effect where the heating and cooling of the building contribute to half the total energy consumption of the nation and the construction industry leading to CO2 emission level at 300 million tonnes. It is found that solar energy produces different energy performances which result from different building technique that affected the environment in various ways. Whether or not the energy performances depend on the materials used, the equipment installed in the building or the energy sources supplied to the building , the improvement and development of solar energy still continues and grows.

  1. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Guzović, Zvonimir; Piacentino, Antonio; Schlör, Holger; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more biorefineries. Presenting the contributions of selected conference papers published in the special issues of leading scientific journals (including all the papers from the current Energy special issue), this review demonstrates the capacity of the Conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems for generation of knowledge which could serve as the centrepiece of a pertinent response to those challenges. - Highlights: • Top ten challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century identified. • Selected SDEWES contributions analysed against the identified challenges. • The role of SDEWES as knowledge generator towards addressing the identified challenges credibly demonstrated.

  2. P-marking of indoor environment and energy use - Considerations prior to certification of energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Aasa

    2008-02-15

    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden's P-marking quality assurance scheme for buildings, products, services etc., now includes P-marking of the indoor environment and energy use performance of buildings. The rules for the system, which cover new buildings, renovation and existing buildings, are set out in SP's Certification Rules no. SPCR 114E, specifying requirements in respect of both energy use and indoor environment management. Over the last ten years, SP has carried out considerable work in the field of the indoor environment, resulting in the development of a quality assurance system concentrating on achieving a high-quality indoor environment. This quality assurance system has been successfully applied to schools, offices and dwellings. However, the performance of a building is determined not only by a good indoor environment, but also by low impact on the external environment as a result of energy use in the building. In some cases, concentrating on either good indoor environment or energy efficiency may result in an adverse effect on the other aspect, and so the quality assurance system for indoor environments been extended with a section dealing with energy use. This document is a handbook for inspection of documentation concerning quality assurance of energy use (primary energy analysis, determination of energy targets, energy management systems etc.). It can also be helpful for the organisation that is applying for P-marking when drawing up checklists. The document concentrates on requirements for approved certification of energy use in connection with P-marking of indoor environments and energy use in existing buildings: it does not cover requirements for certification of indoor environments. It starts by describing targeting, aims and requirements for P-marking of energy use, followed by presentation of some examples of inspections of collected documentation

  3. Straw and energy crops- analysis of economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsby, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the biomass agreement of 14 June 1993 was to increase the use of biomass fuels in the Danish power plants to 1.2 million tons straw and 200 000 wood chips. Contribution from straw combustion should reach 25 PJ in year 2000. However biomass cultivation can endanger the governmental policy of pesticide and nitrogen reduction in agriculture. In the worst harvest years straw quantity can be reduced to 70 % of the normal level, while in good years there would occur a 3-4 fold excess of straw. Supply depends in a decisive degree on the offered price as the indirect cost can vary much (wet straw, delayed sawing, lost fertilizer value etc.). Potential for energy crops can be based on ca 300 000 ha present fallow agricultural areas. Cost is higher than that for straw, the most probable plants are elephant grass, willow, rape, sugar beets, winter cereals. Cost is lower for perennial plants, but at least 10-12 years are necessary for such crops to become profitable. Generally the biofuel crops are more expensive than crops for immediate combustion. Expenses for energy crops will decrease with time per ton dry matter, but ground rent for soils previously fallow has to be taken into account. A reduced nitrogen fertilization will reduce the economic profits quite essentially due to smaller harvests. Pesticide consumption will not have to grow as straw and elephant grass do not require any larger quantities (unless very large areas of one crop are cultivated).(EG) 92 refs

  4. Long term energy system analysis of Japan based on 'options for energy and environment' by the energy and environmental council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Naoto; Kurosawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Implications to Japanese energy system are discussed especially in terms of primary energy supply and power generation portfolio, using sensitivity analysis results by an optimization type energy model based on TIMES modeling framework. We updated energy service demand, efficiency in energy conversion and consumption, and power generation costs based on the recent energy policy document called 'Options for Energy and Environment'. The time horizon of the model is 2050. The sensitivity analysis results are presented for 'Three scenarios for 2030' including nuclear phase out scenarios with/without CO 2 emission constraint. The results are compared with 'Options for Energy and Environment'. (author)

  5. Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, W.; Siegrist, S.; Schaefli, M.; Eichenberger, U.

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

  6. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Mathiessen, Brian vad; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This special issue of contributions presented at the 6th SDEWES Conference. ► Buildings are becoming energy neutral. ► Process integration enables significant improvements of energy efficiency. ► The electrification of transport and measures to increase its efficiency are needed. ► Renewable energy is becoming more viable while being complicated to integrate. -- Abstract: The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.

  7. Energy and environment: Vital challenges of our society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, B.

    1978-01-01

    Attempt of report on the present situation of coping with an imminent energy crisis and at the same time saving an environment worth living in with stress being laid on energy policy, economical growth, energy supply and -saving. Without a reasonable extension of the nuclear energy, there won't be sufficient energy basis in the FRG in the future. In the author's opinion, already in the 80ies, economical growth, employment, and living standards will be in danger, to an unjustifiable extent. An evalution of questionnaires on environmental problems shows, among other things, that increasingly more inhabitants of the FRG are ready to make sacrifices for measures of environment protection (in May 77 : 73%). (GL) [de

  8. Proceedings of the Clean and Efficient Use of Fossil Energy for Power Generation in Thailand. The Joint Eighth APEC Clean Fossil Energy Technical Seminar and the Seventh APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-30

    The convention named above held jointly by the two seminars also named above took place in Bangkok, Thailand, in the period October 30 through November 3. Open remarks were delivered by Mr. Piromsakdi Laparojkit, Secretary General of National Energy Policy Council, Thailand; Mr. Yoshito Yoshimura, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan; Mr. Paul Toghe, Embassy of Australia in Bangkok; and Mr. Robert Gee, Department of Energy, U.S.A. There were ten technical sessions, in which presentations were made and discussion was held over coal in the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) economy, important role of coal and natural gas in developing economies, coal and environmental situation in Thailand, coal fired power plant related environmental issues, commercially available CCTs (clean coal technologies) in the APEC region, emerging technologies for reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, clean fuels in the APEC region, growing importance of IPPs (independent power producers) in the APEC region, cooperation among APEC economies, and the like. (NEDO)

  9. Fossil Fuels, Backstop Technologies, and Imperfect Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the transition from fossil fuels to backstop technologies in a general equilibrium model in which growth is driven by research and development. The analysis generalizes the existing literature by allowing for imperfect substitution between fossil fuels and the new energy

  10. Energy and environment: two long-term strategies (1992-2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desprairies, P.

    1993-01-01

    The report presented by western Europe at the 1992 World Energy Conference is one of the eight studies that served as a basis for the Energy for the World of Tomorrow scope. It proposes two strategic options for the period 1992-2020, with the goal in mind of reconciling the rising energy demand, concomitant with economic growth, with the need to protect the environment and natural resources. A serious struggle is already being waged against local and regional pollution, and these should about be done away just after the turn of the century. It will take from one to five decades, however, before the risk of climatic change, or 'Greenhouse effect', can be evaluated. This may in fact turn out to be negligible, and does not as yet justify any further action than the expense of evaluating it, and a minimum-regret strategy to slow down carbon dioxide emissions. This would be done by improving energy efficiency and a reasonable development of natural gas and then, after the current pause, resumption of nuclear power in those areas where it is accepted. The second 'alternative' strategy would aim to reduce CO 2 emissions further, if ever the risk of climatic change is confirmed within ten years. This would call for serious efforts. Depending on the various scenarios that have been developed, primary energy consumption would increase only by 19 to 27% form now until the year 2020. Neither the energy supply perspectives nor the proven ecological risks would justify any hasty developments of renewable energies. But a major scientific and technical research effort is still needed in this direction, in order to change gradually away from petroleum and gas in the course of the next 100 to 200 years. From now until 2020, fossil and nuclear fuels will continue to be the predominant western European energy resources. 9 figs

  11. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    indoor environment. For the energy consumption of the HVAC system, air-to-brine heat pump, mixing station and controller of the radiant floor, and the air handling unit were considered. The measurements were analyzed based on the achieved indoor environment category (according to EN 15251...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar...

  12. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T [Ekono Energy Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project `Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland`. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people`s otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  13. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project 'Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland'. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people's otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  14. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project `Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland`. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people`s otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  15. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Scholz, Yvonne; Schaap, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on chemistry transport modeling are used to this end. Currently, these SRRs are made using invariant emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS model equipped with a source attribution module was used to test this assumption for renewable energy scenarios. Renewable energy availability and thereby fossil fuel back up are strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. We have used the spatially and temporally explicit energy model REMix to derive time profiles for backup power generation. These time profiles were used in LOTOS-EUROS to investigate the effect of emission timing on air pollutant concentrations and SRRs. It is found that the effectiveness of emission reduction in the power sector is significantly lower when accounting for the shift in the way emissions are divided over the year and the correlation of emissions with synoptic situations. The source receptor relationships also changed significantly. This effect was found for both primary and secondary pollutants. Our results indicate that emission timing deserves explicit attention when assessing the impacts of system changes on air quality and climate forcing from short lived substances.

  16. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from non-energy use of fossil fuels. Summary of key issues and conclusions from the country analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Martin; Neelis, Maarten; Gielen, Dolf; Olivier, Jos; Simmons, Tim; Theunis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The non-energy use of fossil fuels is a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions that is not negligible and has been increasing substantially in the last three decades. Current emission estimates for this source category are subject to major uncertainties. One important reason is that non-energy use as published in energy statistics is not defined in a consistent manner, rendering calculation results based on these data incomparable across countries (concerns in particular the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Reference Approach). Further reasons are the complexity and interlinkage of the energy and material flows in the chemical/petrochemical sector and the current use of storage fractions as default values in the IPCC Reference Approach, which are based on a different definition of storage and refer to other flows than those available from energy statistics. Several other shortcomings of the IPCC Reference Approach are identified in this paper, e.g. the fact that it neglects international trade of synthetic organic products. In order to improve emissions accounting, the Non-Energy Use and CO 2 Emissions (NEU-CO 2 ) network developed a model called Non-Energy Use Emission Accounting Tables (NEAT), which is based on Material Flow Analysis (MFA). The NEAT model and other MFA approaches have been applied to several countries. In this paper, the results for Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands and the USA are compared with the values published in National Communications to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It is shown that the international harmonisation of the data sources (energy statistics) and the methods applied would lead to substantially different emissions results for some countries, in the order of several percent. Moreover, the NEAT model and the other MFA have proved to be a valuable tool to identify errors in energy statistics. These results confirm the need for enhanced efforts to improve and harmonise energy

  18. Electrical energy alternatives and their effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The US has alternated its favored electrical energy sources several times over the past fifty years. It may soon change course again. Fifty years ago, the favored source was hydroelectric power. Electricity demand at the time was relatively small in comparison to today. Many rivers provided excellent, economical sites. In the 1950s, rapid growth in demand shifted interest to gas and oil because they were relatively clean, cheap, and easily transportable. A growing dependency on foreign oil led to the oil embargo and the rapid increase of prices in the 1970s. Use of oil was then discouraged by cost and federal regulation. Natural gas prices rose with oil prices, and federal regulations multiplied. Coal and uranium emerged as the favored fuels. However, nuclear power then came into disfavor in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. Emphasis on coal increased. The need for short construction schedules and reduced atmospheric emissions has since returned the emphasis to natural gas. Now pollution concerns are calling all fossil fuels into question. Hydroelectric sites are unavailable. Oil supplies are limited and foreign sourced. Coal is recognized as a major source of pollution. Natural gas is costly and limited. Renewable energy sources are incapable of meeting needs. And nuclear power safety and waste disposal issues still hinder its acceptance. So, where does the US go from here?

  19. Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lujia; Mears, Laine; Beaufort, Cleveland; Schulte, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are proposed. • Objectives of energy, economy, and environment are proved conflicting. • 3-input-5-output energy supply system of an automotive plant is studied. - Abstract: Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based on the optimization results are obtained. Finally, an example from an automotive assembly manufacturer is described to demonstrate the energy usage in the current manufacturing plants and how the optimization approaches can be applied to satisfy the energy management objectives. According to the optimization results, in an energy oriented operation, it takes 35% more in monetary cost; while in an economy oriented operation, it takes 17% more in megawatt hour energy supply and tends to rely more on the inexpensive renewable energy.

  20. Young people and environment, technology, nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt-Crochet, L.

    1995-01-01

    Young people have a particular attitude on the questions about environment and energy, and also about technology. Several inquiries show that young people are more aware of environmental questions than their elders. Their anxiety is bigger against pollution than the average of French people and it seems that they are more attentive to dangers for the planet: it is the sign of a broader opening on the world. Young people are ready to adhere to a group or association for environment and have sympathy for ecologists; they have hostility against nuclear energy. Age and education level have to be specified to complicate the question. This contribution gives some elements about the opinion of young people between 15-25 years old on environment, technology and nuclear energy in France. (N.C.)

  1. Statistics and predictions of population, energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    In the situation that world's population, especially in developing countries, is rapidly growing, humankind is facing to global problems that they cannot steadily live unless they find individual places to live, obtain foods, and peacefully get energy necessary for living for centuries. For this purpose, humankind has to think what behavior they should take in the finite environment, talk, agree and execute. Though energy has been long respected as a symbol for improving living, demanded and used, they have come to limit the use making the global environment more serious. If there is sufficient energy not loading cost to the environment. If nuclear energy regarded as such one sustain the resource for long and has market competitiveness. What situation of realization of compensating new energy is now in the case the use of nuclear energy is restricted by the society fearing radioactivity. If there are promising ones for the future. One concerning with the study of energy cannot go without knowing these. The statistical materials compiled here are thought to be useful for that purpose, and are collected mainly from ones viewing future prediction based on past practices. Studies on the prediction is so important to have future measures that these data bases are expected to be improved for better accuracy. (author)

  2. Application of energy conservation policies and strategies: their effects on environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, P.

    1991-01-01

    The french energy policy settled after the oil crisis was aimed at reducing fossil energy consumption; statistics show that it was a success, particularly in industry but of lower importance for automobiles as traffic problems around cities increased. Some examples are given (steel, sugar and cement, new buildings, and cars). Rational use of energy and nuclear energy utilization induced a decrease in carbon dioxide emission, one of the most important greenhouse effect gases; the various causes of greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated and compared : energy (residential and commercial buildings, industry, transport), agriculture, putrefying wastes, deforestation, CFC. Cost and emission abatement potential of various policies are compared: fossil energy conservation, high-efficiency wood combustion, substitution of CFC, reforestation, catalytic converters, renewable energies, etc. Potentials of renewable energies are assessed

  3. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saricks, Christoper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  4. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziritt, Jose Luis

    1999-01-01

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences and workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries

  5. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziritt, Jose Luis

    1999-11-03

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences & workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries.

  6. 10. Symposium energy and environment - responsibility for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The symposium discussed important aspects relating to the subject of energy and environment. The detailed and well-funded lectures and statements were received with great interest by the 120 attendants. The discussion focused on problems of power generation and consumption, increased shares of renewable energy sources, ethical and theological questions. The symposium received funds from Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt and was well accepted by the press [de

  7. Energy, environment and technological innovation: Rome 2nd international congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    From the three volumes containing the proceedings of the October 12-16, 1992 2nd International Congress on Energy, Environment and Technological Innovation held at the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', separate abstracts were prepared for 41 papers. The selection of papers included recent developments and research trends in the following high-tech areas: biomass plantations, wind turbines, photovoltaic power plants, solar architecture, building energy management, global warming, automobile air pollution abatement, district heating with cogeneration, and hydrogen fuels for transportation

  8. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described

  9. Energy and Environment in the Lake Victoria basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Arungu-Olende, S.

    2006-01-01

    The local and national economies of Lake Victoria basin communities are heavily dependent on energy that fuels agriculture, industry, commerce, transportation and other economic activities; and powers our houses, offices, hospitals and buildings. Energy is therefore key to facilitating the development income generating opportunities, improving living standards, reducing poverty, and ensuring the protection of the environment. The development and use of various forms of renewable and non-renew...

  10. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N. [Arthur Andersen (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described.

  11. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  12. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: Energy and Transportation, Grade 3. Draft Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    This publication is part of a series of instructional units produced by NSTA's Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum. This unit presents the variety of transportation modes and tries to assist students in understanding the effects of transportation on their world. The main concern of the unit is with fossil fuel consumption. The seven…

  13. Energy and the environment: a review of the main features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, A.

    1976-01-01

    Science and technology have so far failed to discover practicable methods of tapping, on a large scale, the almost limitless supplies of energy in the form of solar radiation and its geophysical effects, the hot rocks inside the earth, and the thermonuclear potential of the hydrogen in the oceans. The problem with the natural energy sources is primarily an economic one. Despite its immense technical difficulties, thermonuclear fusion power seems a better long-term prospect. Biological methods of capturing solar energy, through photosynthesis, are not very promising. To meet this country's needs for petrol and gas from methane made from wood, about half the land area would have to be covered with coniferous forests. Fossil oil and gas supplies are unlikely to meet world needs for more than about 30 years longer. Coal supplies are much more plentiful and there is a good case for a strong technical effort on the desulphurisation of coal, to make it environmentally more acceptable, and on the conversion of coal to high-grade oil and gas. There is not enough uranium to support a world programme of thermal neutron reactors for more than about 20 years. The fast breeder reactor can overcome this problem, but the large-scale usage of these, in the next century, will aggravate the already deep anxieties about the risks to Society from radioactivity and other nuclear hazards. It is thus important to press forward strongly with programmes of fusion nuclear power, which would be more acceptable socially and environmentally. Later in the next century, the effects of man's sctivities on the world's climate may become important. It is already time to begin now to investigate these scientifically. (author)

  14. Financial subsidies to the Australian fossil fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedy, Chris; Diesendorf, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A common claim during international greenhouse gas reduction negotiations has been that domestic emissions cuts will harm national economies. This argument fails to consider the distorting effect of existing financial subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption provided by governments in most developed countries. These subsidies support a fossil fuel energy sector that is the major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and conflict with attempts to expand the role of sustainable energy technologies. Reform of these types of subsidies has the potential to provide substantial gains in economic efficiency as well as reductions in carbon dioxide emissions--a 'no regrets' outcome for the economy and the environment. This paper examines financial subsidies to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia and estimates the magnitude of the subsidies. Subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia are similar to those in the United States and the other countries that have pushed for increased 'flexibility' during international negotiations

  15. Energy and environment: for harmonization of 3E's. Energy, environment and economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujime, Kazuya

    1996-01-01

    When the future society of Asian countries is considered, three points of view have to be taken into account. As to energy security, the rate of oil self-supply in this region, which is 45% now, is expected to decrease, and oil import will be required. As to environmental protection, the increase of energy consumption results in the increase of pollutant emission which causes acid rain, global warming and so on. Economic development involves the expansion of energy consumption, the lowering of energy supply stability, and the increase of harmful gas emission. It partly depends on policy administration whether the three Es described above can be brought into well balanced harmony. In Asia, it is essential to transfer technologies from industrialized nations to developing countries. The problems of sulfur oxides and carbon dioxide are discussed. The harmonization of the three Es should be carried out at the regional level of whole Asia through international cooperation. The dependence on coal in total energy demand is as high as 60% in East Asia. Long term energy supply/demand outlooks for East Asian countries and the positioning of coal, and coal-related environmental measures are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...

  17. Simulation of indoor environment in low energy housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagiannis, Georgios; Knudsen, Henrik N.; Toftum, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    was selected and sensitivity analyses were conducted for the importance of occupancy, ventilation, window opening, and heat recovery efficiency. In particular occupancy and venting played significant roles for the indoor environment and energy consumption. It was also shown that with passive measures, but also...

  18. Taxing energy to improve the environment : Efficiency and distributional effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ; van der Horst, A

    We study the effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good. Raising the energy tax may yield an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are

  19. Environment. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  20. Hydrogen production by reforming of fossil and biomass fuels accompanied by carbon dioxide capture process is the energy source for the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Idem, Raphael; Tontiwachwuthikul, Paitoon; Wilson, Malcolm; Kambietz, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen has a significant future potential as an alternative energy source for the transportation sector as well as in residential homes and offices, H 2 in fuel cell power systems provides an alternative to direct fossil fuel and biomass combustion based technologies and offer the possibility for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission based on improved H 2 yield per unit of fossil fuel and biomass, compatibility with renewable energies and motivation to convert to a H 2 -based energy economy. Several practical techniques for H 2 production to service H 2 refuelling stations as well as homes and offices, all of which need to be located at the end of the energy distribution network, include: (1) the carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas; (2) reforming of gasoline; (3) reforming of crude ethanol. Locating the H 2 production at the end of the energy distribution network solves the well-known problems of metal fatigue and high cost of H 2 compression for long distance transportation if H 2 is produced in a large centralized plant. In addition, the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the need to reduce emissions of CO 2 to the atmosphere has prompted the capture and utilization of the CO 2 produced from the reforming process. In this research: (1) new efficient catalysts for each reforming process was developed; (2) a new efficient catalyst for our version of the water gas shift reaction to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide was developed; (3) a new membrane separation process for production of high purity, fuel cell-grade H 2 was designed; (4) a numerical model for optimum process design and optimum utilization of resources both at the laboratory and industrial scales was developed; (5) various processes for CO 2 capture were investigated experimentally in order to achieve a net improvement in the absorption process; (6) the utilization of captured CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery and/or storage in an aging oil field were investigated; (7