WorldWideScience

Sample records for forty years trends

  1. Forty years trends in timing of pubertal growth spurt in 157,000 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen Municipality. 135,223 girls and 21,612 boys fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and age at PHV. These physiological events were used as markers of pubertal development in our computerized method in order to evaluate any secular trends...... in pubertal maturation during the study period (year of birth 1930 to 1969). In this period, age at OGS declined statistically significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 years in girls and boys, respectively, whereas age at PHV declined statistically significantly by 0.5 and 0.3 years in girls and boys, respectively...

  2. Forty-year trends in the flux and concentration of phosphorus in British rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civan, Aylin; Worrall, Fred; Jarvie, Helen P.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Burt, Tim P.

    2018-03-01

    Given the importance of phosphorus (P) in the eutrophication of natural waters, this study considered the long-term time series of total phosphorus (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) in British rivers from 1974 to 2012. The approach included not only trend analysis of fluxes and concentrations but also change point analysis. TP and TRP concentrations and fluxes in British rivers have declined since the mid-1980s. Over the last decade of the record the majority of individual sites did show significant downward trends in TP and TRP concentrations but, in 28% of cases for TRP concentration and 14% of cases for TP concentration, the decadal trend was a significant increase. Out of 230 sites, 136 showed a significant step decrease in TRP concentration; no sites showed a significant step increase. The modal year for the step changes for both TRP concentration and flux was 1997. Step changes are likely associated with improvements made at sewage treatment works to comply with the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC). The decrease in TRP concentration due to the step change were in the range of 0.68% and 89% with a geometric mean of 22%, with the rest of the decrease accounted by long-term, persistent downward trend.

  3. Forty-five year trends in overweight and obesity in an indigenous arctic Inuit Society in transition and spatiotemporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Larsen, Nicolai Hardenberg; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity associate with increased morbidity and premature death. Westernization of societies heralds rising obesity rates. A steep increase in body mass index (BMI) and overweight in Greenland from 1963 to 1998 led us to follow-up on height, weight, BMI, and rates of overweight among populations in Greenland and assess time trends between different stages of transition. BMI was calculated from height and weight measured on Inuit and non-Inuit aged 50 through 69 years surveyed in 1963, 1998, and 2008 in Ammassalik district in East Greenland and in 1998 and 2008 in the capital Nuuk in West Greenland. A total of 1,186 were surveyed in 1963 (52 men/63 women), 1998 (309/226), and 2008 (297/239). BMI increased with time (P Inuit men (P = 0.001; settlements/town/city, in 1998, 23.9/24.9/25.5 kg/m(2) ; in 2008, 25.0/26.0/27.0 kg/m(2) ) while not in Inuit women (P = 0.18). The number of overweight Inuit (BMI >27 kg/m(2) ) increased with time in men (4.0/25.6/33.2% in 1963/1998/2008, P = 0.001) and in women (13.6/30.7/37.3%, P = 0.001). BMI was above 30 kg/m(2) in 2.0/10.8/17.5% of all Inuit men in 1963/1998/2008 (P = 0.003) and in 8.3%/23.0/24.5% of all Inuit women (P = 0.02) respectively. Overweight and obesity rates rise with time and with societal transition in Greenland. Settlements and town are catching up with the city where the rate of increase is diminishing, although there were gender differences. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Amersham - the first forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the Radiochemical Centre at Amersham is traced over the past 40 years from the early days, when, as Thorium Ltd, the company refined radium and manufactured radium-based self luminous paint, up to the present time when the limited company has sales of Pound40 million per annum of which 85% are overseas, and a staff of 1800 working in three main areas, medical diagnostics, research products and radiation sources. (U.K.)

  5. Forty years of TTG research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé

    2012-09-01

    TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) are one of the archetypical lithologies of Archaean cratons. Since their original description in the 1970s, they have been the subject of many studies and discussions relating to Archaean geology. In this paper, we review the ideas, concepts and arguments brought forward in these 40 years, and try to address some open questions — both old and new. The late 1960s and the 1970s mark the appearance of "grey gneisses" (TTG) in the scientific literature. During this period, most work was focused on the identification and description of this suite, and the recognition that it is a typical Archaean lithology. TTGs were already recognised as generated by melting of mafic rocks. This was corroborated during the next decade, when detailed geochemical TTG studies allowed us to constrain their petrogenesis (melting of garnet-bearing metamafic rocks), and to conclude that they must have been generated by Archaean geodynamic processes distinct from their modern counterparts. However, the geodynamic debate raged for the following 30 years, as many distinct tectonic scenarios can be imagined, all resulting in the melting of mafic rocks in the garnet stability field. The 1990s were dominated by experimental petrology work. A wealth of independent studies demonstrated that melting of amphibolites as well as of mafic eclogites can give rise to TTG liquids; whether amphibolitic or eclogitic conditions are more likely is still an ongoing debate. From 1990s onwards, one of the key questions became the comparison with modern adakites. As originally defined these arc lavas are reasonably close equivalents to Archaean TTGs. Pending issues largely revolve around definitions, as the name TTG has now been applied to most Archaean plutonic rocks, whether sodic or potassic, irrespective of their HREE contents. This leads to a large range of petrogenetic and tectonic scenarios; a fair number of which may well have operated concurrently, but are

  6. Forty Years with Emerging Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C J

    2014-11-01

    I was raised in a middle-class family in West Texas and was lucky in my preparation through high school faculty, short government programs arising from the politics of Sputnik, inspiring high school mentors, and university training at a first-rate institution. My educational background led me to apply to medical school. With some financial aid, I managed to graduate and then obtain a first-class internal medicine residency at Parkland Hospital, where I acquired skills in discerning evaluation and treatment of patients with complicated diseases. In spite of a liking for and ability in clinical medicine, I entered the Public Health Service and worked for 5 years at the National Institutes of Health laboratory in Panama; there, I began to see the fascination of ecological impacts on virus transmission in nature and its spillover into human populations. I shifted my interests to these themes and their interaction with viral pathogenesis. At each stage of my career, I picked an institution to work where there were strong leaders and other inspiring scientists. I think the young scientist should choose the best available institution and one that offers a career direction that leads to a life where he or she awakens and cannot wait to arrive at his or her job-regardless of the details of each choice, the outcome will be a satisfied person who will contribute greatly to his or her chosen field.

  7. Forty-year coronary mortality trends and changes in major risk factors in the first 10 years of follow-up in the seven countries study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, A.; Lanti, M.; Kromhout, D.; Blackburn, H.; Nissinen, A.; Dontas, A.; Kafatos, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Adachi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Time trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality during a 40-year follow-up were studied in the Seven Countries Study. Thirteen cohorts of men aged 40¿59 at entry were enrolled in seven countries (USA, Finland, the Netherlands, Italy, Serbia, Greece and Japan) for a total of 10,628 subjects.

  8. The first forty years, 1947-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.S. (ed.); Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

  9. The first forty years, 1947-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward

  10. Advances in mammary imaging for forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulmont, C. de; Cherel, P.; Ouhioun, O.; Becette, V.; Stevens, D.; Plantet, M.M.; Hagay, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the sixties years the mammary diagnosis is just clinical, then the low contrast mammography, not very efficient, appears in the seventies years. During the eighties years, the ultrasound is set up while modern mammography with high contrast allows the non palpable breast lesions diagnosis. In the nineties years the mammography come before the clinical examination within the context of the breast cancer screening program. Some histological correlation are more specific about the ductal carcinoma in situ grading with microcalcifications, while new techniques (MRI, CT) are evaluated. At present the stereotactic large core breast biopsies are benefit from the digital prone table, allow a histological diagnosis and avoid surgical excision of some indeterminate images. After the pernicious effects of imaging, we assess the progress according to the cancerous disease results. We also consider the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ. (author)

  11. Nuclear chain reaction: forty years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings from a 1982 symposium 40 years after the first controlled nuclear chain reaction took place in Chicago covers four sessions and public discussion. The session covered the history of the chain reaction; peaceful uses in technology, medicine, and biological science; peaceful uses in power generation; and nuclear weapons control. Among the speakers were Eugene Wigner, Glenn Seaborg, Alvin Weinberg, and others who participated in the first chain reaction experiments. The proceedings reflect differences of opinion among the scientists as well as the general public. References, slides, and tables used to illustrate the individual talks are included with the papers

  12. Forty Years of Excellence, 1946 to 1986. Volume XXXVIII

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    ... at providing the base for future technology. But, of more lasting importance, ONR developed policies and procedures forty years ago which became the organizational models for the National Science Foundation and other research agencies involving...

  13. Institute of fundamental research: forty years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document is aimed at illustration of forty years of fundamental research at CEA. It has not been conceived to give an exhaustive view of current research at IRF, but to give an illustration of these researches to non-specialists, and even to non-scientifists [fr

  14. French in Lesotho schools forty years after independence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most independent African states are now, like Lesotho, about forty years old. What has become of foreign languages such as French that once thrived under colonial rule albeit mostly in schools targeting non-indigenous learners? In Lesotho French seems to be the preserve of private or “international” schools. Can African ...

  15. Forty years of uranium resources, production and demand in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Barthel, F.; Blaise, J.R.; McMurray, J.

    2006-01-01

    The NEA has been collecting and analysing data on uranium for forty years. The data and experience provide a number of answers to the questions being asked today, as many countries begin to look at nuclear energy with renewed interest. In terms of uranium resources, the lessons of the past give confidence that uranium supply will remain adequate to meet demand. (authors)

  16. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after “Historicity”, Hjelm and Thompson argue that a ‘crisis’ broke in the 1970s, when several new studies of biblical history and archaeology were published, questioning the historical-critical method of biblical scholarship. The crisis formed...... articles from some of the field’s best scholars with comprehensive discussion of historical, archaeological, anthropological, cultural and literary approaches to the Hebrew Bible and Palestine’s history. The essays question: “How does biblical history relate to the archaeological history of Israel...

  17. Forty years of training program in the JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report is to compile the past training program of researchers, engineers and regulatory members at the NuTEC (Nuclear Technology and Education Center) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the past basic seminars for the public, in addition to advice and perspective on the future program from relevant experts, in commemoration of the forty years of the NuTEC. It covers the past five years of educational courses and seminars in utilization of radioisotopes and nuclear energy for domestic and for international training provided at Tokyo and Tokai Education Centers and covers the activity of the Asia-Pacific nuclear technology transfer, including the activity of various committees and meetings. Especially, fifty six experts and authorities have contributed to the report with positive advice and perspective on the training program in the 21st century based on their reminiscences. (author)

  18. Canada's uranium future, based on forty years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, N.; Dakers, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    Canada's role as a major supplier of uranium has matured through the cyclical markets of the past forty years. Present resource estimates would support a potential production capability by the late 1980s 50 per cent greater than the peak production of 12 200 tonnes uranium in 1959. New and improved exploration techniques are being developed as uranium deposits become more difficult to discover. Radiometric prospecting of glacial boulder fields and the use of improved airborne and ground geophysical methods have contributed significantly to recent discoveries in Saskatchewan. Advances have also been made in the use of airborne radiometric reconnaissance, borehole logging, emanometry (radon and helium gas) and multi-element regional geochemistry techniques. Higher productivity in uranium mining has been achieved through automation and mechanization, while improved ventilation systems in conjunction with underground environmental monitoring have contributed to worker health and safety. Improved efficiency is being achieved in all phases of ore processing. Factors contributing to the increased time required to develop uranium mines and mills from a minimum of three years in the 1950s to the ten years typical of today, are discussed. The ability of Canada's uranium refinery to manufacture ceramic grade UO 2 powder to consistent standards has been a major factor in the successful development of high density natural uranium fuel for the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. Over 400 000 fuel assemblies have been manufactured by three companies. The refinery is undertaking a major expansion of its capacity

  19. Forty years of experience on closed-cycle gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1978-01-01

    Forty years of experience on closed-cycle gas turbines (CCGT) is emphasized to substantiate the claim that this prime-mover technology is well established. European fossil-fired plants with air as the working fluid have been individually operated over 100,000 hours, have demonstrated very high availability and reliability, and have been economically successful. Following the initial success of the small air closed cycle gas turbine plants, the next step was the exploitation of helium as the working fluid for plants above 50 MWe. The first fossil fired combined power and heat plant at Oberhausen, using a helium turbine, plays an important role for future nuclear systems and this is briefly discussed. The combining of an HTGR and an advanced proven power conversion system (CCGT) represents the most interesting and challenging project. The key to acceptance of the CCGT in the near term is the introduction of a small nuclear cogeneration plant (100 to 300 MWe) that utilizes the waste heat, demonstrating a very high fuel utilization efficiency: aspects of such a plant are outlined. (author)

  20. Forty years on and still going strong : the use of hominin-cercopithecid comparisons in palaeoanthropology.

    OpenAIRE

    Elton, S.

    2006-01-01

    Hominin-cercopithecid comparisons have been used in palaeoanthropology for over forty years. Fossil cercopithecids can be used as a ‘control group’ to contextualize the adaptations and evolutionary trends of hominins. Observations made on modern cercopithecids can also be applied to questions about human evolution. This article reviews the history of hominin-cercopithecid comparisons, assesses the strengths and weaknesses of cercopithecids as comparators in studies of human evolution, and use...

  1. Forty years of mutation breeding in Japan. Research and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isao

    2003-01-01

    The radiation source used for breeding in the early years was mainly X rays. After the 2nd World War, gamma ray sources such as 60 Co and 137 Cs came to take a leading role in radiation breeding. The institute of Radiation Breeding (IRB) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) was established on April 16, 1960. A gamma field with 2000Ci of a 60 Co source, the main irradiation facility of the IRB, was installed to study the genetically responses of crop plants to chronic exposures of ionizing radiation and their practical application to plant breeding. This paper consisted of 'forty years of research on radiobiology and mutation breeding in Japan', 'topics of mutation breeding research in IRB', 'outline of released varieties by mutation breeding' and 'future of mutation breeding'. The number of varieties released by the direct use of induced mutation in Japan amounts to 163 as of November 2001. Crops in which mutant varieties have been released range widely: rice and other cereals, industrial crops, forage crops, vegetables, ornamentals, mushrooms and fruit trees, the number of which reaches 48. The number of mutant varieties is highest (31) in chrysanthemum, followed by 22 in rice and 13 in soybean. By the indirect use of mutants, a total of 15 varieties of wheat, barley, soybean, mat rush and tomato have been registered by MAFF. Recent advances in biotechnological techniques have made it possible to determine DNA sequences of mutant genes. Accumulating information of DNA sequences and other molecular aspects of many mutant genes will throw light on the mechanisms of mutation induction and develop a new field of mutation breeding. (S.Y.)

  2. Forty years of environmentally conscious building technology design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Matteoli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This short essay analyzes the environmental approach throughout the history of Architectural Technology, starting from building details up to the present attention to the smart city, land maintenance and urban retrofit, seen as complex research activities, political strategies, design and entrepreneurial actions which have the scope to transform present day urban crusts into organic textures, climatologically consistent, reactive, user-friendly, efficient and with a low environmental impact. The exercise identifies some research and teaching trends for Architectural Technology in order to promote debate and the analysis of the historical perspective and present situation of the discipline.

  3. Forty years of shunt surgery at Rigshospitalet, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansson, Philip Kofoed; Johansson, Sofia; Ziebell, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to review our experience of shunt surgery by investigating 40years of development in terms of rates of revision and infection, shunt survival and risk factors. Design and participants Medical records and operative reports were reviewed retrospectively...... for all patients who underwent primary shunt surgery at our department in the years 2010 to 2012. All results were compared with a previous study from our department. A mixed population consisting of 434 patients was included. Adults (≥15years) accounted for 89.9% of all patients and the mean follow.......1-54.9). Within 4weeks postoperatively, 3.2% had an infection and overall infection rate was 5.5%. Short duration of surgery and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis were associated with a lower risk of infection. The most frequent causes of revision were valve defects (18.4%) and proximal defects or obstructions...

  4. Brain Science and Teaching: A Forty-Year Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Linda Faye

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the sharing of a record, the personal history of an educator pursuing an interest in knowledge of the brain. Over the years, this fascination sparked the idea to create a course for teachers based on brain science, with a twist. Certain course assignments would require teachers to interpret knowledge of the brain in the context of…

  5. Forty Years of String Theory: Reflecting on the Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haro, S.; Dieks, D.G.B.J.; t Hooft, G.; Verlinde, E.

    2013-01-01

    The history of string theory started around 1970 when Nambu, Nielsen, and Susskind realized that Veneziano’s 1968 dual model, devised to explain the particle spectrum of the strong interactions, actually describes the properties of quantum mechanical strings. A few years later, QCD appeared as a

  6. Forty years of European Society for Muscle Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus C. Schaub

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Muscle Club was founded 1971 and since 1972 yearly muscle conferences were held in turn in different European countries. Regular scientific meetings in the field of muscle research did not exist before. The name of the Muscle Club was 1988 changed to European Society for Muscle Research (ESMR. The yearly meetings usually attract 200-300 participants. The 39th meeting will be held 11-15 Sept. 2010 in Abano Terme near Padova, and the 40th meeting 14-18 Sept. 2011 in Berlin. Since 1980 the meeting reports and abstracts are regularly published in the Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility (JMRCM. The history of the society and the muscle scientists involved with it will be outlined.

  7. Forty years old and still young at heart

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    I am 40 years old but my average age is 4. Who am I? The answer is the CERN nursery school, located near Gate A on the Meyrin site. This year's traditional end-of-year party on 24 June was a lot more lively than usual. To mark the school's fortieth birthday in style, the teachers dressed up in pretty, floating costumes, a clown on stilts was in attendance, to the delight of a fascinated crowd of children, and balloons were released into the sky. Dozens of balloons were released into the sky to mark the CERN nursery school's 40th Anniversary.Standing on stilts and performing a juggling act, the clown was the highlight of the evening. In 1965, when it was created on the initiative of a group of parents, the nursery school consisted of a single class that was open in the mornings only and was held in a room located outside the CERN site. The Staff Association took up the reins right from the start and is still running the school today. The school went from strength to strength. "Even at the beginning, there was...

  8. Forty-five year follow-up after uninephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkun-Burgess, D M; Nolan, C R; Norman, J E; Page, W F; Miller, P L; Meyer, T W

    1993-05-01

    This study examined the consequences of nephrectomy in United States Army personnel who lost a kidney due to trauma during World War II (WWII). Records of 62 servicemen who underwent nephrectomy at an average age of 25 years were obtained. Mortality was compared with that of WWII servicemen of the same age. Medical records of 28 deceased subjects were reviewed for evidence of kidney disease. Medical histories were obtained and blood pressure and kidney function were assessed in 28 living subjects. Two subjects could not be located, and four subjects declined to participate. Mortality at 45 years was not increased in nephrectomized subjects. Kidney disease present in six of 28 deceased subjects was attributable to causes other than prior nephrectomy. Glomerular sclerosis was not increased in 10 subjects who had autopsy examinations. The prevalence of hypertension was not increased in living subjects. Five of 28 living subjects had abnormal renal function manifested by proteinuria greater than 250 mg/day in four cases (range: 377 to 535 mg/day) and serum creatinine levels greater than 1.5 mg/dl in three cases (range: 1.7 to 1.9 mg/dl). Conditions other than nephrectomy could have contributed to impairment of renal function in each of these subjects. These findings suggest that uninephrectomy in young adults has few major adverse consequences over 45 years.

  9. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

  10. A Forty Year Odyssey in Metallo-Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2015-07-17

    In this invited Perspective, I provide a personal account highlighting several of my group's research contributions in metallo-organic chemistry over the past 40 years. Our early work focused primarily in stoichiometric structure/reactivity of transition metal-organic compounds and their use in organic synthesis. More recent efforts have centered on the discovery and development of new metal-catalyzed organic reactions via reactive metal-organic intermediates. The major research findings that are described here include (1) propargyl-cobalt complexes as electrophilic agents for C-C and C-Nu coupling; (2) the activation of carbon dioxide by metal complexes; (3) metal-promoted C-H nitrogenation reactions; (4) oxo-metal catalyzed deoxygenation reactions; and (5) catalyst discovery via dynamic templating with substrate- and transition-state analogues.

  11. Forty years of nuclear manpower development activities in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The training institute which was founded in 1958 for training researchers and engineers in atomic energy field attained to 40 years in January, 1998. During this period, it has accomplished the main role of training atomic energy engineers in Japan, but meeting the needs of the age, international training has been held, and also internally, the seminars for general public were carried out. So far, more than 45,000 persons who have finished the training have taken active parts in various atomic energy fields in Japan and abroad. The change of the training institute from initial Radioisotope Training Institute and Nuclear Reactor Training Institute to present International Atomic Energy General Technical Center is briefed. As to the training in Japan, the training of radioisotope and radiation technicians is reported about the basic course, the special course and the designated short course. As to the training of atomic energy engineers, the courses related to nuclear reactor engineering, the special courses on health physics, radiation protection, nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management, and the development of training techniques are described. As to the training of general public, the lecture on disaster prevention and atomic energy experiment seminar are performed. International training and the technical interchange in Asia and Pacific regions are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Forty years of furosine - forty years of using Maillard reaction products as indicators of the nutritional quality of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbersdobler, Helmut F; Somoza, Veronika

    2007-04-01

    The Maillard reaction products (MRPs) most widely used as markers of the nutritional quality of foods are furosine, N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), hydroxymethylfurfural, pyrraline, pentosidine and pronyl-lysine. One of the MRPs identified first was furosine, which was quantified in foods 40 years ago as a chemical indicator of the Amadori compound N(epsilon)-fructoselysine. Since then, furosine has gained broad attention by food chemists and biomedical researchers, as its formation upon heat treatment is well characterised. Moreover, it represents the Amadori products from early Maillard reactions in which amino acids react with reducing carbohydrates, resulting in a loss of their availability. This is of importance for the essential amino acid lysine, which is also the limiting amino acid in many proteins. In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of a protein, the concomitant analysis of free - and nutritionally available - lysine and the amount of lysine reacted to form the respective MRP is essential, even for mildly processed foods. The other chemical markers of heat treatment such as CML, pyrraline, pentosidine or pronyl-lysine seem to be useful markers of the advanced stages of Maillard reactions. Compared to the conditions in which furosine is formed, these compounds are generated under more severe conditions of heat treatment. However, the concentrations analysed are significantly lower than those of furosine. Therefore, the nutritional evaluation of a food protein should include not only furosine, but also other chemical markers of heat treatment such as, for example, CML, pyrraline and pentosidine.

  13. Black and blue gas, the Gaz de France story during the last forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, A.; Williot, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book narrates Gaz de France story during the last forty years. The author describes the great events such change from coal gas to methane (black and blue gas), building of a national distribution network, natural gas promoting, negotiating on great supply contracts, research programs. 61 refs., 12 figs., 29 photos

  14. Forty years of the Department of Nuclear Physics, 1961-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    A brief report of activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava during forty years of history is given. A review o personnel, research programmes, graduates and master thesis, curriculum of the master study, as well as of important scientific projects is given

  15. Risoe National Laboratory - Forty years of research in a changing society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.; Nielsen, K.; Petersen, F.; Siggaard Jensen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The creation of Risoe forty years ago was one of the largest, single investments in Danish research. The intention was to realise Niels Bohr's visions of the peaceful use in Denmark og nuclear energy for electricity production and other purposes. Risoe decided to take the opportunity of its 40th anniversary in 1998 to have its history written in a form that would contribute to the history of modern Denmark. The result was a book in Danish entitled Til samfundets tarv - Forskningscenter Risoes historie. The present text is a slightly reworked translation of the last chapter of that book. It contains a summary of Risoe's history and some reflections on forty years of change. Change in Danish society at large, in research policy, in energy policy, in technological expectations. Changes at Risoe, in leadership, in organisational structure, in strategy and in fields of research. Some of Risoe's largest projects are briefly characterised. (LN)

  16. Characterization of Forty Seven Years of Particulate Chemical Composition in the Finnish Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, James

    Forty seven years of weekly total suspended particle filters collected at Kevo, Finland from October 1964 through 2010 by the Finnish Meteorological Institute were analyzed for near-total trace elements, soluble trace elements, black carbon (BC), and major ions and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). Kevo is located in Northern Finland, 350 km north of the Arctic Circle. The samples from 1964-1978 were collected with Whatman 42 cellulous filters and the samples from 1979-2010 collected on Whatman GF/A glass-fiber filters. A portion of the filters was microwave acid-digested (ad) and analyzed for near-total trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Another portion was water extracted (we) and analyzed for soluble trace elements by ICP-MS and ionic species by ion chromatography (IC). Black carbon (BC) was determined using optical and thermal optical techniques at SUNY Albany. A clear seasonal trend with winter/spring maxima and summer minima is observed for most species attributed to enhanced transport of pollutants from anthropogenic mid-latitude sources to the Arctic in the winter and early spring. Compared to more remote Arctic sampling sites, species of anthropogenic origin (V, Co, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, SO4) have significantly higher concentrations and a less pronounced seasonality. High concentrations of Cu (14.1 ng/m3), Ni (0.97 ng/m3), and Co (0.04 ng/m3) indicate the influence of non-ferrous metal smelters on the Kola Peninsula, although Cu unexpectedly did not correlate with Ni or Co. Ni and Co were highly correlated. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. All constituents except Sn-ad, Re-ad, Sn-we, Mo-we, V-we, have significant (p sea salt SO4 concentrations were found to have a very similar trend to European and Former Soviet Union SO2 emissions. SO4 concentrations declined dramatically in the early 1990s a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Potential source contribution

  17. Forty years abuse of baking soda, rhabdomyolysis, glomerulonephritis, hypertension leading to renal failure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment.

  18. Forty Years Abuse of Baking Soda, Rhabdomyolysis, Glomerulonephritis, Hypertension Leading to Renal Failure: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Forslund M.D., Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment.

  19. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  20. Forty years of medical education through the eyes of Medical Teacher: From chrysalis to butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Ronald M; Lilley, Pat; McLaughlin, Jake

    2018-04-01

    To mark the 40th Anniversary of Medical Teacher, issues this year will document changes in medical education that have taken place over the past 40 years in undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education with regard to curriculum themes and approaches, teaching and learning methods, assessment techniques and management issues. Trends such as adaptive learning will be highlighted and one issue will look at the medical school of the future. An analysis of papers published in the journal has identified four general trends in medical education - increased collaboration, greater international interest, student engagement with the education process and a move to a more evidence-informed approach to medical education. These changes over the years have been dramatic.

  1. My Forty-Year Adventure in the Wonderful World of Fiber Optics!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, Henri

    2016-11-01

    In the first part of this presentation, I review the key technology developments of the last century up to the present. These developments are what led us to the communication and information revolution. This is followed by a discussion of how the use of optical fibers brought about the fusion of these two elements and the resultant proliferation of smart phones and social networks. In the second part, I recollect some of my work in fiber optics over a period of forty years in the context of those key developments. In particular, I stress what it takes for a company small in comparison to the giants in the field to capture niche markets. I also discuss the criteria that are needed to justify the application of a new technology like optical fibers to existing communication and sensing systems, and make it cost effective. I end this presentation with a few personal considerations regarding technology developments and innovation.

  2. Coronary artery calcification identified by CT in patients over forty years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodring, J.H.; West, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 100 unselected patients forty years of age or older, routine CT of the thorax demonstrated coronary artery calcification in 41%. Calcification of the left anterior descending was most common, occurring in 34%. For patients, sixty years of age and over, clinical evidence of coronary artery disease was 1.7 times more common in those with calcification compared to those without; however, for patients under 60, coronary artery disease was 5.5 times more common in those with calcification than those without. Because of the strong relationship which is known to exist between coronary artery calcification and coronary arteriosclerosis, we believe that the incidental discovery of coronary artery calcification on routine CT of the thorax has significance. All patients under 60 with coronary artery calcification discovered on CT should be investigated for hyperlipidemia if this has not been done, and, if they are not known to have a history of coronary artery disease, they should have a stress test and, if positive, arteriography may be warranted. 30 refs., 5 figs

  3. Sixty Days Remaining, Forty Years of CERN, Two Brothers, One Exclusive Interview

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Twins Marcel and Daniel Genolin while sharing memories of their CERN experiences, point out just how much smaller the Meyrin site once was. In a place such as CERN where the physical sciences are in many ways the essence of our daily lives and where technological advancement is an everyday occurrence, it is easy to lose track of the days, months, and even years. But last week twin brothers, Daniel and Marcel Genolin, hired in the early sixties and getting ready to end their eventful forty year CERN experiences, made it clear that the winds of time bluster past us whether we are aware or not. 'CERN was very small when we started' says Marcel, who has worked in transport during his entire time here. A lot has changed. 'When I got here there were no phones in peoples' houses' he recalls,'when there were problems in the control room with the PS (Proton Synchrotron) they used to get a megaphone and tell us {the transport service} to go and get the necessary physicists from their homes in the area. We had to lo...

  4. A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy Alan

    What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore, a historical case study, which incorporated grounded theory methodology, was used to convey the forty-year development of a science curriculum reform effort and its systemic influences. Data for this study were collected primarily through artifacts, such as technical and non-technical documents, and supported and augmented with interviews. Fifteen people comprised the interview consortium with professional responsibilities including (a) administrative roles, such as superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and curriculum consultants/coordinators; (b) classroom roles, such as elementary and secondary school teachers who taught science; (c) partnership roles, such as university faculty who collaborated with those in administrative and classroom positions within the district; and (d) the co-director of SCIS who worked with the SCIS trial center director. Data were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method. The analysis of data uncovered five categories or levels in which the curriculum reform evolved throughout its duration. These themes are Initiation, Education, Implementation, Confirmation, and Continuation. These five categories lead to several working hypotheses that supported the sustaining and continuing of a K-12 science curriculum reform effort. These components are a committed visionary; a theory base of education; forums promoting the education of the theory base components; shared-decision making; a university-school partnership; a core group of committed educators and teachers

  5. Stable isotope separation in calutrons: Forty years of production and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.A.; Tracy, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    The stable isotope separation program, established in 1945, has operated continually to provide enriched stable isotopes and selected radioactive isotopes, including the actinides, for use in research, medicine, and industrial applications. This report summarizes the first forty years of effort in the production and distribution of stable isotopes. Evolution of the program along with the research and development, chemical processing, and production efforts are highlighted. A total of 3.86 million separator hours has been utilized to separate 235 isotopes of 56 elements. Relative effort expended toward processing each of these elements is shown. Collection rates (mg/separator h), which vary by a factor of 20,000 from the highest to the lowest ( 205 Tl to 46 Ca), and the attainable isotopic purity for each isotope are presented. Policies related to isotope pricing, isotope distribution, and support for the enrichment program are discussed. Changes in government funding, coupled with large variations in sales revenue, have resulted in 7-fold perturbations in production levels

  6. 4R Water Quality Impacts: An Assessment and Synthesis of Forty Years of Drainage Nitrogen Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L E; Harmel, R D

    2015-11-01

    The intersection of agricultural drainage and nutrient mobility in the environment has led to multiscale water quality concerns. This work reviewed and quantitatively analyzed nearly 1,000 site-years of subsurface tile drainage nitrogen (N) load data to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of 4R practices (application of the right source of nutrients, at the right rate and time, and in the right place) within drained landscapes across North America. Using drainage data newly compiled in the "Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments" (MANAGE) database, relationships were developed across N application rates for nitrate N drainage loads and corn ( L.) yields. The lack of significant differences between N application timing or application method was inconsistent with the current emphasis placed on application timing, in particular, as a water quality improvement strategy ( = 0.934 and 0.916, respectively). Broad-scale analyses such as this can help identify major trends for water quality, but accurate implementation of the 4R approach will require site-specific knowledge to balance agronomic and environmental goals. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Experimental high Energy Physics in Spain: The first forty years, a personal and biased view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this contribution I present a brief description of the evolution of Experimental High Energy Physics in spain during the last forth years and a personal assessment of the present situation. (Author)

  8. Forty-five years of e+e- annihilation physics: 1956 to 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-04-01

    The history of e + e - physics in the 1950's and 1960's is reviewed, followed by some highlights of the spectacular discoveries in e + e - annihilation made during the 1970's. The consolidation of knowledge during the last few years is summarized. Some predictions are made for the field of e + e - physics for the next decade and beyond

  9. Forty-five-year follow-up on the renal function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund, M; Oturai, P S; Toson, B

    2016-01-01

    rate (GFR) ⩽75% of expected according to age and gender) was 58%. The cumulative risk of severe renal deterioration (functional distribution outside 30-70% on renography or relative GFR⩽51%) was 29% after 45 years postinjury. Only dilatation of UUT and renal/ureter stone requiring removal significantly...... increased the risk of moderate and severe renal deterioration. CONCLUSION: Renal deterioration occurs at any time after injury, suggesting that lifelong follow-up examinations of the renal function are important, especially in patients with dilatation of UUT and/or renal/ureter stones....

  10. Forty years of 9Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.M.; Piault, E.; Macouillard, D.; Juncos, C.

    2006-01-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of 9 Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The 9 Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of 9 Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the 9 Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year -1 in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined

  11. [The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Willemjan

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens.

  12. Trefethen's index cards forty years of notes about people, words and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Trefethen, Lloyd N

    2011-01-01

    This is one book that is unique in structure - a collection of ideas noted on index cards over 4 decades. Acclaimed mathematician Lloyd N Trefethen, Professor of Numerical Analysis at Oxford University, has created an intellectual diary, marking the development of his interests and ideas, from his teenage years to the present. These thoughts signposts, directing us through a mind that applies the same scientific discipline and rigor in everyday life as needed for success in science and academia; informative and entertaining, "Professor Trefethen's Index Cards" is a collage of observations of rare clarity, in subjects ranging from astronomy to family life, and from music to politics. The book will be of interest not only to scientists and mathematicians, the general public interested in discerning how a scientific outlook informs the way we see broader issues in the societies we live in as well.

  13. Forty years of erratic insecticide resistance evolution in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Labbé

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One view of adaptation is that it proceeds by the slow and steady accumulation of beneficial mutations with small effects. It is difficult to test this model, since in most cases the genetic basis of adaptation can only be studied a posteriori with traits that have evolved for a long period of time through an unknown sequence of steps. In this paper, we show how ace-1, a gene involved in resistance to organophosphorous insecticide in the mosquito Culex pipiens, has evolved during 40 years of an insecticide control program. Initially, a major resistance allele with strong deleterious side effects spread through the population. Later, a duplication combining a susceptible and a resistance ace-1 allele began to spread but did not replace the original resistance allele, as it is sublethal when homozygous. Last, a second duplication, (also sublethal when homozygous began to spread because heterozygotes for the two duplications do not exhibit deleterious pleiotropic effects. Double overdominance now maintains these four alleles across treated and nontreated areas. Thus, ace-1 evolution does not proceed via the steady accumulation of beneficial mutations. Instead, resistance evolution has been an erratic combination of mutation, positive selection, and the rearrangement of existing variation leading to complex genetic architecture.

  14. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3 and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon air pollutants for the period 1970–2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport, which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3 higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27, demonstrating the large

  15. Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the

  16. Where Anthropology Meets History—A Review of "Tracing China: A Forty-Year Ethnographic Journey," by Helen F. Siu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Bo Ching

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Helen F. Siu. Tracing China: A Forty-Year Ethnographic Journey. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2016. ISBN: 9789888083732. For years, Helen Siu tangoed with history and trekked the fields of South China. "Tracing China: A Forty-Year Ethnographic Journey"(Hong Kong University Press, 2016—a collection of Siu’s work published over the last twenty years—is not a grandiose showpiece splotched with a lot of paint and colors. Instead, she uses a 2B pencil to leave fine marks on wafer-thin parchment and smudges them ever so slightly, gradually letting the image emerge through the back of the page. If I have understood correctly, though plurality exists in the meanings of “trace,” Siu’s intention with the title Tracing China is less to track the history of China, and more to scrupulously examine every footstep she comes across, no matter how indistinct—to “look for plum blossoms in the snow,” as the Chinese saying goes. This saying might have inspired the Chinese version of the title of the collection, one that preserves a sense of graceful subtlety...

  17. SEMPRE: Forty Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

  18. Pyometra caused by carrying of an intrauterine device for a period of forty years and chronic endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Nada 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, thus streaching its walls and thinning and enlarging the uterus. This change is characteristic of the senium period of life, when the uterus is atrophie with a stenotic cervical canal. It most frequently occurs as a result of secondary infection of the cancerogenic tissue of the uterus and additional stenosation and clogging up of cervical canal by a malignant process. Apart from carcinomas of the body and uterus cervix, pyometra less often can occur in other illnesses such as senile endometritis and senile colpitis. As pyometra most frequently occurs in uterine carcinomas, in detection of this state, we must think of malignancy and direct our examination to this direction. In this paper we present a patient in whom pyometra developed because she carried an intrauterine device for forty years that resulted in chronic endometritis. The main symptoms for which the patient was admited to hospital were abdominal pain and intensive suppurative vaginal excretion a month after removal of intrauterine device. The diagnosis of pyometra was made by gynaecological and ultrasound examinations, and also on the basis of gynecological and ultrasound examinations one month after chronic endometritis was confirmed. On the basis of this finding we suspected that chronic endometritis was caused by this state. By cytological, PAP and histopathological examinations of samples obtained by explorative curettage and biopsy of the uterine cervix, malignant changes were eliminated a possible cause. By laboratory analysis and bacteriological examination of the uterine cavity and vaginal excretion, inflammatory changes of the uterine mocous membrane were confirmed as a cause of the pyometra. This conditions was due to carrying the intrauterine device for more decades. The therapy consisted of dilatation of the cervical canal and evacuation of accumulated suppurative contents and irrigation of uterine cavity with 3

  19. Trends spanning 36 years of nursing research

    OpenAIRE

    LEE Hyeyong; SHIMOTAKAHARA Rie; FUKADA Akimi; SHINBASHI Sumiko

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of demonstrating priorities for future research, this study draws on the strengths of text-mining analysis to analyze trends in nursing research in Japan over a 36-year period. METHODS: Documents published in the online version of the Igaku Chuo Zasshi (ICHUSHI) between 1980 and December 2015 were targeted for analysis. Tendencies and trends over time characterizing words used in the titles of all target research papers were analyzed, along with characteristic words. RESULTS:...

  20. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  1. The past and the future in the forty years of the IPR-R1 TRIGA MARK I reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maretti Junior, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I Reactor operating in the Nuclear Technology Development Center, originally Institute for Radioactive Research in Minas Gerais, Brazil, was dedicated in November 11, 1960. Initially operating for the production of radioisotopes for different uses, it started later to be used in large scale for neutron activation analysis and training of operators for nuclear power plants. Many improvements have been made throughout these years to provide a better performance in its operation and safety conditions. A new cooling system to operate until 300 kW, a new control rod mechanism, an aluminum tank for the reactor pool, an optimization in the pneumatic system, a new reactor control console and a general remodeling of the reactor laboratory were some of the improvements added. During these years a lot of irradiations, analysis , MSc and PhD thesis, training courses and isotopes production take place at the reactor. This paper describes the improvements made, the results obtained during the past 40 years, type of works realized, isotopes produced, the neutron activation analysis and the precautions taken to ensure future safe operation of the reactor to give operators better conditions of safe work. (authors)

  2. Forty-Year Follow-up of Full-Thickness Skin Graft After Thermal Burn Injury to the Volar Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Dexter; Kasdan, Morton L; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2016-01-01

    The hands are commonly affected in severe thermal burn injuries. Resulting contractures lead to significant loss of function. Burn contracture release and skin grafting are necessary to restore hand function. We report a case in which surgical reconstruction of a volar hand burn was performed with full-thickness skin grafting. The patient had a 40-year follow-up to assess the function and cosmesis of the repaired hand. We report a case in which a 15-month-old boy presented after receiving third-degree burns to the left volar hand, including the flexural aspects of the index, long, and ring fingers by placing it on a hot kitchen stove burner. The patient subsequently underwent scar contracture release and full-thickness skin grafting. Eleven years after reconstruction, further contractures developed associated with the patient's growth, which were reconstructed with repeat full-thickness skin graft from the inguinal region. No recurrence was witnessed afterward and 40 years after initial injury, the patient maintains full activities of daily living and use of his hand in his occupation. There is debate regarding the superiority of split-thickness versus full-thickness grafts during reconstruction. Our case strengthens the argument for durability of a full-thickness skin graft following thermal burn injury.

  3. Drastic Population Size Change in Two Populations of the Golden-Striped Salamander over a Forty-Year Period—Are Eucalypt Plantations to Blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W. Arntzen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half century the Iberian peninsula has seen the large scale planting of exotic gum trees (Eucalyptus sp. therewith reducing space for native wildlife. An additional effect of the gum tree plantations may be the lowering of the water table in adjacent streams, to which amphibian species with a larval niche in the running sections of small streams would be especially susceptible. In northwestern Iberia that niche is occupied by the Golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica. I here report on the demographic trends of two C. lusitanica populations over a forty-year period, in two areas of one mountain range near Porto in northwestern Portugal. In both areas advantage was taken of the migration pattern of C. lusitanica to sites for aestivation and breeding in summer and fall. The area of the Silveirinhos brook was transformed in a plantation of gum trees shortly after the research started, while the area of Poço do Inferno remained virtually unaffected. At Silveirinhos the adult C. lusitanica population declined by one or two orders of magnitude, from ca. 1500 individuals to less than 50 at present. Demographic models that operate under a uniform larval mortality yielded population sizes that are compatible with field observations, including the late onset of the decline at 14 or more years after the planting of the gum trees and the near-extinction at year 32. An alternative reason for the relatively recent population collapse of C. lusitanica may have been disease, but no sick individuals or corpses have become available for clinical investigation. Conversely, the control population at Poço do Inferno increased in size by a factor of five or more. These data support the hypothesis that gum tree plantations have a strong negative effect on C. lusitanica. The population size increase at Poço do Inferno is probably attributable to the installation of wastewater treatment in the adjacent town of Valongo, with a discharge in the

  4. Forty years of the Law 180: the aspirations of a great reform, its successes and continuing need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzina, R

    2018-03-06

    Italy pioneered deinstitutionalisation over the past 60 years and enforced a famous mental health (MH) reform law in 1978. Deinstitutionalisation has been completed with the very closure of all psychiatric hospitals over two decades. After 40 years of implementation, this article presents the main achievements and challenges of the Italian MH reform law, including its long-term effect and impact in Italy and abroad. The Legislation of 1978 was based on the discovery of rights as a key tool in mental healthcare. At the climax of crisis of psychiatric hospitals as total institutions in this country, through the new community-based system of care, it has fostered the lowest rate of involuntary care and gave back the full citizenship to people with MH disorders. This act was also part of a social movement for expanding civil and social rights, and a promise of a true paradigm shift not only in psychiatry, but also in the way of providing an adequate welfare community for all citizens. According to the WHO, the Italian city of Trieste, together with its region, is a practical example of how the Italian movement achieved deinstitutionalisation, intended as a complex process resulting in the gradual relocation of the economic and human resources and subsequent creation of 24 h services together with the development of social inclusion programmes. Even if the great principles of the Italian reform law were anticipatory (e.g., the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities - CRPD), the law application has been poorly provided with resources and did not follow those avant-garde experiences as models. Limitations are evident today especially at the organisational levels, such as services capable to take up the challenge and transforming the field, left free from the imprint of total institutions. These endemic critical aspects concerning to implementation policies, together with the financial crisis of the Italian healthcare system, must be taken into consideration

  5. Future scenarios for the development of nuclear power. How will nuclear power develop over the next twenty to forty years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power technology has developed significantly over the past 60 years to the point that today it supplies the world with 15% of its electricity; and there are plans for continued development. However, the continued growth of nuclear power is not without challenges. The nuclear industry must remain competitive in the face of challenges ranging from environmental considerations and proliferation concerns to ensuring safe and often transparent operations. Understanding these and other issues, as well as their underlying causes, can help the industry leaders create more robust strategies and effectively implement nuclear fuel cycle decisions. Robust strategies are ones that can be effective even when circumstances change, due to events such as opposition, new scientific information, changes in resource availability, or introduction of competing technologies. Scenario planning is tool which can help planners and decision makers create a strategic conversation about the future and how to manage and plan in a time of accelerated change and complexity. In this paper, scenario planning is introduced and the development of nuclear power is examined against the back drop of four future scenarios, specifically looking at how variations in environmental quality, resource availability, security and proliferation, and safety may affect the development of nuclear power. The scenarios discussed provide a starting point to improve the understanding of issues and opportunities facing the global nuclear power industry and ultimately, to improve strategies for technology development. Such scenarios may be employed as a basis for collaboration and communication amongst the stakeholders involved in the development of nuclear technology. (author)

  6. Enteric Duplication Cysts in Children: A Single-Institution Series with Forty Patients in Twenty-Six Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Basak; Soysal, Feryal Gun; Ozbey, Huseyin; Keskin, Erbug; Celik, Alaattin; Karadag, Aslıhan; Salman, Tansu

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate our experience with enteric duplication cysts in 40 children during the past 26 years, while assessing the variability of their presentations and to propose an algorithm for surgical management. We retrospectively analysed sex, age, clinical presentations, duplication site, surgical treatment, presence of ectopic tissue, complications, associated anomalies, and prognosis of 40 patients with gastrointestinal tract duplications who were surgically treated in our clinic. Overall, there was a predominance of boys (28 males, 70 %; 12 females, 30 %). The presenting symptom was vomiting in 23 patients, rectal bleeding in 11 patients, abdominal mass in 10 patients, abdominal pain in 9 patients, constipation in 6 patients, cough in 2 patients, and respiratory distress in 2 patients. In 30 patients, a complete excision of the cyst with additional segmental intestinal resection and anastomosis was performed. Cystectomy was performed in seven patients, while complete excision of the cyst with additional wedge resection was performed in two. A Wrenn procedure (mucosectomy) was performed in one patient. Due to the variability in the site of enteric duplications, a wide range of presenting symptoms can exist, which is challenging for diagnosis. In children with a diagnosis of acute abdomen, enteric duplication cysts should be considered, and these children should be further investigated for additional skeletal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal system pathologies. Surgical treatment depends on the site and type of the cyst.

  7. Six-Degree Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest: Forty Years of Development as a Physiological Analog for Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    -degrees HDT model must continue to be scrutinized, re-examined, validated and compared to other analog environments whenever possible. Only by understanding the strengths and limits of this model, will it continue to serve as a critical physiological analog to spaceflight for many more years to come.

  8. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  9. Between Shadow and Light: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Forty Years On

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Biad

    2010-01-01

    The NPT was negotiated during the Cold War period to prevent the emergence of new nuclear players by distinguishing between 'nuclear-weapon states' (NWS) which had carried out nuclear testing before 1 January 1967, that is the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China, and 'non-nuclear-weapon states' (NNWS). Under the NPT, the two groups of states commit to comply with a series of commitments formulated around 'three pillars': 1 - Non-proliferation: the NWSs undertake under Article I not to transfer nuclear weapons or control over such weapons and not in any way to assist, encourage or induce any NNWS to acquire them, while the NNWSs are bound under Article II to neither develop or acquire nuclear weapons or 'other nuclear explosive devices' nor to receive any assistance in that connection. 2 - Peaceful use of nuclear energy: Article IV guarantees the 'inalienable right' to 'develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination'. 3 - Nuclear disarmament: each state party to the treaty undertakes under Article VI 'to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament'. The treaty entered in force in March 1970 and has since become universal, with 189 states parties in May 2010. At five-year intervals, parties to the treaty convene review conferences in order to review the operation of the treaty, Article VIII(3). The 1975, 1985 and 2000 review conferences culminated in the adoption of a final declaration and the 1995 review conference decided to extend the treaty indefinitely. The preparatory committee (PrepCom) for the 2010 review conference, which met from April 2007 to May 2009, did not adopt any recommendations, in absence of a consensus on essential issues concerning the operation of the treaty. Hence the importance of this 8. review conference of the parties held in New York from 3 to 28 May 2010 in a

  10. Nuclear terminology during forty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1994-04-01

    In Sweden terminology work in the field of nuclear technology started in the early 1950s. Three dictionaries were completed in 1962, 1975 and 1990, respectively, mainly through cooperation between Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution (SMS) and Swedish Centre for Technical Terminology (TNC). In parallel to this, international work has been performed through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In conclusion, problems concerning some special terms are discussed. 17 refs

  11. Commemorating forty years of AMPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The efforts, devotion, hard work and vision of medical physics teachers and scientists of the Directorate of Radiation Protection (DRP), BARC resulted in the formation of the Association of Medical Physicists of India in 1976. Founder members and office bearers of AMPI have lead the foundation of AMPI on a very sound and strong base. AMPI was formed with the broad objectives of promoting the application of physics to medical and biological sciences; encouraging the research and development and education in the field of medical physics; providing a forum for persons engaged or interested in the field of medical physics; disseminating world-wide information in this field to all members of the association; and participating actively in IOMP's programs in medical physics. Since its inception AMPI has been providing a platform for discussion, deliberation and exchange of scientific knowledge in the field of medical physics in India and AMPI is the third largest organisation of medical physicists of the world with more than 2300 members

  12. Forty Thousand Years of Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The roots of advertisement are connected with reclamations, claims and arguments. No surprise that many people treat it with distrust, suspicion and irritation.Nobody loves advertisement (except its authors and those who order it, nobody watches it, everybody despises it and get annoyed because of it. But newspapers, magazines, television and city economy in general cannot do without it. One keeps on arguing whether to prohibit advertisement, to restrict its expansion, to bring in stricter regulations on advertisement…If something attracts attention, intrigues, promises to make dreams true and arouses desire to join - it should be considered as advertisement. This definition allows saying with no doubts: yes, advertisement did existed in the most ancient strongest cultures. Advertisement is as old as the humane civilization. There have always been the objects to be advertised, and different methods appeared to reach those goals.Advertisement techniques and topics appear, get forgotten and appear again in other places and other times. Sometimes the author of advertisement image has no idea about his forerunners and believes he is the discoverer. A skillful designer with high level of professionalism deliberately uses images from past centuries. The professional is easily guided by historical prototypes.But there is another type of advertisement, its prototypes cannot be found in museums. It does not suppose any respect, because it is built on scornful attitude towards the spectator.However, basically the advertisement is made by professional designers, and in this case ignorance is inadmissible. Even if we many times appeal to Irkutsk designers to work on raising their cultural level of advertisements, anyhow, orders will be always made by those who pay. Unless Its Majesty Ruble stands for Culture, those appeals are of no use.

  13. Forty years of radiochemistry education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preiss, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    Overman and Clark began filling the need for the formal education of nuclear scientists versed in chemistry, at the Oak Ridge Institute. In 1947 Clark began the program at Rensselaer that has continued through to today. The evolution of course content, the laboratory programs and complementary course work in other disciplines will be discussed. Educational and logistical concerns will be addressed. The prospects for continuation of both theory and laboratory programs, the student interest and financial support for course development and equipment needs are concerns that will be presented

  14. Fabrication of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Fleming, Brian; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffrey; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Goodwin, Phillip A.; Rapchun, David; Lyness, Eric; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Harvey; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John

    2010-07-01

    The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is building the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS), which is a Gregorian telescope with rulings on the secondary mirror. FORTIS will be launched on a sounding rocket from White Sand Missile Range to study the relationship between Lyman alpha escape and the local gas-to-dust ratio in star forming galaxies with non-zero redshifts. It is designed to acquire images of a 30' x 30' field and provide fully redundant "on-the-fly" spectral acquisition of 43 separate targets in the field with a bandpass of 900 - 1800 Angstroms. FORTIS is an enabling scientific and technical activity for future cutting edge far- and near-uv survey missions seeking to: search for Lyman continuum radiation leaking from star forming galaxies, determine the epoch of He II reionization and characterize baryon acoustic oscillations using the Lyman forest. In addition to the high efficiency "two bounce" dual-order spectro-telescope design, FORTIS incorporates a number of innovative technologies including: an image dissecting microshutter array developed by GSFC; a large area (~ 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector with central imaging and "outrigger" spectral channels provided by Sensor Sciences; and an autonomous targeting microprocessor incorporating commercially available field programable gate arrays. We discuss progress to date in developing our pathfinder instrument.

  15. Forty-year (1971-2010) semiquantitative observations of visibility-cloud-precipitation in Korea and its implication for aerosol effects on regional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kang, Jeong-Eon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Forty-year (1971-2010) observations of cloud cover and types have been analyzed, and implications on the effects of aerosol-cloud feedback were explored. Cloud cover and types have been observed over Korea on the basis of visible (human-eye) attributes without any change in official observing instructions. Visibility has been used as an ongoing proxy measure of aerosol concentrations, and observed meteorological variables such as sunshine duration and precipitation have been employed to analyze aerosol causes and implications for urban and regional climate. The analysis revealed persistent decade-long patterns in Korea: steadily reduced visibility (-0.37 km/yr), consistently decreasing sunshine duration (-0.06 %/hr), and declining occurrence of light precipitation. Spatial distributions of sunshine duration and visibility exhibited more localized variations in the early period (1971-1990), and tended to be more uniform throughout Korea over more recent years (1991-2010), implying the recent regional-scale impact of cloud change over northeast Asia. Cloud analysis results showed that the five most common types were stratocumulus (Sc), cirrus (Ci), altostratus (As), stratus (St), and nimbostratus (Ns), with occurrences of 33%, 17%, 17%, 9%, and 8%, respectively. Occurrence of rarely precipitating or nonprecipitating low-level Sc clouds showed an increasing (+0.34%/yr), but no (or only minor) effects of aerosols on heavy precipitation such as cumulus cloud types were found. Cloud cover in the range of 6/10 to 8/10 units has increased by 31.5±6.5%, and occurrences of both cloud-free (~2/10 units) and overcast (~8/10 units) conditions have decreased. Aerosol-cloud-precipitations interaction is highly nonlinear due to feedback mechanisms. One reason for our poor understanding of the aerosol-cloud feedback study is the variety of cloud types with their complicated responses to variations of the aerosol. Our study on the response of precipitation-cloud to long

  16. Trends in nuclear physics. 100 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Blaizot, J.P.; Bertsch, G.F.; Weise, W.; David, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the first years after the discovery of radioactivity it became clear that nuclear physics was, by excellence, the science of small quantum systems. Between the fifties and the eighties nuclear physics and elementary particles physics lived their own lives, without much interaction. During this period the basic concepts were defined. Recently, contrary to the specialization law often observed in science, the overlap between nuclear and elementary particle physics has become somewhat blurred. This Les Houches Summer School was set up with the aim of fighting off the excessive specialization evident in many international meetings, and return to the roots. The twofold challenge of setting up a fruitful exchange between experimentalists and theorists in the first place, and between nuclear and hadronic matter physicists in the second place was successfully met. The volume presents high quality, up-to-date reviews starting with an account of the birth and first developments of nuclear physics. Further chapters discuss the description of the nuclear structure, the physics of nuclei at very high spin, the existence of super-heavy nuclei as a consequence of shell structure, liquid-gas transition, including both a description and a review of the experimental situation. Other topics dealt with include the interactions between moderately relativistic heavy ions, the concept of a nucleon dressed by a cloud of pions, the presence of pions in the nucleus, the subnucleonic phenomena in nuclei and quark-gluons deconfinement transition, both theoretical and experimental aspects. Nuclear physics continues to influence many other fields, such as astrophysics, and is also inspired by these same fields. This cross-fertilisation is illustrated by the treatment of neutron stars in one of the final chapters. The last chapter provides an overview of a recent development in which particle and nuclear physicists have cooperated to revitalize an alternative method for nuclear energy

  17. Tips and Trends to Start the New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    With the New Year comes the opportunity to set goals and advance training and development opportunities for leaders. This article presents five tips and five trends that serve as prognosticators for the coming year, including tips to influence time management and leadership impact and trends, such as sexual harassment training and "soft" skills development, which are now core skills for team success. A shift from hierarchical structures to network- and relationship-centered webs for advanced problem solving is also projected. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2018;49(1):7-9. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Adoption research, practice, and societal trends: Ten years of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2017-12-01

    Adoption involves the legal transfer of parental rights and responsibilities from a child's birth parents to adults who will raise the child (Reitz & Watson, 1992). Research related to adoption has expanded over the past 10 years and has incorporated more focus on implications for practice and public policy. This expansion has reflected increased awareness of the lived experience of adopted individuals, in addition to that of adoptive families and birth or first parents and families, collectively known as the adoption kinship network (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998). Trends discussed included research and social trends or movements (2007-2017) since the publication of the final article in a series of articles in the psychological literature related to adoption in The Counseling Psychologist (Baden & Wiley, 2007; Lee, 2003; O'Brien & Zamostny, 2003; Wiley & Baden, 2005; Zamostny, O'Brien, Baden, & Wiley, 2003; Zamostny, Wiley, O'Brien, Lee, & Baden, 2003). This article summarizes the social trends and research related to adoption over the last 10 years, including longitudinal and meta-analytic studies, increased research and conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity development, research on microaggressions, and research on diverse adoptive families, including those with gay and lesbian parents. Social trends included increased knowledge related to Internet accessibility, genetic information, continued focus on openness, and viewing adoption through a more critical lens. Implications are discussed for the development of programs that enhance competence of mental health professionals and adoption professionals in adoption-competent practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. 20 year long term air quality trends in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Israeli air monitoring network was established in the mid 1990's with dozens of measuring sites near most populated areas. During these past 20 years the Israel economy has increased significantly. The population grew by 30%, energy consumption and power generation by more than 40% and the number of motor vehicles increased by nearly 50%. Most of the fossil energy is consumed by the electric power industry that has changed immensely during this period. Until the early 2000's the vast majority of the electricity was generated from coal and heavy oil. However, during the last ten years natural gas has gradually becomes the major source for power generation and for most of the heavy industry. In the present study we examined the impact of these economic trends on the major criteria air pollution parameters; O3, NOx, SO2 and PM10. The analyses was based on the long term trend of median value (50th percentile) and the 90th percentile. The results revealed that SO2 levels throughout the country decreased to very low levels, with the 90th percentile near the detection limit. The levels of PM10, that are relatively high compare with other global regions, did not show any trend during the 20 year period. This is consistent with the fact that most particulate matter results from long range transport of dust from the surrounding deserts. The long term trend of NOx indicates a gradual and steady increase at most measuring sites, which is consistent with the increase of fossil fuel consumption. The increase in NOx levels is most likely the cause for the significant increase in O3 levels found at most sites in a few of them to levels that are considered as an environmental hazard.

  20. Forty-two years of change in an old-growth and second-growth beech-maple forest of north central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie R. Pinheiro; P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Using data collected in 1964 and 2006, we examined changes in the composition and structure of a second-growth and old-growth beech-maple forest of Crall Woods, located in Ashland County of north central Ohio. Over the 42 years, the old-growth forest (estimated to be at least 250 years old) experienced a significant shift in species composition as American beech,...

  1. Forty years of the Hrubý glass-forming coefficient via DTA when comparing other criteria in relation to the glass stability and vitrification ability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmidis-Petrovic, A.; Šesták, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2012), 997-1004 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : glass transition * Hrubý criterion * glass -forming ability * DTA/DSC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  2. The Relationship of Alcoholism and Alcohol Consumption to All-Cause Mortality in Forty-One-Year Follow-up of the Swedish REBUS Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Halldin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8). Information on the usual amount and frequency of alcohol consumption was collected at the psychiatric interview. Mortality up to year 2011 was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: At baseline, there were 65 men and 21 women diagnosed...

  3. Gender Trends in Radiology Authorship: A 35-Year Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Crystal L; Scheel, John R; Lee, Christoph I; Forman, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe trends over time in female authorship in the radiology literature and to investigate the tendency of female first authors to publish with female senior authors. Data on the gender of academic physician authors based in the United States for all major articles published in three general radiology journals--Radiology, AJR, and Academic Radiology--were collected and analyzed for the years 1978, 1988, 1998, 2008, and 2013. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant trends over time, and a chi-square test of independence was performed to determine significant relations between the genders of first and senior authors. The gender of 4182 of 4217 (99.17%) authors with MD degrees was determined. The proportion of original research articles published by women as first authors increased from 8.33% in 1978 to 32.35% in 2013 (p < 0.001). The proportion of original research articles with women as senior authors increased from 6.75% in 1978 to 21.90% in 2013 (p < 0.001). Female first and senior authorship increased significantly over time (first author, p < 0.001; senior author, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relation between the genders of first and senior authors of original research articles and guest editorials (p < 0.001). Over 35 years, there was a statistically significant upward linear trend of female physician participation in authorship of academic radiology literature. Female first authors were more likely to publish with female senior authors.

  4. Forty Years of State Alcohol and Pregnancy Policies in the USA: Best Practices for Public Health or Efforts to Restrict Women's Reproductive Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, SCM; Thomas, S; Treffers, R; Drabble, L

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a public health problem despite >40 years of attention. Little is known about how state policies have evolved and whether policies represent public health goals or efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights.Our data set includes US state policies from 1970 through 2013 obtained through original legal research and from the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA)'s Alcohol Policy Information System. Policies were classified...

  5. Forty-Five-Year Mortality Rate as a Function of the Number and Type of Psychiatric Diagnoses Found in a Large Danish Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Central Psychiatric Research Registry for 8109 birth cohort members aged 45 years. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 10, group F codes, Mental and Behavioural Disorders, and one Z code) for identified subjects were organized into 14 mutually exclusive......Objective: Psychiatric comorbidities are common among psychiatric patients and typically associated with poorer clinical prognoses. Subjects of a large Danish birth cohort were used to study the relation between mortality and co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Method: We searched the Danish...

  6. 10 Year Publication Trends in Dermatology in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Mauro, Jacqueline A; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background China has been experiencing huge changes in all aspects including dermatologic research since its reform in 1978. However, how the economic and intellectual development has influenced the publication trends in the field of dermatology, which could mirror the scientific development in other medical disciplines, is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the publication trends from departments of dermatology in mainland China from 2002 to 2011. Materials and Methods All publication data were obtained from www.pubmed.com. Only papers published from dermatology departments of mainland China were used for analysis. Results The number of publications increased 10-fold over this 10 year period. A total 1,231 of articles were published in English in 251 journals between 2002 and 2011. A total of 129 journals published only one paper from dermatology departments of mainland China. Over 60% of articles were original research and 21.7% were case reports. Among these 251 journals, foremost was the Journal of Clinical Experimental Dermatology, which published 5.9% of all papers from mainland China. 2.7% papers were published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The number of publications positively correlated with the changes in gross domestic product per capita during the study period. Conclusions These results suggest that the number of publications in the dermatology field has increased markedly in mainland China over the last 10 years. This dramatic increase in publications could be, at least partially, attributed to the significant improvement in economic conditions in mainland China. PMID:23968296

  7. Ten-year publication trends in dermatology in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Mauro, Jacqueline A; Mauro, Theodora M; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    China has been experiencing huge changes in all aspects, including dermatologic research, since its reform in 1978. However, it is not known how the economic and intellectual development has influenced the publication trends in the field of dermatology, which could mirror the scientific development in other medical disciplines. In the present study, we analyzed publication trends from dermatology departments in mainland China from 2002 to 2011. All publication data were obtained from www.pubmed.com. Only papers published from dermatology departments in mainland China were used for analysis. The number of publications increased 10-fold over this 10-year period. A total of 1231 articles were published in English in 251 journals between 2002 and 2011. A total of 129 journals published only one paper from dermatology departments in mainland China. Over 60% of articles were original research, and 21.7% were case reports. Among these 251 journals, foremost was the Journal of Clinical Experimental Dermatology, which published 5.9% of all papers from mainland China; 2.7% of papers were published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. The number of publications positively correlated with the changes in gross domestic product per capita during the study period. These results suggest that the number of publications in the dermatology field has increased markedly in mainland China over the last 10 years. This dramatic increase in publications could be attributed, at least partially, to the significant improvement in economic conditions in mainland China. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Forty-two years of Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica: Some history and musings on the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    After 42 years of continuously publishing the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, we cast a short retrospective view on its history and we share our plans for the future. RMxAA was founded in 1974. Founding editors were P. Pishmish, E. Mendoza and S. Torres-Peimbert. RMxAA has published original research papers in all areas of astronomy, astrophysics and related fields. Until 1994 RMxAA also published the proceedings of astronomical conferences held in México and Latin America. Since 1995 a Series devoted exclusively to such proceedings was founded, RMxAC, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias). All papers submitted to RMxAA are sent to internationally recognized experts to be strictly refereed. RMxAA is included in Current Contents, Science Citation Index and other relevant international indexes. Both publications are fully integrated into the ADS. Their contents have always been freely available to the general public. All this ensures a wide international visibility, comparable to that of the best astronomical journals. The impact factor of RMxAA has varied over the years, mostly as a consequence of small number statistics. The average impact factor is about 2.4, far larger than that of all but a few Latin American scientific journals. The editorial independence of RMxAA, the fact that there are no page charges for authors, and that the printed version is distributed free of charge to astronomical libraries all over the world motivate us to look forward with optimism to many more years of publication. In view of recent developments in the scientific publishing field, we have applied to obtain the DOI for the published papers, and are in the process of becoming an all-electronic publication.

  9. The Relationship of Alcoholism and Alcohol Consumption to All-Cause Mortality in Forty-One-Year Follow-up of the Swedish REBUS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Halldin, Jan; Theobald, Holger

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcoholism, alcohol consumption amount, and alcohol consumption pattern on mortality in a general population sample. This study used a 1970 prospective population sample (double-phase random sample) of 2,300 individuals ages 18-65 years in Stockholm County, which was also linked to mortality registers. A total of 1,895 individuals participated in a semi-structured, baseline psychiatric interview with a psychiatrist and social worker. Alcoholism and other mental disorders were recorded according to the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8). Information on the usual amount and frequency of alcohol consumption was collected at the psychiatric interview. Mortality up to year 2011 was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models. At baseline, there were 65 men and 21 women diagnosed with alcoholism. During followup, there were 873 deaths in the study population of 1,895. Alcoholism was associated with increased mortality rate. Former drinkers, but not never-drinkers, also had increased risk for mortality compared with moderate drinkers. We found no associations between heavy consumption and mortality. Frequent heavy episodic drinking was uncommon but related to mortality before, but not after, adjusting for an alcoholism diagnosis. Our results demonstrated that alcoholism—but not a reported high consumption of alcohol or frequent heavy episodic drinking—predicted a long-term risk of death.

  10. Forty-year follow up of bilateral breast cancer treated with mastectomy: the prognostic value of elapsed interval between the two breast primaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Ibrahim; Ferguson, Donald; Powers, Claire; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Hellman, Samuel; Heimann, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients who developed bilateral breast cancer(synchronous or metachronous), to assess their long-term outcome and compare it to patients with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 2136 patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated by mastectomy between 1927 and 1987, we analyzed 115 patients who had bilateral breast cancer (BBC). Synchronous BBC was found in 10 patients while 105 had metachronous BBC at median interval between the two breast primaries of 54 months (range : 0-391 months). The age range at the time of first diagnosis was (29-77 year, median of 51). The majority of patients underwent radical mastectomy (used in 66% of the first cancer and 59% of the second cancer) followed by modified and extended radical mastectomy. Adjuvant therapy after the first mastectomy was as follows: 30% radiotherapy (RT), 23% endocrine therapy and 10% had chemotherapy (CT). Adjuvant therapy for the second primary was as follows: 9% RT, 12% endocrine and 6% had CT. The median follow-up was 160 months for all patients, range: 1-653 months (233 months, range:27-446 for surviving patients). The median follow-up for surviving patients after developing the second cancer was 119 months (range : 1-380). The disease-specific survival (DSS) was calculated from the diagnosis date of the first breast cancer to date of distant metastasis or death of breast cancer. Comparing BBC to UBC is confounded by the fact that BBC represents a selected subgroup that have already survived long enough without recurrence to develop contralateral breast cancer (CBC). The analysis below does not compensate for this, however further analysis will be presented. RESULTS: In comparison with the second breast cancer, the first cancer had a larger tumor size (median of 3 cm vs 2 cm, p=0.001) and higher percentage of positive axillary lymph nodes (55.8% vs 45.1%, p=0.001). When we compared the BBC patients

  11. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Johan Kotze

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed

  12. Forty Years of State Alcohol and Pregnancy Policies in the USA: Best Practices for Public Health or Efforts to Restrict Women's Reproductive Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Thomas, Sue; Treffers, Ryan; Drabble, Laurie

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a public health problem despite >40 years of attention. Little is known about how state policies have evolved and whether policies represent public health goals or efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights. Our data set includes US state policies from 1970 through 2013 obtained through original legal research and from the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA)'s Alcohol Policy Information System. Policies were classified as punitive to women or supportive of them. The association between numbers of punitive policies and supportive policies in 2013 with a measure of state restrictions on reproductive rights and Alcohol Policy Effectiveness Scores (APS) was estimated using a Pearson's correlation. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased from 1 in 1974 to 43 in 2013. Through the 1980s, state policy environments were either punitive or supportive. In the 1990s, mixed punitive and supportive policy environments began to be the norm, with punitive policies added to supportive ones. No association was found between the number of supportive policies in 2013 and a measure of reproductive rights policies or the APS, nor was there an association between the number of punitive policies and the APS. The number of punitive policies was positively associated, however, with restrictions on reproductive rights. Punitive alcohol and pregnancy policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than effective efforts to curb public health harms due to alcohol use in the general population. Future research should explore the effects of alcohol and pregnancy policies. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased since 1970 (1 in 1974 and 43 in 2013). Alcohol and pregnancy policies are becoming increasingly punitive. These punitive policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than

  13. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. Forty-five years of radiochemistry education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preiss, I.L.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY

    1993-01-01

    H.M. Clark introduced radiochemistry as an undergraduate program at Rensselear in 1947. The development of the course and the companion courses under Clark and Preiss that now form the radiochemical educational experience at RPI is outlined. Prospects for the future directions of the field and the educational requirements are discussed. (author)

  15. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  16. Ocean Drilling: Forty Years of International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Exon, Neville; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2010-10-01

    International cooperation is an essential component of modern scientific research and societal advancement [see Ismail-Zadeh and Beer, 2009], and scientific ocean drilling represents one of Earth science's longest-running and most successful international collaborations. The strength of this collaboration and its continued success result from the realization that scientific ocean drilling provides a unique and powerful tool to study the critical processes of both short-term change and the long-term evolution of Earth systems. A record of Earth's changing tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and biota is preserved in marine sedimentary deposits and the underlying basement rocks. And because the ocean floor is the natural site for accumulation and preservation of geological materials, it may preserve a continuous record of these processes.

  17. Trends in dermatology publications over the past 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Daniel; Pavlovsky, Lev; Akerman, Lehavit; David, Michael; Mimouni, Francis B

    2010-01-01

    There is a continually increasing amount of medical literature, which makes the challenge of keeping up to date in the field of dermatology increasingly difficult. To test the hypothesis that the total number and the number in various categories of publications in pediatric and adult dermatology have increased over time in a linear fashion. We evaluated all MEDLINE articles from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2007. We limited the search to 'skin' AND 'diseases' OR 'dermatology' for adults and children. We used regression analysis to determine the effect of the year of publication on the number of publications of each type. MEDLINE reported 17, 925 publications in adult dermatology and 9011 publications in pediatric dermatology during the evaluation period. There was a significant linear increase in the number of publications over the study period in both categories. There was a steady and similar increase over time in both pediatric and adult dermatology in total publications, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, case reports, and letters to the editor, while there were too few meta-analyses, editorials, and clinical guidelines to make meaningful analyses of trends. The fields of pediatric and adult dermatology have had a significant yearly increase in studies providing a high level of scientific evidence with a much slower rise in the number of articles providing a lower level of evidence.

  18. Fabrication and calibration of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Rapchun, David A.; Lyness, Eric; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is entering the final fabrication phase of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of- view. Using "on-the-fly" target acquisition and spectral multiplexing enabled by a GSFC microshutter array, FORTIS will be capable of observing the brightest regions in the far-UV of nearby low redshift (z ~ 0.002 - 0.02) star forming galaxies to search for Lyman alpha escape, and to measure the local gas-to-dust ratio. A large area (~ 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector built by Sensor Sciences provides an imaging channel for targeting flanked by two redundant spectral outrigger channels. The grating is ruled directly onto the secondary mirror to increase efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress made in the development and fabrication of FORTIS, as well as the results of early calibration and characterization of our hardware, including mirror/grating measurements, detector performance, and early operational tests of the microshutter arrays.

  19. Maternal inactivity: 45-year trends in mothers' use of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward; Lavie, Carl J; McDonald, Samantha M; Thomas, Diana M; Hébert, James R; Taverno Ross, Sharon E; McIver, Kerry L; Malina, Robert M; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    To examine 45-year trends in time use and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in a nationally representative sample of US mothers. We quantified time allocation to physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SED), and PAEE from 1965 to 2010 in mothers with older children (MOC) (>5 to ≤18 years) and mothers with younger children (MYC) (≤5 years). Physical activity was the sum of time allocated to housework, child care, laundry, food preparation, postmeal cleanup, and exercise. Sedentary behavior was the sum of time spent in a vehicle and using screen-based media. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. From 1965 to 2010, the time allocated to PA decreased by 11.1 h/wk (from 32.0 to 20.9 h/wk) in MOC and by 13.9 h/wk (from 43.6 to 29.7 h/wk) in MYC. The time spent in SED increased by 7.0 h/wk in MOC (from 17.7 to 24.7 h/wk) and increased by 5.7 h/wk in MYC (from 17.0 to 22.7 h/wk). Physical activity energy expenditure decreased by 1237.6 kcal/wk (176.8 kcal/d) in MOC (from 5835.3 to 4597.7 kcal/wk), and in MYC, PAEE decreased by 1572.5 kcal/wk (224.6 kcal/d), from 7690.5 to 6118.0 kcal/wk. There was a significant reallocation of time by mothers from PA (eg, housework) to SED (eg, watching television) between 1965 and 2010. Given the essential role of PA for health and the potential for the intergenerational transmission of obesity and obesogenic behaviors, these results suggest that maternal inactivity may be an important target for the primary prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug use in college students: a 13-year trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arantes Wagner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze drug use trends among college students in 1996, 2001 and 2009. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study with a multistage stratified cluster sample with 9,974 college students was conducted in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on drug use assessed in lifetime, the preceding 12 months and the preceding 30 days. The Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons of drug use rates between surveys. RESULTS: There were changes in the lifetime use of tobacco and some other drugs (hallucinogens [6.1% to 8.8%], amphetamines [4.6% to 8.7%], and tranquilizers [5.7% to 8.2%] from 1996 to 2009. Differences in the use of other drugs over the 12 months preceding the survey were also seen: reduced use of inhalants [9.0% to 4.8%] and increased use of amphetamines [2.4% to 4.8%]. There was a reduction in alcohol [72.9% to 62.1%], tobacco [21.3% to 17.2%] and marijuana [15.0% to 11.5%] use and an increase in amphetamine use [1.9% to 3.3%] in the preceeding 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Over the 13-year study period, there was an increase in lifetime use of tobacco, hallucinogens, amphetamines, and tranquilizers. There was an increase in amphetamine use and a reduction in alcohol use during the preceding 12 months. There was an increase in amphetamine use during the preceding 30 days.

  1. Overview of the year 2000 and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannesini, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the energy field (and more particularly that of hydrocarbons) the year 2000 was an eventful one. One of the key points of the year was the sharp rise in the price of crude oil at the start of the summer, a price hike which continued until the beginning of the winter. The source of the crisis can be found in the tension apparent during May within the petroleum market. Starting in United States, the trend towards higher prices of refined products led to a knock-on effect in the price of crude. The successive decisions by OPEC to increase its production remained fruitless. Only the gradual rebuilding of stocks of products and the mild winter allowed prices to cool off at the start of December. For 2001, several factors seem to herald a certain degree of stabilisation in prices within a fairly wide margin of variation between 22 and 28 dollars per barrel. Firstly the growth in demand should not exceed 1.9 % and moreover OPEC should be able to maintain its cohesion and slightly increase its production capacity in view of the high prices obtained in 2000. To this must be added renewed investments in exploration and production on the part of the major oil companies. However, the challenge for the decades to come will probably not concern oil reserves. It appears that the impact of energy consumption in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (chiefly CO 2 ) is now the subject of a certain consensus among experts. The rise in the average temperature of the atmosphere, the rise in sea levels, and increased rainfall are clearly observed phenomena even if forecasts in this field remain difficult to make. For the oil industry as a whole, producing a clean and readily available energy from hydrocarbons remains the priority objective: Clean because there is no benefit in developing new reserves if it becomes impossible to consume them due to their impact upon the environment; Available because no serious competitor to hydrocarbons with regard to private transport has yet appeared

  2. Trends in Meningococcal Meningitis Over the Past Twelve Years at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the trends in the occurrence of meningococcal meningitis at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria, as well as the antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: The results of all cerebrospinal fluid samples received by the microbiology laboratory (UNTH), Enugu ...

  3. Scattered light characterization of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Carter, Anna; Redwine, Keith; Teste, Stephane; Pelton, Russell; Hagopian, John; Kutyrev, Alexander; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2017-08-01

    We describe our efforts to build a Wide-Field Lyman alpha Geocoronal simulator (WFLaGs) for characterizing the end-to-end sensitivity of FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) to scattered Lyman α emission from outside of the nominal (1/2 degree)2 field-of-view. WFLaGs is a 50 mm diameter F/1 aluminum parabolic collimator fed by a hollow cathode discharge lamp with a 80 mm clear MgF2 window housed in a vacuum skin. It creates emission over a 10 degree FOV. WFLaGS will allow us to validate and refine a recently developed scattered light model and verify our scatter light mitigation strategies, which will incorporate low scatter baffle materials, and possibly 3-d printed light traps, covering exposed scatter centers. We present measurements of scattering intensity of Lyman alpha as a function of angle with respect to the specular reflectance direction for several candidate baffle materials. Initial testing of WFLaGs will be described.

  4. Changes of uranium market price and trend in recent years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingwu; Chen Zuyi

    2008-01-01

    The market price (especially the spot price ) of uranium has experienced significant changes since 2004. Several stages of uranium price are summed up. It is the slow increase period of uranium price from 1991 to 2004, The uranium price rapid rise from 2005 to 2007. The price of uranium jumped sharply from the fourth quarter 2006 to first half of 2007. The price of uranium rapid declined and tended to be stable from second half 2007 to this day. Characteristics, reason and change trend of uranium price in these stages are summarized. (authors)

  5. Forty cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Go; Yamada, Shoichiro; Sawatsubashi, Motohiro; Miyazaki, Junji; Tsuda, Kuniyoshi; Inokuchi, Akira [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Forty patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the maxillary sinus were investigated between 1989 and 1999. They consisted of 28 males and 12 females. Their ages ranged from 18 to 84 years (mean 62 years). According to the 1987 UICC TNM classification system, 3 patients were classified as stage II, 3 were stage III and 34 were stage IV. The overall three-year and five-year survival rates were 52% and 44%, respectively. Local recurrence was observed in 11 stage IV cases and 10 of them were not controlled. For further improving the prognosis of such patients, new techniques such as skull base surgery, super selective intraarterial chemotherapy, and concurrent chemo-radiation should be included in the treatment regimen. (author)

  6. 25 years acidification monitoring in Bavaria. Trends and developments; 25 Jahre Versauerungsmonitoring in Bayern. Trends und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, Thorsten

    2015-07-15

    In Bavaria, the development of the atmospheric caused acidification within all relevant environmental compartments (soil, water, air) is monitored by an intensive monitoring for more than 25 years. This report covers the trends and developments of chemical and biological indicators of flowing waters, groundwater and lakes are summarized evaluated and displayed. [German] In Bayern wird seit mehr als 25 Jahren die Entwicklung der atmosphaerisch bedingten Versauerung innerhalb aller betroffenen Umweltkompartimente (Boden, Wasser, Luft) durch ein intensives Monitoring ueberwacht. In diesem Bericht sind die Trends und Entwicklungen chemischer und biologischer Indikatoren der Fliessgewaesser, Grundwaesser und Seen zusammenfassend ausgewertet und dargestellt.

  7. Suicide mortality trends in young people aged 15 to 19 years in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strukcinskiene, B; Andersson, R; Janson, S

    2011-11-01

    This paper considers the suicide mortality trends from 1990-2009 in young people aged 15 to 19 years in Lithuania. Suicide and injury mortality data, plus mortality data from all causes, were used to compare the trend lines. Suicide mortality rate in young people aged 15-19 years and in all population showed a rising trend from 1990, and then a decreasing trend from 2002 year. This trend was significant exclusively in boys. When comparing suicide deaths as a percentage of injury deaths and of all deaths in the age group 15-19 years, rising trends for boys were evident, whilst in girls, there was no evidence of change. In Lithuania, from early 1990s, the frequency of suicide increased amongst adults and young people aged 15-19 years. After 2002, a decrease in deaths by suicide was observed both for the whole population and for young people aged 15-19 years. The rise and fall was obvious for boys. The reasons for different trends may have been influenced by the political and socioeconomic instability in the 1990-2002 period, and the socioeconomic stability, together with active preventive measures, from 2002. Although the consumption of modern Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increased during the same time, suicide mortality was again high during the economic crisis in 2008-2009. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. Resident wellness: institutional trends over 10 years since 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dongseok Choi,1,2 Andrea Cedfeldt,3,4 Christine Flores,5 Kimberly Irish,3 Patrick Brunett,3,6 Donald Girard3,4 1OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 2School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea; 3Division of Graduate Medical Education, 4Department of Medicine, 5Division of Continuing Professional Development, 6Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA Background: The surveys in this study were carried out at the Graduate Medical Education Division at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU. OHSU implemented two significant wellness initiatives: a wellness program in 2004, and a policy allowing 4 half-days off each academic year to pursue personal or family health care needs in 2010. This study provides a secondary data analysis of five cross-sectional surveys of career satisfaction of resident and fellow trainees. Methods: All trainees were surveyed five times over a 10-year period using anonymous, cross-sectional web-based survey instruments. Surveys included questions about career satisfaction, perceived stress, sleep hours, burnout, and related factors.Results: This represents 10 years of accumulated responses from over 2,200 residents with results showing continual improvement in their career satisfaction. Response rates ranged from 56% to 72%. During the study period, there was a significant positive change in overall resident career satisfaction, with little change in factors traditionally considered to be predictive of overall career satisfaction such as sleep hours or perceived stress level. In addition, our data support that availability of time for personal tasks could positively impact the overall training experience.Conclusion: We postulate that the improvements in satisfaction relate to two major institutional innovations designed to promote resident wellness. Keywords: satisfaction, burnout, graduate medical education

  9. Twelve-year analysis of microbial keratitis trends at a UK tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Z; Walkden, A; Au, L; Fullwood, C; Hamilton, A; Qamruddin, A; Armstrong, M; Brahma, A K; Carley, F

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the frequencies, trends, and in vitro drug susceptibilities of the causative pathogens in microbial keratitis in Manchester Royal Eye Hospital.Patients and methodsCorneal scrape results recorded by the microbiology service between 2004 and 2015 were extracted from an established database. A total of 4229 corneal scrape specimens were identified from an established database. First-line antibiotic treatment in our centre during the study period was ofloxacin and second line was cefuroxime and gentamicin.ResultsMean age was 45.9±21.0. A total of 1379 samples (32.6%) were culture positive. One hundred forty-eight (10.7%) specimens cultured multiple organisms. Of the 1539 organisms identified, 63.3% were Gram-positive bacteria, 27.3% Gram-negative bacteria, 7.1% fungi, and 2.3% Acanthamoebae. A decreasing trend in Gram-positive isolates was found together with a stable trend in Gram negatives and an increasing trend in Acanthamoeba and fungi. There appeared to be a significant increasing trend of Moraxella infection (P=0.001). In all, 83.1 and 90.8% of Gram-positive and -negative isolates tested were susceptible to ofloxacin, respectively. Cefuroxime covered 86.6% of Gram-positive and 61.4% of Gram-negative isolates, whereas gentamicin covered 88.8 and 96.5% of Gram-positive and -negative isolates, respectively.ConclusionWe found a change in the type of Gram-negative organisms isolated over time, with the Moraxella species on the rise. Reassuringly, no significant increase in resistance was observed in vitro for any of the commonly used antibiotics. Ofloxacin remains a good first-line antibiotic treatment but duo-therapy does have broader coverage and should be considered in non-responsive cases.

  10. Ectopic pregnancy: current clinical trends, a fifteen year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, L R

    1981-09-01

    This paper reviews the clinical recognition, diagnosis, and management of ectopic pregnancy at the Queen of Angels Hospital for the past 15 years. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy to deliveries is 1:195. Pain is the cardinal symptom of ectopic pregnancy, and amenorrhea of some degree was present in all cases. Pelvic inflammatory disease is a factor in the development of tubal pregnancy in some women. A careful history and thorough physical examination are important in making a careful diagnosis. The only laboratory procedures which are of any value are the blood type and the Rh determination. While examination of endometrial tissue obtained by biopsy or curettage has proved useful in ectopic pregnancy diagnosis, it is not totally decisive. Culdocentesis has proved to be the diagnostic procedure of the greatest value in recognizing intraperitoneal hemorrhage and it increases the correct preoperative diagnosis from 65-70% to 95%. Laparoscopy is useful when the physician is in doubt about the nature of the problem and it has produced an increase in the number of ectopic pregnancies diagnosed. Ultrasound is another useful tool in confirming a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy; its accuracy ranges from 70-92%. A newly developed pregnancy test is more sensitive than conventional pregnancy tests and would be positive for pregnancy. Women who have had a previous ectopic pregnancy have a higher subsequent incidence of persistent infertility, recurrent ectopic pregnancy, and pregnancy wastage; the risk of another ectopic pregnancy increases 30-50 fold. While extopic pregnancy does recur, it is true that about 1/3 of those women do have successful pregnancies. Where previous induced abortion has occurred, there is a 10-fold increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. Women who become pregnant accidentally with an IUD in place have a greater likelihood of experiencing an extrauterine pregnancy. Abdominal pregnancy is often encountered as an aborting ectopic pregnancy during the 1st

  11. Getting started with FortiGate

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Rosato

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that will teach you everything you need to know about the deployment and management of FortiGate, including high availability, complex routing, various kinds of VPN working, user authentication, security rules and controls on applications, and mail and Internet access.This book is intended for network administrators, security managers, and IT pros. It is a great starting point if you have to administer or configure a FortiGate unit, especially if you have no previous experience. For people that have never managed a FortiGate unit, the book helpfully walks t

  12. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R 2  = 0.72; p < 0.0004). Female subjects were well represented with a trend toward increasing participation. This was true for women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  13. The safety indicators program in Taiwan, China : a six-year trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Mingte

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents data on the current operating status and the safety indicators (SI) of the six nuclear power units in Taiwan. Analysis of the data collected in a six-year period has been made to obtain trends for each safety indicator. An overview of the trends of the plant operational data during the same period are also provided and discussed. On the whole, the trends of safety indicators are improving during the observed period 1991-1996. The plant operational data have depicted coherent improvement with the safety indicator trends. This result supports the premise that improvements in safety performance and in operational reliability are correspondingly inter-dependent. Both the safety indicators quarterly report and the annual report are available to the public. The public can also approach this information from the AEC's World Wide Web site (http://www.aec.gov.tw). (author)

  14. Trends of climatic changes considering over years 1894-1993 and 1894-2003 for Sarajevo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, Zeljko; Toromanovic, Aida; Halilovic, Senada

    2004-01-01

    Linear trends of changes in climatic parameters have been observed for Sarajevo and we considered correlation with world's trends and mutual correlation of years .1894-1993 and 1894-2003, both for the same meteorological station Sarajevo. In purpose of ascertaining correlation with global climate's changes, Sarajevo's records have been studied over the primary climatic parameters: average annual temperatures, absolute annual maximum and minimum temperatures, annual sum of rainfalls and drought index. We used method of adding of linear trends. Correlation with global tendency of climate has be shown as follow: - We notice increase of average temperature about 0.7 o C in past 100 years - We notice a rapid increase of absolute minimum temperature in compare with values of absolute maximum temperatures. - Annual sum of rainfalls doesn't show drastic changes. - We notice asymmetry trend for some actual seasons. - We notice increase of drought. During correlation of trends for years 1894-1993 and 1894-2003 has been noticed rapid increase of temperature and drought-index, while considering rainfalls there has not been drastic changes. (Author)

  15. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  16. Changing conditions on wilderness campsites: Seven case studies of trends over 13 to 32 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    2013-01-01

    This report brings together seven case studies of trends in the number and condition of wilderness campsites over periods ranging from 13 to 32 years. Case examples come from five mountainous wilderness areas in the western United States: Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness in California, the Eagle Cap Wilderness in Oregon, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness in...

  17. Development trends of remote sensing technology for uranium exploration in 12th Five Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jielin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced the research status,application requirements, technique questions and development trends of remote sensing technology for uranium exploration in the 12th five year, and discussed the applicant prospects and potential of applied basic research innovation, thermal infrared hyperspectral and microwave remote sensing, 4D geological mapping and stereo exploration model in the uranium exploration. (authors)

  18. Trends and developments within corporate communication: an analysis of ten years of CCIJ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to analyse the trends in the papers which have been published in Corporate Communications: An International Journal (CCIJ ) over the past ten years. The analysis will focus on the region of the world the (first) authors come from and on the topics of the paper.

  19. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  20. Trends in types of dermatology books available over the last ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2009-06-15

    Shifts in interest toward cosmetic and surgical dermatology and away from medical and academic dermatology have been observed in recent years. We hypothesized that this trend would be evident in the types of books available for purchase from a major medical textbook supplier. Books published from 1998-2008 were categorized by type and statistical testing was performed to determine if this trend has been reflected in books published. The percentage of medical dermatology books decreased over time, whereas the percentage of cosmetic and surgical dermatology books increased over time.

  1. Calibration and flight qualification of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Redwine, Keith; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group has completed the assembly and calibration of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of up to 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of-view. FORTIS is capable of selecting the far-UV brightest regions of the target area by utilizing an autonomous targeting system. Medium resolution (R ~ 400) spectra are recorded in redundant dual-order spectroscopic channels with ~40 cm2 of effective area at 1216 Å. The maiden launch of FORTIS occurred on May 10, 2013 out of the White Sands Missile Range, targeting the extended spiral galaxy M61 and nearby companion NGC 4301. We report on the final flight calibrations of the instrument, as well as the flight results.

  2. Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Milken Institute Review The overwhelming defeat of President Pervez Musharraf ’s party in parliamentary elections earlier this year was no surprise, inside Pakistan or out. But explanations for his thumping at the polls vary, and how one interprets the return to democracy matters a lot in predicting how this politically unstable, ethnically divided, nuclear-armed country will react to continuing stresses.

  3. 11-Year Trends in Pregnancy-Related Health Indicators in Maine, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Harris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to understand health and demographic trends among mothers and infants in Maine relative to the goals of Healthy People 2020. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine yearly values of pregnancy-related variables. Means (for continuous variables and percentages (for categorical variables were calculated using the survey procedures in SAS. Linear trend analysis was applied with study year as the independent variable. The slope and significance of the trend were then calculated. Over the study period, new mothers in Maine became better educated but the fraction of households with incomes <$20,000/year remained stagnant. Maternal prepregnancy BMI increased. Average pregnancy weight gain decreased but the number of women whose pregnancy weight gain was within the recommended range was unchanged. The rates of smoking and alcohol consumption (before and during pregnancy increased. The Caesarean section rate rose and the fraction of infants born premature (<37 wks gestation or underweight (<2500 gms remained unchanged. The fraction of infants who were breast-fed increased. These results suggest that, despite some positive trends, Maine faces significant challenges in meeting Healthy People 2020 goals.

  4. Trends of Bacterial Keratitis Culture Isolates in Jerusalem; a 13- Years Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Politis

    Full Text Available To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center.A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected.A total of 943 corneal isolates were analyzed during a 13 year period. A total of 415 positive bacterial cultures and 37 positive fungal cultures were recovered, representing 48% of the total cultures. The Annual incidence was 34.78 ± 6.54 cases. The most common isolate was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (32%, which had a significant decrease in trend throughout the study period (APC = -8.1, p = 0.002. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA appears to have a decrease trend (APC = -31.2, P = 0.5. There was an increase in the resistance trend of coagulase-negative staphylococci to penicillin (APC = 5.0, P = <0.001. None of the pathogens had developed any resistance to Vancomycin. (P = 0.88.Coagulase negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria isolated from patients with keratitis. There was no significant change in the annual incidence of cases of bacterial keratitis seen over the past 13 years. Keratitis caused by MRSA appeared to decrease in contrast to the reported literature.

  5. Steric and mass-induced Mediterranean sea level trends from 14 years of altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Aldeanueva, Francisco; Del Río Vera, Jorge; García-Lafuente, Jesús

    2008-02-01

    Long-term series of almost 14 years of altimetry data (1992-2005) have been analysed along with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and temperature and salinity profiles to investigate sea level trends over the Mediterranean Sea. Although sea level variations are mainly driven by the steric contribution, the mass-induced component plays some role in modulating its oscillation. A spatially averaged positive trend of 2.1 ± 0.6 mm/year has been observed, but a change in sign in 2001 seems to appear. Steric effects (mainly on thermal origin) account for ˜ 55% of sea level trend. Although Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed basin, this value is comparable to that reported for the global ocean. Sea level rise is particularly important in the Levantine basin south of Crete with values up to 10 ± 1 mm/year. Other areas of sea level rise are localised throughout the Levantine basin and in the Adriatic and Alboran Seas, with more moderate values. Sea level drop areas are localised in the Algerian basin, between the Balearic Islands and the African coasts and, particularly, in the Ionian basin. In this area, negative trends as high as - 10 ± 0.8 mm/year are detected mainly due to the mass-induced contribution, which suggests decadal changes of surface circulation. The inferred sea level trends have been correlated with North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices and a low but significant correlation has been detected between sea level in the Levantine and Balearic basins and NAO index.

  6. Eleven-year trend in acetanilide pesticide degradates in the Iowa River, Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J; Vecchia, Aldo V; Capel, Paul D; Meyer, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Trends in concentration and loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor and their ethanasulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OXA) acid degradates were studied from 1996 through 2006 in the main stem of the Iowa River, Iowa and in the South Fork Iowa River, a small tributary near the headwaters of the Iowa River. Concentration trends were determined using the parametric regression model SEAWAVE-Q, which accounts for seasonal and flow-related variability. Daily estimated concentrations generated from the model were used with daily streamflow to calculate daily and yearly loads. Acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and their ESA and OXA degradates were generally present in >50% of the samples collected from both sites throughout the study. Their concentrations generally decreased from 1996 through 2006, although the rate of decrease was slower after 2001. Concentrations of the ESA and OXA degradates decreased from 3 to about 23% yr. The concentration trend was related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period. Decreasing concentrations and constant runoff resulted in an average reduction of 10 to >3000 kg per year of alachlor and metolachlor ESA and OXA degradates being transported out of the Iowa River watershed. Transport of acetochlor and metolachlor parent compounds and their degradates from the Iowa River watershed ranged from <1% to about 6% of the annual application. These trends were related to the decreasing use of these compounds during the study period, but the year-to-year variability cannot explain changes in loads based on herbicide use alone. The trends were also affected by the timing and amount of precipitation. As expected, increased amounts of water moving through the watershed moved a greater percentage of the applied herbicides, especially the relatively soluble degradates, from the soils into the rivers through surface runoff, shallow groundwater inflow, and subsurface drainage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy

  7. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  8. Trends in Child Obesity and Underweight in Spain by Birth Year and Age, 1983 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Sánchez-Cruz, José Juan; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-08-01

    The prevalences of child obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and are a significant public health issue, particularly in terms of long-term cardiovascular risk profiles, which continue into adulthood unless obesity is reversed. Accurately identifying trends and at-risk subgroups is crucial to correctly target public health initiatives. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalences of child obesity and underweight in Spain from 1983 to 2011 taking into consideration both age and birth year. A series of cross-sectional studies representative of the pediatric population in Spain between 1987 and 2011 was used to calculate the prevalence and trends of excess weight and underweight in girls and boys aged 2 to 14 years per survey year and per birth year. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity remained relatively stable. The prevalence of overweight in boys aged 10 to 14 years increased from 13.9% to 22.2%. The prevalence of obesity in girls aged 2 to 5 years decreased from 30% to 19.8%, whereas the prevalence of underweight in this group increased from 13.7% to 22.6%. Child obesity trends in Spain over the last 2 decades appear to be stable with some fluctuations, but the trends differ depending on age and sex, and have stabilized at too high a level. The prevalence of underweight also appears to have increased and should be considered alongside excess weight when designing and implementing child health and weight measures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal trends and epidemiological aspects of ciguatera in French Polynesia: a 10-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Dewailly, Eric; Cerf, Nicole; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Huin-Blondey, Marie-Odile; Hubert, Bruno; Laudon, François; Chansin, René

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the temporal trends of the incidence of ciguatera poisoning from 1992 to 2001 in French Polynesia. This retrospective study analysed 7842 cases of ciguatera disease recorded over a period of 10 years. The annual incidence varied from 26.3 to 41.9 per 10,000 person-years. An analysis of cases grouped by archipelago revealed differences in incidences (P ciguatera poisoning appeared relatively stable during the 10 years of the study period. However, the gradient of remoteness observed suggests an adaptation of management of ciguatera disease to each archipelago.

  10. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A; Poterico, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (pAnemia decreased in children and women (pPeru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  11. Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawyer, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil industry has been through major changes in the past 10 years. We have seen an activity high in the early 1980s, which was stimulated by oil price predictions that went as high as $70/bbl. By 1985 we saw oil prices plunge to $8/bbl, causing numerous reorganizations and mergers. Today we find ourselves in a business environment in which large oil companies are reducing their explorative budgets in the mature basins of the U.S. and Canada in favor of more-attractive opportunities in frontier plays, usually overseas. These same companies are taking a hard look at their existing fields with the objective of increasing operating efficiency by sales, trades, and purchases. Nonperforming properties are sold or exchanged for properties that are within the supported infrastructure. Before a property can be considered for divestment, it must be evaluated on the basis of current reserves and potential for additional reserves. This process of restructuring producing properties is often referred to as property enhancement. The result of property enhancement is the identification of core producing properties. Resources and efforts are then focused on the core properties to maximize production and reserves. This is today's business environment. Our challenge is to provide value-added technology that will support exploration and production business objectives. Expenditures for technology should be treated like any other expenditures, with calculations of expected payouts and anticipated rates of return. An evaluation of risk should also be made. In other words, solid economic justification is required. This justification is particularly true in production, where expenditures and results are more closely coupled

  12. Non-uniform interhemispheric temperature trends over the past 550 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Richard P. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Lincoln University, Bio-Protection Research Centre, PO Box 84, Lincoln (New Zealand); Fenwick, Pavla; Palmer, Jonathan G. [Gondwana Tree-ring Laboratory, PO Box 14, Canterbury (New Zealand); McGlone, Matt S. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Turney, Chris S.M. [University of Exeter, School of Geography, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The warming trend over the last century in the northern hemisphere (NH) was interrupted by cooling from ad 1940 to 1975, a period during which the southern hemisphere experienced pronounced warming. The cause of these departures from steady warming at multidecadal timescales are unclear; the prevailing explanation is that they are driven by non-uniformity in external forcings but recent models suggest internal climate drivers may play a key role. Paleoclimate datasets can help provide a long-term perspective. Here we use tree-rings to reconstruct New Zealand mean annual temperature over the last 550 years and demonstrate that this has frequently cycled out-of-phase with NH mean annual temperature at a periodicity of around 30-60 years. Hence, observed multidecadal fluctuations around the recent warming trend have precedents in the past, strongly implicating natural climate variation as their cause. We consider the implications of these changes in understanding and modelling future climate change. (orig.)

  13. Onabotulinum toxin A dosage trends over time for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: A 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher G; Novakovic, Daniel; Mor, Niv; Blitzer, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Although onabotulinum neurotoxin A (BoNTA) has been used for over three decades for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia, no study has been performed to look at the trend of BoNTA dosages across time. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dosage trends to determine if the dosage necessary for voice improvement in patients increases over time. Charts were reviewed for patients with 15 years or more of experience. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine correlation coefficients and trends. Fifty-five patients receiving BoNTA injections by the senior author (a.b.) for over 15 years were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients (82% female) met inclusion criteria. Patients received injections over an average of 18.6 years ± 1.36 years, with the longest follow-up of 21.5 years. Of 39 patients, 16 (41%) had a negative correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) suggesting a decrease over time, whereas 23 (59%) had a positive correlation coefficient suggesting an increase over time. The mean correlation coefficient was 0.139 ± 0.534 and P  0.05 in 20 patients. R(2) for all patients were less than 0.75. Onabotulinum neurotoxin A injection dosage trends vary depending on the individual over time. Overall, the dose range appears to be stable in the majority of patients, suggesting that tolerance does not play a significant part in dose variation over time. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:678-681, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. [Tobacco use by adolescents in Barcelona (Spain) and trends in the last 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; García-Continente, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan Ramon; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Pérez, Anna; Nebot, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a preventable cause of early death and the habit starts in adolescence. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco consumption in secondary school students in 2008 and trends in the last 20 years in Barcelona. We analyzed the trend in tobacco consumption by comparing data from 8 surveys carried out between 1987 and 2008 in the 8th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education), 10th (4th year of Compulsory Secondary Education) and 12th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education) years of secondary school. The FRESC questionnaire was used. Data on regular and daily consumption and associated factors in 2008 were gathered and compared with those corresponding to the previous studies. Percentages of annual change were calculated with Joinpoint regression and data were stratified by sex and year of education. In 2008, 6.1% of boys and 4.5% of girls in the 8th year, 15.8% and 20.4% of those in the 10th year, respectively, and 26.1% and 33.1% of those in the 12th year, respectively, were regular smokers. A strong association was noted between regular smoking and cannabis consumption in three school years, as well as with having friends who were smokers and poor school performance. At 15-16 years old, the average annual decrease from 1996 to 2008 was 6.8% in girls and 6.1% in boys. Adolescent smoking has been decreasing in the last few years in Barcelona. There is a strong association between tobacco use and cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  16. Noctilucent clouds observed from the UK and Denmark – trends and variations over 43 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kirkwood

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The combined UK/Denmark record of noctilucent cloud (NLC observations over the period 1964–2006 is analysed. This data set is based on visual observations by professional and voluntary observers, with around 40 observers each year contributing reports. Evidence is found for a significantly longer NLC season, a greater frequency of bright NLC, and a decreased sensitivity to 5-day planetary waves, from 1973–1982, compared to the rest of the time interval. This coincides with a period when the length of the summer season in the stratosphere was also longer (defined by zonal winds at 60° N, 30 hPa. At NLC heights, lower mean temperatures, and/or higher water vapour and/or smaller planetary wave amplitudes could explain these results. The time series of number of NLC nights each year shows a quasi-decadal variation with good anti-correlation with the 10.7 cm solar flux, with a lag of 13–17 months. Using multi-parameter linear fitting, it is found that the solar-cycle and the length of summer in the stratosphere together can explain ~40% of the year-to-year variation in NLC numbers. However, no statistically confidant long-term trend in moderate or bright NLC is found. For NLC displays of moderate or greater intensity, the multi-parameter fit gives a trend of ~0.08 nights (0.35% per year with a statistical probability of 28% that it is zero, or as high as 0.16 nights (0.7% per year. There is a significant increasing trend in the number of reports of faint or very faint NLC which is inconsistent with other observations and may be due changes in observing practices.

  17. Fifty years of fat: news coverage of trends that predate obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brennan; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-10

    Obesity prevalence has risen in fifty years. While people generally expect media mentions of health risks like obesity prevalence to follow health risk trends, food consumption trends may precede obesity prevalence trends. Therefore, this research investigates whether media mentions of food predate obesity prevalence. Fifty years of non-advertising articles in the New York Times (and 17 years for the London Times) are coded for the mention of less healthy (5 salty and 5 sweet snacks) and healthy (5 fruits and 5 vegetables) food items by year and then associated with annual obesity prevalence in subsequent years. Time-series generalized linear models test whether food-related mentions predate or postdate obesity prevalence in each country. United States obesity prevalence is positively associated with New York Times mentions of sweet snacks (b = 55.2, CI = 42.4 to 68.1, p = .000) and negatively associated with mentions of fruits (b = -71.28, CI -91.5 to -51.1, p = .000) and vegetables (b = -13.6, CI = -17.5 to -9.6, p = .000). Similar results are found for the United Kingdom and The London Times. Importantly, the "obesity followed mentions" models are stronger than the "obesity preceded mentions" models. It may be possible to estimate a nation's future obesity prevalence (e.g., three years from now) based on how frequently national media mention sweet snacks (positively related) and vegetables or fruits (negatively related) today. This may provide public health officials and epidemiologists with new tools to more quickly assess the effectiveness of current obesity interventions based on what is mentioned in the media today.

  18. Understanding Trends in Kidney Function 1 Year after Kidney Transplant in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihung; Tilea, Anca; Gillespie, Brenda; Shahinian, Vahakn; Banerjee, Tanushree; Grubbs, Vanessa; Powe, Neil; Rios-Burrows, Nilka; Pavkov, Meda; Saran, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    Lower eGFR 1 year after kidney transplant is associated with shorter allograft and patient survival. We examined how practice changes in the past decade correlated with time trends in average eGFR at 1 year after kidney transplant in the United States in a cohort of 189,944 patients who received a kidney transplant between 2001 and 2013. We calculated the average eGFR at 1 year after transplant for the recipient cohort of each year using the appropriate Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation depending on the prevailing methodology of creatinine measurement, and used linear regression to model the effects of practice changes on the national post-transplant eGFR trend. Between the 2001-2005 period and the 2011-2013 period, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained essentially unchanged, with differences of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.65) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 and 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.01) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 among deceased and living donor kidney transplant recipients, respectively. Over time, the mean age of recipients increased and more marginal organs were used; adjusting for these trends unmasked a larger temporal improvement in post-transplant eGFR. However, changes in immunosuppression practice had a positive effect on average post-transplant eGFR and balanced out the negative effect of recipient/donor characteristics. In conclusion, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained stable, despite increasingly unfavorable attributes in recipients and donors. With an aging ESRD population and continued organ shortage, preservation of average post-transplant eGFR will require sustained improvement in immunosuppression and other aspects of post-transplant care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Illegal substance use among Italian high school students: trends over 11 years (1999-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Molinaro

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To monitor changes in habits in drug use among Italian high school students. METHODS: Cross-sectional European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD carried out in Italy annually for 11 years (1999-2009 with representative samples of youth attending high school. The sample size considered ranges from 15,752 to 41,365 students and response rate ranged from 85.5% to 98.6%. Data were analyzed to obtain measures of life-time prevalence (LT, use in the last year (LY, use in the last 30 days (LM, frequent use. Comparisons utilized difference in proportion tests. Tests for linear trends in proportion were performed using the Royston p trend test. RESULTS: When the time-averaged value was considered, cannabis (30% LT was the most, and heroin the least (2% frequently used, with cocaine (5%, hallucinogens (2% and stimulants (2% in between. A clear gender gap is evident for all drugs, more obvious for hallucinogens (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 2, range 1.7-2.4, p<0.05, less for cannabis (average M/F LY prevalence ratio 1.3, range 1.2-1.5, p<0.05. Data shows a change in trend between 2005 and 2008; in 2006 the trend for cannabis use and availability dropped and the price rose, while from 2005 cocaine and stimulant use prevalence showed a substantial increase and the price went down. After 2008 use of all substances seems to have decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use is widespread among students in Italy, with cannabis being the most and heroin the least prevalent. Girls are less vulnerable than boys to illegal drug use. In recent years, a decrease in heroin use is overbalanced by a marked rise in hallucinogen and stimulant use.

  20. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  1. Food and nutrient consumption trends in older Australians: a 10-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, V M; Burlutsky, G; Webb, K L; Wang, J J; Smith, W T; Mitchell, P

    2010-06-01

    Few longitudinal population-based cohort studies of older people have described dietary intakes over time. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the food and nutrient intake in a cohort of older Australians, using longitudinal data collected over 10 years. Population-based cohort of people aged 49 years and over at baseline (82% of those eligible) living in two postcode areas, west of Sydney. In 1992-1994, 3654 people were examined; 2334 were reexamined after 5 years and 1952 after 10 years (75% survivors at both examinations). A 145-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food and nutrient intake on each occasion, and 1166 participants provided usable dietary data at all three examinations. Energy and sugar intake significantly increased among women over the 10-year period (P-value for trend bread consumption decreased in both men and women (P-value for trend choices. This information could be used to inform nutrition policy and programs targeted to older persons. These data highlight the need to identify barriers to better food choices.

  2. Maximum And Minimum Temperature Trends In Mexico For The Last 31 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Centeno, R.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Allende Arandia, M. E.; Carrasco-Mijarez, N.; Calderon-Bustamante, O.

    2013-05-01

    Based on high-resolution (1') daily maps of the maximum and minimum temperatures in Mexico, an analysis of the last 31-year trends is performed. The maps were generated using all the available information from more than 5,000 stations of the Mexican Weather Service (Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, SMN) for the period 1979-2009, along with data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The data processing procedure includes a quality control step, in order to eliminate erroneous daily data, and make use of a high-resolution digital elevation model (from GEBCO), the relationship between air temperature and elevation by means of the average environmental lapse rate, and interpolation algorithms (linear and inverse-distance weighting). Based on the monthly gridded maps for the mentioned period, the maximum and minimum temperature trends calculated by least-squares linear regression and their statistical significance are obtained and discussed.

  3. MRSA Incidence and Antibiotic Trends in Urban Hand Infections: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Justin M; Thoder, Joseph J; Ilyas, Asif M

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most reported pathogen in hand infections at urban medical centers throughout the country. Antibiotic sensitivity trends are not well known. The purposes of this study were to examine and determine the drug resistance trends for MRSA infections of the hand and to provide recommendations for empiric antibiotic treatment based on sensitivity profiles. A 10-year longitudinal, retrospective chart review was performed on all culture-positive hand infections encountered at a single urban medical center from 2005 to 2014. The proportions of all organisms were calculated for each year and collectively. MRSA infections were additionally subanalyzed for antibiotic sensitivity. A total of 815 culture-positive hand infections were identified. Overall, MRSA grew on culture in 46% of cases. A trend toward decreasing annual MRSA incidence was noted over the 10-year study period. There was a steady increase in polymicrobial infections during the same time. Resistance to clindamycin increased steadily during the 10-year study, starting at 4% in 2008 but growing to 31% by 2014. Similarly, levofloxacin resistance consistently increased throughout the study, reaching its peak at 56% in 2014. The annual incidence of MRSA in hand infections has declined overall but remains the most common pathogen. There has been an alternative increase in the number of polymicrobial infections. MRSA resistance to clindamycin and levofloxacin consistently increased during the study period. Empiric antibiotic therapy for hand infections should not only avoid penicillin and other beta-lactams but should also consider avoiding clindamycin and levofloxacin for empiric treatment.

  4. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Xiong, JianJing; Lu, Yihan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China. Methods The present study was conducted in the Jing’an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District. Results A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing’an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound. Conclusions The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants. PMID:28640919

  5. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.The present study was conducted in the Jing'an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District.A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing'an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound.The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants.

  6. Forty years of soil degradation in vertic argiudolls in Entre Ríos province, Argentina Cuarenta años de degradación de argiudoles vérticos en la provincia de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Cosentino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the land use in Entre Ríos Province (Argentina has suffered a very important increase characterized by an intensive and continuous agriculture in a regionwith high watererosion susceptibility. Fortypercent of province surface sufferswater erosion in different degrees. This study was undertaken to assess the extent and nature of degradation in some physicaland chemical properties of vertic Argiudolls through the comparison of a pristine situation and three situations with increasingyears of land use after deforestation. Organic carbon (OC, light carbon (LC, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, labile organic phosphorus (Plo, structural stability (DMWD, size aggregate distribution in the A horizonwere determined. After 40 years from deforestation the OC, LC, Plo, decreased 26, 72 and 17% respectively meanwhile EC and pH had minor variations. The structural stability declined with time and there was a significant correlation between organic carbon and DMWD (r = - 0.985; P En la última década el uso de la tierra en la provincia de Entre Ríos (Argentina ha sufrido un incremento muy importante basado en la agricultura contínua e intensiva en una región con alta susceptibilidad de erosión hídrica. Cuarenta por ciento de la superficie de la Provincia posee erosión hídrica de diferentes grados de severidad. Este trabajo fue llevado a cabo para examinar el grado y la naturaleza de la degradación en algunas propiedades físicas y químicas en suelos vérticos a través de la comparación de una situación prístina con tres situaciones con diferentes años de agricultura luego de su deforestación. El carbono orgánico(OC, carbono liviano(LC, pH, conductividad eléctrica (EC, fósforoorgánico lábil (Plo, estabilidad estructural (DMWD y la distribución del tamaño de agregados en el horizonte A fueron determinados.Luego de 40 años de la deforestación el OC, LC y el Plo, disminuyeron 26, 72 y 17% respectivamente, comparados con

  7. Revista de Saúde Pública: quarenta anos da produção científica no Brasil Revista de Saúde Pública: forty years of Brazilian scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2006-08-01

    de complexidade dos estudos publicados, bem como de maior multidisciplinaridade. A Revista parece alargar seu alcance e repercussão embora continue fiel aos temas de interesse da saúde pública do Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To recognize the characteristics and path taken by the through analysis of the scientific production it has published over the period from 1967 to 2005. METHODS: Scientometric methods were used to analyze reference data on the articles published in the Revista, retrieved from the databases ISI/Thomson Scientific (Web of Science, National Library of Medicine (PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO. RESULTS: The Revista is the only Brazilian publication in the field of public health that is indexed by ISI/Thomson Scientific. It is prominent as a medium for publishing Brazilian scientific production in public health and is displaying a geometric increase in publication and citation, with annual rates of 4.4% and 12.7%, respectively. The mean number of authors per paper has risen from 2 to 3.5 over recent years. Although original research articles predominate, the numbers of reviews, multicenter studies, clinical trials and validation studies have been increasing. The number of articles published in foreign languages has also increased, accounting for 13% of the total, and the leading countries originating these are the UK, USA, Argentina and Mexico. The number and diversity of journals citing the Journal has been increasing, many of which are non-Brazilian. Authorship per author shows good fit to Lotka's Law, but the parameters suggest greater concentration and less dispersion than would be expected. Among the fields of interest of published papers, the following topics account for more than 50% of the total volume: infectious-parasitic diseases and vectors; health promotion, policies and administration; and epidemiology, surveillance and disease control. CONCLUSIONS: The Revista shows great dynamism, without signs of abating or reaching a

  8. Limited effect of ozone reductions on the 20-year photosynthesis trend at Harvard forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xu; Keenan, Trevor F; Munger, William; Unger, Nadine

    2016-11-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) damage to leaves can reduce plant photosynthesis, which suggests that declines in ambient O 3 concentrations ([O 3 ]) in the United States may have helped increase gross primary production (GPP) in recent decades. Here, we assess the effect of long-term changes in ambient [O 3 ] using 20 years of observations at Harvard forest. Using artificial neural networks, we found that the effect of the inclusion of [O 3 ] as a predictor was slight, and independent of O 3 concentrations, which suggests limited high-frequency O 3 inhibition of GPP at this site. Simulations with a terrestrial biosphere model, however, suggest an average long-term O 3 inhibition of 10.4% for 1992-2011. A decline of [O 3 ] over the measurement period resulted in moderate predicted GPP trends of 0.02-0.04 μmol C m -2  s -1  yr -1 , which is negligible relative to the total observed GPP trend of 0.41 μmol C m -2  s -1  yr -1 . A similar conclusion is achieved with the widely used AOT40 metric. Combined, our results suggest that ozone reductions at Harvard forest are unlikely to have had a large impact on the photosynthesis trend over the past 20 years. Such limited effects are mainly related to the slow responses of photosynthesis to changes in [O 3 ]. Furthermore, we estimate that 40% of photosynthesis happens in the shade, where stomatal conductance and thus [O 3 ] deposition is lower than for sunlit leaves. This portion of GPP remains unaffected by [O 3 ], thus helping to buffer the changes of total photosynthesis due to varied [O 3 ]. Our analyses suggest that current ozone reductions, although significant, cannot substantially alleviate the damages to forest ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Heart Failure Hospitalisations in the Hunter New England Area Over 10 years. A Changing Trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omary, Mohammed S; Davies, Allan J; Khan, Arshad A; McGee, Michael; Bastian, Bruce; Leitch, James; Attia, John; Fletcher, Peter J; Boyle, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Heart failure carries a major burden on our health system, mainly related to the high rate of hospital admission. An understanding of the recent trends in heart failure hospitalisation is essential to the future allocation of health resources. Our aim is to analyse the temporal trends in heart failure hospitalisation. We extracted all separations in the Hunter New England Local Health District between 2005-2014 (n=40,119) with an ICD 10 code for heart failure (I-50) in the first four diagnoses on discharge. The numbers of hospitalisations were age-standardised to the 2001 Australian population and compared based on gender and remoteness. There was a decline in the age-standardised hospitalisation. However, there was a clear inflection point between 2009-2010, after which the decline levelled off. The absolute number of hospitalisations increased between 2010 and 2014. Heart failure hospitalisation was higher in males compared to females and rural compared to metropolitan inhabitants. The gains in heart failure treatment noted in recent years seem to have come to an end. Patients aged 75 years and older are contributing the majority of age-standardised hospitalisations. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender trends in dental leadership and academics: a twenty-two-year observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lee, Damian J; Kongkiatkamon, Suchada; Ross, Sasha; Prasad, Soni; Koerber, Anne; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender disparities in dental leadership and academics in the United States. Nine journals that represent the dental specialties and high published impact factors were selected to analyze the percentage of female dentists' first and senior authorship for the years 1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008. Data on appointment status and female deanship were collected from the American Dental Association (ADA) survey, and the trends were studied. The proportion of female presidents in ADA-recognized specialty organizations was also calculated. Overall, the increase in first female authorship was not statistically significant, but the increase of last female authorship was statistically significant in a linear trend over the years. The percentage of tenured female faculty members and female deans in U.S. dental schools increased by factors of 1.7 and 9, respectively, during the study period. However, female involvement in professional organizations was limited. Findings from this study indicate that female participation in authorship and leadership has increased over time. Nevertheless, females are still a minority in dental academics and leadership.

  11. Gender trends of urology manuscript authors in the United States: a 35-year progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dana A; Kovshilovskaya, Bogdana; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2012-01-01

    The presence of women in urology has gradually increased in the last 35 years with an accelerated rate in the last decade. We evaluated manuscript authorship trends by gender. Manuscript authorship is a metric that has been used as a marker of academic productivity. We hypothesized that the number of first and last author publications by women has increased proportionately to the number of women in the field during the last 35 years. We performed a bibliometric study to examine authorship gender in The Journal of Urology® and Urology®. We reviewed all original articles published from American institutions in 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2009. Of the 8,313 articles reviewed 5,461 were from American institutions, including 97.5% for which we determined author gender. There were 767 articles with female authors, including 440 first and 327 last authors. First and last female authorship increased from 2.7% of all authors in 1979 to 26.5% in 2009 (test for trend p authorship rate surpasses the rate of growth of women in urology, which increased from 0.24% in 1975 to 6.2% in 2008. Based on authorship gender analysis women urologists produce manuscripts at a rate that exceeds their number in the field. Findings show that women in urology are productive, active members of the academic community. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EFP Delphi study on the trends in Periodontology and Periodontics in Europe for the year 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madianos, Phoebus; Papaioannou, William; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Baeumer, Amelie; Bogren, Anna; Bouchard, Philippe; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria; Demirel, Korkud; Gaspersic, Rok; Giurgiu, Marina; Graziani, Filippo; Jepsen, Karin; Jepsen, Sören; O Brien, Tiernan; Polyzois, Ioannis; Preshaw, Philip M; Rakic, Mia; Reners, Michele; Rincic, Nives; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sütcü, Serdar; Verner, Christian; Llodra, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to assess the potential trends in Periodontology and Periodontics in Europe that might be anticipated by the year 2025, using the Delphi method. The expert opinion of 120 experts was sought through the use of an open-ended questionnaire, developed by an advisory group, containing 40 questions concerning the various trends in periodontology. The experts (113 responders) expect a stabilization of the prevalence of periodontitis, both for the chronic as well as the aggressive cases, but an increase in implant-related diseases up to the year 2025. Concurrently, the importance of implants is seen to be increasing. They foresee an increased demand for postgraduate periodontology and implantology training. This is mirrored in an increase in publications for implant dentistry and increase in demand and need for training. Concerning the patients, better-informed individuals seeking more routine check-ups are expected. A continued need for specialized periodontists, but also well trained dental practitioners is foreseen for next decade in Europe. Apart from periodontology they will be increasingly exposed to and trained in implant dentistry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, T.L.; Wells, F.C.; Ohe, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas for the 1975-89 water years were investigated in this study. The investigation of sources was confined to distinct geographic patterns in the trend indicators for one constituent or for a group of related constituents.

  14. Bibliometric Analysis of Female Authorship Trends and Collaboration Dynamics Over JBMR's 30-Year History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Austin E; Fischer, James P; Likine, Elive F; Gudeman, Andrew S; Brinker, Alexander R; Ryu, Jonathan; Maupin, Kevin A; Lunsford, Shatoria; Whipple, Elizabeth C; Loder, Randall T; Kacena, Melissa A

    2017-12-01

    In academia, authorship is considered a currency and is important for career advancement. As the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (JBMR) is the highest-ranked journal in the field of bone, muscle, and mineral metabolism and is the official publication of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, we sought to examine authorship changes over JBMR's 30-year history. Two bibliometric methods were used to collect the data. The "decade method" included all published manuscripts throughout 1 year in each decade over the past 30 years starting with the inaugural year, yielding 746 manuscripts for analysis. The "random method" examined 10% of published manuscripts from each of the 30 years, yielding 652 manuscripts for analysis. Using both methods, the average number of authors per manuscript, numerical location of the corresponding author, number of collaborating institutions, number of collaborating countries, number of printed manuscript pages, and the number of times each manuscript was cited all significantly increased between 1986 and 2015 (p authorship trends over the past 30 years and demonstrate those countries having the most changes and where challenges still exist. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Cardiac Stress Test Trends Among US Patients Younger Than 65 Years, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Vinay; McCarthy, Fenton H; Dayoub, Elias; Bradley, Steven M; Masoudi, Frederick A; Ho, P Michael; Groeneveld, Peter W

    2016-12-01

    After a period of rapid growth, use of cardiac stress testing has recently decreased among Medicare beneficiaries and in a large integrated health system. However, it is not known whether declines in cardiac stress testing are universal or are confined to certain populations. To determine trends in rates of cardiac stress testing among a large and diverse cohort of commercially insured patients. A serial cross-sectional study with time trends was conducted using administrative claims from all members aged 25 to 64 years belonging to a large, national managed care company from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. Linear trends in rates were determined using negative binomial regression models with procedure count as the dependent variable, calendar quarter as the key independent variable, and the size of the population as a logged offset term. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. Age- and sex-adjusted rates of cardiac stress tests per calendar quarter (reported as number of tests per 100 000 person-years). A total of 2 085 591 cardiac stress tests were performed among 32 921 838 persons (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [10.9] years; 16 625 528 women [50.5%] and 16 296 310 [49.5%] men; 7 604 945 nonwhite [23.1%]). There was a 3.0% increase in rates of cardiac stress testing from 2005 (3486 tests; 95% CI, 3458-3514) to 2012 (3589 tests; 95% CI, 3559-3619; P = .01 for linear trend). Use of nuclear single-photon emission computed tomography decreased by 14.9% from 2005 (1907 tests; 95% CI, 1888-1926) to 2012 (1623 tests; 95% CI, 1603-1643; P = .03). Use of stress echocardiography increased by 27.8% from 2005 (709 tests; 95% CI, 697-721) to 2012 (906 tests; 95% CI, 894 to 920; P < .001). Use of exercise electrocardiography increased by 12.5% from 2005 (861 tests; 95% CI, 847-873) to 2012 (969 tests; 95% CI, 953-985; P < .001). Use of other stress testing modalities increased 65.5% from 2006 (55 tests; 95% CI

  16. Twenty-year trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisley, Kelly R; Preston, Jennifer F; Dolan, James P; Diggs, Brian S; Hunter, John G

    2017-08-01

    Trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the U.S. over time have not been previously described. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we analyzed patients undergoing Heller myotomy for achalasia over a 20-year period (1992-2011) to estimate rates of Heller myotomy, locations where the procedures were performed (rural, urban or teaching) and changes in technique (laparoscopic vs open) as well as outcomes of length of stay and in-hospital mortality. Over the last 20 years, the total number of Heller myotomies performed in the U.S. has increased (1576 cases in 1992 to 5046 cases in 2011, p = 0.001). These procedures are now being performed laparoscopically (0.9%-67.0%, p Heller myotomy at teaching institutions with decreased in-hospital mortality and shorter LOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Trends of premature mortality in Swietokrzyskie Province (Poland), years 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gózdz, Stanislaw; Krzyzak, Michalina; Maślach, Dominik; Wróbel, Monika; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Premature mortality in younger age groups influences the society as far as social and economic aspects are concerned. Therefore, it is important to come up with a tool which will allow to assess them, and will enable to implement only these health care measures that bring tangible benefits. That is the reason for introducing PYLL rate (PYLL - potential years of life lost), which is an addition to the analysis of premature mortality as it includes the number of deaths due to a particular cause and the age at death. The purpose of this study was to analyse the level and trends of PYLL rate according to death causes in years 2002 -2010 in Swietokrzyskie Province. The material for the analysis was the information from the Central Statistical Office on the number of deaths due to all causes registered among the inhabitants of Swiytokrzyskie Province in years 2002-2010. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases. The analysis of premature mortality was carried out with the use of PYLL rate. PYLL rate was calculated according to the method proposed by Romeder, according to which the premature mortality was defined as death before the age of 70. The analysis of time trends of PYLL rate and the APC (annual percent change) of the PYLL rate were calculated using jointpoint model as well as the Jointpoint Regression Program (Version 4.0.1 - January 2013). In men, in years 2002 - 2007 PYLL rate increased by 1.5% per year (paverage by 3.1% per year till year 2010. External causes of death, cardiovascular diseases and cancers in years 2002 - 2010 were the reason for almost 74.0% PYLL in men. In year 2010 PYLL rate due to all death causes amounted to 8913.8/105 and was three times higher than in women (2975.5/10(5)). In women, however, during the analysed period PYLL rate did not change significantly, and was dominated by cancers, cardiovascular diseases and external death causes. Similarly to men, those three groups

  18. Concluding remarks: Reflections on the forty year's history of TNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    The History of NATO's TNF policy is much wider than it may first appear, for NATO TNF policy has been the heart of the whole nuclear question since shortly after it was first so dramatically posed in 1945. Admittedly the ultimate foundation of deterrence has been the overarching balance of strategic nuclear weapons between the two Superpowers. These have provided the strategic open-quotes monitorclose quotes of ultimately unacceptable damage that inspires cautious behavior at lower levels of conflict. But if the strategic weapons inculcate the caution, it has been with TNF that the opposing blocs have chiefly tried to harness nuclear weapons to particular situations and manipulate them to their advantage. The key characteristic of nuclear weapons that distinguishes them from all others is their virtually unlimited destructive potential. Powers disposing of large strategic nuclear forces cannot readily, perhaps ever, be deprived of an ultimate capacity to do outrageous harm. If they are to be defeated, it must therefore be by outmaneuvering them so that they yield the essential prizes without recourse to their worst possibilities. If nuclear weapons are to be used in this process, whether actually or by latent influence on particular issues, it must be in some limited form. NATO's TNF policy constitutes the best example of this so far in nuclear history

  19. Forty years of crime prevention in the Dutch Polder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.J.M.; de Waard, J.; Crawford, A.

    2009-01-01

    For the past two decades the growth of public policies and strategies aimed at crime prevention and community safety has constituted one of the major innovations in crime control, with significant implications for the manner in which crime and safety are governed. But how has 'the preventive turn'

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Forty-five years apart - confronting the legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a satisfactory teaching hospital or residence for its [African] ... the transformation of health sciences education in .... by students and to elucidate some challenges for higher ..... other inequalities in staffing profile, as a practical expression of.

  1. Forty Years of Salmonella enterica Dublin in People

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-05

    Dr. Reid Harvey, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses Salmonella enterica Dublin in People.  Created: 10/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/5/2017.

  2. Sending the right message : forty years of BBC Radio News

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe-Serlie, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Radio is, compared to television and newspapers, an under-researched area in media studies. This research has looked at BBC Radio News in the period 1966-2008; it is a case study into the views of 43 (former) writers of the BBC Radio Newsroom and BBC Radio One. Interviews were conducted with

  3. Forty years of the 93D puff of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transcript to accumulate at the 93D locus, (vii) the hsrω-n transcript directly or indirectly affects the localization/ ..... factor to the 93D site following a typical heat shock was ..... any DNA sequence not involved in production of proteins.

  4. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    within the field of Old Testament studies since the ground breaking works of Thomas Thompson and John van Seters in 1974 and 1975 (both republished in 2014). The book is divided in three sections: changing perspectives in biblical studies, history and cult, and ideology and history, presenting new...

  5. Forty Years of Malaria Control and Zululand In Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    when it became necessary to extend control measures over the whole area. ... field staff, are necessary to ensure that new or renovated dwellings ... and by 1956 malaria infection had been reduced to negli- ... There are 7 mission hospitals in.

  6. Trends in asthma mortality in the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudenz, Gustavo Silveira; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update on trends in asthma mortality in Brazil for two age groups: 0-4 years and 5-34 years. Data on mortality from asthma, as defined in the International Classification of Diseases, were obtained for the 1980-2014 period from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. To analyze time trends in standardized asthma mortality rates, we conducted an ecological time-series study, using regression models for the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups. There was a linear trend toward a decrease in asthma mortality in both age groups, whereas there was a third-order polynomial fit in the general population. Although asthma mortality showed a consistent, linear decrease in individuals ≤ 34 years of age, the rate of decline was greater in the 0- to 4-year age group. The 5- to 34-year group also showed a linear decline in mortality, and the rate of that decline increased after the year 2004, when treatment with inhaled corticosteroids became more widely available. The linear decrease in asthma mortality found in both age groups contrasts with the nonlinear trend observed in the general population of Brazil. The introduction of inhaled corticosteroid use through public policies to control asthma coincided with a significant decrease in asthma mortality rates in both subsets of individuals over 5 years of age. The causes of this decline in asthma-related mortality in younger age groups continue to constitute a matter of debate. Apresentar uma atualização das tendências da mortalidade da asma no Brasil em duas faixas etárias: 0-4 anos e 5-34 anos. Dados relativos ao período de 1980 a 2014 referentes à mortalidade da asma, conforme se definiu na Classificação Internacional de Doenças, foram extraídos Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Departamento de Tecnologia da Informação do Sistema Único de Saúde. Para analisar as tendências temporais das taxas

  7. Changing trends of chronic myeloid leukemia in greater Mumbai, India over a period of 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P.; Nagrani, Rajini; Yeole, Balkrishna; Koyande, Shravani; Banawali, Shripad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about burden of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in India. There is a recent interest to observe incidence and mortality because of advent of new diagnostic and treatment policies for CML. Materials and Methods: We extracted data from the oldest population-based cancer registry of Mumbai for 30 years period from 1976−2005 to observe incidence and mortality rates of CML. We classified the data into four age groups 0–14, 15–29, 30–54 and 55–74 to observe incidence rates in the respective age groups. Results: The age specific rates were highest for the age group of 55–74 years. No significant change in trends of CML was observed for 30 years period. However, there was a significant reduction in incidence rate for recent 15-years period (Estimated average annual percentage change=-3.9). No significant reduction in mortality rate was observed till 2005. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that age-specific rates for CML are highest in age group of 55-74 years, although they are lower compared to western populations. Significant reduction in incidence of CML in recent periods might be because of reduced misclassification of leukemias. The data of CML has to be observed for another decade to witness reduction in mortality because of changes in treatment management. PMID:22174498

  8. Trends in National Emergency Medicine Conference Didactic Lectures Over a 6-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Riddell, Jeff; Njie, Abdoulie

    2017-01-01

    National conference didactic lectures have traditionally featured hour-long lecture-based presentations. However, there is evidence that longer lectures can lead to both decreased attention and retention of information. The authors sought to identify trends in lecture duration, lecture types, and number of speakers at four national emergency medicine (EM) conferences over a 6-year period. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the length, number of speakers, and format of didactic lectures at four different national EM conferences over 6 years. The authors abstracted data from the national academic assemblies for the four largest not-for-profit EM organizations in the United States: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. There was a significant yearly decrease in the mean lecture lengths for three of the four conferences. There was an increase in the percentage of rapid fire sessions over the preceding 2 years with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of general educational sessions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of speakers per lecture. An analysis of 4210 didactic lecture sessions from the annual meetings of four national EM organizations over a 6-year period showed significant decreases in mean lecture length. These findings can help to guide EM continuing medical education conference planning and research.

  9. Ten-year survey of program directors: trends, challenges, and mentoring in prosthodontics. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Deborah M; Kinnunen, Taru; Chang, Brian M; Wright, Robert F

    2011-10-01

    This study consisted of two parts. Part 1 was a survey of US program directors, and Part 2 reports on the survey findings distributed to the deans of US dental schools. Both surveys evaluated observations of trends in prosthodontic education. The first survey (2005) of program directors and deans was published in 2007. This second survey was conducted in 2009. The 2009 survey provided 10-year data on trends in prosthodontics as reported by program directors. A national e-mail survey of 46 program directors was used to collect enrollment data for years 1 to 3 of prosthodontics training for US and international dental school graduates, the total number of applicants and applications considered, and the trends over time of applicants to prosthodontics for US dental school graduates and for international graduates. In addition, the program directors were asked to rank 13 key factors that may have contributed to any changes in the prosthodontic applicant pool. Program directors were also asked for information on student financial incentives and whether their programs were state or federally funded, and whether their sponsoring institution was a dental school. Of the 46 program directors, 40 responded, for an 87% response rate. Respondents reported that 66% of their enrollees were graduates of US dental schools. Between 2000 and 2009 the applicant pool in prosthodontics nearly doubled, with 50% of the program directors reporting an increase in US-trained applicants, 42.5% reporting no change, and only 7.5% reporting a decrease. Using the Spearman correlation for the 10-year survey, there was a positive, statistically significant correlation that society's demand for a higher level of training and credentialing and interest in prosthodontics among dental students contributed to an increase in the number of US dental graduates applying to prosthodontic programs. Only four programs offered no financial packages to offset tuition. The remaining 36 respondents reported some

  10. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Based on PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM

  11. Authorship in Radiation Oncology: Proliferation Trends Over 30 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojerholm, Eric, E-mail: eric.ojerholm@uphs.upenn.edu; Swisher-McClure, Samuel

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate authorship trends in the radiation oncology literature. Methods and Materials: We examined the authorship credits of “original research articles” within 2 popular radiation oncology journals–International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics and Radiotherapy and Oncology–in 1984, 1994, 2004, and 2014. We compared the number of authors per publication during these 4 time periods using simple linear regression as a test for trend. We investigated additional author characteristics in a subset of articles. Results: A total of 2005 articles were eligible. The mean number of authors per publication rose from 4.3 in 1984 to 9.1 in 2014 (P<.001). On subset analysis of 400 articles, there was an increase in the percentage of multidisciplinary bylines (from 52% to 72%), multi-institutional bylines (from 20% to 53%), and publications with a trainee first author (from 16% to 56%) during the study period. Conclusions: The mean number of authors per publication has more than doubled over the last 30 years in the radiation oncology literature. Possible explanations include increasingly complex and collaborative research as well as honorary authorship. Explicit documentation of author contributions could help ensure that scientific work is credited according to accepted standards.

  12. 2014 Global Energy Trends: a year full of surprises. Based on its 2014 data for G20 countries, Enerdata analyses the trends in the world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    According to the 2014 Global Energy Trends publication, Enerdata points out 2014 as a remarkable year with a near stagnation in energy demand and CO_2 emissions despite economic growth. The G20's 2014 Key Energy figures: +3.5% Economic Growth; +0.3% (10.8 Gtep) Energy consumption stagnation; -0.2% (26 GtCO_2) CO_2 emissions stabilizations. The main trends derived from the publication are: - Historical stagnation in energy consumption; - Stabilisation in CO_2 emissions; - Global energy consumption stabilisation is reflected everywhere: - 0 growth for gas, - Fall in coal consumption, - Slight increase in electricity consumption. The Global Energy Trends Analysis also provides additional graphs on such topics as: Coal: most consumed energy source in G20 countries; Oil: 50% fall in international prices; Oil: demand continues to slightly increase; Gas: high impact of climate on gas consumption. (authors)

  13. [Chile: mortality between 1 and 4 years of age. Trends and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E

    1981-08-01

    The great decline in infant mortality in Chile in the last 2 decades provokes interest in the current situation in child mortality (for children 1-4 years of age). For the present analysis, central death rates and probabilities of dying are used, calculated with Greville's method from birth and death data. Mortality trends of the group between 1961-78, sex differentials, and causes of death are studied. The findings indicate that mortality in this age group has declined dramatically during the period of analysis, mainly due to the decrease in mortality from respiratory diseases, diarrhea, and diseases avoidable through vaccination. To attain the future approach of the Chilean rate to that of more developed countries, the reduction of mortality from respiratory diseases and diarrhea should continue together with the achievement of substantial reduction in mortality from violence and accidents. This, the primary cause of death in children, ages 1-4, has not varied during the period under study. (author's)

  14. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running – Past trends and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10–20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records. PMID:26088705

  15. Twenty-year trends in benzodiazepine dispensing in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Conigrave, K M; Day, C A; Nguyen, Y; Haber, P S

    2014-01-01

    Considerable concern has been expressed about overprescribing of benzodiazepines and related harms. Past analyses have relied on World Health Organization-defined daily doses (DDD) which are sometimes out of keeping with clinical usage. This study examines 20-year (1992-2011) trends of benzodiazepine dispensing in Australia using both DDD and Ashton equivalent dose. Data from the Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) website were analysed. Trends in number of prescriptions, DDD/1000 people/day and DDD/prescription were examined over time, and between states/territories. In the 20-year period, 174 080 904 scripts were recorded, with temazepam the most dispensed benzodiazepine (35% of scripts), followed by diazepam (23%). Overall recorded utilisation fell from 27.7 DDD/1000 people/day in 1992 to 20.8 in 2011 (24.9% decrease). There were striking changes in use of individual benzodiazepines over time, with reductions in oxazepam and flunitrazepam and dramatic increases in alprazolam. Since 1998, there has been a steady increase, albeit modest, in per script DDD. The DDD/1000 people/day for items dispensed through PBS/Repatriaton-PBS was highest in Tasmania and lowest in Northern Territory. Despite a modest overall decline in the amount of benzodiazepine dispensed, the level of use is still likely to reflect relative over-prescribing given the paucity of accepted indications for long-term use. Since 1998, there was a polynomial increase in quantity dispensed per script. The WHO-defined DDD for clonazepam seems inappropriate and could impede monitoring of its abuse. Other problems include lack of national data for medications not subsidised on PBS/Repatriation PBS. A broad policy approach is required, not one which targets only one particular benzodiazepine. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles: 15 year trends and association with socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, P; Chiolero, A; Shamlaye, C; Paccaud, F

    2008-11-01

    We assessed the 15-year trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African Region) and the relationship with socio-economic status (SES). Three population-based examination surveys were conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004. Occupation was categorized as 'labourer', 'intermediate' or 'professional'. Education was also assessed in 1994 and 2004. Between 1989 and 2004, mean BMI increased markedly in all sex and age categories (overall: 0.16 kg m(-2) per calendar year, which corresponds to 0.46 kg per calendar year). The prevalence of overweight (including obesity, BMI >or= 25 kg m(-2)) increased from 29% to 52% in men and from 50% to 67% in women. The prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg m(-2)) increased from 4% to 15% in men and from 23% to 34% in women. Overweight was associated inversely with occupation in women and directly in men in all surveys. In multivariate analysis, overweight was associated similarly (direction and magnitude) to occupation and education. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity over time in all age, sex and SES categories suggests large-scale changes in societal obesogenic factors. The sex-specific association of SES with overweight suggests that prevention measures should be tailored accordingly.

  17. [Trend of mortality of congenital malformation in children aged <5 years in Beijing, 2006-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, D Y; Zhang, W X; Li, Y C; Wang, J

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To investigate the change in mortality of congenital malformation in children aged malformation in children aged malformation in the children s decreased from 1.909‰ in 2006 to 0.703‰ in 2015, the decrease rate was 63.17 % . The decrease rate was highest in neonates (71.50 % ) ( χ (2)=57.993, P 0.05), the mortality rates of congenital malformation in the children showed a downward trend in outer suburban area and suburban area ( χ (2) =40.637 and 50.646, P malformation decreased from 32.97 % in 2006 to 23.24 % in 2015, which mainly occurred in infancy and neonatal period ( χ (2)=9.395 and 4.354, P malformations and digestive tract abnormality didn' t decreased significantly ( P >0.05). In the leading causes of deaths from congenital malformation, the mortality of congenital heart disease, neural tube defects and digestive tract atresia decreased obviously ( χ (2)=70.868, 18.431 and 9.225, P 0.05). There was an obvious area specific difference between the deaths of congenital heart disease and the deaths of neural tube defects, the mortality was higher in outer suburbs than in suburban and urban area ( χ (2)=45.783 and 6.649, P malformation in Beijing has declined year by year, it is still the main cause of deaths in children under 5 years old, and the prevention and control of related diseases should be strengthened.

  18. Major trends in party system in Ukraine for 1998-2014 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Nosenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current party system of Ukraine, defined its main features and trends with regard of parliamentary elections 2014 was investigated. The classification, which distinguish the parliamentary system was determined. It is established that the party system has undergone significant changes compared to previous years. Thus, according to classification Mayra Ukrainian party system evolved from a secondary party system to a system of small parties because the two largest parties have 47.5% of votes in parliament. Meyer’s Index fell by almost a factor of 2, indicating that the party system became more competitive, the process of forming a coalition will be longer, and the stability of the government will be lower than in previous years. The calculated effective indices of the number of parties suggested Laakso, Taagepera and Golosov also show that the party system became more fragmented. Based on the analyzed results of parliamentary elections for 1998­2014 years, it has found that increasing or decreasing the percentage threshold of 1%, not significantly affected by the number of parties represented in Parliament; none of the parties could not be present in every convocation; there is uncertainty in electoral preferences.

  19. Fifteen-year phenological plant species and meteorological trends in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Ruga, L.; Bonofiglio, T.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2014-07-01

    The present study was carried out in a phenological garden in central Italy that contains vegetative clones of shrubs and trees common to several international phenological gardens, such as Cornus sanguinea L.; Corylus avellana L.; Ligustrum vulgare L.; Robinia pseudoacacia L.; Salix acutifolia Willd. and Sambucus nigra L. Vegetative plant growth monitoring was carried out weekly using common international keys: BBCH07, bud break and leaf unfolding; BBCH19, young unfolded leaf; BBCH91, adult leaves; BBCH93, beginning of leaf colouring. The phenological dates thus obtained provide a model of the development for these different species in relation to the 15-year period of observation (1997-2011). From a meteorological point of view, temperature and precipitation trends were studied, with the highest anomalies during the study period recorded during the first 2 months of the year (January, February). There was relative invariance in the manifestation of the open bud phase and the contemporary advance of the young open leaves phase, particularly from 2006. This was accompanied by shortening of the leaf opening period, which appeared due to more rapid spring temperature increases over the last few years. The advance tendency of the BBCH91 phase showed adult leaves from the first summer weeks with fully green foliage monitored for a long time. Generally, the autumn leaf colouring phase tended to remain constant, with the exception of Salix acutifolia and Sambucus nigra, for which, on the other hand, the first leaf development phases appeared to be most likely influenced by the photoperiod.

  20. [Child malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Peru: trends and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Manuel; Gutiérrez, César; Cunha, Antonio J; Dávila, Miguel; Alarcón, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Analyze malnutrition and anemia trends in Peruvian children under 5 years of age and their association with determinants in the 2000-2011 period. Nutritional indicators for children under 5 years of age from the 2011 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), and their evolution based on data from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 ENDES, were analyzed. Chronic malnutrition (CM) (height/age ≤ 2 SD), acute malnutrition (AM), (height/weight ≤ 2 SD), and anemia trends were estimated. Associations were found with factors such as sex, age, area of residence (urban or rural), region of residence, mother's education, wealth quintile, availability of public water system, sewer availability, altitude, presence of other children in household, birth order, presence of diarrhea in previous 15 days, and presence of cough in previous 15 days. AM, CM, and anemia in Peruvian children under 5 years of age decreased from 2000-2011. This reduction was not uniform for the three conditions, with decreases of 1.1% to 0.4% recorded for AM, 31.6% to 19.6% for CM, and 50.4% to 30.7% for anemia. Although the factors analyzed were related to the prevalence of these three illnesses, calculation of the adjusted odds ratios showed significant differences for CM (mother's education, Sierra region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, presence of two or more children in household, and being the third or successive child) and anemia (child sex [higher in males], children under 2 years of age, Resto de costa region and Selva region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, availability of public water system, sewer availability, presence of two or more children in household, and presence of diarrhea within 15 days prior to the survey). For AM, differences were observed according to some factors but they were not significant in the adjusted model. In the 2000-2011 period, Peru achieved reduction of its CM, AM, and anemia rates. AM rates decreased to almost one-third, with overall

  1. Prevalence of Prediabetes and Abdominal Obesity Among Healthy-Weight Adults: 18-Year Trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Jo, Ara; Anton, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    Trends in sedentary lifestyle may have influenced adult body composition and metabolic health among individuals at presumably healthy weights. This study examines the nationally representative prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity among healthy-weight adults in 1988 through 2012. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and NHANES for the years 1999 to 2012, focusing on adults aged 20 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.99 and do not have diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed. We defined prediabetes using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ranges from 5.7% to 6.4%, as specified by the American Diabetes Association. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. The prevalence of prediabetes among healthy-weight adults, aged 20 years and older and without diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, increased from 10.2% in 1988-1994 to 18.5% in 2012. Among individuals aged 45 years and older, the prevalence of prediabetes increased from 22.0% to 33.1%. The percentage of adults aged 20 years and older with an unhealthy waist circumference increased from 5.6% in 1988-1994 to 7.6% in 2012. The percentage of individuals with an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio increased from 27.2% in 1988-1994 to 33.7% in 2012. Adjusted models found that measures of abdominal obesity were not independent predictors of prediabetes among adults with a healthy BMI. Among individuals within a healthy BMI range, the prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity has substantially increased. Abdominal obesity does not appear to be the primary cause of the increase. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  2. Past 15-year trends in adolescent marijuana use: Differences by race/ethnicity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2015-10-01

    The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, past 30-day use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999 to 2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Socioeconomic factors and mortality in emergency general surgery: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenia, Sarah J; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Merchant, Aziz M

    2017-05-15

    Socioeconomic factors such as race, insurance, and income quartiles have been identified as independent risk factors in emergency general surgery (EGS), but this impact has not been studied over time. We sought to identify trends in disparities in EGS-related operative mortality over a 20-y period. The National Inpatient Sample was used to identify patient encounters coded for EGS in 1993, 2003, and 2013. Logistic regression models were used to examine the adjusted relationship between race, primary payer status, and median income quartiles and in-hospital mortality after adjusting for patients' age, gender, Elixhauser comorbidity score, and hospital region, size, and location-cum-teaching status. We identified 391,040 patient encounters. In 1993, Black race was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.35 [1.20-1.53]) than White race, although this difference dissipated in subsequent years. Medicare, Medicaid, and underinsured patients had a higher odds of mortality than those with private insurance for the entire 20-y period; only the disparity in the underinsured decreased over time (1993, 1.63 [1.35-1.98]; 2013, 1.41 [1.20-1.67]). In 2003 (1.23 [1.10-1.38]) and 2013 (1.23 [1.11-1.37]), patients from the lowest income quartile were more likely to die after EGS than patients from the highest income quartile. Socioeconomic disparities in EGS-related operative morality followed inconsistent trends. Over time, while gaps in in-hospital mortality among Blacks and Whites have narrowed, disparities among patients belonging to lowest income quartile have worsened. Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries continued to experience higher odds of in-hospital mortality relative to those with private insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Twenty-year trends in dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland: toward healthier eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary patterns provide a summary of dietary intake, but to our knowledge, few studies have assessed trends in dietary patterns in the population. Objective: The aim was to assess 20-y trends in dietary patterns in a representative sample of the Geneva, Switzerland, population with the consideration of age, sex, education, and generation. Design: Repeated, independent cross-sectional studies were conducted between 1993 and 2014. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by using principal components analyses. Results: Among 18,763 adults, 1 healthy ("fish and vegetables") and 2 unhealthy ("meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets") patterns were identified. Scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased in both sexes and across all age groups. The stronger increase in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a narrowing of educational differences (mean ± SD scores in 1993: -0.56 ± 1.39 compared with -0.05 ± 1.58 in low- compared with highly educated groups, respectively; P Generational analysis showed that older age groups tended to show smaller changes than younger age groups: the yearly score change in "chocolate and sweets" was -0.021 (95% CI: -0.027, -0.014; P y cohort compared with -0.002 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.005; P = 0.546) for the 45- to 54-y cohort. Conclusions: Three dietary patterns were identified; scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and the "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased. The stronger increases in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a smaller difference in dietary intake across the different educational levels. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Employment trends during preschool years among mothers of term singletons born with low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Kornstad, Tom; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Kristensen, Petter; Irgens, Lorentz M; Landolt, Markus A; Eskedal, Leif T; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2014-11-01

    Children born at term with low birth weight (LBW) are regarded growth restricted and are at particular risk of adverse health outcomes requiring a high degree of parental participation in the day-to-day care. This study examined whether their increased risk of special health care needs compared to other children may influence mothers' opportunities for participation in the labor market at different times after delivery. Data from 32,938 participants in the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with singleton children born at term in 2004-2006 were linked to national registers in order to investigate the mothers' employment status when their children were 1-3 years in 2007 and 4-6 years in 2010. Children weighing less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean were defined as LBW children. Although not significantly different from mothers of children in the normal weight range, mothers of LBW children had the overall highest level of non-employment when the children were 1-3 years. At child age 4-6 years on the other hand, LBW was associated with an increased risk of non-employment (RR 1.39: 95 % CI 1.11-1.75) also after adjustment for factors associated with employment in general. In accordance with employment trends in the general population, our findings show that while mothers of normal birth weight children re-enter the labor market as their children grow older, mothers of LBW children born at term participate to a lesser extent in paid employment and remain at levels similar to those of mothers with younger children.

  7. Recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K J; Griffin, R; Rue, L W; McGwin, G

    2009-08-01

    To describe recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years, and to compare injury rates with sales of newer digital televisions. Digital television sales data were obtained from marketing data provided by the Television Bureau of Advertising. Data regarding television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years were obtained from the 1998-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A Wald chi(2) test, estimated from logistic analysis, was used to determine whether the distribution of injury types differed by age group. Pearson's correlation was used to estimate the association between digital television sales and television tip over-related injuries. An estimated 42 122 (95% CI 35 199 to 49 122) injuries from television tip-overs were treated in US emergency departments from 1998 to 2007. The injury rate was highest for children aged 1-4 years (18.6/100 000). A majority of injuries (63.9%) involved the head and neck for children under 1 year of age, while a higher proportion of injuries among children aged 1-4 involved the hip and lower extremity (42.9% and 31.0%, respectively), and shoulder and upper extremity (16.8%) for children aged 5-9. A strong, positive correlation was observed between television sales and annual injury rates (r = 0.89, pdigital television sales were strongly correlated with increased injury rates, the lack of information regarding the type of television involved prevents inference regarding causation.

  8. Prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of hip fracture in women - secular trends over 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sernbo Ingemar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of hip fractures during recent decades has been reported to be increasing, partly because of an increasing proportion of elderly women in the society. However, whether changes in hip fracture annual incidence in women are attributable to secular changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis is unclear. Methods Bone mineral density was evaluated by single-photon absorptiometry at the distal radius in 456 women aged 50 years or above and living in the same city. The measurements were obtained by the same densitometer during three separate time periods: 1970-74 (n = 106, 1987-93 (n = 175 and 1998-1999 (n = 178, and the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis in these three cohorts was calculated. Additionally, all hip fractures sustained in the target population of women aged 50 years or above between 1967 and 2001 were registered, whereupon the crude and the age-adjusted annual incidence of hip fractures were calculated. Results There was no significant difference in the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis when the three cohorts were compared (P = 1.00. The crude annual incidence (per 10,000 women of hip fracture in the target population increased by 110% from 40 in 1967 to 84 in 2001. The overall trend in the crude incidence between 1967 and 2001 was increasing (1.58 per 10,000 women per year; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.99, whereas the age-adjusted incidence was stable over the same period (0.22 per 10,000 women per year; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.16 to 0.60. Conclusions The increased number of hip fracture in elderly women is more likely to be attributable to demographic changes in the population than to secular increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis.

  9. Trends in CPAP adherence over twenty years of data collection: a flattened curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Brian W; Murariu, Dorian; Pang, Kenny P

    2016-08-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, and continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the gold standard of therapy. CPAP however is known to have problems with adherence, with many patients eventually abandoning the device. The purpose of this paper is to assess secular trends in CPAP adherence over the long term to see if there have been meaningful improvements in adherence in light of the multiple interventions proposed to do so. A comprehensive systematic literature review was conducted using the Medline-Ovid, Embase, and Pubmed databases, searching for data regarding CPAP adherence over a twenty year timeframe (1994-2015). Data was assessed for quality and then extracted. The main outcome measure was reported CPAP non-adherence. Secondary outcomes included changes in CPAP non-adherence when comparing short versus long-term, and changes in terms of behavioral counseling. Eighty-two papers met study inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall CPAP non-adherence rate based on a 7-h/night sleep time that was reported in studies conducted over the twenty year time frame was 34.1 %. There was no significant improvement over the time frame. Behavioral intervention improved adherence rates by ~1 h per night on average. The rate of CPAP adherence remains persistently low over twenty years worth of reported data. No clinically significant improvement in CPAP adherence was seen even in recent years despite efforts toward behavioral intervention and patient coaching. This low rate of adherence is problematic, and calls into question the concept of CPAP as gold-standard of therapy for OSA.

  10. Dengue epidemiological trend in Oman: a 13-year national surveillance and strategic proposition of imported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Awaidy, Salah Thabit; Al Obeidani, Idris; Bawikar, Shyam; Al Mahrouqi, Salim; Al Busaidy, Suleiman Salim; Al Baqlani, Said; Patel, Prakash K

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a major public health problem globally in the past three decades. A 13-year national surveillance data analysis was done to describe the epidemiology and its trend of dengue disease in Oman reported between 2001 and 2013. Laboratory-confirmed dengue virus infections reported were studied retrospectively during the study period. A total of 64 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. All the patients contracted the disease during their visit to South-East Asian countries, hence classified as imported cases. The majority of the cases were reported in the year 2012 (23.4%). The most important clinical characteristics were fever (90.6%), myalgia (35.9%) and rash/petechial rash (20.3%). Thrombocytopenia was seen in 31.2% of the study subjects. The mortality was nearly 4.6% and all other patients made a full recovery. The most effective measure for travellers is taking precautions to avoid mosquito bites. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Detecting trends in forest disturbance and recovery using yearly Landsat time series: 1. LandTrendr — Temporal segmentation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and test LandTrendr (Landsat-based detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery), a new approach to extract spectral trajectories of land surface change from yearly Landsat time-series stacks (LTS). The method brings together two themes in time-series analysis of LTS: capture of short-duration events and smoothing of long-term trends. Our strategy is...

  12. [Trends in the mortality of liver cancer in Qidong, China: an analysis of fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-guo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-hui; Chen, Yong-sheng; Ding, Lu-lu; Lu, Jian-hua; Zhu, Yuan-rong

    2012-07-01

    To describe and analyze the charecteristics and trends of liver cancer mortality during the past fifty years in Qidong, China. Retrospective mortality survey was conducted to get the data on liver cancer death in the period of 1958-1971, and the data from 1972 to 2007 were obtained from the records of cancer registration in Qidong. The crude mortality rate (CR) of liver cancer, and age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR) were calculated and analyzed. The total percent changes (PC) and annual percent changes (APC) were used for evaluating the increasing trends of the mortality. The sex-specific rate, age-specific rate, truncated rate of the age group 35 - 64, cumulative rate of the age group 0-74, cumulative risk, period-rate, and the rate for age-birth cohort were compared. The natural death rate in Qidong residents for the past five-decade period experienced a wave interval of 8.62‰ in 1958 down to 5.37‰ in 1979, and up to 7.75‰ in 2007. The mortality rate for all-site cancers was increased from 56.69 per 100, 000 to 234.97 per 100, 000. The mortality rate of liver cancer, being 20.45 per 100, 100 in 1958 was increased to 49.04 per 100, 000 in 1972, and up to 69.29 per 100, 000 in 2007. According to the registration data of 1972 - 2007, the death from liver cancer was accounted for 34.88% of all deaths due to cancers, with a CR of 58.86 per 100, 000, CASR of 38.36 per 100, 000, and WASR, 49.37 Per 100, 000 in Qidong. The truncated rate for the age group 35 - 64 was 117.08 per 100, 000, and the cumulative rate for the age group 0-74 and the cumulative risk were 5.15% and 5.02%, respectively. The CRs for males was 90.52 per 100, 000 and for females was 27.93 per 100, 000, with a sex ratio of 3.24:1. For the period of 1972 - 2007, the PC for CR was 49.71%, and APC was +1.41%, showing an increasing variation tendency. The APCs for CASR and WASR, however, were decreasing, with a percentage of -1.11%, and -0

  13. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is often affected by drought events with strong influences in ecosystems and the related social and economic impacts (Gouveia et al. 2012, Trigo et al., 2013). In the last decades the severity of droughts in Iberia have increased due to the higher atmospheric evaporative demand (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014). The need for a deeper knowledge of drought frequency, duration and intensity over the Iberian Peninsula during the last 112 years is reinforced by the findings showing that the period of 1970-2010 over the Mediterranean region was considered drier when compared with 1901-1970. Together with the increasing dryness, the projections point for an increase of drought conditions during the twenty-first century (Hoerling et al., 2012) will tend to exacerbate these problems. The evolution of drought in the Iberian Peninsula was analyzed, using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), for the period 1901-2012, and the sub-periods 1901-1937, 1938-1974 and 1975-2012. We have used SPI and SPEI for the time scale of 12 months, as obtained from CRU TS3.21 database between 1901 and 2012, using a spatial resolution of 0.5°. The drought indices were analyzed in order to identify significant trends during the entire period and sub-periods. Trends in annual precipitation and PET were also performed. Drought's duration, magnitude and time spanned between drought events were computed. SPI and SPEI significant trends show areas with opposite signals in the period 1901-2012, following precipitation patterns. Precipitation trends are significant and positive in the Northwestern region of the IP, and significant and negative in the Southern areas. SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts, which is in agreement with the increase in PET on the majority of the territory. The same spatial differences were identified in the drought duration, magnitude and

  14. Trends in the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori infection for eleven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jai Hoon; Baik, Gwang Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Yeon Soo; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Jin Bong; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Jin Bae; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Hak Yang; Baik, Il Hyun; Jang, Hyun Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the trends in the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) over the past 11 years in a single center. METHODS: This retrospective study covered the period from January 2000 to December 2010. We evaluated 5746 patients diagnosed with gastric ulcers (GU), duodenal ulcers (DU), GU + DU, or nonpeptic ulcers associated with an H. pylori infection. We treated them annually with the 2 wk standard first-line triple regimen, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) + amoxicilin + clarithromycin (PAC; PPI, clarithromycin 500 mg, and amoxicillin 1 g, all twice a day). The follow-up test was performed at least 4 wk after the completion of the 2 wk standard H. pylori eradication using the PAC regimen. We also assessed the eradication rates of 1 wk second-line therapy with a quadruple standard regimen (PPI b.i.d., tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 300 mg q.i.d., metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d., and tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d.) after the failure of the first-line therapy. Statistical analysis was performed with 95%CI for the differences in the annual eradication rates. RESULTS: A total of 5746 patients [2333 males (58.8%), 1636 females (41.2%); mean age of males vs females 51.31 ± 13.1 years vs 52.76 ± 13.6 years, P < 0.05, total mean age 51.9 ± 13.3 years (mean ± SD)] were investigated. Among these patients, 1674 patients were excluded: 35 patients refused treatment; 18 patients ceased H. pylori eradication due to side effects; 1211 patients had inappropriate indications for H. pylori eradication, having undergone stomach cancer operation or chemotherapy; and 410 patients did not undergo the follow-up. We also excluded 103 patients who wanted to stop eradication treatment after only 1 wk due to poor compliance or the side effects mentioned above. Finally, we evaluated the annual eradication success rates in a total of 3969 patients who received 2 wk first-line PAC therapy. The endoscopic and clinical findings in patients who received the 2 wk PAC were as follows

  15. Gender trends in authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery literature: A 30-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenke, Emeka; Seemann, Rudolf; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Rohde, Maximilian; Stelzle, Florian; Knipfer, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the gender distribution of first and senior authorships in important oral and maxillofacial journals over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010. Articles published in three representative oral and maxillofacial surgery journals were selected. The years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were chosen as representative points in time for article selection. Original research, case reports, technical notes, and reviews were included in the analysis. Case reports and technical notes were pooled in one group. For each article, the gender of the first author as well as that of the senior author was determined, based on the inspection of their first name. The type of article was determined and the country of origin of the article was documented. A total 1412 articles were subjected to the data analysis. A significant increase in female authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery could be identified over the chosen 30-year period. However, the number of publications by male authors was still significantly higher at all points of time, exceeding those of female authors by at least 3.8 fold in 2010. As there is a trend towards feminization of medicine and dentistry, the results of the present study may serve as the basis for further analysis of the current situation, and the identification of necessary actions to accelerate the closure of the gender gap in publishing in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Time Trends in Murray's Psychogenic Needs over Three Decades in Swedish 75-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billstedt, Eva; Waern, Margda; Falk, Hanna; Duberstein, Paul; Östling, Svante; Hällström, Tore; Skoog, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    While time trends in personality traits have been suggested in younger cohorts, little is known regarding this issue in older adults. To test for birth cohort changes in psychogenic needs according to Murray's theory of personality in two birth cohorts of 75-year-olds born 1901-1902 and 1930. Two population-based birth cohorts were examined at the age of 75 years in 1976-1977 and in 2005-2006. Psychogenic needs according to Murray were measured with the Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS), a Swedish version of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Scores on the CMPS subscales (achievement, affiliation, aggression, defence of status, guilt feelings, dominance, exhibition, autonomy, nurturance, order, succorance, and acquiescence) were compared between cohorts. Achievement, exhibition, dominance, aggression, affiliation, and succorance scores were higher, and order and acquiescence scores lower, in the more recent birth cohort of 75-year-olds. Women scored lower than men on exhibition and dominance, and higher on defence of status, guilt feelings, affiliation, nurturance, and succorance. Interaction effects between cohort and sex were found for achievement (women scored lower than men in 1976-1977 but not in 2005-2006), order (the lower scores in 2005-2006 were more accentuated among men), and acquiescence (increased in men and decreased in women). The later-born birth cohort scored higher on self-centred traits, such as more dominant, competitive, and exhibitive traits as well as the need to be taken care of and have friends around, but it scored lower on the need for order. The gap between men and women regarding achievement decreased, possibly reflecting women's more prominent role in society. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the US population. Yet little is known about whether or not characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. To examine time trends in the distribution of day's intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the US adult population. The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971-1974 to 2009-2010 (N=62,298 participants aged 20-74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters, relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake, the clock time of report, and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Over the 40-year span examined reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after-dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (eg, report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Several meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults changed over time, with a greater change in snack behaviors of women relative to men

  18. Trends in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Publications Over the Past 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Michael; Cismariu-Potash, Keren; Ratmansky, Motti; Shaklai, Sharon; Amir, Hagay; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva

    2016-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that the number of publications in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) has increased over the last 16 years in a linear fashion, and to compare the trends in publication between the pediatric and adult literature. We evaluated all MEDLINE articles from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2013, using Medical Subject Headings categories of rehabilitation. An age filter separated adult and pediatric articles. We divided articles into those with a low level of scientific evidence such as letters and editorials, and those with a high level of evidence such as controlled trials and meta-analyses. We used regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the year of publication on the number of publications of each type. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. MEDLINE reported a total of 98,501 adult publications and 30,895 pediatric publications during the evaluated period. There was a significant linear increase in the total number of publications in adult and pediatric rehabilitation publications with multiplication factors of 3.3 and 2.9, respectively. Importantly, publications with a high level of evidence showed larger multiplication factors compared with those with a low level of evidence (5.5 and 5.1 vs 2.1 and 2.0) for the adult and pediatric literature. The number of publications in the PMR field, especially those with a high level of scientific evidence, has increased linearly over the years, reflecting the rapid evolution of both adult and pediatric PMR. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ankle injuries in the Netherlands : Trends over 10-25 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, Ellen; van de Port, I.; Valkenberg, H.; Hoes, A. W.; Backx, F. J G

    2015-01-01

    Ankle injuries are a common health problem; data on ankle injury rates and time trends in the population at large are scarce. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of and time trends in population-based and emergency department-treated ankle injuries related to sports activities and other

  20. Nutrition transition in a middle-income country: 22-year trends in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, I; Bovet, P; Viswanathan, B; Luke, A; Marques-Vidal, P

    2013-02-01

    There is little objective information regarding nutrition transition in African countries. We assessed trends in nutrition patterns in the Seychelles between 1989 and 2011. Population-based samples were obtained in 1989, 1994 and 2011 and participants aged 25-44 are considered in this study (n=493, 599 and 471, respectively). Similar, although not identical, food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used in each survey and the variables were collapsed into homogenous categories for the purpose of this study. Between 1989 and 2011, consumption frequency of fish (5+/week) decreased from 93 to 74%, whereas the following increased: meat (5+/week) 25 to 51%, fruits (1+/week) 48 to 94%, salty snacks (1+/week) 22 to 64% and sweet snacks (1+/week) 38 to 67% (PSeychelles is experiencing nutrition transition characterized by a decreased consumption frequency of traditional staple foods (fish, polished rice), beverages (tea) and of inexpensive home brews, and increased consumption frequency of meat, poultry and snacks. Food patterns also became more varied along with a broader availability of products in the 22-year interval. The health impact of these changes should be further studied.

  1. Ten years after "Worrying trends in econophysics": developments and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has made a number of important additions to scientific knowledge. Yet it continues to lack influence with both economists and policy makers. Ten years ago, I and three other economists sympathetic to econophysics wrote a paper on worrying trends within the discipline. For example, its lack of awareness of the economics literature, and shortfalls in the use of statistical analysis. These continue to be obstacles to wider acceptance by economists. Like all agents, policy makers respond to incentives, and economists understand this very well. Much of the econophysics community appears to think that simply doing good science is sufficient to have the work recognised, rather than relating to the motivations and incentives of policy makers. Nevertheless, econophysics now has three major opportunities to advance knowledge in areas where policy makers perceive weaknesses in what they are presented with by economists. All can benefit from the analysis of Big Data. The first is a core model of agent behaviour which is more relevant to cyber society than the rational agent model of economics. Second, extending our understanding of the business cycle, primarily by incorporating the importance of networks into models. Third, devising proper measures of output in cyber society.

  2. Trends in female authorship in research papers on eating disorders: 20-year bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Mattias; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-03-01

    There is a clear gender gap in scientific authorship. Although the proportions of female authors in medicine and psychiatry have increased over the past decades, women are still underrepresented. Aims To analyse authorship gender trends in eating disorder research. First and last author gender in research articles on eating disorders during the period 1997-2016 were assessed in eating disorder specialty journals, high-impact psychiatry journals and high-impact clinical psychology journals. The total number of papers on eating disorders increased substantially over the observation period, although a decrease was observed in high-impact psychiatry journals. Female authorship increased in both specialty journals and high-impact psychiatry journals. Authors were significantly less likely to be female in high-impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals than in speciality journals. Eating disorder research has been increasingly allocated to specialty journals over the past 20 years. A consistent gender gap between specialty and high-impact journals exists. Declaration of interest C.M.B is a grant recipient from Shire Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has participated as a member of their scientific advisory board. These positions are unrelated to the content of this article.

  3. Criminal Law in Nigeria in the Last 53 Years: Trends and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Olajide Bello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The article is an overview of developments in substantive criminal law in Nigeria in the last 53 years. It examines the sharing of constitutional legislative powers to enact criminal laws between the federal (national government and the state (local governments. The examination of federal laws revealed proactive legislative activity responding to emerging local and international criminal law issues. The main development at the state level is the introduction by States in Northern Nigeria of Sharia Penal Codes and the enactment of the Criminal Law of Lagos State 2011. A common trend is the entrenchment of death penalty as punishment for some crimes. Implications: While federal criminal laws have responded to emerging realties, state criminal laws have generally failed to respond to emerging issues at the state level. Consequently, in most of the southern states criminal laws introduced in 1916 have continued to apply. Value: The paper demonstrates the need for southern States to reform their criminal laws to respond to emerging realties, the federal government to respond to some outstanding criminal law issues and calls for a suspension of death penalty and a revaluation of its continued relevance.

  4. Electricity from geothermal energy: analysis of the trend to the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, M.H.; Fanelli, M.

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s the installed geothermal electric capacity in the world was 1960 MW, rising to 3698.5 MW in 1985, and 5835.5. MW in 1990. At the beginning of 1993 the installed capacity had reached 5915 MW, an increase of 202% with respect to 1980. The percentage increase in installed capacity worldwide per annum in that same period, however, dropped from 13.5 in the 1980-1984 period to 9.6 in the period 1985-1989 and 0.5 in 1990-1992. Geothermal development has recently assumed a downward trend. There is evidence, however, to show that the situation will improve in the near future. Based on data from reliable sources, approximately 10,200 MW will be installed throughout the world by the year 2000, increasing 72% with respect to 1993 figures. The greatest increase (167%) is expected in Asia. The percentage increase per annum in the world in the period 1993-2000 should rise to 8.1. (author)

  5. Scientometric analysis in special education: importance and trends over the last 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Canavarro Benite

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Special education in Brazil is defined in law as “the type of education offered preferentially in the regular classes for students with special needs education”. However, this proposal of special education has not always been defined in this way, and a factor that contributed greatly to the consolidation of special education as a specific field of study was the research and theis resulting publications. Thus, this study aimed to make a scientometric analysis in the field of special education in order to determine which are and were the main trends of research over the years, and to review literature on the history of special education. It was felt that the issue of special education has undergone major advances, with consequent recovery of the subject with special needs. The scientometric analysis in special education to suggest that there has been a great evolution in the area, including a fact explained by the large number of papers published over time and the different aspects of his publications. Reflections on scientometrics in special education characterize the global production of special education and provide input for further research are made in this area. Thus, the construction and analysis of these indicators have provided input to view the state of the art in special education.

  6. A 35-year trend analysis for back pain in Austria: the role of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang; Rásky, Eva; Burkert, Nathalie; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of back pain is constantly increasing and a public health problem of high priority. In Austria there is a lack of empirical evidence for the development of back pain and its related factors. The present study aims to investigate trends in the prevalence of back pain across different subpopulations (sex, age, obesity). A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional health surveys (1973-2007) was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in private homes in Austria. Subjects aged 20 years and older were included in the study sample (n = 178,818). Obesity was defined as BMI≥30 kg/m2 and adjusted for self-report bias. Back pain was measured as the self-reported presence of the disorder. The age-standardized prevalence of back pain was 32.9% in 2007; it was higher among women than men (pAustria and can be used to plan controlled promotion programs. Further monitoring is recommended in order to control risk groups and plan target group-specific prevention strategies. In Austria particular emphasis should be on obese individuals. We recommend conducting prospective studies to confirm our results and investigate causal relationships.

  7. How abnormal is binge eating? 18-Year time trends in population prevalence and burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, D; Touyz, S; González-Chica, D A; Stocks, N; Hay, P

    2017-08-01

    Although findings suggest that binge eating is becoming increasingly normative, the 'clinical significance' of this behaviour at a population level remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the time trends in binge-eating prevalence and burden over 18 years. Six cross-sectional face-to-face surveys of the Australian adult population were conducted in 1998, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (N total = 15 126). Data were collected on demographics, 3-month prevalence of objective binge eating (OBE), health-related quality of life, days out of role, and distress related to OBE. The prevalence of OBE increased six-fold from 1998 (2.7%) to 2015 (13.0%). Health-related quality of life associated with OBE improved from 1998 to 2015, where it more closely approximated population norms. Days out of role remained higher among participants who reported OBE, although decreased over time. Half of participants who reported weekly (56.6%) and twice-weekly (47.1%) OBE reported that they were not distressed by this behaviour. However, the presence of distress related to OBE in 2015 was associated with greater health-related quality-of-life impairment. As the prevalence of binge eating increases over time, associated disability has been decreasing. Implications for the diagnosis of disorders associated with binge eating are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish national birth cohort at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Olsen, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-11-01

    We prospectively examined trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cell phone use was assessed at ages 7 and 11 years, and we examined use patterns by age, by year of birth, and in relation to specific individual characteristics. There was an increase in cell phone use from age 7 (37%) to 11 years (94%). There was a clear pattern of greater reported cell phone use among children at age 7 years with later birth year, but this trend disappeared at age 11. Girls and those who used phones at age 7 talked more often and for longer durations at age 11 years. Low socio-economic status and later year of birth were associated with voice calls at age 7 but not at age 11 years. At age 11 most used cell phones for texting and gaming more than for voice calls. Further, children who started using cell phones at age 7 years were more likely to be heavy cell phone voice users at age 11 years, making early use a marker for higher cumulative exposure regardless of year of birth. As cell phone technology continues to advance, new use patterns will continue to emerge, and exposure assessment research among children must reflect these trends.

  9. Sedimentation and erosion trends over 50 years in the macrotidal Gironde estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottolichio, Aldo; Hanquiez, Vincent; Arriagada, Joselyn; Jalon-Rojas, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    , despite relative weak visible transformation of the general morphology of the estuary, cross section areas have experimented high variation rate (up to 40% in some locations) with contrasted patterns between the upstream and the downstream portion of the estuary. While in the period 1962-1970 the downstream estuary experiences accretion and the upstream experiences erosion, the period 1980-1994 shows opposite trend, with a shift around an area at approximately km 45 downtream from Bordeaux, which acts as a nodal zone, where no net trend is observed. On the basis of available data, little effect of human activity (mainly channel dredging and gravel extraction) and extreme events are observed, and the averaged position of the turbidity maximum seems to be the main driver of changes in sections. Changes on tidal range as a response of change on morphology are relatively weak, with little tidal amplification through 50 years between the mouth and Bordeaux. However differences on tidal asymmetry (rate of flood duration / ebb duration) seem more significant, and could explain the contrasted areas and the shift around km 45.

  10. Five year trends in maternal smoking behaviour reported at the first prenatal appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M E; Egan, B; McKeating, A; Daly, N; Sheehan, S R; Turner, M J

    2017-11-01

    Maternal smoking is a key modifiable risk factor in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth and stillbirth. This observational study examined annual trends of maternal smoking reported at the first prenatal visit in women who delivered in a large university maternity hospital for the 5 years 2011-2015. We examined clinical and sociodemographic data computerised routinely for women who presented for prenatal care at the hospital between 2011 and 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the maternal characteristics, health behaviours and psychiatric history associated with smoking behaviours. Of the 42,509 women the mean age was 31.4 ± 5.5 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 25.6 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , and 39.5% were nulliparas. Overall, 52.6% reported they had never smoked, 34.9% were ex-smokers, 10.5% smoked ≤10 cigarettes per day, 1.9% smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day and 0.1% smoked e-cigarettes. Between 2011 and 2015 the prevalence of maternal cigarette smoking decreased from 14.3 to 10.9% (P Smoking during pregnancy was most strongly associated with younger age, multiparity, unemployment, unplanned pregnancy, a history of psychiatric problems, alcohol intake and illicit drug usage. The number of women who reported smoking at the first prenatal visit decreased annually. Amongst women who continue to smoke during pregnancy, there is a clustering of adverse lifestyle behaviour and psychological problems that may need to be addressed if smoking cessation interventions are going to succeed in improving fetal programming.

  11. Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Magzumova, Raushan; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit; Alpeissova, Sholpan

    2014-05-01

    Each country faces a continuing challenge to collect enough blood to meet the national needs. According to WHO, there should be at least 20 blood donations per 1,000 population for developing countries, in Kazakhstan this indicator was only 16.8 in 2011. Thus, we conducted an epidemiological assessment and drew a map of the regional distribution of blood and plasma donations in Kazakhstan during the years 2000-2011. The retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2011. Data on blood and its components donations were acquired from the Ministry of Health (annual statistical reporting form N° 39). During 2000-2011, number of blood donors decreased to 17.4% and blood donations to 6.3%. The proportion of non-remunerated blood donations and donors decreased from 97.6% to 77.9% and 97.9% to 87.7%, respectively. The paid donations had the opposite trend. Number of plasma donors increased in 2.1 times, plasma donations in 2.4 times, nevertheless the proportion of non-remunerated plasma donations decreased from 60.1% to 29.8%. The average number of blood donations per 1,000 population decreased from 19.8 (2000) to 16.8 (2011), plasma donations increased from 1.4 to 3.1. Regionally, annual average rates of blood and plasma donations per 1,000 population over 12 years varied greatly. This is the first study conducted in Kazakhstan to provide detailed information, including the regional characteristics of blood and plasma donations over an extended period of time, which can be used in blood transfusion services work.

  12. Drivers of Productivity Trends in Cork Oak Woodlands over the Last 15 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher biodiversity leads to more productive ecosystems which, in turn, supports more biodiversity. Ongoing global changes affect ecosystem productivity and, therefore, are expected to affect productivity-biodiversity relationships. However, the magnitude of these relationships may be affected by baseline biodiversity and its lifeforms. Cork oak (Quercus suber woodlands are a highly biodiverse Mediterranean ecosystem managed for cork extraction; as a result of this management cork oak woodlands may have both tree and shrub canopies, just tree and just shrub canopies, and just grasslands. Trees, shrubs, and grasses may respond differently to climatic variables and their combination may, therefore, affect measurements of productivity and the resulting productivity-biodiversity relationships. Here, we asked whether the relationship between productivity and climate is affected by the responses of trees, shrubs, and grasses in cork oak woodlands in Southern Portugal. To answer this question, we linked a 15-year time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI derived from Landsat satellites to micrometeorological data to assess the relationship between trends in EVI and climate. Between 2000 and 2013 we observed an overall decrease in EVI. However, EVI increased over cork oaks and decreased over shrublands. EVI trends were strongly positively related to changes in relative humidity and negatively related to temperature. The intra-annual EVI cycle of grasslands and sparse cork oak woodland without understorey (savannah-like ecosystem had higher variation than the other land-cover types. These results suggest that oaks and shrubs have different responses to changes in water availability, which can be either related to oak physiology, to oaks being either more resilient or having lagged responses to changes in climate, or to the fact that shrublands start senesce earlier than oaks. Our results also suggest that in the future EVI could improve because the

  13. Multi-Year On-Road Emission Factor Trends of Two Heavy-Duty California Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, M.; Bishop, G.

    2017-12-01

    New heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations have resulted in the development of advanced exhaust after-treatment systems that specifically target particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). This has resulted in significant decreases in the emissions of these species. The University of Denver has collected three data sets of on-road gaseous (CO, HC, NO and NOx) and PM (particle mass, black carbon and particle number) emission measurements from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the spring of 2013, 2015 and 2017 at two different locations in California. One site is located at the Port of Los Angeles, CA (1,150 HDVs measured in 2017) and the other site is located at a weigh station in Northern California near Cottonwood, CA (780 HDVs measured in 2017). The On-Road Heavy-Duty Measurement Setup measures individual HDV's fuel specific emissions (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06172). Vehicles drive under a tent-like structure that encapsulates vehicle exhaust and 15 seconds of data collection is integrated to give fuel specific information. The measurements obtained from these campaigns contain real-world emissions affected by different driving modes, after-treatment systems and location. The Port of Los Angeles contributes a fleet that is fully equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the San Pedro Ports Clean Air Action Plan enforced since 2010 that allows only vehicles model year 2007 or newer on the premises. This fleet, although comprised with relatively new HDVs with lower PM emissions, has increased PM emissions as it has aged. Cottonwood's fleet contains vehicles with and without after-treatment systems, a result of a gradual turnover rate, and fleet PM has decreased at a slower rate than at the Port of Los Angeles. The decrease in PM emissions is a result of more HDVs being newer model years as well as older model years being retrofit with DPFs. The complimentary fleets, studied over multiple years, have given the University of Denver

  14. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

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    Harald Furnes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  15. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends - FY 2011, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  16. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends - FY 2010, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  17. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends -FY2012, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  18. A 9-year analysis of bibliographical trends for journals in the subject category of general and internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2009-05-01

    For academic research outcomes, an important bibliometric scoring termed as the journal impact factor (JIF) is used when assessment of the quality of research is required. No known study has been conducted to explore the bibliographical trends of 'Medicine, General & Internal' journals indexed by the annual Journal Citation Reports. Data from the Journal Citation Reports and Web of Science database were extracted to formulate a comprehensive analysis. In this study, the trends of 15 journals (5 top ranked and 10 low ranked; 5 English and 5 non-English based) were selected and analysed over a 9-year period (starting from year 1999 to 2007). Using the year 1999 as the base year, the results showed that the JIF rose significantly for the selected top ranked journals (up to 180.9%) while the low ranked ones slipped in their JIF value (down to -44.4%). The observed upward or downward trend was caused by a combination of other bibliographical measures like citations, number of citable, and total items published. It is postulated that changes in bibliographical trends can be classified as editorial and non-editorial influences. The impacts of these influences on the 15 selected journals over the 9-year period were also discussed retrospectively.

  19. Nutritional quality at eight U.S. fast-food chains: 14-year trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Harnack, Lisa J; Bauer, Katherine W; Earnest, Alicia A; French, Simone A; Michael Oakes, J

    2013-06-01

    Frequent consumption of fast-food menu items that are high in fat, sugar, and sodium contribute to poor dietary quality, increasing individuals' risk for diet-related chronic diseases. To assess 14-year trends in the nutritional quality of menu offerings at eight fast-food restaurant chains in the U.S. Data on menu items and food and nutrient composition were obtained in 2011 from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center Food and Nutrient Database for eight fast-food restaurant chains. In this database, ingredient and nutrition information for all foods sold by the fast-food restaurants were updated biannually between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005 scores were calculated for each restaurant menu as a measure of the extent to which menu offerings were consistent with Dietary Guidelines for Americans and compared over time. Of a possible index total of 100 (healthiest), the HEI-2005 score across all eight fast-food restaurants was 45 in 1997/1998 and 48 in 2009/2010. Individually, restaurant scores in 1997/1998 ranged from 37 to 56 and in 2009/2010 ranged from 38 to 56. The greatest improvements in nutritional quality were seen in the increase of meat/beans, decrease in saturated fat, and decrease in the proportion of calories from solid fats and added sugars. The HEI-2005 score improved in six restaurants and decreased in two. The nutritional quality of menu offerings at fast-food restaurant chains included in this study increased over time, but further improvements are needed. Fast-food restaurants have an opportunity to contribute to a healthy diet for Americans by improving the nutritional quality of their menus. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K; Prynne, Celia J; Almoosawi, Suzana; Kuh, Diana; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Background As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Subjects/Methods Food consumption of participants from the MRC National Survey on Health and Development (NSHD), a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5 day estimated food records at 60-64y (2006-11), 53y (1999), 43y (1989), and 36y (1982). Only those who recorded ≥ 3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Results Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, and sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (p<0.001) whilst consumption of wholemeal and granary bread, semi-skimmed milk, fish, and fruit and vegetables increased (p<0.001) over time. These observed changes in food consumption reflect a healthier diet, e.g. replacement of white bread by granary and wholemeal bread, lower consumption of red and processed meats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables, and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be due to ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. Conclusions The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years. PMID:25351642

  1. 100 years of California’s water rights system: patterns, trends and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2014-08-01

    For 100 years, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its predecessors have been responsible for allocating available water supplies to beneficial uses, but inaccurate and incomplete accounting of water rights has made the state ill-equipped to satisfy growing societal demands for water supply reliability and healthy ecosystems. Here, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of appropriative water rights to identify where, and to what extent, water has been dedicated to human uses relative to natural supplies. The results show that water right allocations total 400 billion cubic meters, approximately five times the state’s mean annual runoff. In the state’s major river basins, water rights account for up to 1000% of natural surface water supplies, with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and in coastal streams in southern California. Comparisons with water supplies and estimates of actual use indicate substantial uncertainty in how water rights are exercised. In arid regions such as California, over-allocation of surface water coupled with trends of decreasing supply suggest that new water demands will be met by re-allocation from existing uses. Without improvements to the water rights system, growing human and environmental demands portend an intensification of regional water scarcity and social conflict. California’s legal framework for managing its water resources is largely compatible with needed reforms, but additional public investment is required to enhance the capacity of the state’s water management institutions to effectively track and regulate water rights.

  2. A 35-year trend analysis for back pain in Austria: the role of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Großschädl

    Full Text Available The prevalence of back pain is constantly increasing and a public health problem of high priority. In Austria there is a lack of empirical evidence for the development of back pain and its related factors. The present study aims to investigate trends in the prevalence of back pain across different subpopulations (sex, age, obesity.A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional health surveys (1973-2007 was carried out. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in private homes in Austria. Subjects aged 20 years and older were included in the study sample (n = 178,818. Obesity was defined as BMI≥30 kg/m2 and adjusted for self-report bias. Back pain was measured as the self-reported presence of the disorder.The age-standardized prevalence of back pain was 32.9% in 2007; it was higher among women than men (p<0.001, higher in older than younger subjects (p<0.001 and higher in obese than non-obese individuals (p<0.001. During the investigation period the absolute change in the prevalence of back pain was +19.4%. Among all subpopulations the prevalence steadily increased. Obese men showed the highest increase of and the greatest risk for back pain.These results help to understand the development of back pain in Austria and can be used to plan controlled promotion programs. Further monitoring is recommended in order to control risk groups and plan target group-specific prevention strategies. In Austria particular emphasis should be on obese individuals. We recommend conducting prospective studies to confirm our results and investigate causal relationships.

  3. Trends and patterns of sexual behaviors among adolescents and adults aged 14 to 59 years, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui; Hariri, Susan; Bradley, Heather; Gottlieb, Sami L; Leichliter, Jami S; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of sexual behaviors is essential to better understand the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and their sequelae. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) is an ongoing probability sample survey of the US population. Using NHANES sexual behavior data from 1999 to 2012, we performed the following: (1) trend analyses among adults aged 25 to 59 years by 10-year birth cohorts and (2) descriptive analyses among participants aged 14 to 24 years. Sex was defined as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Among adults aged 25 to 59 years, median age at sexual initiation decreased between the 1940-1949 and 1980-1989 cohorts from 17.9 to 16.2 among females (P trend < 0.001) and from 17.1 to 16.1 among males (P trend < 0.001). Median lifetime partners increased between the 1940-1949 and 1970-1979 cohorts, from 2.6 to 5.3 among females (P trend < 0.001) and from 6.7 to 8.8 among males (P trend < 0.001). The percentage of females reporting ever having a same-sex partner increased from 5.2% to 9.3% between the 1940-1949 and 1970-1979 cohorts (P trend < 0.001). Among participants aged 14 to 24 years, the percentage having had sex increased with age, from 12.5% among females and 13.1% among males at age 14 years to more than 75% at age 19 years for both sexes. Among sexually experienced 14- to 19-year-olds, 45.2% of females and 55.0% of males had at least 3 lifetime partners; 39.4% of females and 48.6% of males had at least 2 partners in the past year. The proportion of females aged 20 to 24 years who reported ever having a same-sex partner was 14.9%. The proportion of participants aged 14-19 or 20-24 years reporting ever having sex did not differ by survey year from 1999 to 2012 for either males or females. Sexual behaviors changed with successive birth cohorts, with more pronounced changes among females. A substantial proportion of adolescents are sexually active and have multiple partners. These data reinforce existing recommendations for sexual

  4. Trends in Achievement Gaps in First-Year College Courses for Racial/Ethnic, Income, and Gender Subgroups: A 12-Year Study. ACT Research Report Series 2013 (8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Julie; Ndum, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated gaps in the academic success of college student subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, income, and gender. We studied trends over time in the success of students in these subgroups in particular first-year college courses: English Composition I, College Algebra, social science courses, and Biology. The study is based…

  5. 45-Year trends in women's use of time and household management energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Archer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Relationships between socio-environmental factors and obesity are poorly understood due to a dearth of longitudinal population-level research. The objective of this analysis was to examine 45-year trends in time-use, household management (HM and energy expenditure in women. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Using national time-use data from women 19-64 years of age, we quantified time allocation and household management energy expenditure (HMEE from 1965 to 2010. HM was defined as the sum of time spent in food preparation, post-meal cleaning activities (e.g., dish-washing, clothing maintenance (e.g., laundry, and general housework. HMEE was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. RESULTS: The time allocated to HM by women (19-64 yrs decreased from 25.7 hr/week in 1965 to 13.3 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women decreasing by 16.6 hr/week and employed women by 6.7 hr/week (P<0.001. HMEE for non-employed women decreased 42% from 25.1 Mj/week (6004 kilocalories per week in 1965 to 14.6 Mj/week (3486 kcal/week in 2010, a decrement of 10.5 Mj/week or 1.5 Mj/day (2518 kcal/week; 360 kcal/day (P<0.001, whereas employed women demonstrated a 30% decrement of 3.9 Mj/week, 0.55 Mj/day (923 kcal/week, 132 kcal/day (P<0.001. The time women spent in screen-based media use increased from 8.3 hr/week in 1965 to 16.5 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women increasing 9.6 hr/week and employed women 7.5 hr/week (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: From 1965 to 2010, there was a large and significant decrease in the time allocated to HM. By 2010, women allocated 25% more time to screen-based media use than HM (i.e., cooking, cleaning, and laundry combined. The reallocation of time from active pursuits (i.e., housework to sedentary pastimes (e.g., watching TV has important health consequences. These results suggest that the decrement in HMEE may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women during

  6. Trends in body weight for 7-year boys from different environmental sites of copper mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemic of the XXI century – a disease that threatens through development of other ailments, caused by pathological accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, beyond the physiological needs and adaptability – the obesity. A significant number of diseases are largely a consequence of obesity, and despite the fact that it mainly occurs in adults, that problem may start influencing our health from an early age. In childhood and adolescence the most common form is simple obesity, and frequency of occurrence shows significant growing trend, regardless of gender. The prevalence of obesity in early stages of life is associated with a significant probability of a continuation of or increase in adulthood, therefore one should look for the onset of obesity in childhood. The results of studies and projections show steady growth in the number of overweight and obese in populations of developing countries and developed economies, including Poland. Therefore it is important to continuously monitor body weight and degree of fatness of children and adolescents. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in six rural primary schools from the Copper Mining Region and in all three primary schools from Polkowice. More measurements were made in 2008 and 2010. The total number of 7-year old boys was 277. The measurements covered Body height, Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Total Body Water and Total Body Fat. These data were collected with the use of anthropometer, body scale and FUTREX 5000, the optical body composition analyzer. Measurements were necessary to get the BMI. Results. Based on analysis, it was observed that the height and weight of 7-year-old boys from the Copper Mining Region has increased compared to the first series of tests. The BMI and amount of body fat have also increased. This situation was observed both in rural and urban environment. There was a difference in body fat percentage. Lower values were

  7. Trends in absolute socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Sweden and New Zealand. A 20-year gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakely Tony

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, and cross-country comparisons, may give more information about the causes of health inequalities. We analysed trends in socioeconomic differentials by mortality from early 1980s to late 1990s, comparing Sweden with New Zealand. Methods The New Zealand Census Mortality Study (NZCMS consisting of over 2 million individuals and the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (ULF comprising over 100, 000 individuals were used for analyses. Education and household income were used as measures of socioeconomic position (SEP. The slope index of inequality (SII was calculated to estimate absolute inequalities in mortality. Analyses were based on 3–5 year follow-up and limited to individuals aged 25–77 years. Age standardised mortality rates were calculated using the European population standard. Results Absolute inequalities in mortality on average over the 1980s and 1990s for both men and women by education were similar in Sweden and New Zealand, but by income were greater in Sweden. Comparing trends in absolute inequalities over the 1980s and 1990s, men's absolute inequalities by education decreased by 66% in Sweden and by 17% in New Zealand (p for trend Conclusion Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were clearly most favourable for men in Sweden. Trends also seemed to be more favourable for men than women in New Zealand. Assuming the trends in male inequalities in Sweden were not a statistical chance finding, it is not clear what the substantive reason(s was for the pronounced decrease. Further gender comparisons are required.

  8. [Clinical epidemiological characteristics and change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding over the past 15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinping; Cui, Yi; Wang, Jinhui; Chen, Baili; He, Yao; Chen, Minhu

    2017-04-25

    To investigate the clinical epidemiology change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) over the past 15 years. Consecutive patients who was diagnosed as continuous UGIB in the endoscopy center of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun-Yat University during the period from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 1998 and the period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013 were enrolled in this study. Their gender, age, etiology, ulcer classification, endoscopic treatment and hospitalization mortality were compared between two periods. In periods from 1997 to 1998 and 2012 to 2013, the detection rate of UGIB was 9.99%(928/9 287) and 4.49%(1 092/24 318)(χ 2 =360.089, P=0.000); the percentage of male patients was 73.28%(680/928) and 72.44% (791/1 092) (χ 2 =0.179, P=0.672), and the onset age was (47.3±16.4) years and (51.4±18.2) years (t=9.214, P=0.002) respectively. From 1997 to 1998, the first etiology of UGIB was peptic ulcer bleeding, accounting for 65.2%(605/928)[duodenal ulcer 47.8%(444/928), gastric ulcer 8.3%(77/928), stomal ulcer 2.3%(21/928), compound ulcer 6.8%(63/928)],the second was cancer bleeding(7.0%,65/928), and the third was esophageal and gastric varices bleeding (6.4%,59/928). From 2012 to 2013, peptic ulcer still was the first cause of UGIB, but the ratio obviously decreased to 52.7%(575/1092)(χ 2 =32.467, P=0.000)[duodenal ulcer 31.9%(348/1092), gastric ulcer 9.4%(103/1092), stomal ulcer 2.8%(30/1092), compound ulcer 8.6%(94/1092)]. The decreased ratio of duodenal ulcer bleeding was the main reason (χ 2 =53.724, P=0.000). Esophageal and gastric varices bleeding became the second cause (15.1%,165/1 092, χ 2 =38.976, P=0.000), and cancer was the third cause (9.2%,101/1 092, χ 2 =3.352, P=0.067). The largest increasing amplitude of the onset age was peptic ulcer bleeding [(46.2±16.7) years vs. (51.9±18.9) years, t=-5.548, P=0.000), and the greatest contribution to the amplitude was duodenal ulcer bleeding [(43.4±15.9) years vs. (48.4±19

  9. Status and trends of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic fish stocks in the North Sea: thirty- year overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serchuk, F.M.; Kirkegaard, E.; Daan, N.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the status of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic stocks in the North Sea over the past 30 years are reviewed. Synopses are presented on trends in catches, fishing mortality, spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment for eight stocks (cod, haddock, whitting, saithe, plaice, sole,

  10. A 10-year trend of dental treatments under general anesthesia of children in Taipei Veterans General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Pan Chen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Over the past 10 years, there has been an increased use of GA for pediatric dental treatments, in particular, in cases with multiple dental caries. In addition, there has also been an increasing trend towards extraction of primary teeth and the use of SSCs.

  11. Botulinum Toxin Dosing Trends in Spasmodic Dysphonia Over a 20-year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namin, Arya W; Christopher, Kara M; Eisenbeis, John F

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to (1) identify the botulinum toxin (BTX) dosing trend in a cohort of patients who received at least 20 injections for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), (2) describe two distinct BTX dosing trends in treating ADSD (a "classic" dosing trend that initially decreases before stabilizing, and a "fluctuating" dosing trend), and (3) determine if patients with the "classic" dosing trend differed in age or in dosing intervals from those with the "fluctuating" dosing trend. This is a retrospective case series. Of 149 patients who received a total of 2484 BTX injections for the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia in 1993-2013, 49 patients received at least 20 injections. The BTX dose and the interval between doses were recorded. The mean dose of injections 1-20 was determined. The age at initial injection, initial dose, and interval in days between treatments were compared for the "fluctuating" and "classic" groups. The cohort exhibits a significant decrease in dose during the first 10-15 injections. The "fluctuating" group had a significantly shorter interval between injections (mean interval = 97.09 days, SD = 29.41; mean interval = 136.90 days, SD = 43.76, P = 0.002). The mean age at initial dose was not significantly different between the "classic" and "fluctuating" groups. The average BTX dose of patients with ADSD who receive long-term injections significantly decreases during the initial 10-15 injections before stabilizing. Patients who exhibit the "fluctuating" dosing pattern have a significantly shorter interval between injections than those with the "classic" dosing pattern. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technology Trends in Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) and Counter-UAS: A Five Year Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E ANALYSES Technology Trends in Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) and Counter-UAS: A Five-Year Outlook...the copyright license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [June 2013]. INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES IDA Paper P-8823 Technology Trends...threats to infrastructure posed across all domains—air, land, sea, and cyber. Although threats and technologies are rapidly evolving across all

  13. Trends in the Fractures and Fatalities of Farmyard Injuries in Ireland: A 10 year analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, MJ

    2017-01-01

    The farming and agricultural sector remains one of Ireland’s primary industries. Fatality rates remain higher than the European average. The aim of this study was to analyze the national trend in hospital in-patient admissions for farmyard related fractures and related fatalities in Ireland from 2005 to 2014. Relevant socioeconomic trends were used for comparison. There were 2,064 farm-related fractures and 187 fatalities recorded over the same period. Despite a decrease in incidence of farmyard fractures over 2005-2014, fatality rates have increased indicating the alarming continued occupational hazards and severity of sustained injuries.

  14. Gender trends in authorship of spine-related academic literature-a 39-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C; Jain, Deeptee; Ouyang, David

    2017-11-01

    Despite recent advances in gender equity in medicine, the representation of women in orthopedic and neurosurgery remains particularly low. Furthermore, compared with their male colleagues, female faculty members are less likely to publish research, limiting opportunities in the academic promotion process. Understanding disparities in research productivity provides insight into the "gender gap" in the spine surgeon workforce. This study aims to determine the representation and longevity of female physician-investigators among the authors of five spine-related research journals from 1978 to 2016. This is a retrospective bibliometric review. The authors of original research articles from five prominent spine-related journals (European Spine Journal, The Spine Journal, Spine, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine) were extracted from PubMed. For authors with a complete first name listed, gender was determined by matching first name using an online database containing 216,286 distinct names across 79 countries and 89 languages. The proportion of female first and senior authors was determined during the time periods 1978 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, 2005 to 2009, and 2010 to 2016. The authors who had their first paper published between 2000 and 2009 were included in additional analyses for publication count and longevity (whether additional articles were published 5 years after first publication). Student t test, chi-square analysis, and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used to determine significance between groups. From 1978 to 2016, 28,882 original research articles were published in the five spine-related journals. A total of 24,334 abstracts (90.9%) had first names listed, identifying 120,723 authors, in total of which 100,286 were successfully matched to a gender. A total of 33,480 unique authors were identified (female authors: 31.8%). Female representation increased for first and senior authors from 6.5% and 4

  15. A Trend Analysis of Computer Literacy Skills of Preservice Teachers During Six Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Caryl J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes trends in computer-literacy skills of preservice teachers during the period 1991/92 to 1996/97. A significant linear pattern of increasing means was found in word processing, spreadsheet, hardware, operating system software, and the mouse. Analysis provides a perspective on how increasing access to computers in high school translates into…

  16. (Text) Mining the LANDscape: Themes and Trends over 40 years of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2014-01-01

    In commemoration of the journal's 40th anniversary, the co-editor explores themes and trends covered by Landscape and Urban Planning and its parent journals through a qualitative comparison of co-occurrence term maps generated from the text corpora of its abstracts across the four decadal periods of publication.Cluster maps generated from the...

  17. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  18. Deciphering the contrasting climatic trends between the central Himalaya and Karakoram with 36 years of WRF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jesse; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Jones, Charles; Cannon, Forest

    2018-02-01

    Glaciers over the central Himalaya have retreated at particularly rapid rates in recent decades, while glacier mass in the Karakoram appears stable. To address the meteorological factors associated with this contrast, 36 years of Climate Forecast System Reanalyses (CFSR) are dynamically downscaled from 1979 to 2015 with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over High Mountain Asia at convection permitting grid spacing (6.7 km). In all seasons, CFSR shows an anti-cyclonic warming trend over the majority of High Mountain Asia, but distinctive differences are observed between the central Himalaya and Karakoram in winter and summer. In winter and summer, the central Himalaya has been under the influence of an anti-cyclonic trend, which in summer the downscaling shows has reduced cloud cover, leading to significant warming and reduced snowfall in recent years. Contrastingly, the Karakoram has been near the boundary between large-scale cyclonic and anti-cyclonic trends and has not experienced significant snowfall or temperature changes in winter or summer, despite significant trends in summer of increasing cloud cover and decreasing shortwave radiation. This downscaling does not identify any trends over glaciers in closer neighboring regions to the Karakoram (e.g., Hindu Kush and the western Himalaya) where glaciers have retreated as over the central Himalaya, indicating that there are other factors driving glacier mass balance that this downscaling is unable to capture. While this study does not fully explain the Karakoram anomaly, the identified trends detail important meteorological contributions to the observed differences between central Himalaya and Karakoram glacier evolution in recent decades.

  19. Trends in Pap test practices and results: An 11-year review of the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P; Oswalt, Sara B

    2017-10-01

    To conduct a trend analysis of Pap test practices, Pap test results and related women's services and guidelines of college health centers. College health centers who participated in the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI (sexually transmitted infection) Survey years 2004-2014 (n ranged from 127 to 181 depending on year). Descriptive analyses are presented with ANOVAs (Analysis of Variance) and chi-square tests calculated to examine trends over time. The number of Pap tests significantly decreased over time; however, the percentage of normal and HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) results did not vary. Availability of conventional cytology slides and cryotherapy were significantly associated with year. Over time, college health centers' guidelines related to initiation of Pap testing evolved to consistently conform to national recommendations for cervical screening. The results indicate most college health centers are following the current national guidelines regarding Pap testing for young adult women.

  20. Decreasing trend in severe weather occurrence over China during the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Ni, Xiang; Zhang, Fuqing

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the trend of localized severe weather under the changing climate is of great significance but remains challenging which is at least partially due to the lack of persistent and homogeneous severe weather observations at climate scales while the detailed physical processes of severe weather cannot be resolved in global climate models. Based on continuous and coherent severe weather reports from over 500 manned stations, for the first time, this study shows a significant decreasing trend in severe weather occurrence across China during the past five decades. The total number of severe weather days that have either thunderstorm, hail and/or damaging wind decrease about 50% from 1961 to 2010. It is further shown that the reduction in severe weather occurrences correlates strongly with the weakening of East Asian summer monsoon which is the primary source of moisture and dynamic forcing conducive for warm-season severe weather over China.

  1. New Technology Trends in Education: Seven Years of Forecasts and Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sergio; Diaz, Gabriel; Sancristobal, Elio; Gil, Rosario; Castro, Manuel; Peire, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Each year since 2004, a new Horizon Report has been released. Each edition attempts to forecast the most promising technologies likely to impact on education along three horizons: the short term (the year of the report), the mid-term (the next 2 years) and the long term (the next 4 years). This paper analyzes the evolution of technology trends…

  2. [Infertility over forty: Pros and cons of IVF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch-Allart, J; Maget, V; Mayenga, J-M; Grefenstette, I; Chouraqui, A; Belaid, Y; Kulski, O

    2015-09-01

    The population attempting pregnancy and having babies is ageing. The declining fertility potential and the late age of motherhood are increasing significantly the number of patients over forty consulting infertility specialists. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) cannot compensate the natural decline in fertility with age. In France, in public hospital, ART is free of charge for women until 43 years, over 43, social insurance does not reimburse ART. Hence, 43 years is the usual limit, but between 40 and 42 is ART useful? The answer varies according to physicians, couples or society. On medical level, the etiology of the infertility must be taken into account. If there is an explanation to infertility (male or tubal infertility) ART is better than abstention. If the infertility is only due to age the question is raised. In France, the reimbursement by the society of a technique with very low results is discussed. However efficacy is not absolutely compulsory in Medicine. On the opposite to give false hopes may be discussed too. To obtain a reasonable consensus is rather difficult. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sea-level trend in the South China Sea observed from 20 years of along-track satellite altimetric data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    The sea-level trend in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated based on 20 years of along-track data from TOPEX and Jason-1/2 satellite altimetry. The average sea-level rise over all the regions in the study area is observed to have a rate of 5.1 ± 0.8 mm year-1 for the period from 1993 to 2012....... The steric sea level contributes 45% to the observed sea-level trend. These results are consistent with previous studies. In addition, the results demonstrate that the maximum sea-level rise rate of 8.4 mm year-1 is occurring off the east coast of Vietnam and eastern part of SCS. During 2010-2011, the La...... Niña event was highly correlated with the dramatic sea-level rise in the SCS; La Niña events were also associated with the maximum rate of sea rise off the east coast of Vietnam, which occurred during 1993 and 2012. We also evaluated the trends in the geophysical (e.g. dynamical atmospheric correction...

  4. Trends in risk factors and etiology of 606 cases of infective endocarditis over 23 years (1984-2006) in slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricak, V; Liska, B; Kovackova, J; Mikusova, J; Fischer, V; Kovacik, J; Karvaj, M; Jurco, R; Ondrusova, A; Kalavsky, E; Marks, P; Beno, P; Krcmery, V

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess trends in risk factors, etiology, outcome and treatment strategies for endocarditis over 23 years in Slovakia. A prospective survey of 606 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) was conducted from 1984-2006. Rheumatic fever as well as previous dental surgery showed decreasing trends within the last 23 years. Also embolic complications of IE declined along with increasing rates of surgically treated patients. No significant changes in etiology were detected apart from the fact that culture-negative endocarditis increased from 10.7% to 55.4% between 1998-2001. Surgically treated patients increased from 22.7% (1984-1990) to 50.1% (2002-2006) and mortality dramatically decreased from 26.7% (1984-1990) to 5.3% (2002-2006). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the leading causes (22.4% - 48%) followed by viridans streptococci (12.2%-18.2%) were a relatively stable trend over 23 years of IE in Slovakia.

  5. Ten-year secular trend of overweight and obesity in school children in south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mazur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the trend in prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren from south-eastern Poland over a 10-year period. Materials and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools. In total, 4,248 children (2,182 boys and 2,066 girls, mean age 10.5±2.4 years, were examined in 1998, and 2,412 children (1,184 boys and 1,228 girls, mean age 10.5±2.3 years in 2008. In each school the entire population was studied. Results. In 2008, the prevalence of overweight in girls was 13.3% and obesity 7.7%, compared to 12.0% and 10.1% in 1998. The decrease in obesity prevalence was statistically significant. In boys, the prevalence of overweight in 2008 was 14.2% and obesity 6.4%, compared to 10.5% and 6.8% in 1998. The increase in overweight prevalence among boys was statistically significant. Conclusions. A trend toward stabilization of the prevalence of overweight and obesity was noted in school children from south-eastern Poland between 1998–2008. The declining prevalence of obesity in girls and increased prevalence of overweight in boys demonstrates that in this age group of children the secular trend is gender dependent.

  6. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Egleston, Brian [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Holliday, Emma [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eastwick, Gary [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  7. GENDER TRENDS IN RADIATION ONCOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES: A 30 YEAR ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad A; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women’s participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials We examined the gender of first and senior U.S. physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010 and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared to female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the last three decades, using AAMC data. Results The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusion Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women’s participation among full-time faculty, but women remain under-represented among radiation oncology residents as compared to their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology. PMID:24189127

  8. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Egleston, Brian [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Holliday, Emma [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eastwick, Gary [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  9. Gender trends in radiation oncology in the United States: a 30-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad A; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The farming population in Ireland: mortality trends during the 'Celtic Tiger' years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Breda

    2012-03-21

    Background Although the Irish farming population is a significant occupational group, analysis of their mortality patterns is limited. This study compared mortality trends with other occupational groups and assessed the impact of socio-economic factors. Methods Population and mortality data (2000-06) were obtained to calculate standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) by cause of death and matched with socio-economic data. The extent to which variation in mortality was explained by variations in the socio-economic data was determined using multiple regression. Results Farmers and agricultural workers experienced the highest levels of mortality for all causes of death (2000-06). Farmers are 5.14 times more likely and agricultural workers are 7.35 times more likely to die from any cause of death than the lowest risk group. Circulatory disease is a significant cause of mortality among farmers [SMR = 215.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 201.83-229.98]. Other significant causes include cancers (SMR = 156.60, CI = 146.73-166.48) and injuries and poisonings (SMR = 149.69, CI = 135.44-163.93). Agricultural workers have similar mortality trends: circulatory disease (SMR = 226.27; CI = 192.45-260.08), cancers (SMR = 221.44; CI = 193.88-249.00), and injuries and poisonings (SMR = 353.90; CI = 302.48-405.32). From 2000 to 2006, SMRs increased incrementally. Multiple regression identified farm size and income poverty risk as predictors of mortality. Conclusion Irish farmers and agricultural workers have experienced a reversal of mortality trends compared to the 1980s and 1990s. Policies should target them as a high-risk group.

  11. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology

  12. Body image and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, V.; Nansel, T.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents......-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. CONCLUSIONS: Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss...

  13. Twenty-year trends of authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2012-02-01

    This study documented the trends in authorship and sampling in applied biomechanics research published in the Journal of Applied Biomechanics and ISBS Proceedings. Original research articles of the 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009 volumes of these serials were reviewed, excluding reviews, modeling papers, technical notes, and editorials. Compared to 1989 volumes, the mean number of authors per paper significantly increased (35 and 100%, respectively) in the 2009 volumes, along with increased rates of hyperauthorship, and a decline in rates of single authorship. Sample sizes varied widely across papers and did not appear to change since 1989.

  14. [Lung cancer in Avila province, Spain. Incidence rates, epidemiolgy of the year 2012 and trends in the last 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, J R; Moreno de Vega-Herrero, M B; Iglesias-Heras, M; García-García, R; Hernández-Terciado, F; Celdrán-Gil, J

    2015-10-01

    To determine the extent of lung cancer in Alvila. Its incidence rates and significant epidemiological aspects of the year 2012 were recorded, and the results of each 5-year period (up to 20 years) were compared with those of known studies conducted using the same methodology. A prospective study was conducted on all patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the Province of Avila throughout the year 2012. A total of 81 patients were diagnosed, of whom 70 were males and 11 females, with a mean age of 72.1 years (range: 44-91), and was higher than that found in previous studies. This gave gross, and adjusted to the standard world population, incidence rates in 2012 of 80.99 and 31.23 per 100,000, respectively, in males, and 12.97 and 5.68 per 100,000, respectively in females. These rates are lower in both sexes than those found in Alvila in 2002. In 2012, 80.25% had been smokers (90% of males and 18.18% of the women), although, on diagnosis, 68.75% had quit smoking. A clinical-radiological diagnosis was made in 9 (11.1%), with a histocytological diagnosis in 72 (88.9%). The histological types were: adenocarcinomas in 37.5%; squamous in 33.3%; microcytic in 13.8%; undifferentiated non-small cell in 11.1%; large cell in 2.77%, and carcinoid in 1.38%. The most frequent treatments were chemotherapy (50.6%), symptomatic (23.4%), and surgery (12.3%). The incidence of lung cancer in Avila has decreased in both sexes in the last 10 years. In 2012, the patients have been older, the majority with adenocarcinoma histology, and receiving chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The Ross Operation in Children and Young Adults: 12-Year Results and Trends From the UK National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebele, Carlo; Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Sedmakov, Christo; Angelini, Gianni; Caputo, Massimo; Parry, Andrew; Stoica, Serban

    2014-07-01

    To determine UK national trends and results of the Ross operation in relation to all aortic valve interventions. Examination of the UK Congenital Central Cardiac Audit Database for all aortic valve procedures performed between 2000 and 2011 in children (0-16 years) and young adults (16-30 years). A total of 2,206 aortic valve procedures were performed in children and 1,824 in young adults, the proportions in the two groups being: Ross operation (19% vs 15%, respectively), surgical valvoplasty (9.5% vs 4%), surgical valvotomy (9.5% vs 1%), aortic valve replacement (AVR; 11% vs 55%), aortic root replacement (4% vs 18%), and balloon valvoplasty (47% vs 7%). The 30-day and 1-year survival after Ross is 99.3% and 98.7%, respectively, in the last four years achieving 100%. In children, the proportion of balloon valvoplasty increased from an average of 43% in 2000 to 2006 to 53% in 2007 to 2011, whereas the Ross operation decreased from 22% to 16% (P Ross (P Ross operations performed. The year-on-year changes show a significant decreasing trend locally and nationally. Despite an excellent track record, the Ross operation is performed less frequently in the United Kingdom. This report is a first step in comparing treatment modalities at national level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Reports of child sexual abuse of boys and girls: Longitudinal trends over a 20-year period in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bromfield, Leah; Walsh, Kerryann; Cheng, Qinglu; Norman, Rosana E

    2017-04-01

    Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012. We stratified by child gender and reporter status. Results indicate a new sensitisation to CSA, especially for boys, although this trend was not stable. Marked change occurred in the last five years, likely influenced by major social and political events. Comparison over time revealed that from 1993 to 2012, the rate of reporting of boys increased 2.6-fold whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase for girls. Comparing genders, with regards to rate of reporting, in 1993, the sex ratio of girls to boys was 2:1, while by 2012 this ratio changed to 1.14:1. Reports by police and other mandated reporters accounted for the majority of the increase in reports over the 20-year period, suggesting unequal sensitisation. Positive report outcomes (i.e. substantiations, findings of harm, and referral to services) increased twelve-fold for boys, and nearly five-fold for girls, indicating the increased levels of reports were based in actual clinical need. Most of this increase occurred from 2009 to 2012, influenced by a compound of social, political and agency-related factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal Variations and Yearly Trend Evaluations of Sedimentation Loads: A Case Study at Chalok River, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Soraya Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between seasonal variations (wet and dry periods on sedimentation loads and to identify the yearly trend of sedimentation loads at Chalok River, Terengganu, Malaysia from 2003 to 2008. It was found that wet and dry periods influenced the transportation of suspended sediment into the river significantly. The highest suspended sediment loads at Chalok River occurred during the wet period when the intensity of rainfall is high. Besides, the rainfall, water level, stream flow and suspended sediment loads also were analysed using Spearman correlation to identify their relationships. The results showed significant positive relationship between suspended sediment loads with rainfall (r = 0.664, p< 0.05, water level (r = 0.923, p< 0.05 and stream flow (r = 0.919, p< 0.05. Multiple linear regressions revealed 63% of high suspended sediment loads at Chalok River can be explained by rainfall, water level and stream flow. The trends of rainfall, water level, stream flow and suspended sediment loads were analysed by using Mann-Kendall trend test where the results showed that there is a significant increasing trend for suspended sediment loads but no significant increase trend for rainfall, water level and stream flow over the studied periods. It is evident that the evaluations conducted in this study are useful in providing better understanding and reliable conclusion on the basis of seasonal variations and other environmental variables that affect the sedimentations loads in the river. Such effort provides holistic information for effective and wise management policy of river basin management in the future.

  18. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  19. The trend of quality of publications in endodontic surgery: a 10-year systematic survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Corbella, Stefano; Tsesis, Igor; Taschieri, Silvio

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the present systematic literature analysis were to evaluate, over a 10-year period, the trend of the proportion of RCT, SR, MA published on endodontic surgery, and to investigate if the impact factor (IF) of the main endodontic Journals correlates with the proportion of RCT, SR, MA they publish. An electronic search of the RCT, SR and MA published on the topic "endodontic surgery" from 2001 to 2010 was performed on Medline and Cochrane CENTRAL database using specific search terms combined with Boolean operators. Endodontic Journals impact factor was retrieved by the Thomson Scientific database. The proportion of each study type over the total number of articles on endodontic surgery published per year was estimated. The correlation between the number of high-evidence level studies published on the main endodontic Journals and the IF of such Journals per year was estimated. From a total of 900 articles published in 2001-2010 on endodontic surgery, there were 114 studies of high evidence level. A significant increase of the proportion of either RCT, SR and MA over the years was found. A modest to unclear correlation was found between the Journal IF and the number of high-evidence articles published. There is a positive trend over the years among researchers in performing studies of good quality in endodontic surgery. The impact factor of endodontic Journals is not consistently influenced by publication of high-evidence level articles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reflections on 50 Years of Neuroscience Nursing: Publication Trends in Neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly; Keiser, Megan; Douglas, Heather; McNair, Norma D

    2018-04-01

    In 2018, the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses will celebrate its 50th anniversary as the premier member organization for neuroscience nurses. In recent decades, one of the highest rated member benefits has been the ability for members to join special focus groups (SFGs). The SFGs were initiated to allow an avenue for information sharing and communication for neuroscience nurses in a variety of subspecialties. In this anniversary edition, the neurotrauma SFG presents a review of trends in the publication of articles in the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing related to neurotrauma. Findings from this article illustrate how these publications have impacted the nursing care of patients who have sustained traumatic injuries of the central and peripheral nervous system and the integral role of neuroscience nurses throughout the decades.

  1. Trends in racial disparities for asthma outcomes among children 0 to 17 years, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Lara J; Moorman, Jeanne E; Simon, Alan E; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    Racial disparities in childhood asthma have been a long-standing target for intervention, especially disparities in hospitalization and mortality. Describe trends in racial disparities in asthma outcomes using both traditional population-based rates and at-risk rates (based on the estimated number of children with asthma) to account for prevalence differences between race groups. Estimates of asthma prevalence and outcomes (emergency department [ED] visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) were calculated from national data for 2001 to 2010 for black and white children. Trends were calculated using weighted loglinear regression, and changes in racial disparities over time were assessed using Joinpoint. Disparities in asthma prevalence between black and white children increased from 2001 to 2010; at the end of this period, black children were twice as likely as white children to have asthma. Population-based rates showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (ED visits and hospitalizations) or increased (asthma attack prevalence, deaths). In contrast, analysis with at-risk rates, which account for differences in asthma prevalence, showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (deaths), decreased (ED visits, hospitalizations), or did not exist (asthma attack prevalence). Using at-risk rates to assess racial disparities in asthma outcomes accounts for prevalence differences between black and white children, and adds another perspective to the population-based examination of asthma disparities. An at-risk rate analysis shows that among children with asthma, there is no disparity for asthma attack prevalence and that progress has been made in decreasing disparities in asthma ED visit and hospitalization rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Trends in risk of recurrence after the first ischemic stroke in adults younger than 55 years of age in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kok Wai; Björck, Lena; Ståhl, Christina H; Nielsen, Susanne; Sandström, Tatiana Z; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on stroke recurrence in younger adults often contain small sample size which makes it difficult to study trends in stroke recurrence over a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate temporal trends in the risk of recurrence in younger patients with a first ischemic stroke. All men and women aged 18-54 years who had survived at least 28 days after a first ischemic stroke from 1987 to 2006 were identified in the Swedish Inpatient Register. The patients were stratified into four 5-year periods according to their admission period and were followed up for a total of four years after the index event with regard to recurrent ischemic stroke. A Cox regression model was used to analyze the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke. Of the 17,149 ischemic stroke patients who were identified, 2432 (14.2%) had a recurrent ischemic stroke event within four years. From the first to the last periods (1987-1991 versus 2002-2006), the four-year risk of recurrent ischemic stroke decreased by 55% (hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.53) in men and 59% (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.50) in women. The cumulative four-year risk was 11.8% (95% CI 10.55-13.25) in men and 9.8% (95% CI 8.40-11.46) in women during the last five-year period (2002-2006). The risk of recurrence among younger ischemic stroke patients has decreased over the past 20 years. Despite these improvements, younger patients are still at a high risk for recurrent ischemic stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  3. Time trend tendency (1988-2014 years) of organochlorine pesticide levels in the adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; Del Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela, María

    2018-03-10

    The population that lives in areas where organochlorine pesticides were spread in the past is still exposed to them through contaminated food, particulate matter, and vapors. Due to their lipophilic properties and resistance to metabolic reactions, they accumulate in tissues and fluids rich in lipids. The aim of the study was to monitor the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in forensic adipose tissue samples of adult inhabitants of Veracruz City, Mexico, and compare their time trend levels from 1988 to 2014. During the study, hexachlorobenzene (HCB); lindane; β-hexachorocyclohexane; p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp'DDE); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDT); and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) were determined. Our survey was divided into two periods: first, from the years 1988 to 1999, during which DDT was allowed to fight malaria and dengue vectors and the second from the years 2001 to 2014, after the DDT ban. A total of 1435 samples were analyzed. There were substantial differences in the forecasted time trend values of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT in human adipose tissue samples in the two different periods. During the first period, p,p'-DDE decrease time trend was 1.198 mg/kg on lipid base per year; for the second one, decrease was 0.128 mg/kg on lipid base per year. p,p'-DDT decreased 0.507 mg/kg on lipid base during the first period and 0.039 mg/kg on lipid base for the second. The different concentrations may be explained by the cessation of fresh exposure after the first period and a more equilibrated decontamination tendency during the second period. This model was useful to show the decrease in the concentration of pesticides in human adipose tissue samples.

  4. Adolescent Drug Trafficking Trends in the United Kingdom--A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE…

  5. Ten-Year Trends in Bullying and Related Attitudes Among 4th- to 12th-Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Pas, Elise T; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates. Youth self-reports of 13 indicators of bullying and related behaviors were collected from 246 306 students in 109 Maryland schools across 10 years. The data were weighted to reflect the school populations and were analyzed by using longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling to examine changes over time. The covariate-adjusted models indicated a significant improvement over bullying and related concerns in 10 out of 13 indicators (including a decrease in bullying and victimization) for in-person forms (ie, physical, verbal, relational) and cyberbullying. Results also showed an increase in the perceptions that adults do enough to stop bullying and students' feelings of safety and belonging at school. Prevalence of bullying and related behaviors generally decreased over this 10-year period with the most recent years showing the greatest improvements in school climate and reductions in bullying. Additional research is needed to identify factors that contributed to this declining trend. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. A 5-year trend of Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence among dyspeptic patients at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workineh M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meseret Workineh,1 Desalegn Andargie2 1Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 2University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major public health problem affecting half of the world’s population. The prevalence of H. pylori varies in different societies and geographical locations. Thus, timely information on H. pylori epidemiology is critical to combat this infection. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and trend of H. pylori infection over a period of 5 years among dyspeptic patients at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive dyspeptic patients’ records covering the period between January 2009 and December 2013 was conducted. The hospital laboratory generated the data by a serological method of detecting the antibodies for H. pylori from serum by a one-step rapid test device. Chi-square analysis was used to identify significant predictors. A P-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: Among all the study subjects, 2,733 (41.6% were found to be seropositive. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in males (43.2% than in females (39.9% (χ2=9; P=0.002. In terms of age groups of the patients, high rates of H. pylori were found among the participants older than 60 years (57% (χ2=36.6; P≤0.00001. The trend analysis of H. pylori prevalence revealed a fluctuating prevalence; it was 44.5% in the year 2009 and decreased to 34% and 40% in the years 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, there was an increment to 52.5% in the year 2012, and then it decreased to 30.2% in the year 2013.Conclusion: This study showed high seroprevalence of H. pylori among the dyspeptic patients in Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. The trend of the seroprevalence varied from year to year in

  7. [TRENDS OF PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION IN A SINGLE CENTER OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Dante; Ilan, Limor Bushar; Freedberg, Nahum A; Feldman, Alexander; Turgeman, Yoav

    2015-05-01

    To review the changes in permanent pacemaker implantation indications, pacing modes and patients' demographics over a 20-year period. We retrospectively retrieved data on patients who underwent first implantation of the pacemaker between 1-1-1991 and 31-12-2010. One thousand and nine (1,009) patients underwent a first pacemaker implantation during that period; 535 were men (53%), their mean age was 74.6±19.5 years; the highest rate of implanted pacemaker was in patients ranging in age from 70-79 years, however there was an increasing number of patients aged over 80 years. The median survival time after initial pacemaker implantation was 8 years. Syncope was the most common symptom (62.5%) and atrioventricular block was the most common electrocardiographic indication (56.4%) leading to pacemaker implantation. There was increased utilization of dual chamber and rate responsive pacemakers over the years. There was no difference regarding mode selection between genders. Pacemaker implantation rates have increased over a 20-year period. Dual chamber replaced most of the single ventricular chamber pacemaker and rate responsive pacemakers became the norm. The data of a small volume center are similar to those reported in pacemaker surveys of high volume pacemaker implantation centers. They confirm adherence to the published guidelines for pacing.

  8. Secular trends in impact factor of neonatology publications over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Ronella; Mimouni, Francis B; Cohen, Shlomi; Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror

    2012-10-01

      To test the hypotheses that published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in neonatology with negative results (NR) are more likely to be published in journals with lower impact factor (IF) than those with positive results (PR); that there is an increase in the number of yearly published RCTs; that studies with large sample sizes are likely to be published in journals with higher IF.   We used all English-written RCTs registered in MEDLINE between 1/1/2001-31/12/2010 in the field of neonatology. Each RCT was classified as having a PR or NR. IF of each journal was determined for the year of publication.   We identified 329 RCTs. Yearly number of RCTs varied between 19 and 46, with no significant consistent linear increase over the years. There was no significant change over the years in average IF or in average patient size. IF and sample size of the studies were not significantly higher in studies with PR than in studies with NR.   The number of RCTs per year in the field of neonatology has stabilized in the past 10 years, and RCTs with positive or negative results are published in journals of similar IF. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. [Pertussis trend in children under one year of age in the Czech Republic in 1997-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiánová, K; Šebestová, H; Beneš, Č; Zavadilová, J; Křížová, P; Kříž, B

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the epidemiological situation of pertussis in children under one year of age in the Czech Republic in 1997-2013. The study cohort consisted of children under one year of age with laboratory confirmed pertussis reported to the communicable disease system from 1997 to 2013. A total of 265 pertussis cases were reported in children under one year of age over the study period. Selected demographic data, need for hospitalization, and vaccination history were evaluated in the study cohort. Children under one year of age have shown a steady upward trend in reported cases of pertussis since the 1990s. The reported incidence of pertussis in this age group was the lowest in 1998 (1.1/100,000 population) and the highest in 2013 (31.3/100,000). In 1997-2013, 265 pertussis cases were reported in children under one year of age, 128 females and 137 males, to the communicable disease system in the Czech Republic. Most of these children, nearly 77%, developed pertussis within the first four months of life. Of the 265 children, 79% were not vaccinated before the onset of the disease and 21% were immunized with at least one dose of pertussis vaccine before developing the disease. As many as 75% of the children with pertussis needed hospitalization. Most of them, nearly 81%, were hospitalized with pertussis in the first four months of life and 90% of them in the first six months of life. In 1997-2013, an upward trend was observed in pertussis cases in children under one year of age. Most children developed the disease within the first four months of life while not vaccinated against pertussis. This fact unambiguously supports the "cocoon" strategy, i.e. vaccination of the closest contacts of the child, and a booster dose at 25 years of age. At the same time, a question arises whether to provide vaccination to pregnant women.

  10. A 10-year trend of dental treatments under general anesthesia of children in Taipei Veterans General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Pan; Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Ting; Wu, Fu-Ya; Shih, Wen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    General anesthesia (GA) as a pediatric dental procedure is a well-established method of behavior management. However, studies of pediatric dentistry under GA have mostly focused on handicapped patients, and various retrospective studies in Taiwan have mainly reviewed only a limited number of years. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in pediatric dental treatment performed under GA over the past 10 years. A retrospective review of the hospital records of patients receiving dental treatment under GA from 2006 until 2015 was performed. The patients were divided into three age groups:  6 years. A range of information including basic patient characteristics and types of dental treatment was identified and then analyzed. A total of 791 cases ( 6 years old: 235; 549 male, 242 female) were treated under GA. The case number was found to have increased from 94 during 2006-2007 to 238 during 2014-2015, with the increase being especially pronounced among those aged 3-6 years (2006-2007: 49, 2014-2015: 165). The most common treatments (extraction, restoration, and pulp therapy) were associated with multiple dental caries (684, 86.4%). The  6-years-old group had the lowest mean number of treated teeth by stainless-steel crowns (SSCs) and fewest cases treated with pulp therapy. From 2011 onwards, the number of primary tooth extractions significantly increased, while in 2013, there was a crossover whereby the SSC count surpassed the composite resin filling count. Over the past 10 years, there has been an increased use of GA for pediatric dental treatments, in particular, in cases with multiple dental caries. In addition, there has also been an increasing trend towards extraction of primary teeth and the use of SSCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  11. Taekwondo training improves balance in volunteers over forty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby ePons Van Dijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBalance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40-71 year we investigated effects of age-adapted taekwondo training of one hour a week during one year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure, postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire.Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62 degrees towards anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather towards the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/sec (range 0.71-45.86, and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm²/sec (range 17.39-1.22. Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 seconds for the right leg, and with almost 4 seconds for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 seconds (range 1-16, and in 13 participants with 8 seconds (range 1-18. The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better ‘ability to maintain balance’ in sixteen.In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of forty.

  12. Ten year experience with antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia: Trends in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phirum Lay

    Full Text Available Although HIV disease stage at ART initiation critically determines ART outcomes, few reports have longitudinally monitored this within Asia. Using prospectively collected data from a large ART program at Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Cambodia, we report on the change in patient characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period.We conducted a retrospective analysis including all adults (≥ 18 years old starting ART from March 2003-March 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The cumulative incidence of death, lost to follow-up (LTFU, attrition (death or LTFU and first line treatment failure were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Independent risk factors for these outcomes were determined using Cox regression modeling.Over the ten-year period, 3581 patients initiated ART with a median follow-up time of 4.8 years (IQR 2.8-7.2. The median age was 35 years (IQR 30-41, 54% were female. The median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 22 cells/μL (IQR 4-129 in 2003 to 218 (IQR 57-302 in 2013. Over the 10 year period, a total of 282 (7.9% individuals died and 433 (12.1% were defined LTFU. Program attrition (died or LTFU was 11.1% (95% CI: 10.1%- 12.4% at one year, 16.3% (95% CI: 15.1%-17.6% at three years, 19.8% (95% CI: 18.5%-21.2% at five years and 23.3% (95% CI: 21.6-25.1 at ten years. Male sex and low baseline body mass index (BMI were associated with increased attrition. Factors independently associated with mortality included a low baseline CD4 count, older age, male sex, low baseline BMI and hepatitis B co-infection. Individuals aged above 40 years old had an increased risk of mortality but were less likely to LTFU. There were a total of 137 individuals with first line ART failure starting second line treatment. The probability of first line failure was estimated at 2.8% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.4% at 3 years, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.9%-5.5% at 5 years and 7.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.5% at ten years of ART. The probability was

  13. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  14. Multiple Chronic Conditions among Adults Aged 45 and Over: Trends Over the Past 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was consistent in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) over the recent 10-year period: hypertension, heart ... methods Estimates in this report are based on NHIS data, which provide information on the health status ...

  15. Divergent fifteen-year trends in traditional and cardiometabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in the Seychelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darioli Roger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few studies have assessed secular changes in the levels of cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RF in populations of low or middle income countries. The systematic collection of a broad set of both traditional and metabolic CV-RF in 1989 and 2004 in the population of the Seychelles islands provides a unique opportunity to examine trends at a fairly early stage of the "diabesity" era in a country in the African region. Methods Two examination surveys were conducted in independent random samples of the population aged 25–64 years in 1989 and 2004, attended by respectively 1081 and 1255 participants (participation rates >80%. All results are age-standardized to the WHO standard population. Results In 2004 vs. 1989, the levels of the main traditional CV-RF have either decreased, e.g. smoking (17% vs. 30%, p Conclusion The levels of several traditional CVD-RF improved over time, while marked detrimental trends were observed for obesity, diabetes and several cardiometabolic factors. Thus, in this population, the rapid health transition was characterized by substantial changes in the patterns of CVD-RF. More generally, this analysis suggests the importance of surveillance systems to identify risk factor trends and the need for preventive strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and nutrition.

  16. Trend of extreme precipitation events over China in last 40 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daquan; Hu Jingguo; Feng Guolin

    2008-01-01

    Using the daily precipitation data of 740 stations in China from 1960 to 2000, the analysis on the variations and distributions of the frequency and the percentage of extreme precipitation to the annual rainfall have been performed in this paper. Results indicate that the percentage of heavy rains (above 25mm/day) in the annual rainfall has increased, while on average the day number of heavy rains has slightly reduced during the past 40 years. In the end of 1970s and the beginning of 1980s, both the number of days with extreme precipitation and the percentage of extreme precipitation abruptly changed over China, especially in the northern China. By moving t test, the abrupt change year of extreme precipitation for each station and its spatial distribution over the whole country are also obtained. The abrupt change years concentrated in 1978–1982 for most regions of northern China while occurred at various stations in southern China in greatly different/diverse years. Besides the abrupt change years of extreme precipitation at part stations of Northwest China happened about 5 years later in comparison with that of the country's average

  17. Assessing the gap in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kristopher; Ramonas, Milita; Patlas, Michael; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-12-01

    To examine trends in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology from January 1994 to December 2014. We obtained institutional review board approval for our study. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1617 articles published in the journal Emergency Radiology over a 20-year period. Original articles, case reports, review articles, and pictorial essays were included. The first and last position author's gender was categorized as female or male. We analyzed trends by comparing the first and last position authors of original articles from the first and last year reviewed. We utilized Chi-square test for statistical analysis, with a p value gender of 96% of the authors. Overall, female authors were 21% of first position authors (290 of 1368) and 15% of last position authors (183 of 1246). Thirty-two percent of articles with female last position authors also had female first position authors (58 of 183). There was a statistically significant increase in female last position authors, from 12.9% in 1994 to 21.3% in 2014 (p = 0.026), a non-significant increase in female first position authors, from 17.5% in 1994 to 20.9% in 2014 (p = 0.514), and a non-significant increase in articles with both a first and last female author, from 25% in 1994 to 35% in 2014 (p = 0.593). Over the last 20 years, there has been a statistically significant upward trend in female last position authors publishing in the journal Emergency Radiology.

  18. Common cycles and common trends in the stock and oil markets: Evidence from more than 150 years of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcilar, Mehmet; Gupta, Rangan; Wohar, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of permanent and transitory shocks, within the framework of common cycles and common trends, in explaining stock and oil prices. We perform a multivariate variance decomposition analysis of monthly data on the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil price and the S&P 500. The dataset used in the study spans a long period of 150 years and therefore contains a rich history to examine both the short- and long-run comovement properties of oil and stock prices. Given that the oil and stock markets might comove both in the short- and long-run, it is of interest to see the relative impacts of transitory and permanent shocks on both variables. We find that (log) oil price and (log) S&P 500 share a common stochastic trend for our full sample of September 1859 to July 2015, but a common cycle only exists during the post-WW II period. Full and post-WW II samples have quite different common feature estimates in terms of the impact of permanent and transitory shocks as measured by the impulse responses and forecast error variance decompositions. We also find that in the short-run oil is driven mostly by cycles (transitory shocks) and stock market is mostly driven by permanent shocks. But, permanent shocks dominate in the long-run. - Highlights: • Role of permanent and transitory shocks analyzed for oil and stock markets • The framework of common cycles and common trends used over 1859 to 2015 • Common stochastic trend for full-sample and common cycle post-World War II • Stock market driven by permanent shock in short- and long-runs • Oil market driven by temporary (permanent) shocks in short-run (long-run)

  19. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

  20. Status and trends of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic fish stocks in the North Sea : Thirty-year overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serchuk, F.M.; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Daan, N.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the status of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic stocks in the North Sea over the past 30 years are reviewed. Synopses are presented on trends in catches, fishing mortality, spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment for eight stocks (cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole......, herring, and mackerel), together with an evaluation of the current state of these resources and the most resent management advice provided by the ICES Advisory, Committee on Fishery Management. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  1. Eight years secular trends of physical self-esteem among Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raustorp, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore secular trends between 2000 and 2008 in physical self esteem by comparing cross sectional cohorts of young adolescents. Data of physical self esteem, mean steps per day and body mass index (BMI) were collected in comparable cohorts comprising 191 (103 girls) (2000) and 170 adolescents (101 girls) (2008) in a middle class Swedish community. There was a significant higher Global Self-esteem in the cohort 2008 compared with the 2000 cohort both in boys (p = .004) and girls (p = .018). Regarding Physical Self-worth, both boys and girls reported higher mean values in 2008, which were however not significant. Boys classified overweight/obese showed a significant lower value in Global Self-esteem (p = .001) in the 2008 cohort when compared with the overweight/obese in the 2000 cohort, but all other domains showed non significant differences. Girls classified overweight/obese showed a significant lower value in Physical Strength (p = .023), in the 2008 cohort when compared with the overweight/ obese in the 2000 cohort, but all other domains showed non significant differences. There was significantly higher Global Self-esteem in the cohort 2008 compared with the 2000 cohort both in boys and girls, and regarding Physical Self-worth, both boys and girls reported higher mean values in 2008 that were not significant. In the overweight/obese adolescents group, the only significant difference was a lower perceived Physical Strength in girls in 2008 and a significant lower Global Self-esteem in boys in 2008. Enhanced focus on physical activity in society and actions taken by the school might have influenced the result.

  2. Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Ingo; Auffarth, Gerd U; Epstein, Daniel; Holzer, Mike P

    2010-03-01

    To study the current practice styles and preferences of refractive surgeons in Germany. In February 2008, a seven-item questionnaire regarding the practice of refractive surgery was mailed to 282 members of the German Society of Intra-ocular Lens Implantation, Interventional, and Refractive Surgery (DGII) and the Commission of Refractive Surgery (KRC). Most questions were identical to our 2005 German refractive surgery survey. All data were analyzed in a masked fashion. The response rate was 42.2%. The majority (68%) of respondents reported that they perform refractive surgery in laser centers (exclusively or partially) followed by general hospitals (19.4%) and universities (12.6%). Although LASIK was the predominant type of refractive surgery performed (80.6%), other refractive procedures included refractive lens exchange (60.2%), photorefractive keratectomy (47.6%), phakic intraocular lens implants (45.6%), laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (36.9%), epithelial laser in situ keratomileusis (15.5%), intracorneal rings (5.8%), and limbal relaxing incisions (2.9%). The volume of refractive surgery procedures and the preferred type of excimer laser systems, microkeratomes, and diagnostic devices varied at different institutions. Most respondents performed either wavefront-guided custom ablation or wavefront-optimized ablation (63.1%) compared with conventional excimer laser correction (36.9%). Refractive surgery practice styles and preferences in Germany are comparable to trends in other European countries. Although LASIK is the most commonly performed refractive procedure, the numbers of various surface ablation techniques and refractive intraocular lens procedures are increasing. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Thirteen-year trends in child and adolescent fundamental movement skills: 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Barnett, Lisa; Espinel, Paola; Okely, Anthony D

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe 13-yr trends in children's fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency. Secondary analysis of representative, cross-sectional, Australian school-based surveys was conducted in 1997, 2004, and 2010 (n = 13,752 children age 9-15 yr). Five FMS (sprint run, vertical jump, catch, kick, and overarm throw) were assessed using process-oriented criteria at each survey and children's skills classified as competent or not competent. Covariates included sex, age, cardiorespiratory endurance (20-m shuttle run test), body mass index (kg·m), and socioeconomic status (residential postcode). At each survey, the children's FMS competency was low, with prevalence rarely above 50%. Between 1997 and 2004, there were significant increases in all students' competency in the sprint run, vertical jump, and catch. For boys, competency increased in the kick (primary) and the overarm throw (high school), but among high school girls, overarm throw competency decreased. Between 2004 and 2010, competency increased in the catch (all students), and in all girls, competency increased in the kick, whereas competency in the vertical jump decreased. Overall, students' FMS competency was low especially in the kick and overarm throw in girls. The observed increase in FMS competency in 2004 was attributed to changes in practice and policy to support the teaching of FMS in schools. In 2010, competency remained low, with improvements in only the catch (all) and kick (girls) and declines in vertical jump. Potentially, the current delivery of FMS programs requires stronger positioning within the school curriculum. Strategies to improve children's physical activity should consider ensuring children are taught FMS to competency level, to enjoy being physically active.

  4. Vestibular Assessment and Rehabilitation: Ten-Year Survey Trends of Audiologists' Opinions and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M Dawn; Akin, Faith W; Riska, Kristal M; Andresen, Kimberly; Mondelli, Stephanie Stamps

    2016-02-01

    The past decade has yielded changes in the education and training of audiologists and technological advancements that have become widely available for clinical balance function testing. It is unclear if recent advancements in vestibular instrumentation or the transition to an AuD degree have affected audiologists' vestibular clinical practice or opinions. The purpose of this study was to examine predominant opinions and practices for vestibular assessment (VA) and vestibular rehabilitation (VR) over the past decade and between master's- and AuD-level audiologists. A 31-question survey was administered to audiologists via U.S. mail in 2003 (N = 7,500) and electronically in 2014 (N = 9,984) with a response rate of 12% and 10%, respectively. There was an increase in the number of audiologists providing vestibular services in the past decade. Most respondents agreed that audiologists were the most qualified professionals to conduct VA. Less than half of the surveyed audiologists felt that graduate training was adequate for VA. AuD-level audiologists were more satisfied with graduate training and felt more comfortable performing VA compared to master's-level audiologists. Few respondents agreed that audiologists were the most qualified professionals to conduct VR or that graduate training prepared them to conduct VR. The basic vestibular test battery was unchanged across surveys and included: calorics, smooth pursuit, saccades, search for spontaneous, positional, gaze and optokinetic nystagmus, Dix-Hallpike, case history, and hearing evaluation. There was a trend toward greater use of air (versus water) calorics, videonystagmography (versus electronystagmography), and additional tests of vestibular and balance function. VA is a growing specialty area in the field of audiology. Better training opportunities are needed to increase audiologists' knowledge and skills for providing vestibular services. The basic tests performed during VA have remained relatively unchanged

  5. Trends in referral to a single encopresis clinic over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Laurie; Rappaport, Leonard; Schonwald, Alison; Nurko, Samuel

    2003-05-01

    To compare the characteristics of children with encopresis referred to a single encopresis clinic over the course of 20 years, including symptoms, previous diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and parental attitudes. A retrospective study was conducted of an encopresis clinic at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Questionnaires at initial evaluation elicited information about bowel habits, soiling, previous evaluations, previous treatments, and parental attitudes. In 503 children with encopresis, the average age of referral dropped from 115 months during the earliest 5 years to 77 months during the most recent 5 years. Children who had soiling for >3 years before referral decreased from 63% to 12%. The use of barium enema before referral decreased from 14% to 5%, as did psychological evaluation, from 25% to 14%. Previous therapy with enemas decreased from 45% to 27%. Mineral oil use remained at approximately 50%, and 20% of children had no previous treatment. Symptoms at referral and parental attitudes did not change across the years. Children are now referred at an earlier age to our tertiary encopresis clinic. The number of invasive and psychological evaluations has decreased before referral. However, treatment by many primary care providers before the referral has not changed. These data may suggest that pediatricians have increased awareness of encopresis and greater appreciation of its primarily physical rather than psychological nature. Additional studies will be needed to determine how these factors affect outcome.

  6. Secular trends in adiposity in Norwegian 9-year-olds from 1999-2000 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Holme, Ingar

    2009-01-01

    by trained investigators. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs were used to define overweight and obese subjects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight (including obesity) did not change over the five year period. However, a shift may have occurred as the prevalence of overweight (including...... obesity) increased by 6.4% in girls and 5.5% in boys over the five year period. In both study periods, logistic regression analyses revealed that children of non-Western origin had 2 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than those of Western origin. However, neither the children of Western origin...... nor the children of non-Western origin showed a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight over the five-year period. No changes were observed for mean BMI, while a significant increase in WC was reported for both girls and boys, and an increase in all skinfold measurements was observed...

  7. World trend - a 10% growth per year for small wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.

    2016-01-01

    A decline was expected for small wind turbine business with the advent of bigger wind turbines but it is really not the case. In 2014 the growth rate was about 10 % with a cumulated power installed that year of 830 MW for small wind turbines. China (41% of the installed capacity), United-States (30%) and Great-Britain (15%) are the 3 main players. About 1 million wind turbines are operating in the world - it means 8.3% (∼ 70.000 units) more than a year before. (A.C.)

  8. Trends in scientific publications of Indian spine surgeons over 14 years (2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Mugesh Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study shows that publications in the field of spine surgery have been increasing in the last few years, although it is less. Further efforts such as research training of spine surgeons, inducing collaborations and formulation of multicenter projects and periodically allocating adequate funds are key factors to improve the scientific publications from India.

  9. Time Trends in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Atrophic Gastritis Over 40 Years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Haruma, Ken; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Manabe, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Hata, Jiro; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Sumii, Koji; Akiyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinji; Shiotani, Akiko; Graham, David Y

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection produces progressive mucosal damage that may eventually result in gastric cancer. We studied the changes that occurred in the presence and severity of atrophic gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infection that occurred coincident with improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. The prevalence of H. pylori infection and histologic grades of gastric damage were retrospectively evaluated using gastric biopsy specimens obtained over a 40-year period. Gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were scored using the updated Sydney classification system. The prevalence of H. pylori and severity of atrophy were examined in 1381 patients including 289 patients examined in the 1970s (158 men; mean age, 44.9 years), 787 in the 1990s (430 men; 44.2 years), and 305 in the 2010s (163 men; 53.2 years). Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection decreased significantly from 74.7% (1970s) to 53% (1990s) and 35.1% (2010s) (p pylori infection. There has been a progressive and rapid decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection as well a fall in the rate of progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected Japanese coincident with the westernization and improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comfort and experience with online learning: trends over nine years and associations with knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G

    2014-07-01

    Some evidence suggests that attitude toward computer-based instruction is an important determinant of success in online learning. We sought to determine how comfort using computers and perceptions of prior online learning experiences have changed over the past decade, and how these associate with learning outcomes. Each year from 2003-2011 we conducted a prospective trial of online learning. As part of each year's study, we asked medicine residents about their comfort using computers and if their previous experiences with online learning were favorable. We assessed knowledge using a multiple-choice test. We used regression to analyze associations and changes over time. 371 internal medicine and family medicine residents participated. Neither comfort with computers nor perceptions of prior online learning experiences showed a significant change across years (p > 0.61), with mean comfort rating 3.96 (maximum 5 = very comfortable) and mean experience rating 4.42 (maximum 6 = strongly agree [favorable]). Comfort showed no significant association with knowledge scores (p = 0.39) but perceptions of prior experiences did, with a 1.56% rise in knowledge score for a 1-point rise in experience score (p = 0.02). Correlations among comfort, perceptions of prior experiences, and number of prior experiences were all small and not statistically significant. Comfort with computers and perceptions of prior experience with online learning remained stable over nine years. Prior good experiences (but not comfort with computers) demonstrated a modest association with knowledge outcomes, suggesting that prior course satisfaction may influence subsequent learning.

  11. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhuenda-Fluixá, Fernando; Salvà, Francesca; Saurin, Almudena A. Navas; López, Miriam Abiétar

    2015-01-01

    Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views…

  12. Examining Trends in Parent-Child Communication in Europe over 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Granado Alcon, Maria del Carmen; Orkenyi, Agota; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Moreno, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in communication with parents about matters of concern to 11- and 13-year olds. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and…

  13. Gender differences in 16-year trends in assault- and police-related problems due to drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors.

  14. Development and economic trends in cancer therapeutic drugs: a 5-year update 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P; Mahmoud, S

    2015-03-17

    Over the past 20 years, the mechanisms of action, duration of benefits and economic costs of newly licenced cancer drugs have changed significantly; however, summary data on these characteristics are limited. In this study, using historical copies of the British National Formulary and relevant contemporary publications, we have documented for each new cancer drug the year of introduction, therapeutic classification, initial indication, median duration of treatment and the cost of treatment at introduction relative to the then current UK GDP per capita. Before 2000, there were 69 cancer treatment drugs available, of which 50 (72.5%) were classical cytotoxic drugs. In the subsequent 15 years, there have been 63 more new cancer treatment drugs added, including 20 kinase inhibitors and 11 monoclonal antibodies. The average median duration of treatment with a new drug has risen from 181 days in 1995-1999 to 263 days in 2010-2014. The average cost of treatment has also risen from £3036.91 (20.6% of UK per capita GDP) in 1995-1999 to £20 233 (89.0%) in 2005-2009 and now to £35 383 (141.7%) in 2010-2014. The last 5 years has seen 33 new cancer drugs. These drugs deliver significant benefits in patient outcomes and are taken for increasing lengths of time. Alongside these clinical benefits, the direct costs of new treatments have increased significantly over the past decade.

  15. [Trends in stroke mortality rates in Russia and the USA over a 15-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorodskaya, I V; Zayratyants, O V; Perkhov, V I; Andreev, E M; Vaisman, D Sh

    2018-01-01

    to comparatively analyze standardized mortality ratios (SMR) from stroke in the populations aged over 30 years in the Russian Federation and in the USA over a 15-year period. The analysis included nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (NTSH) (a group of ICD-10 codes I60), nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (NTIH) (I61), cerebral infarction (CI) (I63), and stroke, not specified as hemorrhage or infarction (SNSHI) (I64). The new European standard (European Standard Population.2013) was used for standardization. The data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, those of the World Health Organization Mortality Database (WHO MD) and Human Mortality Database (HMD) for the USA were applied. During the considered period, 30-49-year-old Russian men showed a reduction in SMRs from NTSH (I61) by 9.0% (from 18.9 to 17.2 per 100,000 population), from SNSHI (I64) by 10 times (from 12.5 to 1.3); SMRs from CI (I63) increased by 4.3% (from 6.9 to 7.2). In men aged 50 years and older, SMRs from NTIH and SNSHI decreased by 32.3% (from 143.2 to 97.0) and by 10 times (from 580.8 to 60.6), respectively; those from CI increased by 13.8% (from 229.8 to 261.4). In the USA, 30-49-year-old men displayed 26.1% and 2-fold decreases in SMRs from NTIH (from 2.5 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 1.7 in 2013) and CI (from 1.8 to 0.9), respectively; those from SNSHI remained unchanged (1.3). In men aged 50 years and older, SMRs from NTIH, CI, and SNSHI reduced by 39.7% (from 29.0 to 17.5), by 2 times (from 1.8 to 0.9), and by 2 times (143.0 to 72.5), respectively. 30-49-year-old Russian women exhibited a 22.2% reduction in SMRs from NTIH (from 9.0 to 7.0), a 4.3% increase in those from CI (from 2.7 to 2.8), and an 11-fold decrease in those from SNSHI (from 5.5 to 0.5). Women aged 50 years and older showed changes in SMRs from the codes in the same sequence from 105.6 to 60.5, from 172.8 to 189.6, and from 466.5 to 43.7, respectively. In the USA, 30-49-year-old women

  16. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  17. Resistance patterns and trends of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: 5-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Kumar Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB strains were emerged when multidrug-resistant TB (MDR- TB was inadequately treated. Inadequate treatment of MDR-TB cases may result in additional resistance especially non-XDR-TB and then XDR-TB. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence, resistance patterns and trends of the XDR-TB strains among the MDR-TB at a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, India Methods: A total of 430 Mycobacterium isolates were underwent NAP test and TB MPT64 Ag test for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Drug-susceptibility test (DST was performed over MTBC for the first line drugs by 1% proportion method (Bactec and for the second-line drugs by 1% proportion method (Lowenstein- Jensen media. The XDR-TB status was further confirmed by line probe assay (GenoType® MTBDRsl assay. Results: Among the 430 isolates of mycobacterium, 365 (84.9% were MTBC and 139 (38.1% were MDR-TB respectively. Further 97 MDR-TB from “highly suspected drug resistant-TB (DR-TB” cases among MDR-TB were tested with second line drugs in which 15 (15.5% XDR-TB and 82 (84.5% were non-XDR-TB. Regarding XDR-TB status, using the 1% proportion method a 100% agreement was seen with the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay. Resistance patterns of XDR-TB were as; 10/15 (66.7% as isoniazid + rifampicin + ciprofloxacin + amikacin resistance and 5/15 (33.3% as isoniazid + rifampicin + ciprofloxacin + amikacin + kanamycin resistance. Conclusion:The prevalence of XDR-TB was 15.5% among MDR-TB. Hence laboratory testing of “highly suspected drug resistant-TB” isolates should be done for both first and second line drugs simultaneously especially in developing countries.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 169-175

  18. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) Flame Retardant in Top Predator Fish across Canada and its 36-Year Temporal Trends for Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guanyong; McGoldrick, Daryl; Clark, Mandi G; Evans, Marlene; Gledhill, Melissa; Garron, Christine; Armellin, Alain; Backus, Sean; Letcher, Robert J

    2018-05-08

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a high concern environmental pollutant due to its persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. The spatial distribution of HBCDD was investigated in top predator fish (Lake Trout, Walleye or Brook Trout) collected in 2013 (n=165) from nineteen sampling sites and in 2015 (n=145) from twenty sites across Canada. HBCDD was measurable in at least one sample at each sampling site regardless of sampling year with the exception of Walleye from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg (2013). Sampling sites in or near the Laurentian Great Lakes had greater HBCDD concentrations compared to locations to the west or east. The greatest mean HBCDD concentration was 72.6 ng/g lw in fish from Lake Huron-Goderich (2015). Regardless of the sampling sites, α-HBCDD was the dominant congener followed by γ-HBCDD, whereas β-HBCDD was barely detectable. In fish from the same waterbody there were comparable α/γ isomer concentration ratios. The greatest ratio was 20.8 in fish from Lake Ontario, whereas the lowest ratio was 6.3 for fish from Lac Memphrémagog (Québec) likely related to more recent emissions of technical HBCDD mixture. Temporal trends of HBCDD in Lake Trout from Lake Ontario showed a significant decreasing trend for γ-HBCDD with a half-life estimate of 10 years over a 36-year period (1979-2015), and for -HBCDD with a half-life of 11 years over the years of 2008 to 2015. The proportion of α-HBCDD to ΣHBCDD increased significantly during 1979 to 2015. The present study provided novel information on the isomer-specific HBCDDs in Canada freshwater fish.

  19. Trends in the physical development indicators of 14-year-old adolescents in the Voronezh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Sitnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of statistical (sigma and percentile analysis of height and weight in 434 boys and girls aged 14 years from the Voronezh Region in 2011 —2012. The girls' height was comparable with the regional indicators of physical development in the children of the Voronezh Region (1997—1999. The boys' height was characterized by a wide scatter of the obtained values; but there was an increase in the mean values as compared to the 1997—1999 data. Examinations of the boys and girls revealed a wide scatter in their weight with its increasing tendency. The performed examinations indicate the need for revision of the regional height and weight values for teenagers every ten years.

  20. Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Healthcare Market: Market Trend with Boom Opportunities in Upcoming Years

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Gautam

    2018-01-01

    The global artificial intelligence in healthcare market is expected to observe an extensive growth in the coming years, led by growing need for precision medicine, increasing application of big data in healthcare industry, and rising need for coordination between healthcare workforce and patients. The products in the global market are categorized as hardware, software and services, with software being the largest contributor in 2016 and the category is also projected to witness significant gr...

  1. Trends in dental caries in Indian children for the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    The economic liberalization which was started 25 years back in India has led to a rising gross domestic product and per capita income and a decline in poverty. There has been an improvement in various health status indicators in the Indian population. As oral health is an integral part of general health, a retrospective study was designed to assess the effect of economic liberalization on dental caries experience in Indian children. A systematic literature search was conducted to find studies done on dental caries prevalence in children in India from the year 1992-2016. Mesh and free text terms "child," "dental caries," and "India" were searched in databases - PubMed and PubMed Central. A total of 1468 titles were screened, out of which 191 articles were shortlisted for further inspection. Finally, 69 studies were found suitable for final analysis. The pooled caries prevalence was between 50.84% and 62.41% at 5-year interval. There was a decline in caries prevalence in 2-5 and 11-15 years of age group. The overall weighed mean of 2.4, 2.7, and 1.9 was observed in three different age groups. Significant caries index (SiC) of more than 3 was observed in all the age groups. The present review suggests that more than half of Indian children have been affected by dental caries. High SIC index score suggests a skewed distribution of caries among Indian children. This data may aid in planning further exploratory research and oral health care services for children by the stakeholders.

  2. Retail trade in Tarnow in the years 2011-2014. Diagnosis and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stroynyiy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The level of retailing in Tarnow in the years 2011-2014 has been analyzed. The origins and the development of trade in Tarnow have been shown throughout history. The attention has been drawn to such very important fact as the geographical location of the city, which is near the main trade routes and how it affected the development of trade from the beginning of its foundation. In addition to the position, very big influence on the development of trade did the fact that a high proportion of Tarnow inhabitants were Jews, who dominated in the retail. Second part of the article is related to the Polish accession to the European Union, which has had a great impact on the retail sector in Tarnow, and the introduction of principles of market economy. The quantitative and qualitative trade analyses during the period of years 2011-2014 have been discussed thoroughly. Both statistical data and results of author’s research have been used. The information about present shopping centers, supermarkets, department stores, retail shops, kiosks and stalls has been given. Moreover, the empirical diagnosis of the studied area has also been made. The transformations, which were followed by the expansion of large chains stores and the related changes in customers’ preferences during the last years, have been mentioned. The dynamics of the changes and their impact on the development and the retailing organization in Tarnow has been described in the last part of the article. Opportunities and risks have been shown, both for entrepreneurs, consumers and for the economy of the city. The article ends with description of changes in the structure of retailing in Tarnow in the coming years, with the problems related to the migration of young people to big cities and abroad, and the change of their lifestyles that enforces new sales standards.

  3. Development trends of white matter connectivity in the first years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; Fan, Yong; Chen, Yasheng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways.

  4. Changing trends in the management of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis--an audit over 11 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This article is a follow-up to an audit performed by the Department of Surgery and published in the Irish Journal of Medical Science in 1996. This audit reviewed all cases of Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS) operated on over 22 years up to 1991. AIMS: We aim to demonstrate that radiologic investigations, namely barium meal and ultrasound, have been increasingly employed in the diagnosis of IHPS. In addition, ultrasound is now the investigation of choice. METHODS: We have reviewed all cases of IHPS, at the same institution, over the subsequent 11 years, with reference to any radiological investigations performed. In the previous study, the diagnosis of IHPS was made clinically in 92.6% with the remainder diagnosed radiologically. RESULTS: Over 11 years, 157 patients were diagnosed with IHPS. Male to female ratio was 4.06:1. Median age was four weeks (range 1-18 weeks).Twenty-four per cent had a barium meal, 36% had an ultrasound and 13% had both performed. CONCLUSION: We conclude a change in practice in the management of IHPS with radiology, particularly ultrasound, playing an increasing role.

  5. Development trends of white matter connectivity in the first years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pew-Thian Yap

    Full Text Available The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways.

  6. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Review of Ten Years of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Biedenbach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of antimicrobial agent resistance provides important information to guide microbiologists and infectious disease specialists understanding of the control and the spread of resistance mechanisms within the local environment. Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the community and in local hospital environments is essential to guide effective empiric therapy. The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART has monitored the in vitro susceptibility patterns of clinical Gram-negative bacilli to antimicrobial agents collected worldwide from intra-abdominal infections since 2002 and urinary tract infections since 2009. Resistance trends, with a particular focus on carbapenem resistance and the rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs, were analyzed. Isolates from intra-abdominal infections (n = 92,086 and urinary-tract infections (n = 24,705 were collected and tested using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. This review presents carbapenem susceptibility and ESBL rates over ten years of SMART study analysis, including key publications during this period. The SMART study has proved to be a valuable resource in determining pathogen prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility over the last ten years and continues to provide evidence for regulatory susceptibility breakpoints and clinical decision making.

  8. A Review of Ten Years of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Hackel, Meredith; Badal, Robert; Bouchillon, Sam; Hawser, Stephen; Biedenbach, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial agent resistance provides important information to guide microbiologists and infectious disease specialists understanding of the control and the spread of resistance mechanisms within the local environment. Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the community and in local hospital environments is essential to guide effective empiric therapy. The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) has monitored the in vitro susceptibility patterns of clinical Gram-negative bacilli to antimicrobial agents collected worldwide from intra-abdominal infections since 2002 and urinary tract infections since 2009. Resistance trends, with a particular focus on carbapenem resistance and the rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), were analyzed. Isolates from intra-abdominal infections (n = 92,086) and urinary-tract infections (n = 24,705) were collected and tested using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. This review presents carbapenem susceptibility and ESBL rates over ten years of SMART study analysis, including key publications during this period. The SMART study has proved to be a valuable resource in determining pathogen prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility over the last ten years and continues to provide evidence for regulatory susceptibility breakpoints and clinical decision making.

  9. Trends in leprosy case detection in Rwanda, 1995–2011: analysis of 17 years of laboratory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Uwimana

    2017-02-01

    Objective: We analysed laboratory records to assess trends in prevalence rates and case detection rates (CDRs in Rwanda. Methods: A retrospective review of detected leprosy cases from the records of the Rwanda National Reference Laboratory over a 17-year period (1995–2011 was conducted. Skin biopsy samples were analysed microscopically using Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to identify M. leprae. Results: Cumulatively, 266 suspected cases were reported between 1995 and 2011. Of the suspected cases, 77 (28.9% were laboratory confirmed as having leprosy. Among detected cases, 59 (76.6% were men and 18 (23.4% women. The male:female ratio was 3:1. There were 77 registered leprosy cases over the 17-year period of the study, and the prevalence rate was 0.005 per 10 000 population. A gradual decrease in the prevalence rate was observed from 0.015 per 10 000 population in 2003 to 0.003 per 10 000 population in 2010. From 1995 to 2011, the CDR did not exceed one per 10 000 population. Conclusion: This laboratory review demonstrates a declining trend in prevalence rates and CDR during the period of the study. Early case detection and a sustainable leprosy control programme remain the cornerstones of reducing the physical and socio-economic burden of leprosy in Rwanda.

  10. Frequency and trends of contact allergy to and iatrogenic contact dermatitis caused by topical drugs over a 25-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the most common adverse reaction caused by topical drugs. To study the demographic characteristics and lesion locations of patients with iatrogenic dermatitis, and to analyse contact allergy to active principles and trends in frequencies over the years. Between 1990 and 2014, 14 911 patients were patch tested with the European baseline series. Patients with a presumed iatrogenic cause were often tested with a pharmaceutical series, and, if indicated, with photo-patch tests. Most were also tested with the topical products to which they had been exposed, along with their ingredients. Eight thousand three hundred and seventy-four (56%) patients tested positively, and 2600 (17.4%, 95%CI: 16.8-18.0%) of all patients suffered from iatrogenic contact dermatitis. The most important primary sites of dermatitis were the legs, face, and hands. The most common sensitizers included topical antibiotics, antiseptics, and corticosteroids. The most frequent baseline allergens in this subgroup were budesonide, neomycin, and benzocaine, although with a decreasing trend over the years. Many other allergens from different pharmacological classes were identified. With a prevalence of 17.4% of consecutive patients, iatrogenic contact dermatitis is a frequent diagnosis in patients attending a general patch test clinic, involving one-third of the patients with at least one positive reaction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Trends in workers compensation costs in a hotel-operating company over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C R; Mark, C R

    1995-03-01

    A large Honolulu-based hotel-operating company reviewed its workers compensation costs over the last 6 years. Data retrieved from the company's computerized data base is used to describe trends in injury incidence rate, average cost per claim, average medical cost per claim, and medical expenses as a percentage of total costs. Factors that might have influenced these parameters include company reorganization, employee training and safety programs, changes in the economy, company morale, aggressive case management, and the quality of the adjusting services hired. Cause-and-effect relationships, although suggested, cannot be proven. The data is presented, in this year of imminent workers compensation legislative reform, to increase the available factual data base on which rational and efficacious reform proposals can be developed.

  12. Trends in prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis symptoms in primary schoolchildren six years apart in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultész, M; Balogh, I; Katona, G; Mezei, G; Hirschberg, A; Gálffy, G

    Few data are available concerning the time trends and risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in schoolchildren in Hungary. At an interval of six years, parents of 6-12-year-old children completed identical ISAAC-based and additional questionnaires related to possible risk factors. Response rate was 62.8% with 6335 questionnaires distributed in 2007, and 52.9% with 6441 questionnaires in 2013. The prevalence of current AR symptoms (subjects presenting clinical symptoms of AR in the past 12 months, but had yet to be diagnosed by physician) increased significantly from 14.9% to 23.5% (pBudapest. Our results revealed new aspects of bedding customs in atopic families. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Stochastic modeling of economic injury levels with respect to yearly trends in price commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010-2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  14. Seven-year trends in sun protection and sunburn among Australian adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Angela; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Slevin, Terry

    2013-02-01

    To examine the change in sun protective behaviours and sunburn of Australians over a seven-year period, in the context of sustained skin cancer prevention campaigns and programs. Weekly cross-sectional telephone interviews of Australians were conducted throughout summer in 2010/11 for comparison with 2003/04 and 2006/07. In 2010/11, n=1,367 adolescents (12-17 years) and n=5,412 adults (18-69 years) were interviewed about their sun-related attitudes, weekend sun protection and sunburn. Multivariate analyses adjusted for key demographics, temperature, cloud, wind and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to assess change in outcomes over time. There were consistent improvements in adolescents' and adults' attitudes, intentional tanning and incidence of sunburn over time. Behavioural changes were variable. Adults spent less time outdoors during peak UVR compared to past surveys, while adolescents were less likely to be outdoors compared with 2006/07. Sunscreen use and wearing of long sleeves increased among adults, but hat wearing decreased for both age groups, as did leg cover by adolescents since 2003/04. There has been a sustained decrease in weekend sunburn among adolescents and adults. The findings suggest improvements in skin cancer prevention attitudes of Australians over time. Australians' compliance with sun protection during summer has improved in some areas, but is still far from ideal. The sustained decrease in weekend sunburn among adolescents and adults is encouraging, but further improvements are required. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Survey on the trends of atomic power development and utilization in 1973 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Japanese activities in the atomic power development and utilization during 1973 (FY) were investigated and compared with the previous year. The investigation was done for each type of organization; medical, educational, research institute, private company, and others. The results of the investigation can be summarized as follows. The total number of personnel being engaged in the field of atomic industry increased by 1.2%. About 52.8% of them belong to private companies. The number of trainees during 1973 increased by 7.9%. About 92.3% of them were trained in domestic organizations. The expenditure for research and development was 100 billion yen which is 12.1% larger than that in the previous year. About 73.4% was used by public research institutes including JAERI and PNC. Investment in equipments was 235.2 billion yen which was increase of 20%. Most of this money (215.4 billion yen) was invested for the construction of power plants by electric utilities. Total amount of production was 73 billion yen which was increase of 45.9%. (Aoki, K.)

  16. Nine year trends of dengue virus infection in Mumbai, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Shastri

    2017-01-01

    Methods and Results: During the nine year period of this study analysis, 6767 strongly suspected cases were tested by RT-PCR. 1685 (24.9% were Dengue PCR positive and confirmed as Dengue cases. Observations on the seasonality were based on the nine year's data as the intensity of sampling was at its maximum during monsoon season. Dengue typing was done on 100 positive samples after storage of Dengue RNA at – 80°C. Dengue serotypes were detected in 69 samples of which Dengue 2 was most predominant. 576 samples were processed for NS1 antigen and PCR simultaneously. 19/576 were positive (3.3 % for NS1 as well as by PCR . 23/576 samples were negative for NS1 antigen, but were positive by RT-PCR. The remaining 534 samples which were negative for NS1 antigen were also negative by Dengue RT-PCR. Conclusion: In this study we sought to standardize rapid, sensitive, and specific fluorogenic probe-based RT-PCR assay to screen and serotype a representative range of Dengue viruses that are found in and around Mumbai. Qualitative Dengue virus TaqMan assays could have tremendous utility for the epidemiological investigation of Dengue illness and especially for the study of the viremic response with candidate live-attenuated dengue virus vaccines.

  17. Five-year trends of selected halogenated flame retardants in the atmosphere of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Qiao, Li-Na [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); IJRC-PTS-NA, Toronto M2N 6X9 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    This study collected 227 pairs of gas phase and particle phase air samples in a typical urban city of Northeast China from 2008 to 2013. Four alternative halogenated flame retardants for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed, namely 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), bis (2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP) and anti-dechlorane plus (anti-DP). The average concentrations for EHTBB and BEHTBP were 5.2 ± 20 and 30 ± 200 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively, while for syn-DP and anti-DP were 1.9 ± 5.1 and 5.8 ± 18 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Generally, they were frequently detected in the particle phase, and the gas/particle partitioning suggested they were the maximum partition chemicals. The fractional abundance of EHTBB (f{sub EHTBB}) and syn-DP (f{sub syn}) were comparable with those in other studies. Strong local sources were identified based on the air parcel backward trajectories and the potential source contribution function. The concentrations of these chemicals were significantly increased during this sampling campaign, possibly suggesting their increasing usages from 2008 to 2013 in China. - Highlights: • Five-year air samples were analyzed for four alternative HFRs. • BEHTBP and DP were frequently detected in the particle phase. • Local and nearby city sources of these HFRs were suggested. • Concentrations of these HFRs were significantly increased in the five-year period.

  18. Managing type 1 diabetes: trends and outcomes over 20 years in the Wisconsin Diabetes Registry cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari; LeCaire, Tamara

    2009-08-01

    The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study is a Wisconsin cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes, who were diagnosed in 1987-1992 and actively followed. The study provides patients and health care professionals with better prognostic information and helps identify aspects of diabetes management that need improvement. To describe diabetes management and acute and chronic complications from the time of diagnosis. All incident cases diagnosed at age <30 in 28 counties were eligible and 590 enrolled. A baseline interview, blood sample kits, biannual/annual questionnaires and study examinations at 4, 7, 9, 14, and 20 years duration were administered. Diabetes management indicators, general health, and acute and chronic complications. Glycemic control was poor in adolescence, but improved with age. A high percentage of individuals do not meet treatment standards for blood pressure and lipid profile. Self-reported health deteriorated with age, and body mass index was similar to that of the general US population. Chronic complications were present at 15-20 years, but tended to be relatively mild. There is room for improvement in diabetes management, especially in meeting goals for blood pressure and lipid profile. Nonetheless, individuals with type 1 diabetes can be offered a more optimistic prognosis than in the past.

  19. Trends in induced abortion during the 12 years since legalization in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjeldestad, F E; Borgan, J K

    1994-01-01

    Data on 174,595 Norwegian women aged 15-44 who had an induced abortion between 1979 (when all abortions through 12 weeks of gestation were legalized) and 1990 reveals that the general abortion rate decreased by 12% among married women, while it remained unchanged among unmarried women. Unmarried women had higher abortion rates than did married women among all age-groups except teenagers, increasing from a difference of 11 abortions per 1,000 women in 1979-1981 to a difference of 13 per 1,000 in 1988-1990. Pregnancy terminations occurred at an earlier gestational age during the last three years of the study period, compared with the first three. Abortions beyond 12 gestational weeks, which require the approval of a hospital committee, decreased among unmarried women, while increasing somewhat among married women. A larger proportion of married women than unmarried women terminated pregnancies beyond 18 gestational weeks.

  20. Six year trend of neonatal septicaemia in a large Malaysian maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, N Y; Chor, C Y

    1994-02-01

    A study carried out in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 6 year period from 1986 to 1991, showed that the annual rates of septicaemia ranged from 5.2 to 10.2/100 admissions. Septicaemia accounted for between 11.0 to 30.4% of all neonatal deaths. The case fatality ratios ranged from 23.0 to 52.2%, being highest in 1989 when basic facilities were compromised. Low birthweight neonates accounted for 55.5% of those with septicaemia. The most common causative organisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus in 1986 and 1987, but from 1988 Klebsiella species became the most common. More than 50% of neonatal septicaemia occurred after the age of 2 days. The results of the study demonstrated the dynamism of infection control: when control measures introduced earlier were not sustained, outbreaks of nosocomial infection recurred or worsened.

  1. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  2. Trends in isolated lumbar spinal stenosis surgery among working US adults aged 40-64 years, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Micheal; Donaldson, Callum J; El Dafrawy, Mostafa H; Sciubba, Daniel M; Riley, Lee H; Neuman, Brian J; Kebaish, Khaled M; Skolasky, Richard L

    2018-05-25

    OBJECTIVE Recommendations for the surgical treatment of isolated lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (i.e., in the absence of concomitant scoliosis or spondylolisthesis) are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate trends in the surgical treatment of isolated LSS in US adults and determine implications for outcomes. METHODS The authors analyzed inpatient and outpatient claims from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database for 20,279 patients aged 40-64 years who underwent surgery for LSS between 2010 and 2014. Only patients with continuous 12-month insurance coverage after surgery were included. The rates of decompression with arthrodesis versus decompression only and of simple (1- or 2-level, single-approach) versus complex (> 2-level or combined-approach) arthrodesis were analyzed by year and geographic region. These trends were further analyzed with respect to complications, length of hospital stay, payments made to the hospital, and patient discharge status. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The proportion of patients who underwent decompression with arthrodesis compared with decompression only increased significantly and linearly from 2010 to 2014 (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.06-1.10). Arthrodesis was more likely to be complex rather than simple with each subsequent year (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.33-1.49). This trend was accompanied by an increased likelihood of postoperative complications (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), higher costs (payments increased by a mean of US$1633 per year; 95% CI 1327-1939), and greater likelihood of being discharged to a skilled nursing facility as opposed to home (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03-1.20). The South and Midwest regions of the US had the highest proportions of patients undergoing arthrodesis (48% and 42%, respectively). The mean length of hospital stay did not change significantly (p = 0.324). CONCLUSIONS From 2010 to 2014, the proportion of adults undergoing decompression with

  3. National Institutes of Health-Funded Cardiac Arrest Research: A 10-Year Trend Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coute, Ryan A; Panchal, Ashish R; Mader, Timothy J; Neumar, Robert W

    2017-07-12

    Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death in the United States, claiming over 450 000 lives annually. Improving survival depends on the ability to conduct CA research and on the translation and implementation of research findings into practice. Our objective was to provide a descriptive analysis of annual National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for CA research over the past decade. A search within NIH RePORTER for the years 2007 to 2016 was performed using the terms: "cardiac arrest" or "cardiopulmonary resuscitation" or "heart arrest" or "circulatory arrest" or "pulseless electrical activity" or "ventricular fibrillation" or "resuscitation." Grants were reviewed and categorized as CA research (yes/no) using predefined criteria. The annual NIH funding for CA research, number of individual grants, and principal investigators were tabulated. The total NIH investment in CA research for 2015 was calculated and compared to those for other leading causes of death within the United States. Interrater reliability among 3 independent reviewers for fiscal year 2015 was assessed using Fleiss κ. The search yielded 2763 NIH-funded grants, of which 745 (27.0%) were classified as CA research (κ=0.86 [95%CI 0.80-0.93]). Total inflation-adjusted NIH funding for CA research was $35.4 million in 2007, peaked at $76.7 million in 2010, and has decreased to $28.5 million in 2016. Per annual death, NIH invests ≈$2200 for stroke, ≈$2100 for heart disease, and ≈$91 for CA. This analysis demonstrates that the annual NIH investment in CA research is low relative to other leading causes of death in the United States and has declined over the past decade. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Trends in one-year cumulative incidence of death between 2005 and 2013 among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebell, Lisa M; Siedner, Mark J; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Boum, Yap; Bwana, Bosco M; Muyindike, Winnie; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-07-01

    Recent ecological data demonstrate improving outcomes for HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, Uganda has experienced a resurgence in HIV incidence and prevalence, but trends in HIV-related deaths have not been well described. Data were collected through the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) Study, an observational longitudinal cohort of Ugandan adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2005 and 2013. We calculated cumulative incidence of death within one year of ART initiation, and fit Poisson models with robust variance estimators to estimate the effect enrollment period on one-year risk of death and loss to follow-up. Of 760 persons in UARTO who started ART, 30 deaths occurred within one year of ART initiation (cumulative incidence 3.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-5.6%). Risk of death was highest for those starting ART in 2005 (13.0%, 95% CI 6.0-24.0%), decreased in 2006-2007 to 4% (95% CI 2.0-6.0%), and did not change thereafter ( P = 0.61). These results were robust to adjustment for age, sex, CD4 cell count, viral load, asset wealth, baseline depression, and body mass index. Here, we demonstrate that one-year cumulative incidence of death was high just after free ART rollout, decreased the following year, and remained low thereafter. Once established, ART programs in President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief-supported countries can maintain high quality care.

  5. Going to extremes: At forty above of forty below, Canadian drillers get the job done

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-12-03

    The hardships endured by Canadian roughnecks in the searing heat of the Burgos Basin of Mexico, or the bitter cold of the Mackenzie Delta in the Arctic circle are discussed. The expectations of contractors run high, especially since the increased export pipeline capacity and rising price for natural gas ignited an exploration drilling revival in both the southern and the northern hemisphere. Canadian drilling companies are making a stellar reputation for themselves in both hemispheres. For example Precision Drilling Corp. won an important contract in Mexico to drill at least 240 natural gas wells in the Burgos Basin, worth US$270 million, competing against some industry giants such as Halliburton and Schlumberger. The contract was also important because it heralded Canadian firms getting in on the ground floor of drilling activity on a grand scale, in a resource-rich country that has declared gas development to be a high priority and where changing political leadership is vowing to open up the country to foreign enterprise. Meanwhile in the North, Akita Drilling Corp's Akita Equtak Rig No. 63 is preparing to drill its first well this winter near Tuktoyaktuk for Devon Energy, a project that will let it eventually operate offshore on artificial ice islands. In a radical departure from rigs of the 1970s and 1980s, this rig is of vertical design, standing 53 metres tall, extremely compact, fitting onto a 54 by 24 metre surface. The same principle is used to keep compact the accompanying Atco work camp, a three-story affair housing up to 70 people. The 1.36 million kg rig comes apart in 62 truckloads that can move safely on ice roads one metre thick, as much as 30 per cent lighter than counterparts traversing the pavement in Alberta, BC and Saskatchewan. The efficient structure of the rig is expected to add two to three weeks to the northern drilling season and may even make year-around drilling activity possible. The human element is not neglected either; indeed

  6. Identification of forty-five gene-derived polymorphic microsatellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Chen M., Gao L., Zhang W., You H., Sun Q. and Chang Y. 2013 Identification of forty-five ... including Japan, China, Korea and fareastern Russia (Chang et al. 2009). Because of ... tory using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 Sequencing Technology.

  7. Divergent fifteen-year trends in traditional and cardiometabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Romain, Sarah; Shamlaye, Conrad; Mendis, Shanti; Darioli, Roger; Riesen, Walter; Tappy, Luc; Paccaud, Fred

    2009-06-26

    Few studies have assessed secular changes in the levels of cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RF) in populations of low or middle income countries. The systematic collection of a broad set of both traditional and metabolic CV-RF in 1989 and 2004 in the population of the Seychelles islands provides a unique opportunity to examine trends at a fairly early stage of the "diabesity" era in a country in the African region. Two examination surveys were conducted in independent random samples of the population aged 25-64 years in 1989 and 2004, attended by respectively 1081 and 1255 participants (participation rates >80%). All results are age-standardized to the WHO standard population. In 2004 vs. 1989, the levels of the main traditional CV-RF have either decreased, e.g. smoking (17% vs. 30%, p or =10; 11% vs. 13%, ns), whereas the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (which integrates several cardiometabolic CVD-RF) nearly doubled (36% vs. 20%, p < 0.001). Data on physical activity and on intake of alcohol, fruit and vegetables are also provided. Awareness and treatment rates improved substantially for hypertension and diabetes, but control rates improved for the former only. Median levels of the cardiometabolic CVD-RF increased between 1989 and 2004 within all BMI strata, suggesting that the worsening levels of cardiometabolic CVD-RF in the population were not only related to increasing BMI levels in the interval. The levels of several traditional CVD-RF improved over time, while marked detrimental trends were observed for obesity, diabetes and several cardiometabolic factors. Thus, in this population, the rapid health transition was characterized by substantial changes in the patterns of CVD-RF. More generally, this analysis suggests the importance of surveillance systems to identify risk factor trends and the need for preventive strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and nutrition.

  8. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nine year trends of dengue virus infection in Mumbai, Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Jayanthi; Williamson, Manita; Vaidya, Nilima; Agrawal, Sachee; Shrivastav, Om

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes a wide range of diseases in humans, from acute febrile illness Dengue fever (DF) to life-threatening Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Factors believed to be responsible for spread of Dengue virus infection include explosive population growth, unplanned urban overpopulation with inadequate public health systems, poor standing water and vector control, climate changes and increased international recreational, business, military travel to endemic areas. All of these factors must be addressed to control the spread of Dengue and other mosquito-borne infections. The detection of Dengue virus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in human serum or plasma samples is highly indicative of acute Dengue fever. Moreover, the method is able to identify the Dengue virus serotype by demonstrating defined sequence homologies in the viral genomic RNA. During the nine year period of this study analysis, 6767 strongly suspected cases were tested by RT-PCR. 1685 (24.9%) were Dengue PCR positive and confirmed as Dengue cases. Observations on the seasonality were based on the nine year's data as the intensity of sampling was at its maximum during monsoon season. Dengue typing was done on 100 positive samples after storage of Dengue RNA at - 80°C. Dengue serotypes were detected in 69 samples of which Dengue 2 was most predominant. 576 samples were processed for NS1 antigen and PCR simultaneously. 19/576 were positive (3.3 %) for NS1 as well as by PCR. 23/576 samples were negative for NS1 antigen, but were positive by RT-PCR. The remaining 534 samples which were negative for NS1 antigen were also negative by Dengue RT-PCR. In this study we sought to standardize rapid, sensitive, and specific fluorogenic probe-based RT-PCR assay to screen and serotype a representative range of Dengue viruses that are found in and around Mumbai. Qualitative Dengue virus TaqMan assays could have tremendous utility for the epidemiological

  10. Fifty-year trends in a box turtle population in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.; Bunck, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in 1995 investigated long term declines reported in a population of box turtles Terrapene Carolina monitored each decade since 1945 in bottomland hardwood forest at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland. Methods duplicated past surveys in most respects, but were supplemented by radiotelemetry and a survey of dominant vegetation. Seventy different turtles were found on the 11.8 ha study area, a decline of >75% since peak populations were recorded in 1955. Searchers were less efficient in 1995 than in 1945-1975 for a variety of possible reasons. Among turtles recorded, approximately equal numbers persisted from each of the past five decades, with some individuals surviving >70 years. A sex ratio strongly favoring males was first recorded in 1975 and continued in 1995, but juveniles and subadults were found in greater proportion in 1995 than in any other survey. Six of nine radio-marked turtles left the bottomland study area and migrated to the adjoining bluffs to hibernate, suggesting more extensive movements and perhaps less stable home ranges than formerly thought. Age structure of trees indicated a gradual change to more shade-tolerant species. Examination of rates of change from survey data suggested that major losses probably resulted from changes in hydrology that exacerbated flooding in 1972, with recovery only beginning in 1995 and perhaps limited both by repeated flood events and successional changes in the forest. Slow recovery from losses may indicate that populations of the species would respond poorly to exploitation.

  11. [State and developmental trends of urogenital tuberculosis--20 years clinical and pathologic-anatomical experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, H; Haenselt, V; Endmann, P

    1978-10-01

    On the basis of own experiences of twenty years and taking into consideration the knowledge of other authors the developmental tendency in the treatment of the urogenital tuberculosis is demonstrated, the indications to nephrectomy, resection of the kidney, and epididymectomy are reified as well as kind and sequelae of errors in chemotherapy analysed. From 1958 to 1977 2,868 patients with urogenital tuberculosis were hospitalized in the Central Clinic Bad Berka. Of them about 41% had to undergo an operation. A decrease of the quantity of operations can be observed only in the renal resections, whereas the nephrectomy rate is unchangedly high (16.3% of the own patients) and even shows an increasing tendency since 1975. Comparative examinations show that the pathologo-anatomical picture of the ectomized kidneys has not changed during the period of observation. The knowledge of the symptom-poor course obliges also further on differential-diagnostically to take into consideration the urogenital tuberculosis. Only on this way the still large number of organ endangering complications may be encountered in time.

  12. Measured and modelled trends in European mountain lakes: results of fifteen years of cooperative studies

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    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Papers included in this Special Issue of the Journal of Limnology present results of long-term ecological research on mountain lakes throughout Europe. Most of these studies were performed over the last 15 years in the framework of some EU-funded projects, namely AL:PE 1 and 2, MOLAR and EMERGE. These projects together considered a high number of remote lakes in different areas or lake districts in Europe. Central to the projects was the idea that mountain lakes, while subject to the same chemical and biological processes controlling lowland lakes, are more sensitive to any input from their surroundings and can be used as earlywarning indicators of atmospheric pollution and climate change. A first section of this special issue deal with the results of long-term monitoring programmes at selected key-sites. A second section focuse on site-specific and regional applications of an acidification model designed to reconstruct and predict long-term changes in the chemistry of mountain lakes.

  13. Mortality trends and years of potential life lost from gastric cancer in Mexico, 2000-2012

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    J.J. Sánchez-Barriga

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Using the world population age distribution as the standard, the age-adjusted mortality rate in Mexico per 100,000 inhabitants that died from GC decreased from 7.5 to 5.6 between 2000 and 2012. Chiapas and socioeconomic regions 1, 2, and 5 had the highest mortality from GC (Chiapas: 9.2, 95% CI 8.2-10.3 [2000] and 8.2, 95% CI 7.3-9 [2012], region 1: 5.5, 95% CI 5.2-5.9 [2000] and 5.3, 95% CI 4.9-5.7 [2012]; region 2: 5.3, 95% CI 5-5.6 [2000] and 5.4, 95% CI 5.1-5.8 [2012]; region 5: 6.1, 95% CI 5.6-6.6 [2000] and 4.6, 95% CI 4.2-5 [2012]. Chiapas and socioeconomic region 1 had the highest rate of years of potential life lost (Chiapas: 97.4 [2000] and 79.6 [2012] and region 1: 73.5 [2000] 65 [2012].

  14. The Effects of Inquiry-Based Integrated Information Literacy Instruction: Four-Year Trends

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    Lin Ching Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four-year integrated information literacy instruction via a framework of inquiry-based learning on elementary students’ memory and comprehension. Moderating factors of students’ academic achievement was another focus of this study. The subjects were 72 students who have participated in this study since they entered an elementary school in Chiayi district. This elementary school adopted the integrated information literacy instruction, designed by the researchers and elementary school teachers, and integrated it into various subject matters via a framework of inquiry-based learning, such as Super 3 and Big6 models. A series of inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction has been implemented since the second semester of the subjects’ first grade. A total of seven inquiry learning projects has been implemented from grade one through grade four. Fourteen instruments were used as pretests and posttests to assess students’ factual recall and conceptual understanding of subject contents in different projects. The results showed that inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction couldhelp students memorize facts and comprehend concepts of subject contents. Regardless ofacademic achievements, if students would like to devote their efforts to inquiry processes, their memory and comprehension of subject contents improvedeffectively. However, students of low-academic achievement might need more time to be familiar with the inquiry-based learning strategy.

  15. Twenty-three years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Meel

    2018-01-01

    Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken. Results Between 1993 and 2015, the number of autopsies performed on people who had died unnatural deaths was 24,693. The records of 12,618 (51%) autopsies on victims of homicide between 1993 and 2015 were available for study. The average rate of murder was 85/100,000 of the population in this region. Of these deaths, on average 34/100,000 were caused by sharp-edged instruments, 30/100,000 by gunshot wounds and 21/100,000 by blunt trauma. The rate of murder of males was significantly higher than that of females, with a ratio of 5.7:1, and over the period of 23 years covered by this study, the incidence was highest (30.5/100,000) in the young age group between 21 and 30 years. Conclusion The rate of homicide is very high in the Transkei region of South Africa. It needs urgent intervention to curb unnecessary deaths.

  16. Shinguards effective in preventing lower leg injuries in football: Population-based trend analyses over 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Ingrid; Valkenberg, Huib; Schoots, Wim; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; van der Meulen, Wout J; Backx, Frank J G

    2015-09-01

    The majority of football injuries are caused by trauma to the lower extremities. Shinguards are considered an important measure in preventing lower leg impact abrasions, contusions and fractures. Given these benefits, Fédération Internationale de Football Association introduced the shinguard law in 1990, which made wearing shinguards during matches mandatory. This study evaluated the effect of the introduction of the shinguard law for amateur players in the Netherlands in the 1999/2000-football season on the incidence of lower leg injuries. Time trend analyses on injury data covering 25 years of continuous registration (1986-2010). Data were retrieved from a system that records all emergency department treatments in a random, representative sample of Dutch hospitals. All injuries sustained in football by patients aged 6-65 years were included, except for injuries of the Achilles tendon and Weber fractures. Time trends were analysed with multiple regression analyses; a model was fitted consisting of multiple straight lines, each representing a 5-year period. Patients were predominantly males (92%) and treated for fractures (48%) or abrasions/contusions (52%) to the lower leg. The incidence of lower leg football injuries decreased significantly following the introduction of the shinguard law (1996-2000: -20%; 2001-2005: -25%), whereas the incidence of all other football injuries did not. This effect was more prominent at weekends/match days. No gender differences were found. The results significantly show a preventive effect of the shinguard law underlining the relevance of rule changes as a preventive measure and wearing shinguards during both matches and training sessions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Importance of data comparability for multi-year trends and source apportionment of NMHC concentrations observed in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Stéphane; Waked, Antoine; Leonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    Non Methane Hydrocarbon Compounds (NMHCs) are of interest due to their potential health impact and their key role in atmospheric processes as precursors of secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Hourly measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban sites in France over the period of a decade. The trends analysis showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are known as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. They are compared with the ones reported for 3 French rural sites (EMEP). A year per year source apportionment study using PMF was also conducted for 2 of the urban sites over the period 2005-2013. Using source fingerprints, five common anthropogenic sources were identified for Paris and Strasbourg: traffic-exhaust emissions (21±5%, 18±5%), evaporative sources (17±4%, 24±7%), natural gas & background (22±5%, 25±5%), residential heating (17±4%, 17±5%) and solvent use (19±7%, 12±5%). Biogenic sources were also identified and accounted for 4±1% of the total measured NMHC's at both sites. Along the presentation, the robustness of these results will be discussed regarding the site representativeness, the data comparability, and the temporal variation of the data quality

  18. Trends in Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in a Burn Intensive Care Unit: an Eight-Year Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, A.; Franka, R.A.; Zaidi, M.M.; Alshweref, U.M.; Elgmati, M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and profile of bloodstream infection (BSI) in a burn intensive care unit (BICU) in Tripoli, Libya, from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2007 and to determine the prevalence of different bacteria involved in such infections and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. During the eight-year study period, 995 patients were admitted to the BICU. Blood cultures were collected from each septicaemic case and reviewed for age, sex, total body surface area burned, isolated micro-organisms, and antibiotic sensitivity. There were 430 episodes of BSI among 830 cases; the annual true positive rate varied between 40.0 and 59.4%, the majority (87.9%) being caused by one species only. However, 22% had two or more episodes with different pathogens during hospitalization. The leading isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (40.4%) (methicillinresistant, 55.7%). Pseudomonas spp ranked second (23.9%). Klebsiella spp were third, responsible for 7.4%; the rate of extended spectrum beta lactamase among Klebsiella isolates was 47%. Candida spp were the fourth most common pathogen (6.7%), the majority (55%) being C. albicans. Staphylococci were generally resistant to trimethoprim (91%) and fusidic acid (80%). Pseudomonas spp proved moderately resistant (38-43%) to tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and impenem but remained relatively susceptible to cefepime (72%). Klebsiella isolates demonstrated moderate resistance (46-58%) to most agents tested, and relatively low resistance (19-27%) to meropenem, impenem, and cefepime. We suggest that extra infection control measures should be implemented and antibiotic policy and guidelines introduced to reduce the high resistance rate among isolates such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and MRSA. PMID:21991204

  19. Bibliometric Analysis of Gender Authorship Trends and Collaboration Dynamics Over 30 Years of Spine 1985 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Alexander R; Liao, Jane L; Kraus, Kent R; Young, Jocelyn; Sandelski, Morgan; Mikesell, Carter; Robinson, Daniel; Adjei, Michael; Lunsford, Shatoria D; Fischer, James; Kacena, Melissa A; Whipple, Elizabeth C; Loder, Randall T

    2018-07-15

    A bibliometric analysis. The aim of this article was to study bibliometric changes over the last 30 years of Spine. These trends are important regarding academic publication productivity. Inflation in authorship number and other bibliometric variables has been described in the scientific literature. The issue of author gender is taking on increasing importance, as efforts are being made to close the gender gap. From 1985 to 2015, 10-year incremental data for several bibliometric variables were collected, including author gender. Standard bivariate statistical analyses were performed. Trends over time were assessed by the Cochran linear trend. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Inclusion criteria were met for 1566 manuscripts. The majority of the manuscripts were from North America (51.2%), Europe (25.2%), and Asia (20.8%). The number of manuscripts, authors, countries, pages, and references all increased from 1985 to 2015. There was a slight increase in female first authors over time (17.5% to 18.4%, P = 0.048). There was no gender change over time for corresponding authors (14.3% to 14.0%, P = 0.29). There was an 88% increase in the percentage of female first authors having male corresponding authors (P = 0.00004), and a 123% increase in male first authors having female corresponding authors (P = 0.0002). The 14% to 18% of female authors in Spine is higher than the ∼5% female membership of the Scoliosis Research Society and North American Spine Society. Manuscripts in Spine over the past 30 years have shown a significant increase in the number of authors, collaborating institutions and countries, printed pages, references, and number of times each manuscript was cited. There has been a mild increase in female first authorship, but none in corresponding authorship. Increases in female authorship will likely require recruitment of more females into the discipline rather than providing females in the discipline with authorship

  20. Twenty-three-year trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa (1993-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Banwari

    2018-04-01

    Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes. Of these, 3935 (14.2%) deaths were related to firearm injuries. The average gunshot death rate during the study period was 29/100,000 of the population annually. The majority (3236; 82%) were males, among whom the death rate was 24.4/100,000 of the population per year. The rate of gunshot deaths was 27/100,000 of the population in 1993, while in 2015 it was 12.8/100,000. About a third (1207; 31%) of victims were between 21 and 30 years of age. Conclusion The gunshot death rate is at an unacceptably high level in the Transkei subregion of South Africa, especially among young people.

  1. Measles Morbidity and Mortality Trend in Nigeria: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Retrospective Study in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Akeeb O. Bola Oyefolu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This hospital-based retrospective cohort study was undertaken with a view to determine the epidemiological trend of measles in Lagos State, Nigeria Methods: Medical records of clinically diagnosed measles patients from nine referral public hospitals in Lagos State between 1998 and 2007 were retrieved, transcribed and reviewed. Data were analyzed using standard methods. Results: A total of 35,500 clinically confirmed cases and 835 deaths (case fatality rate = 2.35%/10 years were recorded. The mean incidence was estimated at 19 cases per 100,000 population/year. A consistent seasonality pattern of measles was observed for the study period. The under-fives accounted for the highest reported cases (76.30% while, the under-1 year recorded highest mortality (53.8%. Notable shift of measles vulnerability from under-1year to under-fives was observed. Although there was significant difference between cases and deaths among the age groups (p0.05. Conclusion: This study recorded high incidence and case fatality of measles, which poses serious public health threat. Poor demographic data collection and storage were revealed thus, computerization of medical records for collection, storage and retrieval of data is imperative for adequate planning and control of measles imperil in Nigeria. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1:12-18

  2. Trends in the value and consequences of radiologic imaging of perforated gastroduodenal ulcer; A 50-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanes, C.; Salvesen, H.; Larsen, T.B.; Svanes, K.; Soereide, O. (Haukeland Sykehus, Bergen (Norway))

    1990-01-01

    The trends in and value and consequences of radiologic imaging in 1128 patients with perforated gastroduodenal ulcer have been studied over the 50-year period 1935 to 1985. The proportion of patients undergoing plain X-ray studies increased from 4% in the first 5-year period (1935 to 1939) to 94% in the last (1980 to 1985). Pneumoperitoneum was found in 77% of those undergoing X-ray studies. Water-soluble contrast studies were introduced in 1960, and in the three 5-year periods 1970 to 1985 from 8% to 13% underwent such imaging. Leakage was demonstrated in 60% of those undergoing contrast studies. Contrast studies have had a limited role in the pretreatment evaluation of these patients. The frequency of pneumoperitoneum was fairly constant over the 50-year period, and the only patient characteristic that influenced the occurrence of free gas in the abdominal cavity was age, with a higher proportion of patients with pneumoperitoneum in old patients. Any radiologic study increased treatment delay by at least 2 h. 18 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Trends in one-year mortality for stroke in a tertiary academic center in Saudi Arabia: a 5-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almekhlafi, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported a decline in stroke-related mortality in developed countries. To assess trends in one-year mortality following a stroke diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Single tertiary care center from 2010 through 2014. All patients admitted with a primary admitting diagnosis of stroke. Demographic data (age, gender, nationality), risk factor profile, stroke subtypes, in-hospital complications and mortality data as well as cause of death were collected for all patients. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess factors associated with one-year mortality following a stroke admission. One-year mortality. In 548 patients with a mean age of 62.9 years (SD 16.9), the most frequent vascular risk factors were hypertension (90.6%), diabetes (65.5%), and hyperlipidemia (27.2%). Hemorrhagic stroke was diagnosed in 9.9%. The overall mortality risk was 26.9%. Non-Saudis had a significantly higher one-year mortality risk compared with Saudis (25% vs. 16.8%, respectively; P=.025). The most frequently reported causes of mortality were neurological and related to the underlying stroke (32%), sepsis (30%), and cardiac or other organ dysfunction-related (each 9%) in addition to other etiologies (collectively 9.5%) such as pulmonary embolism or an underlying malignancy. Significant predictors in the multivariate model were age (P stroke mortality in our center over the 5-year span. The establishment of stroke systems of care, use of thrombolytic agents, and opening of a stroke unit should play an important role in a decline in stroke mortality. Retrospective single center study. Mortality data were available only for patients who died in our hospital.

  4. Trends in annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow characteristics at 227 streamgages in the Missouri River watershed, water years 1960-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Parker A.; Anderson, Mark T.; Stamm, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The Missouri River and its tributaries are an important resource that serve multiple uses including agriculture, energy, recreation, and municipal water supply. Understanding historical streamflow characteristics provides relevant guidance to adaptive management of these water resources. Streamflow records in the Missouri River watershed were examined for trends in time series of annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow. A total of 227 streamgages having continuous observational records for water years 1960–2011 were examined. Kendall’s tau nonparametric test was used to determine statistical significance of trends in annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow. A trend was considered statistically significant for a probability value less than or equal to 0.10 that the Kendall’s tau value equals zero. Significant trends in annual streamflow were indicated for 101 out of a total of 227 streamgages. The Missouri River watershed was divided into six watershed regions and trends within regions were examined. The western and the southern parts of the Missouri River watershed had downward trends in annual streamflow (56 streamgages), whereas the eastern part of the watershed had upward trends in streamflow (45 streamgages). Seasonal and monthly streamflow trends reflected prevailing annual streamflow trends within each watershed region.

  5. Ten-year trends in coronary calcification in individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Bild

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD incidence has declined significantly in the US, as have levels of major coronary risk factors, including LDL-cholesterol, hypertension and smoking, but whether trends in subclinical atherosclerosis mirror these trends is not known.To describe recent secular trends in subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by serial evaluations of coronary artery calcification (CAC prevalence in a population over 10 years, we measured CAC using computed tomography (CT and CHD risk factors in five serial cross-sectional samples of men and women from four race/ethnic groups, aged 55-84 and without clinical cardiovascular disease, who were members of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA cohort from 2000 to 2012. Sample sizes ranged from 1062 to 4837. After adjusting for age, gender, and CT scanner, the prevalence of CAC increased across exams among African Americans, whose prevalence of CAC was 52.4% in 2000-02, 50.4% in 2003-04, 60.0% is 2005-06, 57.4% in 2007-08, and 61.3% in 2010-12 (p for trend <0.001. The trend was strongest among African Americans aged 55-64 [prevalence ratio for 2010-12 vs. 2000-02, 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.39; p = 0.005 for trend across exams]. There were no consistent trends in any other ethnic group. Risk factors generally improved in the cohort, and adjustment for risk factors did not change trends in CAC prevalence.There was a significant secular trend towards increased prevalence of CAC over 10 years among African Americans and no change in three other ethnic groups. Trends did not reflect concurrent general improvement in risk factors. The trend towards a higher prevalence of CAC in African Americans suggests that CHD risk in this population is not improving relative to other groups.

  6. A thirty year, fine-scale, characterization of area burned in Canadian forests shows evidence of regionally increasing trends in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C; Hermosilla, Txomin; Wulder, Michael A; White, Joanne C; Bolton, Douglas K

    2018-01-01

    Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area. While results confirm no significant national trend in burned area for the period of 1985 to 2015, a significant national increasing trend (α = 0.05) of 11% per year was evident for the past decade (2006 to 2015). Regionally, a significant increasing trend in total burned area from 1985 to 2015 was observed in the Montane Cordillera (2.4% increase per year), while the Taiga Plains and Taiga Shield West displayed significant increasing trends from 2006 to 2015 (26.1% and 12.7% increases per year, respectively). The Atlantic Maritime, which had the lowest burned area of all ecozones (0.01% burned per year), was the only ecozone to display a significant negative trend (2.4% decrease per year) from 1985 to 2015. Given the century-long fire return intervals in many of these ecozones, and large annual variability in burned area, short-term trends need to be interpreted with caution. Additional interpretive cautions are related to year used for trend initiation and the nature and extents of spatial regionalizations used for summarizing findings. The results of our analysis provide a baseline for monitoring future national and regional trends in burned area and offer spatially and temporally detailed insights to inform science, policy, and management.

  7. [Trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese adults aged 18 to 44 years old from 1991 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingting; Su, Chang; Ouyang, Yifei; Zhang, Bing

    2015-03-01

    To identify the trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese adults aged 18 to 44 years old from 1991 to 2011. Twenty four hour dietary recall data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011) were used to identify the trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese between 18 and 44 years old. From 1991 to 2011, the proportion of daily consumption of vegetables rarely varied, while the vegetables intake declined significantly; and the proportion of daily consumption and intake of fruits kept increasing as follows. By 2011, the proportion of daily consumption and intake of vegetables and fruits among the respondents were 99.7%, 48.0%, 321.6 g/d, and 90.1 g/d respectively. A significant drop was found in the vegetables intake among the respondents against the vegetables intake as recommended by the Chinese dietary guidelines, up to 50.2% in 2011; a significant rise was found in the fruits intake of the respondents against the fruits intake as recommended by the said guidelines, up to 17.4% in 2011. The average daily intake of vegetables and fruits of young and middle-aged residents (18-44 age group) in nine provinces in China was found lower than that recommended in the Chinese dietary guidelines; in view of the high proportion of people having less vegetables and fruits intake that those recommended by the Chinese dietary guidelines, further measures are expected to encourage their vegetables and fruits intake.

  8. A 15-Year Study of Trends in Authorship by Gender in Two U.S. Obstetrics and Gynecology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P; Jagadish, Mayuri; Heidel, R Eric

    2018-04-01

    To assess whether there was a significant trend in the number of women as first, last, and coauthors in two U.S. journals of obstetrics and gynecology over the past 15 years and to assess whether this publication rate was commensurate with the percentage of women in the academic specialty. This retrospective study identified the gender of first and last authors of original research articles for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015. We determined trends in publication rates of authorship and coauthorship by pairing the gender of the first and last authors. We selected a subset of the data to compare the percentages of women authors with MDs at U.S. academic institutions with the nationally reported percentages of women faculty in the specialty. The journals yielded 2,699 articles for analysis. The percentage of articles written by women as first authors increased from 37% in 2000 to 71% in 2015 and, as last authors, increased from 26% in 2000 to 49% in 2015. Paired as coauthors, women published at a rate of 11% in 2000 to 38% in 2015. The analysis of a subset of 1,621 articles showed that as first authors, women published at a rate equal to or above the percentage of women in academics, but as last authors published fewer articles than expected. Women published more articles over time, kept pace or exceeded their faculty percentages as first authors, lagged behind these percentages as last authors, and as coauthors eventually surpassed the publication rate of male coauthors.

  9. A 21-Year Record of Arctic Sea Ice Extents and Their Regional, Seasonal, and Monthly Variability and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave data have been used to calculate sea ice extents over the period 1979-1999 for the north polar sea ice cover as a whole and for each of nine regions. Over this 21-year time period, the trend in yearly average ice extents for the ice cover as a whole is -32,900 +/- 6,100 sq km/yr (-2.7 +/- 0.5 %/decade), indicating a reduction in sea ice coverage that has decelerated from the earlier reported value of -34,000 +/- 8,300 sq km/yr (-2.8 +/- 0.7 %/decade) for the period 1979-1996. Regionally, the reductions are greatest in the Arctic Ocean, the Kara and Barents Seas, and the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, whereas seasonally, the reductions are greatest in summer, for which season the 1979-1999 trend in ice extents is -41,600 +/- 12,900 sq km/ yr (-4.9 +/- 1.5 %/decade). On a monthly basis, the reductions are greatest in July and September for the north polar ice cover as a whole, in September for the Arctic Ocean, in June and July for the Kara and Barents Seas, and in April for the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan. Only two of the nine regions show overall ice extent increases, those being the Bering Sea and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.For neither of these two regions is the increase statistically significant, whereas the 1079 - 1999 ice extent decreases are statistically significant at the 99% confidence level for the north polar region as a whole, the Arctic Ocean, the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, and Hudson Bay.

  10. Determinants of government HIV/AIDS financing: a 10-year trend analysis from 125 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Carlos; Loncar, Dejan; Amico, Peter; De Lay, Paul

    2013-07-19

    Trends and predictors of domestic spending from public sources provide national authorities and international donors with a better understanding of the HIV financing architecture, the fulfillment of governments' commitments and potential for long-term sustainability. We analyzed government financing of HIV using evidence from country reports on domestic spending. Panel data from 2000 to 2010 included information from 647 country-years amongst 125 countries. A random-effects model was used to analyze ten year trends and identify independent predictors of public HIV spending. Low- and middle-income countries spent US$ 2.1 billion from government sources in 2000, growing to US$ 6.6 billion in 2010, a three-fold increase. Per capita spending in 2010 ranged from 5 cents in low-level HIV epidemics in the Middle East to US$ 32 in upper-middle income countries with generalized HIV epidemics in Southern Africa. The average domestic public spending per capita was US$ 2.55. The analysis found that GDP per capita and HIV prevalence are positively associated with increasing levels of HIV-spending from public sources; a 10 percent increase in HIV prevalence is associated with a 2.5 percent increase in domestic funding for HIV. Additionally, a 10 percent increase in GDP per capita is associated with an 11.49 percent increase in public spending for HIV and these associations were highly significant. Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries showed a threefold increase between 2000 and 2010 and currently support 50 percent of the global response with 41 percent coming from sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic spending in LMICs was associated with increased economic growth and an increased burden of HIV. Sustained increases in funding for HIV from public sources were observed in all regions and emphasize the increasing importance of government financing.

  11. Trends and Weekly Cycles in a Large Swiss Emergency Centre: A 10 Year Period at the University Hospital of Bern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T. Braun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular demand for high quality care has increased in recent years. This is also the case for medical services and support at all times of the day and night is nowadays required. During the last ten years, there has been a marked increase in the demands on hospital emergency hospitals, particularly in the Western industrialized countries. The present retrospective study investigates how the demands on a large Swiss university centre have changed over a period of 10 years. Patient numbers are differentiated by age, gender, nationality, weekday and mode of referral. A retrospective analysis was performed of the data of the patients admitted to the Emergency Centre of Bern University Medical Hospital (Inselspital during the ten-year period from 2004 up to and including 2013 and who were treated as emergencies. A total of 264,272 patients were included in the study. It was shown that there was an uninterrupted annual increase from 23,555 patients in 2004 to 34,918 patients in 2013 (+48%. Most patients came to the Emergency Centre on Mondays, followed by Fridays. Because of the marked increase in life expectancy and the resulting demographic changes, there has been a marked increase in the number of older patients coming to the Emergency Centre for acute medical care. It was found that there were disproportionately high numbers of patients aged 20 to 49 years who were not Swiss citizens. In contrast, most patients over 60 were Swiss. In the coming years, emergency centres will have to adapt to the continued increase in patient numbers. This trend will continue, so that it is essential to consider the sociodemographic structure of a region when planning the availability of emergency medical care.

  12. Evidence for a climate signal in trends of global crop yield variability over the past 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, T M; Wheeler, T R

    2013-01-01

    Low variability of crop production from year to year is desirable for many reasons, including reduced income risk and stability of supplies. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of yield variability, whether it is changing through time, and how it varies between crops and regions. Previous studies have shown that national crop yield variability has changed in the past, with the direction and magnitude dependent on crop type and location. Whilst such studies acknowledge the importance of climate variability in determining yield variability, it has been assumed that its magnitude and its effect on crop production have not changed through time and, hence, that changes to yield variability have been due to non-climatic factors. We address this assumption by jointly examining yield and climate variability for three major crops (rice, wheat and maize) over the past 50 years. National yield time series and growing season temperature and precipitation were de-trended and related using multiple linear regression. Yield variability changed significantly in half of the crop–country combinations examined. For several crop–country combinations, changes in yield variability were related to changes in climate variability. (letter)

  13. Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sebastian; Reichenberg, Abraham; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-04-28

    To compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children. Population based study. Child and Adolescent Twin Study and national patient register, Sweden. 19, 993 twins (190 with autism spectrum disorder) and all children (n=1,078,975; 4620 with autism spectrum disorder) born in Sweden over a 10 year period from 1993 to 2002. Annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype (that is, symptoms on which the diagnostic criteria are based) assessed by a validated parental telephone interview (the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory), and annual prevalence of reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register. The annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype was stable during the 10 year period (P=0.87 for linear time trend). In contrast, there was a monotonic significant increase in prevalence of registered diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register (Pautism symptom phenotype has remained stable in children in Sweden while the official prevalence for registered, clinically diagnosed, autism spectrum disorder has increased substantially. This suggests that administrative changes, affecting the registered prevalence, rather than secular factors affecting the pathogenesis, are important for the increase in reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. © Lundström et al 2015.

  14. Uterine cervix cancer treatment at Radiumhemmet: 90 years' experience. Time trends of age, stage, and histopathology distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Kristina; Hellström, Ann-Cathrin; Pettersson, B Folke

    2014-04-01

    Since the introduction of screening programs for cervical cancer (CC) the incidence has decreased and CC is discovered at an earlier stage. The purpose of this study was to analyze time trends in age, stage, and histopathology over a 90-year period and to our knowledge this is the largest single institutional series in the literature of invasive cervical carcinoma (CC) cases. This is a retrospective study comprising 18,472 women treated for CC from 1914 until 2004 at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm. The material is part of the international CC statistics published since 1937 in the League of Nations' Annual Reports, and since 1958 under the patronage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). During the 90-year study period, the annual number of cases treated increased to over 400 up until 1965, after which there was a gradual drop to less than 100 cases in 2004. A pronounced shift toward earlier stages at diagnosis was noted. The mean age at diagnosis increased in all stages, predominantly in advanced stages. A reduction in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases and a sixfold increase in the proportion of adenocarcinoma (AC) cases were observed. The mean age at diagnosis for squamous and AC cases shifted after 1970, when the SCC cases ultimately became 3 years older than the AC cases in contrast to around 1950 when they were 3 years younger than the AC cases. The changes in the distribution by age, stage, and histopathology during this 90-year period are probably associated with: improved social conditions and increased access to health care, the introduction of screening programs for CC in the 1960s, and a change in the risk factors for CC (changed sexual behavior, introduction of contraceptive pills, and changed smoking habits). © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Trends in gender diversity American soil science classes: 2004-2005 to 2013-2014 academic years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Brevik, Eric C.; Vaughan, Karen L.; Parikh, Sanjai J.; Dilliver, Holly; Steffan, Joshua J.; Weindorf, David; McDaniel, Paul; Mbila, Monday; Edinger-Marshall, Susan; Thomas, Pamela

    2017-04-01

    A diverse workforce has been viewed for a long time as a healthy workforce. Traditionally however Soil Science has been seen as a male dominated field. The total number of female students enrolled showed increasing trends in all classes investigated during this study, but the percentage of female students showed a decline when analyzed by total students enrolled and also declined in four of the seven individual classes investigated. While both total enrollment and female enrollment increased during the study, male enrollment increased more rapidly than female enrollment. Soil biology/microbiology classes had a trend of more than 45% female enrollment throughout the study period, but many classes had less than 40% female enrollment, especially after the 2008-2009 academic year, and some hovered around only 35% female enrollment. The percentage of female soil science students had increased in the USA and Canada from 1992 to 2004 (Baveye et al., 2006) and Miller (2011) reported an increase in the number of female students at Iowa State University in the early 2000s. Therefore, the decrease in percentage of female soil science students found in our study was disappointing, even though absolute numbers of female students increased. It appears there is still a need to find ways to better market soil science coursework to female students. One possible way to accomplish this is to take advantage of the fact that many schools are now focusing efforts on STEM training specifically for females in grades 5-12, whereby science projects, after school programs, and mentorship can substantively influence females to pursue science-based fields in college. Another possibility is to promote the trends in female employment. As an example female employment within the Soil Science Division of the USDA-NRCS has increased over the same period. It should also be noted that the number of females in leadership roles has also increased. As a profession, soil science should look to take

  16. Trends in Radical Surgical Treatment Methods for Breast Malignancies in China: A Multicenter 10-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai-Lin; Sivasubramaniam, Priya G; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Ji-Dong; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Guo-Ji; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Zhongzhao; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Wang, Xiang; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Incidence rates of breast cancer continue to rise in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this study was to describe Chinese trends in radical surgical modalities and influential imaging and demographic factors for breast malignancies. This study was a hospital-based, multicenter, 10-year (1999-2008), retrospective study. Descriptive statistical tests were used to illustrate information regarding radical surgical trends for the treatment of breast malignancies. Chi-square tests were used to assess effect of demographic factors in addition to imaging and pathological data on the specific surgical method. A total of 4,211 patients were enrolled in the survey. Among them, 3,335 patients with stage 0 to stage III disease undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included in the final analysis. The rate of BCS increased from 1.53% in 1999 to 11.88% in 2008. The rate of mastectomy declined over this time period, from 98.47% in 1999 to 88.12% in 2008, with increasing use of diagnostic imaging methods and pathological biopsies. A significantly greater percentage of patients with office work, high education levels, unmarried status, younger age, and early pathological stages preferred BCS compared with mastectomy. Rates of mastectomy in China remain elevated due to diagnosis at higher stages; however, because of increased use of diagnostic imaging, improvement of biopsy methods, and patient education, rates of less invasive lumpectomy are increasing and rates of mastectomy have decreased in China. In this study, 4,211 cases were collected from 1999 to 2008 through a multicenter retrospective study of varying geographic and socioeconomic areas to illustrate trends of surgeries in the People's Republic of China. The correlations between demographic and tumor characteristics and among methods of surgical treatment were explored. This study shows that the rate of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) increased and the rate of mastectomy declined over

  17. [Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; García-Altés, Anna; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Pérez, Katherine; Kunst, Anton E; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Barcelona from 1983 to 2004. We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004), with the basic health area (BHA) as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of men and women aged 20 years or more living in Barcelona. The information sources were the mortality registry, the municipal census and the census of inhabitants and dwellings. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate (ASMR) for all causes was used as the dependent variable. As the independent variable, a composite index of socioeconomic deprivation of the BHA was calculated; BHAs were grouped in quartiles according to the values on the index. Poisson models were adjusted to estimate the relative risk of mortality from all causes in the 4 groups of BHA, stratified by age groups and sex. In all the study periods, inequalities in mortality were found, depending on the BHA of residence, both for men and for women: the ASMR of the most deprived BHAs were greater than those of less deprived BHA, and were greater among men than among women. Likewise, relative risks in the youngest age groups were higher than in the oldest age groups. However, from the second to fourth study periods, inequalities decreased in absolute and relative terms, especially among men. Inequalities in mortality persist in BHA in Barcelona but have decreased over the last 2 decades. Public policies should take this information into account when tackling inequalities among BHA. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in size classified particle number concentration in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, based on a 5 year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, J. F.; Wraith, D.; Mengersen, K.; Morawska, L.

    Particle number size distribution data in the range from 0.015 to 0.630 μm were collected over a 5-year period in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia. Particle size distribution was summarised by total number concentration and number median diameter (NMD) as well as the number concentration of the 0.015-0.030 ( N15-30), 0.030-0.050 ( N30-50), 0.050-0.100 ( N50-100), 0.100-0.300 ( N100-300) and 0.300-0.630 ( N300-630) μm size classes. Morning (6:00-10:00) and afternoon (16:00-19:00) measurements, the former representing fresh traffic emissions (based on the local meteorological conditions) and the latter well-mixed emissions from the CBD, during weekdays were extracted and the respective monthly mean values were estimated for time series analysis. For all size fractions, average morning concentrations were about 1.5 higher than in the afternoon whereas NMD did not vary between the morning and afternoon. The trend and seasonal components were extracted through weighted linear regression models, using the monthly variance as weights. Only the morning measurements exhibited significant trends. During this time of the day, total particle number increased by 105.7% and the increase was greater for larger particles, resulting in a shift in NMD by 7.9%. Although no seasonal component was detected the evidence against it remained weak due to the limitations of the database.

  19. Publication trends of research on diabetes mellitus and T cells (1997-2016: A 20-year bibliometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Gao

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a huge burden for human health. Recent studies show the close relationship between DM and T cells. We investigated the trend in DM and T cells research.Using the Web of Science database, we searched the publications on DM and T cells in 1997-2016, and studied the source data using bibliometric methodology. Excel 2016, GraphPad Prism 5, and VOSviewer software were used to analyze the publication trend in DM and T cells research.We found a total of 1077 publications with 38109 citations up to January 23, 2017. The highest contribution came from the United States, with 48.38% of the publications, 61.44% of the citations and the highest H-index (74. China had the 5th place for total publications, but ranked 11th both for citation frequency (604 and H-index (13. The inflection point of the global DM and T cells publications was in 2000. Journal of Immunology published the most related articles (164. Santamaria P. was the leading scholar in this field with the most publications (35. The keywords "regulatory T cell" and "autoimmune diabetes" were mentioned more than 300 times. Furthermore, type 2 (T2DM, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and obesity are becoming popular research topics in this field.The quantity of publications on DM and T cells grew rapidly around year 2000, but has relatively decreased recently. The United States had the leading position in global research. There was a discrepancy between productivity and quality of publications from China. Latest progress is most likely first published by the Journal of Immunology. Santamaria P., Roep B.O. and Peakman M. were the pioneer scholars in this field. Most researchers have focused on "regulatory T cell" and "autoimmune diabetes" research. In future, T2DM, TIM and obesity may be the popular areas.

  20. Changing patterns and trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at referral centre in Northern India: A 4-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: India has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB, although there is little data on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Although MDR-TB has existed for long time in India, very few diagnostic laboratories are well-equipped to test drug sensitivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB, first-line drug resistance patterns and its changing trends in northern India in the 4 years. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study from July 2007 to December 2010. Microscopy, culture by Bactec460 and p-nitro-α-acetylamino-β-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP test was performed to isolate and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb complex (MTBC. Drug sensitivity testing (DST was performed by 1% proportional method (Bactec460 for four drugs: Rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. Various clinical and demographical profiles were evaluated to analyse risk factors for development of drug resistance. Results: We found the overall prevalence rate of MDR-TB to be 38.8%, increasing from 36.4% in 2007 to 40.8% in 2010. we found that the prevalence of MDR-TB in new and previously treated cases was 29.1% and 43.3% ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. The increasing trend of MDR-TB was more likely in pulmonary TB when compared with extra-pulmonary TB ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. Conclusions: we found a high prevalence (38.8% of MDR-TB both in new cases (29.1% and previously treated cases (43.3%.This study strongly highlights the need to make strategies for testing, surveillance, monitoring and management of such drug-resistant cases.

  1. MRI usage in a pediatric emergency department: an analysis of usage and usage trends over 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheinfeld, Meir H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Emergency Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Moon, Jee-Young; Wang, Dan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Fagan, Michele J. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Davoudzadeh, Reubin [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described. Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. Emergency department patient visit and exam data were obtained from the hospital database for the 2011-2015 time period. MRI usage data were normalized using emergency department patient visit data to determine usage rates. The z-test was used to compare MRI use by gender. The chi-square test was used to test for trends in MRI usage during the study period and in patient age. MRI usage for each hour and each weekday were tabulated to determine peak and trough usage times. MRI usage rate per emergency department patient visit was 0.36%. Headache, pain and rule-out appendicitis were the most common indications for neuroradiology, musculoskeletal and trunk exams, respectively. Usage in female patients was significantly greater than in males (0.42% vs. 0.29%, respectively, P<0.001). Usage significantly increased during the 5-year period (P<0.001). Use significantly increased from age 3 to 17 (0.011% to 1.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Sixty percent of exams were performed after-hours, the highest volume during the 10 p.m. hour and lowest between 4 a.m. and 9 a.m. MRI use was highest on Thursdays and lowest on Sundays (MRI on 0.45% and 0.22% of patients, respectively). MRI use in children increased during the study period, most notably in females, on weekdays and after-hours. (orig.)

  2. Six-year susceptibility trends and effect of revised Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints on ciprofloxacin susceptibility reporting in typhoidal Salmonellae in a tertiary care paediatric hospital in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Saksena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial trends over 6 years were studied, and the effect of revised Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI breakpoints (2012 for ciprofloxacin susceptibility reporting in typhoidal Salmonellae was determined. A total of 874 (95.4% isolates were nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR. Using the CLSI 2011 guidelines (M100-S21, 585 (66.9% isolates were ciprofloxacin susceptible. The susceptibility reduced to 11 (1.25% isolates when interpreted using 2012 guidelines (M100-S22. Among the forty nalidixic acid susceptible (NAS Salmonellae, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin decreased from 37 isolates (M100-S21 to 12 isolates (M100-S22. The 25 cases which appeared resistant with newer guidelines had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC range between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml. MIC50 for the third generation cephalosporins varied between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml over 6 years whereas MIC90 varied with a broader range of 0.19–1 μg/ml. The gap between NAR and ciprofloxacin-resistant strains identified using 2011 guidelines has been reduced; however, it remains to be seen whether additional NAS, ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates are truly resistant to ciprofloxacin by other mechanisms of resistance.

  3. Projections of the Population of the Republic of Croatia to the Year 2031: Can Migration Alleviate Future Negative Trends?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Mrđen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents middle duration projections of Croatia’s population, until the year 2031, determined via the cohort-component method. It outlines eight variants derived from supposed hypotheses in regard to changing birth, migration and death rates. Differences in the variants are exclusively differences in birth and migration rates, since the assumptions in regard to the death rates are the same in all the variants. The corrected estimate of the population on January 1st 2001, according to the most recent census, served as the base population. The results of the projections indicate that in the next thirty years the overall and the natural population reduction of Croatia will continue, and at the end of the period (2031 the population will be demographically older than at the start (2001. The variants differ only in relation to the intensity (i.e. swiftness of the aging process, yet the direction remains the same. Thus, in the variant that assumes a positive migration balance, the process of aging would be somewhat slower. The only variant that assumes a constant proportion of young people (on the 2001 level, gradual demographic growth and at the end of the period a larger population than in 2001, is the variant based on a high birth rate and positive migration. The impact of migration is very important for future demographic processes. Namely, in the short run, migration cannot change the direction of demographic processes, but it can lessen already existing negative trends.

  4. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  5. Water-quality trends for selected sampling sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Lorenz, David L.; Barnhart, Elliott P.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc), and suspended-sediment data for 22 sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin for water years 1996–2010. Trend analysis was conducted by using two parametric methods: a time-series model (TSM) and multiple linear regression on time, streamflow, and season (MLR). Trend results for 1996–2010 indicate moderate to large decreases in flow-adjusted concentrations (FACs) and loads of copper (and other metallic elements) and suspended sediment in Silver Bow Creek upstream from Warm Springs. Deposition of metallic elements and suspended sediment within Warm Springs Ponds substantially reduces the downstream transport of those constituents. However, mobilization of copper and suspended sediment from floodplain tailings and stream banks in the Clark Fork reach from Galen to Deer Lodge is a large source of metallic elements and suspended sediment, which also affects downstream transport of those constituents. Copper and suspended-sediment loads mobilized from within this reach accounted for about 40 and 20 percent, respectively, of the loads for Clark Fork at Turah Bridge (site 20); whereas, streamflow contributed from within this reach only accounted for about 8 percent of the streamflow at Turah Bridge. Minor changes in FACs and loads of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for this reach during 1996–2010. Clark Fork reaches downstream from Deer Lodge are relatively smaller sources of metallic elements than the reach from Galen to Deer Lodge. In general, small decreases in loads and FACs of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for Clark Fork sites downstream from Deer Lodge during 1996–2010. Thus, although large decreases in FACs and loads of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for Silver Bow Creek upstream from Warm Springs, those large decreases are not translated to the more downstream reaches largely

  6. Ten-year surveillance of nosocomial bloodstream infections: trends of aetiology and antimicrobial resistance in a comprehensive cancer centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, R; Ghezzi, Tl; Sandri, Mt; Radice, D; Biffi, R

    2011-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are one of the major life-threatening infectious conditions in cancer patients and are responsible for prolonged hospital stays, high healthcare costs and significant mortality. Several clinical trials have reported an improved survival in patients treated with appropriate empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Early detection of pathogens and determination of their susceptibility are essential for the optimization of treatment. Variability between hospitals is substantial and requires the individual analysis of local trends. The aim of this study is to assess the local epidemiology of BSI in a single cancer centre over a 10-year period. Retrospective microbiological surveillance of all febrile/infective episodes occurring in oncological and surgical patients in a high-volume cancer centre between January 1999 and December 2008 were considered. Patients' data were collected, processed and analyzed using the epidemiological resource of the Virtuoso Plus software (Metafora Informatica Srl, Milano, Italy). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, including the two-tailed test of significance, was used to investigate trends of incidence and rate of antibiotic resistance over the 10-year period. A total of 13,058 blood cultures (BCs) were performed in 2,976 patients. BCs were positive in 2,447 tests, representing 740 infective/febrile episodes: 358 (48%) in medical oncology and 382 (52%) in surgical wards. Gram-positives were responsible for the majority of episodes in oncological and surgical divisions (about 63% and 55%, respectively). Gram-positives were also the most common organism in non-catheter-related BSIs (CRBSIs) both in medical oncology (75%) and in surgical divisions (50%). Enterococci showed an increased resistance to levofloxacin, from 5.6% to 25.7% (p = 0.02) and to erythromycin, from 41.7% to 61.4%, (p = 0.05). Similarly, coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) developed resistance to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin

  7. Trends in HIV Terminology: Text Mining and Data Visualization Assessment of International AIDS Conference Abstracts Over 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy-Scott, Nicole; Dutcher, Gale A; Keselman, Alla; Hochstein, Colette; Copty, Christina; Ben-Senia, Diane; Rajan, Sampada; Asencio, Maria Guadalupe; Choi, Jason Jongwon

    2018-05-04

    The language encompassing health conditions can also influence behaviors that affect health outcomes. Few published quantitative studies have been conducted that evaluate HIV-related terminology changes over time. To expand this research, this study included an analysis of a dataset of abstracts presented at the International AIDS Conference (IAC) from 1989 to 2014. These abstracts reflect the global response to HIV over 25 years. Two powerful methodologies were used to evaluate the dataset: text mining to convert the unstructured information into structured data for analysis and data visualization to represent the data visually to assess trends. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the evolving use of HIV-related language in abstracts presented at the IAC from 1989 to 2014. Over 80,000 abstracts were obtained from the International AIDS Society and imported into a Microsoft SQL Server database for data processing and text mining analyses. A text mining module within the KNIME Analytics Platform, an open source software, was then used to mine the partially processed data to create a terminology corpus of key HIV terms. Subject matter experts grouped the terms into categories. Tableau, a data visualization software, was used to visualize the frequency metrics associated with the terms as line graphs and word clouds. The visualized dashboards were reviewed to discern changes in terminology use across IAC years. The major findings identify trends in HIV-related terminology over 25 years. The term "AIDS epidemic" was dominantly used from 1989 to 1991 and then declined in use. In contrast, use of the term "HIV epidemic" increased through 2014. Beginning in the mid-1990s, the term "treatment experienced" appeared with increasing frequency in the abstracts. Use of terms identifying individuals as "carriers or victims" of HIV rarely appeared after 2008. Use of the terms "HIV positive" and "HIV infected" peaked in the early-1990s and then declined in use. The terms

  8. Day Service Provision for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study Mapping 15-Year Trends in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padraic; McGilloway, Sinead; Barry, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Day services for people with intellectual disabilities are experiencing a global paradigm shift towards innovative person-centred models of care. This study maps changing trends in day service utilization to highlight how policy, emergent patterns and demographic trends influence service delivery. Methods: National intellectual…

  9. Child Mortality In The US And 19 OECD Comparator Nations: A 50-Year Time-Trend Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakrar, Ashish P; Forrest, Alexandra D; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Forrest, Christopher B

    2018-01-01

    The United States has poorer child health outcomes than other wealthy nations despite greater per capita spending on health care for children. To better understand this phenomenon, we examined mortality trends for the US and nineteen comparator nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for children ages 0-19 from 1961 to 2010 using publicly available data. While child mortality progressively declined across all countries, mortality in the US has been higher than in peer nations since the 1980s. From 2001 to 2010 the risk of death in the US was 76 percent greater for infants and 57 percent greater for children ages 1-19. During this decade, children ages 15-19 were eighty-two times more likely to die from gun homicide in the US. Over the fifty-year study period, the lagging US performance amounted to over 600,000 excess deaths. Policy interventions should focus on infants and on children ages 15-19, the two age groups with the greatest disparities, by addressing perinatal causes of death, automobile accidents, and assaults by firearm.

  10. Population based trends in mortality, morbidity and treatment for very preterm- and very low birth weight infants over 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegger Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, improvements in medical care have been associated with a significant increase and better outcome of very preterm (VP, Methods Our population-based observational cohort study used the Minimal Neonatal Data Set, a database maintained by the Swiss Society of Neonatology including information of all VP- and VLBW infants. Perinatal characteristics, mortality and morbidity rates and the survival free of major complications were analysed and their temporal trends evaluated. Results In 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008, a total number of 3090 infants were enrolled in the Network Database. At the same time the rate of VP- and VLBW neonates increased significantly from 0.87% in 1996 to 1.10% in 2008 (p Conclusions Over the 12-year observation period, the number of VP- and VLBW infants increased significantly. An unchanged overall mortality rate and an increase of survivors free of major complication resulted in a considerable net gain in infants with potentially good outcome.

  11. Peat δ13Ccelluose-recorded wetting trend during the past 8000 years in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Lan, Bo; Ran, Min; Mu, Guijin

    2018-05-01

    There have been large discrepancies in the proposed mechanisms accounting for the wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. To validate or invalidate the widely reported wetting trend, we obtained a carbon isotope of cellulose (δ13Ccelluose)-recorded warm-season moisture history from a Narenxia (NRX) peat core in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China. The δ13Ccelluose-recorded warm-season moisture reconstruction of the NRX peat core provides a strong support to the widely-reported proposition that the climate was generally dry before ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP and was changed to a wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. The wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP well resembles the increasing trend of the reconnaissance drought index (RDI) that was calculated on the basis of pollen-inferred temperature and precipitation data from the same core. The resemblance implies that the wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years resulted from the combined effect of temperature and precipitation.

  12. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value Multivariate regression analysis with measured basin characteristics and the AEP statistics at long-term, unregulated, and un-urbanized (defined as drainage basins with less than 5 percent impervious land cover for this investigation) streamgages within Washington and some in Idaho and Oregon that are near the Washington border was used to develop equations to estimate AEP statistics at ungaged basins. Washington was divided into four regions to improve the accuracy of the regression equations; a set of equations for eight selected AEPs and for each region were constructed. Selected AEP statistics included the annual peak flows that equaled or exceeded 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 percent

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health than less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, trends in these inequalities among Scandinavian children a...

  14. Electronic and Social Media-based Radiology Learning Initiative: Development, Implementation, Viewership Trends, and Assessment at 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Nicholas A; Hill, Danielle V; Dodson, Sean C; Capps, Alisha E; Kamer, Aaron P; Frank, Mark S; Heitkamp, Darel E

    2018-06-01

    We report the development of a new "Case of the Day" (COTD) educational initiative using email, social media (SoMe), and a website to disseminate content, as well as its trends in viewership and assessment of utility for the first year of implementation. Using an image-rich format, a new unknown case was disseminated to radiology trainees and attendings at our institution by email twice per week, including history, salient images, and follow-up questions. Simultaneously, content was externally disseminated on Twitter and a publicly viewable departmental website. On subsequent days, the answer was posted via email, Twitter, and website in the form of a brief YouTube video lecture. Viewership data were collected over the first 12 months (July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017), and an anonymous survey of participants was performed. Sixty-five COTDs had complete viewership data and were included in our analysis, yielding 4911 "case" email views (mean = 76), 3798 "answer" email views (mean = 58), 68,034 "case" Twitter impressions (mean = 1047), 75,724 "answer" Twitter impressions (mean = 1164), 5465 "case" Twitter engagements (mean = 84), and 5307 "answer" Twitter engagements (mean = 82). COTD YouTube video lectures garnered 3657 views (mean = 61) amounting to 10,358 minutes of total viewing time. Viewers were very satisfied with COTD quality, with 97% (n = 63) reporting the quality as "good" or "excellent." Email and SoMe can serve as effective tools for disseminating radiology educational content. SoMe offers substantial external visibility and branding potential for programs. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal trend of the snow-related variables in Sierra Nevada in the last years: An analysis combining Earth Observation and hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Herrero, Javier; Bonet, Francisco J.; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is causing declines in snow-cover extent and duration in European mountain ranges. This is especially important in Mediterranean mountain ranges where the observed trends towards precipitation and higher temperatures can provoke problems of water scarcity. In this work, we analyzed temporal trends (2000 to 2014) of snow-related variables obtained from satellite and modelling data in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high-mountain range located in Southern Spain, at 37°N. Snow cover indicators (snow-cover duration, snow-cover onset dates and snow-cover melting dates) were obtained by processing images of MOD10A2 MODIS product using an automated workflow. Precipitation data were obtained using WiMMed, a complete and fully distributed hydrological model that is used to map the annual rainfall and snowfall with a resolution of 30x30 m over the whole study area. It uses expert algorithms to interpolate precipitation and temperature at an hourly scale, and simulates partition of precipitation into snowfall with several methods. For each snow-related indicator (snow-covers and snowfall), a trend analysis was applied at the MODIS pixel scale during the study period (2000-2014). We applied Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation in each of the pixels comprising Sierra Nevada. The trend analysis assesses the intensity, magnitude and degree of statistical significance during the period analysed. The spatial pattern of these trends was explored according to elevation ranges. Finally, we explored the relationship between trends of snow-cover related indicators and precipitation trends. Our results show that snow-cover has undergone significant changes in the last 14 years. 80 % of the pixels covering Sierra Nevada showed a negative trend in the duration of snow-cover. We also observed a delay in the snow-cover onset date (68.03 % pixels showing a positive trend in the snow-cover onset date) and an advance in the melt date (80.72 % of pixels followed a

  16. Are Psychology Students Getting Worse at Math?: Trends in the Math Skills of Psychology Statistics Students across 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.; Kirk, Roger E.

    2017-01-01

    Statistics is an important subject in psychology and social science education. However, inadequate mathematical skills can pose a barrier to learning statistics. Some educators have suggested that students' math skills are declining. The present research examined trends in the math skills of psychology undergraduates across 21 years. Students…

  17. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Nelson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1/4 (2010), s. 23-45 ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bear Brook Watershed in Maine * precipitation chemistry * stream chemistry * seasonality * long-term trends Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2010

  18. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey,

  19. Emerging trends in invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a Latin American hospital: a 17-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Ortiz, Maria del Pilar; Castañeda-Ramirez, Claudia Rocio; Recalde-Bolaños, Monica; Vélez-Londoño, Juan Diego

    2014-08-03

    Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been recognized as a lethal pathogen in neonates worldwide. S. agalactiae infections also severely affect pregnant women and immunosuppressed adults with substantial attributable morbidity and mortality. However, in Latin America, studies on the epidemiology and behaviour of S. agalactiae infections remain limited. To better understand the behaviour of S. agalactiae infections in our region, we conducted a retrospective study to phenotypically describe S. agalactiae isolates collected in one of the largest hospitals in Colombia at two time periods: 1994-2001 and 2004-2012. The isolates were identified by biochemical analysis and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. In 1994-2001 a total of 201 S. agalactiae isolates were found in urine 38.3%, vaginal exudates 27.8%, soft tissue 12.9%, and blood 8.5%. Susceptibility to ampicillin or penicillin was 94% whereas resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were 2.8% and 5.2% respectively. In total 46 culture-positive cases of invasive infections were reported, 11 (24%) in neonates and 35 (76%) in adults. In 2004-2012 a total of 671 isolates were found in urine 47.8%, vaginal exudates 32.6%, soft tissue 2.7% and blood 9%. Susceptibility rates to ampicillin and penicillin were 98% whereas resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were 12.5% and 9.4%. A total of 95 severe infections were reported: 12 (12.6%) were in neonates, 5 (5.3%) in children and 78 (82.1%) in adults. Over the 17-year study period the averaged prevalence of invasive S. agalactiae isolates was 17.4%. The estimated incidence for neonatal infections was 1.34 per 1000 livebirths (0.99 × 1000 livebirths for early- onset disease and 0.35 × 1000 livebirths for late- onset disease) whereas for non-pregnant adults the estimated incidence was 0.75 × 1000 admissions. A remarkable increase in bloodstream infections in immunosuppressed adults and a shift to early neonatal S. agalactiae infections

  20. Distribution and trends in outpatient utilization of generic versus brand name psychopharmaceuticals during a ten-year period in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polić-ViŽintin, Marina; Stimac, Danijela; Sostar, Zvonimir; Tripković, Ingrid

    2014-08-15

    Drug costs increasingly pose a burden upon the otherwise inadequate health care resources and rational drug utilization is an important segment of every national health policy. Optimal patient care should be the goal of rational pharmacotherapy, whereby the economic burden of treatment is just one of the elements to be considered on choosing appropriate therapy.The aim of this study was to determine distribution and trends in the outpatient utilization of generic versus brand name psychopharmaceuticals and to evaluate the rationality of prescribing psychopharmaceuticals during a ten-year period. Using the World Health Organization Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical classification/Defined Daily Doses (ATC/DDD) methodology, the number of DDD was calculated from data collected from pharmacies on the number and size of drug packages. The ratio of generic and brand name drug costs served as an indicator on assessing the rationality of drug utilization. Total cost for psychopharmaceuticals increased by 20.1%, more for brand name than for generic agents (32.7% vs. 7.4%). The highest share of generic psychopharmaceuticals as compared with brand name drugs according to DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000/day) was in the group of psycholeptics (83.6% in 2001 vs. 82.2% in 2010), most in hypnotics and sedatives, and least in antipsychotics. The share of generic psychopharmaceuticals in total drug utilization according to financial indicators decreased by 9.6% and according to DDD/1000/day by 12%. The greatest decrease was in antidepressants, i.e. by 33.8% according to financial indicators and by 46% according to DDD/1000/day; and in antipsychotics by 30.9% according to DDD/1000/day, while showing an increase by 8.5% according to financial indicators. In the therapeutic subgroup of mood stabilizers, the share of generic drugs in total drug utilization declined by 32% according to DDD/1000/day, but increased by 25.1% according to financial indicators. The lack of uniform

  1. Evaluation of Forty-Nine Patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Abdominal tuberculosis is an uncommon form of extrapulmonary infection. In this study, we aimed to highlight the nonspecific clinical presentations and diagnostic difficulties of abdominal tuberculosis. Material and Method: Clinical features, diagnostic methods, and the therapeutic outcomes of 49 patients diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis between 2003 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients were classified into four subgroups including peritoneal (28, nodal (14, intestinal (5, and solid organ tuberculosis (2. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain, abdominal distention and fatique. Ascites appeared to be the most frequent clinical finding. Ascites and enlarged abdominal lymph nodes were the most frequent findings on ultrasonography and tomography. Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was mainly depended on histopathology of ascitic fluid and biopsies from peritoneum, abdominal lymph nodes or colonoscopic materials. Forty patients healed with standart 6-month therapy while extended treatment for 9-12 months was needed in 8 whom had discontinued drug therapy and had persistent symptoms and signs. One patient died within the treatment period due to disseminated infection. Discussion: The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis is often difficult due to diverse clinical presentations. The presence of ascites, personal/familial/contact history of tuberculosis, and coexisting active extraabdominal tuberculosis are the most significant marks in diagnosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy and tissue sampling seem to be the best diagnostic approach for abdominal tuberculosis.

  2. Moral Education Trends over 40 Years: A Content Analysis of the "Journal of Moral Education" (1971-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Taylor, Monica J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 the "Journal of Moral Education" ("JME") celebrated its 40th anniversary of publication. It seemed appropriate to examine and reflect on the "JME's" achievements by reviewing its evolution and contribution to the emerging field of moral education and development. Moral education trends, as reflected in…

  3. Trends and determinant factors in hypertension control in a population study with 25 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla O; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study focused on trend in hypertension control and on determinant factors that may influence efficacy in antihypertensive therapy. Two measures of treatment efficacy were used: population blood pressure and the relative frequency of effectively treated patients (blood press...

  4. Trends in the educational gradient of mortality among US adults aged 45 to 84 years: bringing regional context into the explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Berkman, Lisa F

    2014-01-01

    We investigated trends in the educational gradient of US adult mortality, which has increased at the national level since the mid-1980s, within US regions. We used data from the 1986-2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File on non-Hispanic White and Black adults aged 45 to 84 years (n = 498,517). We examined trends in the gradient within 4 US regions by race-gender subgroup by using age-standardized death rates. Trends in the gradient exhibited a few subtle regional differences. Among women, the gradient was often narrowest in the Northeast. The region's distinction grew over time mainly because low-educated women in the Northeast did not experience a significant increase in mortality like their counterparts in other regions (particularly for White women). Among White men, the gradient narrowed to a small degree in the West. The subtle regional differences indicate that geographic context can accentuate or suppress trends in the gradient. Studies of smaller areas may provide insights into the specific contextual characteristics (e.g., state tax policies) that have shaped the trends, and thus help explain and reverse the widening mortality disparities among US adults.

  5. Trends in airborne pollen and pollen-season-related features of anemophilous species in Jaen (south Spain): A 23-year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Aguilera, Fátima

    2018-05-01

    Over the last few decades, global warming is prompting phenological changes in numerous plant species across Europe, and a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations has been detected. This study, focused on the most frequent pollen types from arboreal and herbaceous species in the airborne spectrum of Jaen (southern Spain), revealed significant changes in airborne pollen intensity and duration of the pollen season over the 23-year study period. Here Cupressaceae, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, Quercus as arboreal taxa and Plantago as herbaceous taxa were the most important with notable changes of at least three pollen season characteristics. Airborne pollen trends from arboreal taxa with high to very high allergenic potential are rising in line with the local temperature increasing trend, and their pollen seasons tend to end later and last longer. However, both the pollen concentrations and the duration of the pollen season of some herbaceous taxa are declining. The climate conditions projected for south Europe under different greenhouse emissions scenarios could continue to prompt greater pollen release and longer pollen season in tree species, especially those that flowering in winter and early spring, but these warming trends might be adverse for the local development of some herbaceous species and favorable for others sharing the same ecological niche. If similar warming trends accompany long-term climate change, greater exposure times to seasonal allergens may occur with subsequent effects on health.

  6. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature, and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  7. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  8. Is a shift from research on individual medical error to research on health information technology underway? A 40-year analysis of publication trends in medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlewein, Daniel; Bruni, Tommaso; Gadebusch Bondio, Mariacarla

    2018-06-07

    In 1983, McIntyre and Popper underscored the need for more openness in dealing with errors in medicine. Since then, much has been written on individual medical errors. Furthermore, at the beginning of the 21st century, researchers and medical practitioners increasingly approached individual medical errors through health information technology. Hence, the question arises whether the attention of biomedical researchers shifted from individual medical errors to health information technology. We ran a study to determine publication trends concerning individual medical errors and health information technology in medical journals over the last 40 years. We used the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) taxonomy in the database MEDLINE. Each year, we analyzed the percentage of relevant publications to the total number of publications in MEDLINE. The trends identified were tested for statistical significance. Our analysis showed that the percentage of publications dealing with individual medical errors increased from 1976 until the beginning of the 21st century but began to drop in 2003. Both the upward and the downward trends were statistically significant (P information technology doubled between 2003 and 2015. The upward trend was statistically significant (P information technology in the USA and the UK. © 2018 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends.

  10. Complementary feeding patterns in the first year of life in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: time trends from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze time trends in complementary feeding practices among children under one year of age in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2008. Based on comparable questions on food consumption in five surveys conducted in representative randomized samples of children in 1998 (n = 3,762, 2000 (n = 3,670, 2003 (n = 4,305, 2006 (n = 3,686, and 2008 (n = 2,621, 16 complementary feeding indicators were constructed. The percentage frequency of all indicators was estimated for each year of the study. Linear trend analyses were also conducted by means of multivariate regression models. All indicators of early complementary feeding decreased from 1998 to 2008. In the 6-11.9 month age group, there was a significant downward trend in the proportion of children receiving food with adequate consistency for their age, consumption of iron-rich foods, and overall adequacy of the diet. A significant upward trend in fruit consumption was observed. There was a decrease in the early complementary feeding, and generally a worsening of complementary feeding practices in children aged 6-11.9 months in Rio de Janeiro during the period studied.

  11. Frequency and changes in trends of leading risk factors of coronary heart disease in women in the city of Novi Sad during a 20-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. From 1984 to 2004 the city of Novi Sad participated through its Health Center “Novi Sad” in the international Multinational MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease (MONICA project, as one of the 38 research centers in 21 countries around the world. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and changes of trends in leading risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD and to analyze the previous trend of movement of coronary event in women in Novi Sad during a 20- year period. Methods. In 2004, the fourth survey within MONICA project was conducted in the city of Novi Sad. The representative sample included 1,041 women between the age of 25 and 74. The prevalence of risk factors in CHD such as smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood cholesterol, elevated blood glucose and obesity was determined. Also, indicators of risk factors and rates of coronary events in women were compared with the results from MONICA project obtained in previous three screens, as well as with the results from other research centres. χ2-test, linear trend and correlartion coefficient were used in statistical analysis of results obtained. Results. It was observed that during a 20-year period covered by the study, the prevalence of the leading risk factors for the development of CHD in the surveyed women was significantly increasing and in positive correlation with the values of linear trend. Also, the increase of morbidity rates and mortality rates of coronary event were in positive correlation. The decrease was only recorded in the period from 1985-1989 (the implementation of the intervention programme. Conclusion. Upon analysing the increase in prevalence of leading risk factors of CHD and significant increase in the rates of coronary event, we can conclude that health status of women in Novi Sad during a 20-year period was deteriorating.

  12. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites

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    A. S. Cole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury provides important information about long-term trends in the balance between transport, chemistry, and deposition of this pollutant in the Arctic atmosphere. Ten-year records of total gaseous mercury (TGM from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed from two high Arctic sites at Alert (Nunavut, Canada and Zeppelin Station (Svalbard, Norway; one sub-Arctic site at Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik, Québec, Canada; and three temperate Canadian sites at St. Anicet (Québec, Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia and Egbert (Ontario. Five of the six sites examined showed a decreasing trend over this time period. Overall trend estimates at high latitude sites were: −0.9% yr−1 (95% confidence limits: −1.4, 0 at Alert and no trend (−0.5, +0.7 at Zeppelin Station. Faster decreases were observed at the remainder of the sites: −2.1% yr−1 (−3.1, −1.1 at Kuujjuarapik, −1.9% yr−1 (−2.1, −1.8 at St. Anicet, −1.6% yr−1 (−2.4, −1.0 at Kejimkujik and −2.2% yr−1 (−2.8, −1.7 at Egbert. Trends at the sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites agree with reported decreases in background TGM concentration since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Point, South Africa, but conflict with estimates showing an increase in global anthropogenic emissions over a similar period. Trends in TGM at the two high Arctic sites were not only less negative (or neutral overall but much more variable by season. Possible reasons for differences in seasonal and overall trends at the Arctic sites compared to those at lower latitudes are discussed, as well as implications for the Arctic mercury cycle. The first calculations of multi-year trends in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and total particulate mercury (TPM at Alert were also performed, indicating increases from 2002 to 2009

  13. Increase in breast cancer incidence among older women in Mumbai: 30-year trends and predictions to 2025.

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    Dikshit, Rajesh P; Yeole, B B; Nagrani, Rajini; Dhillon, P; Badwe, R; Bray, Freddie

    2012-08-01

    Increasing trends in the incidence of breast cancer have been observed in India, including Mumbai. These have likely stemmed from an increasing adoption of lifestyle factors more akin to those commonly observed in westernized countries. Analyses of breast cancer trends and corresponding estimation of the future burden are necessary to better plan rationale cancer control programmes within the country. We used data from the population-based Mumbai Cancer Registry to study time trends in breast cancer incidence rates 1976-2005 and stratified them according to younger (25-49) and older age group (50-74). Age-period-cohort models were fitted and the net drift used as a measure of the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC). Age-period-cohort models and population projections were used to predict the age-adjusted rates and number of breast cancer cases circa 2025. Breast cancer incidence increased significantly among older women over three decades (EAPC = 1.6%; 95% CI 1.1-2.0), while lesser but significant 1% increase in incidence among younger women was observed (EAPC = 1.0; 95% CI 0.2-1.8). Non-linear period and cohort effects were observed; a trends-based model predicted a close-to-doubling of incident cases by 2025 from 1300 mean cases per annum in 2001-2005 to over 2500 cases in 2021-2025. The incidence of breast cancer has increased in Mumbai during last two to three decades, with increases greater among older women. The number of breast cancer cases is predicted to double to over 2500 cases, the vast majority affecting older women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in physical activity, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills in children during a two-year comprehensive school physical activity program.

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    Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Nam, Kahyun; Goodrum, Sara; Burns, Ryan D

    2018-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in school-day step counts, health-related fitness, and gross motor skills during a two-year Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in children. Longitudinal trend analysis. Participants were a sample of children (N=240; mean age=7.9±1.2 years; 125 girls, 115 boys) enrolled in five low-income schools. Outcome variables consisted of school day step counts, Body Mass Index (BMI), estimated VO 2 Peak , and gross motor skill scores assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). Measures were collected over a two-year CSPAP including a baseline and several follow-up time-points. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine time trends on each continuous outcome variable. Markov-chain transition models were employed to examine time trends for derived binary variables for school day steps, BMI, and estimated VO 2 Peak . There were statistically significant time coefficients for estimated VO 2 Peak (b=1.10mL/kg/min, 95% C.I. [0.35mL/kg/min-2.53mL/kg/min], p=0.009) and TGMD-3 scores (b=7.8, 95% C.I. [6.2-9.3], p<0.001). There were no significant changes over time for school-day step counts or BMI. Boys had greater change in odds of achieving a step count associating with 30min of school day MVPA (OR=1.25, 95% C.I. [1.02-1.48], p=0.044). A two-year CSPAP related to increases in cardio-respiratory endurance and TGMD-3 scores. School day steps and BMI were primarily stable across the two-year intervention. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and prediction of future trends in north-west region of India: A six-year ICTC-based study

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    Vyas Nitya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years. Objectives: The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario. Materials and Methods: All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated. Results: The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161, 11.8% (519/4381, 11.1% (649/5867, 13% (908/6983, 14% (1385/9911 and 17.34% (1756/10133 in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.

  16. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis at Le Fort-I level induces bone apposition at infraorbital rim.

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    Rattan, Vidya; Jena, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether there is any remodeling of bone at infraorbital rim following maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) at Le Fort-I level. Twelve adult subjects in the age range of 17-21 years with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of the maxilla by DO. The effect of maxillary DO on the infraorbital rim remodeling was evaluated from lateral cephalograms recorded prior to the DO (T0), at the end of DO (T1), and at least 2-years after the DO (T2) by Walker's analysis. The ANOVA and two-tailed t test were used and probability value (P value) 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. There was anterior movement of maxilla by 9.22 ± 3.27 mm and 7.67 ± 3.99 mm at the end of immediate (T1) and long-term (T2) follow-up of maxillary DO, respectively. The Walker's analysis showed 1.49 ± 1.22 mm and 2.31 ± 1.81 mm anterior movement of the infraorbital margin (Orbitale point) at the end of T1 and T2, respectively (P distraction osteogenesis at Le Fort-I level induced significant bone apposition at infraorbital rim. Patients with mild midface hypoplasia who would otherwise may be candidates for osteotomy at Le Fort-II or Le Fort-III level may benefit from maxillary distraction at Le Fort-I level.

  17. National trends in beverage consumption in children from birth to 5 years: analysis of NHANES across three decades

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    Fulgoni Victor L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is crucial to assess food and beverage intake trends. Beverages can provide a large number of calories and since consumption patterns seem to develop at a young age we examined beverage consumption trends over three decades. The objective of this study was to assess the beverage (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks, tea, soy beverages, and soft drinks consumption trends in children Methods Data from individuals ages Results During the NHANES 1976–1980 and 1988–1994 periods, approximately 84–85% of children were consuming milk, whereas only 77% were consuming milk during NHANES 2001–2006. Flavored milk intake was relatively low, but increased to 14% during the last decade (p  Conclusions Given concerns about childhood obesity and the need to meet nutrition requirements, it is prudent that parents, educators and child caretakers replace some of the nutrient poor beverages young children are currently consuming with more nutrient dense sources like low-fat and fat-free milk.

  18. Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden

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    Johansson Ingegerd

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI. Results Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women or 2004 (men. A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking. Conclusions Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986–1992 of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders

  19. Trends in mortality due to ischemic heart disease in the municipality of Goiania, Brazil, during the years between 1980 and 1994

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    Suzana Alves de Moraes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trends of specific, standardized coefficients of mortality due to ischemic heart disease according to sex and age during the years 1980 and 1994 in the municipality of Goiania, GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data on deaths were retrieved from the Information on Mortality System of the Ministry of Health; population data were obtained from the Foundation of the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The trends of the specific coefficients were analyzed by triennia of the historical series, including individuals of both sexes from 25 years of age on, partitioned into 6 age groups of ten years intervals. The population data corresponding to the year 1980 were used as the standard for the calculation of each age group coefficient. Analyses were carried out by straight linear regression. RESULTS: Coefficients were greater for males in each triennium of the series and increased with age in both sexes. The study of the trends of the specific age coefficients of both sexes revealed a stable pattern of evolution up to the age of 65-74 years (P>0.05. From 75 years on, a clear-cut decline in mortality due to ischemic heart disease was shown by both sexes. The standardized coefficients also showed a significant decline (p<=0.05. CONCLUSION: The municipality of Goiânia is at present in a stage of epidemiological transition similar to that of developed countries, even though the observed decline is predominantly influenced by the mortality of older individuals (75 years of age or older.

  20. Trends and correlates of overweight/obesity in Czech adolescents in relation to family socioeconomic status over a 12-year study period (2002-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Erik; Badura, Petr; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Voráčová, Jaroslava; Zacpal, Jiří; Kalman, Michal; Pavelka, Jan; Vokacová, Jana; Hobza, Vladimír; Hamrik, Zdenek

    2018-01-10

    This study examined a) trends in overweight/obesity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a 12-year study period (2002-2014) in relation to family affluence (FA) and b) correlates of adolescent overweight/obesity from different FA categories. A nationally representative sample of 18,250 adolescents (51.4% girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years was drawn from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children questionnaire-based surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014. Using the FA scale, the socioeconomic status (SES) of the respondents' families was assessed. SES-stratified trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity meeting the MVPA (≥60 min/day), and ST (≤2 h/day) recommendations were assessed using logistic regression. A trend-related significant increase (p related increase in excessive ST was evident in adolescents regardless of gender and FA category. Generally, girls and older adolescents had lower odds of overweight/obesity than boys and 11-year-old adolescents. While in the high-FA category of adolescents, achieving 60 min of MVPA daily and the absence of excessive ST on weekdays significantly (p public health efforts to implement obesity reduction interventions for this disadvantaged population.

  1. Ten-Year Trends (2000-2010) of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among the Young and Middle-Aged Adult Population of the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region.

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    Coll, Josep L; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed at assessing the 10-year trends (2000-2010) in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for young (18-35 year-olds) and middle-aged (36-55 year-olds) adults living in the Balearics was calculated. Data represented 1,089 people during 1999-2000 and 1,081 people during 2009-2010. The BMI categories were as follows: normal weight (18.5 obese (≥30). Weighted frequency estimates and logistic regression analysis were used to calculate overweight and obesity trends. While the prevalence of overweight and obesity mostly remained stable over the 2000-2010 period, the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.1 to 8.3% in young adults (aged 18-35), a 1.66-fold increase in prevalence (95% CI 1.02-2.70) over the study period. Total overweight and obesity prevalence remained stable in the Balearic adult population; however, a rising prevalence of obesity has been observed in young adults, which suggests a need to develop and change current strategies in order to reverse the current trends in obesity among this age group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Current Trend of Robotic Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeries in Korea: Analysis of Seven-Year National Data

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    Chang Hyun Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic surgery is an alternative to minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to report on current trends in robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgical techniques in Korea. Methods: Data from the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA between January 2006 and June 2012 were used in this study, including a total of 932 cases of robotic surgeries reported to NECA. The annual trends in the case volume, indications for robotic surgery, and distribution by hospitals and surgeons were analyzed in this study. Results: Of the 932 cases, 591 (63% were thoracic operations and 340 (37% were cardiac operations. The case number increased explosively in 2007 and 2008. However, the rate of increase regained a steady state after 2011. The main indications for robotic thoracic surgery were pulmonary disease (n=271, 46%, esophageal disease (n=199, 34%, and mediastinal disease (n=117, 20%. The main indications for robotic cardiac surgery were valvular heart disease (n=228, 67%, atrial septal defect (n=79, 23%, and cardiac myxoma (n=27, 8%. Robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries were performed in 19 hospitals. Three large volume hospitals performed 94% of the case volume of robotic cardiac surgery and 74% of robotic thoracic surgery. Centralization of robotic operation was significantly (p<0.0001 more common in cardiac surgery than in thoracic surgery. A total of 39 surgeons performed robotic surgeries. However, only 27% of cardiac surgeons and 23% of thoracic surgeons performed more than 10 cases of robotic surgery. Conclusion: Trend analysis of robotic and cardiovascular operations demonstrated a gradual increase in the surgical volume in Korea. Meanwhile, centralization of surgical cases toward specific surgeons in specific hospitals was observed.

  3. Arctic temperature and moisture trends during the past 2000 years - Progress from multiproxy-paleoclimate data compilations

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    Kaufman, Darrell; Routson, Cody; McKay, Nicholas; Beltrami, Hugo; Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Konecky, Bronwen; Saenger, Casey

    2017-04-01

    Instrumental climate data and climate-model projections show that Arctic-wide surface temperature and precipitation are positively correlated. Higher temperatures coincide with greater moisture by: (1) expanding the duration and source area for evaporation as sea ice retracts, (2) enhancing the poleward moisture transport, and (3) increasing the water-vapor content of the atmosphere. Higher temperature also influences evaporation rate, and therefore precipitation minus evaporation (P-E), the climate variable often sensed by paleo-hydroclimate proxies. Here, we test whether Arctic temperature and moisture also correlate on centennial timescales over the Common Era (CE). We use the new PAGES2k multiproxy-temperature dataset along with a first-pass compilation of moisture-sensitive proxy records to calculate century-scale composite timeseries, with a focus on longer records that extend back through the first millennium CE. We present a new Arctic borehole temperature reconstruction as a check on the magnitude of Little Ice Age cooling inferred from the proxy records, and we investigate the spatial pattern of centennial-scale variability. Similar to previous reconstructions, v2 of the PAGES2k proxy temperature dataset shows that, prior to the 20th century, mean annual Arctic-wide temperature decreased over the CE. The millennial-scale cooling trend is most prominent in proxy records from glacier ice, but is also registered in lake and marine sediment, and trees. In contrast, the composite of moisture-sensitive (primarily P-E) records does not exhibit a millennial-scale trend. Determining whether fluctuations in the mean state of Arctic temperature and moisture were in fact decoupled is hampered by the difficulty in detecting a significant trend within the relatively small number of spatially heterogeneous multi-proxy moisture-sensitive records. A decoupling of temperature and moisture would indicate that evaporation had a strong counterbalancing effect on precipitation

  4. Four-year trends in adiposity and its association with hypertension in serial groups of young adult university students in urban Cameroon: a time-series study.

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    Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Kengne, André-Pascal; Nguefack, Maxime-Leolein; Mboue-Djieka, Yannick; Nebongo, Daniel; Guimezap, Jackson T; Mbanya, Jean Claude

    2017-05-23

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and is growing rapidly globally including in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to assess the trend in adiposity markers in Cameroonian university students, and investigated their associations with hypertension. From 2009 to 2012, we annually measured weight, height, blood pressure, waist (WC) and hip circumferences, and calculated the body mass index (BMI) and other indices of adiposity in consecutive students aged 18 years or above, during their registration. Time-trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated, and their associations with prevalent hypertension investigated. Among the 2726 participants, the overall prevalence of obesity, overweight and obesity combined, and hypertension was 3.5%, 21.0% and 6.3% respectively. From 2009 to 2012, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in men only, from 13.1% to 20.9% (p-trend = 0.002), whereas prevalent abdominal obesity increased in women only, from 6.5% to 11.7% (p-trend = 0.027). The BMI and the WC were independent predictors of hypertension; each kg/m 2 higher BMI was associated with 11% higher odds of hypertension, and each centimeter higher WC was associated with 9% higher odds of hypertension. Our results show that overweight and obesity are rapidly increasing in this population of young sub-Saharan African adults, and are contributing to an increasing burden of hypertension.

  5. Global and regional trends in particulate air pollution and attributable health burden over the past 50 years

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    Butt, E. W.; Turnock, S. T.; Rigby, R.; Reddington, C. L.; Yoshioka, M.; Johnson, J. S.; Regayre, L. A.; Pringle, K. J.; Mann, G. W.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of air quality has changed rapidly. Here we used the HadGEM3-UKCA coupled chemistry-climate model, integrated exposure-response relationships, demographic and background disease data to provide the first estimate of the changes in global and regional ambient PM2.5 concentrations and attributable health burdens over the period 1960 to 2009. Over this period, global mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations increased by 38%, dominated by increases in China and India. Global attributable deaths increased by 89% to 124% over the period 1960 to 2009, dominated by large increases in China and India. Population growth and ageing contributed mostly to the increases in attributable deaths in China and India, highlighting the importance of demographic trends. In contrast, decreasing PM2.5 concentrations and background disease dominated the reduction in attributable health burden in Europe and the United States. Our results shed light on how future projected trends in demographics and uncertainty in the exposure-response relationship may provide challenges for future air quality policy in Asia.

  6. Twenty-five year socioeconomic trends in leisure-time and commuting physical activity among employed Finns.

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    Mäkinen, T; Borodulin, K; Laatikainen, T; Fogelholm, M; Prättälä, R

    2009-04-01

    The trend of socioeconomic differences in physical activity is largely unknown in Finland. In this study, we examined socioeconomic trends in leisure-time and commuting physical activity among Finns in 1978-2002. Nationwide data were derived from an annually repeated cross-sectional Finnish Adult Health Behavior Survey. People under the age of 25, students, the unemployed, and retirees were excluded from the analysis. The final data set included 25 513 women and 25 302 men. Socioeconomic variables included education, occupation, and household income. Odds ratios for being physically active and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. People with the lowest income were less leisure-time and commuting physically active. Among women, low occupational status was associated with high commuting physical activity whereas among men such an association was not found. No educational differences among men in leisure-time and commuting physical activity over time were found. Some indications were found that educational differences in leisure-time physical activity among women might have been reversed. Our data suggest that socioeconomic differences in leisure-time and commuting physical activity are quite small and have remained similar between 1978 and 2002.

  7. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  8. Placing the Common Era in a Holocene context: millennial to centennial patterns and trends in the hydroclimate of North America over the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Bryan N.; Routson, Cody; McKay, Nicholas; Fritz, Sherilyn; Kaufman, Darrell; Kirby, Matthew E.; Nolan, Connor; Pederson, Gregory T.; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-05-01

    A synthesis of 93 hydrologic records from across North and Central America, and adjacent tropical and Arctic islands, reveals centennial to millennial trends in the regional hydroclimates of the Common Era (CE; past 2000 years). The hydrological records derive from materials stored in lakes, bogs, caves, and ice from extant glaciers, which have the continuity through time to preserve low-frequency ( > 100 year) climate signals that may extend deeper into the Holocene. The most common pattern, represented in 46 (49 %) of the records, indicates that the centuries before 1000 CE were drier than the centuries since that time. Principal component analysis indicates that millennial-scale trends represent the dominant pattern of variance in the southwestern US, northeastern US, mid-continent, Pacific Northwest, Arctic, and tropics, although not all records within a region show the same direction of change. The Pacific Northwest and the southernmost tier of the tropical sites tended to dry toward present, as many other areas became wetter than before. In 22 records (24 %), the Medieval Climate Anomaly period (800-1300 CE) was drier than the Little Ice Age (1400-1900 CE), but in many cases the difference was part of the longer millennial-scale trend, and, in 25 records (27 %), the Medieval Climate Anomaly period represented a pluvial (wet) phase. Where quantitative records permitted a comparison, we found that centennial-scale fluctuations over the Common Era represented changes of 3-7 % in the modern interannual range of variability in precipitation, but the accumulation of these long-term trends over the entirety of the Holocene caused recent centuries to be significantly wetter, on average, than most of the past 11 000 years.

  9. Placing the Common Era in a Holocene context: Millennial to centennial patterns and trends in the hydroclimate of North America over the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Bryan; Routson, Cody C.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Fritz, Sherilyn; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kirby, Matthew; Nolan, Connor; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    A synthesis of 93 hydrologic records from across North and Central America, and adjacent tropical and Arctic islands, reveals centennial to millennial trends in the regional hydroclimates of the Common Era (CE; past 2000 years). The hydrological records derive from materials stored in lakes, bogs, caves, and ice from extant glaciers, which have the continuity through time to preserve low-frequency ( > 100 year) climate signals that may extend deeper into the Holocene. The most common pattern, represented in 46 (49 %) of the records, indicates that the centuries before 1000 CE were drier than the centuries since that time. Principal component analysis indicates that millennial-scale trends represent the dominant pattern of variance in the southwestern US, northeastern US, mid-continent, Pacific Northwest, Arctic, and tropics, although not all records within a region show the same direction of change. The Pacific Northwest and the southernmost tier of the tropical sites tended to dry toward present, as many other areas became wetter than before. In 22 records (24 %), the Medieval Climate Anomaly period (800–1300 CE) was drier than the Little Ice Age (1400–1900 CE), but in many cases the difference was part of the longer millennial-scale trend, and, in 25 records (27 %), the Medieval Climate Anomaly period represented a pluvial (wet) phase. Where quantitative records permitted a comparison, we found that centennial-scale fluctuations over the Common Era represented changes of 3–7 % in the modern interannual range of variability in precipitation, but the accumulation of these long-term trends over the entirety of the Holocene caused recent centuries to be significantly wetter, on average, than most of the past 11 000 years.

  10. Salary-Trend Studies for the Years 1993-94 and 1996-97 in the Following 27 Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting, Administrative Assistant/Secretarial Science, General;...Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.

    This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 307 public institutions and 490 private colleges and universities based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1993-94 and the other for the trend year 1996-97. For each of the 27 disciplines, a summary includes a definition of the discipline; information on average…

  11. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1992-93 and 1995-96 in the Following Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Accounting, Art, General...Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.

    This document provides comparative salary trend data for full-time faculty at 212 public and 337 private colleges and universities, based on two surveys, one for the baseline year 1992-93 and the other for the "trend" year 1995-96. For each of the 25 disciplines, a summary review provides a definition of the discipline; information on average…

  12. Time trends in lifetime incidence rates of first-time diagnosed anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa across 16 years in a Danish nationwide psychiatric registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jensen, Christina Mohr

    2015-11-01

    To study recent time trends in the incidence of diagnosed anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) based on nationwide psychiatric register data. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry was used to identify the incidence of diagnosed cases with AN and BN at the ages of 4-65 years from 1995 to 2010. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated and were adjusted for time trends in the total number of people diagnosed in psychiatry. Time trends were analyzed using JoinPoint regression analysis. A total of N = 5,902 persons had a first-time incidence of AN, and a total of N = 5,113 had first-time incidence of BN. Incidence rates increased for AN from 6.4 to 12.6 per 100,000 person-years, and for BN from 6.3 to 7.2 per 100,000 person-years. In 2010, the male-to-female ratio was 1:8 for AN, and 1:20 for BN. There was an earlier onset for AN than for BN, and age at incidence decreased during the observation period for AN but not for BN. A sizeable part of the increasing incidence rates for AN and in particular, the younger AN age groups, could be attributed to an increase in the total number of N = 249,607 persons with first-time diagnoses in psychiatry. Incidence rates had increased slightly for AN, but were stable for BN across 16 years in this nationwide study and to a large extent were reflective of a general increase in diagnosed mental disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    Background: Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health when compared to less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, time trends in these inequalities among...... at Statistics Denmark. SEP measures included previous year’s parental education (highest attained educational level between the parents), income (equivalized household disposable income), and occupational social class (highest recorded occupational class between the parents). Covariates were immigration status......, country of origin, number of children and persons in the family, and household type. The outcome was dental caries experience, determined by the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between DMFS count and each...

  14. Trends in geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    . Municipality deprivation data (GINI coefficient; proportion of poor, unemployed, low educated, and unmarried/non-cohabiting individuals; proportion of household overcrowding and single parent households) were obtained from Statistics Denmark’s Statbank (Statistikbanken). Measures of childhood SEP included...... obtained from the national dental register of the Danish Health Authority. Data on individual-level social variables (childhood SEP, immigration status, country of origin, number of children and persons in the family, and household type) were obtained from administrative registers at Statistics Denmark...... previous year’s parental education, occupational social class, and household equivalized disposable income. Geo-mapping of trends in dental caries experience was undertaken for the 275 Danish municipalities. Multilevel Bayesian conditional autoregressive models with the zero-inflated negative binomial...

  15. Twenty-four-year trends in the incidence of ischemic stroke in Sweden from 1987 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Giang, Kok Wai; Lappas, Georgios; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Björck, Lena

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of stroke in Sweden increased between 1989 and 2000 among people aged ≤65 years, but more recent data on those aged >65 years are lacking. Through the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death registries, we identified all cases of nonfatal and fatal ischemic stroke (IS) among people aged 18 to 84 years during 1987-2010 in Sweden. Of the 391 081 stroke cases identified, 1.6% were 18 to 44 years, 16.7% were 45 to 64 years, and 81.7% were 65 to 84 years. Among people aged 18 to 44 years, there was a continuous increase in the incidence of stroke of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.8%-1.8%) per year for men and 1.6% (1.0%-2.3%) per year for women. Among men and women aged 45 to 64 years, slightly declining rates were observed from the late 1990s, with a mean annual decrease of 0.4% (0.1%-0.7%) among men and 0.6% (0.2%-1.0%) among women. Among men aged 65 to 84 years, a decrease of 3.7% in IS (3.4%-4.0%) per year was observed from the late 1990s. This was more marked in women, where an initial decrease of 2.5% (2.1%-2.9%) per year was followed by an accelerated decrease of 5.1% (4.4%-5.8%) after 2005. Mortality from IS decreased markedly in all age groups. The incidence of IS in elderly people in Sweden is now decreasing, whereas the decline in IS incidence in the middle-aged people is much less steep. The increasing incidence of stroke in the young, particularly if carried forward to an older age, is concerning.

  16. State Pre-K Funding for 2015-16 Fiscal Year: National Trends in State Preschool Funding. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily; Atchison, Bruce; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights significant investments made by both Republican and Democratic policymakers in state-funded pre-k programs for the fourth year in a row. In the 2015-16 budget year, 32 states and the District of Columbia raised funding levels of pre-k programs. This increased support for preschool funding came from both sides of the…

  17. Forty-five years of schizophrenia trials in Italy: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purgato Marianna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-designed and properly executed randomized controlled trials (RCTs provide the best evidence on the efficacy of healthcare interventions. Mental health has a strong tradition of using trial to evaluate treatments, but the translation of research to clinical practice is not always easy. Even well-conducted trials do not necessarily address the needs of every day care and trials can reflect local needs and the specific culture in which they are undertaken. Generalizing results to other contexts can become problematic but these trials may, nevertheless, be very helpful within their own context. Moreover, pathways for drug approval can be different depending on local regulatory agencies. Local trials are helpful for decision-making in the region from which they come, but should not be viewed in isolation. National quantity and quality of trials may vary across nations. The aim of this study is to quantify trialing activity in Italy from 1948 until 2009 and to describe characteristics of these trials. In addition, we evaluated change over time in three keys aspects: sample size, follow-up duration, and number of outcomes. Methods We used the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register that contains 16,000 citations to 13,000 studies relating only to people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illness. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials undertaken in Italy and involving pharmacological interventions were included. Results The original search identified 155 records of potentially eligible studies, 74 of which were excluded because do not meet inclusion criteria. A total of 81 studies were included in the analysis. The majority of trials were conducted in north Italy, and published in international journals between 1981 and 1995. The majority of studies (52 out of 81 used standardized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia disorder. They were defined as randomized and used blind methods to administer treatment. However, most failed to report detail regarding methodological procedures and it is difficult to ascertain which studies are associated with a low risk of bias. Conclusions Trials should be designed to address the needs of everyday care with the aim of following large samples of typical patients in the long term. The Italian tradition in the area of trialing treatments for people with schizophrenia is not as strong as in many other similar countries and Italy should be producing more, better, independent, and clinically relevant trials.

  18. Explaining inflation and output volatility in Chile: an empirical analysis of forty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar César

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El artículo presenta un análisis empírico de los efectos de dife­rentes tipos de shocks económicos en el crecimiento del producto y la inflación chilena. Dos importantes resultados enfatizan el papel jugado por la apertura comercial y las políticas monetarias contra­cíclicas a la hora de explicar cambios estructurales en la economía chilena: (1 17% de la variabilidad del producto entre 1984 y 2006 corresponde a shocks externos, mientras que entre 1966 y 1983 su im­­pacto era de 47,2%; (2 en los últimos veinte años ha aumentado la importancia relativa de los shocks externos para explicar la volatilidad de la inflación.

  19. Forty Years of Research and Development at Griffiss Air Force Base, June 1951-June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    display-assisted intercept association capability. -1962 - 61 Reliability and Maintainability Reliability Physics Symposium The Armour Research...communications links. Status Control and Alerting and Reporting System ( SCARS ) RADC produced the Status Control and Alerting and Reporting System ( SCARS ...Acquisition, Tracking, and Kill Assessment SCARS Status Control and Alerting and Reporting System SDI Space Defense Initiative SEA Southeast Asia SEMANOL

  20. The use of solvent extraction in the nuclear fuel cycle, forty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, M.

    1990-01-01

    The high degree of purity required for the fissile and fertile elements used as fuels in nuclear reactors has made solvent extraction the choice as the purification method in the different steps of the fuel cycle. This technique, owing to its specificity, and its adaptability both to continuous multistage processes and to remote control, has served to achieve the requisite purities with safe, reliable operation. A review of the different steps of the cycle including uranium and thorium production, uranium enrichment, reprocessing, and the recovery of transuranics, highlights the diversity of the solvents used and the improvements made to the processes and the equipment. According to the different authors, this technique is capable of meeting future needs, aimed to reduce the harmful effects associated with the nuclear fuel cycle to the lowest possible levels

  1. Forty Years of Doing Second Language Testing, Curriculum, and Research: So What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    2017-01-01

    I started out as a budding English as a second language (ESL) teacher in 1976 at UCLA where I went through the M.A. TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) and Applied Linguistics Ph.D. programs. Sadly, those two programs were "disestablished" in 2014, which provides a stark lesson to any departments that think they are hot stuff…

  2. The International Nuclear Information System. The first forty years 1970-2010 (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo

    2010-10-01

    The Statute of the IAEA that came into force in July 1957. It was with the desire to more adequately fulfill the statutory function that during the 1960's the Agency began exploring the possibility of establishing a scheme that would provide computerized access to a comprehensive collection of references to the world's nuclear literature. The outcome of these efforts was the establishment of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and produced its first products in May 1970. The system was designed as an international cooperative venture, requiring the active participation of its members. It started operations with 25 members and the success and usefulness of the system has been proven by the fact that present membership is 146. The present report describes the road that led to the creation of INIS. It also describes the present operation of the system, the current methods used to collect and process the data on nuclear literature and the various products and services that the system places at the disposal of its users. Furthermore, it gives insights into current thinking for future developments that will facilitate access to an increasing variety of nuclear related information available from the IAEA, bibliographic and numerical data, full text of published and 'grey literature', multilingual nuclear terminological information as well as facilitate access to other sources of nuclear related information maintained outside the IAEA. (author)

  3. The International Nuclear Information System. The first forty years 1970-2010 (Translated document)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itabashi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Intellectual Resources Department, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    The Statute of the IAEA that came into force in July 1957. It was with the desire to more adequately fulfill the statutory function that during the 1960's the Agency began exploring the possibility of establishing a scheme that would provide computerized access to a comprehensive collection of references to the world's nuclear literature. The outcome of these efforts was the establishment of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and produced its first products in May 1970. The system was designed as an international cooperative venture, requiring the active participation of its members. It started operations with 25 members and the success and usefulness of the system has been proven by the fact that present membership is 146. The present report describes the road that led to the creation of INIS. It also describes the present operation of the system, the current methods used to collect and process the data on nuclear literature and the various products and services that the system places at the disposal of its users. Furthermore, it gives insights into current thinking for future developments that will facilitate access to an increasing variety of nuclear related information available from the IAEA, bibliographic and numerical data, full text of published and 'grey literature', multilingual nuclear terminological information as well as facilitate access to other sources of nuclear related information maintained outside the IAEA. (author)

  4. Biomedical optics centers: forty years of multidisciplinary clinical translation for improving human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Anderson, R. Rox; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf; Berns, Michael W.; Parrish, John A.; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Despite widespread government and public interest, there are significant barriers to translating basic science discoveries into clinical practice. Biophotonics and biomedical optics technologies can be used to overcome many of these hurdles, due, in part, to offering new portable, bedside, and accessible devices. The current JBO special issue highlights promising activities and examples of translational biophotonics from leading laboratories around the world. We identify common essential features of successful clinical translation by examining the origins and activities of three major international academic affiliated centers with beginnings traceable to the mid-late 1970s: The Wellman Center for Photomedicine (Mass General Hospital, USA), the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (University of California, Irvine, USA), and the Medical Laser Center Lübeck at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Major factors driving the success of these programs include visionary founders and leadership, multidisciplinary research and training activities in light-based therapies and diagnostics, diverse funding portfolios, and a thriving entrepreneurial culture that tolerates risk. We provide a brief review of how these three programs emerged and highlight critical phases and lessons learned. Based on these observations, we identify pathways for encouraging the growth and formation of similar programs in order to more rapidly and effectively expand the impact of biophotonics and biomedical optics on human health.

  5. Forty years of Fanger's model of thermal comfort: comfort for all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, J

    2008-06-01

    The predicted mean vote (PMV) model of thermal comfort, created by Fanger in the late 1960s, is used worldwide to assess thermal comfort. Fanger based his model on college-aged students for use in invariant environmental conditions in air-conditioned buildings in moderate thermal climate zones. Environmental engineering practice calls for a predictive method that is applicable to all types of people in any kind of building in every climate zone. In this publication, existing support and criticism, as well as modifications to the PMV model are discussed in light of the requirements by environmental engineering practice in the 21st century in order to move from a predicted mean vote to comfort for all. Improved prediction of thermal comfort can be achieved through improving the validity of the PMV model, better specification of the model's input parameters, and accounting for outdoor thermal conditions and special groups. The application range of the PMV model can be enlarged, for instance, by using the model to assess the effects of the thermal environment on productivity and behavior, and interactions with other indoor environmental parameters, and the use of information and communication technologies. Even with such modifications to thermal comfort evaluation, thermal comfort for all can only be achieved when occupants have effective control over their own thermal environment. The paper treats the assessment of thermal comfort using the PMV model of Fanger, and deals with the strengths and limitations of this model. Readers are made familiar to some opportunities for use in the 21st-century information society.

  6. Small-angle physics at the intersecting storage rings forty years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that the ISR did not have the detectors needed to discover fundamental phenomena made accessible by its large and new energy range. This is certainly true for ‘high-momentum-transfer physics’, which, since the end of the 1960s, became a main focus of research, but the statement does not apply to the field that is the subject of this paper. In fact, looking back to the results obtained at the ISR by the experiments that were programmed to study ‘small-angle physics’, one can safely say that the detectors were very well suited to the tasks and performed much better than foreseen. As far as the results are concerned, in this particular corner of hadron–hadron physics, new phenomena were discovered, unexpected scaling laws were found and the first detailed studies of that elusive concept, which goes under the name ‘pomeron’, were performed, opening the way to phenomena that we hope will be observed at the LHC. Moreover, some techniques and methods have had a lasting influence: all colliders had and have their Roman pots, and the different methods developed at the ISR for measuring the luminosity are still in use.

  7. The prejudiced personality, racism, and anti-Semitism: the PR scale forty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, E

    1995-10-01

    The relationship of prejudiced personality traits with racism and anti-Semitism was examined with 150 Asian American and White university students. The Prejudice (PR) scale, composed of 32 items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, was administered along with the McConahay racism scale and the Selznick and Steinberg Anti-Semitism scale. Results indicated that for Whites, the PR scale was significantly correlated with old-fashioned and modern racism and anti-Semitism, replicating Gough's 1951 study (Gough, 1951b) with the PR scale. However, no such relationship was observed for the Asian American group. This suggests that personality traits of prejudicial attitudes may be relatively stable for Whites but may not be related to outgroup bias for other racial or ethnic groups.

  8. Change in the southern U.S. water demand and supply over the next forty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. McNulty; Ge Sun; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers

    2008-01-01

    Water shortages are often considered a problem in the western United States, where water supply is limited compared to the eastern half of the country. However, periodic water shortages are also common in the southeastern United States due to high water demand and periodic drought. Southeastern U.S. municipalities spend billions of dollars to develop water storage...

  9. Forty years of the establishment of the induced weak pseudoscalar interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1998-03-01

    The author describes his work on the muon capture by light nuclei through the interaction of muons with protons via a virtual pion exchange. Although the resulting capture rate was an order of magnitude slower that the experimental available data, the calculation showed that the pion exchange between muons and protons gives rise to an induced weak pseudoscalar coupling which has to be added to the Feynman-Gell-Mann-Sudarshan-Marshak V-A interaction. (author)

  10. The forty years of vermicular graphite cast iron development in China (PartⅠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zheng-de

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In China, the research and development of vermicular graphite cast iron (VGCI as a new type of engineering material, were started in the same period as in other developed countries; however, its actual industrial application was even earlier. In China, the deep and intensive studies on VGCI began as early as the 1960s. According to the incomplete statistics to date, more than 600 papers on VGCI have been published by Chinese researchers and scholars at national and international conferences, and in technical journals. More than ten types of production methods and more than thirty types of treatment alloy have been studied. Formulae for calculating the critical addition of treatment alloy required to produce VGCI have been put forward, and mechanisms for explaining the formation of dross during treatment were brought forward. The casting properties, metallographic structure, mechanical and physical properties and machining performance of VGCI, as well as the relationships between them, have all been studied in detail. The Chinese Standards for VGCI and VGCI metallographic structure have been issued. In China, the primary crystallization of VGCI has been studied by many researchers and scholars. The properties of VGCI can be improved by heat treatment and addition of alloying elements enabling its applications to be further expanded. Hundreds of kinds of VGCI castings have been produced and used in vehicles, engines, mining equipment, metallurgical products serviced under alternating thermal load, machinery, hydraulic components, textile machine parts and military applications. The heaviest VGCI casting produced is 38 tons and the lightest is only 1 kg. Currently, the annual production of the VGCI in China is about 200 000 tons. The majority of castings are made from cupola iron without pre-treatment, however, they are also produced from electric furnaces and by duplex melting from cupolaelectric furnaces or blast furnace-electric furnace. Examples of typical applications for VGCI castings are introduced in this paper. In China, the technologies such as rapid testing of the molten metal and non-destructive testing of casting microstructure still need to be improved. Several proposals are put forward in this paper in order to improve the production of VGCI. Generally speaking, in China, the research, production, and application of vermicular graphite cast iron are at the same level as in other developed countries and in some fields China even takes lead. (332 references and 5 Tables

  11. Forty years of USAID health cooperation in Bolivia. A lose-lose game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Herland; Closon, Marie-Christine; Paepe, Pierre De; Darras, Christian; Dessel, Patrick Van; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The present article proposes an analysis of the USA-Bolivia relationships in the health sector between 1971 and 2010 based on a grey and scientific literature review and on interviews. We examined United States Agency for International Development (USAID) interventions, objectives, consistency with Bolivian needs, and impact on health system integration. USAID operational objectives--decentralization, fertility and disease control, and maternal and child health--may have worked against each other while competing for limited Ministry of Health resources. They largely contributed to the segmentation and fragmentation of the Bolivian health system. US cooperation in health did not significantly improve health status while the USAID failed to properly tackle anti-drugs, political, and economic US interests in Bolivia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. From micro data to causality: Forty years of empirical labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.

    2014-01-01

    This overview describes the development of methods for empirical research in the field of labor economics during the past four decades. This period is characterized by the use of micro data to answer policy relevant research question. Prominent in the literature is the search for exogenous variation

  13. Variation in Annual Rainfall Data of Forty Years (1978-2017) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-07

    Apr 7, 2018 ... differences between the two means of the equal-length time scales revealed variability of ... intensities within the Southern part of Nigeria, is ..... Assessing Seasonal Rainfall Variability in Guinea. Savanna Part of Nigeria.

  14. Forty years of Fanger's model of thermal comfort: Comfort for all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.

    2008-01-01

    The predicted mean vote (PMV) model of thermal comfort, created by Fanger in the late 1960s, is used worldwide to assess thermal comfort. Fanger based his model on college-aged students for use in invariant environmental conditions in air-conditioned buildings in moderate thermal climate zones.

  15. Forty years of research concerning children and youth in Greenland: a mapping review

    OpenAIRE

    Glend?s, Mia; Berliner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study undertakes a mapping review of mainly concerning children and youth in Greenland in the period 1976?2016 and reflects on how the research has been conducted and knowledge thereby created about children and youth in Greenland, as well as how the research has been developed over time. Design: 16 online databases; five journals; publication lists originating from seven organisations and ten prominent researchers; and local network and references were used in the se...

  16. The International Nuclear Information System. The first forty years 1970-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, Claudio

    2010-10-01

    The Statute of the IAEA came into force in July 1957. It was with the desire to more adequately fulfill the statutory function that during the 1960's the Agency began exploring the possibility of establishing a scheme that would provide computerized access to a comprehensive collection of references to the world's nuclear literature. The outcome of these efforts was the establishment of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) that produced its first products in May 1970. The system was designed as an international cooperative venture, requiring the active participation of its members. It started operations with 25 members and the success and usefulness of the system has been proven by the fact that present membership is 146. The present report describes the road that led to the creation of INIS. It also describes the present operation of the system, the current methods used to collect and process the data on nuclear literature and the various products and services that the system places at the disposal of its users. Furthermore, it gives insights into current thinking for future developments that will facilitate access to an increasing variety of nuclear related information available from the IAEA, bibliographic and numerical data, full text of published and 'grey literature', multilingual nuclear terminology information as well as facilitate access to other sources of nuclear related information maintained outside the IAEA

  17. Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Nacci, Silvana

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulation has been used as a practical tool for evaluating the interaction of falling water drops on the soil surface, to measure both stability of soil aggregates to drop impact and water infiltration rates. In both cases it is tried to simulate the effects of natural rainfall, which usually occurs at very different, variable and erratic rates and intensities. One of the main arguments against the use of rainfall simulators is the difficulty to reproduce the size, final velocity and kinetic energy of the drops in natural rainfall. Since the early 70´s we have been developing and using different kinds of rainfall simulators, both at laboratory and field levels, and under tropical and Mediterranean soil and climate conditions, in flat and sloping lands. They have been mainly used to evaluate the relative effects of different land use and management, including different cropping systems, tillage practices, surface soil conditioning, surface covers, etc. on soil water infiltration, on runoff and on erosion. Our experience is that in any case it is impossible to reproduce the variable size distribution and terminal velocity of raindrops, and the variable changes in intensity of natural storms, under a particular climate condition. In spite of this, with the use of rainfall simulators it is possible to obtain very good information, which if it is properly interpreted in relation to each particular condition (land and crop management, rainfall characteristics, measurement conditions, etc.) may be used as one of the parameters for deducing and modelling soil water balance and soil moisture regime under different land use and management and variable climate conditions. Due to the possibility for a better control of the intensity of simulated rainfall and of the size of water drops, and the possibility to make more repeated measurements under very variable soil and land conditions, both in the laboratory and specially in the field, the better results have been obtained with small size 500-1000 cm2, easily dismantled, drop former simulators, than with larger, nozzle, or more sophisticated equipments. In this contribution there are presented some of the rainfall simulators developed and used by the main author, and some of the results obtained in different studies of practical problems under tropical and Mediterranean conditions. References Pla, I.,G.Campero, y R.Useche.1974.Physical degradación of agricultural soils in the Western Plains of Venezuela. "Trans.10th Int.Cong.Soil.Sci.Soc". 1:231-240. .Moscú Pla, I. 1975.Effects of bitumen emulsion and polyacrilamide on some physical properties of Venezuelan soils. En "Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication"• 7. 35-46. Madison. Wisconsin . (USA). Pla, I. 1977.Aggregate size and erosion control on sloping land treated with hydrophobic bitumen emulsion."Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics".109-115. John Wiley & Sons. Pla, I.1981.Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986.A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia).

  18. From Precaution to Peril: Public Relations Across Forty Years of Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    The Asilomar conference on genetic engineering in 1975 has long been pointed to by scientists as a model for internal regulation and public engagement. In 2015, the organizers of the International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, DC looked to Asilomar as they sought to address the implications of the new CRISPR gene editing technique. Like at Asilomar, the conveners chose to limit the discussion to a narrow set of potential CRISPR applications, involving inheritable human genome editing. The adoption by scientists in 2015 of an Asilomar-like script for discussing genetic engineering offers historians the opportunity to analyze the adjustments that have been made since 1975, and to identify the blind spots that remain in public engagement. Scientists did take important lessons from the fallout of their limited engagement with public concerns at Asilomar. Nonetheless, the scientific community has continued to overlook some of the longstanding public concerns about genetic engineering, in particular the broad and often covert genetic modification of food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential medicines: an overview of some milestones in the last forty years (1975-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pagés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in the last four decades in terms of access to essential medicines, more than a third of the world population especially from the poorest countries have serious difficulties in accessing the medicines they need at an affordable price and with the right quality. Already in 1975 the 28th World Health Assembly discussed the need to set recommendations regarding selection and acquisition of medicines at reasonable prices and proven quality to meet national health needs. Consequently in 1977, the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was prepared by an expert committee. Since then, the list has been subjected to a series of updating and dissemination processes, together with discussion about the cost, patents and quality of medicines, as well as information on safety and effectiveness of each drug that is listed. The article addresses how this process has evolved from the beginning to present day.

  20. Forty years of change: a northern Alaskan seabird's response to a warming Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoky, G.; Suydam, R.

    2012-12-01

    While recent decadal-scale decreases in the snow and ice habitats of the Arctic are well documented, there are few concurrent long-term biological data sets, especially for species dependent on the cryopelagic ecosystem associated with arctic sea ice. The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandti), a marine apex predator specializing on prey associated with arctic pack ice has been studied annually since 1975 at a colony on Cooper Island, 35 km east of Point Barrow, Alaska. Over the last four decades critical components of the species' life history have been found to be sensitive to a number of physical and biological effects associated with the region's increasing atmospheric temperatures. Black Guillemots first colonized northern Alaska in the late 1960s and early 1970s as the annual snow-free period increased sufficiently to allow access to nesting cavities for the 80 days required to successfully raise young. At the Cooper Island colony abundance increased during the 1970s and 1980s as summer length continued to increase and wooden nest cavities were provided to increase sample size for monitoring. During this time breeding success was high as summer sea ice remained in the 30-km foraging range of guillemot parents, providing Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), the principal forage fish associated with sea ice and the preferred prey of Black Guillemots. Decreasing summer sea ice extent in the 1990s that accelerated in the last decade reduced the guillemots' access to cryopelagic prey during the critical period when parents are provisioning nestlings. Distance from the colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged 100 km from 2003-2011. This ice retreat had a major affect on Arctic Cod availability, causing parent guillemots to shift to lower quality benthic fish resulting in decreases in nestling quality and breeding success when sea ice had retreated and SST was > 4o C. Increasing loss of summer ice in the last decade also facilitated changes in the distribution of a guillemot nest competitor and nest predator resulting in major losses of eggs and young. Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) recently expanded their breeding range from the subarctic to northern Alaska and regularly disrupt guillemot nesting by displacing eggs and killing guillemot nestlings while prospecting for nest sites. Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), rare on Cooper Island until 2002 are now seen regularly in August as they seek refuge on land and prey on guillemot young. While the loss of cryopelagic prey led to reductions in the guillemot population, the loss of eggs and nestlings to puffins and bears was severe enough to threaten the existence of the colony. In 2011 all nest sites at the colony were replaced with plastic nest cases that eliminate disturbance by bears and puffins. Upper trophic level predators are recognized as important indicators of variation in and perturbations to marine ecosystems and in the near future the waters of the western Arctic will be experiencing a range of alterations due to both atmospheric warming and industrial development. The ongoing research at the Cooper Island Black Guillemot colony, combined with its historic database. will allow assessment of those changes.

  1. Uranium resources production and demand: a forty years evaluation 'Red book retrospective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Uranium Resources, Production and Demand, also familiarly known as the ''Red Book'' is a biennial publication produced jointly by the NEA and the IAEA under the auspices of the joint NEA/IAEA Uranium Group. The first edition was published in 1965. The red book retrospective was undertaken to collect, analyse and publish all of the key information collected in the 20 editions of the Red Book published between 1965 and 2004. The red book gives a full historical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resources, reactor-related requirements, inventories and price. It provides in depth information relating to the histories of the major uranium producing countries. Thus for the first time a comprehensive look at annual and cumulative production and demand of uranium since the inception of the atomic age is possible. Expert analysis provide fresh insights into important aspects of the industry including the cost of discovery, resources to production ratios and the time to reach production after discovery. (A.L.B.)

  2. Evolution of Technology for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Forty Years of Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was proposed in 1977 as an alternative treatment for acute renal failure in patients in whom peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis was clinically or technically precluded. In the mid-1980s, this technique was extended to infants and children. CAVH presented important advantages in the areas of hemodynamic stability, control of circulating volume, and nutritional support. However, there were serious shortcomings such as the need for arterial cannulation and limited solute clearance. These problems were solved by the introduction of continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis, where uremic control could be achieved by increasing countercurrent dialysate flow rates to 1.5 or 2 L/h as necessary, or by venovenous techniques utilizing a double-lumen central venous catheter for vascular access. Thus, continuous venovenous hemofiltration replaced CAVH because of its improved performance and safety. From the initial adoptive technology, specific machines have been designed to permit safe and reliable performance of the therapy. These new machines have progressively undergone a series of technological steps that have resulted in the evolution of highly sophisticated equipment utilized today. A significant number of advances have taken place since the time continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated. In particular, there have been successful experiments with high-volume hemofiltration and high-permeability hemofiltration. The additional and combined use of sorbent has also been tested successfully. Progress has been made in the technology as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury. Today, new biomaterials and new devices are available and new frontiers are on the horizon. Although improvements have been made, a lot remains to be done. Critical care nephrology is expected to further evolve in the near future, especially in the area of information and communication technology, utilization of big data and large database registries, biofeedback, and assisted prescription and treatment delivery, with high potential for improvement in morbidity and mortality of the most severely ill patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Forty years of atmospheric radiocarbon monitoring around Bohunice nuclear power plant, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Chudy, M.; Sivo, A.; Simon, J.; Holy, K.; Richtarikova, M.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon variations in the atmospheric CO 2 with attenuating amplitudes and decreasing mean values with typical maxima in summer and minima in winter have been observed since 1967 in two localities of Slovakia, in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated about 60 km NE from Bratislava, only 5 km from the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The 14 C record in Bratislava has been influenced mainly by fossil CO 2 emissions, in contrast to the Zlkovce record which has been more variable, as it has clearly been affected by operation of the Bohunice NPP. However, during specific meteorological conditions with NE transport of air masses to Bratislava, the effect of the Bohunice NPP has been visible in Bratislava as well. Maximum 14 C concentrations (up to 120% above a natural background) were observed around A1 NPP which used CO 2 with admixture of air as a cooling agent. The 14 C concentrations around four pressurized light water reactors were up to 30% above the background. The Δ 14 C values in the heavily polluted atmosphere of Bratislava were up to 10% and at Zlkovce up to 5% lower than the European clean air represented by the Jungfraujoch Δ 14 C data. Later the Δ 14 C values were similar at both sites, and from 2003 they were close to the European clean air levels. The observed Δ 14 C behaviour in the atmosphere provides a unique evidence of decreased fossil fuel CO 2 emissions in the region, as well as the long-term effect of the Bohunice NPP on the Bratislava and Zlkovce stations. The estimated annual radiation doses to the local public due to digestion of radiocarbon contaminated food have been estimated to be around 3 μSv

  4. Forty years of inertial confinement fusion research in the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chongbin; Wang Letian

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of China's own technology and industry, the 'Shenguang' inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research devices were built, and a series of world-class results achieved. In this paper, the history of ICF research in the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics is reviewed. (authors)

  5. Forty years of the Weglopochodne Enterprise for Sale of Coal-Derived Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkowski, Z.

    1986-02-01

    Organizational structure of trade in coal-derived products in Poland from 1945 to 1985 is discussed. Fluctuations of organizational structures reflecting phases of centralization and decentralization of the national economy are analyzed. Coordinating role of the Weglopochodne Enterprise in the coking and chemical industries is stressed. Types of products produced by coking plants in Poland, trade and exports are discussed. Effects of organizational structures on development of coking plants are also discussed (increasing wear of coking plants, insufficient investment etc.). 3 references.

  6. Forty Years of Struggle and Still No Right to Inuit Education in Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Derek

    2011-01-01

    In this article issues related to policy and education in the Canadian Arctic are critically put to question. The focus is on the struggle for Inuit education, language issues, and supporting minority rights, with pragmatic solutions proposed to the problems confronting Nunavut.

  7. First Hand Witnesses of Sled Testing Over the Past Forty Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cress, Gordon; McCauley, Don

    2006-01-01

    .... These tracks have provided fundamental insight into human tolerance weaponry and escape system performance not possible elsewhere. Unfortunately many of these facilities are no longer operational or are in danger of closure.

  8. Enduring Documents and Public Doctrines: Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" after Forty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschliman, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    In the century just past, the immense ethical and political destructiveness of intellectuals was so frequent and protean in form that intellectual historians have a story as complex as it is tragic to tell, and one that many of them do not relish, perhaps out of occupational solidarity or shame. The "treason of the intellectuals," to use…

  9. Forty Years of Research on Xeroderma Pigmentosum at the US National Institutes of Health†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kenneth H.; DiGiovanna, John J.

    2014-01-01

    In 1968, Dr. James Cleaver reported defective DNA repair in cultured cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. This link between clinical disease and molecular pathophysiology has sparked interest in understanding not only the clinical characteristics of sun sensitivity, damage and cancer that occurred in XP patients but also the mechanisms underlying the damage and repair. While affected patients are rare, their exaggerated UV damage provides a window into the workings of DNA repair. These studies have clarified the importance of a functioning DNA repair system to the maintenance of skin and neurologic health in the general population. Understanding the role of damage in causing cancer, neurologic degeneration, hearing loss and internal cancers provides an opportunity for prevention and treatment. Characterizing complementation groups pointed to the importance of different underlying genes. Studying differences in cancer age of onset and underlying molecular signatures in cancers occurring either in XP patients or the general population has led to insights into differences in carcinogenic mechanisms. The accelerated development of cancers in XP has been used as a model to discover new cancer chemopreventive agents. An astute insight can be a “tipping point” triggering decades of productive inquiry. PMID:25220021

  10. Forty years of research on xeroderma pigmentosum at the US National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kenneth H; DiGiovanna, John J

    2015-01-01

    In 1968, Dr. James Cleaver reported defective DNA repair in cultured cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. This link between clinical disease and molecular pathophysiology has sparked interest in understanding not only the clinical characteristics of sun sensitivity, damage and cancer that occurred in XP patients but also the mechanisms underlying the damage and repair. While affected patients are rare, their exaggerated UV damage provides a window into the workings of DNA repair. These studies have clarified the importance of a functioning DNA repair system to the maintenance of skin and neurologic health in the general population. Understanding the role of damage in causing cancer, neurologic degeneration, hearing loss and internal cancers provides an opportunity for prevention and treatment. Characterizing complementation groups pointed to the importance of different underlying genes. Studying differences in cancer age of onset and underlying molecular signatures in cancers occurring either in XP patients or the general population has led to insights into differences in carcinogenic mechanisms. The accelerated development of cancers in XP has been used as a model to discover new cancer chemopreventive agents. An astute insight can be a "tipping point" triggering decades of productive inquiry. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P -1 when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables

  12. Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed changes in levels of ever use, perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and sociodemographic correlates of use among European Union (EU) adults during 2012-2014, as well as determinants of current use in 2014. We analysed data from the 2012 (n=26 751) and 2014 (n=26 792) waves of the adult Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. Point prevalence of current and ever use was calculated and logistic regression assessed correlates of current use and changes in ever use, and perception of harm. Correlates examined included age, gender, tobacco smoking, education, area of residence, difficulties in paying bills and reasons for trying an e-cigarette. The prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 11.6% in 2014 (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.91). EU-wide coefficient of variation in ever e-cigarette use was 42.1% in 2012 and 33.4% in 2014. The perception that e-cigarettes are harmful increased from 27.1% in 2012 to 51.6% in 2014 (aOR=2.99), but there were major differences in prevalence and trends between member states. Among those who reported that they had ever tried an e-cigarette in the 2014 survey, 15.3% defined themselves as current users. Those who tried an e-cigarette to quit smoking were more likely to be current users (aOR=2.82). Ever use of e-cigarettes increased during 2012-2014. People who started using e-cigarettes to quit smoking tobacco were more likely to be current users, but the trends vary by country. These findings underscore the need for more research into factors influencing e-cigarette use and its potential benefits and harms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Trends in all-cause five-year mortality after head and neck cancers diagnosed over a period of 33 years. Focus on estimated degree of association with human papillomavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor S S

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, we examine whether any trend over time differed according to sex, stage, and age at diagnosis. RESULTS: All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased over time. The greatest decrease was seen in the last decade (2000-2010) among patients with HNSCC at sites estimated to be strongly......-based cohort study of all 20 925 individuals diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in Denmark 1978-2010, we investigate secular trends in all-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC according to the anticipated degree of association with HPV using a Cox proportional hazards model...... associated with HPV, i.e. the base of the tongue and the tonsils, where a 28% decrease per five years (e.g. HRbase of tongue/tonsils=0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.81) was observed. When examining sex- and age-specific time trends, the decrease in mortality was most pronounced among male patients and patients below 60...

  14. Trends in brain cancer mortality among U.S. Gulf War veterans: 21 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Shannon K; Dursa, Erin K; Bossarte, Robert M; Schneiderman, Aaron I

    2017-10-01

    Previous mortality studies of U.S. Gulf War veterans through 2000 and 2004 have shown an increased risk of brain cancer mortality among some deployed individuals. When veterans possibly exposed to environmental contaminants associated with demolition of the Khamisiyah Ammunition Storage Facility at Khamisiyah, Iraq, have been compared to contemporaneously deployed unexposed veterans, the results have suggested increased risk for mortality from brain cancer among the exposed. Brain cancer mortality risk in this cohort has not been updated since 2004. This study analyzes the risk for brain cancer mortality between 1991-2011 through two series of comparisons: U.S. Gulf War deployed and non-deployed veterans from the same era; and veterans possibly exposed to environmental contaminants at Khamisiyah compared to contemporaneously deployed but unexposed U.S. Gulf War veterans. Risk of brain cancer mortality was determined using logistic regression. Life test hazard models were created to plot comparisons of annual hazard rates. Joinpoint regression models were applied to assess trends in hazard rates for brain cancer mortality. U.S. Army veterans possibly exposed at Khamisiyah had similar rates of brain cancer mortality compared to those not possibly exposed; however, veterans possibly exposed had a higher risk of brain cancer in the time period immediately following the Gulf War. Results from these analyses suggest that veterans possibly exposed at Khamisiyah experienced different patterns of brain cancer mortality risk compared to the other groups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Historical trends in the epidemiology of candidaemia: analysis of an 11-year period in a tertiary care hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Wille

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSI. To evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological aspects of two cohorts {1994-1999 [period 1 (P1 ]; 2000-2004 [period 2 (P2 ]} of candidaemic patients, we performed a retrospective analysis from a laboratory-based survey. A total of 388 candidaemias were identified, with an incidence of 0.20/1,000 patient-days and a significant increase in P2 vs. P1 (0.25 vs. 0.15, p = 0.04. Cancer and prior antibiotic use were frequent and Candida albicans was the most prevalent species found (42.4%. Resistance to fluconazole was found in 2.47% of the strains. No differences were observed in the species distribution of Candida during the study periods. In the P2 cohort, there were higher prevalence of elderly individuals, cardiac, pulmonary and liver diseases, renal failure, central venous catheters and antibiotic therapy. In P1, there were higher prevalence of neurological diseases and chemotherapy. The crude mortality was 55.4%. In conclusion, our incidence rates remained high. Furthermore, the distribution pattern of Candida species and the fluconazole resistance profile remained unchanged. Moreover, we found a clear trend of higher prevalence of candidaemia among the elderly and among patients with comorbidities. Finally, it is necessary to discuss strategies for the prevention and control of Candida BSI in Brazil.

  16. Gender differences in drunk driving prevalence rates and trends: a 20-year assessment using multiple sources of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.

  17. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carma Karam

    Full Text Available Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs changes over the years in an untreated population-based study.Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated.The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002 and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001. The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001 and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113. The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001.Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population.

  18. Trends in skiing injury type and rates in Australia. A review of 22,261 injuries over 27 years in the Snowy Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, E; Fenelon, L

    1991-10-21

    To show the trends in the rate and type of skiing injuries in Australia. A retrospective analysis of skiing injuries in the Snowy Mountains from 1962 to 1988. All injuries were seen and treated at the Ski Injury Clinic in Perisher Valley. A total of 22,261 injuries were seen over this 27 year period (data for 1963, 1964, 1966, 1977, 1978, 1981 and 1982 were missing). Injured skiers were treated at the Clinic with a small number sent to main centres for tertiary care. The overall injury rate (1962-1988) and the specific injury rate for six subgroups of injuries (1974-1988) were calculated. The overall injury rate declined dramatically over this period. The incidence of tibial fractures, ankle injuries and lacerations also declined. Upper body injuries continue to rise although this trend was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in knee injuries. The trends reported here are similar to those overseas except that the incidence of thumb injuries has not changed in Australia. The changes in the rates of lacerations, and tibial and ankle injuries can be related to improvements in ski bindings and boots.

  19. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  20. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory's database for the 2000-2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X(2)trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010-2014; p = 0.02). There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

  1. Trends of Mycobacterium bovis Isolation and First-Line Anti-tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Profile: A Fifteen-Year Laboratory-Based Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Torres-González, Pedro; Cervera-Hernández, Miguel Enrique; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Chávez-Mazari, Bárbara; Ortiz-Conchi, Narciso; Rodríguez-Cruz, Luis; Cervantes-Sánchez, Axel; Gudiño-Enríquez, Tomasa; Cinta-Severo, Carmen; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce de León, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in humans; however, in developing countries, human TB caused by M. bovis may be frequent but undetected. Human TB caused by M. bovis is considered a zoonosis; transmission is mainly through consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, and it is less frequently attributed to animal-to-human or human-to-human contact. We describe the trends of M. bovis isolation from human samples and first-line drug susceptibility during a 15-year period in a referral laboratory located in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on mycobacterial isolates from human clinical samples were retrieved from the laboratory’s database for the 2000–2014 period. Susceptibility to first-line drugs: rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol was determined. We identified 1,165 isolates, 73.7% were M. tuberculosis and 26.2%, M. bovis. Among pulmonary samples, 16.6% were M. bovis. The proportion of M. bovis isolates significantly increased from 7.8% in 2000 to 28.4% in 2014 (X 2 trend, ptuberculosis isolates (10.9% vs.3.4%, ptuberculosis, respectively (p = 0.637). A rising trend of primary STR monoresistance was observed for both species (3.4% in 2000–2004 vs. 7.6% in 2010–2014; p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance There is a high prevalence and a rising trend of M. bovis isolates in our region. The proportion of pulmonary M. bovis isolates is higher than in previous reports. Additionally, we report high rates of primary anti-tuberculosis resistance and secondary MDR in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. This is one of the largest reports on drug susceptibility of M. bovis from human samples and shows a significant proportion of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. PMID:26421930

  2. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Age and Stage at Diagnosis in Gharbiah, Egypt, over 10 Years (1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Hirko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009–2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads for 2009–2015. Results. From 1999 to 2008, the AAPC in breast cancer incidence rates in Gharbiah significantly increased among women 50 years and older and among localized tumors (AAPC %, 95% CI, 3.1% to 8.0%. Our results predict a significant increase in breast cancer caseloads from 2009 to 2015 among women aged 30–39 (AAPC %, 95% CI, 0.9% to 1.1% and among women aged 40–49 years (AAPC %, 95% CI, 1.0% to 2.6%. Conclusion. These results have important implications for allocating limited resources, managing treatment needs, and exploring the consequences of prior interventions and/or changing risk factors in Egypt and other developing countries at the same stages of demographic and health transitions.

  3. [Trends in overweight and obesity among Chinese children of 7-18 years old during 1985-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Dong, Y H; Wang, Z H; Zou, Z Y; Ma, J

    2017-04-06

    Objective: To investigate the trends in overweight and obesity in Chinese students during 1985-2014. Methods: Data were collected from the Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health in 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014, with the sample size of 409 946, 204 977, 216 786, 234 421, 215 319, and 214 354, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as the increase rates were calculated based on the body mass index (BMI) percentile criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 2014 was 19.4% (41 608/214 354) among 7-18 y Chinese children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 24.2% (25 975/107 216) among boys, and 14.6% (15 633/107 138) among girls, with the prevalence among boys exceeding girls ( Poverweight and obesity was 22.3% (23 911/107 239) among urban students, and 16.5% (17 697/107 115) among rural students, with the prevalence among urban students exceeding rural students ( Poverweight and obesity among 7-18 y Chinese children increased continuously, with the annual increase rate of overweight ranging 0.27%-0.63%, and the annual increase rate of obesity ranging 0.10%-0.58%. The annual increase rates in 2010-2014 of obesity among the urban boys, urban girls, rural boys and rural girls were 0.62%, 0.42%, 0.79%, and 0.49%,respectively, peaking the annual increase rates during 1985-2014. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among 7-18 y Chinese children increased continuously during 1985-2014, with the annual increase rate of obesity in 2010-2014 peaking the increase rates during 1985-2014. There were gender and regional differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 7-18 y Chinese children in 2014.

  4. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  5. Changing trends in the aetiology, treatment and outcomes of bloodstream infection occurring in the first year after solid organ transplantation: a single-centre prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Sabé, Núria; Simonetti, Antonella F; Lladó, Laura; Manonelles, Anna; González, Jose; Tubau, Fe; Carratalà, Jordi

    2017-09-01

    To analyse trends in the aetiology, treatment and outcomes of bloodstream infection (BSI) within the first year post-transplant over the last 10-year period, we prospectively recorded all episodes of BSI occurring in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients during the first year post-transplant from 2007 to 2016. Trends of factors were analysed by 2-year periods. Of 475 consecutive episodes of BSI, 218 occurred within a year of SOT in 178 SOT recipients. Gram-positive BSI decreased over time (40.5-2.2%). In contrast, there was a steady increase in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) BSI (54.1-93.3%; P < 0.001), mainly due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.4-20.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.1-26.5%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB (4.8-38.8%; P < 0.001) rose dramatically, especially due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production (7.1-34.7%). There was a sharp rise in the use of carbapenems, both as empirical (11.9-55.3%; P < 0.001) and as targeted antibiotic treatment (11.9-46.9%; P < 0.001). In conclusion, today, GNB are the leading causative agents of BSI in SOT recipients within the first year after SOT. In addition, MDR GNB have emerged mainly due to ESBL-producing strains. In spite of these changes, length of hospital stay, days of treatment and mortality have remained stable over time. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Epidemiology of Polymyalgia Rheumatica 2000-2014 and Examination of Incidence and Survival Trends Over 45 Years: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheel, Shafay; Shbeeb, Izzat; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2017-08-01

    To determine time trends in the incidence and survival of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) over a 15-year period in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and to examine trends in incidence of PMR in the population by comparing this time period to a previous incidence cohort from the same population base. All cases of incident PMR among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents in 2000-2014 were identified to extend the previous 1970-1999 cohort. Detailed review of all individual medical records was performed. Incidence rates were age- and sex-adjusted to the US white 2010 population. Survival rates were compared with the expected rates in the population of Minnesota. There were 377 incident cases of PMR during the 15-year study period. Of these, 64% were female and the mean age at incidence was 74.1 years. The overall age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence of PMR was 63.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 57.4-70.4) per 100,000 population ages ≥50 years. Incidence rates increased with age in both sexes, but incidence fell after age 80 years. There was a slight increase in incidence of PMR in the recent time period compared to 1970-1999 (P = 0.063). Mortality among individuals with PMR was not significantly worse than that expected in the general population (standardized mortality ratio 0.70 [95% CI 0.57-0.85]). The incidence of PMR has increased slightly in the past 15 years compared to previous decades. Survivorship in patients with PMR is not worse than in the general population. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Marketing and Student Recruitment Practices at Four-Year and Two-Year Institutions, 2011. Noel-Levitz Report on Undergraduate Trends in Enrollment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011

    2011-01-01

    What's working in student recruitment and marketing at the undergraduate level? To find out, Noel-Levitz conducted a 97-item, Web-based poll in April of 2011 as part of the firm's continuing series of benchmark polls for higher education. Among the findings: (1) The "top 10" most effective practices in 2011--across public and private, two-year and…

  8. Compensation claims for occupational noise induced hearing loss between 1998 and 2008: yearly incidence rates and trends in older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Samia; Benke, Geza; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Sim, Malcolm

    2016-04-01

    To estimate yearly incidence rates for occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) claims and to describe occupational factors in relation to age for incident cases in Victoria, Australia, between 1998 and 2008. All compensation claims lodged for deafness between 1 July 1998 and 30 June 2008 in the working population covered by the Victorian compensation scheme were analysed. Denominators were provided from 1999-2000 and incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 workers for each financial year. Overall, 81.2% of the 4,518 claims lodged were accepted. Successful claimants were predominantly males (96.5%) and claimants aged 56 to 65 years formed half the overall claims. The number of accepted claims was almost five times higher in 2007-08 than 1998-99. The highest rise was in claimants aged 56 years and above, particularly in those after retirement age. The number of claims and yearly incidence rates (IR) more than doubled over the period (240 claims and IR of 15.1 per 100,000 workers in 1999-2000 versus 669 claims and IR of 34.2 in 2007-08) with a sharp increase from 2004-05 to almost double within one single year and remained at high levels afterwards. The dramatic increase in eligible claims may reflect an increase in awareness of entitlements among workers eligible to make a successful claim. This awareness may be the result of increased opportunities for screening coinciding with changes in regulations. Older workers who worked in smaller workplaces may also be targeted by services providers as they combine occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) and presbycusis (hearing loss due to age), but this hypothesis needs further evaluation. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

  10. Staff in Higher Education Salary Report: Key Findings, Trends, and Comprehensive Tables for the 2016-17 Academic Year. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; McChesney, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    This year is a momentous one for College and University Professional Association for Human Resources (CUPA-HR) research. As they celebrate their 50th anniversary of collecting salary data, they are also celebrating transformations in the way data are collected for all salary surveys and in the ways these data are reported. Rather than contributing…

  11. Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To assess whether the media attention to breast cancer screening and the promotional efforts in 1987 were paralleled by increases in screening of women greater than or equal to 50 years of age, CDC analyzed data from 33 states that participated in the 1987 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

  12. Population Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 20-Year Results From the SCAAR (Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Marieke L.; James, Stefan K.; Albertsson, Per; Akerblom, Axel; Calais, Fredrik; Eriksson, Peter; Jensen, Jens; Nilsson, Tage; de Smet, Bart J.; Sjogren, Iwar; Thorvinger, Bjorn; Lagerqvist, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of all consecutive patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in an unselected nationwide cohort over the past 2 decades. Background Over the last 20 years, treatment with PCI has evolved

  13. Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System in Rural Western Honduras: A 6-Year Report on Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Ordonez, Dagoberto; Dewan, Michael C; Feldman, Michael J; Montalvan-Sanchez, Eleazar E; Montalvan-Sanchez, Daniela M; Rodriguez-Murillo, Aida A; Urrutia-Argueta, Samuel A; Cherry, Charlotte B; Morgan, Douglas R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Roberto; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2017-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) malformations, including neural tube defects (NTDs), are the second most common type of birth defects worldwide and are major causes of childhood disability and mortality. We report the first analysis of birth prevalence in Western Honduras of CNS malformations including NTDs over 6 consecutive years. Data from all patients with congenital CNS malformations and total live births for the period 2010-2015 were obtained through institution and regional registries from all 3 public referral hospitals in Western Honduras, representing 67 municipalities. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision CNS malformation codes. Birth prevalence was calculated as cases per 10,000 live births. From 123,903 live births, 275 cases of CNS malformations were identified (54% females, 58% NTDs). Six-year birth prevalence of CNS malformations was 13.9-31.1. Spina bifida variants and anencephaly represented 80% and 19% of reported NTDs, respectively. Total 6-year prevalence of NTDs in Western Honduras was 7.0-17.4 over years studied. In 6 municipalities, average prevalence was >30 (maximum 49.0). This is the first study reporting disease burden of CNS malformations in Western Honduras. The nationwide birth prevalence of NTDs in rural Honduras may have decreased since the implementation of prenatal health policies in 2005. However, we identified regions with unexpectedly elevated prevalence, indicating high regional prevalence that could be targeted for improved preventive efforts, ultimately decreasing the burden of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in HIV risk behaviour of incoming first-year students at a South African university: 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, Rénette J; Jacobs, Joachim; Vergnani, Tania

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research on which this article is based was to understand the behavioural changes of the target student population over time to ensure that future prevention programmes are more effective in changing behaviour. This study reports on quantitative data collected at the University of the Western Cape over a six-year period between 2007 and 2012. All the students attending the orientation sessions and who were willing to complete the anonymous questionnaire during each of the six years were included in the study. Data were collected on the following aspects and subjects: sexual activity, age at first sexual encounter, number of sexual partners, condom usage, knowledge of how to use a condom, perceived ability to discuss condoms usage with a sexual partner, perception of HIV risk and HIV testing as well as the intention to be tested. Reported alcohol and drug usage, as well as depressive symptoms, was also recorded. The percentage of students reporting having had vaginal sex prior to entering university increased from 44% in 2007 to 51% in 2012 but, alarmingly, the consistent use of condoms decreased from 60% in 2007 to 51% in 2012. The average onset age of about 15.6 years for males and 16.7 years for females for vaginal sex did not change over the six-year period. No difference in smoking patterns or drug use was seen over the period of the study, but the number of entering students who indicated that they consumed alcohol increased significantly from 48% in 2007 to 58% in 2012. HIV testing increased from 19% in 2007 to 47% in 2012, whereas the intention to be tested showed no significant change over the period. Although students increasingly reported that they knew enough about HIV/AIDS (63% in 2007 and 69% in 2012), about a third reported suffering from AIDS fatigue. Prevention efforts targeted at those incoming first-year students who are not yet sexually active (about 45% in this study) should be developed and should take into account the

  15. Ten-years trends in renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease in mainland France: Lessons from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Cécile; Kolko, Anne; Stengel, Bénédicte; Jacquelinet, Christian; Landais, Paul; Rieu, Philippe; Bayat, Sahar; Couchoud, Cécile

    2017-06-01

    The incidence rate of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is decreasing in several countries, but not in France. We studied the RRT trends in mainland France from 2005 to 2014 to understand the reasons for this discrepancy and determine the effects of ESRD management changes. Data were extracted from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network registry. Time trends of RRT incidence and prevalence rates, patients' clinical and treatment characteristics were analysed using the Joinpoint regression program and annual percentage changes. Survival within the first year of RRT was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates for 4 periods of time. The overall age- and gender-adjusted RRT incidence rate increased from 144 to 159 individuals per million inhabitants (pmi) (+0.8% per year; 95% CI: 0.5-1.2) and the prevalence from 903 to 1141 pmi (+2.4% per year; 95% CI: 2.2-2.7). This increase concerned exclusively ESRD associated with type 2 diabetes (+4.0%; 3.4-4.6) and mostly elderly men. Despite patient aging and increasing comorbidity burden and a persistent 30% rate of emergency dialysis start, the one-year survival rate slightly improved from 82.1% (81.4-82.8) to 83.8% (83.3-84.4). Pre-emptive wait listing for renal transplantation and the percentage of wait-listed patients within one year after dialysis start strongly increased (from 5.6% to 15.5% and from 29% to 39%, respectively). Kidney transplantation and survival significantly improved despite the heavier patient burden. However, the rise in type 2 diabetes-related ESRD and the stable high rate of emergency dialysis start remain major issues. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth trends in boys and girls (10-17 years-old) from autonomous region of Madeira, Portugal between 1996-1998 and 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, B; Oliveira, B M P M; de Almeida, M D V

    2012-01-01

    Growth trends have never been studied in adolescents of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. To analyse growth trends in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skin-fold thickness (TST) of adolescents (10-17 years old) of the Autonomous Region of Madeira between 1996-1998 and 2007-2009. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 2007-2009, including 4314 adolescents, 2237 girls and 2077 boys (10-17 years old). To study secular growth trends, data were compared with a sample from 1996-1998, comparing the means for each anthropometric variable by age and sex using the independent-sample t-test. An average increase was found in weight of 5.8 kg in boys and 6.3 kg in girls; in height of 3.0 cm in boys and 3.7 cm in girls; in BMI of 1.5 kg/m(2) in boys and 1.7 kg/m(2) in girls; in WC a difference of 5.6 cm and 4.9 cm for boys and girls, respectively, and for MUAC a difference of 2.7 cm in boys and 2.0 cm in girls. No differences were found in TST in boys, but in girls an increase of 1.2 mm was observed. A general increase in anthropometric measurements, more marked in weight, BMI, WC and MUAC and at younger ages, was observed.

  17. Trends and changes in research on the psychology of physical activity across 20 years: a quantitative analysis of 10 journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Nasuti, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    To investigate content of the psychology of physical activity research over the past 20 years. Volumes of 10 journals, identified by impact factor and relevance to physical activity were audited every other year, during the period of 1990-2008. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured a physical activity outcome, and/or a psychological outcome as a result of physical activity. Data were extracted and coded based on 15 factors. The review yielded 889 studies for analysis. Total volume of studies (from 127 in the 1990s to 762 in the 2000s), and the proportionate content space allotted to journals has increased significantly across 20 years (effect size w=0.24) (Cohen, 1992). Many study characteristics (assessment of minority/high-risk groups, self-report measurement, cross-sectional designs) have not changed. There was evidence, however, of less growth in research among older adults and young children (effect size w=0.15) compared to other age groups (effect size w=0.24), a move from pure measurement studies (effect size w=0.21) to descriptive research (effect size w=0.27), and considerable growth in environmental correlates research across time (effect size w=0.41) in the 10 journals sampled. The behavioral science of physical activity has clearly increased in prominence and volume among the 10 journals sampled, but methodological characteristics of research could be improved in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.