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Sample records for forms receptor distribution

  1. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of a short form chicken leptin receptor mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Dunn, I C; Sharp, P J; Boswell, T

    2007-04-01

    In mammals, alternative splicing of the leptin receptor (LEPR) produces several C-terminal truncated isoforms that are believed to play a role in the transport, cellular internalisation and degradation of the hormone leptin. The chicken leptin receptor (chLEPR) is similar to its mammalian counterparts in terms of its intron/exon structure and conserved motifs. However, it is unknown whether the chLEPR also undergoes alternative splicing. To test this, structural analysis of intron 19 of the chLEPR, equivalent to the intron in which alternative splicing occurs in mammals, was combined with 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) to search for chLEPR splice variants. A 44-amino acid alternative exon 20 was identified that is spliced to generate a short isoform of the chLEPR (chLEPR-SF). Comparative sequence analysis of intron 19 identified two regions that are highly conserved between the chicken and mammals, indicating their possible importance as intronic elements in the regulation of alternative splicing of the LEPR in vertebrates. Tissue expression of the chLEPR-SF was lower and more restricted than that of the chLEPR long isoform. Collectively these data demonstrate that the chLEPR is alternatively spliced to produce at least one short isoform, as is the case in mammals.

  2. From form factors to generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2013-06-15

    I present an extraction of generalized parton distributions from selected data on the electromagnetic nucleon form factors. The extracted distributions can in particular be used to quantify the contribution to the proton spin from the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks, as well as their transverse spatial distribution inside the proton.

  3. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  4. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  5. Spatial Distribution of the Cannabinoid Type 1 and Capsaicin Receptors May Contribute to the Complexity of Their Crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) exhibit co-expression and complex, but largely unknown, functional interactions in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons (PSN). We report that PSN co-expressing CB1 receptor and TRPV1 form two distinct sub-populations based on their pharmacological properties, which could be due to the distribution pattern of the two receptors. Pharmacologically, neurons respond either only to capsaicin (COR neurons) or to both cap...

  6. Thickness distribution of multi-stage incremental forming with different forming stages and angle intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军超; 杨芬芬; 周志强

    2015-01-01

    Although multi-stage incremental sheet forming has always been adopted instead of single-stage forming to form parts with a steep wall angle or to achieve a high forming performance, it is largely dependent on empirical designs. In order to research multi-stage forming further, the effect of forming stages (n) and angle interval between the two adjacent stages (Δα) on thickness distribution was investigated. Firstly, a finite element method (FEM) model of multi-stage incremental forming was established and experimentally verified. Then, based on the proposed simulation model, different strategies were adopted to form a frustum of cone with wall angle of 30° to research the thickness distribution of multi-pass forming. It is proved that the minimum thickness increases largely and the variance of sheet thickness decreases significantly as the value of n grows. Further, with the increase of Δα, the minimum thickness increases initially and then decreases, and the optimal thickness distribution is achieved with Δα of 10°. Additionally, a formula is deduced to estimate the sheet thickness after multi-stage forming and proved to be effective. And the simulation results fit well with the experimental results.

  7. Pion Electromagnetic Form Factor in Virtuality Distribution Formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We discuss two applications of the {\\it Virtuality Distribution Amplitudes} (VDA) formalism developed in our recent papers. We start with an overview of the main properties of the pion distribution amplitude emphasizing the quantitative measures of its width, and possibility to access them through the pion transition form factor studies. We formulate the basic concepts of the VDA approach and introduce the pion {\\it transverse momentum distribution amplitude} (TMDA) which plays, in a covariant Lagrangian formulation, a role similar to that of the pion wave function in the 3-dimensional Hamiltonian light-front approach. We propose simple factorized models for soft TMDAs, and use them to describe existing data on the pion transition form factor, thus fixing the scale determining the size of the transverse-momentum effects. Finally, we apply the VDA approach to the one-gluon exchange contribution for the pion electromagnetic form factor. We observe a very late $Q^2 \\gtrsim 20$ GeV$^2$ onset of transition to the asymptotic pQCD predictions and show that in the $Q^2 \\lesssim 10$ GeV$^2$ region there is essentially no sensitivity to the shape of the pion distribution amplitude. Furthermore, the magnitude of the one-gluon exchange contribution in this region is estimated to be an order of magnitude below the Jefferson Lab data, thus leaving the Feynman mechanism as the only one relevant to the pion electromagnetic form factor behavior for accessible $Q^2$.

  8. Distribution, Arrangement and Interconnectedness of Cell Surface Receptor sites in the body of an Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors have been identified as the sites of disease infectivity in living organisms in a previous study. Drugs used for the treatment or cure of infections have to eliminate infections through attacking infective organisms at the cell surface receptors to which the infective organisms are attached. Problem statement: The present study examines a wide sample of living things to get more information on the relationship of one cell surface receptor to other cell surface receptors in the body of an organism. Approach: The arrangement of cell surface receptors on the external covering of a few samples of fruits, leaves, stems, dry wood of a plant; wall gecko and some parts of the human body, were examined and photographed. Transverse and/or Longitudinal sections of soursop fruit and sycamore fruit were also examined and photographed. The five different coverings of the fleshy part of a coconut were also photographed. The photographs were studied to note the relationship of disease infection attached to cell surface receptors on the external surface of an organ to disease infection on the innermost covering of the same organ. Results: The results of the study showed that all living things had ubiquitous distribution of cell surface receptors which are usually observable with the unaided eye as dots or spots on the external covering of an organ, tissue or cell. The dots or receptor sites of cell surface receptors in the study are arranged in lines which were perpendicular, oblique, transverse or arranged in any other lineal geometrical form. The lineally arranged cell surface receptors were noted to be connected by grooves, channels or pipes which joined other receptor channels or intersected with them. Smaller cell surface receptor channels emptied into bigger channels or continued as small sized channels that ran side by side in a connective tissue bundle. These connective tissue bundles that carried many independent small-sized cell

  9. Distributing Leadership in English Sixth Form Colleges: Liberation or Another Form of Managerial Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoten, David William

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the distribution of leadership practices in Sixth Form Colleges (SFCs). This is an area where very little research has been undertaken and the intention was to investigate the topic from a critical perspective using social constructionist methodology. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  10. [Opioid receptors of the CNS: function, structure and distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, R

    2004-01-01

    Even though the alkaloids of opium, such as morphine and codeine, were isolated at the beginning of 19th century, the opioid receptors were not determined until 1970's. The discovery of endogenous opioid peptides, such as endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins, has helped to differentiate between the specific opioid receptor subtypes, mu, delta and kappa, that are used up to now. Opioid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system unevenly. Each receptor subtype has its own specific and nonspecific agonists and antagonists. Opioides, as exogenous opioid receptor agonists, are drugs that are often used in medicine for their analgesic effects, but they are also some of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Opioides may also induce long-term changes in the numbers and binding activities of opioid receptors. Some of our studies in fact demonstrate that prenatal morphine exposure can alter opioid receptors of adult rats. This may begin to provide insight into the sources of some of the morphological and behavioral changes in the progeny of mothers that received or abused opioides during pregnancy.

  11. Pion Electromagnetic Form Factor in Virtuality Distribution Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, A V

    2015-01-01

    We discuss two applications of the {\\it Virtuality Distribution Amplitudes} (VDA) formalism developed in our recent papers. We start with an overview of the main properties of the pion distribution amplitude emphasizing the quantitative measures of its width, and possibility to access them through the pion transition form factor studies. We formulate the basic concepts of the VDA approach and introduce the pion transverse momentum distribution amplitude (TMDA) which plays, in a covariant Lagrangian formulation, a role similar to that of the pion wave function in the 3-dimensional Hamiltonian light-front approach. We propose simple factorized models for soft TMDAs, and use them to describe existing data on the pion transition form factor, thus fixing the scale determining the size of the transverse-momentum effects. Finally, we apply the VDA approach to the one-gluon exchange contribution for the pion electromagnetic form factor. We observe a very late $Q^2 \\gtrsim 20$ GeV$^2$ onset of transition to the asympt...

  12. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-02-15

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.

  13. Two simple approximations to the distributions of quadratic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bentler, Peter M

    2010-05-01

    Many test statistics are asymptotically equivalent to quadratic forms of normal variables, which are further equivalent to T = sigma(d)(i=1) lambda(i)z(i)(2) with z(i) being independent and following N(0,1). Two approximations to the distribution of T have been implemented in popular software and are widely used in evaluating various models. It is important to know how accurate these approximations are when compared to each other and to the exact distribution of T. The paper systematically studies the quality of the two approximations and examines the effect of the lambda(i) and the degrees of freedom d by analysis and Monte Carlo. The results imply that the adjusted distribution for T can be as good as knowing its exact distribution. When the coefficient of variation of the lambda(i) is small, the rescaled statistic T(R) = dT/(sigma(d)(i=1) lambda(i)) is also adequate for practical model inference. But comparing T(R) against chi2(d) will inflate type I errors when substantial differences exist among the lambda(i), especially, when d is also large.

  14. Distributed cognition artifacts on clinical research data collection forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Meredith; Nguyen, Vickie D; Razzouk, Elie; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jiajie

    2010-03-01

    Medical record abstraction, a primary mode of data collection in secondary data use, is associated with high error rates. Cognitive factors have not been studied as a possible explanation for medical record abstraction errors. We employed the theory of distributed representation and representational analysis to systematically evaluate cognitive demands in medical record abstraction and the extent of external cognitive support employed in a sample of clinical research data collection forms.We show that the cognitive load required for abstraction in 61% of the sampled data elements was high, exceedingly so in 9%. Further, the data collection forms did not support external cognition for the most complex data elements. High working memory demands are a possible explanation for the association of data errors with data elements requiring abstractor interpretation, comparison, mapping or calculation. The representational analysis used here can be used to identify data elements with high cognitive demands.

  15. Urokinase receptor forms in serum from non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte Elberling; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla;

    2011-01-01

    To study the prognostic impact of the different forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) in serum from 171 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.......To study the prognostic impact of the different forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) in serum from 171 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients....

  16. Universal functional form of 1-minute raindrop size distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugerone, Katia; De Michele, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall remains one of the poorly quantified phenomena of the hydrological cycle, despite its fundamental role. No universal laws describing the rainfall behavior are available in literature. This is probably due to the continuous description of rainfall, which is a discrete phenomenon, made by drops. From the statistical point of view, the rainfall variability at particle size scale, is described by the drop size distribution (DSD). With this term, it is generally indicated as the concentration of raindrops per unit volume and diameter, as the probability density function of drop diameter at the ground, according to the specific problem of interest. Raindrops represent the water exchange, under liquid form, between atmosphere and earth surface, and the number of drops and their size have impacts in a wide range of hydrologic, meteorologic, and ecologic phenomena. DSD is used, for example, to measure the multiwavelength rain attenuation for terrestrial and satellite systems, it is an important input for the evaluation of the below cloud scavenging coefficient of the aerosol by precipitation, and is of primary importance to make estimates of rainfall rate through radars. In literature, many distributions have been used to this aim (Gamma and Lognormal above all), without statistical supports and with site-specific studies. Here, we present an extensive investigation of raindrop size distribution based on 18 datasets, consisting in 1-minute disdrometer data, sampled using Joss-Waldvogel or Thies instrument in different locations on Earth's surface. The aim is to understand if an universal functional form of 1-minute drop diameter variability exists. The study consists of three main steps: analysis of the high order moments, selection of the model through the AIC index and test of the model with the use of goodness-of-fit tests.

  17. Closed form expressions for moments of the beta Weibull distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauss M Cordeiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The beta Weibull distribution was first introduced by Famoye et al. (2005 and studied by these authors and Lee et al. (2007. However, they do not give explicit expressions for the moments. In this article, we derive explicit closed form expressions for the moments of this distribution, which generalize results available in the literature for some sub-models. We also obtain expansions for the cumulative distribution function and Rényi entropy. Further, we discuss maximum likelihood estimation and provide formulae for the elements of the expected information matrix. We also demonstrate the usefulness of this distribution on a real data set.A distribuição beta Weibull (BW foi primeiramente introduzida por Famoye et al. (2005, e estudada por estes autores e Lee et al. (2007. No entanto, eles não fornecem expressões explícitas para os momentos. Neste artigo, nós obtemos expressões explícitas, em forma fechada, para os momentos desta distribuição, o que generaliza resultados disponíveis na literatura para alguns sub-modelos. Nós obtemos expansões para a função de distribuição acumulada e entropia de Rényi. Além disso, discutimos sobre estimação por máxima verossimilhança e fornecemos fórmulaspara os elementos da matriz de informação de Fisher. Nós também mostramos a utilidade desta distribuição em um conjunto de dados reais.

  18. Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 form functional heteromers in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, Lucía; Moreno, Estefanía; Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Moreno-Delgado, David; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José Luis; Franco, Rafael; Lluis, Carmen; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J

    2012-06-15

    Exploring the role of cannabinoid CB(2) receptors in the brain, we present evidence of CB(2) receptor molecular and functional interaction with cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches, we discovered that CB(2) receptors can form heteromers with CB(1) receptors in transfected neuronal cells and in rat brain pineal gland, nucleus accumbens, and globus pallidus. Within CB(1)-CB(2) receptor heteromers expressed in a neuronal cell model, agonist co-activation of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors resulted in a negative cross-talk in Akt phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, one specific characteristic of CB(1)-CB(2) receptor heteromers consists of both the ability of CB(1) receptor antagonists to block the effect of CB(2) receptor agonists and, conversely, the ability of CB(2) receptor antagonists to block the effect of CB(1) receptor agonists, showing a bidirectional cross-antagonism phenomenon. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which CB(2) receptors can negatively modulate CB(1) receptor function.

  19. Spatial Distribution of the Cannabinoid Type 1 and Capsaicin Receptors May Contribute to the Complexity of Their Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Varga, Angelika; Selvarajah, Srikumaran; Jenes, Agnes; Dienes, Beatrix; Sousa-Valente, Joao; Kulik, Akos; Veress, Gabor; Brain, Susan D.; Baker, David; Urban, Laszlo; Mackie, Ken; Nagy, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) exhibit co-expression and complex, but largely unknown, functional interactions in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons (PSN). We report that PSN co-expressing CB1 receptor and TRPV1 form two distinct sub-populations based on their pharmacological properties, which could be due to the distribution pattern of the two receptors. Pharmacologically, neurons respond either only to capsaicin (COR neurons) or to both capsaicin and the endogenous TRPV1 and CB1 receptor ligand anandamide (ACR neurons). Blocking or deleting the CB1 receptor only reduces both anandamide- and capsaicin-evoked responses in ACR neurons. Deleting the CB1 receptor also reduces the proportion of ACR neurons without any effect on the overall number of capsaicin-responding cells. Regarding the distribution pattern of the two receptors, neurons express CB1 and TRPV1 receptors either isolated in low densities or in close proximity with medium/high densities. We suggest that spatial distribution of the CB1 receptor and TRPV1 contributes to the complexity of their functional interaction. PMID:27653550

  20. 48 CFR 1846.673 - Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Distribution of DD Forms... Reports 1846.673 Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c. (a) DD Forms 250 and 250c shall be distributed in accordance with installation procedures. (b) The contractor is responsible for distributing DD Forms 250...

  1. Observing the confinement potential of bacterial pore-forming toxin receptors inside rafts with nonblinking Eu(3+)-doped oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkcan, Silvan; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Casanova, Didier; Mialon, Geneviève; Gacoin, Thierry; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Popoff, Michel R; Alexandrou, Antigoni

    2012-05-16

    We track single toxin receptors on the apical cell membrane of MDCK cells with Eu-doped oxide nanoparticles coupled to two toxins of the pore-forming toxin family: α-toxin of Clostridium septicum and ε-toxin of Clostridium perfringens. These nonblinking and photostable labels do not perturb the motion of the toxin receptors and yield long uninterrupted trajectories with mean localization precision of 30 nm for acquisition times of 51.3 ms. We were thus able to study the toxin-cell interaction at the single-molecule level. Toxins bind to receptors that are confined within zones of mean area 0.40 ± 0.05 μm(2). Assuming that the receptors move according to the Langevin equation of motion and using Bayesian inference, we determined mean diffusion coefficients of 0.16 ± 0.01 μm(2)/s for both toxin receptors. Moreover, application of this approach revealed a force field within the domain generated by a springlike confining potential. Both toxin receptors were found to experience forces characterized by a mean spring constant of 0.30 ± 0.03 pN/μm at 37°C. Furthermore, both toxin receptors showed similar distributions of diffusion coefficient, domain area, and spring constant. Control experiments before and after incubation with cholesterol oxidase and sphingomyelinase show that these two enzymes disrupt the confinement domains and lead to quasi-free motion of the toxin receptors. Our control data showing cholesterol and sphingomyelin dependence as well as independence of actin depolymerization and microtubule disruption lead us to attribute the confinement of both receptors to lipid rafts. These toxins require oligomerization to develop their toxic activity. The confined nature of the toxin receptors leads to a local enhancement of the toxin monomer concentration and may thus explain the virulence of this toxin family.

  2. Distribution and forms of iron in the vertisols of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGIŠA S. MILOŠEV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil of arable land and meadows from the Ap horizon, taken from ten different localities, were investigated for different forms of Fe, including total (HF, pseudo-total (HNO3, 0.1 M HCl extractable and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable. A sequential fractional procedure was employed to separate the Fe into fractions: water soluble and exchangeable Fe (I, Fe specifically adsorbed with carbonates (II, reducibly releasable Fe in oxides (III, Fe bonded with organic matter (IV and Fe structurally bonded in silicates (residual fraction (V. The soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and size fractions (clay and silt had a strongest influence on the distribution of the different forms of Fe. The different extraction methods showed similar patterns of the Fe content in arable and meadow soils. However, the DTPA iron did not correspond with the total iron, which confirms the widespread incidence of iron-deficiency in vertisols is independent of the total iron in soils. The amount of exchangeable (fraction I and specifically adsorbed (II iron showed no dependence on its content in the other fractions, indicating low mobility of iron in vertisols. The strong positive correlation (r = 0.812 and 0.956 between the content of iron in HNO3 and HF and its contents in the primary and secondary minerals (fraction – V indicate a low content of plant accessible iron in the vertisol. The sequential fractional procedure was confirmed as suitable for accessing the content and availability of iron in the vertisols of Serbia.

  3. Circulating intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tine Thurison; Christensen, Ib J; Lund, Ida K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High levels of circulating forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are significantly associated to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine biological variations and reference intervals of the uPAR forms in blood, and in addition, to test t...

  4. Pseudodifferential Analysis, Automorphic Distributions in the Plane and Modular Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Unterberger, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Pseudodifferential analysis, introduced in this book in a way adapted to the needs of number theorists, relates automorphic function theory in the hyperbolic half-plane I to automorphic distribution theory in the plane. Spectral-theoretic questions are discussed in one or the other environment: in the latter one, the problem of decomposing automorphic functions in I according to the spectral decomposition of the modular Laplacian gives way to the simpler one of decomposing automorphic distributions in R2 into homogeneous components. The Poincare summation process, which consists in building au

  5. Surveillance and Management Repertoires in Distributed Forms of Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian

    approaches, in an open dual paradigmatic manner in order to utilise the reflections and analyses led in both streams (Lewis & Grimes, see also Willmott 1993). Control and surveillance are here found in a range of forms active through organization, technology, management, self-discipline or change programmes...... material of characteristic forms of "dislocated organizations" from the Swiss service sectors, including studies of distance work and headquarter, mobile work, a satellite office or single function outsourcing. The contribution discusses how management in practice is exercised when the organization...

  6. 17 CFR 249.312 - Form 10-D, periodic distribution reports by asset-backed issuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution reports by asset-backed issuers. 249.312 Section 249.312 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... shall be filed within 15 days after each required distribution date on the asset-backed securities, as... § 249.312 Form 10-D, periodic distribution reports by asset-backed issuers. This form shall be used by...

  7. 75 FR 5640 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Revised Incident/Accident Report Forms for Distribution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    .../Accident Report Forms for Distribution Systems, Gas Transmission and Gathering Systems, and Hazardous... PHMSA`s Revised Incident/Accident Report Forms for Gas Distribution Systems, Gas Transmission and... Transmission and Gathering Systems, and (3) PHMSA Form F 7000-1--Accident Report for Hazardous Liquid...

  8. A soluble form of the transcobalamin receptor CD320 can be detected in human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Quadros, Edward V.; Christensen, Anna Lisa;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recently, the cell-surface receptor involved in the internalisation of the cobalamin(vitamin B12, Cbl) transporting protein, transcobalamin(TC), was described, and was found to be CD320(1). So far, it remains unsolved whether CD320 is present in a soluble form (sCD320) in serum. Our aim...

  9. Distribution of cellular HSV-1 receptor expression in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathe, Richard; Haas, Juergen G

    2016-12-15

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus linked to a range of acute and chronic neurological disorders affecting distinct regions of the brain. Unusually, HSV-1 entry into cells requires the interaction of viral proteins glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) with distinct cellular receptor proteins. Several different gD and gB receptors have been identified, including TNFRSF14/HVEM and PVRL1/nectin 1 as gD receptors and PILRA, MAG, and MYH9 as gB receptors. We investigated the expression of these receptor molecules in different areas of the adult and developing human brain using online transcriptome databases. Whereas all HSV-1 receptors showed distinct expression patterns in different brain areas, the Allan Brain Atlas (ABA) reported increased expression of both gD and gB receptors in the hippocampus. Specifically, for PVRL1, TNFRFS14, and MYH9, the differential z scores for hippocampal expression, a measure of relative levels of increased expression, rose to 2.9, 2.9, and 2.5, respectively, comparable to the z score for the archetypical hippocampus-enriched mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2, z = 3.1). These data were confirmed at the Human Brain Transcriptome (HBT) database, but HBT data indicate that MAG expression is also enriched in hippocampus. The HBT database allowed the developmental pattern of expression to be investigated; we report that all HSV1 receptors markedly increase in expression levels between gestation and the postnatal/adult periods. These results suggest that differential receptor expression levels of several HSV-1 gD and gB receptors in the adult hippocampus are likely to underlie the susceptibility of this brain region to HSV-1 infection.

  10. Do firms share the same functional form of their growth rate distribution? A new statistical test

    CERN Document Server

    Lunardi, Josè T; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N; Gallegati, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new statistical test of the hypothesis that a balanced panel of firms have the same growth rate distribution or, more generally, that they share the same functional form of growth rate distribution. We applied the test to European Union and US publicly quoted manufacturing firms data, considering functional forms belonging to the Subbotin family of distributions. While our hypotheses are rejected for the vast majority of sets at the sector level, we cannot rejected them at the subsector level, indicating that homogenous panels of firms could be described by a common functional form of growth rate distribution.

  11. Coincident expression and distribution of melanotransferrin and transferrin receptor in human brain capillary endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, S; Food, M R; Gabathuler, R; Kennard, M L; Yamada, T; Yasuhara, O; McGeer, P L; Jefferies, W A

    1996-03-11

    One method of iron transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB) involves the transferrin receptor (TR), which is localized to the specialized brain capillary endothelium. The melanotransferrin (MTf) molecule, also called p97, has been widely described as a melanoma specific molecule, however, its expression in brain tissues has not been addressed. MTf has a high level of sequence homology to transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin, but is unusual because it predominantly occurs as a membrane bound, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored molecule, but can also occur as a soluble form. We have recently demonstrated that GPI-anchored MTf provides a novel route for cellular iron uptake which is independent of Tf and its receptor. Here we consider whether MTf may have a role in the transport of iron across the BBB. The distributions of MTf, Tf and the TR were studied immunohistochemically in human brain tissues. The distributions of MTf and TR were remarkably similar, and quite different from that of Tf. In all brain tissues examined, MTf and the TR were highly localized to capillary endothelium, while Tf itself was mainly localized to glial cells. These data suggest that MTf may play a role in iron transport within the human brain.

  12. Distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrabi Sh.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Epulides Fissurata (EF are common proliferative and denture- induced lesions of the oral cavity with a predilection for female. This suggests a possible role for sex steroid hormones in the development and progression of these lesions. Purpose: The objective of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of epulis fissuratum of the oral cavity for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression in epithelial, stromal, inflammatory and endothelial cells populations. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 15 samples of formalin- fixed, paraffin- embedded epulis fissuratums including marginal mucosal tissues in 4 cases as a control group, were immuno-histochemically evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptors protein expression. Result: In 10 cases, estrogen receptor positivity was found within the epithelium and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity was present in 7 cases. Stromal cells exhibited estrogen and progesterone receptor immunostaining in many cases but only few cases showed expression of these receptors in the inflammatory and endothelial cells. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were also detected in some cases containing salivary glands tissue. Conclusion: Although chronic irritation may be the initiating factor for the occurence of epulis fissuratum, some of the cells in the lesion, could be potential targets for estrogen and progestrone hormones.

  13. Photoaffinity labeling of the erythropoietin receptor and its identification in a ligand-free form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoi, Takayuki; Sawyer, S.T.; Krantz, S.B. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pure human recombinant erythropoietin (EP) was acylated through a primary amino residue with a cross-linking reagent, N-((3-((4-((p-azido-m-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)azo)benzoyl)amino)propanoyl)oxy)-succinimide (Denny-Jaffe reagent), which is photoreactive and cleavable at the azo residue. The resulting conjugated hormone (DJ-EP) was purified from unmodified EP by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and maintained its capacity to bind to receptors for EP on erythroid progenitor cells. The receptor for EP was previously identified as two related proteins of 100 and 85 kDa molecular mass by chemical cross-linking to {sup 125}I-EP. Recently, D'Andrea and co-workers cloned a cDNA that codes for a protein of 55-66 kDa, which is thought to be the EP receptor. In this report, cross-linking to the receptor through the monofunctional DJ-EP labeled the same 140- and 125-kDa molecular mass bands cross-linked with {sup 125}I-EP and disuccinimidyl suberate. Furthermore, cleavage of the azo bond of the DJ-EP receptor complex by sodium dithionite demonstrated that proteins of 105 and 90 kDa were labeled in ligand-free form by DJ-EP. This result demonstrates that artifactual cross-linking of multiple proteins or other artifacts of cross-linking do not explain the difference in molecular mass of the EP receptor identified by cross-linking and the receptor identified by expression cloning.

  14. Distribution of P2Y receptor subtypes on haematopoietic cells

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    RT–PCR-southern hybridization analyses with radiolabelled P2Y receptor cDNAs as probes indicated that the peripheral blood leukocytes and the human umbilical vein endothelial cells express P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y6 receptors.Of the haematopoietic cell lines tested, promonocytic U937 cells express P2Y2 and P2Y6, but not P2Y1 or P2Y4; promyelocytic HL-60 cells express the P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors but not the P2Y4 receptor; K562 cells express P2Y1 but not P2Y2, P2Y4 or P2Y6; and Dami cells ...

  15. Loss of P2X7 nucleotide receptor function leads to abnormal fat distribution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Kim L; Xiao, Andrew; Pollmann, Steven I; Grol, Matthew W; Beach, Ryan J; Holdsworth, David W; Sims, Stephen M; Darling, Mark R; Dixon, S Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel expressed by a number of cell types. We have shown previously that disruption of P2X7 receptor function results in downregulation of osteogenic markers and upregulation of adipogenic markers in calvarial cell cultures. In the present study, we assessed whether loss of P2X7 receptor function results in changes to adipocyte distribution and lipid accumulation in vivo. Male P2X7 loss-of-function (KO) mice exhibited significantly greater body weight and epididymal fat pad mass than wild-type (WT) mice at 9 months of age. Fat pad adipocytes did not differ in size, consistent with adipocyte hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy. Histological examination revealed ectopic lipid accumulation in the form of adipocytes and/or lipid droplets in several non-adipose tissues of older male KO mice (9-12 months of age). Ectopic lipid was observed in kidney, extraorbital lacrimal gland and pancreas, but not in liver, heart or skeletal muscle. Specifically, lacrimal gland and pancreas from 12-month-old male KO mice had greater numbers of adipocytes in perivascular, periductal and acinar regions. As well, lipid droplets accumulated in the renal tubular epithelium and lacrimal acinar cells. Blood plasma analyses revealed diminished total cholesterol levels in 9- and 12-month-old male KO mice compared with WT controls. Interestingly, no differences were observed in female mice. Moreover, there were no significant differences in food consumption between male KO and WT mice. Taken together, these data establish novel in vivo roles for the P2X7 receptor in regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in an age- and sex-dependent manner.

  16. Functional characterization of the cardiac ryanodine receptor pore-forming region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Euden

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptors are homotetrameric intracellular calcium release channels. The efficiency of these channels is underpinned by exceptional rates of cation translocation through the open channel and this is achieved at the expense of the high degree of selectivity characteristic of many other types of channel. Crystallization of prokaryotic potassium channels has provided insights into the structures and mechanisms responsible for ion selection and movement in these channels, however no equivalent structural detail is currently available for ryanodine receptors. Nevertheless both molecular modeling and cryo-electron microscopy have identified the probable pore-forming region (PFR of the ryanodine receptor (RyR and suggest that this region contains structural elements equivalent to those of the PFRs of potassium-selective channels. The aim of the current study was to establish if the isolated putative cardiac RyR (RyR2 PFR could form a functional ion channel. We have expressed and purified the RyR2 PFR and shown that function is retained following reconstitution into planar phospholipid bilayers. Our data provide the first direct experimental evidence to support the proposal that the conduction pathway of RyR2 is formed by structural elements equivalent to those of the potassium channel PFR.

  17. THE NEURONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1 IN THE TRIGEMINAL GANGLION OF THE RAT

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to produce antinociception and antihyperalgesia by acting upon cannabinoid receptors located in both the CNS and the periphery. A potential mechanism by which cannabinoids could inhibit nociception in the periphery is the activation of cannabinoid receptors located on one or more classes of primary nociceptive neurons. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of...

  18. Investigation on the factors influencing the thickness distribution of superplastic-formed components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong-yang; FANG You-tong

    2005-01-01

    In the superplastic sheet forming process, the uniformity of the sheet's final thickness distribution is vital for ensuring the good mechanical quality of the formed components. The influences of the component shape and the contact friction on the final thickness distribution were investigated in this work by using finite element method on a series of axisymmetric models. It was concluded that shape optimization and friction elimination are required to get uniform thickness distribution, and eventually to improve the mechanical quality of the formed components. The constitutive equation of the Ti-6A1-4V superplastic material was also determined on the basis of experimental data.

  19. Adiponectin Receptors Form Homomers and Heteromers Exhibiting Distinct Ligand Binding and Intracellular Signaling Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R.; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M.

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes. PMID:23255609

  20. Adiponectin receptors form homomers and heteromers exhibiting distinct ligand binding and intracellular signaling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M

    2013-02-01

    Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes.

  1. Distribution of Y-receptors in murine lingual epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Hurtado

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones and their cognate receptors belonging to neuropeptide Y (NPY family mediate diverse biological functions in a number of tissues. Recently, we discovered the presence of the gut satiation peptide YY (PYY in saliva of mice and humans and defined its role in the regulation of food intake and body weight maintenance. Here we report the systematic analysis of expression patterns of all NPY receptors (Rs, Y1R, Y2R, Y4R, and Y5R in lingual epithelia in mice. Using four independent assays, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and RT PCR, we show that the morphologically different layers of the keratinized stratified epithelium of the dorsal layer of the tongue express Y receptors in a very distinctive yet overlapping pattern. In particular, the monolayer of basal progenitor cells expresses both Y1 and Y2 receptors. Y1Rs are present in the parabasal prickle cell layer and the granular layer, while differentiated keratinocytes display abundant Y5Rs. Y4Rs are expressed substantially in the neuronal fibers innervating the lamina propria and mechanoreceptors. Basal epithelial cells positive for Y2Rs respond robustly to PYY(3-36 by increasing intracellular Ca(2+ suggesting their possible functional interaction with salivary PYY. In taste buds of the circumvallate papillae, some taste receptor cells (TRCs express YRs localized primarily at the apical domain, indicative of their potential role in taste perception. Some of the YR-positive TRCs are co-localized with neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, suggesting that these TRCs may have synaptic contacts with nerve terminals. In summary, we show that all YRs are abundantly expressed in multiple lingual cell types, including epithelial progenitors, keratinocytes, neuronal dendrites and TRCs. These results suggest that these receptors may be involved in the mediation of a wide variety of functions, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, taste perception

  2. Receptor activation and 2 distinct COOH-terminal motifs control G-CSF receptor distribution and internalization kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.J. Aarts (Bart); O. Roovers (Onno); A.C. Ward (Alister); I.P. Touw (Ivo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the intracellular distribution and internalization kinetics of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSF-R) in living cells using fusion constructs of wild-type or mutant G-CSF-R and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Under steady

  3. Human orexin/hypocretin receptors form constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other and with human CB{sub 1} cannabinoid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäntti, Maria H., E-mail: maria.jantti@helsinki.fi [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, POB 66, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Mandrika, Ilona, E-mail: ilona@biomed.lu.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Ratsupites Str. 1, Riga LV 1067 (Latvia); Kukkonen, Jyrki P., E-mail: jyrki.kukkonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, POB 66, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • OX{sub 1} and OX{sub 2} orexin and CB{sub 1} cannabinoid receptor dimerization was investigated. • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer method was used. • All receptors readily formed constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes. - Abstract: Human OX{sub 1} orexin receptors have been shown to homodimerize and they have also been suggested to heterodimerize with CB{sub 1} cannabinoid receptors. The latter has been suggested to be important for orexin receptor responses and trafficking. In this study, we wanted to assess the ability of the other combinations of receptors to also form similar complexes. Vectors for expression of human OX{sub 1}, OX{sub 2} and CB{sub 1} receptors, C-terminally fused with either Renilla luciferase or GFP{sup 2} green fluorescent protein variant, were generated. The constructs were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and constitutive dimerization between the receptors was assessed by bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET). Orexin receptor subtypes readily formed homo- and hetero(di)mers, as suggested by significant BRET signals. CB{sub 1} receptors formed homodimers, and they also heterodimerized with both orexin receptors. Interestingly, BRET efficiency was higher for homodimers than for almost all heterodimers. This is likely to be due to the geometry of the interaction; the putatively symmetric dimers may place the C-termini in a more suitable orientation in homomers. Fusion of luciferase to an orexin receptor and GFP{sup 2} to CB{sub 1} produced more effective BRET than the opposite fusions, also suggesting differences in geometry. Similar was seen for the OX{sub 1}–OX{sub 2} interaction. In conclusion, orexin receptors have a significant propensity to make homo- and heterodi-/oligomeric complexes. However, it is unclear whether this affects their signaling. As orexin receptors efficiently signal via endocannabinoid production to CB{sub 1} receptors, dimerization could be an effective way

  4. Thermochemical prediction of chemical form distributions of fission products in LWR mixed oxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kouki; Furuya, Hirotaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-01

    Radial distribution of chemical forms of fission products (FPs) in LWR mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pins was theoretically predicted by a thermochemical computer code SOLGASMIX-PV. The amounts of fission products generated in the fuel were calculated by ORIGEN-2 code, and the radial distributions of temperature and oxygen potential were calculated by taking the neutron depression and oxygen redistribution in the fuel into account. A fuel pellet was radially divided into 51 sections and chemical forms of FPs were calculated in each section. The effects of linear heat rating (LHR) and average O/U ratio on radial distribution of chemical form were evaluated. It was found that the radial distribution of chemical forms depends strongly on the LHR and the O/M ratio, and is not proportional to that of burnup. (author)

  5. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie

    2003-01-01

    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  6. Identification of soluble forms of the fibroblast growth factor receptor in blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanneken, A; Ying, W; Ling, N; Baird, A.

    1994-01-01

    We have purified three acidic (FGF-1) and basic (FGF-2) fibroblast growth factor binding proteins (FGF-BP1, FGF-BP2, and FGF-BP3) from human plasma and calf serum and demonstrate the presence of these circulating FGF-BPs in blood. Each are truncated forms of the high-affinity FGF receptor (FGFR-1). FGF-BP1 and FGF-BP2 have estimated molecular masses of 70-85 kDa and 55-60 kDa, respectively, and are detected by using 125I-labeled FGF-2 ligand blotting. Immunoblotting with four distinct antibod...

  7. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, Sophie; Berndt, Sarah; Blacher, Silvia; Gengoux, Emily; Peulen, Olivier; Maquoi, Erik; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Munaut, Carine; Péqueux, Christel

    2010-10-01

    Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.

  8. The neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in the trigeminal ganglion of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T J; Helesic, G; Parghi, D; Hargreaves, K M; Flores, C M

    2003-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to produce antinociception and antihyperalgesia by acting upon cannabinoid receptors located in both the CNS and the periphery. A potential mechanism by which cannabinoids could inhibit nociception in the periphery is the activation of cannabinoid receptors located on one or more classes of primary nociceptive neurons. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of the adult rat through combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). CB1 receptor mRNA was localized mainly to medium and large diameter neurons of the maxillary and mandibular branches of the TG. Consistent with this distribution, in a de facto nociceptive sensory neuron population that exhibited vanilloid receptor type 1 immunoreactivity, colocalization with CB1 mRNA was also sparse (CB1 mRNA. In contrast, and consistent with the neuron-size distribution for CB1, nearly 75% of CB1-positive neurons exhibited N52-immunoreactivity, a marker of myelinated axons. These results indicate that in the rat TG, CB1 receptors are expressed predominantly in neurons that are not thought to subserve nociceptive neurotransmission in the noninjured animal. Taken together with the absence of an above background in situ signal for CB2 mRNA in TG neurons, these findings suggest that the peripherally mediated antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids may involve either as yet unidentified receptors or interaction with afferent neuron populations that normally subserve non-nociceptive functions.

  9. Comparative distribution of human and avian type sialic acid influenza receptors in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major determinant of influenza infection is the presence of virus receptors on susceptible host cells to which the viral haemagglutinin is able to bind. Avian viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3-galactose (SAα2,3-Gal linked receptors, whereas human strains bind to sialic acid α2,6-galactose (SAα2,6-Gal linked receptors. To date, there has been no detailed account published on the distribution of SA receptors in the pig, a model host that is susceptible to avian and human influenza subtypes, thus with potential for virus reassortment. We examined the relative expression and spatial distribution of SAα2,3-GalG(1-3GalNAc and SAα2,6-Gal receptors in the major organs from normal post-weaned pigs by binding with lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinins (MAA II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA respectively. Results Both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors were extensively detected in the major porcine organs examined (trachea, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, skeletal muscle, cerebrum, small intestine and colon. Furthermore, distribution of both SA receptors in the pig respiratory tract closely resembled the published data of the human tract. Similar expression patterns of SA receptors between pig and human in other major organs were found, with exception of the intestinal tract. Unlike the limited reports on the scarcity of influenza receptors in human intestines, we found increasing presence of SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors from duodenum to colon in the pig. Conclusions The extensive presence of SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors in the major organs examined suggests that each major organ may be permissive to influenza virus entry or infection. The high similarity of SA expression patterns between pig and human, in particular in the respiratory tract, suggests that pigs are not more likely to be potential hosts for virus reassortment than humans. Our finding of relative abundance of SA receptors

  10. Forms of contractual documents for public gas distribution; Modeles de documents contractuels pour la distribution publique de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    This document is a compilation of standard forms of concession agreements and of specifications for public gas distribution (general dispositions, granted network and works, connection to the granted network, gas quality, contracts and conditions of supply, gas prices, concession end and control, various dispositions, agreement between the town and the grantee, calculation of profit rate, gas retail prices, general conditions of supply). (J.S.)

  11. A distribution of tumor size at detection and its limiting form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A Y; Hanin, L G; Rachev, S T; Tsodikov, A D

    1996-01-01

    A distribution of tumor size at detection is derived within the framework of a mechanistic model of carcinogenesis with the object of estimating biologically meaningful parameters of tumor latency. Its limiting form appears to be a generalization of the distribution that arises in the length-biased sampling from stationary point processes. The model renders the associated estimation problems tractable. The usefulness of the proposed approach is illustrated with an application to clinical data on premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:8692876

  12. Distribution and forms of phosphorus in tidal flat sediments of the Yangtze Estuary and coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高效江; 许世远; 张念礼

    2001-01-01

    The distribution and forms of phosphorus (P) were investigated in the tidal flat sediments of the Yangtze Estuary and coast. The total P contents in surface sediments range from 18.0 to 31.4 μmol · g-1 along the southern coast. The spatial and temporal distribution of P in tidal flats is closely related to the location and pollution resources, especially in association with the variation of hydrodynamic conditions. Significant variations in the forms of P in different sites were observed. P bonded with Ca(Ca-P) is the dominant mineral form in all surface sediments, organic P(Org-P) is lower. Most P is of unstable form, suggesting that P has larger potential activity. P accumulation is the main behavior process between water and sediment in the coastal environment of the Yangtze Estuary.

  13. Serum transferrin receptors: Distribution and diagnostic performance in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouliaras, Giorgos L; Premetis, Evangelos; Tsiftis, George; Drosatou, Panayiota; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Stamoulakatou, Alexandra; Lycopoulou, Lilia

    2009-01-01

    Soluble transferrin receptors have gained interest in the field of diagnosing anemias. Reference ranges differ according to the method used for the quantification of sTfR. We aim to explore the distributional properties and diagnostic performance of sTfR in pre-school healthy children as well as in children with beta-thalassemia carriers, iron deficiency with normal hematological phenotype (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Circulating sTfR as well as biochemical and hematological indices were determined in 521 pre-school children and four groups (normal children, beta-thalassemia traits, ID and IDA) were formed. Diagnostic performance and distribution of sTfR according to age and in relation to several parameters were evaluated in every group. Three hundred eighty one children (261 normal, 60 beta-thalassemia traits, 44 ID and 16 IDA) aged 1-6 years were included. We found that distribution of sTfR differed significantly among the four groups (Kruskal Wallis pchildren in the normal group exhibiting lower concentrations compared to all other. A negative correlation between sTfR and age occurred in the normal (beta=-0.12, pchildren. Sensitivity and specificity were 70.5% and 50% respectively at a cut-off of 2.5 mg/l. Levels of sTfR are negatively correlated to age in pre-school children while dyserythropoietic procedures like beta-thal, ID, and IDA significantly affect them. These findings indicated that the accuracy of sTfR in diagnosing ID from normal children is limited. Standardization will allow the use of formulas that combine sTfR and ferritin which are of greater diagnostic value than sTfR alone.

  14. Effect of a GABA agonist on the expression and distribution of GABAA receptors in the plasma membrane of cultured cerebellar granule cells: an immunocytochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Belhage, B; Schousboe, A

    1991-01-01

    , the density of the GABAA receptors was significantly increased in the THIP-treated cultures as compared to the control cultures and this effect of THIP was particularly pronounced in the processes. GABAA receptors were occasionally observed to form 'hot spots' in process-like structures and again......The effect of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, 150 microM) on the localization and density of GABAA receptors in the plasma membrane of rat cerebellar granule cells in primary cultures was studied at the electron microscope (EM) level...... by preembedding immunogold staining using the monoclonal antibody bd-17 directed against the beta-subunit of the GABAA receptor complex. In THIP-treated as well as untreated control cultures, GABAA receptors were found to be evenly distributed in the plasma membrane of cell bodies as well as processes. However...

  15. Effect of a GABA agonist on the expression and distribution of GABAA receptors in the plasma membrane of cultured cerebellar granule cells: an immunocytochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G H; Belhage, B; Schousboe, A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, 150 microM) on the localization and density of GABAA receptors in the plasma membrane of rat cerebellar granule cells in primary cultures was studied at the electron microscope (EM) level...... by preembedding immunogold staining using the monoclonal antibody bd-17 directed against the beta-subunit of the GABAA receptor complex. In THIP-treated as well as untreated control cultures, GABAA receptors were found to be evenly distributed in the plasma membrane of cell bodies as well as processes. However...... at the EM level using the preembedding immunogold technique. It is likely that low-affinity GABAA receptors are preferentially located in the cell processes and to a considerable extent in the form of 'hot spots'. However, these 'hot spots' also contain high-affinity receptors....

  16. Dopamine D4 receptor, but not the ADHD-associated D4.7 variant, forms functional heteromers with the dopamine D2S receptor in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Peper, Marcela; Lorenzo, Ramiro; Moreno, Estefanía; Ciruela, Francisco; Borycz, Janusz; Ortiz, Jordi; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; McCormick, Peter J.; Volkow, Nora D.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Floran, Benjamin; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor have been consistently associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However the functional significance of the risk polymorphism (variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3) is still unclear. Here we show that whereas the most frequent 4-repeat (D4.4) and the 2-repeat (D4.2) variants form functional heteromers with the short isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S), the 7-repeat risk allele (D4.7) does not. D2 receptor activation in the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer potentiates D4 receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in transfected cells and in the striatum, which did not occur in cells expressing D4.7 or in the striatum of knock-in mutant mice carrying the 7 repeats of the human D4.7 in the third intracellular loop of the D4 receptor. In the striatum D4 receptors are localized in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals, where they selectively modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by interacting with D2S receptors. This interaction shows the same qualitative characteristics than the D2S-D4 receptor heteromer-mediated MAPK signaling and D2S receptor activation potentiates D4 receptor-mediated inibition of striatal glutamate release. It is therefore postulated that dysfunctional D2S-D4.7 heteromers may impair presynaptic dopaminergic control of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and explain functional deficits associated with ADHD. PMID:21844870

  17. The TNF receptor and Ig superfamily members form an integrated signaling circuit controlling dendritic cell homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Trez, Carl; Ware, Carl F.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) constitute the most potent antigen presenting cells of the immune system, playing a key role bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Specialized DC subsets differ depending on their origin, tissue location and the influence of trophic factors, the latter remain to be fully understood. Stromal cell and myeloid-associated Lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) signaling is required for the local proliferation of lymphoid tissue DC. This review focuses the LTβR signaling cascade as a crucial positive trophic signal in the homeostasis of DC subsets. The noncanonical coreceptor pathway comprised of the Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and TNFR superfamily member, Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) counter regulates the trophic signaling by LTβR. Together both pathways form an integrated signaling circuit achieving homeostasis of DC subsets. PMID:18511331

  18. GABAB Receptor Antagonist CGP46381 Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia Development in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ying Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate the effects of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP46381, on form-deprivation myopia (FDM in guinea pigs. Twenty-four guinea pigs had monocular visual deprivation induced using a diffuser for 11 days (day 14 to 25. The deprived eyes were treated with daily subconjunctival injections (100 μl of either 2% CGP46381, 0.2% CGP46381, or saline or received no injection. The fellow eyes were left untreated. Another six animals received no treatment. At the start and end of the treatment period, ocular refractions were measured using retinoscopy and vitreous chamber depth (VCD and axial length (AL using A-scan ultrasound. All of the deprived eyes developed relative myopia (treated versus untreated eyes, P0.05. Subconjunctival injections of CGP46381 inhibit FDM development in guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 in the CNS of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C S; Rastegar, S; Strähle, U

    2006-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cb1) mediates the psychoactive effect of marijuana. In mammals, there is abundant evidence advocating the importance of cannabinoid signaling; activation of Cb1 exerts diverse functions, chiefly by its ability to modulate neurotransmission. Thus, much attention has been devoted to understand its role in health and disease and to evaluate its therapeutic potential. Here, we have cloned zebrafish cb1 and investigated its expression in developing and adult zebrafish brain. Sequence analysis showed that there is a high degree of conservation, especially in residues demonstrated to be critical for function in mammals. In situ hybridization revealed that zebrafish cb1 appears first in the preoptic area at 24 hours post-fertilization. Subsequently, transcripts are detected in the dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus, pretectum and torus longitudinalis. A similar pattern of expression is recapitulated in the adult brain. While cb1 is intensively stained in the medial zone of the dorsal telencephalon, expression elsewhere is weak by comparison. In particular, localization of cb1 in the telencephalic periventricular matrix is suggestive of the involvement of Cb1 in neurogenesis, bearing strong resemblance in terms of expression and function to the proliferative mammalian hippocampal formation. In addition, a gradient-like expression of cb1 is detected in the torus longitudinalis, a teleost specific neural tissue. In relation to dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalic posterior tuberculum (considered to be the teleostean homologue of the mammalian midbrain dopaminergic system), both cb1 and tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing cells occupy non-overlapping domains. However there is evidence that they are co-localized in the caudal zone of the hypothalamus, implying a direct modulation of dopamine release in this particular region. Collectively, our data indicate the propensity of zebrafish cb1 to participate in multiple neurological processes.

  20. 21 CFR 1305.03 - Distributions requiring a Form 222 or a digitally signed electronic order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions requiring a Form 222 or a digitally signed electronic order. 1305.03 Section 1305.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... laboratory or its agent approved by DEA. (d) Delivery from a central fill pharmacy, as defined in § 1300.01(b...

  1. Functional possibilities for forming different inverse population distributions in diode-side-pumped laser heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P; Sharandin, E A [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-31

    The functional possibilities of diode-side-pumped laser heads of solid-state lasers for forming inverse population distributions of different types are analysed. The invariants determining the relationship between the laser head parameters upon scaling are found. The results of comparative experimental studies are presented. (lasers)

  2. Normal forms for sub-Lorentzian metrics supported on Engel type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowski, Marek

    2014-06-01

    We construct normal forms for Lorentzian metrics on Engel distributions under the assumption that abnormal curves are timelike future directed Hamiltonian geodesics. Then we indicate some cases in which the abnormal timelike future directed curve initiating at the origin is geometrically optimal. We also give certain estimates for reachable sets from a point.

  3. Modeling Multiple Human-Automation Distributed Systems using Network-form Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes at a high-level the network-form game framework (based on Bayes net and game theory), which can be used to model and analyze safety issues in large, distributed, mixed human-automation systems such as NextGen.

  4. On the Distribution of Indefinite Quadratic Forms in Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-10-30

    © 2015 IEEE. In this work, we propose a unified approach to evaluating the CDF and PDF of indefinite quadratic forms in Gaussian random variables. Such a quantity appears in many applications in communications, signal processing, information theory, and adaptive filtering. For example, this quantity appears in the mean-square-error (MSE) analysis of the normalized least-meansquare (NLMS) adaptive algorithm, and SINR associated with each beam in beam forming applications. The trick of the proposed approach is to replace inequalities that appear in the CDF calculation with unit step functions and to use complex integral representation of the the unit step function. Complex integration allows us then to evaluate the CDF in closed form for the zero mean case and as a single dimensional integral for the non-zero mean case. Utilizing the saddle point technique allows us to closely approximate such integrals in non zero mean case. We demonstrate how our approach can be extended to other scenarios such as the joint distribution of quadratic forms and ratios of such forms, and to characterize quadratic forms in isotropic distributed random variables.We also evaluate the outage probability in multiuser beamforming using our approach to provide an application of indefinite forms in communications.

  5. Characterisation and tissue distribution of the PISCF allatostatin receptor in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Neil; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Weaver, Robert; Dani, Paulina; Matthews, June; Down, Rachel; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Kim, Young-Joon; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    The insect PISCF/allatostatins (ASTs) are pleiotropic peptides that are involved in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, are myoinhibitory on the gut and the heart, and suppress feeding in various insects, but their roles in beetles are poorly understood. To provide further insight into the significance of PISCF/ASTs in beetles, the PISCF/AST receptor from Tribolium castaneum has been characterised and its tissue distribution determined. The biological activity of the T. castaneum PISCF/AST (Trica-AS) was also investigated. The Trica-AS receptor shows high sequence homology to other insect PISCF/AST receptors, which are related to the mammalian somatostatin/opioid receptors, a family of G protein-coupled receptors. The Trica-AS receptor was activated in a dose-dependent manner by both Trica-AS and T. castaneum allatostatin double C (Trica-ASTCC) as well as Manduca sexta-allatostatin (Manse-AS). Other allatoregulatory peptides (a FLG/AST, a MIP/AST and an allatotropin) and somatostatin(14) were inactive on this receptor. Receptor transcript levels in tissues, determined by qRT-PCR, were highest in the head and the gut, with variable amounts in the fat body and reproductive organs. There were measurable differences in receptor levels of the head, fat body and reproductive organs between males and females. There was also a widespread distribution of Trica-AS in various tissues of T. castaneum. The Trica-AS peptide precursor was most abundant in the head and there was a significant difference between levels in the heads and reproductive organs of males and females. Whole mount immunocytochemistry localised Trica-AS in the median and lateral neurosecretory cells of the brain, in the corpus cardiacum and throughout the ventral nerve cord. The peptide was also present in midgut neurosecretory cells, but no immunostaining was detected in the reproductive organs or Malpighian tubules. The widespread distribution of both Trica-AS and its receptor suggest this

  6. A novel gene of beta chain of the IFN-gamma receptor of Huiyang chicken: cloning, distribution, and CD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chun-Lai; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Hai-Tao; Han, Xue; Wang, Ming

    2006-07-01

    The beta chain of the interferon-gamma receptor (IFNGR-2) plays a critical role in signal transmission to the nucleus by IFN-gamma. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA of IFNGR-2 of Huiyang chicken using RACE. mRNA transcripts of IFNGR-2 were detected in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and various organs using Northern blot analysis. The extracellular region of IFNGR-2 (IFNGR-2EC) was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and its secondary structure was investigated by circular dichroism (CD). The Huiyang chicken IFNGR-2 gene is 2221 bp with a polyA+ tail, and it encodes 334 amino acids sharing 30%-33% identity with that of rat, mouse, and human IFNGR-2. IFNGR-2 is localized on chromosome 1 of chicken in tandem with IFNAR-1, interleukin- 10 receptor (IL-10R-2), and IFNAR-2. IFNGR-2 was highly expressed in PBL, muscle, spleen, thymus, and cecal tonsil, whereas its expression in cardiac muscle, cloacal bursa, liver, and kidney was comparatively low. Recombinant protein of IFNGR-2EC expressed in P. pastoris formed the secondary structure including 19.8% alpha-helix, 29.6% beta-sheet, 19.7% turn, and 30.9% random. The data show that Huiyang chicken IFNGR-2 shares properties of the IFN receptor family in gene structure and distribution in multiple tissues and PBL. CD analysis indicated that the recombinant protein of IFNGR-2EC resembles the known structure of human IFN receptors.

  7. Neuroanatomical distribution of the orphan GPR50 receptor in adult sheep and rodent brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batailler, M; Mullier, A; Sidibe, A; Delagrange, P; Prévot, V; Jockers, R; Migaud, M

    2012-05-01

    GPR50, formerly known as melatonin-related receptor, is one of three subtypes of the melatonin receptor subfamily, together with the MT(1) and MT(2) receptors. By contrast to these two high-affinity receptor subtypes and despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, GPR50 does not bind melatonin or any other known ligand. Specific and reliable immunological tools are therefore needed to be able to elucidate the physiological functions of this orphan receptor that are still largely unknown. We have generated and validated a new specific GPR50 antibody against the ovine GPR50 and used it to analyse the neuroanatomical distribution of the GPR50 in sheep, rat and mouse whole brain. We demonstrated that GPR50-positive cells are widely distributed in various regions, including the hypothalamus and the pars tuberalis of the pituitary, in all the three species studied. GPR50 expressing cells are abundant in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus and the median eminence. In rodents, immunohistochemical studies revealed a broader distribution pattern for the GPR50 protein. GPR50 immunoreactivity is found in the medial preoptic area (MPA), the lateral septum, the lateral hypothalamic area, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the vascular organ of the laminae terminalis and several regions of the amygdala, including the medial nuclei of amygdala. Additionally, in the rat brain, GPR50 protein was localised in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the dorsal hippocampus. In mice, moderate to high numbers of GPR50-positive cells were also found in the subfornical organ. Taken together, these results provide an enlarged distribution of GPR50 protein, give further insight into the organisation of the melatoninergic system, and may lay the framework for future studies on the role of the GPR50 in the brain.

  8. Fractal-Based Exponential Distribution of Urban Density and Self-Affine Fractal Forms of Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark's model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark's model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark's model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to ...

  9. The risk implications of the distribution of chromium forms in environmental media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Petroff, D.M.; Batey, J.C. [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Chromium exhibits multiple oxidation (valence) states, ranging from ({minus}2) to (+6). Under natural conditions, however, chromium typically exists in the Cr(III) (trivalent) and/or Cr(VI) (hexavalent) form, with the hexavalent form exhibiting higher solubility and much greater toxicity than the trivalent form. Due to the large differences in toxicity, the distribution of chromium oxidation states (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) in site media is potentially of great importance to the calculation of site risk levels, and thus ultimately to cleanup activities. Despite its importance, chromium oxidation states are often not available for media samples collected at waste sites. Typical assumptions regarding the chromium distribution in site media are presented. Actual chromium distribution data from media from baseline investigations of several waste sites are also presented for groundwater, surface water, and soil and compared in terms of background chromium levels and the nature of site wastes. The differences in toxicity of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are briefly discussed. Risk estimates and risk-based cleanup levels generated using different assumptions for the distribution of chromium in site media for a selected example site are then given. These risk-based cleanup levels are compared to various state regulatory limits, MCLs, and Practical Quantitation Limits (PQLs) for chromium.

  10. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Dale, D. A.; Fumagalli, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Kahre, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Messa, M.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Shabani, F.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3-15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ˜40-60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  11. DISTRIBUTIONS OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE NUCLEI PROVIDED BY STAR-FORMING ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatuzzo, Marco [Department of Physics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207 (United States); Adams, Fred C. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for {sup 40}K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in {sup 40}K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  12. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Serdar, Marijana

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide-hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel.

  13. Distribution of adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig, mouse, and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Yasmin; Ho, Winnie; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-04-10

    Adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are important in control of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we describe the distribution of adrenergic receptors in the ENS of the ileum and colon of the guinea pig, rat, and mouse by using single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. In the myenteric plexus (MP) of the rat and mouse, alpha2a-adrenergic receptors (alpha2a-AR) were widely distributed on neurons and enteric glial cells. alpha2a-AR mainly colocalized with calretinin in the MP, whereas submucosal alpha2a-AR neurons colocalized with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y, and calretinin in both species. In the guinea pig ileum, we observed widespread alpha2a-AR immunoreactivity on nerve fibers in the MP and on VIP neurons in the submucosal plexus (SMP). We observed extensive beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR) expression on neurons and nerve fibers in both the MP and the SMP of all species. Similarly, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) was expressed on neurons and nerve fibers in the SMP of all species, as well as in the MP of the mouse. In the MP, beta1- and beta2-AR immunoreactivity was localized to several neuronal populations, including calretinin and nitrergic neurons. In the SMP of the guinea pig, beta1- and beta2-AR mainly colocalized with VIP, whereas, in the rat and mouse, beta1- and beta2-AR were distributed among the VIP and calretinin populations. Adrenergic receptors were widely localized on specific neuronal populations in all species studied. The role of glial alpha2a-AR is unknown. These results suggest that sympathetic innervation of the ENS is directed toward both enteric neurons and enteric glia.

  14. Colocalization of endogenous TNF with a functional intracellular splice form of human TNF receptor type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schütze Stephan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in a broad spectrum of inflammatory and immune responses including proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. The biological effects of TNF are mediated via two cell surface TNF receptors: p55TNFR (TNFR1; CD120a and p75TNFR (TNFR2; CD120b. Soluble forms of these two receptors consisting of the extracellular domains are proteolytically cleaved from the membrane and act as inhibitors. A novel p75TNFR isoform generated by the use of an additional transcriptional start site has been described and was termed hicp75TNFR. We focused on the characterization of this new isoform as this protein may be involved in chronic inflammatory processes. Methods Cell lines were retroviraly transduced with hp75TNFR isoforms. Subcellular localization and colocalization studies with TNF were performed using fluorescence microscopy including exhaustive photon reassignment software, flow cytometry, and receptosome isolation by magnetic means. Biochemical properties of the hicp75TNFR were determined by affinity chromatography, ELISA, and western blot techniques. Results We describe the localization and activation of a differentially spliced and mainly intracellularly expressed isoform of human p75TNFR, termed hicp75TNFR. Expression studies with hicp75TNFR cDNA in different cell types showed the resulting protein mostly retained in the trans-Golgi network and in endosomes and colocalizes with endogenous TNF. Surface expressed hicp75TNFR behaves like hp75TNFR demonstrating susceptibility for TACE-induced shedding and NFκB activation after TNF binding. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that intracellular hicp75TNFR is not accessible for exogenously provided TNF but colocalizes with endogenously produced TNF. These findings suggest a possible intracellular activation mechanism of hicp75TNFR by endogenous TNF. Subsequent NFκB activation might induce anti-apoptotic mechanisms to protect TNF

  15. Form Factors and Generalized Parton Distributions in Basis Light-Front Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Lekha; Zhao, Xingbo; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P; El-Hady, Alaa Abd

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the elastic form factors and the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) for four low-lying bound states of a demonstration fermion-antifermion system, strong coupling positronium ($e \\bar{e}$), using Basis Light-Front Quantization (BLFQ). Using this approach, we also calculate the impact-parameter dependent GPDs $q(x, {\\vec b_\\perp})$ to visualize the fermion density in the transverse plane (${\\vec b_\\perp}$). We compare selected results with corresponding quantities in the non-relativistic limit to reveal relativistic effects. Our results establish the foundation within BLFQ for investigating the form factors and the GPDs for hadronic systems.

  16. Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2010-01-01

    Both animal and human studies have associated the endocannabinoid system with obesity and markers of metabolic dysfunction. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) caused weight loss and reduction in waist size in both obese and type II diabetics. Recent studies on common variants of the CB1...... receptor gene (CNR1) and the link to obesity have been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether selected common variants of the CNR1 are associated with measures of obesity and fat distribution....

  17. Distribution of 5-HT1F receptors in monkey vestibular and trigeminal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba Usman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence of serotonergic involvement in vestibular pathway contributions to migraine and balance disorders is compelling. Serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors are expressed extensively in inner ear ganglia of monkeys and rats. The serotonergic 5-HT1F receptor is also a target of triptans. This study describes its distribution in vestibular and trigeminal ganglia of monkeys. Methods: Using primary polyclonal antibodies raised against oligopeptides specific for the human 5-HT1F receptor, neuronal somatic area and intensity of immunoreactive vestibular and trigeminal ganglia were quantified. Results and Discussion: Virtually all vestibular and considerable trigeminal ganglia showed positive 5-HT1F receptor immunoreactivity. Inferior and superior vestibular ganglia staining appeared confined to distinct cell regions, varying considerably among cells of different sizes: more intense in small, punctate in some medium and regionally polarized in some large cells. Analyses of average somatic vestibular neuronal immunoreactive intensity identified mainly medium sized cells with high standard deviation of intensity corresponding to punctately-stained cells. Less variability occurred in somatic intensity staining and cellular distribution among 5-HT1F receptor immunopositive trigeminal ganglia. Most exhibited similar punctate staining patterns, higher mean somatic immunoreactive intensity and larger neuronal somatic size proportions per size distribution subpopulation compared to vestibular ganglia size distribution populations. Centrally directed vestibular ganglion neuronal processes, cochlear inner hair cells, vestibular hair cells and blood vessels in vestibular maculae and cristae were immunoreactive. The 5-HT1F receptor expression in vestibular ganglia shows complex variable staining intensity patterns associated with cell size of immunopositive neurons, not seen in immunopositive trigeminal ganglia and not previously evident with 5

  18. Forms of density regulation and (quasi-) stationary distributions of population sizes in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Grøtan, Vidar;

    2008-01-01

    that have grown from very small population sizes followed by a period of fluctuations around K. We then use these parameters to estimate the quasi-stationary distribution of population size. There were often large uncertainties in these parameters specifying the form of density regulation that were...... generally independent of the duration of the study period. In contrast, precision in the estimates of environmental variance increased with the length of the time series. In most of the populations, a large proportion of the probability density of the (quasi-) stationary distribution of population sizes......The theta-logistic model of density regulation is an especially flexible class of density regulation models where different forms of non-linear density regulation can be expressed by only one parameter, u. Estimating the parameters of the thetalogistic model is, however, challenging. This is mainly...

  19. Antagonism of ligand-gated ion channel receptors: two domains of the glycine receptor alpha subunit form the strychnine-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, R J; French, C R; Barry, P H; Shine, J; Schofield, P R

    1992-01-01

    The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily. Glycine activation of the receptor is antagonized by the convulsant alkaloid strychnine. Using in vitro mutagenesis and functional analysis of the cDNA encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the human GlyR, we have identified several amino acid residues that form the strychnine-binding site. These residues were identified by transient expression of mutated cDNAs in mammalian (293) cells and examination of resultant [3H]strychnine binding, glycine displacement of [3H]strychnine, and electrophysiological responses to the application of glycine and strychnine. This mutational analysis revealed that residues from two separate domains within the alpha 1 subunit form the binding site for the antagonist strychnine. The first domain includes the amino acid residues Gly-160 and Tyr-161, and the second domain includes the residues Lys-200 and Tyr-202. These results, combined with analyses of other ligand-gated ion channel receptors, suggest a conserved tertiary structure and a common mechanism for antagonism in this receptor superfamily. PMID:1311851

  20. Pion distribution amplitude from holographic QCD and the electromagnetic form factor F_pi(Q2)

    CERN Document Server

    Agaev, S S

    2008-01-01

    The holographic QCD prediction for the pion distribution amplitude (DA) $\\phi_{hol}(u)$ is used to compute the pion spacelike electromagnetic form factor $F_{\\pi}(Q^2)$ within the QCD light-cone sum rule method. In calculations the pion's renormalon-based model twist-4 DA, as well as the asymptotic twist-4 DA are employed. Obtained theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data and with results of the holographic QCD.

  1. Ultraviolet to optical spectral distributions of northern star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquade, Kerry; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    We report spectral energy distribution from the UV to the optical for a sample of 31 northern star-forming galaxies. We also present measurements for emission-line fluxes, continuum levels, and equivalent widths of absorption features for each individual spectrum as well as averages for the eight galactic activity classes, including normal, starburst, Seyfert 2, blue compact dwarf, blue compact, Low-Inonization Nuclear Emission Regions (LINER), H II, and combination LINER-H II galaxies.

  2. The redshift distribution of short gamma-ray bursts from dynamically formed neutron star binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, C; Waxman, E; Zwart, S P; Guetta, Dafne; Hopman, Clovis; Waxman, Eli; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2006-01-01

    Short-hard gamma-ray bursts (SHBs) may arise from gravitational wave (GW) driven mergers of double neutron star (DNS) systems. DNSs may be "primordial" or can form dynamically by binary exchange interactions in globular clusters during core-collapse. For primordial binaries, the time delay between formation and merger is expected to be short, tau~0.1 Gyr, implying that the redshift distribution of merger events should follow that of star-formation. We point out here that for dynamically formed DNSs, the time delay between star-formation and merger is dominated by the cluster core-collapse time, rather than by the GW inspiral time, yielding delays comparable to the Hubble time. We derive the redshift distribution of merger events of dynamically formed DNSs, and find it to differ significantly from that typically expected for primordial binaries. The observed redshift distribution of SHBs favors dynamical formation, although a primordial origin cannot be ruled out due to possible detection biases. Future red-sh...

  3. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Terranova

    Full Text Available Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development.

  4. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Christopher; Narla, Sridhar T; Lee, Yu-Wei; Bard, Jonathan; Parikh, Abhirath; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S; Buck, Michael J; Birkaya, Barbara; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development.

  5. Signal transduction in light–oxygen–voltage receptors lacking the adduct-forming cysteine residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Estella F.; Diensthuber, Ralph P.; Vaidya, Anand T.; Borbat, Peter P.; Engelhard, Christopher; Freed, Jack H.; Bittl, Robert; Möglich, Andreas; Crane, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Light–oxygen–voltage (LOV) receptors sense blue light through the photochemical generation of a covalent adduct between a flavin-nucleotide chromophore and a strictly conserved cysteine residue. Here we show that, after cysteine removal, the circadian-clock LOV-protein Vivid still undergoes light-induced dimerization and signalling because of flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone (NSQ). Similarly, photoreduction of the engineered LOV histidine kinase YF1 to the NSQ modulates activity and downstream effects on gene expression. Signal transduction in both proteins hence hinges on flavin protonation, which is common to both the cysteinyl adduct and the NSQ. This general mechanism is also conserved by natural cysteine-less, LOV-like regulators that respond to chemical or photoreduction of their flavin cofactors. As LOV proteins can react to light even when devoid of the adduct-forming cysteine, modern LOV photoreceptors may have arisen from ancestral redox-active flavoproteins. The ability to tune LOV reactivity through photoreduction may have important implications for LOV mechanism and optogenetic applications. PMID:26648256

  6. The export receptor Crm1 forms a dimer to promote nuclear export of HIV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David S; Cheng, Yifan; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-12-08

    The HIV Rev protein routes viral RNAs containing the Rev Response Element (RRE) through the Crm1 nuclear export pathway to the cytoplasm where viral proteins are expressed and genomic RNA is delivered to assembling virions. The RRE assembles a Rev oligomer that displays nuclear export sequences (NESs) for recognition by the Crm1-Ran(GTP) nuclear receptor complex. Here we provide the first view of an assembled HIV-host nuclear export complex using single-particle electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, Crm1 forms a dimer with an extensive interface that enhances association with Rev-RRE and poises NES binding sites to interact with a Rev oligomer. The interface between Crm1 monomers explains differences between Crm1 orthologs that alter nuclear export and determine cellular tropism for viral replication. The arrangement of the export complex identifies a novel binding surface to possibly target an HIV inhibitor and may point to a broader role for Crm1 dimerization in regulating host gene expression.

  7. Phylogenetic distribution of [3H]kainic acid receptor binding sites in neuronal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, E D; Klemm, N; Coyle, J T

    1980-06-23

    The phylogenetic distribution of specific binding sites for kainic acid was determined in 14 species including invertebrates and vertebrates. The highest level of binding was observed in brains of the frog (Xenopus laevis), followed by the spiny dogfish (Heterodontus francisci), the goldfish (Carasius auratus) and the chick (Gallus domesticus). Although significant specific binding was noted in some of the lowest forms tested (e.g. Hydra littoralis), this was not a consistent observation in the invertebrates. In most cases, specific binding to both high and low affinity sites was detected; notable exceptions were the cockroach brain (Periplaneta americana), which had negligible high affinity binding, and the crayfish brain (Procambarus) which had negligible low affinity binding. In the spiny dogfish, the smooth dogfish and the chick, the highest level of binding occurred in cerebellum with less in the forebrain and the least in the medulla; in the mammalian species, the highest level of binding occurred in the forebrain structures with less in the cerebellum and least in the medulla. Eadie plots of the saturation isotherms for [3H]kainic acid revealed similar kinetics of binding for frog whole brain, rat forebrain and human parietal cortex with two apparent populations of binding sites: KD1 = 25--50 nM and KD2 = 3--14 nM. While binding in the spiny dogfish forebrain and human caudate nucleus occurred exclusively at a high affinity component, the cerebella of chick, rat and man exhibited only a low affinity binding site. In the 3 species studied most extensively, frog, rat and man, unlabeled kainic acid was the most potent inhibitor of the specific binding of [3H]-kainic acid. L-Glutamic acid was 20--20-fold less potent than kainic acid, and D-glutamic acid was 4--2500-fold less potent than its L-isomer. Reduction of the isopropylene side chain of kainic acid to form dihydrokainic acid decreased the affinity of the derivative 115--30,000-fold. Hill coefficients

  8. Nucleon momentum distributions and elastic electron scattering form factors for some 1p-shell nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Hamoudi; M A Hasan; A R Ridha

    2012-05-01

    The nucleon momentum distributions (NMD) and elastic electron scattering form factors of the ground state for 1p-shell nuclei with = (such as 6Li, 10B, 12C and 14N nuclei) have been calculated in the framework of the coherent density fluctuation model (CDFM) and expressed in terms of the weight function $|f(x)|^2$. The weight function has been expressed in terms of nucleon density distribution (NDD) of the nuclei and determined from the theory and the experiment. The feature of the long-tail behaviour at high-momentum region of the NMDs has been obtained by both the theoretical and experimental weight functions. The experimental form factors $F(q)$ of all the considered nuclei are very well reproduced by the present calculations for all values of momentum transfer . It is found that the contributions of the quadrupole form factors $F_{C2}(q)$ in 10B and 14N nuclei, which are described by the undeformed p-shell model, are essential for obtaining a remarkable agreement between the theoretical and experimental form factors.

  9. Flavour dependence of the pion and kaon form factors and parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hutauruk, Parada T P; Thomas, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    The separate quark flavour contributions to the pion and kaon valence quark distribution functions are studied, along with the corresponding electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region. The calculations are made using the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio with proper-time regularization. Both the pion and kaon form factors and the valence quark distribution functions reproduce many of the features of the available empirical data. The larger mass if the strange quark naturally explains the empirical fact that the ratio $u_{K^+}(x)/u_{\\pi^+}(x)$ drops below unity at large $x$, with a value of approximately $M^2_u/M_s^2$ as $x \\to 1$. With regard to the elastic form factors we report a large flavour dependence, with the $u$-quark contribution to the kaon form factor being an order of magnitude smaller than that of the $s$-quark at large $Q^2$, which may be a sensitive measure of confinement effects in QCD. Surprisingly though, the total $K^+$ and $\\pi^+$ fo...

  10. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar, Marijana [Department of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Meral, Cagla [Middle East Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ankara (Turkey); Kunz, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bjegovic, Dubravka [Department of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Wenk, Hans-Rudolf [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide–hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel. - Highlights: • Synchrotron micro-diffraction used to map the distribution of crystalline phases. • Goethite and akaganeite are the main corrosion products during chloride induced corrosion in mortar. • Layers of goethite and akaganeite are negatively correlated. • EDS showed Cr present in corrosion products identified by SEM.

  11. Pathological reorganization of NMDA receptors subunits and postsynaptic protein PSD-95 distribution in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Genevieve; Vernay, Andre; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Tardif, Eric; Riederer, Beat Michel; Savioz, Armand

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), synaptic alterations play a major role and are often correlated with cognitive changes. In order to better understand synaptic modifications, we compared alterations in NMDA receptors and postsynaptic protein PSD-95 expression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and frontal cortex (FC; area 9) of AD and control brains. We combined immunohistochemical and image analysis methods to quantify on consecutive sections the distribution of PSD-95 and NMDA receptors GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B in EC and FC from 25 AD and control cases. The density of stained receptors was analyzed using multivariate statistical methods to assess the effect of neurodegeneration. In both regions, the number of neuronal profiles immunostained for GluN1 receptors subunit and PSD-95 protein was significantly increased in AD compared to controls (3-6 fold), while the number of neuronal profiles stained for GluN2A and GluN2B receptors subunits was on the contrary decreased (3-4 fold). The increase in marked neuronal profiles was more prominent in a cortical band corresponding to layers 3 to 5 with large pyramidal cells. Neurons positive for GluN1 or PSD-95 staining were often found in the same localization on consecutive sections and they were also reactive for the anti-tau antibody AD2, indicating a neurodegenerative process. Differences in the density of immunoreactive puncta representing neuropile were not statistically significant. Altogether these data indicate that GluN1 and PSD-95 accumulate in the neuronal perikarya, but this is not the case for GluN2A and GluN2B, while the neuropile compartment is less subject to modifications. Thus, important variations in the pattern of distribution of the NMDA receptors subunits and PSD-95 represent a marker in AD and by impairing the neuronal network, contribute to functional deterioration.

  12. Functional distribution of nicotinic receptors in CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybko, Michael; Sharma, Geeta; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) modulation of a number of parameters of synaptic signaling in the brain has been demonstrated. It is likely that effects of nicotine are due to its ability to modulate network excitability as a whole. A pre-requisite to understanding the effects of nicotine on network properties is the elucidation of functional receptors. We have examined the distribution of functional nAChRs in the dentate gyrus granule cells and the CA3 region of the mammalian hippocampus using calcium imaging from acute slices. Our results demonstrate the presence of functional nAChRs containing the alpha7 subunit (alpha7-nAChRs) on mossy fiber boutons, CA3 pyramidal cells, and on astrocytes. In addition, both CA3 interneurons and granule cells show nicotinic signals. Our study suggests that functional nicotinic receptors are widespread in their distribution and that calcium imaging might be an effective technique to examine locations of these receptors in the mammalian brain.

  13. Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both animal and human studies have associated the endocannabinoid system with obesity and markers of metabolic dysfunction. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) caused weight loss and reduction in waist size in both obese and type II diabetics. Recent studies on common variants...... of the CB1 receptor gene (CNR1) and the link to obesity have been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether selected common variants of the CNR1 are associated with measures of obesity and fat distribution. DESIGN AND METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs806381, rs......10485179 and rs1049353 were genotyped, and body fat and fat distribution were assessed by the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in a population-based study comprising of 783 Danish men, aged 20-29 years. RESULTS: The rs806381 polymorphism was significantly associated...

  14. Nod factor receptors form heteromeric complexes and are essential for intracellular infection in Medicago nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moling, S.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Postma, M.; Fedorova, E.E.; Hink, M.A.; Limpens, E.H.M.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Bisseling, T.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are the key signaling molecules in the legume-rhizobium nodule symbiosis. In this study, the role of the Nod factor receptors NOD FACTOR PERCEPTION (NFP) and LYSIN MOTIF RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 (LYK3) in establishing the symbiotic interface in root nodules was investigated. It wa

  15. Nod factor receptors form heteromeric complexes and are essential for intracellular infection in medicago nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moling, S.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Postma, M.; Fedorova, E.; Hink, M.A.; Limpens, E.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Bisseling, T.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are the key signaling molecules in the legume-rhizobium nodule symbiosis. In this study, the role of the Nod factor receptors NOD FACTOR PERCEPTION (NFP) and LYSIN MOTIF RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 (LYK3) in establishing the symbiotic interface in root nodules was investigated. It wa

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunits with a C2 cytoplasmic loop yellow fluorescent protein insertion form functional receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teresa A MURRAY; Qiang LIU; Paul WHITEAKER; Jie WU; Ronald J LUKAS

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits have been engineered as fluorescent protein (FP) fusions and exploited to illuminate features of nAChRs. The aim of this work was to create a FP fusion in the nAChR a.7 subunit without compromising formation of functional receptors.Methods: A gene construct was generated to introduce yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), in frame, into the otherwise unaltered, large, second cytoplamsic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains of the mouse nAChR al sub-unit (a7Y). SH-EP1 cells were transfected with mouse nAChR wild type a.7 subunits (a.7) or with a7Y subunits, alone or with the chaperone protein, hRJC-3. Receptor function was assessed using whole-cell current recording. Receptor expression was measured with 125I-labeled a-bungarotoxin (I-Bgt) binding, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy.Results: Whole-cell currents revealed that a7Y nAChRs and al nAChRs were functional with comparable EC50 values for the a7 nAChR-selective agonist, choline, and IC50 values for the a.7 nAChR-selective antagonist, methyllycaconitine. I-Bgt binding was detected only after co-expression with hRIC-3. Confocal microscopy revealed that a7Y had primarily intracel-lular rather than surface expression. TIRF microscopy confirmed that little a7Y localized to the plasma membrane, typical of a7 nAChRs.Conclusion: nAChRs composed as homooligomers of a7Y subunits containing cytoplasmic loop YFP have functional, ligand binding, and trafficking characteristics similar to those of a.7 nAChRs. a7Y nAChRs may be used to elucidate properties of a.7 nAChRs and to identify and develop novel probes for these receptors, perhaps in high-throughput fashion.

  17. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Li, Yuan; Li, Tao; Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    Our objective was to understand the cadmium (Cd) tolerance mechanisms by investigating the subcellular distribution, chemical forms of Cd and adsorptive groups in the mycelia of Exophiala pisciphila. We grew E. pisciphila in the liquid media with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg L(-1)). Increased Cd in the media caused a proportional increase in the Cd uptake by E. pisciphila. Subcellular distribution indicated that 81 to 97% of Cd was associated with the cell walls. The largest amount and proportion (45-86%) of Cd was extracted with 2% acetic acid, and a concentration-dependent extraction was observed, both of which suggest that Cd-phosphate complexes were the major chemical form in E. pisciphila. A large distribution of phosphate and Cd on the mycelia surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The precipitates associated with the mycelia were observed to contain Cd by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) identified that hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, and phosphate groups were responsible for binding Cd. We conclude that Cd associated with cell walls and integrated with phosphate might be responsible for the tolerance of E. pisciphila to Cd.

  18. [Cadmium accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms in Vitis vinifera cv. chardonnay grapevine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuan-Peng; Li, Hong-Jing; Yin, Ke-Lin; Zhai, Heng

    2012-06-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the Cd absorption, Cd subcellular distribution, and Cd chemical forms in one-year old self-rooted Chardonnay and SO4 rootstock-grafted Chardonnay grapevine after root-irrigating with different concentration CdCl and CaCl2. In the grapevine, the absorbed Cd was mostly distributed in underground organs (root and rhizome). In treatment 4 mmol x L(-1) of CdCl2, 77.1% and 1.4% of the absorbed Cd in self-rooted Chardonnay were accumulated in underground organs and leaves, respectively, while 93.9% and 0.1% of the absorbed Cd in grafted Chardonnay were accumulated in the organs below graft position and in leaves, respectively. 5 mmol L(-1) of CaCl2 decreased the plant Cd absorption and accumulation, while 10 mmol x L(-1) of CaCl2 increased the plant Cd absorption and accumulation significantly. The Cd subcellular distribution in roots and leaves was in the order of cell wall > soluble fraction > organelle, and more than 50% of the Cd was accumulated in cell wall. In the roots, NaCl-extractable Cd had a major proportion, followed by HAc-extractable Cd, and water-extractable Cd. The contents of all the Cd chemical forms varied with the increasing concentration of Cd in the treatments.

  19. Distribution of selenium in zebrafish larvae after exposure to organic and inorganic selenium forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, N V; Hackett, M J; MacDonald, T C; Nehzati, S; James, A K; Krone, P H; George, G N; Pickering, I J

    2016-03-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for many organisms, and in vertebrates has a variety of roles associated with protection from reactive oxygen species. Over the past two decades there have been conflicting reports upon human health benefits and detriments arising from consumption of selenium dietary supplements. Thus, early studies report a decrease in the incidence of certain types of cancer, whereas subsequent studies did not observe any anti-cancer effect, and adverse effects such as increased risks for type 2 diabetes have been reported. A possible contributing factor may be that different chemical forms of selenium were used in different studies. Using larval stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism, we report a comparison of the toxicities and tissue selenium distributions of four different chemical forms of selenium. We find that the organic forms of selenium tested (Se-methyl-l-selenocysteine and l-selenomethionine) show considerably more toxicity than inorganic forms (selenite and selenate), and that this appears to be correlated with the level of bioaccumulation. Despite differences in concentrations, the tissue specific pattern of selenium accumulation was similar for the chemical forms tested; selenium was found to be highly concentrated in pigment (melanin) containing tissues especially for the organic selenium treatments, with lower concentrations in eye lens, yolk sac and heart. These results suggest that pigmented tissues might serve as a storage reservoir for selenium.

  20. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th.

  1. Long form leptin receptor and SNP effect on reproductive traits during embryo attachment in Suzhong sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanfeng; Li, Lan; Li, Bixia; Fang, Xiaomin; Ren, Shouwen

    2016-05-01

    To ascertain whether the long form leptin receptor (LEPR) affects the regulation of embryo attachment and whether there are LEPR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with reproductive traits in pigs, Real-time qPCR was used to detect relative abundance of LEPR mRNA pattern in different tissues of Suzhong sows during the embryo attachment period (pregnancy day 13, 18 and 24) to the uterus, and PCR-RFLP as well as PCR-sequencing were used to investigate the coding sequence for SNPs of LEPR in a population of 512 Suzhong sows. Real-time qPCR results indicated that LEPR mRNA was present in all 22 tissues of pigs with differences in relative abundance of the LEPR mRNA (Pattachment site (Pattachment periods, LEPR mRNA was greatest on Day 18 (attachment; Pattachment), and relative abundance was least on Day 13 (pre-attachment). The prevalence of the LEPR mRNA in pregnant sows was greater than in non-pregnant sows (PT locus of LEPR, Chi-square test results demonstrated that allele and genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at this locus, PCR-RFLP results revealed that Genotype TT was greater than Genotype CC (PT locus has advantageous effects on litter size and litter weight in Suzhong pigs. In conclusion, the expression of the LEPR gene might be involved in the regulation of embryo attachment mechanisms in pigs, and the LEPR SNP c.2856C>T could be a molecular marker for improving litter size and litter weight in pig breeding.

  2. Distribution of Gaseous and Particulate Organic Peroxides Formed in the Ozonolysis of α-Pinene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huang, L.; Huang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Organic peroxides, an important species in the atmosphere, will affect HOx cycling, promote SOA aging, and cause adverse health effect. However, the formation, distribution and evolution of organic peroxides are extremely complicated and still unclear. In this study, we investigate in laboratory the production of peroxides and gas-particle partitioning in the ozonolysis of α-pinene. The molar yields of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydromethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and total peroxides (TPO, including unknown peroxides) and contribution of peroxides to SOA mass are carefully determined. Comparing the gaseous and particulate peroxides, we find that more than 75% peroxides formed in the ozonolysis remain in the gas phase, and water vapour will significantly influence the formation and distribution of peroxides. Such an unexpected large amount of gaseous peroxides deserves more attention, especially to their effect on HOx cycling.

  3. Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong tolerance mechanisms to Cadmium: subcellular distribution, chemical forms and thiol pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Bosen; Xie, Xiangyu; Weiss, Dominik J; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Yan, Chongling

    2012-11-01

    In order to explore the detoxification mechanisms adopted by mangrove under cadmium (Cd) stress, we investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd, in addition to the change of the thiol pools in Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong, which were cultivated in sandy culture medium treated with sequential Cd solution. We found that Cd addition caused a proportional increase of Cd in the organs of K. obovata. The investigation of subcellular distribution verified that most of the Cd was localized in the cell wall, and the lowest was in the membrane. Results showed sodium chloride and acetic acid extractable Cd fractions were dominant. The contents of non-protein thiol compounds, Glutathione and phytochelatins in K. obovata were enhanced by the increasing strength of Cd treatment. Therefore, K. obovata can be defined as Cd tolerant plant, which base on cell wall compartmentalization, as well as protein and organic acids combination.

  4. McSAS: A package for extracting quantitative form-free distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Breßler, Ingo; Thünemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A reliable and user-friendly characterisation of nano-objects in a target material is presented here in the form of a software data analysis package for interpreting small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns. When provided with data on absolute scale with reasonable uncertainty estimates, the software outputs (size) distributions in absolute volume fractions complete with uncertainty estimates and minimum evidence limits, and outputs all distribution modes of a user definable range of one or more model parameters. A multitude of models are included, including prolate and oblate nanoparticles, core-shell objects, polymer models (Gaussian chain and Kholodenko worm) and a model for densely packed spheres (using the LMA-PY approximations). The McSAS software can furthermore be integrated as part of an automated reduction and analysis procedure in laboratory instruments or at synchrotron beamlines.

  5. The Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Contursi, A; Silbermann, N A; Kolhatkar, S; Dale, Daniel A.; Helou, George; Contursi, Alessandra; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Kolhatkar, Sonali

    2001-01-01

    We present a new phenomenological model for the spectral energy distribution of normal star-forming galaxies between 3 and 1100 microns. A sequence of realistic galaxy spectra are constructed from a family of dust emission curves assuming a power law distribution of dust mass over a wide range of interstellar radiation fields. For each interstellar radiation field heating intensity we combine emission curves for large and very small grains and aromatic feature carriers. The model is constrained by IRAS and ISOCAM broadband photometric and ISOPHOT spectrophotometric observations for our sample of 69 normal galaxies; the model reproduces well the empirical spectra and infrared color trends. These model spectra allow us to determine the infrared energy budget for normal galaxies, and in particular to translate far-infrared fluxes into total (bolometric) infrared fluxes. The 20 to 42 micron range appears to show the most significant growth in relative terms as the activity level increases, suggesting that the 20-...

  6. Photon-to-pion transition form factor and pion distribution amplitude from holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Fen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Research Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Secione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Huang, Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Research Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2012-01-15

    We try to understand the recently observed anomalous behavior of the photon-to-pion transition form factor in the holographic QCD approach. First the holographic description of the anomalous {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *}{pi}{sup 0} form factor is reviewed and applied to various models. It is pointed out that the holographic identification of the pion mode from the 5D gauge field strength rather than the gauge potential, as first made by Sakai and Sugimoto, naturally reproduces the scaling behavior of various pion form factors. It is also illustrated that in describing the anomalous form factor, the holographic approach is asymptotically dual to the perturbative QCD (pQCD) framework, with the pion mode {pi}(z){proportional_to}z corresponding to the asymptotic pion distribution amplitude. This indicates some inconsistency in light-front holography, since {pi}(z){proportional_to}z would be dual to {phi}(x){proportional_to}{radical}(x(1-x)) there. This apparently contradictory can be attributed to the fact that the holographic wave functions are effective ones, as observed early by Radyushkin. After clarifying these subtleties, we employ the relation between the holographic and the perturbative expressions to study possible asymptotic violation of the transition form factor. It is found that if one require that the asymptotic form factor possess a pQCD-like expression, the pion mode can only be ultraviolet-enhanced by logarithmic factors. The minimally deformed pion mode will then be of the form {pi}(z){proportional_to}zln(z{lambda}){sup -1}. We suppose that this deformation may be due to the coupling of the pion with a nontrivial open string tachyon field, and then the parameter {lambda} will be related to the quark condensate. Interestingly, this pion mode leads immediately to Radyushkin's logarithmic model, which fitted very well the experimental data in the large-Q{sup 2} region. On the other side, the pQCD interpretation with a flat-like pion distribution

  7. Distributions of Long-Lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star Forming Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Fatuzzo, M

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary --- but not sufficient --- for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This...

  8. Chemical composition and size distribution of secondary organic aerosol formed from the photooxidation of isoprene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianyun; ZHANG Weijun; WANG Zhenya; ZHAO Weixiong; TAO Ling; YANG Xibin

    2009-01-01

    Photooxidation of isoprene leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA).In this study,the chemical composition of SOA formed from OH-initiated photooxidation of isoprene has been investigated with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a home-made aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS).Sampling particles generated in a home-made smog chamber.The size distribution of SOA particles was detected by a TSI 3321 aerodynamic particle size spectrometer in real time.Results showed that SOA created by isoprene photooxidation was predominantly in the form of fine particles,which have diameters less than 2.5 μm.The obtained mass spectra of individual particles show that products of the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene contain methyl vinyl ketone,methacrolein,formaldehyde,and some other hydroxycarbonyls.The possible reaction mechanisms leading to these products were also discussed.

  9. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect cadmium uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Luo, Na; Zhang, Li Jun; Zhao, Hai Ming; Li, Yan Wen; Cai, Quan Ying; Wong, Ming Hung; Mo, Ce Hui

    2016-11-15

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were inoculated with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices (RI) and Funneliformis mosseae (FM) and grown for 60days to ensure strong colonization. Subsequently, a short-term hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AMF on cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in rice exposed to six Cd levels (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1mM) for three days. The results showed that the uptake kinetics of Cd fitted the Michaelis-Menten model well (R(2)>0.89). AMF significantly decreased the Cd concentrations both in shoots and roots in Cd solutions. Furthermore, the decrement of Cd concentrations by FM was significantly higher than RI treatment in roots. AMF reduced the Cd concentrations markedly in the cell wall fractions at high Cd substrate (≥0.025mM). The main subcellular fraction contributed to Cd detoxification was cell wall at low Cd substrate (<0.05mM), while vacuoles at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM). Moreover, the concentrations and proportions of Cd in inorganic and water-soluble form also reduced by AMF colonization at high Cd substrate (≥0.05mM), both in shoots and roots. This suggested that AMF could convert Cd into inactive forms which were less toxic. Therefore, AMF could enhance rice resistance to Cd through altering subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in rice.

  10. 1Phosphorus forms and distribution in Zhejiang coastal sediment in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min CONG; Tao JIANG; Yu-zao QI; Hong-po DONG; De-qiang TENG; Song-hui LU

    2014-01-01

    Surface and core sediment samples were collected from Zhejiang coastal waters of the East China Sea to study phosphorus (P) forms and understand the potential release of P as well as adsorption. The sediments were extracted sequentially to determine four phosphorus fractions, and non-sequentially for total phosphorus (TP). The total concentration of phosphorus in the surface sediments ranged from 527.2 to 680.5 mg kg-1. Inorganic P was the major form and accounted for 84-94%of TP. Among the four forms, P-Detrital was dominant (58.6-73.2%), followed by P-CDB (10.5-20.9%), P-Organic (6.1-15.9%), and P-CFA (5.9-16.3%). The distribution pattern of TP in the surface sediments was similar to that of P-Detrital and P-Organic, but different from P-CDB and P-CFA. A relatively high level of phosphorus was observed in estuarine sediments, reflecting the influence from terrestrial input. Phosphorus in all forms in core sediments at each station decreased with depth. In addition, potentially bio-available phosphorus accounted for 20-34%of TP.

  11. The frequency distribution of vitamin D Receptor fok I gene polymorphism among Ugandan pulmonary TB patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acen, Ester L.; Worodria, William; Mulamba, Peter; Kambugu, Andrew; Erume, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is still a major problem globally and especially in Africa. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to TB in the past and studies have found vitamin D deficiency to be common among Ugandan TB patients. The functional activity of vitamin D is dependent on the genotype of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphic genes. Recent findings have indicated that VDR polymorphisms may cause increased resistance or susceptibility to TB. The vitamin D ligand and its receptor play a pivotal role in innate immunity by eliciting antimicrobial activity, which is important in prevention of TB. The fok I vitamin D receptor gene has extensively been examined in TB patients but findings so far have been inconclusive. Objectives: This study sought to investigate the frequency distribution of the VDR fok I gene polymorphisms in pulmonary TB patients and controls. Methods: A pilot case control study of 41 newly diagnosed TB patients and 41 healthy workers was set up. Vitamin D receptor fok I gene was genotyped. Results: The frequency distribution of fok I genotype in Ugandan TB patients was 87.8% homozygous-dominant (FF), 7.3% (Ff) heterozygous and 4.8% (ff) homozygous recessive. For normal healthy subjects the frequencies were (FF) 92.6%, (Ff) 2.4% and (ff) 4.8%. No significant difference was observed in the FF and ff genotypes among TB patients and controls. The Ff heterozygous genotype distribution appeared more in TB patients than in controls. A significant difference was observed in the fok I genotype among gender p value 0.02. No significant difference was observed in ethnicity, p value 0.30. Conclusions: The heterozygous Ff fok I genotype may be associated with TB in the Ugandan population.

  12. About Distributed Simulation-based Optimization of Forming Processes using a Grid Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Manfred; Barth, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    Permanently increasing complexity of products and their manufacturing processes combined with a shorter "time-to-market" leads to more and more use of simulation and optimization software systems for product design. Finding a "good" design of a product implies the solution of computationally expensive optimization problems based on the results of simulation. Due to the computational load caused by the solution of these problems, the requirements on the Information&Telecommunication (IT) infrastructure of an enterprise or research facility are shifting from stand-alone resources towards the integration of software and hardware resources in a distributed environment for high-performance computing. Resources can either comprise software systems, hardware systems, or communication networks. An appropriate IT-infrastructure must provide the means to integrate all these resources and enable their use even across a network to cope with requirements from geographically distributed scenarios, e.g. in computational engineering and/or collaborative engineering. Integrating expert's knowledge into the optimization process is inevitable in order to reduce the complexity caused by the number of design variables and the high dimensionality of the design space. Hence, utilization of knowledge-based systems must be supported by providing data management facilities as a basis for knowledge extraction from product data. In this paper, the focus is put on a distributed problem solving environment (PSE) capable of providing access to a variety of necessary resources and services. A distributed approach integrating simulation and optimization on a network of workstations and cluster systems is presented. For geometry generation the CAD-system CATIA is used which is coupled with the FEM-simulation system INDEED for simulation of sheet-metal forming processes and the problem solving environment OpTiX for distributed optimization.

  13. Blood flow dependence of the intratumoral distribution of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor binding in intact mouse fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitani, Misato [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan) and Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: amitani@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Zhang, Ming-Rong [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Noguchi, Junko [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Kumata, Katsushi [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ito, Takehito [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8686 (Japan); Takai, Nobuhiko [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Radiochemistry Section, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hosoi, Rie [Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Course of Allied Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The intratumoral distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 binding, a novel peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand, was examined by autoradiography both in vitro and in vivo using a murine fibrosarcoma model. The regional distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 in a tumor in vivo was significantly heterogeneous; the uptake of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 was comparatively higher in the outer rim of the tumor and was lower in the central area. In contrast, the images obtained following the injection of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 with a large amount of nonlabeled PK11195 showed a relatively homogeneous distribution, suggesting that [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 uptake represented specific binding to PBRs. In vitro autoradiograms of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 binding were also obtained using the section of the fibrosarcoma that was the same as that used to examine in vivo binding. In vitro autoradiographic binding images showed homogeneous distribution, and significant discrepancies of the intratumoral distribution of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 were observed between in vivo and in vitro images. The in vivo images of [{sup 11}C]AC-5216 uptake, compared with those of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine uptake, obtained by dual autoradiography to evaluate the influence of blood flow revealed the similar intratumoral distributions of both tracers. These results indicate that the delivery process from the plasma to the tumor might be the rate-limiting step for the intratumoral distribution of PBR binding in vivo in a fibrosarcoma model.

  14. Presence and distribution of leptin and its receptor in the minor salivary glands of the donkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Bazzucchi, Cinzia; Mercati, Francesca; Ceccarelli, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Leptin is a hormone widely diffused in the mammalian body in which it plays functions that go far beyond control of appetite and energy metabolism. The finding that it is present in the major salivary glands of various animal species is of interest for the functional implications that it may imply. Since there are no data on the presence of leptin and its receptor in the minor salivary glands, the aim of this study was to demonstrate their presence and distribution in such glands of donkeys. This latter was chosen as species of reference because the monogastric herbivore shows intense salivation during their masticatory activity. Tissue samples were collected from four adult donkeys, of both sexes, following slaughter. Samples were fixed, embedded in paraffin, and processed for immunohistochemical analysis using primary antibodies directed against leptin and its receptor. Controls for non-specific staining were always included. Leptin and its receptor were found in the minor salivary glands. Their distribution was similar to that described in the major salivary glands of animal species that have been investigated to date. We hypothesized that leptin can play a role in regulating gland function, via an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.

  15. Application of receptor-specific risk distribution in the arsenic contaminated land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-chun; Ng, Shane; Wang, Gen-shuh; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-11-15

    Concerns over health risks and financial costs have caused difficulties in the management of arsenic contaminated land in Taiwan. Inflexible risk criteria and lack of economic support often result in failure of a brownfields regeneration project. To address the issue of flexible risk criteria, this study is aimed to develop maps with receptor-specific risk distribution to facilitate scenario analysis of contaminated land management. A contaminated site risk map model (ArcGIS for risk assessment and management, abbreviated as Arc-RAM) was constructed by combining the four major steps of risk assessment with Geographic Information Systems. Sampling of contaminated media, survey of exposure attributes, and modeling of multimedia transport were integrated to produce receptor group-specific maps that depicted the probabilistic spatial distribution of risks of various receptor groups. Flexible risk management schemes can then be developed and assessed. In this study, a risk management program that took into account the ratios of various land use types at specified risk levels was explored. A case study of arsenic contaminated land of 6.387 km(2) has found that for a risk value between 1.00E-05 and 1.00E-06, the proposed flexible risk management of agricultural land achieves improved utilization of land. Using this method, the investigated case can reduce costs related to compensation for farmland totaling approximately NTD 5.94 million annually.

  16. Membrane distribution of the glycine receptor α3 studied by optical super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notelaers, Kristof; Rocha, Susana; Paesen, Rik; Swinnen, Nina; Vangindertael, Jeroen; Meier, Jochen C; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Ameloot, Marcel; Hofkens, Johan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the effect of glycine receptor (GlyR) α3 alternative RNA splicing on the distribution of receptors in the membrane of human embryonic kidney 293 cells is investigated using optical super-resolution microscopy. Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy is used to image both α3K and α3L splice variants individually and together using single- and dual-color imaging. Pair correlation analysis is used to extract quantitative measures from the resulting images. Autocorrelation analysis of the individually expressed variants reveals clustering of both variants, yet with differing properties. The cluster size is increased for α3L compared to α3K (mean radius 92 ± 4 and 56 ± 3 nm, respectively), yet an even bigger difference is found in the cluster density (9,870 ± 1,433 and 1,747 ± 200 μm(-2), respectively). Furthermore, cross-correlation analysis revealed that upon co-expression, clusters colocalize on the same spatial scales as for individually expressed receptors (mean co-cluster radius 94 ± 6 nm). These results demonstrate that RNA splicing determines GlyR α3 membrane distribution, which has consequences for neuronal GlyR physiology and function.

  17. Distribution of a GABAB-like receptor protein in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, K J; Calver, A R; Jourdain, S; Pangalos, M N

    2003-11-07

    Using a homology-based bioinformatics approach we have identified the human and rodent orthologues of a novel putative seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, termed GABA(BL). The amino acid sequence homology of these cDNAs compared to GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) led us to postulate that GABA(BL) may be a putative novel GABA(B) receptor subunit. We have developed a rabbit polyclonal antisera specific to the GABA(BL) protein and assessed the distribution of GABA(BL) in the rat CNS by immunohistochemistry. Protein expression was particularly dense in regions previously shown to contain known GABA(B) receptor subunits. Dense immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex, major subfields of the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus. GABA(BL) labelling was very conspicuous in the cerebellum, both in the granule cell layer and in Purkinje cells, and was also observed in the substantia gelatinosa and ventral horn motor neurons of the spinal cord. GABA(BL) immunoreactivity was also noted in a subset of parvalbumin positive hippocampal interneurons. Our data suggest a widespread distribution of GABA(BL) throughout the rat CNS.

  18. Distribution of the feline calicivirus receptor junctional adhesion molecule a in feline tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, P A; Stokol, T; Liu, H; van der List, D A; Gaffney, P M; Parker, J S

    2011-03-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is an immunoglobulin superfamily protein that plays an important role in the assembly and maintenance of tight junctions and the establishment of epithelial cell polarity. The feline JAM-A (fJAM-A) is a functional receptor for feline calicivirus (FCV). Among natural diseases associated with FCV infection, isolates that cause oral vesicular disease are detected in epithelial cells; however, isolates that cause systemic disease are detected in multiple cell types. The distribution of an FCV receptor or receptors in feline tissues is relevant to viral pathogenesis in that it should reflect the wide latitude of clinical sequelae associated with FCV infection. The authors examined the expression of feline JAM-A in the cat by using confocal immunofluorescence localization on normal tissues, with special regard to tissue targets of naturally occurring FCV. As described in the human and the mouse, fJAM-A was widely distributed in feline tissues, where it localized at cell-cell junctions of epithelial and endothelial cells. fJAM-A was highly expressed on feline platelets, with lower levels of expression on feline peripheral blood leukocytes. Additionally, FCV infection of a feline epithelial cell monolayer causes redistribution of fJAM-A to the cytosol of infected cells. It is reasonable to propose that the spectrum of lesions caused by FCV reflects disruption of intercellular junctions that rely on fJAM-A function and tight junctional integrity.

  19. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star-forming Galaxy NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Aloisi, A.; Bright, S. N.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Dale, D. A.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Lee, J. C.; Messa, M.; Smith, L. J.; Ryon, J. E.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.; Wofford, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star-forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (≲ 100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy using a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent α. We recover a weighted mean index of α ∼ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3.″3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of α ∼ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The strength of the clustering increases with decreasing age and clusters older than 40 Myr lose their clustered structure very rapidly and tend to be randomly distributed in this galaxy, whereas the mass of the star cluster has little effect on the clustering strength. This is consistent with results from other studies that the morphological hierarchy in stellar clustering resembles the same hierarchy as the turbulent interstellar medium.

  20. Angular momentum distribution during the collapse of primordial star-forming clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that angular momentum is distributed during the gravitational collapse of the primordial star forming cloud. However, so far there has been little understanding of the exact details of the distribution. We use the modified version of the Gadget-2 code, a three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulation, to follow the evolution of the collapsing gas in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos. We find that, despite the lack of any initial turbulence and magnetic fields in the clouds the angular momentum profile follows the same characteristic power-law that has been reported in studies that employed fully self-consistent cosmological initial conditions. The fit of the power-law appears to be roughly constant regardless of the initial rotation of the cloud. We conclude that the specific angular momentum of the self-gravitating rotating gas in the primordial minihalos maintains a scaling relation with the gas mass as L ∝ M^{1.125}. We also discuss the plausible mechanisms for the power-law distribution.

  1. Virtuality Distributions in application to gamma gamma* to pi^0 Transition Form Factor at Handbag Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [ODU, JLAB

    2014-07-01

    We outline basics of a new approach to transverse momentum dependence in hard processes. As an illustration, we consider hard exclusive transition process gamma*gamma -> to pi^0 at the handbag level. Our starting point is coordinate representation for matrix elements of operators (in the simplest case, bilocal O(0,z)) describing a hadron with momentum p. Treated as functions of (pz) and z^2, they are parametrized through a virtuality distribution amplitude (VDA) Phi (x, sigma), with x being Fourier-conjugate to (pz) and sigma Laplace-conjugate to z^2. For intervals with z^+=0, we introduce transverse momentum distribution amplitude (TMDA) Psi (x, k_\\perp), and write it in terms of VDA Phi (x, \\sigma). The results of covariant calculations, written in terms of Phi (x sigma) are converted into expressions involving Psi (x, k_\\perp. Starting with scalar toy models, we extend the analysis onto the case of spin-1/2 quarks and QCD. We propose simple models for soft VDAs/TMDAs, and use them for comparison of handbag results with experimental (BaBar and BELLE) data on the pion transition form factor. We also discuss how one can generate high-k_\\perp tails from primordial soft distributions.

  2. Zonal variation in the distribution of an alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform receptor in human adrenal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1999-01-01

    specific receptor. The binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform B and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform C to the glycoform specific receptor is inhibited by the steroid hormones cortisone, aldosterone, estradiol and progesterone but not by testosterone. The pronounced changes in the distribution...

  3. Pore-forming pyocin S5 utilizes the FptA ferripyochelin receptor to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfarash, Ameer; Dingemans, Jozef; Ye, Lumeng; Hassan, Ahmed Amir; Craggs, Michael; Reimmann, Cornelia; Thomas, Mark S; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Pyocins are toxic proteins produced by some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are lethal for related strains of the same species. Some soluble pyocins (S2, S3 and S4) were previously shown to use the pyoverdine siderophore receptors to enter the cell. The P. aeruginosa PAO1 pore-forming pyocin S5 encoding gene (PAO985) was cloned into the expression vector pET15b, and the affinity-purified protein product tested for its killing activity against different P. aeruginosa strains. The results, however, did not show any correlation with a specific ferripyoverdine receptor. To further identify the S5 receptor, transposon mutants were generated. Pooled mutants were exposed to pyocin S5 and the resistant colonies growing in the killing zone were selected. The majority of S5-resistant mutants had an insertion in the fptA gene encoding the receptor for the siderophore pyochelin. Complementation of an fptA transposon mutant with the P. aeruginosa fptA gene in trans restored the sensitivity to S5. In order to define the receptor-binding domain of pyocin S5, two hybrid pyocins were constructed containing different regions from pyocin S5 fused to the C-terminal translocation and DNase killing domains of pyocin S2. Only the protein containing amino acid residues 151 to 300 from S5 showed toxicity, indicating that the pyocin S5 receptor-binding domain is not at the N-terminus of the protein as in other S-type pyocins. Pyocin S5 was, however, unable to kill Burkholderia cenocepacia strains producing a ferripyochelin FptA receptor, nor was the B. cenocepacia fptA gene able to restore the sensitivity of the resistant fptA mutant P. aeruginosa strain.

  4. Influences of calcium silicate on chemical forms and subcellular distribution of cadmium in Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Wu, Jingtao; Shen, Yong; Li, Yingwen; Zou, Bi; Tang, Yetao; Zhuang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of calcium silicate (CS) on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in grain amaranths (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cv. ‘K112’) grown in a Cd contaminated soil. Results showed that the dry weight and the photosynthetic pigments contents in grain amaranths increased significantly with the increasing doses of CS treatments, with the highest value found for the treatment of CS3 (1.65 g/kg). Compared with the control, application of CS4 (3.31 g/kg) significantly reduced Cd concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves of grain amaranths by 68%, 87% and 89%, respectively. At subcellular level, CS treatment resulted in redistribution of Cd, higher percentages of Cd in the chloroplast and soluble fractions in leaves of grain amaranths were found, while lower proportions of Cd were located at the cell wall of the leaves. The application of CS enhanced the proportions of pectate and protein integrated forms of Cd and decreased the percentages of water soluble Cd potentially associated with toxicity in grain amaranths. Changes of free Cd ions into inactive forms sequestered in subcellular compartments may indicate an important mechanism of CS for alleviating Cd toxicity and accumulation in plants.

  5. Prevention of form-deprivation myopia with pirenzepine: a study of drug delivery and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottriall, C L; McBrien, N A; Annies, R; Leech, E M

    1999-07-01

    The present study investigated the drug distribution and elimination profiles in ocular tissues of pirenzepine, a selective M1 muscarinic antagonist known to inhibit myopia. Results demonstrate that (1) Intravitreal injections of the M1 selective antagonist pirenzepine were more effective at preventing form-deprivation myopia than subconjunctival injections. (2) Maximum drug levels were reached within 1 hr for both retina and sclera following intravitreal (28 and 11 nanomole) and subconjunctival (0.25 and 1 nanomole) injection. Intravitreal injection proved a more effective route of drug delivery to all ocular tissues compared to subconjunctival injection. (3) Elimination times of pirenzepine from ocular tissues were much shorter than those reported for blood plasma. (4) Histological examination revealed no evidence of gross toxic effects at doses effective in inhibiting induced axial myopia. In conclusion, pirenzepine was effective at reducing form-deprivation myopia in a dose-dependent manner with no evidence of disruption to the retina. However, results were not conclusive as to where pirenzepine may have its site of action in preventing form-deprivation myopia.

  6. Relationship between intra-household food distribution and coexistence of dual forms of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Yulianti; Sutrisna, Bambang; Hardinsyah, Hardinsyah; Djuwita, Ratna; Korib M, Mondastri; Syafiq, Ahmad; Tilden, Atmarita; Najib, Mardiati

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between food intake and nutritional status has been clearly established. Yet, there are only limited studies on food intake among family members and their nutritional status. The study examined the relationship between intra-household food distribution and coexistence of dual forms of malnutrition (DFM) in the same household. Households with a malnourished child and overweight mother were categorized as DFM. Intra-household food distribution among family members was reported using ratios, which are a measure of individual intakes as compared to all household member intakes adjusted to RDA. A 1,899 families were included in the study. The prevalence of DFM was 29.8% (95%CI 26.5-31.2). Children consumed lower amounts of energy (OR 1.34; 95%CI 1.06-1.69, P = 0.011), carbohydrates (OR 1.2; 95%CI1.03-1.61, P = 0.022), protein (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.03-1.64, P = 0.026), and fat (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.05-1.66, P = 0.016) than their mothers and other family members. In contrast, mothers consumed more carbohydrates than children and other family members (OR1.24; 95%CI 1.02-1.51, P = 0.03). This study is the first to report on the food distribution among family members and its relationship with occurrence of DFM in Indonesia. The results confirm the occurrence of an unequal food distribution between children and mothers, which increases risk of DFM in the household. The results also demonstrate that nutritional education at the household level is important to increase awareness of the impact of DFM.

  7. Analysis of the short form-36 (SF-36): the beta-binomial distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Núñez-Antón, Vicente; Quintana, José M

    2007-03-15

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important indicator of health status and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) is a generic instrument to measure it. Multiple linear regression (MLR) is often used to study the relationship of HRQoL with patients' characteristics, though HRQoL outcomes tend to be not normally distributed, skewed and bounded (e.g. between 0 and 100). A sample of 193 patients with eating disorders has been analysed to assess the performance of the MLR under non-normality conditions. Normal distribution was rejected for seven out of the eight domains. A beta-binomial distribution is suggested to fit the SF-36 scores. The beta-binomial distribution is not rejected for five out of the eight domains. Thus, a beta-binomial regression (BBR) is suggested to analyse the SF-36 scores. Results using MLR and BBR have been compared for real and simulated data. Performance of the BBR is shown to be better than MLR in the HRQoL domains with few ordered categories and very similar to MLR in the more continuous domains. Moreover, the interpretation of the estimates obtained with BBR is clinically more meaningful. A common technique of statistical analysis is preferable for all the HRQoL dimensions. Therefore, the BBR approach is recommended not only to detect significant predictors of HRQoL when SF-36 is used, but also to analyse and interpret the effect of several explanatory variables on HRQoL. Further work is required to test the better performance of BBR against standard methods for other HRQoL outcomes, populations or interventions.

  8. sup 123 I-iomazenil: A quantitative study of the central benzodoazepine receptor distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldemann, R.C.; Bicik, I.; Pfeiffer, A.; Schulthess, G.K. von (Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Medical Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)); Wieser, H.G. (Clinic and Policlinic of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)); Hasler, P.H.; Schubiger, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1992-06-01

    Fourteen patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, 9 patients after amygdalohippocampectomy and 3 healthy volunteers were examined with the new benzodiazepine receptor marker {sup 123}I-Iomazenil and SPECT. For comparison perfusion SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO were done and a quantitative ROI analysis of the date performed. This quantitative analysis consisted of calculation of right-to-left ratios for {sup 123}I{sup I}omazenil SPECTs, whereby values of 1 were obtained with narrow standard deviations. ROI measurements of the medial occipital, frontal and parietal cortex, the cerebellum and white matter showed a pattern of benzodiazepine receptor concentration in concordance with that previously found in PET and autoradiographic studies, if {sup 123}I-Iomazenil ROIs were normalized to the corresponding {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO ROIs. The abnormal distribution in the temporal lobes will not be discussed in this paper. (orig.).

  9. The distribution of advanced glycation end products and their receptor in the gastrointestinal tract in the rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)......To investigate the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to provide a basis for further study of the association between AGE/RAGE and diabetic GI dysfunction. METHODS: The distribution of AGEs [N epsilon...

  10. Structures of receptor complexes formed by hemagglutinins from the Asian Influenza pandemic of 1957

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Junfeng; Stevens, David J.; Lesley F Haire; Walker, Philip A.; Coombs, Peter J.; Russell, Rupert J.; Gamblin, Steven J.; John J Skehel

    2009-01-01

    The viruses that caused the three influenza pandemics of the twentieth century in 1918, 1957, and 1968 had distinct hemagglutinin receptor binding glycoproteins that had evolved the capacity to recognize human cell receptors. We have determined the structure of the H2 hemagglutinin from the second pandemic, the “Asian Influenza” of 1957. We compare it with the 1918 “Spanish Influenza” hemagglutinin, H1, and the 1968 “Hong Kong Influenza” hemagglutinin, H3, and show that despite its close over...

  11. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal, is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO32 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72% was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56% or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%. A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30% was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40% and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%, while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low

  12. Intergenerational transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin and vasopressin receptor distribution in the prairie vole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Perkeybile

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the early environment has the potential to permanently alter offspring behavior and development. We have previously shown that naturally occurring variation in biparental care of offspring in the prairie vole is related to differences in social behavior of the offspring. It was not, however, clear whether the behavioral differences seen between offspring receiving high compared to low amounts of parental care were the result of different care experiences or were due to shared genetics with their high-contact or low-contact parents. Here we use cross-fostering methods to determine the mode of transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin receptor (OTR and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR binding from parent to offspring. Offspring were cross-fostered or in-fostered on postnatal day 1 and parental care received was quantified in the first week postpartum. At weaning, offspring underwent an alloparental care test and brains were then collected from all parents and offspring to examine OTR and V1aR binding. Results indicate that alloparental behavior of offspring was predicted by the parental behavior of their rearing parents. Receptor binding for both OTR and V1aR tended to be predicted by the genetic mothers for female offspring and by the genetic fathers for male offspring. These findings suggest a different role of early experience and genetics in shaping behavior compared to receptor distribution and support the notion of sex-dependent outcomes, particularly in the transmission of receptor binding patterns.

  13. Development of a New Class of Drugs To Inhibit All Forms of Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    endocrine targeting therapies designed to block AR activity that re- emerges during castration. However, despite a growing armamentarium of drugs ...AWARD NUMBERS: W81XWH-14-1-0518 TITLE: Development of a New Class of Drugs to Inhibit All Forms of Androgen Receptor in Castration- Resistant...DATES COVERED 30Sep2015 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0518 Development of a New Class of Drugs To Inhibit All

  14. Cloning and tissue distribution of the chicken type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groef, Bert; Grommen, Sylvia V H; Mertens, Inge; Schoofs, Liliane; Kühn, Eduard R; Darras, Veerle M

    2004-08-01

    We report the cloning of the complete coding sequence of the putative chicken type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRH-R2) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The chicken CRH-R2 is a 412-amino acid 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, showing 87% identity to the Xenopus laevis and Oncorhynchus keta CRH-R2s, and 78-80% to mammalian CRH-R2s. The distribution of CRH-R2 mRNA was studied by RT-PCR analysis and compared to CRH-R1 distribution. Both CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNA are expressed in the main chicken brain parts. In peripheral organs, CRH-R1 mRNA shows a more restricted distribution, whereas CRH-R2 mRNA is expressed in every tissue investigated, indicating that a number of actions of CRH and/or CRH-like peptides remain to be discovered in the chicken as well as in other vertebrates.

  15. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is expressed in the form of proteoglycan and binds to the extracellular matrix protein tenascin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnea, G; Grumet, M; Milev, P;

    1994-01-01

    The extracellular domain of receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta) exhibits striking sequence similarity with a soluble, rat brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (3F8 PG). Immunoprecipitation experiments of cells transfected with RPTP beta expression vector and metabolically...... labeled with [35S]sulfate and [35S]methionine indicate that the transmembrane form of RPTP beta is indeed a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The 3F8 PG is therefore a variant form composed of the entire extracellular domain of RPTP beta probably generated by alternative RNA splicing. Previous...

  16. Specific Angular Momentum Distribution of Disc Galaxies Formed in Preheated Intergalactic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-Jian; FU Li-Ping; SHU Cheng-Gang

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that baryons within a galactic halo have the same specific angular momentum as the dark matter where they locate initially and a disc forms due to the gas cooling and condensation with the conservation of angular momentum, we investigate the angular momentum distribution in a resulting galactic disc under the new preheated galaxy formation model suggested by Mo and Mao (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 333 (2002) 768).Compared with the observational results, it can be concluded that the preheated galaxy formation model can match current observations. This model can be a good approach to solve the problems of both the angular momentum catastrophe and the mismatch of angular-momentum profiles in current disc galaxy formation models.

  17. Nucleon form factors and moments of parton distributions in twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Carbonell, J; Constantinou, M; Guichon, P; Harraud, P A; Jansen, K; Kallidonis, C; Korzec, T; Papinutto, M

    2012-01-01

    We present results on the electroweak form factors and on the lower moments of parton distributions of the nucleon, within lattice QCD using two dynamical flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Results are obtained on lattices with three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm, allowing the investigation of cut-off effects. The volume dependence is examined by comparing results on two lattices of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. The simulations span pion masses in the range of 260-470 MeV. Our results are renormalized non-perturbatively and the values are given in the MS-scheme at a scale mu=2 GeV.

  18. Different strategies for producing soluble form of natural common cytokine receptor gamma chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common cytokine receptor ' chain ('c) plays an essential role in regulating lymphoid homeostasis and alterations in its structure causes severe immunodeficient diseases. Although soluble 'c (s'c) was first reported in the late 1990's, many questions still remain unanswered concerning the sheddi...

  19. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ERYTHROPOIETIN AND ITS RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN POSTNATAL RAT RETINA DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yi-sheng; LIU Xiao-hong; HUANG Ping; CHENG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression in the postnatal rat retina development.Methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups according to their various postnatal days: postnatal 1 d (D1 group), 3 d (D3 group), 1 week (W1 group), 2 weeks (W2 group), 3 weeks (W3 group), 4 weeks (W4 group) and 8 weeks (W8 group) (n=6). Single eye was randomly chosen from each rat for the study. The retinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and used for the retina development observation. Immunohistochemical staining was used to localize EPO and EPOR expressions in retinas of different stages of development, and the expression intensities were determined by an image plus 4 program.Results The retinal inner nuclear layer (INL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) were mixed together and had not yet fully differentiated in D1 and D3 groups. The INL and ONL formed their own independent regions and the outer plexiform layer (OPL) appeared between two layers in W1 group. With the postnatal retinal development, the inner plexiform layer (IPL), rods and cones layer (RCL), and OPL were gradually widened and stabilized in W2 to W3 groups. EPO/EPOR expressions located prominently in the inner part of the postnatal rat developing retinas. The expression of EPO in GCL and INL gradually increased from D1 to W4, then the expression decreased in W8. Expression of EPOR in GCL gradually increased from D1 to W1, then decreased in W2; and it gradually increased again from W3 to W8. Expression of EPOR in INL gradually increased from D1 to W1, then decreased in W2; and it continued to decrease from W3 to W8. Expression of EPOR in the external segment of RCL gradually increased from D1 to W8. However, expression in the internal segment of RCL gradually decreased from D1 to W3, then no obvious expression was seen in the internal segment of RCL in W4 and W8.Conclusion EPO/EPOR expressions locate

  20. How the Assumed Size Distribution of Dust Minerals Affects the Predicted Ice Forming Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, Jan P.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Miller, Ron L.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of ice in clouds depends on the availability of ice forming nuclei (IFN). Dust aerosol particles are considered the most important source of IFN at a global scale. Recent laboratory studies have demonstrated that the mineral feldspar provides the most efficient dust IFN for immersion freezing and together with kaolinite for deposition ice nucleation, and that the phyllosilicates illite and montmorillonite (a member of the smectite group) are of secondary importance.A few studies have applied global models that simulate mineral specific dust to predict the number and geographical distribution of IFN. These studies have been based on the simple assumption that the mineral composition of soil as provided in data sets from the literature translates directly into the mineral composition of the dust aerosols. However, these tables are based on measurements of wet-sieved soil where dust aggregates are destroyed to a large degree. In consequence, the size distribution of dust is shifted to smaller sizes, and phyllosilicates like illite, kaolinite, and smectite are only found in the size range 2 m. In contrast, in measurements of the mineral composition of dust aerosols, the largest mass fraction of these phyllosilicates is found in the size range 2 m as part of dust aggregates. Conversely, the mass fraction of feldspar is smaller in this size range, varying with the geographical location. This may have a significant effect on the predicted IFN number and its geographical distribution.An improved mineral specific dust aerosol module has been recently implemented in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2. The dust module takes into consideration the disaggregated state of wet-sieved soil, on which the tables of soil mineral fractions are based. To simulate the atmospheric cycle of the minerals, the mass size distribution of each mineral in aggregates that are emitted from undispersed parent soil is reconstructed. In the current study, we test the null

  1. Modeling the Atomic-to-Molecular Transition and Chemical Distributions of Turbulent Star-Forming Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Offner, Stella S R; Viti, Serena; Bell, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    We use 3D-PDR, a three-dimensional astrochemistry code for modeling photodissociation regions (PDRs), to post-process hydrodynamic simulations of turbulent, star-forming clouds. We focus on the transition from atomic to molecular gas, with specific attention to the formation and distribution of H, C+, C, H2 and CO. First, we demonstrate that the details of the cloud chemistry and our conclusions are insensitive to the simulation spatial resolution, to the resolution at the cloud edge, and to the ray angular resolution. We then investigate the effect of geometry and simulation parameters on chemical abundances and find weak dependence on cloud morphology as dictated by gravity and turbulent Mach number. For a uniform external radiation field, we find similar distributions to those derived using a one-dimensional PDR code. However, we demonstrate that a three-dimensional treatment is necessary for a spatially varying external field, and we caution against using one-dimensional treatments for non-symmetric probl...

  2. MODELING THE ATOMIC-TO-MOLECULAR TRANSITION AND CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF TURBULENT STAR-FORMING CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bisbas, Thomas G.; Viti, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6B (United Kingdom); Bell, Tom A., E-mail: stella.offner@yale.edu [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    We use 3D-PDR, a three-dimensional astrochemistry code for modeling photodissociation regions (PDRs), to post-process hydrodynamic simulations of turbulent, star-forming clouds. We focus on the transition from atomic to molecular gas, with specific attention to the formation and distribution of H, C{sup +}, C, H{sub 2}, and CO. First, we demonstrate that the details of the cloud chemistry and our conclusions are insensitive to the simulation spatial resolution, to the resolution at the cloud edge, and to the ray angular resolution. We then investigate the effect of geometry and simulation parameters on chemical abundances and find weak dependence on cloud morphology as dictated by gravity and turbulent Mach number. For a uniform external radiation field, we find similar distributions to those derived using a one-dimensional PDR code. However, we demonstrate that a three-dimensional treatment is necessary for a spatially varying external field, and we caution against using one-dimensional treatments for non-symmetric problems. We compare our results with the work of Glover et al., who self-consistently followed the time evolution of molecule formation in hydrodynamic simulations using a reduced chemical network. In general, we find good agreement with this in situ approach for C and CO abundances. However, the temperature and H{sub 2} abundances are discrepant in the boundary regions (A{sub v} {<=} 5), which is due to the different number of rays used by the two approaches.

  3. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star Forming Galaxy NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Grasha, K; Adamo, A; Kim, H; Elmegreen, B G; Gouliermis, D A; Aloisi, A; Bright, S N; Christian, C; Cignoni, M; Dale, D A; Dobbs, C; Elmegreen, D M; Fumagalli, M; Gallagher, J S; Grebel, E K; Johnson, K E; Lee, J C; Messa, M; Smith, L J; Ryon, J E; Thilker, D; Ubeda, L; Wofford, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broad band WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (<100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy, identified from a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent $\\alpha$. We recover a weighted mean index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3".3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The stre...

  4. Primary and Aggregate Size Distributions of PM in Tail Pipe Emissions form Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masataka; Amagai, Kenji; Nakaji, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shinji

    Particulate matter (PM) emission exhausted from diesel engine should be reduced to keep the clean air environment. PM emission was considered that it consisted of coarse and aggregate particles, and nuclei-mode particles of which diameter was less than 50nm. However the detail characteristics about these particles of the PM were still unknown and they were needed for more physically accurate measurement and more effective reduction of exhaust PM emission. In this study, the size distributions of solid particles in PM emission were reported. PMs in the tail-pipe emission were sampled from three type diesel engines. Sampled PM was chemically treated to separate the solid carbon fraction from other fractions such as soluble organic fraction (SOF). The electron microscopic and optical-manual size measurement procedures were used to determine the size distribution of primary particles those were formed through coagulation process from nuclei-mode particles and consisted in aggregate particles. The centrifugal sedimentation method was applied to measure the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Aerodynamic diameters of nano and aggregate particles were measured with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The peak aggregate diameters detected by SMPS were fallen in the same size regime as the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Both of primary and Stokes diameters of dry-soot decreased with increases of engine speed and excess air ratio. Also, the effects of fuel properties and engine types on primary and aggregate particle diameters were discussed.

  5. Angular momentum distribution during the collapse of primordial star-forming clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that angular momentum is distributed during the gravitational collapse of the primordial star forming cloud. However, so far there has been little understanding of the exact details of the distribution. We use the modified version of the Gadget-2 code, a three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulation, to follow the evolution of the collapsing gas in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos. We find that, despite the lack of any initial turbulence and magnetic fields in the clouds the angular momentum profile follows the same characteristic power-law that has been reported in studies that employed fully self-consistent cosmological initial conditions. The fit of the power-law appears to be roughly constant regardless of the initial rotation of the cloud. We conclude that the specific angular momentum of the self-gravitating rotating gas in the primordial minihalos maintains a scaling relation with the gas mass as $L \\propto M^{1.125}$. We also discuss the plausi...

  6. C-type lectin receptors Dectin-3 and Dectin-2 form a heterodimeric pattern-recognition receptor for host defense against fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Le-Le; Zhao, Xue-Qiang; Jiang, Changying; You, Yun; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Jia, Xin-Ming; Lin, Xin

    2013-08-22

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) play critical roles as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for sensing Candida albicans infection, which can be life-threatening for immunocompromised individuals. Here we have shown that Dectin-3 (also called CLECSF8, MCL, or Clec4d), a previously uncharacterized CLR, recognized α-mannans on the surfaces of C. albicans hyphae and induced NF-κB activation. Mice with either blockade or genetically deleted Dectin-3 were highly susceptible to C. albicans infection. Dectin-3 constantly formed heterodimers with Dectin-2, a well-characterized CLR, for recognizing C. albicans hyphae. Compared to their respective homodimers, Dectin-3 and Dectin-2 heterodimers bound α-mannans more effectively, leading to potent inflammatory responses against fungal infections. Together, our study demonstrates that Dectin-3 forms a heterodimeric PRR with Dectin-2 for sensing fungal infection and suggests that different CLRs may form different hetero- and homodimers, which provide different sensitivity and diversity for host cells to detect various microbial infections.

  7. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor forms in plasma as markers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik J; Thurison, Tine; Ryndel, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    . However, refuting the hypothesis, the concentrations of the suPAR forms were not higher in patients with short intervals between clinical event and blood sampling compared with those with long intervals. Age, inflammatory markers and diabetes were confounding factors independently associated with su......PAR forms. CONCLUSION:: Circulating suPAR forms are probably not useful biomarkers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability....

  8. The angular momentum distribution and baryon content of star forming galaxies at z~1-3

    CERN Document Server

    Burkert, A; Genzel, R; Lang, P; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Bandara, K; Beifiori, A; Bender, R; Brammer, G; Chan, J; Davies, R; Dekel, A; Fabricius, M; Fossati, M; Kulkarni, S; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Naab, T; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sharples, R M; Sternberg, A; Wilman, D; Wuyts, E

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the angular momenta of massive star forming galaxies (SFGs) at the peak of the cosmic star formation epoch (z~0.8-2.6). Our sample of ~360 log(M*/Msun) ~ 9.3-11.8 SFGs is mainly based on the KMOS^3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys of H\\alpha\\ kinematics, and collectively provides a representative subset of the massive star forming population. The inferred halo scale, angular momentum distribution is broadly consistent with that theoretically predicted for their dark matter halos, in terms of mean spin parameter ~ 0.037 and its dispersion ($\\sigma_{log(\\lambda)}$~0.2). Spin parameters correlate with the disk radial scale, and with their stellar surface density, but do not depend significantly on halo mass, stellar mass, or redshift. Our data thus support the long-standing assumption that on average the specific angular momentum of early disks reflects that of their dark matter halos (jd = jDM), despite the fact that gas enters the virial radius with substantially higher angular momentum, requiring subsequ...

  9. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhu, Xuan; Wang, Yuxin; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all formed single biofilms susceptible to sodium hypochlorite. After 30 min disinfection, biomass and cultivability decreased with increasing concentration of disinfectant but then increased in high disinfectant doses. PMA-qPCR results indicated that it resulted in little cellular damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed that with increasing doses of disinfectant, the numbers of clusters increased and the sizes of clusters decreased. Under high disinfectant treatment, EPS was depleted by disinfectant and about 0.5-1 mg/L of residual chlorine seemed to be appropriate for drinking water treatment. This research provides an insight into the EPS protection to biofilms. Resistance of biofilms against high levels of chlorine has implications for the delivery of drinking water.

  10. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Impatiens walleriana in relation to its phytoextraction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) has been shown to be a potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, but its mechanisms in accumulation and detoxification have not been reported. Rooted cuttings of Impatiens were planted in artificially Cd-contaminated soils for 50 days with total target concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in the different organs were analyzed after the pot experiment. Compared with the control group, various Cd treatments affected the growth exhibitions of Impatiens, but most of them were not statistically significant. The Cd accumulation of different organs increased with an increase in the soil Cd concentrations for most of the treatments, and it was in the decreasing order of root>stem>leaf. In the roots of Impatiens, Cd was mainly compartmentalized in the soluble fraction (Fs), which has a high migration capacity and will further translocate to the shoot. The Cd was mainly compartmentalized in the cell wall fraction (Fcw) in the shoots as a mechanism of tolerance. Most of the Cd in the various organs of Impatiens was mainly in the forms of pectate and protein-integrated (FNaCl), whereas a minor portion was a water soluble fraction (FW). The experimental results show that the Cd in the Fs, FW, and FNaCl in the roots of Impatiens had a high mobility and will further translocate to the shoot. They could be used to estimate the Cd accumulated in the shoots of Impatiens.

  11. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Phytolacca americana L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Xiaoping; Dou Changming [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Non-point Source Pollution Control, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Chen Yingxu, E-mail: yingxu_chen@hotmail.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Non-point Source Pollution Control, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Chen Xincai; Shi Jiyan; Yu Mingge; Xu Jie [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Non-point Source Pollution Control, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed) is a promising species for Cd phytoextraction with large biomass and fast growth rate. To further understand the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance and detoxification, the present study investigated subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in pokeweed. Subcellular fractionation of Cd-containing tissues indicated that both in root and leaves, the majority of the element was located in soluble fraction and cell walls. Meanwhile, Cd taken up by pokeweed existed in different chemical forms. Results showed that the greatest amount of Cd was found in the extraction of 80% ethanol in roots, followed by 1 M NaCl, d-H{sub 2}O and 2% HAc, while in leaves and stems, most of the Cd was extracted by 1 M NaCl, and the subdominant amount of Cd was extracted by 80% ethanol. It could be suggested that Cd compartmentation with organo-ligands in vacuole or integrated with pectates and proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the adaptation of pokeweed to Cd stress.

  12. The soluble form of the EIAV receptor encoded by an alternative splicing variant inhibits EIAV infection of target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Zhi Lin

    Full Text Available Equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1 has been identified as the sole receptor for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV and is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily. In addition to the previously described membrane-associated form of ELR1, two other major alternative splicing variant mRNAs were identified in equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs. One major spliced species (ELR1-IN contained an insertion of 153 nt, which resulted in a premature stop codon situated 561 nt upstream of the predicted membrane spanning domain. The other major species (ELR1-DE has a deletion of 109 nt that causes a shift of the open reading frame and generates a stop codon 312 nt downstream. Because ELR1-DE presumably encodes a peptide of a mere 23 residues, only ELR1-IN was further analyzed. The expression of a soluble form of ELR1 (sELR1 by ELR1-IN was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Similar to ELR1, the transcription level of ELR1-IN varied among individual horses and at different time points in the same individuals. The ratio of ELR1-IN mRNA species to ELR1 mRNA was approximately 1∶2.5. Pre-incubation of the recombinant sELR1 with EIAV significantly inhibited EIAV infection in equine macrophages, the primary in vivo target cell of the virus. Fetal equine dermal (FED cells are susceptible to EIAV in vitro, and the replication of EIAV in FED cells transiently transfected with ELR1-IN was markedly reduced when compared with replication in cells transfected with the empty vector. Finally, the expression levels of both forms of the EIAV receptor were significantly regulated by infection with this virus. Taken together, our data indicate that sELR1 acts as a secreted cellular factor that inhibits EIAV infection in host cells.

  13. Molecular cloning, characterisation, and tissue distribution of oestrogen receptor alpha in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Thomas K; Skjoedt, Karsten; Anglade, Isabelle; Kah, Olivier; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2003-07-01

    A cDNA encoding the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) oestrogen receptor alpha (eERalpha) has been isolated from eelpout liver, cloned and sequenced. The cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 570 amino acid residues (mw: 63.0 kDa). The amino acid sequence of eERalpha showed a high degree of identity to ERalpha of other teleost species. The tissue distribution of eERalpha mRNA was examined using Northern blotting, RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation (ISH). All three methods identified a pronounced expression of eERalpha in liver, pituitary, testis and ovary. In the brain ISH experiments showed that ERalpha mRNA was highly expressed in distinct regions of the preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus. We have provided evidence that the receptor is auto-regulated by 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) not only in liver but also in the testis, indicating an important role for E(2) during spermatogenesis in male eelpout. RT-PCR analysis showed a broader expression pattern including significant expression in the brain, kidney, heart, and gut of adult eelpout. In eelpout embryos eERalpha expression has also been identified, indicating a possible role for the receptor in early development. This study contributes to the accumulating evidence that in fish E(2) is not only involved in the regulation of liver specific proteins, but has a much broader range of targets.

  14. Communication: Free energy of ligand-receptor systems forming multimeric complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Bachmann, Stephan J.; Parolini, Lucia; Mognetti, Bortolo M.

    2016-04-01

    Ligand-receptor interactions are ubiquitous in biology and have become popular in materials in view of their applications to programmable self-assembly. Although complex functionalities often emerge from the simultaneous interaction of more than just two linker molecules, state of the art theoretical frameworks enable the calculation of the free energy only in systems featuring one-to-one ligand/receptor binding. In this Communication, we derive a general formula to calculate the free energy of systems featuring simultaneous direct interaction between an arbitrary number of linkers. To exemplify the potential and generality of our approach, we apply it to the systems recently introduced by Parolini et al. [ACS Nano 10, 2392 (2016)] and Halverson and Tkachenko [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 094903 (2016)], both featuring functionalized Brownian particles interacting via three-linker complexes.

  15. Chemokine receptor co-expression reveals aberrantly distributed TH effector memory cells in GPA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintermans, Lucas L; Rutgers, Abraham; Stegeman, Coen A; Heeringa, Peter; Abdulahad, Wayel H

    2017-06-14

    Persistent expansion of circulating CD4(+) effector memory T cells (TEM) in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) suggests their fundamental role in disease pathogenesis. Recent studies have shown that distinct functional CD4(+) TEM cell subsets can be identified based on expression patterns of chemokine receptors. The current study aimed to determine different CD4(+) TEM cell subsets based on chemokine receptor expression in peripheral blood of GPA patients. Identification of particular circulating CD4(+) TEM cells subsets may reveal distinct contributions of specific CD4(+) TEM subsets to the disease pathogenesis in GPA. Peripheral blood of 63 GPA patients in remission and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls was stained immediately after blood withdrawal with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies for cell surface markers (CD3, CD4, CD45RO) and chemokine receptors (CCR4, CCR6, CCR7, CRTh2, CXCR3) followed by flow cytometry analysis. CD4(+) TEM memory cells (CD3(+)CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)) were gated, and the expression patterns of chemokine receptors CXCR3(+)CCR4(-)CCR6(-)CRTh2(-), CXCR3(-)CCR4(+)CCR6(-)CRTh2(+), CXCR3(-)CCR4(+)CCR6(+)CRTh2(-), and CXCR3(+)CCR4(-)CCR6(+)CRTh2(-) were used to distinguish TEM1, TEM2, TEM17, and TEM17.1 cells, respectively. The percentage of CD4(+) TEM cells was significantly increased in GPA patients in remission compared to HCs. Chemokine receptor co-expression analysis within the CD4(+) TEM cell population demonstrated a significant increase in the proportion of TEM17 cells with a concomitant significant decrease in the TEM1 cells in GPA patients compared to HC. The percentage of TEM17 cells correlated negatively with TEM1 cells in GPA patients. Moreover, the circulating proportion of TEM17 cells showed a positive correlation with the number of organs involved and an association with the tendency to relapse in GPA patients. Interestingly, the aberrant distribution of TEM1 and TEM17 cells is modulated in CMV

  16. Distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua HU; Er-qing WEI; Gao CHEN; Jian-min ZHANG; Wei-ping ZHANG; Lei ZHANG; Qiu-fu GE; Hong-tian YAO; Wei DING; Zhong CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CysLT2),one of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, in human brains with traumatic injury and tumors. Methods: Brain specimens were obtained from patients who underwent brain surgery. CysLT2 in brain tissues was examined using immunohistochemical analysis. Results: CysLT2 was expressed in the smooth muscle cells (not in the endothelial cells) of arteries and veins. CysLT2 was also expressed in the granulocytes in both vessels and in the brain parenchyma. In addition, CysLT2 was detected in neuron- and glial-appearing cells in either the late stages of traumatic injury or in the area surrounding the tumors. Microvessels regenerated 8 d after trauma and CysLT2 expression was recorded in their endothelial cells.Conclusion: CysLT2 is distributed in vascular smooth muscle cells and granulocytes, and brain trauma and tumor can induce its expression in vascular endothelial cells and in a number of other cells.

  17. Toxic and non-toxic aggregates from the SBMA and normal forms of androgen receptor have distinct oligomeric structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Tobias; Ritz, Manuela E; Schuster, Christoph; Funderburk, Sarah F; Jehle, Katja; Schmitz, Katja; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Moss, David; Cato, Andrew C B

    2012-06-01

    Hormone-dependent aggregation of the androgen receptor (AR) with a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch amplification (>38) is considered to be the causative agent of the neurodegenerative disorder spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), consistent with related neurodegenerative diseases involving polyQ-extended proteins. In spite of the widespread acceptance of this common causal hypothesis, little attention has been paid to its apparent incompatibility with the observation of AR aggregation in healthy individuals with no polyQ stretch amplification. Here we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize sub-micrometer scale aggregates of the wild-type (22 glutamines) and the SBMA form (65 glutamines), as well as a polyQ deletion mutant (1 glutamine) and a variant with a normal length polyQ stretch but with a serine to alanine double mutation elsewhere in the protein. We used a baculovirus-insect cell expression system to produce full-length proteins for these structural analyses. We related the AFM findings to cytotoxicity as measured by expression of the receptors in Drosophila motoneurons or in neuronal cells in culture. We found that the pathogenic AR mutants formed oligomeric fibrils up to 300-600nm in length. These were clearly different from annular oligomers 120-180nm in diameter formed by the nonpathogenic receptors. We could also show that melatonin, which is known to ameliorate the pathological phenotype in the fly model, caused polyQ-extended AR to form annular oligomers. Further comparative investigation of these reproducibly distinct toxic and non-toxic oligomers could advance our understanding of the molecular basis of the polyQ pathologies.

  18. An exact, closed-form solution for equilibrium of traveling, sagged, elastic cables under uniformly distributed loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO; C.D.MOTE,Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The exact, closed-form solution for equilibrium of traveling, sagged, elastic cables under uniformly-distributed loading is derived. Three components of displacement describing two equilibria of an extensible, traveling, elastic cable are also obtained. Illustrations of equilibrium configuration, tension distribution and displacements of cables are given.

  19. New insights from DEM's into form, process and causality in Distributive Fluvial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Louis; Weissmann, Gary; Hartley, Adrian; Kindilien, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in platforms and sensors, as well as advances in our ability to access these rich data sources in near real time presents geoscientists with both opportunities and problems. We currently record raster and point cloud data about the physical world at unprecedented rates with extremely high spatial and spectral resolution. Yet the ability to extract scientifically useful knowledge from such immense data sets has lagged considerably. The interrelated fields of database creation, data mining and modern geostatistics all focus on such interdisciplinary data analysis problems. In recent years these fields have made great advances in analyzing the complex real-world data such as that captured in Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) and satellite imagery and by LIDAR and other geospatially referenced data sets. However, even considering the vast increase in the use of these data sets in the past decade these methods have enjoyed only a relatively modest penetration into the geosciences when compared to data analysis in other scientific disciplines. In part, a great deal of the current research weakness is due to the lack of a unifying conceptual approach and the failure to appreciate the value of highly structured and synthesized compilations of data, organized in user-friendly formats. We report on the application of these new technologies and database approaches to global scale parameterization of Distributive Fluvial Systems (DFS) within continental sedimentary basins and illustrate the value of well-constructed databases and tool-rich analysis environments for understanding form, process and causality in these systems. We analyzed the characteristics of aggradational fluvial systems in more than 700 modern continental sedimentary basins and the links between DFS within these systems and their contributing drainage basins. Our studies show that in sedimentary basins, distributive fluvial and alluvial systems dominate the depositional environment

  20. Inhibition of human prostate cancer xenograft growth by 125I labeled triple-helin forming oligonucleotide directed against androgen receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; MA Yi; LU Han-ping; GAO Jin-hui; LIANG Chang-sheng; LIU Chang-zheng; ZOU Jun-tao; WANG Hua-qiao

    2008-01-01

    Background The failure of hormone treatment for advanced prostate cancer might be related to aberrant activation of the androgen receptor.We have shown that 125I labeled triple-helix forming oligonucleotide (TFO) against the androgen receptor gene inhibits androgen receptor expression and cell proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro.This study aimed at exploring the effects of the 125I-TFO on prostate tumor growth in vivo using a nude mouse xenograft model.Methods TFO was labeled with 125I by the iodogen method.Thirty-two nude mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors were randomized into 4 groups and were intratumorally injected with 125I-TFO,unlabeled TFO,Na125I and normal saline.Tumor size was measured weekly.The tumor growth inhibition rate (RI) was calculated by measurement of tumor weight.The expression of the androgen receptor gene was performed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical study.The prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The tumor cell apoptosis index (Al) was detected by TUNEL assay.Results Tumor measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by either 125I-TFO or TFO,with tumor RIs of 50.79% and 32.80% respectively.125I-TFO caused greater inhibition of androgen receptor expression and higher Als in tumor tissue than TFO.Both the tumor weight and the PSA serum levels in 125I-TFO treated mice ((0.93±0.15) g and (17.43±1.85) ng/ml,respectively) were significantly lower than those ((1.27±0.21) g and (28.25±3.41)ng/ml,respectively) in TFO treated mice (all P<0.05).Na125I did not significantly affect tumor growth and androgen receptor expression in tumor tissue.Conclusions The 125I-TFO can effectively inhibit androgen receptor expression and tumor growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.The inhibitory efficacy of 125I-TFO is more potent than that of TFO,providing a reference for future studies of antigen radiotherapy.

  1. Delayed allograft rejection in mice transgenic for a soluble form of the IL-4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, C R; Morrissey, P J; Fanslow, W C; Sato, T A; Willis, C; Davison, B

    1992-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that in serum and other biological fluids, cytokine binding is a property associated with soluble proteins, including a high-affinity soluble version of the IL-4 receptor (sIL-4R). While it is tempting to speculate that sIL-4R might act as a serum carrier protein or serve to inhibit or modulate IL-4 action, specific biological roles for sIL-4R remain to be established. To further assess the immunoregulatory and therapeutic potential of sIL-4R and other soluble receptors, we have created transgenic mice which constitutively express elevated levels of biologically active sIL-4R. Phenotypic characterization of lymphoid organs in sIL-4R transgenic mice revealed normal numbers of B and T cells and normal surface marker expression. Splenic lymphocytes displayed normal in vitro activities as measured by the PFC response and generation of cytotoxic T cells. In addition, antigen-specific IgE and IgG1 in vivo responses were similar in control and transgenic mice. Despite the apparent developmental normality of the sIL-4R transgenic mice, these animals were markedly deficient in the ability to reject cardiac allografts, suggesting that IL-4 is critical for the generation of alloreactivity. The results further suggest that the ability of sIL-4R to regulate IL-4 activities may be under the control of complex interactions that remain to be elucidated.

  2. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. The UV to FIR spectral energy distribution of star-forming galaxies in the redshift desert

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Magdis, G; Pérez-García, A M; Cepa, J; Cedrés, B; Sánchez, H Domínguez; Ederoclite, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Pérez-Martínez, R; Pintos-Castro, I; Polednikova, J

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the rest-frame UV-to-near-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), star-forming (SF) BzK (sBzK), and UV-selected galaxies at 1.5 < z < 2.5 in the COSMOS, GOODS-North, and GOODS-South fields. Additionally, we complement the multi-wavelength coverage of the galaxies located in GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields with deep FIR data taken within the framework of the GOODS-Herschel project. According to their best-fitted SED-derived properties we find that, due to their selection criterion involving UV measurements, LBGs tend to be UV-brighter, bluer, have less prominent Balmer break (are younger), and have higher dust-corrected total SFR than sBzK galaxies. In a color versus stellar mass diagram, LBGs at z ~ 2 tend to be mostly located over the blue cloud of galaxies at their redshift, although galaxies with older ages, higher dust attenuation, and redder UV continuum slope deviate to the green valley and red sequence. We find PACS (100um or 160um) individual detection...

  5. The redshift distribution of dusty star forming galaxies from the SPT survey

    CERN Document Server

    Strandet, M L; Vieira, J D; de Breuck, C; Aguirre, J E; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Béthermin, M; Bradford, C M; Carlstrom, J E; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Everett, W; Fassnacht, C D; Furstenau, R M; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Hezaveh, Y; Kamenetzky, J R; Litke, K; Ma, J; Malkan, M; Marrone, D P; Menten, K M; Murphy, E J; Nadolski, A; Rotermund, K M; Spilker, J S; Stark, A A; Welikala, N

    2016-01-01

    We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 1 to determine spectroscopic redshifts of high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected by their 1.4mm continuum emission in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. We present ALMA 3mm spectral scans between 84-114GHz for 15 galaxies and targeted ALMA 1mm observations for an additional eight sources. Our observations yield 30 new line detections from CO, [CI] , [NII] , H_2O and NH_3. We further present APEX [CII] and CO mid-J observations for seven sources for which only a single line was detected in spectral-scan data from ALMA Cycle 0 or Cycle 1. We combine the new observations with previously published and new mm/submm line and photometric data of the SPT-selected DSFGs to study their redshift distribution. The combined data yield 39 spectroscopic redshifts from molecular lines, a success rate of >85%. Our sample represents the largest data set of its kind today and has the highest spectroscopic completeness among all redsh...

  6. Striatal adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors form functional heteromeric complexes that mediate the motor effects of cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriba, Paulina; Ortiz, Oskar; Patkar, Kshitij; Justinova, Zuzana; Stroik, Jessica; Themann, Andrea; Müller, Christa; Woods, Anima S; Hope, Bruce T; Ciruela, Francisco; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I; Lluis, Carme; Goldberg, Steven R; Moratalla, Rosario; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of action responsible for the motor depressant effects of cannabinoids, which operate through centrally expressed cannabinoid CB1 receptors, is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we report that CB1 and adenosine A2A receptors form heteromeric complexes in co-transfected HEK-293T cells and rat striatum, where they colocalize in fibrilar structures. In a human neuroblastoma cell line, CB1 receptor signaling was found to be completely dependent on A2A receptor activation. Accordingly, blockade of A2A receptors counteracted the motor depressant effects produced by the intrastriatal administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist. These biochemical and behavioral findings demonstrate that the profound motor effects of cannabinoids depend on physical and functional interactions between striatal A2A and CB1 receptors.

  7. Distribution of water in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Herpin, F.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: Following our past study of the distribution of warm gas in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region, we aim here at characterizing the large-scale distribution of water in this active region of massive star formation made of individual objects in different evolutionary phases. We investigate possible variations of the water abundance as a function of evolution. Methods: We present Herschel/PACS (4'× 4') continuum maps at 89 and179 μm encompassing the whole region (Hii region and the infrared dark cloud, IRDC) and an APEX/SABOCA (2'× 2') map at 350 μm of the IRDC. New spectral Herschel/HIFI maps toward the IRDC region covering the low-energy water lines at 987 and 1113 GHz (and their H218O counterparts) are also presented and combined with HIFI pointed observations toward the G327 hot core region. We infer the physical properties of the gas through optical depth analysis and radiative transfer modeling of the HIFI lines. Results: The distribution of the continuum emission at 89 and 179 μm follows the thermal continuum emission observed at longer wavelengths, with a peak at the position of the hot core and a secondary peak in the Hii region, and an arch-like layer of hot gas west of this Hii region. The same morphology is observed in the p-H2O 111-000 line, in absorption toward all submillimeter dust condensations. Optical depths of approximately 80 and 15 are estimated and correspond to column densities of 1015 and 2 × 1014 cm-2, respectively, for the hot core and IRDC position. These values indicate an abundance of water relative to H2 of 3 × 10-8 toward the hot core, while the abundance of water does not change along the IRDC with values close to some 10-8. Infall (over at least 20″) is detected toward the hot core position with a rate of 1-1.3 × 10-2M⊙ /yr, high enough to overcome the radiation pressure that is due to the stellar luminosity. The source structure of the hot core region appears complex, with a cold outer gas envelope in

  8. Higher-order assemblies of oligomeric cargo receptor complexes form the membrane scaffold of the Cvt vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertipaglia, Chiara; Schneider, Sarah; Jakobi, Arjen J; Tarafder, Abul K; Bykov, Yury S; Picco, Andrea; Kukulski, Wanda; Kosinski, Jan; Hagen, Wim Jh; Ravichandran, Arvind C; Wilmanns, Matthias; Kaksonen, Marko; Briggs, John Ag; Sachse, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Selective autophagy is the mechanism by which large cargos are specifically sequestered for degradation. The structural details of cargo and receptor assembly giving rise to autophagic vesicles remain to be elucidated. We utilize the yeast cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a prototype of selective autophagy, together with a multi-scale analysis approach to study the molecular structure of Cvt vesicles. We report the oligomeric nature of the major Cvt cargo Ape1 with a combined 2.8 Å X-ray and negative stain EM structure, as well as the secondary cargo Ams1 with a 6.3 Å cryo-EM structure. We show that the major dodecameric cargo prApe1 exhibits a tendency to form higher-order chain structures that are broken upon interaction with the receptor Atg19 in vitro The stoichiometry of these cargo-receptor complexes is key to maintaining the size of the Cvt aggregate in vivo Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we further visualize key stages of Cvt vesicle biogenesis. Our findings suggest that Atg19 interaction limits Ape1 aggregate size while serving as a vehicle for vacuolar delivery of tetrameric Ams1.

  9. The Selective Autophagy Receptor p62 Forms a Flexible Filamentous Helical Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ciuffa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scaffold protein p62/SQSTM1 is involved in protein turnover and signaling and is commonly found in dense protein bodies in eukaryotic cells. In autophagy, p62 acts as a selective autophagy receptor that recognizes and shuttles ubiquitinated proteins to the autophagosome for degradation. The structural organization of p62 in cellular bodies and the interplay of these assemblies with ubiquitin and the autophagic marker LC3 remain to be elucidated. Here, we present a cryo-EM structural analysis of p62. Together with structures of assemblies from the PB1 domain, we show that p62 is organized in flexible polymers with the PB1 domain constituting a helical scaffold. Filamentous p62 is capable of binding LC3 and addition of long ubiquitin chains induces disassembly and shortening of filaments. These studies explain how p62 assemblies provide a large molecular scaffold for the nascent autophagosome and reveal how they can bind ubiquitinated cargo.

  10. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  11. Synthesis and in vivo brain distribution of carbon-11-labeled {delta}-opioid receptor agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama, E-mail: rpichika@ucsd.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jewett, Douglas M.; Sherman, Philip S. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Traynor, John R. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Husbands, Stephen M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Woods, James H. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Three new radiolabeled compounds, [{sup 11}C]SNC80 ((+)-4-[({alpha}R)-{alpha}-{l_brace}(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl{r_brace}-3-[{sup 11}C] methoxybenzyl-N,N-diethylbenzamide), N,N-diethyl-4-[3-methoxyphenyl-1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl) benzamide and N,N-diethyl-4-[(1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamide, were prepared as potential in vivo radiotracers for the {delta}-opioid receptor. Each compound was synthesized by alkylation of the appropriate desmethyl compounds using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. In vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed very low initial brain uptake of all three compounds and no regional specific binding for [{sup 11}C]SNC80. A monkey positron emission tomography study of [{sup 11}C]SNC80 confirmed low brain permeability and uniform regional distribution of this class of opioid agonists in a higher species. Opioid receptor ligands of this structural class are thus unlikely to succeed as in vivo radiotracers, likely due to efficient exclusion from the brain by the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter.

  12. Ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral distributions of star-forming galaxies: Metallicity and age effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral distributions from the UV to the near-IR of a sample of 44 star-forming galaxies are used to calculate the metallicity (O/H), star-formation rate (SFR) and age of the starbursts. The oxygen abundance covers the range 8.3 less than O/H less than 9.4 and nitrogen (N) is found to be mostly a product of secondary nucleosynthesis for O/H greater than 8.4. Due to its secondary origin, N/O ratios up to approximately equals 4 times the solar value can be obtained for metal-rich starbursts. The SFR ranges 0.01 to 100 solar mass/year. The lower metallicity galaxies seem to be experiencing an instantaneous burst of star formation, with ages ranging from under 5 x 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) yr. The highest metallicity galaxies are most probably experiencing a continuous burst. Correlations between the calculated quantities and several spectral features are investigated. We found a highly significant correlation between the equivalent width W(C IV lambda 1550)-a stellar (absorption) feature- and the oxygen abundance of the emitting gas (O/H). Thus we show for the first time that the stellar metallicity is well correlated with the gas metallicity in star-bursting galaxies. The equivalent width W(Si IV lambda 1400) and the emission line ratio (N II) lambda lambda 6548.84/H(sub alpha) also correlate well with O/H, and all three features can be used as metallicity indicators for star-forming galaxies. The continuum color between lambda 1400 and lambda 3500 (C(14 - 35)) is shown to correlate with O/H, although it is better correlated with E(B - V). It was not possible to disentangle the metallicity from the reddening effect in C(14- 35). We estimate that the reddening affecting the UV continuum is about half the one derived from the Balmer decrement of the emitting gas. The SFR correlates well with the galaxy luminosity and there is no dependence of the continuum color on the SFR. The higher metallicities are only found in the more luminous galaxies, while low metallicities are

  13. Gene expression and protein distribution of orexins and orexin receptors in rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Xu, G Z; Wang, L; Jiang, S X; Yang, X L; Zhong, Y M

    2011-08-25

    Orexins, composed of orexin A and orexin B, are identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R). Orexins are implicated in regulating wake/sleep states, feeding behaviors, etc. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactive (RT-PCR) analysis and immunofluorescence double labeling, we investigated the distributions of orexin A, orexin B, OX1R and OX2R in rat retina. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of mRNAs of prepro-orexin, OX1R and OX2R in rat retina. Immunostaining for orexin A and orexin B was observed in many cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. In the outer retina, horizontal cells, labeled by calbindin, and bipolar cells, labeled by homeobox protein Chx10, were orexin A- and orexin B-positive. In the inner retina, two orexins were both found in GABAergic amacrine cells (ACs), including dopaminergic and cholinergic ones, stained by tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase respectively. Glycinergic ACs, including AII ACs, also expressed orexins. Weak to moderate labeling for orexin A and orexin B was diffusely distributed in the inner plexiform layer. Additionally, orexins were expressed in almost all ganglion cells (GCs) retrogradely labeled by cholera toxin B subunit. Specifically, double-labeling experiments demonstrated that melanopsin-positive GCs (intrinsically photosensitive retinal GCs, ipRGCs) were labeled by two orexins. Morever, OX1R immunoreactivity was observed in most of GCs and all dopaminergic ACs, as well as in both outer and inner plexiform layers. In contrast, no obvious OX2R immunostaining was detectable in the rat retina. These results suggest that orexins may modulate the function of neurons, especially in the inner retina. We further hypothesize that the orexin signaling via ipRGCs may be involved in setting the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock.

  14. Cavitation distribution within large phantom vessel and mechanical damage formed on surrounding vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Li, Zhaopeng; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-11-01

    Blood vessel is one of the most important targets encountered during focused ultrasound (FU) therapy. The lasting high temperature caused by continuous FU can result in structural modification of small vessel. For the vessel with a diameter larger than 2mm, convective cooling can significantly weaken the thermal effect of FU. Meanwhile, the continued presence of ultrasound will cause repetitive cavitation and acoustic microstreaming, making comprehension of continuous wave induced cavitation effect in large vessels necessary. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method, mechanical damage observation and high-speed camera were used in this study to investigate the combination effect of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and continuous FU in large phantom vessels with a diameter of 10mm without consideration of thermal effect. When the focus was positioned at the proximal wall, cylindrical hole along the acoustic axis opposite the ultrasound wave propagation direction was observed at the input power equal to or greater than 50 W. When the focus was located at the distal wall, only small tunnels can be found. The place where the cylindrical hole formed was corresponding to where bubbles gathered and emitted brilliant light near the wall. Without UCAs neither such bright SL nor cylindrical hole can be found. However, the UCAs concentration had little influence on the SL distribution and the length of cylindrical hole. The SL intensity near the proximal vessel wall and the length of the cylindrical hole both increased with the input power. It is suggested that these findings need to be considered in the large vessel therapy and UCAs usage.

  15. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-forming Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M L; Black, C S; Hainline, K N; DiPompeo, M A; Goulding, A D

    2016-01-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test if an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work that suggests that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGN using a broad instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observe...

  16. Focal Adhesion Kinase-Dependent Role of the Soluble Form of Neurotensin Receptor-3/Sortilin in Colorectal Cancer Cell Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Béraud-Dufour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to unravel the mechanisms of action of the soluble form of the neurotensin (NT receptor-3 (NTSR3, also called Sortilin, in numerous physiopathological processes including cancer development, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Sortilin/NTSR3 is a transmembrane protein thought to exert multiple functions both intracellularly and at the level of the plasma membrane. The Sortilin/NTSR3 extracellular domain is released by shedding from all the cells expressing the protein. Although the existence of the soluble form of Sortilin/NTSR3 (sSortilin/NTSR3 has been evidenced for more than 10 years, the studies focusing on the role of this soluble protein at the mechanistic level remain rare. Numerous cancer cells, including colonic cancer cells, express the receptor family of neurotensin (NT, and particularly Sortilin/NTSR3. This review aims to summarize the functional role of sSortilin/NTSR3 characterized in the colonic cancer cell line HT29. This includes mechanisms involving signaling cascades through focal adhesion kinase (FAK, a key pathway leading to the weakening of cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix adhesions, a series of events which could be responsible for cancer metastasis. Finally, some future approaches targeting the release of sNTSR3 through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are suggested.

  17. Focal Adhesion Kinase-Dependent Role of the Soluble Form of Neurotensin Receptor-3/Sortilin in Colorectal Cancer Cell Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Devader, Christelle; Massa, Fabienne; Roulot, Morgane; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to unravel the mechanisms of action of the soluble form of the neurotensin (NT) receptor-3 (NTSR3), also called Sortilin, in numerous physiopathological processes including cancer development, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Sortilin/NTSR3 is a transmembrane protein thought to exert multiple functions both intracellularly and at the level of the plasma membrane. The Sortilin/NTSR3 extracellular domain is released by shedding from all the cells expressing the protein. Although the existence of the soluble form of Sortilin/NTSR3 (sSortilin/NTSR3) has been evidenced for more than 10 years, the studies focusing on the role of this soluble protein at the mechanistic level remain rare. Numerous cancer cells, including colonic cancer cells, express the receptor family of neurotensin (NT), and particularly Sortilin/NTSR3. This review aims to summarize the functional role of sSortilin/NTSR3 characterized in the colonic cancer cell line HT29. This includes mechanisms involving signaling cascades through focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a key pathway leading to the weakening of cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix adhesions, a series of events which could be responsible for cancer metastasis. Finally, some future approaches targeting the release of sNTSR3 through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are suggested. PMID:27834811

  18. Constitutively active form of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 ameliorates experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Nobutoshi; Ishida, Hidekazu; Katsuragi, Shinichi; Baden, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Higeno, Ryota; Torigoe, Fumiko; Mihara, Seiko; Narita, Jun; Miura, Kohji; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We recently found a constitutively active mutant of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (caNPR2; V883M), which synthesizes larger amounts of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) intracellularly without any ligand stimulation than existing drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of gene transduction using caNPR2 for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In vitro gene transduction into human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells using Sendai virus (SeV) vectors carrying caNPR2 induced 10,000-fold increases in the synthesis of cGMP without ligand stimulation, and the proliferation of caNPR2-expressing cells was significantly attenuated. The PAH model rats generated by hypoxia and the administration of SU5416 were then treated with SeV vectors through a direct injection into the left pulmonary artery. Right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly decreased 2 weeks after the treatment, while systemic blood pressure remained unchanged. Histological analyses revealed that the medial wall thickness and occlusion rate of pulmonary arterioles were significantly improved in caNPR2-treated lungs. Neither the systemic integration of virus vectors nor side effects were observed. The massive stimulation of cGMP synthesis by gene therapy with caNPR2 was safe and effective in a PAH rat model and, thus, has potential as a novel therapy for patients with severe progressive PAH.

  19. Crystal Structure of the Urokinase Receptor in a Ligand-Free Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xiang; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Yuan, Cai;

    2012-01-01

    . The crystal structure of human uPAR in its ligand-free state would clarify this issue, but such information remains unfortunately elusive. We now report the crystal structures of a stabilized, human uPAR (H47C/N259C) in its ligand-free form to 2.4 Å and in complex with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) to 3.2 Å...

  20. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  1. Analytical form of EM fields radiated by circular aperture antennas of various current distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le-Wei Li; Qun Wu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic radiation by circular aperture antennas fed by circular waveguides is considered. Electromagnetic fields radiated by the aperture antennas are formulated in detail and two aperture field distributions are considered, one being the uniform distribution and the other being the TE11-mode distribution. Some mistakes existing in the literature are pointed out. The detailed derivations for the fields by the TE11-mode distribution aperture were not commonly available in the public literature, although the solution is available. The analytical results obtained here are useful for antenna designers and antenna engineering education.

  2. Soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNF-Rs). The cDNA for the type I TNF-R, cloned using amino acid sequence data of its soluble form, encodes both the cell surface and a soluble form of the receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nophar, Y; Kemper, O; Brakebusch, C

    1990-01-01

    found to have effects characteristic of TNF, including stimulating phosphorylation of specific cellular proteins. Oligonucleotide probes designed on the basis of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of TBPI were used to clone the cDNA for the structurally related cell surface type 1 TNF-R. It is notable...... that although this receptor can signal the phosphorylation of cellular proteins, it appears from its amino acid sequence to be devoid of intrinsic protein kinase activity. The extracellular domain of the receptor is composed of four internal cysteine-rich repeats, homologous to structures repeated four times...... of structure, did not suggest any identity between this protein and the extracellular domain of the type I TNF-R. CHO cells transfected with type I TNF-R cDNA produced both cell surface and soluble forms of the receptor. The receptor produced by CHO cells was recognized by several monoclonal antibodies against...

  3. A new criterion to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral images of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacré, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pysacre@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Lebrun, Pierre [Arlenda S.A., Avenue de l’Hopital, 1, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chavez, Pierre-François; Bleye, Charlotte De; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Rozet, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Klinkenberg, Régis; Streel, Bruno [Galéphar Research Center M/F, rue du Parc Industriel 39, 6900 Marche-en-Famenne (Belgium); Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • DHI has been developed to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral maps. • This criterion has been tested with simulated maps of different homogeneity. • A linear relationship is observed between homogeneity and DHI value. • DHI methodology has been applied on real samples. • A linear relationship is observed between DHI and content uniformity values. - Abstract: During galenic formulation development, homogeneity of distribution is a critical parameter to check since it may influence activity and safety of the drug. Raman hyperspectral imaging is a technique of choice for assessing the distributional homogeneity of compounds of interest. Indeed, the combination of both spectroscopic and spatial information provides a detailed knowledge of chemical composition and component distribution. Actually, most authors assess homogeneity using parameters of the histogram of intensities (e.g. mean, skewness and kurtosis). However, this approach does not take into account spatial information and loses the main advantage of imaging. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new criterion: Distributional Homogeneity Index (DHI). DHI has been tested on simulated maps and formulation development samples. The distribution maps of the samples were obtained without validated calibration model since different formulations were under investigation. The results obtained showed a linear relationship between content uniformity values and DHI values of distribution maps. Therefore, DHI methodology appears to be a suitable tool for the analysis of homogeneity of distribution maps even without calibration during formulation development.

  4. Distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat brain as determined in binding studies with AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldo, E.; Hammer, R.; Ladinsky, H.

    1987-03-02

    In vitro competition binding experiments with the selective muscarinic antagonists AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine (PZ) vs /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine as radioligand revealed a characteristic distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in different regions of rat brain. Based on nonlinear least squares analysis, the binding data were compatible with the presence of three different subtypes: the M/sub 1/ receptor (high affinity for PZ), the cardiac M/sub 2/ receptor (high affinity for AF-DX 116) and the glandular M/sub 2/ receptor (low affinity for PZ and AF-DX 116). The highest proportion of M/sub 1/ receptors was found in the hippocampus, while the cerebellum and the hypothalamus were the regions with the largest fraction of the cardiac M/sub 2/ and glandular M/sub 2/ receptors, respectively. In certain brain areas, depending on the relative proportions of the subtypes, flat binding curves were seen for AF-DX 116 and PZ. Based on these data, an approximate distribution pattern of the subtypes in the various brain regions is presented. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals: II. Tissue distribution of 17. cap alpha. -methylestradiol in normal and tumor-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feenstra, A.; Vaalburg, W.; Nolten, G.M.J.; Reiffers, S.; Talma, A.G.; Wiegman, T.; van der Molen, H.D.; Woldring, M.G.

    1983-06-01

    Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol was synthesized to investigate the potential of the carbon-11-labeled analog as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical. In vitro, 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is bound with high affinity to the cytoplasmic estrogen receptor from rabbit uterus (K/sub d/ = 1.96 x 10/sup -10/M), and it sediments as an 8S hormone-receptor complex in sucrose gradients. The compound shows specific uptake in the uterus of the adult rat, within 1 h after injection. In female rats bearing DMBA-induced tumors, specific uterine and tumor uptakes were observed, although at 30 min the tumor uptake was only 23 to 30% of the uptake in the uterus. Tritiated 17..cap alpha..-methylestradiol with a specific activity of 6 Ci/mmole showed a similar tissue distribution. Our results indicate that a 17 ..cap alpha..-methylestradiol is promising as an estrogen-receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical.

  6. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of opioid growth factor and its receptor in tongue epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagon, Ian S; Ruth, Torre B; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2005-01-01

    The subcellular distributions of the opioid growth factor (OGF), [Met(5)]-enkephalin, and opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) in the epithelium of the rat tongue were determined in order to reveal structure-function relationships. Laser scanning confocal microscopic analysis showed that both OGF and OGFr were colocalized in the paranuclear cytoplasm and in the nuclei of keratinocytes in the stratum basale. Using immunoelectron microscopy and postembedding techniques, double labeling experiments disclosed that complexes of OGF-OGFr were colocalized on the outer nuclear envelope, in the paranuclear cytoplasm, perpendicular to the nuclear envelope in a putative nuclear pore complex, and in the nucleus adjacent to heterochromatin. Anti-OGF IgG alone was detected in the cytoplasm, and anti-OGFr IgG alone was associated with the outer nuclear envelope. Study of chronic treatment with the opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), which blocks opioid-receptor binding, revealed the presence of OGFr immunoreactivity alone in the cytoplasm and the nucleus; some OGF-OGFr complexes were also observed. Colocalization of OGFr and karyopherin (importin) beta was recorded in the cytoplasm and nucleus. These results in tongue epithelium are the first to suggest that OGFr resides on the outer nuclear envelope, where OGF interacts with OGFr; that the OGF-OGFr complex translocates between cytoplasm and nucleus at the nuclear pore; and that the nuclear localization signal of OGFr interacts with karyopherin beta for nuclear transport. These novel data also indicate that signal transduction for cell proliferation appears to involve an OGF-OGFr complex that interfaces with chromatin in the nucleus. Moreover, the unique finding that OGFr was found in the cytoplasm and nucleus in NTX-treated specimens may suggest that NTX-OGFr complexes have the same pathway as OGF-OGFr.

  7. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor (KIR) Genotype Distribution in Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erken, Ertugrul; Goruroglu Ozturk, Ozlem; Kudas, Ozlem; Arslan Tas, Didem; Demirtas, Ahmet; Kibar, Filiz; Dinkci, Suzan; Erken, Eren

    2015-11-17

    BACKGROUND Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease predominantly affecting Mediterranean populations. The gene associated with FMF is the MEFV gene, which encodes for a protein called pyrin. Mutations of pyrin lead to uncontrolled attacks of inflammation, and subclinical inflammation continues during attack-free intervals. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes encode HLA class I receptors expressed by NK cells. The aim this study was to look for immunogenetic determinants in the pathogenesis of FMF and find out if KIR are related to susceptibility to disease or complications like renal amyloidosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS One hundred and five patients with FMF and 100 healthy individuals were involved in the study. Isolated DNA from peripheral blood was amplified by sequence specific PCR probes and analyzed by Luminex for KIR genotypes. Fisher Exact test was used to evaluate the variation of KIR gene distribution. RESULTS All patients and healthy controls expressed the framework genes. An activator KIR gene, KIR2DS2, was significantly more frequent in FMF patients (p=0.036). Renal amyloidosis and presence of arthritis were not associated with KIR genes and genotype. KIR3DL1 gene was more common in patients with high serum CRP (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS According to our findings, we suggest that presence of KIR2DS2, which is an activator gene for NK cell functions, might be related to the autoinflammation in FMF. The potential effect of KIR genes on amyloidosis and other clinical features requires studies with larger sample sizes.

  8. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

  9. Distribution and Abundance of Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Receptors throughout the Brain of the Great Tit (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Senft

    Full Text Available The glucocorticoid stress response, regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, enables individuals to cope with stressors through transcriptional effects in cells expressing the appropriate receptors. The two receptors that bind glucocorticoids-the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR-are present in a variety of vertebrate tissues, but their expression in the brain is especially important. Neural receptor patterns have the potential to integrate multiple behavioral and physiological traits simultaneously, including self-regulation of glucocorticoid secretion through negative feedback processes. In the present work, we quantified the expression of GR and MR mRNA throughout the brain of a female great tit (Parus major, creating a distribution map encompassing 48 regions. This map, the first of its kind for P. major, demonstrated a widespread but not ubiquitous distribution of both receptor types. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN and the hippocampus (HP-the two brain regions that we sampled from a total of 25 birds, we found high GR mRNA expression in the former and, unexpectedly, low MR mRNA in the latter. We examined the covariation of MR and GR levels in these two regions and found a strong, positive relationship between MR in the PVN and MR in the HP and a similar trend for GR across these two regions. This correlation supports the idea that hormone pleiotropy may constrain an individual's behavioral and physiological phenotype. In the female song system, we found moderate GR in hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis (HVC, and moderate MR in robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA. Understanding intra- and interspecific patterns of glucocorticoid receptor expression can inform us about the behavioral processes (e.g. song learning that may be sensitive to stress and stimulate future hypotheses concerning the relationships between receptor expression, circulating hormone concentrations

  10. Analysis of Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Soluble Receptors in Patients with Different Forms of Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jagodzinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a powerful enhancer of vascular permeability and inflammatory response; however its significance in chronic urticaria is poorly recognised. Aim. To compare free circulating levels of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in patients with different forms of chronic urticaria. Methods. The concentrations of VEGF and its receptors in plateletpoor plasma (PPP/plasma were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in chronic urticaria: (1 chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU with positive autologous serum skin test (ASST, (2 CSU with negative response to ASST, (3 CSU with concomitant euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (CSU/Hashimoto, (4 delayed pressure urticaria (DPU, and the healthy subjects. Results. There were no significant differences in VEGF concentration in PPP between CSU groups and the healthy subjects. Contrary, VEGF concentration was significantly higher in DPU and CSU/Hashimoto patients as compared with the healthy subjects and CSU groups. Furthermore, VEGF value in CSU/Hashimoto patients during the remission was similar to that of the active period and significantly higher than the healthy subjects; VEGF concentration was significantly correlated with TSH. Plasma concentrations of sVEGF1 and sVEGF2 were similar in chronic urticaria patients and the healthy subjects. Conclusions. Increased free circulating VEGF concentration may result from the urticarial process itself as well as concomitant Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

  11. Abundance, distribution, mobility and oligomeric state of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in live cardiac muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nenasheva, Tatiana A.; Neary, Marianne; Gregory I. Mashanov; Birdsall, Nigel J.M.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cardiac rhythm via regulation of the inward potassium current. To increase our understanding of M2 receptor physiology we used Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy to visualize individual receptors at the plasma membrane of transformed CHOM2 cells, a cardiac cell line (HL-1), primary cardiomyocytes and tissue slices from pre- and post-natal mice. Receptor expression levels between individual cells in dissociated cardiomyocytes and he...

  12. A comparison of the fibrinogen receptor distribution on adherent platelets using both soluble fibrinogen and fibrinogen immobilized on gold beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estry, D W; Mattson, J C; Mahoney, G J; Oesterle, J R

    1991-04-01

    The distribution of fibrinogen receptors was determined on the surface of adherent platelets using both direct labeling with the ligand fibrinogen which was immobilized on gold particles (Fg-Au) and indirect immunogold (Ig-Au) labeling of bound soluble fibrinogen identified with a rabbit polyclonal anti-fibrinogen antibody. Two distinctly different patterns of labeling were obtained and appeared to depend on whether solid phase fibrinogen (Fg-Au) or soluble phase released fibrinogen were bound to the membrane receptor. The membrane-bound Fg-Au reorganized in patterns that closely mimicked the organization of the underlying cytoskeleton. In approximately 18% of the adherent platelets, Fg-Au was seen in channels or vesicle-like structures lying deep to the platelet surface suggesting internalization into the open canalicular system and/or endocytosis. The labeling pattern obtained when identifying the location of membrane-bound soluble released fibrinogen by Ig-Au was diffuse and lacked the organizational patterns characteristic of Fg-Au. Unlike the Fg-Au probe, early dendritic platelets were heavily labeled by the soluble phase fibrinogen using the Ig-Au technique. Although the label covered the entire exposed platelet membrane in fully spread platelets, labeling over the peripheral web was more dense than that over the intermediate or granulomere zone. The diffuse organization and heavier peripheral distributional pattern of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa) receptor in fixed, adherent platelets, was also seen with the GP IIb-IIIa receptor-specific antibody AP-2. The binding of both the Fg-Au and Ig-Au were inhibited using the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) (93% and 98% inhibition, respectively), AP-2 (98% and 97%, respectively) and platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) (99% and 98%, respectively). The data presented provides the first report that receptor reorganization, following binding of fibrinogen, appears to be related to

  13. Neutron distribution, electric dipole polarizability and weak form factor of 48Ca from chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kyle

    2016-03-01

    How large is the 48Ca nucleus? While the electric charge distribution of this nucleus was accurately measured decades ago, both experimental and ab initio descriptions of the neutron distribution are deficient. We address this question using ab initio calculations of the electric charge, neutron, and weak distributions of 48Ca based on chiral effective field theory. Historically, chiral effective field theory calculations of systems larger than 4 nucleons have been plagued by strong systematic errors which result in theoretical descriptions that are too dense and over bound. We address these errors using a novel approach that permits us to accurately reproduce binding energy and charge radius of 48Ca, and to constrain electroweak observables such as the neutron radius, electric dipole polarizability, and the weak form factor. For a full list of contributors to this work, please see ``Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus,'' Nature Physics (2015) doi:10.1038/nphys3529.

  14. Testing the universality of star formation - II. Comparing separation distributions of nearby star-forming regions and the field

    CERN Document Server

    King, Robert R; Parker, Richard J; Patience, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    We have measured the multiplicity fractions and separation distributions of seven young star-forming regions using a uniform sample of young binaries. Both the multiplicity fractions and separation distributions are similar in the different regions. A tentative decline in the multiplicity fraction with increasing stellar density is apparent, even for binary systems with separations too close (19-100au) to have been dynamically processed. The separation distributions in the different regions are statistically indistinguishable over most separation ranges, and the regions with higher densities do not exhibit a lower proportion of wide (300-620au) relative to close (62-300au) binaries as might be expected from the preferential destruction of wider pairs. Only the closest (19-100au) separation range, which would be unaffected by dynamical processing, shows a possible difference in separation distributions between different regions. The combined set of young binaries, however, shows a distinct difference when comp...

  15. Electroreception in Gymnotus carapo: pre-receptor processing and the distribution of electroreceptor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, M E; Aguilera, P A; Trujillo-Cenóz, O; Caputi, A A

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes the peripheral mechanisms involved in signal processing of self- and conspecific-generated electric fields by the electric fish Gymnotus carapo. The distribution of the different types of tuberous electroreceptor and the occurrence of particular electric field patterns close to the body of the fish were studied. The density of tuberous electroreceptors was found to be maximal on the jaw (foveal region) and very high on the dorsal region of the snout (parafoveal region), decaying caudally. Tuberous type II electroreceptors were much more abundant than type I electroreceptors. Type I electroreceptors occurred exclusively on the head and rostral trunk regions, while type II electroreceptors were found along as much as 90 % of the fish. Electrophysiological data indicated that conspecific- and self-generated electric currents are 'funnelled' by the high conductivity and geometry of the body of the fish. These currents are concentrated at the peri-oral zone, where most electroreceptors are located. Moreover, within this region, field vector directions were collimated, constituting the most efficient stimulus for electroreceptors. It can be concluded that the passive properties of the fish tissue represent a pre-receptor device that enhances exafferent and reafferent electrical signals at the fovea-parafoveal region.

  16. Distribution of androgen and progesterone receptors in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary during postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2010-03-01

    This study describes the localization of androgen (AR) and progesterone (PR) receptors in the developing ovary in the spiny mouse. The immunohistochemical analysis showed for the first time the expression of AR and PR proteins in the ovary as early as in one day-old females. Both AR and PR were present in germinal epithelium cells, stromal cells as well as in the granulosa and theca layer of ovarian follicles. On days 7, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90, the distribution of AR and PR depended on the stage of follicular development rather than on the animal's age. A novel observation was that PR protein was detected not only in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles, but also in the growing and early antral follicles. It was demonstrated that there is a different pattern of AR and PR immunoexpression throughout folliculogenesis. In contrast to AR, whose expression decreased during follicular development, the PR immunostaining increased during this time. It is concluded that androgens and progesterone may play an important role in the early stage of follicular development in the spiny mouse.

  17. The diversity of GABA(A) receptor subunit distribution in the normal and Huntington's disease human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldvogel, H J; Faull, R L M

    2015-01-01

    GABA(A) receptors are assembled into pentameric receptor complexes from a total of 19 different subunits derived from a variety of different subunit classes (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ɛ, θ, and π) which surround a central chloride ion channel. GABA(A) receptor complexes are distributed heterogeneously throughout the brain and spinal cord and are activated by the extensive GABAergic inhibitory system. In this chapter, we describe the heterogeneous distribution of six of the most widely distributed subunits (α1, α2, α3, β2,3, and γ2) throughout the human basal ganglia. This review describes the studies we have carried out on the normal and Huntington's disease human basal ganglia using autoradiographic labeling and immunohistochemistry in the human basal ganglia. GABA(A) receptors are known to react to changing conditions in the brain in neurological disorders, especially in Huntington's disease and display a high degree of plasticity which is thought to compensate for loss of function caused by disease. In Huntington's disease, the variable loss of GABAergic medium spiny striatopallidal projection neurons is associated with a loss of GABA(A) receptor subunits in the striosome and/or the matrix compartments of the striatum. By contrast in the globus pallidus, a loss of the GABAergic striatal projection neurons results in a dramatic upregulation of subunits on the large postsynaptic pallidal neurons; this is thought to be a compensatory plastic mechanism resulting from the loss of striatal GABAergic input. Most interestingly, our studies have revealed that the subventricular zone overlying the caudate nucleus contains a variety of proliferating progenitor stem cells that possess a heterogeneity of GABA(A) receptor subunits which may play a role in human brain repair mechanisms. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of various forms of organic nitrogen in a lignite macromolecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Ryl' tsova, S.V. [Lev Tolstoi State Pedalogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical composition of organic bases from tars of stepwise semicoking of lignite was studied. The features of distribution of organic nitrogen in a coal macromolecule and the most probable pathways of thermal degradation of the nitrogen-containing fragments were examined.

  19. Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-09-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01741077.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Sex Distribution of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Family Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Scaeva pyrastri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Chemosensory receptors play key roles in insect behavior. Thus, genes encoding these receptors have great potential for use in integrated pest management. The hover fly Scaeva pyrastri (L. is an important pollinating insect and a natural enemy of aphids, mainly distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions. However, a systematic identification of their chemosensory receptor genes in the antennae has not been reported. In the present study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of S. pyrastri by using Illumina sequencing technology. Analysis of the transcriptome data identified 60 candidate chemosensory genes, including 38 for odorant receptors (ORs, 16 for ionotropic receptors (IRs, and 6 for gustatory receptors (GRs. The numbers are similar to those of other Diptera species, suggesting that we were able to successfully identify S. pyrastri chemosensory genes. We analyzed the expression patterns of all genes by using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR, and found that some genes exhibited sex-biased or sex-specific expression. These candidate chemosensory genes and their tissue expression profiles provide information for further studies aimed at fully understanding the molecular basis behind chemoreception-related behaviors in S. pyrastri.

  1. Thermochemical prediction of chemical form distributions of fission products in LWR oxide fuels irradiated to high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kouki; Furuya, Hirotaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Based on the result of micro-gamma scanning of a fuel pin irradiated to high burnup in a commercial PWR, the radial distribution of chemical forms of fission products (FPs) in LWR fuel pins was theoretically predicted by a thermochemical computer code SOLGASMIX-PV. The absolute amounts of fission products generated in the fuel was calculated by ORIGEN-2 code, and the radial distributions of temperature and oxygen potential were calculated by taking the neutron depression and oxygen redistribution in the fuel into account. A fuel pellet was radially divided into 51 sections and chemical forms of FPs were calculated in each section. In addition, the effects of linear heat rating (LHR) and average O/U ratio on radial distribution of chemical form were evaluated. It was found that approximately 13 mole% of the total amount of Cs compounds exists as CsI and virtually remaining fraction as Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} under the operation condition of LHR below 400 W/cm. On the other hand, when LHR is beyond 400 W/cm under the transient operation condition, its distribution did not change so much from the one under normal operation condition. (author)

  2. Structural Basis for Recognition of the Pore-Forming Toxin Intermedilysin by Human Complement Receptor CD59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pore-forming proteins containing the structurally conserved membrane attack complex/perforin fold play an important role in immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Intermedilysin (ILY is an archetypal member of a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin subclass that hijacks the complement receptor CD59 to make cytotoxic pores in human cells. ILY directly competes for the membrane attack complex binding site on CD59, rendering cells susceptible to complement lysis. To understand how these bacterial pores form in lipid bilayers and the role CD59 plays in complement regulation, we determined the crystal structure of human CD59 bound to ILY. Here, we show the ILY-CD59 complex at 3.5 Å resolution and identify two interfaces mediating this host-pathogen interaction. An ILY-derived peptide based on the binding site inhibits pore formation in a CD59-containing liposome model system. These data provide insight into how CD59 coordinates ILY monomers, nucleating an early prepore state, and suggest a potential mechanism of inhibition for the complement terminal pathway.

  3. Study on Temperature Distribution of Specimens Tested on the Gleeble 3800 at Hot Forming Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Gao; Long Ma; Xiao-Guo Peng

    2014-01-01

    Taking Ti-6Al-4V specimens into consideration, the coupled thermal-electrical finite element model has been developed in Abaqus/Explicit to simulate the heating process in Gleeble 3800 and to study the temperature history and distribution in the specimen. In order to verify the finite element (FE) results, thermal tests are carried out on Gleeble 3800 for a Ti-6Al-4V specimen with a slot to in the centre of the specimen. The effects of the specimen size, heating rate, and air convection on the temperature distribution over the specimen have been investigated. The conclusions can be drawn as: the temperature gradient of the specimen decreases as the specimen size, heating rate, and vacuuming decrease.

  4. Pressure distribution in an electrical conducting fluid in spherical form in the presence of crossed electrical and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchelukhin, E.M.; Tsarevskaya, I.I.; Bruskii, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    An examination is made of electromagnetic forces in an isotropic fluid having a spherical form with non-conducting walls in the presence of crossed electrical and magnetic fields. The problem was solved on the assumption that the fluid is in a quiescent state but that the magnetic field is uniform. Computations were made of static pressure distribution and the scalar potential of an electromagnetic field in a fluid. Experimental data are presented on the measurement of static pressure distributions which agree well with the theoretical calculations. The obtained results may be used for engineering estimates of pressure in technological MHD apparatus.

  5. Distributed beam forming with phase-only control for green cognitive radio networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lian, X.; Nikookar, H.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent radio system and is able to share the spectrum with licensed users (LU). By adopting adaptive beam forming techniques, CR can reuse the spectrum with LU via directing main beams towards CR users while displaying nulls towards LU. In this article, we present a n

  6. Distribution of various forms of Cd, Pb and Cu in the Wadge Bank region (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.D.

    Labile, nonlabile and particulate forms of Cd,Pb and Cu were determined in 29 water samples collected from a depth of 5 m, from the Wadge Bank area. Labile Cd varied from 0.1 to 0.2 mu g.l-1 while nonlabile fraction was in the range 0.1 to 0.3 mu gl...

  7. Modelling of absorption, distribution and physicochemical properties of AT1 receptor antagonists / Modelovanie absorpcie, distribúcie a fyzikálnochemických vlastnosti antagonistov AT1 receptorov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ježko Pavol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical chemistry methods were used to elucidate absorption, distribution and physicochemical properties of AT1 receptor antagonists and dual angiotensin II and endothelin A receptor antagonist (PS-433540. Computed partition coefficients (ALOGPS method studied for drugs varied between 2.98 and 6.66. Neutral compounds are described as lipophilic drugs. Telmisartan is a drug with the highest lipophilicity. The neutral forms of the studied AT1 receptor antagonists are practically insoluble in water, and their computed solubilities is in interval between 2.04 and 22.65 mg/l (ALOGpS method. The calculated pKa values for tetrazolyle moiety are in the range 3.92-5.00 and for carboxylic moiety 3.12-5.50. Telmisartan (polar surface area = 72.95 A and irbesartan (polar surface area = 87.14 A belong to the AT1 receptor antagonists with increased absorption.

  8. DR Tau: Temporal variability of the brightness distribution in the potential planet-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Brunngräber, Robert; Ratzka, Thorsten; Ober, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variability of the brightness distribution and the changing density structure of the protoplanetary disk around DR Tau, a classical T Tauri star. DR Tau is known for its peculiar variations from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared (MIR). Our goal is to constrain the temporal variation of the disk structure based on photometric and MIR interferometric data. We observed DR Tau with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at three epochs separated by about nine years, two months, respectively. We fit the spectral energy distribution and the MIR visibilities with radiative transfer simulations. We are able to reproduce the spectral energy distribution as well as the MIR visibility for one of the three epochs (third epoch) with a basic disk model. We were able to reproduce the very different visibility curve obtained nine years earlier with a very similar baseline (first epoch), using the same disk model with a smaller scale heigh...

  9. The spatial distribution patterns of condensed phase post-blast explosive residues formed during detonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Karim, Nadia; Blackman, Christopher S; Gill, Philip P; Karu, Kersti

    2016-10-05

    The continued usage of explosive devices, as well as the ever growing threat of 'dirty' bombs necessitates a comprehensive understanding of particle dispersal during detonation events in order to develop effectual methods for targeting explosive and/or additive remediation efforts. Herein, the distribution of explosive analytes from controlled detonations of aluminised ammonium nitrate and an RDX-based explosive composition were established by systematically sampling sites positioned around each firing. This is the first experimental study to produce evidence that the post-blast residue mass can distribute according to an approximate inverse-square law model, while also demonstrating for the first time that distribution trends can vary depending on individual analytes. Furthermore, by incorporating blast-wave overpressure measurements, high-speed imaging for fireball volume recordings, and monitoring of environmental conditions, it was determined that the principle factor affecting all analyte dispersals was the wind direction, with other factors affecting specific analytes to varying degrees. The dispersal mechanism for explosive residue is primarily the smoke cloud, a finding which in itself has wider impacts on the environment and fundamental detonation theory.

  10. Distribution of the a2, a3, and a5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the chick brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrão A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are ionotropic receptors comprised of a and ß subunits. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system, and previous studies have revealed specific patterns of localization for some nAChR subunits in the vertebrate brain. In the present study we used immunohistochemical methods and monoclonal antibodies to localize the a2, a3, and a5 nAChR subunits in the chick mesencephalon and diencephalon. We observed a differential distribution of these three subunits in the chick brain, and showed that the somata and neuropil of many central structures contain the a5 nAChR subunit. The a2 and a3 subunits, on the other hand, exhibited a more restricted distribution than a5 and other subunits previously studied, namely a7, a8 and ß2. The patterns of distribution of the different nAChR subunits suggest that neurons in many brain structures may contain several subtypes of nAChRs and that in a few regions one particular subtype may determine the cholinergic nicotinic responses

  11. Malaria vectors in the Republic of Benin: distribution of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djogbénou, Luc; Pasteur, Nicole; Bio-Bangana, Sahabi; Baldet, Thierry; Irish, Seth R; Akogbeto, Martin; Weill, Mylène; Chandre, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are among the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato was carried out in 2006 and 2007 in various bioclimatic areas of Benin (West Africa). The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of species and forms within the An. gambiae complex and to produce a map of their spatial distribution. Sampling took place at 30 sites and 2122 females were analyzed. Two species were identified through molecular methods. The overall collection showed a preponderance of An. gambiae s.s., but unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was reported in the coastal-Guinean bioclimatic area characterized by a mean annual rainfall of >1500 mm where only An. gambiae s.s. was reported previously. Our study of Benin indicates that An. arabiensis would be adapted not only to the urban areas but also to the rural humid regions. Among 1717 An. gambiae s.s., 26.5% were of the M form and 73.3% were S form. Few hybrid specimens between the M and S forms were observed (0.2%). Only the spatial distribution of the M form appears to be mainly a function of bioclimatic area. Factors that influence the distribution of these malaria vectors are discussed. This study underlines the need of further investigations of biological, ecological, and behavioral traits of these species and forms to better appreciate their vectorial capacities. Acquisition of entomological field data appears essential to better estimate the stratification of malaria risk and help improve malaria vector control interventions.

  12. Human hematopoietic cells express two forms of the cytokine receptor common γ—chain(γc)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYUFANG; MARYHILL; 等

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the γ-chain of the IL-2 receptor is shared by the receptors for IL-4,IL-7,IL-9,IL-13,and IL-15,and it is therefore also referred to as the common γ-chain (γc).Mutations of γc result in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome in humans,indicating that γc is essential for normal development and function of the immune system.We demonstrate that human hematopoietic cells express two γc transcripts differing in their carboxyl terminal coding region.One transcript is the previously reported sequence (γc-long), whereas the newly identified sequence exhibits a deletion of 72 nucleotides close to the 3'-end of the open reading frame (γc-short).This alteration predicts a loss of 24 amino acids including a conserved tyrosine residue which is shared by several members of the cytokine receptor family.The presencfe of these two distinct forms of γc transcripts was demonstrated by sequencing of reversely transcribed and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplified mRNA,restriction diestion of the RT-PCR products,RNAse protection,and Northern blotting from human cell lines and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.Furthermore,the two variants were present in peripheral blood lymphocytes from both female and male donors,which rules out allelic variants since γc is a single copy gene located on the X chromosome.A truncation mutant at a site near the observed changes in γc-short has been reported by others to alter biochemical events activated by cytokines.This combined with the loss of a potential SH2 “docking” site in γc-short suggests that γ-long and γc-short may link to different signaling pathways and may play an important role in detenmining the cellular response to IL-2,IL-4,IL-7,IL-9,IL-13,IL-15.

  13. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVII. Kisspeptin Receptor Nomenclature, Distribution, and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Helen R.; Maguire, Janet J.; Colledge, William H.; Davenport, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptins are members of the Arg-Phe amide family of peptides, which have been identified as endogenous ligands for a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by a gene originally called GPR54 (also known as AXOR12 or hOT7T175). After this pairing, the gene has been renamed KISS1R. The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name for the receptor is the kisspeptin receptor to follow the conventi...

  14. Aedes aegypti immature forms distribution according to type of breeding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medronho, Roberto A; Macrini, Leonardo; Novellino, Daniele M; Lagrotta, Marcos T F; Câmara, Volney M; Pedreira, Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    More than 2.5 billion people, in more than 100 countries, are estimated to live in risk areas for the transmission of dengue. We investigated the production of Aedes aegypti immature forms in different types of containers. Larvae and pupae presence were inspected in 747 containers in 300 dwellings in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The statistical significance of the differences of immature forms was calculated for different groups of recipients and classified according to the type of use, volume, and material. Containers used to store water and those classified as garbage enclosed 90.2% of the larvae and 88.9% of the pupae. We concluded that a wider covering of more regular water supply, as well as regular garbage collection, are decisive factors for an effective control of dengue vector.

  15. Estrogenic activity of flavonoids in mice. The importance of estrogen receptor distribution, metabolism and bioavailability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke; Hossaini, A.; Svendsen, Gitte W.

    2000-01-01

    to subsequently encountered estrogens. Oral administration of equol, genistein, biochanin A and daidzein to 6-week-old female mice revealed a great variation in their systemic bioavailability. The urinary recovery of equol was thus over 90% of a single gavage administered dose, whereas the urinary recoveries...... of biochanin A, genistein and daidzein were 16, 11 and 3%, respectively. Most of the metabolites were either hydroxylated or dehydrogenated forms of the parent compounds. The in vitro estrogenic potency of some of the metabolites was greater than that of the parent compounds, whereas others were of similar...... or lower potency. Bioavailability, metabolism, the ability to alter ER alpha distribution in the uterus and the estrogenic potential of parent compound and metabolites may thus contribute to the differences in in vivo estrogenicity of dietary flavonoids....

  16. Size distribution and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol formed from Cl-initiated oxidation of toluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingqiang Huang; Weijun Zhang; Xuejun Gu; Changjin Hu; Weixiong Zhao; Zhenya Wang; Li Fang

    2012-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from Cl-initiated oxidation of toluene was investigated in a home-made smog chamber.The size distribution and chemical composition of SOA particles were measured using aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer and the aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS),respectively.According to a large number of single aerosol diameter and mass spectra,the size distribution and chemical composition of SOA were obtained statistically.Experimental results showed that SOA particles created by Cl-initiated oxidation of toluene is predominantly in the form of fine particles,which have diameters less than 2.5 μm (i.e.,PM2.5),and glyoxal,benzaldehyde,benzyl alcohol,benzoquinone,benzoic acid,benzyl hydroperoxide and benzyl methyl nitrate are the major products components in the SOA.The possible reaction mechanisms leading to these products are also proposed.

  17. Distribution of interleukin-1 receptor complex at the synaptic membrane driven by interleukin-1β and NMDA stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Fabrizio; Boraso, Mariaserena; Zianni, Elisa; Corsini, Emanuela; Galli, Corrado L; Cattabeni, Flaminio; Marinovich, Marina; Di Luca, Monica; Viviani, Barbara

    2011-02-11

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to neuronal injury in various degenerative diseases, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. It exerts its biological effect by activating the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and recruiting a signalling core complex consisting of the myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) and the IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). This pathway has been clearly described in the peripheral immune system, but only scattered information is available concerning the molecular composition and distribution of its members in neuronal cells. The findings of this study show that IL-1RI and its accessory proteins MyD88 and IL-1RAcP are differently distributed in the hippocampus and in the subcellular compartments of primary hippocampal neurons. In particular, only IL-1RI is enriched at synaptic sites, where it co-localises with, and binds to the GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors. Furthermore, treatment with NMDA increases IL-1RI interaction with NMDA receptors, as well as the surface expression and localization of IL-1RI at synaptic membranes. IL-1β also increases IL-1RI levels at synaptic sites, without affecting the total amount of the receptor in the plasma membrane. Our results reveal for the first time the existence of a dynamic and functional interaction between NMDA receptor and IL-1RI systems that could provide a molecular basis for IL-1β as a neuromodulator in physiological and pathological events relying on NMDA receptor activation.

  18. Distribution of interleukin-1 receptor complex at the synaptic membrane driven by interleukin-1β and NMDA stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinovich Marina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interleukin-1β (IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to neuronal injury in various degenerative diseases, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. It exerts its biological effect by activating the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI and recruiting a signalling core complex consisting of the myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88 and the IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP. This pathway has been clearly described in the peripheral immune system, but only scattered information is available concerning the molecular composition and distribution of its members in neuronal cells. The findings of this study show that IL-1RI and its accessory proteins MyD88 and IL-1RAcP are differently distributed in the hippocampus and in the subcellular compartments of primary hippocampal neurons. In particular, only IL-1RI is enriched at synaptic sites, where it co-localises with, and binds to the GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors. Furthermore, treatment with NMDA increases IL-1RI interaction with NMDA receptors, as well as the surface expression and localization of IL-1RI at synaptic membranes. IL-1β also increases IL-1RI levels at synaptic sites, without affecting the total amount of the receptor in the plasma membrane. Our results reveal for the first time the existence of a dynamic and functional interaction between NMDA receptor and IL-1RI systems that could provide a molecular basis for IL-1β as a neuromodulator in physiological and pathological events relying on NMDA receptor activation.

  19. Distribution and Localization of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Lumbar Spinal Cord after Transection and Deafferentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, Chad K.; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J.K.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The serotonergic system is highly plastic, capable of adapting to changing afferent information in diverse mammalian systems. We hypothesized that removing supraspinal and/or peripheral input would play an important role in defining the distribution of one of the most prevalent serotonergic receptors, the 5-HT1A receptor (R), in the spinal cord. We investigated the distribution of this receptor in response to a complete thoracic (T7–T8) spinal cord transection (eliminating supraspinal input), or to spinal cord isolation (eliminating both supraspinal and peripheral input) in adult rats. Using two antibodies raised against either the second extracellular region (ECL2) or the third intracellular region (ICL3) of the 5-HT1AR, we compared the 5-HT1AR levels and distributions in specific laminae of the L3–L5 segments among the control, spinal cord–transected, and spinal cord–isolated groups. Each antibody labeled different populations of 5-HT1AR: ECL2 labeled receptors in the axon hillock, whereas ICL3 labeled receptors predominantly throughout the soma and proximal dendrites. Spinal cord transection increased the number of ECL2-positive cells in the medial region of laminae III–IV and lamina VII, and the mean length of the labeled axon hillocks in lamina IX. The number of ICL3-labeled cells was higher in lamina VII and in both the medial and lateral regions of lamina IX in the spinal cord–transected compared to the control group. In contrast, the length and number of ECL2-immunolabeled processes and ICL3-immunolabeled cells were similar in the spinal cord–isolated and control groups. Combined, these data demonstrate that the upregulation in 5-HT1AR that occurs with spinal cord transection alone is dependent on the presence of sensory input. PMID:19260781

  20. Distribution and localization of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the rat lumbar spinal cord after transection and deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, Chad K; Walwyn, Wendy M; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2009-04-01

    The serotonergic system is highly plastic, capable of adapting to changing afferent information in diverse mammalian systems. We hypothesized that removing supraspinal and/or peripheral input would play an important role in defining the distribution of one of the most prevalent serotonergic receptors, the 5-HT(1A) receptor (R), in the spinal cord. We investigated the distribution of this receptor in response to a complete thoracic (T7-T8) spinal cord transection (eliminating supraspinal input), or to spinal cord isolation (eliminating both supraspinal and peripheral input) in adult rats. Using two antibodies raised against either the second extracellular region (ECL(2)) or the third intracellular region (ICL(3)) of the 5-HT(1A)R, we compared the 5-HT(1A)R levels and distributions in specific laminae of the L3-L5 segments among the control, spinal cord-transected, and spinal cord-isolated groups. Each antibody labeled different populations of 5-HT(1A)R: ECL(2) labeled receptors in the axon hillock, whereas ICL(3) labeled receptors predominantly throughout the soma and proximal dendrites. Spinal cord transection increased the number of ECL(2)-positive cells in the medial region of laminae III-IV and lamina VII, and the mean length of the labeled axon hillocks in lamina IX. The number of ICL(3)-labeled cells was higher in lamina VII and in both the medial and lateral regions of lamina IX in the spinal cord-transected compared to the control group. In contrast, the length and number of ECL(2)-immunolabeled processes and ICL(3)-immunolabeled cells were similar in the spinal cord-isolated and control groups. Combined, these data demonstrate that the upregulation in 5-HT(1A)R that occurs with spinal cord transection alone is dependent on the presence of sensory input.

  1. [Mass size distributions and existing forms of sulfate and nitrate and atmospheric environment in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hua-yun; Tian, Gang; Huang, Yu-hu; Li, Gang; Song, Guang-wu

    2011-05-01

    In order to understand the formations and the concentrations of the secondary sulfate and nitrate of PM10 in Beijing. From May 2008 to April 2009, MOUDI has been used to collect the PM10 samples in Beijing atmospheric environment and the ion chromatography has been used to analyze the inorganic water-soluble components of the PM10 samples. The results showed that the mass size distributions of soluble sulfate and nitrate of PM10 in Beijing were single-mode distribution and the peak rang was from 0.32 microm to 0.56 microm, and the primary formation ways was the chemical reaction in the gas phase. The results of partial correlation analysis indicated that the primary formations of sulfate and nitrate of PM10 in Beijing was (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, KNO3 and Ca(NO3)2. The mass concentration of secondary (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 were (17.0 +/- 8.2) microg/m3 and (8.8 +/- 3.3) microg/m3 respectively, which accounted for (14.7 +/- 3.6)% and (7.6 +/- 2.2)% of PM10 respectively. The sum of them accounted for (22.3 +/- 4.3)% of PM10.

  2. ALMA redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey: The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, A; Marrone, D P; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A D; Bleem, L E; Bock, J J; Bothwell, M; Bradford, C M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Downes, T P; Fassnacht, C D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; Hezaveh, Y D; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Murphy, E J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rosenman, M; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensd dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The sources were selected to have S_1.4mm>20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S_843MHz=3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of =2.3 and for which only 10-15% of the population is expected to be at z>3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

  3. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, Y-P; He, S; Liang, X-F; Tao, Y-X

    2017-04-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis further indicated ciMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4Rs. Using reverse transcription PCR, we found that mc4r messenger RNA was expressed in the brain as well as various peripheral tissues in grass carp. The pharmacological properties of ciMC4R were investigated using 4 agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-MSH (NDP-MSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We showed that all 4 ligands could bind to ciMC4R and initiate dose-dependent intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Grass carp MC4R had the highest affinity for NDP-MSH. Both NDP-MSH and ACTH (1-24) exhibited higher potencies compared to the other 2 endogenous agonists. The ciMC4R was constitutively active, with significantly increased basal cAMP level compared with that of human MC4R (P < 0.01). The availability of ciMC4R and its pharmacologic characteristics provide a basis for future investigation of its functional roles in regulating diverse physiological processes and novel insights into understanding the mechanism of food habit transition in grass carp.

  4. Developmental distribution pattern of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in prenatal human hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengbo Yang; Yong Liu; Junfeng Zhang; Lingyu Zhao; Qian Jiao; Hui Jin; Xinli Xiao; Haixia Zhang; Ming Hu; Haixia Lu

    2012-01-01

    Objective Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is concentrated in zones of active neurogenesis in the prenatal and postnatal rodent brain and plays an important role in the regulation of neurogenesis.However,little is known about mGluR5 in the prenatal human brain.Here,we aimed to explore the expression pattern and cellular distribution of mGluR5 in human fetal hippocampus.Methods Thirty-four human fetuses were divided into four groups according to gestational age:9-11,14-16,22-24 and 32-36 weeks.The hippocampus was dissected out and prepared.The protein and mRNA expression of mGluR5 were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR.The cellular distribution of mGluR5 was observed with double-labeling immunofluorescence.Results Both mGluR5 mRNA and protein were detected in the prenatal human hippocampus by real-time PCR and immunoblotting,and the expression levels increased gradually over time.The immunohistochemistry results were consistent with immunoblotting and showed that mGluR5 immunoreactivity was mainly present in the inner marginal zone (IMZ),hippocampal plate (HP) and ventricular zone (VZ).The double-labeling immunofluorescence showed that mGluR5 was present in neural stem cells (nestin-positive),neuroblasts (DCX-positive) and mature neurons (NeuN-positive),but not in typical astrocytes (GFAP-positive).The cells co-expressing mGluR5 and nestin were mainly located in the IMZ,HP and subplate at 11 weeks,all layers at 16 weeks,and CA1 at 24 weeks.As development proceeded,the number of mGluR5/nestin double-positive cells decreased gradually so that there were only a handful of double-labeled cells at 32 weeks.However,mGluR5/DCX double-positive cells were only found in the HP,IZ and IMZ at 11 weeks.Conclusion The pattem of mGluR5 expression by neural stem/progenitor cells,neuroblasts and neurons provides important anatomical evidence for the role of mGluR5 in the regulation of human hippocampal development.

  5. Distribution of iodine into blood components of the Sprague-Dawley rat differs with the chemical form administered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, K. D.; Bull, R. J.; Sauer, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been reported previously that radioactivity derived from iodine distributes differently in the Sprague-Dawley rat depending on the chemical form administered (Thrall and Bull, 1990). In the present communication we report the differential distribution of radioactivity derived from iodine (I2) and iodide (I-) into blood components. Twice as much radioiodine is in the form of I- in the plasma of animals treated with 125I- compared to 125I2-treated rats. No I2 could be detected in the plasma. With an increase in dose, increasing amounts of radioactivity derived from 125I2-treated animals distribute to whole blood compared to equivalent doses of 125I-, reaching a maxima at a dose of 15.8 mumol I/kg body weight. Most of the radioactivity derived from I2 associates with serum proteins and lipids, in particular with albumin and cholesteryl iodide. These data indicate a differential distribution of radioactivity depending on whether it is administered as iodide or iodine. This is inconsistent with the commonly held view that iodine (I2) is reduced to iodide (I-) before it is absorbed systemically from the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Distribution of the purinegic receptors P2X(4) and P2X(6) during rat gut development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcocer, Guadalupe; Padilla, Karla; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; Berumen, Laura C

    2012-02-16

    The purinergic receptors P2X(4) and P2X(6) are ion channels activated by ATP. These receptors are present in the gastrointestinal tract, and they are involved in synaptic transmission, taste sensation, and pain, among other functions. In this work, we studied the distribution of P2X(4) and P2X(6) receptors in proximal and distal regions of the gut newborn and adult rats. Using immunohistochemistry, purinergic receptors were found in gut epithelial cells and capillary vessels. In both proximal and distal regions of newborn rats, we observed P2X(4) signal in epithelial cells, whereas P2X(6) was present in capillary vessels in the proximal region and to a lesser extent in the distal region. In both regions of adult gut, we observed P2X(4) and P2X(6) immunostain in the capillary vessels. Semi-quantification indicated a significant difference in the amount of P2X(4) between proximal regions, whereas the P2X(6) content of both newborn regions differed from that in adult proximal gut. We conclude that P2X(4) and P2X(6) purinoreceptors are present in the gut from birth and that they are differentially distributed among regions.

  7. Dopamine D sub 2 receptors in the cerebral cortex: Distribution and pharmacological characterization with ( sup 3 H)raclopride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidow, M.S.; Goldman-Rakic, P.S.; Rakic, P.; Innis, R.B. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-08-01

    An apparent involvement of dopamine in the regulation of cognitive functions and the recognition of a widespread dopaminergic innervation of the cortex have focused attention on the identity of cortical dopamine receptors. However, only the presence and distribution of dopamine D{sub 1} receptors in the cortex have been well documented. Comparable information on cortical D{sub 2} sites is lacking. The authors report here the results of binding studied in the cortex and neostriatum of rat and monkey using the D{sub 2} selective antagonist ({sup 3}H)raclopride. In both structures ({sup 3}H)raclopride bound in a sodium-dependent and saturable manner to a single population of sites with pharmacological profiles of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors. D{sub 2} sites were present in all regions of the cortex, although their density was much lower than in the neostriatum. The density of these sites in both monkey and, to a lesser extent, rat cortex displayed a rostral-caudal gradient with highest concentrations in the prefrontal and lowest concentrations in the occipital cortex, corresponding to dopamine levels in these areas. Thus, the present study established the presence and widespread distribution of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors in the cortex.

  8. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Steven Clifford, E-mail: sdewey001@gmail.com [United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Environmental Health Division, Health Physics Branch, Radiation Analysis Laboratories, 2350 Gillingham Drive, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235 (United States); Whetstone, Zachary David, E-mail: zacwhets@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, Kimberlee Jane, E-mail: kearfott@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe the source. Currently, the choice of analytical expressions is based upon prior experimental core sampling results at similar locations, any known site history, or radionuclide transport models. This paper presents a method, employing multiple in situ measurements at a single site, for determining the analytical form that best represents the true depth distribution present. The measurements can be made using a variety of geometries, each of which has a different sensitivity variation with source spatial distribution. Using non-linear least squares numerical optimization methods, the results can be fit to a collection of analytical models and the parameters of each model determined. The analytical expression that results in the fit with the lowest residual is selected as the most accurate representation. A cursory examination is made of the effects of measurement errors on the method. - Highlights: > A new method for determining radionuclide distribution as a function of depth is presented. > Multiple measurements are used, with enough measurements to determine the unknowns in analytical functions that might describe the distribution. > The measurements must be as independent as possible, which is achieved through special collimation of the detector. > Although the effects of measurements errors may be significant on the results, an improvement over other methods is anticipated.

  9. α7 and β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits Form Heteromeric Receptor Complexes that Are Expressed in the Human Cortex and Display Distinct Pharmacological Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Skøtt Thomsen

    Full Text Available The existence of α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs has recently been demonstrated in both the rodent and human brain. Since α7-containing nAChRs are promising drug targets for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, it is critical to determine whether α7β2 nAChRs are present in the human brain, in which brain areas, and whether they differ functionally from α7 nAChR homomers. We used α-bungarotoxin to affinity purify α7-containing nAChRs from surgically excised human temporal cortex, and found that α7 subunits co-purify with β2 subunits, indicating the presence of α7β2 nAChRs in the human brain. We validated these results by demonstrating co-purification of β2 from wild-type, but not α7 or β2 knock-out mice. The pharmacology and kinetics of human α7β2 nAChRs differed significantly from that of α7 homomers in response to nAChR agonists when expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells. Notably, α7β2 heteromers expressed in HEK293 cells display markedly slower rise and decay phases. These results demonstrate that α7 subunits in the human brain form heteromeric complexes with β2 subunits, and that human α7β2 nAChR heteromers respond to nAChR agonists with a unique pharmacology and kinetic profile. α7β2 nAChRs thus represent an alternative mechanism for the reported clinical efficacy of α7 nAChR ligands.

  10. Temperature effect of irradiated target surface on distribution of nanoparticles formed by implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, A L; Popok, V N

    2001-01-01

    The composition layers, containing the metal nanoparticles, synthesized thorough implantation of the Ag sup + ions with the energy of 60 keV and the dose of 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 ion/cm sup 2 into the sodium-calcium silicate glass by the ion current of 3 mu A/cm sup 2 and the sublayer temperature of 35 deg C are studied. The obtained implantation results are analyzed in dependence on the temperature effects, developing for the glass samples of various thickness. The data on the silver distribution, the metal nanoparticles formation and growth by depth are obtained from the optical reflection spectra. It is demonstrated that minor changes in the surface temperature of the irradiated glass sublayer lead to noticeable diversities in the regularities of the nanoparticles formation in the sample volume

  11. Influence of dexamethasone on the expression and distribution of transient receptor potential cation channel 6 in glomerular podocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of foot processes,expression and distribution of transient receptor potential cation channel 6(TRPC6)in podocytes by puromycin aminonucleoside(PAN)and dexamethasone(DEX)intervention,then to investigate the function of TRPC6 in podocytes and its relation to proteinuria in kidney diseases.Methods Podocytes cultured in vitro were divided into three group:control group,PAN stimulation group and DEX intervention group.Mouse podocyte cell line

  12. The distribution of water in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I

    CERN Document Server

    Emprechtinger, M; Bell, T; Phillips, T G; Schilke, P; Comito, C; Rolffs, R; van der Tak, F; Ceccarelli, C; Aarts, H; Bacmann, A; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E A; Blake, G; Boogert, A; Bottinelli, S; Cabrit, S; Caselli, P; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Coutens, A; Crimier, N; Demyk, K; Dominik, C; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Gerin, M; Goldsmith, P; Helmich, F; Hennebelle, P; Henning, T; Herbst, E; Hily-Blant, P; Jacq, T; Kahane, C; Kama, M; Klotz, A; Kooi, J; Langer, W; Lefloch, B; Loose, A; Lord, S; Lorenzani, A; Maret, S; Melnick, G; Neufeld, D; Nisini, B; Ossenkopf, V; Pacheco, S; Pagani, L; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Risacher, C; Salez, M; Saraceno, P; Schuster, K; Stutzki, J; Tielens, X; van der Wiel, M; Vastel, C; Viti, S; Wakelam, V; Walters, A; Wyrowski, F; Yorke, H

    2010-01-01

    We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of H2O-16, H2O-18, and H2O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze these observations to obtain insights into physical processes in this region. We identify three main gas components (hot core, cold foreground, and outflow) in NGC 6334 I and derive the physical conditions in these components. The hot core, identified by the emission in highly excited lines, shows a high excitation temperature of 200 K, whereas water in the foreground component is predominantly in the ortho- and para- ground states. The abundance of water varies between 4 10^-5 (outflow) and 10^-8 (cold foreground gas). This variation is most likely due to the freeze-out of water molecules onto dust grains. The H2O-18/H2O-17 abundance ratio is 3.2, which is consistent with the O-18/O-17 ratio determined from CO isotopologues. The or...

  13. Fragmented inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors retain tetrameric architecture and form functional Ca2+ release channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzayady, Kamil J; Chandrasekhar, Rahul; Yule, David I

    2013-04-19

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms are a family of ubiquitously expressed ligand-gated channels encoded by three individual genes. The proteins are localized to membranes of intracellular Ca(2+) stores and play pivotal roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that IP3R1 is cleaved by the intracellular proteases calpain and caspase both in vivo and in vitro. However, the resultant cleavage products are poorly defined, and the functional consequences of these proteolytic events are not fully understood. We demonstrate that IP3R1 is cleaved during staurosporine-induced apoptosis, yielding N-terminal fragments encompassing the ligand-binding domain and the majority of the central modulatory domain together with a C-terminal fragment containing the channel domain and cytosolic tail. Notably, these fragments remain associated with the membrane after initiation of apoptotic cleavage. Furthermore, when recombinant IP3R1 fragments, corresponding to those predicted to be generated by caspase or calpain cleavage, are stably coexpressed in cells, they physically associate and form functional channels. These data provide novel insights regarding the regulation of IP3R1 during proteolysis and provide direct evidence that polypeptide continuity is not required for IP3R activation and Ca(2+) release.

  14. Soluble Form of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Is Associated with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Tsueng He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS in adolescents. A total of 522 male and 561 female adolescents were enrolled into the final analyses. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, blood biochemistry, fasting insulin, and plasma sRAGE levels were measured. In males, sRAGE was significantly and inversely correlated with waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Only WC and BMI were significantly and inversely correlated with sRAGE in females. Using linear regression analysis adjusting for age and gender, significant association was found between sRAGE and WC, BMI, TG, LDL-C, and HOMA-IR in adolescents of either gender (P<0.05. This association was abolished when further adjusting BMI. In addition, sRAGE was significantly and inversely correlated with the increasing number of components of MetS in males (P for trend = 0.006 but not in females (P for trend = 0.422. In conclusion, plasma sRAGE is associated with obesity and MetS among adolescents. BMI may be the most important determinant of sRAGE levels in adolescents.

  15. A structural model of the pore-forming region of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Ramachandran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptors (RyRs are ion channels that regulate muscle contraction by releasing calcium ions from intracellular stores into the cytoplasm. Mutations in skeletal muscle RyR (RyR1 give rise to congenital diseases such as central core disease. The absence of high-resolution structures of RyR1 has limited our understanding of channel function and disease mechanisms at the molecular level. Here, we report a structural model of the pore-forming region of RyR1. Molecular dynamics simulations show high ion binding to putative pore residues D4899, E4900, D4938, and D4945, which are experimentally known to be critical for channel conductance and selectivity. We also observe preferential localization of Ca(2+ over K(+ in the selectivity filter of RyR1. Simulations of RyR1-D4899Q mutant show a loss of preference to Ca(2+ in the selectivity filter as seen experimentally. Electrophysiological experiments on a central core disease mutant, RyR1-G4898R, show constitutively open channels that conduct K(+ but not Ca(2+. Our simulations with G4898R likewise show a decrease in the preference of Ca(2+ over K(+ in the selectivity filter. Together, the computational and experimental results shed light on ion conductance and selectivity of RyR1 at an atomistic level.

  16. Interleukin-13 receptors on human prostate carcinoma cell lines represent a novel target for a chimeric protein composed of IL-13 and a mutated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, A; Hillman, G; Haas, G P; Wang, C Y; Montecillo, E; Hamzavi, F; Pontes, J E; Leland, P; Pastan, I; Debinski, W; Puri, R K

    1997-09-01

    We have discovered a new cell surface protein in the form of interleukin-13 receptor on several solid tumor cells, including human renal cell carcinoma cells (Obiri et al., 1995; Debinski et al., 1995). This study reports that human prostate cancer cell lines also express high affinity IL-13 receptors (Kd = 159 pM). These receptors are functional because IL-13 surprisingly increased proliferation of all three prostate cancer cell lines studied as determined by thymidine uptake and clonogenic assays. IL-13 receptors on prostate cancer cell lines were targeted using a chimeric protein composed of IL-13 and a mutated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38QQR). This molecule, termed IL13-PE38QQR, has been found cytotoxic to all three prostate cancer cell lines as determined by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The IC50 ranged between 1 nmol/l, to 15 nmol/l. These data were confirmed by clonogenic assays in which IL13-PE38QQR almost completely inhibited colony formation at 10 nmol/l. IL13-PE38QQR was not cytotoxic to cells that express little or no IL-13R. Heat inactivated IL13-PE38QQR was not cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells indicating specificity. IL13-PE38QQR was also cytotoxic to colonies when they were allowed to form first for several days before the addition of toxins. Our data suggest that additional studies should be performed to target IL-13 receptor bearing prostate cancer.

  17. Intravitreally-administered dopamine D2-like (and D4), but not D1-like, receptor agonists reduce form-deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of intravitreal injections of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists and D4 receptor drugs on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates. In eleven groups (n = 7 per group), we measured the amount of FDM produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) over an 11-day treatment period. The untreated fellow eye served as a control. Animals also received daily 5 µL intravitreal injections in the FD eye. The reference group received 0.85% NaCl vehicle. Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D1-like receptor agonist (SKF38393) or antagonist (SCH23390). Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole) or antagonist (spiperone). Two groups received the D4 receptor agonist (PD168077) or antagonist (PD168568). Refractions were measured daily; axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 (before treatment) and day 12. We found that in groups receiving the D1-like receptor agonist or antagonist, the development of FDM and altered ocular component dimensions did not differ from the NaCl group. Groups receiving the D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist at the higher dose developed significantly less FDM and had shorter vitreous chambers than the NaCl group. The D4 receptor agonist, but not the antagonist, was nearly as effective as the D2-like agonist in reducing FDM. Thus, using intravitreally-administered agents, we did not find evidence supporting a role for the D1-like receptor pathway in reducing FDM in tree shrews. The reduction of FDM by the dopamine D2-like agonist supported a role for the D2-like receptor pathway in the control of FDM. The reduction of FDM by the D4 receptor agonist, but not the D4 antagonist, suggests an important role for activation of the dopamine D4 receptor in the control of axial elongation and refractive development.

  18. Cadmium uptake, chemical forms, subcellular distribution, and accumulation in Echinodorus osiris Rataj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolan; Zhang, Peng; Mo, Chuangrong; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Qinfeng; Pan, Liping; Lee, D K

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology for extracting or inactivating pollutants in soil. Echinodorus osiris (E. osiris) is a fast growing perennial wetland plant that is common in tropical and subtropical areas and has a high tolerance to cadmium (Cd). However, the absorption dynamics, subcellular distribution and accumulation of Cd by E. osiris had not been investigated. In this paper, hydroponic experiments with different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 5.0, 15.0 mg L(-1)) were carried out to determine these characteristics of E. osiris. The results indicated that the Cd absorption rate of Echinodorus osiris decreased over time, and the absorption rate within 0.5-1.0 h was faster than after 1.0 h. In a 6.0 hour time period, the rate of Cd uptake fit a quadratic polynomial curve when E. osiris was grown under the 5 mg L(-1) Cd treatment. However, the rate of Cd uptake by E. osiris fit a cubic polynomial model with the 15 mg L(-1) Cd treatment. In the roots, the ethanol-extractable Cd, water-extractable Cd, and NaCl-extractable Cd were the largest proportions of the total Cd. The HAc-extractable Cd, HCl-extractable Cd, and residual-Cd represented a larger proportion of the total Cd in the leaves which was combined with phosphate including CdHPO4, Cd3 (PO4)2, and oxalic acid. When analyzing the subcellular distribution of Cd in the plant, the soluble fraction containing Cd accounted for the largest part (69.49-88.39%) followed by the Cd bound to the cell wall (8.44-25.62%). Both the lower and the higher Cd treatments demonstrated that compartmentation by the vacuole and cell wall binding were two effective defense mechanisms of the plant. However, the vacuole became the main site for Cd accumulation in the leaves under the 15 mg L(-1) Cd treatment. E. osiris was able to accumulate high concentrations of Cd in both the roots and the leaves. The Cd concentration reached 502.97 mg kg(-1) and 2742.95 mg kg(-1) in the shoots and roots, respectively, after 27 days of cultivation. It was

  19. Distribution and dynamics of rat basophilic leukemia immunoglobulin E receptors (FcepsilonRI) on planar ligand-presenting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendier, Kathrin; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Lidke, Keith A; Wilson, Bridget S; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Thomas, James L

    2010-07-21

    There is considerable interest in the signaling mechanisms of immunoreceptors, especially when triggered with membrane-bound ligands. We have quantified the spatiotemporal dynamics of the redistribution of immunoglobulin E-loaded receptors (IgE-FcepsilonRI) on rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cells in contact with fluid and gel-phase membranes displaying ligands for immunoglobulin E, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. To clearly separate the kinetics of receptor redistribution from cell spreading, and to precisely define the initial contact time (+/-50 ms), micropipette cell manipulation was used to bring individual cells into contact with surfaces. On ligand-free surfaces, there are micron-scale heterogeneities in fluorescence that likely reflect regions of the cell that are more closely apposed to the substrate. When ligands are present, receptor clusters form with this same size scale. The initial rate of accumulation of receptors into the clusters is consistent with diffusion-limited trapping with D approximately 10(-1) microm2/s. These results support the hypothesis that clusters form by diffusion to cell-surface contact regions. Over longer timescales (>10 s), individual clusters moved with both diffusive and directed motion components. The dynamics of the cluster motion is similar to the dynamics of membrane fluctuations of cells on ligand-free fluid membranes. Thus, the same cellular machinery may be responsible for both processes.

  20. Closed form stress distribution in 2D elasticity for all boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies a Hamiltonian method to study analytically the stress distributions of orthotropic two-dimensional elasticity in (x, z) plane for arbitrary boundary conditions without beam assumptions. It is a method of separable variables for partial differential equations using displacements and their conjugate stresses as unknowns. Since coordinates (x, z) can not be easily separated, an alternative symplectic expansion is used.Similar to the Hamiltonian formulation in classical dynamics, we treat the x coordinate as time variable so that z becomes the only independent coordinate in the Hamiltonian matrix differential operator. The exponential of the Hamiltonian matrix is symplectic. There are homogenous solutions with constants to be determined by the boundary conditions and particular integrals satisfying the loading conditions. The homogenous solutions consist of the eigen-solutions of the derogatory zero eigenvalues (zero eigen-solutions)and that of the well-behaved nonzero eigenvalues (nonzero eigen-solutions). The Jordan chains at zero eigenvalues give the classical Saint-Venant solutions associated with averaged global behaviors such as rigid-body translation, rigid-body rotation or bending. On the other hand, the nonzero eigen-solutions describe the exponentially decaying localized solutions usually ignored by Saint-Venant's principle. Completed numerical examples are newly given to compare with established results.

  1. Speciation of trace inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales and deposits formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Korshin, Gregory V

    2011-11-01

    Sequential extractions utilizing the modified Tessier scheme (Krishnamurti et al., 1995) and measurements of soluble and particulate metal released from suspended solids were used in this study to determine the speciation and mobility of inorganic contaminants (As, Cr, V, U, Cd, Ni, and Mn) found in corrosion scales and particles mobilized during hydraulic flushing events. Arsenic, chromium and vanadium are primarily associated with the mobilization-resistant fraction that is resistant to all eluents used in this study and also bound in highly stable crystalline iron oxides. Very low concentrations of these elements were released in resuspension experiments. X-ray absorbance measurements demonstrated that arsenic in the sample with the highest As concentration was dominated by As(V) bound by iron oxides. Significant fractions of uranium and cadmium were associated with carbonate solids. Nickel and manganese were determined to be more mobile and significantly associated with organic fractions. This may indicate that biofilms and natural organic matter in the drinking water distributions systems play an important role in the accumulation and release of these inorganic contaminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  3. Origin, distribution, and rapid removal of hydrothermally formed clay at Mount Baker, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David

    1983-01-01

    Clay minerals are locally abundant in two hydrothermal areas at Mount Baker-Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Field. The silt- and clay-size fractions of volcanic debris that is undergoing alteration at and near the ground surface around areas of current fumarolic activity in Sherman Crater are largely dominated by alunite and a silica phase, either opal or cristobalite, but contain some kaolinite and smectite. Correspondingly, the chemistry of solutions at the surface of the crater, as represented by the crater lake, favors the formation of alunite over kaolinite. In contrast, vent-filling debris that was ejected to the surface from fumaroles in 1975 contains more than 20 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite and smectite are dominant. The youngest eruptive deposit (probably 19th century) on the crater rim was also altered prior to ejection and contains as much as 27 percent clay-size material in which kaolinite, smectite, pyrophyllite, and mixed-layer illitesmectite are abundant. The hydrothermal products, kaolinite and alunite, are present in significant amounts in five large Holocene mudflows that originated at the upper cone of Mount Baker. The distribution of kaolinite in crater and valley deposits indicates that, with the passage of time, increasingly greater amounts of this clay mineral have been incorporated into large mass movements from the upper cone. Either erosion has cut into more kaolinitic parts of the core of Sherman Crater, or the amount of kaolinite has increased through time in Sherman Crater.

  4. The Stellar Mass Distribution in the Giant Star Forming Region NGC 346

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, E; Nota, A; Tosi, M; Gallagher, J; Smith, L J; Angeretti, L; Meixner, M; Oey, M S; Walterbos, R; Pasquali, A

    2007-01-01

    Deep F555W and F814W Hubble Space Telescope ACS images are the basis for a study of the present day mass function (PDMF) of NGC346, the largest active star forming region in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We find a PDMF slope of Gamma=-1.43+/-0.18 in the mass range 0.8-60 Mo, in excellent agreement with the Salpeter Initial Mass Function (IMF) in the solar neighborhood. Caveats on the conversion of the PDMF to the IMF are discussed. The PDMF slope changes, as a function of the radial distance from the center of the NGC 346 star cluster, indicating a segregation of the most massive stars. This segregation is likely primordial considering the young age (~3 Myr) of NGC346, and its clumpy structure which suggests that the cluster has likely not had sufficient time to relax. Comparing our results for NGC346 with those derived for other star clusters in the SMC and the Milky Way (MW), we conclude that, while the star formation process might depend on the local cloud conditions, the IMF does not seem to be affect...

  5. Modeling the spatial distribution of fragments formed from tidally disrupted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Eden; Guillochon, James

    2017-01-01

    Roughly once every 104 years, a star passes close enough to the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the center of the Milky Way to be pulled apart by the black hole’s tidal forces. The star is then ‘spaghettified’ into a long stream of mass, with approximately one half being bound to Sgr A* and the other half unbound. Hydrodynamical simulations of this process have revealed that within this stream, the local self-gravity dominates the tidal field of Sgr A*. This residual self-gravity allows for planetary-mass fragments to form along the stream that are then shot out into the galaxy at velocities determined by a spread of binding energies. We develop a Monte Carlo code in Python that models and plots the evolving position of these fragments for a variety of initial conditions that are likely realized in nature. This code utilizes an n-body integrator to differentially solve for the position, velocity, and acceleration of each fragment at every time step. We find that the while the most unbound fragments seem to escape the galaxy entirely, there could potentially be fragments travelling within a few hundred parsecs of our solar system.

  6. Targeting the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor alleviates two forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dennis; Patzkó, Ágnes; Schreiber, David; van Hauwermeiren, Anemoon; Baier, Michaela; Groh, Janos; West, Brian L; Martini, Rudolf

    2015-11-01

    See Scherer (doi:10.1093/awv279) for a scientific commentary on this article.Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies are inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system caused by mutations in Schwann cell-related genes. Typically, no causative cure is presently available. Previous preclinical data of our group highlight the low grade, secondary inflammation common to distinct Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies as a disease amplifier. In the current study, we have tested one of several available clinical agents targeting macrophages through its inhibition of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). We here show that in two distinct mouse models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathies, the systemic short- and long-term inhibition of CSF1R by oral administration leads to a robust decline in nerve macrophage numbers by ∼70% and substantial reduction of the typical histopathological and functional alterations. Interestingly, in a model for the dominant X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathy, the second most common form of the inherited neuropathies, macrophage ablation favours maintenance of axonal integrity and axonal resprouting, leading to preserved muscle innervation, increased muscle action potential amplitudes and muscle strengths in the range of wild-type mice. In another model mimicking a mild, demyelination-related Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 neuropathy caused by reduced P0 (MPZ) gene dosage, macrophage blockade causes an improved preservation of myelin, increased muscle action potential amplitudes, improved nerve conduction velocities and ameliorated muscle strength. These observations suggest that disease-amplifying macrophages can produce multiple adverse effects in the affected nerves which likely funnel down to common clinical features. Surprisingly, treatment of mouse models mimicking Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A neuropathy also caused macrophage blockade, but did not result in neuropathic or clinical improvements

  7. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  8. Five gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in a teleost fish: isolation, tissue distribution and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncaut, Natalia; Somoza, Gustavo; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M

    2005-06-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the main neurohormone controlling gonadotrophin release in all vertebrates, and in teleost fish also of growth hormone and possibly of other adenohypophyseal hormones. Over 20 GnRHs have been identified in vertebrates and protochoordates and shown to bind cognate G-protein couple receptors (GnRHR). We have searched the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, genome sequencing database, identified five GnRHR genes and proceeded to isolate the corresponding complementary DNAs in European sea bass, Dicentrachus labrax. Phylogenetic analysis clusters the European sea bass, puffer fish and all other vertebrate receptors into two main lineages corresponding to the mammalian type I and II receptors. The fish receptors could be subdivided in two GnRHR1 (A and B) and three GnRHR2 (A, B and C) subtypes. Amino acid sequence identity within receptor subtypes varies between 70 and 90% but only 50-55% among the two main lineages in fish. All European sea bass receptor mRNAs are expressed in the anterior and mid brain, and all but one are expressed in the pituitary gland. There is differential expression of the receptors in peripheral tissues related to reproduction (gonads), chemical senses (eye and olfactory epithelium) and osmoregulation (kidney and gill). This is the first report showing five GnRH receptors in a vertebrate species and the gene expression patterns support the concept that GnRH and GnRHRs play highly diverse functional roles in the regulation of cellular functions, besides the "classical" role of pituitary function regulation.

  9. The GABA[subscript A] Receptor Agonist Muscimol Induces an Age- and Region-Dependent Form of Long-Term Depression in the Mouse Striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqun; Yao, Ning; Chergui, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Several forms of long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission have been identified in the dorsal striatum and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Such experience-dependent synaptic plasticity might play important roles in reward-related learning. The GABA[subscript A] receptor agonist muscimol was recently found to trigger a…

  10. An end to endless forms: epistasis, phenotype distribution bias, and nonuniform evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhanan Borenstein

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the evolution of development characterize the way in which gene regulatory dynamics during ontogeny constructs and channels phenotypic variation. These studies have identified a number of evolutionary regularities: (1 phenotypes occupy only a small subspace of possible phenotypes, (2 the influence of mutation is not uniform and is often canalized, and (3 a great deal of morphological variation evolved early in the history of multicellular life. An important implication of these studies is that diversity is largely the outcome of the evolution of gene regulation rather than the emergence of new, structural genes. Using a simple model that considers a generic property of developmental maps-the interaction between multiple genetic elements and the nonlinearity of gene interaction in shaping phenotypic traits-we are able to recover many of these empirical regularities. We show that visible phenotypes represent only a small fraction of possibilities. Epistasis ensures that phenotypes are highly clustered in morphospace and that the most frequent phenotypes are the most similar. We perform phylogenetic analyses on an evolving, developmental model and find that species become more alike through time, whereas higher-level grades have a tendency to diverge. Ancestral phenotypes, produced by early developmental programs with a low level of gene interaction, are found to span a significantly greater volume of the total phenotypic space than derived taxa. We suggest that early and late evolution have a different character that we classify into micro- and macroevolutionary configurations. These findings complement the view of development as a key component in the production of endless forms and highlight the crucial role of development in constraining biotic diversity and evolutionary trajectories.

  11. Distribution of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors in Mexican Mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, G; Aláez, C; Murguía, A; García, D; Flores, H; Gorodezky, C

    2007-04-01

    Understanding the complex interaction between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) requires study of both HLA and KIR diversity in the same population. The presence of KIR genes 2DL1, 2, 3, 4, 5, KIR3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, KIR2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, KIR3DS1, KIR3DP1, KIR2DP1 was determined in 54 unrelated Mexican Mestizo donors. The PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe One Lambda kit (Luminex) kindly given by J. Lee was used for typing. The software analyses the combination obtained for each of the five exons. Five controls (UCLA DNA exchange) were run as quality control. The gene frequency (GF) was calculated for the 16 KIR loci; the GF of individual genes was 100% for 2DL4, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DP1. KIR2DL1 (76.43%), KIR2DL2 (37.64%), KIR2DL3 (76.43%), KIR2DL5 (29.29%), KIR3DS1 (23.02%), KIR2DS1 (21.83%), KIR2DS2 (37.64%), KIR2DS3 (50.93%), KIR2DS4 (86.93%), KIR2DS5 (29.29%), KIR2DP1 (86.39%). We observed similar frequencies with Caucasians and Mediterraneans, with exceptions: KIR3DL1 which was present in 100% Mexicans, ranged from 62% to 75% in Caucasians; 2DS3 (50.9%) vs 14-20% 2DS4 (86.39%) vs 65-79% and 2DS5 (29.29%) vs 11-18% in Caucasians. The finding of 23 phenotypes in 54 individuals accounting for both chromosomes, demonstrates the enormous diversity. We found 14 different combinations of stimulatory KIRs in the phenotypes; every subject had at least one stimulatory KIR; in all of them, 2DS4 existed except for one person who may have some new combination: 2DS2 2DS3. Extended family data will offer accurate and precise haplotypes to provide an insight on the significance of ethnic distribution and KIR repertoire.

  12. Distribution of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors in correlation with morphine-induced reward in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Hung; Tao, Pao-Luh; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2010-07-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) exhibited anti-/pro-opioid effects when centrally injected. It was proved to bind to its own receptors, namely NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors, but did not bind to opioid receptors. In our previous study, we found that i.c.v. injected NPFF suppressed morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats, which indicated that NPFF may play a role in the modulation of morphine-induced reward. In the present study, we further investigated the action site of NPFF to attenuate morphine-induced reward. Bilateral intra-VTA (ventral tegmental area) and intra-NAc (nucleus accumbens) injections of NPFF both blocked the CPP caused by morphine in rats. This suggests that NPFF may act at both VTA and NAc to inhibit the sensitization of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Neurochemical analyses support that NPFF could be acting through the inhibition of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic activity increased by morphine. We also determined the distribution of NPFF receptors in rat brains. Our results showed that both NPFF receptors were abundantly expressed in VTA but with less content in NAc. In fluorescent immunohistochemical staining, our results revealed that NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors could be expressed at the TH (tyrosine hydroxylase)- or GAD67 (glutamic acid decarboxylase-67)-positive neurons in VTA, whereas some of them were present in the negative neurons. This implied a possible function of NPFF to modulate dopaminergic neurons directly and a possible indirect action of NPFF on GABAergic neurons to modulate dopamine release. Taken together, our study should be helpful for clarifying the possible mechanisms of NPFF system to modulate morphine-induced reward. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AMPA and GABA receptor antagonists and their interaction in rats with a genetic form of absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminski, R.M.; Rijn, C.M. van; Turski, W.A.; Czuczwar, S.J.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The effects of combined and single administration of the -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, 7,8-methylenedioxy-1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-3-acetyl-4,5-dihydro-2,3 -benzodiazepine (LY 300164), and of the GABAB receptor antagonist -aminopropyl-n-butyl-phosp

  14. Investigations of the auroral luminosity distribution and the dynamics of discrete auroral forms in a historical retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Y. I.; Vorobjev, V. G.; Zverev, V. L.; Förster, M.

    2014-05-01

    Research results about planetary-scale auroral distributions are presented in a historical retrospective, beginning with the first "maps of isochasms" - lines of equal visibility of auroras in the firmament (Fig. 2) - up to "isoaurora maps" - lines of equal occurrence frequency of auroras in the zenith (Fig. 4). The exploration of auroras in Russia from Lomonosov in the 18th century (Fig. 1) until the start of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957 is shortly summed up. A generalised pattern of discrete auroral forms along the auroral oval during geomagnetically very quiet intervals is presented in Fig. 5. The changes of discrete auroral forms versus local time exhibit a fixed pattern with respect to the sun. The auroral forms comprise rays near noon, homogeneous arcs during the evening, and rayed arcs and bands during the night and in the morning. This fixed auroral pattern is unsettled during disturbances, which occur sometimes even during very quiet intervals. The azimuths of extended auroral forms vary with local time. Such variations in the orientation of extended forms above stations in the auroral zone have been used by various investigators to determine the position of the auroral oval (Fig. 9). Auroral luminosity of the daytime and nighttime sectors differ owing to different luminosity forms, directions of motion of the discrete forms, the height of the luminescent layers, and the spectral composition (predominant red emissions during daytime and green emissions during the night). Schemes that summarise principal peculiarities of daytime luminosity, its structure in MLT (magnetic local time) and MLat (magnetic latitude) coordinates, and the spectral composition of the luminosity are presented in Figs. 15 and 19. We discuss in detail the daytime sector dynamics of individual discrete forms for both quiet conditions and auroral substorms. The most important auroral changes during substorms occur in the nighttime sector. We present the evolution of

  15. Distribution of T-cell receptor-bearing lymphocytes in the synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouni, I; Radal, M; Simony-Lafontaine, J; Combe, B; Sany, J; Rème, T

    1990-12-01

    Using immunohistology and monoclonal antibodies directed to the T-cell receptor (TCR) chains, we have analysed the distribution of TCR-bearing lymphocytes within the membrane of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Alkaline phosphatase staining for TCR alpha beta-bearing lymphocytes showed a distribution paralleling that of the total T cells. Staining for the TCR gamma delta chains revealed a moderate and rather homogeneous distribution of T gamma delta lymphocytes within the RA synovium. As evidenced by simultaneous staining for alpha beta and gamma delta receptors, the relative count of T gamma delta to alpha beta-expressing cells is close to the peripheral count (e.g.5%), and lower than that previously observed in the synovial fluid. Interestingly, the peripheral type V gamma 9-J gamma P rearrangement using the T gamma delta cell subset was relatively decreased in the synovial membrane, as compared to synovial fluid and peripheral blood, suggesting that the T gamma delta distribution in the rheumatoid synovium resembles a thymic-like situation.

  16. Efficiently Delivering Data Packets Using Distributed Protocol for Runtime Groups Formed In Peer-to-Peer Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasa Ramya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer streaming has been widely used over the internet, where a streaming system usually has multiple channels and peers may form multiple groups for content distribution. In this paper, we propose a distributed overlay framework called SMesh (subset-mesh for dynamic groups where users may frequently hop from one group to another. SMesh first builds a relatively stable mesh consisting of all hosts for control messaging. The mesh supports dynamic host joining and leaving, and construction of delivery trees. Using the Delaunay Triangulation protocol as an example, we show how to construct an efficient mesh with low maintenance cost. We also study about various tree constructions based on the mesh, including embedded, bypass, and intermediate trees.

  17. Effect of different selemethionine forms and levels on performance of breeder hens and se distribution of tissue and egg inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rujuan; Zhan, Xiuan; Wang, Yongxia; Zhang, Xiwen; Wang, Min; Yuan, Dong

    2011-11-01

    A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments in randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of different selenomethionine (SM) sources and levels on the productive performance of breeder hens and the Se distribution in the inclusion of eggs and serum and tissues of breeder hens and its offspring. A total of 480 Ling-Nan-Huang breeder hens, 48 weeks of age, were allocated to four treatments, each of which included three replicates of 40 hens. Pretreatment period was 2 weeks, and the experiment lasted 8 weeks. Two SM forms of DL-SM and L-SM were supplemented at 0.15 or 0.30 mg Se/kg into the basal diet. Results showed that the Se level of 0.15 mg/kg supplemented in the diet, compared to 0.30 mg/kg, significantly elevated the percentage of egg production (phatchability (pselenium distribution in egg inclusion, serum, and tissues.

  18. Presence and distribution of leptin and leptin receptor in the canine gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungin; Lee, Aeri; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong; Kim, Wan Hee

    2016-09-01

    The hormone leptin is produced by mature adipocytes and plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy metabolism through its interaction with the leptin receptor. In addition to roles in obesity and obesity-related diseases, leptin has been reported to affect the components and secretion of bile in leptin-deficient mice. Furthermore, gallbladder diseases such as cholelithiasis are known to be associated with serum leptin concentrations in humans. We hypothesized that the canine gallbladder is a source of leptin and that the leptin receptor may be localized in the gallbladder, where it plays a role in regulating the function of this organ. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence and expression patterns of leptin and its receptors in normal canine gallbladders using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Clinically normal gallbladder tissue samples were obtained from four healthy beagle dogs with similar body condition scores. RT-PCR and sequencing of the amplified PCR products revealed the presence of leptin mRNA and its receptors in the gallbladder. Immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated the expression of leptin and its receptors in the luminal single columnar and tubuloalveolar glandular epithelial cells. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated the presence of leptin and its receptors in the gallbladders of dogs. Leptin and its receptor were both localized throughout the cytoplasm of luminal and glandular epithelial cells. These results suggested that the gallbladder is not only a source of leptin, but also a target of leptin though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. The results of this study could increase the understanding of both the normal physiological functions of the gallbladder and the pathophysiological mechanisms of gallbladder diseases characterized by leptin system dysfunction.

  19. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  20. Receptor-mediated hepatic uptake of M6P-BSA-conjugated triplex-forming oligonucleotides in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaoyang; Cheng, Kun; Guntaka, Ramareddy V; Mahato, Ram I

    2006-01-01

    Excessive production of extracellular matrix, predominantly type I collagen, results in liver fibrosis. Earlier we synthesized mannose 6-phosphate-bovine serum albumin (M6P-BSA) and conjugated to the type I collagen specific triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) for its enhanced delivery to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which is the principal liver fibrogenic cell. In this report, we demonstrate a time-dependent cellular uptake of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO by HSC-T6 cells. Both cellular uptake and nuclear deposition of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO were significantly higher than those of 33P-TFO, leading to enhanced inhibition of type I collagen transcription. Following systemic administration into rats, hepatic accumulation of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO increased from 55% to 68% with the number of M6P per BSA from 14 to 27. Unlike 33P-TFO, there was no significant decrease in the hepatic uptake of (M6P)20-BSA-33P-TFO in fibrotic rats. Prior administration of excess M6P-BSA decreased the hepatic uptake of (M6P)20-BSA-33P-TFO from 66% to 40% in normal rats, and from 60% to 15% in fibrotic rats, suggesting M6P/insulin-like growth factor II (M6P/IGF II) receptor-mediated endocytosis of M6P-BSA-33P-TFO by HSCs. Almost 82% of the total liver uptake in fibrotic rats was contributed by HSCs. In conclusion, by conjugation with M6P-BSA, the TFO could be potentially used for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  1. A new splice variant of the major subunit of human asialoglycoprotein receptor encodes a secreted form in hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR is composed of two polypeptides, designated H1 and H2. While variants of H2 have been known for decades, the existence of H1 variants has never been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified two splice variants of ASGPR H1 transcripts, designated H1a and H1b, in human liver tissues and hepatoma cells. Molecular cloning of ASGPR H1 variants revealed that they differ by a 117 nucleotide segment corresponding to exon 2 in the ASGPR genomic sequence. Thus, ASGPR variant H1b transcript encodes a protein lacking the transmembrane domain. Using an H1b-specific antibody, H1b protein and a functional soluble ASGPR (sASGPR composed of H1b and H2 in human sera and in hepatoma cell culture supernatant were identified. The expression of ASGPR H1a and H1b in Hela cells demonstrated the different cellular loctions of H1a and H1b proteins at cellular membranes and in intracellular compartments, respectively. In vitro binding assays using fluorescence-labeled sASGPR or the substract ASOR revealed that the presence of sASGPR reduced the binding of ASOR to cells. However, ASOR itself was able to enhance the binding of sASGPR to cells expressing membrane-bound ASGPR. Further, H1b expression is reduced in liver tissues from patients with viral hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that two naturally occurring ASGPR H1 splice variants are produced in human hepatocytes. A hetero-oligomeric complex sASGPR consists of the secreted form of H1 and H2 and may bind to free substrates in circulation and carry them to liver tissue for uptake by ASGPR-expressing hepatocytes.

  2. Distribution between protein-bound and free forms of plasma cortisol in the gilt and fetal pig near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattesh, H G; Baumbach, G A; Gillespie, B B; Schneider, J F; Murai, J T

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five time-dated pregnant gilts were used to document plasma levels of total and free cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity, and percent distribution of cortisol among protein-bound (CBG and albumin) and free forms in the fetal pig during the last 24 days of gestation. Plasma from fetal pigs on days 110-114 of gestation (gestation length 114 days) had significantly higher levels of total cortisol (p pigs located in the cervical region of the uterus had lower (p pig are directly related and highly similar to those of another precocious species, the sheep.

  3. Distinct cellular and subcellular distributions of G protein-coupled receptor kinase and arrestin isoforms in the striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Bychkov

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs and arrestins mediate desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Arrestins also mediate G protein-independent signaling via GPCRs. Since GRK and arrestins demonstrate no strict receptor specificity, their functions in the brain may depend on their cellular complement, expression level, and subcellular targeting. However, cellular expression and subcellular distribution of GRKs and arrestins in the brain is largely unknown. We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum. Arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 are also expressed in neurons of both pathways. Cholinergic interneurons are enriched in GRK2, arrestin-3, and GRK5. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons express more of GRK2 and less of arrestin-2 than medium spiny neurons. The GRK5 subcellular distribution in the human striatal neurons is altered by its phosphorylation: unphosphorylated enzyme preferentially localizes to synaptic membranes, whereas phosphorylated GRK5 is found in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions. Both GRK isoforms are abundant in the nucleus of human striatal neurons, whereas the proportion of both arrestins in the nucleus was equally low. However, overall higher expression of arrestin-2 yields high enough concentration in the nucleus to mediate nuclear functions. These data suggest cell type- and subcellular compartment-dependent differences in GRK/arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling.

  4. Studies on the endoplasmic reticulum. IV. Its form and distribution during mitosis in cells of onion root tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PORTER, K R; MACHADO, R D

    1960-02-01

    Cells of onion and garlic root tips were examined under the electron and phase contrast microscopes after fixation in KMnO(4). Special attention was focused on the distribution and behavior of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during the several phases of mitosis. Slender profiles, recognized as sections through thin lamellar units of the ER (most prominent in KMnO(4)-fixed material), are distributed more or less uniformly in the cytoplasm of interphase cells and show occasional continuity with the nuclear envelope. In late prophase the nuclear envelope breaks down and its remnants plus cytoplasmic elements of the ER, which are morphologically identical, surround the spindle in a zone from which mitochondria, etc., are excluded. During metaphase these ER elements persist and concentrate as two separate systems in the polar caps or zones of the spindle. At about this same time they begin to proliferate and to invade the ends of the spindle. The invading lamellar units form drape-like partitions between the anaphase chromosomes. In late anaphase, their advancing margins reach the middle zone of the spindle and begin to fray out. Finally, in telophase, while elements of the ER in the poles of the spindle coalesce around the chromosomes to form the new envelope, the advancing edges of those in the middle zone reticulate at the level of the equator to form a close lattice of tubular elements. Within this, which is identified as the phragmoplast, the earliest signs of the cell plate appear in the form of small vesicles. These subsequently grow and fuse to complete the separation of the two protoplasts. Other morphological units apparently participating in mitosis are described. Speculation is provided on the equal division or not of the nuclear envelope and the contribution the envelope fragments make to the ER of the new cell.

  5. Subcellular distribution and early signalling events of P2X7 receptors from mouse cerebellar granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nogueiro, Jesús; Marín-García, Patricia; Bustillo, Diego; Olivos-Oré, Luis Alcides; Miras-Portugal, María Teresa; Artalejo, Antonio R

    2014-12-05

    The subcellular distribution and early signalling events of P2X7 receptors were studied in mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings evidenced inwardly directed non-desensitizing currents following adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP; 600 µM) or 2'-3'-o-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP; 100 µM) administration to cells bathed in a medium with no-added divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). Nucleotide-activated currents were inhibited by superfusion of 2.5 mM Ca(2+), 1.2 mM Mg(2+) or 100 nM Brilliant Blue G (BBG), hence indicating the expression of ionotropic P2X7 receptors. Fura-2 calcium imaging showed [Ca(2+)]i elevations in response to ATP or BzATP at the somas and at a small number of axodendritic regions of granule neurons. Differential sensitivity of these [Ca(2+)]i increases to three different P2X7 receptor antagonists (100 nM BBG, 10 μM 4-[(2S)-2-[(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)methylamino]-3-oxo-3-(4-phenyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl] phenyl isoquinolinesulfonic acid ester, KN-62, and 1 μM 3-(5-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)methyl pyridine hydrochloride hydrate, A-438079) revealed that P2X7 receptors are co-expressed with different P2Y receptors along the plasmalemma of granule neurons. Finally, experiments with the fluorescent dye YO-PRO-1 indicated that prolonged stimulation of P2X7 receptors does not lead to the opening of a membrane pore permeable to large cations. Altogether, our results emphasise the expression of functional P2X7 receptors at both the axodendritic and somatic levels in mouse cerebellar granule neurons, and favour the notion that P2X7 receptors might function in a subcellular localisation-specific manner: presynaptically, by controlling glutamate release, and on the cell somas, by supporting granule neuron survival against glutamate excytotoxicity.

  6. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of mRNA encoding porcine 5-HT7 receptor and its comparison with the structure of other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Pankaj; Saxena, Pramod R; Sharma, Hari S

    2002-09-01

    The effects of 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT, serotonin) are mediated via five main receptor types of which the 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently characterised member. The 5-HT7 receptor has been shown to participate in mediating cranial blood vessels dilatation that may result in migraine headache. We report here the cDNA cloning, sequencing and tissue distribution of porcine 5-HT7 receptor and illustrate its comparison with corresponding receptor of known species. Employing a combination of reverse transcriptase and inverse polymerase chain reaction we amplified and sequenced a full length cDNA from the porcine cerebral cortex. The deduced amino acid sequence comparison confirmed that the cloned porcine receptor belongs to 5-HT7 receptor as described for human and other species and showing overall homology of 92-96%. The expression of 5-HT7 receptor mRNA was observed in porcine central (cerebral cortex, trigeminal ganglion and cerebellum) as well as in peripheral (pulmonary and coronary arteries, superior vena cava and saphenous vein) tissues. The established cDNA sequence and tissue distribution of porcine 5-HT7 receptor will be helpful in exploring the role of this receptor in pathophysiological processes and to predict as a potential therapeutic target for antimigraine drug development.

  7. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    , and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA). Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results: SIV......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I...

  8. Prognostic value of intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in a retrospective study of 518 colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne Fog; Christensen, Ib J; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The levels of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in blood have been shown to correlate with prognosis in various cancers. Plasma levels of the combined suPAR forms have previously shown to be a strong prognostic marker in the present cohort of CRC patients and could...... potentially identify high-risk patients among those with early stage disease. In order to investigate whether the individual suPAR forms are stronger prognostic markers than the combined amount we measured the different uPAR forms in serum from the same cohort and evaluated their prognostic significance....

  9. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  10. Rhythmic delta activity represents a form of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, McNeill P; Clarke, Charles D; Sonmezturk, Hasan H; Abou-Khalil, Bassel

    2011-02-01

    Anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis is a limbic encephalitis with psychiatric manifestations, abnormal movements, coma, and seizures. The coma and abnormal movements are not typically attributed to seizure activity, and slow activity is the most common EEG finding. We report drug-resistant nonconvulsive status epilepticus as the basis for coma in a 19-year-old woman with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies and a mediastinal teratoma. The EEG showed generalized rhythmic delta activity, with evolution in morphology, frequency, and field typical of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The status was refractory to antiepileptic drugs, repeated drug-induced coma, resection of the tumor, intravenous steroids, rituximab, and plasmapheresis. She awoke after the addition of felbamate, and the rhythmic delta activity ceased. The rhythmic delta activity described with coma in anti-NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis may represent a pattern of status epilepticus in some patients. Felbamate, which has NMDA receptor antagonist activity, should be studied as a therapeutic agent in this condition.

  11. Ethnic variability in the allelic distribution of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor codon 554 and assessment of variant receptor function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J M; Harper, P A; Meyer, U A; Bock, K W; Morike, K; Lagueux, J; Ayotte, P; Tyndale, R F; Sellers, E M; Manchester, D K; Okey, A B

    2001-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcriptional regulator of several genes including the cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) family as well as genes encoding factors involved in cell growth and differentiation. In mice, several polymorphic forms of the AHR are known, some of which have altered affinity for toxic and carcinogenic ligands. Remarkably little genetic variation has been detected in the human AHR gene. In studies on human AHR, Kawajiri et al. (Pharmacogenetics 1995; 5:151-158) reported a variation at codon 554 that results in an amino acid change from arginine to lysine; the frequency of the variant allele in a Japanese population (n = 277) was 0.43. We investigated the Lys554 allele in 386 individuals of various ethnic origins and found the frequency to be: 0.58 in Ivory Coast Africans (n = 58); 0.53 in a mixed African group (n = 20); 0.39 in Caribbean-Africans (n = 55); 0.32 in Canadian Chinese (n = 41); 0.14 in North American Indians (n = 47); 0.12 in French Canadian Caucasians (n = 20); 0.11 in a mixed ethnicity North American group (n = 45); 0.09 in Canadian Inuits (n = 22); and 0.07 in German Caucasians (n = 78). We expressed the human Lys554 allele in an in-vitro transcription-translation system and found that the receptor bearing the R554L substitution had an equivalent ability to that of the wild-type receptor to bind to a dioxin-responsive element following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The Lys554 allele also was equivalent to the wild-type receptor at stimulating CYP1A1 mRNA expression when transfected into TCDD-treated receptor-deficient mouse Hepa-1 cells. It is not yet known if any of the wide variations in allele frequency at codon 554 are related to ethnic differences in susceptibility to adverse effects of environmental chemicals.

  12. Within-twig leaf distribution patterns differ among plant life-forms in a subtropical Chinese forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengqun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J; Sun, Shucun

    2013-07-01

    Amax) had more even leaf distribution patterns than evergreen species (which had low LCP, LSP and Amax); shade-adapted evergreen species had more even leaf distribution patterns than sun-adapted evergreen species. We propose that the leaf distribution pattern (i.e., 'evenness' CV, which is an easily measured functional trait) can be used to distinguish among life-forms in communities similar to the one examined in this study.

  13. Theobromine-Induced Changes in A1 Purinergic Receptor Gene Expression and Distribution in a Rat Brain Alzheimer's Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Precoma, Jesus; Padilla, Karla; Rodríguez-Cruz, Alfredo; Berumen, Laura C; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mainly characterized by accumulation in the brain of extra- and intraneuronal amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins, respectively, which selectively affect specific regions, particularly the neocortex and the hippocampus. Sporadic AD is mainly caused by an increase in apolipoprotein E, a component of chylomicrons, which are cholesterol transporters in the brain. Recent studies have shown that high lipid levels, especially cholesterol, are linked to AD. Adenosine is an atypical neurotransmitter that regulates a wide range of physiological functions by activating four P1 receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) and P2 purinergic receptors that are G protein-coupled. A1 receptors are involved in the inhibition of neurotransmitter release, which could be related to AD. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a lard-enriched diet (LED) on cognitive and memory processes in adult rats (6 months of age) as well as the effect of theobromine on these processes. The results indicated that the fat-enriched diet resulted in a long-term deterioration in cognitive and memory functions. Increased levels of Aβ protein and IL-1β were also observed in the rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet, which were used to validate the AD animal model. In addition, the results of qPCR and immunohistochemistry indicated a decrease in gene expression and distribution of A1 purinegic receptor, respectively, in the hippocampus of LED-fed rats. Interestingly, theobromine, at both concentrations tested, restored A1 receptor levels and improved cognitive functions and Aβ levels for a dose of 30 mg/L drinking water.

  14. Orexin and orexin receptor like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of Gallus domesticus: An immunohistochemical survey on presence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcamone, N; D'Angelo, L; de Girolamo, P; Lucini, C; Pelagalli, A; Castaldo, L

    2014-04-01

    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization and distribution of orexin A and B-like and their receptors-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of chicken. The immunoreactivity is distributed in endocrine cells, nerve fibers and neurons, both in the stomach and intestine, and shows a discrete conformity with the data till now reported for Mammals. Our study suggests a possible participation of orexin-like peptides in the modulation of chicken gastroenteric activities and the preservation of their main distribution compared to Mammals. Western blot analysis has confirmed the presence of prepro-orexin and both receptors in the examined tissues. This survey represents the first evidence of the presence of orexin-like peptides in the gastroenteric tract of non mammalian species, and the results could help to better understand the alimentary control and body weight in domestic birds, which are of relevance to determine the productive factors in breeding animals. This study might also serve as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non mammalian Vertebrates.

  15. Different forms of glycine- and GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse superficial and deep dorsal horn neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brichta Alan M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in superficial (SDH and deep (DDH laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn receive sensory information from skin, muscle, joints and viscera. In both regions, glycine- (GlyR and GABAA-receptors (GABAARs contribute to fast synaptic inhibition. For rat, several types of GABAAR coexist in the two regions and each receptor type provides different contributions to inhibitory tone. Recent work in mouse has discovered an additional type of GlyR, (containing alpha 3 subunits in the SDH. The contribution of differing forms of the GlyR to sensory processing in SDH and DDH is not understood. Methods and Results Here we compare fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse (P17-37 SDH and DDH using patch-clamp electrophysiology in transverse spinal cord slices (L3-L5 segments, 23°C. GlyR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in 74% (25/34 and 94% (25/27 of SDH and DDH neurons, respectively. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in virtually all neurons in both regions (93%, 14/15 and 100%, 18/18. Several Gly- and GABAAR properties also differed in SDH vs. DDH. GlyR-mediated mIPSC amplitude was smaller (37.1 ± 3.9 vs. 64.7 ± 5.0 pA; n = 25 each, decay time was slower (8.5 ± 0.8 vs. 5.5 ± 0.3 ms, and frequency was lower (0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.72 ± 0.13 Hz in SDH vs. DDH neurons. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs had similar amplitudes (25.6 ± 2.4, n = 14 vs. 25. ± 2.0 pA, n = 18 and frequencies (0.21 ± 0.08 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 Hz in both regions; however, decay times were slower (23.0 ± 3.2 vs. 18.9 ± 1.8 ms in SDH neurons. Mean single channel conductance underlying mIPSCs was identical for GlyRs (54.3 ± 1.6 pS, n = 11 vs. 55.7 ± 1.8, n = 8 and GABAARs (22.7 ± 1.7 pS, n = 10 vs. 22.4 ± 2.0 pS, n = 11 in both regions. We also tested whether the synthetic endocanabinoid, methandamide (methAEA, had direct effects on Gly- and GABAARs in each spinal cord region. MethAEA (5 μM reduced GlyR-mediated mIPSC frequency in SDH

  16. An approach to normal forms of Kuramoto model with distributed delays and the effect of minimal delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Ben, E-mail: niubenhit@163.com [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Guo, Yuxiao [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Heterogeneous delays with positive lower bound (gap) are taken into consideration in Kuramoto model. On the Ott–Antonsen's manifold, the dynamical transitional behavior from incoherence to coherence is mediated by Hopf bifurcation. We establish a perturbation technique on complex domain, by which universal normal forms, stability and criticality of the Hopf bifurcation are obtained. Theoretically, a hysteresis loop is found near the subcritically bifurcated coherent state. With respect to Gamma distributed delay with fixed mean and variance, we find that the large gap decreases Hopf bifurcation value, induces supercritical bifurcations, avoids the hysteresis loop and significantly increases in the number of coexisting coherent states. The effect of gap is finally interpreted from the viewpoint of excess kurtosis of Gamma distribution. - Highlights: • Heterogeneously delay-coupled Kuramoto model with minimal delay is considered. • Perturbation technique on complex domain is established for bifurcation analysis. • Hysteresis phenomenon is investigated in a theoretical way. • The effect of excess kurtosis of distributed delays is discussed.

  17. Evidence for non-random distribution of Fc gamma receptor genotype combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, WL; Jansen, MD; Sluiter, WJ; van de Sluis, B; Leppers-van de Straat, FGJ; Kobayashi, T; Westendorp, RGJ; Huizinga, TWJ; van de Winkel, JGJ

    2003-01-01

    Human IgG receptors (FcgammaR) display considerable heterogeneity, and are crucial immune response modulating molecules. FcgammaRIIA, FcgammaRIIIA, and FcgammaRIIIB display functional biallelic polymorphisms. FcgammaR polymorphisms have been found associated with susceptibility to infectious and aut

  18. Molecular cloning, characterisation, and tissue distribution of oestrogen receptor alpha in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Thomas K; Skjødt, Karsten; Anglade, Isabelle;

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) oestrogen receptor alpha (eERalpha) has been isolated from eelpout liver, cloned and sequenced. The cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 570 amino acid residues (mw: 63.0 kDa). The amino acid sequence of eERalpha showed a high degree...

  19. Distribution and number of epidermal growth factor receptors in skin is related to epithelial cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Basketter, D A; Couchman, J R

    1983-01-01

    receptors are detected on the epithelial cells overlying the basement membranes of the epidermis, sebaceous gland, and regions of the hair follicle all of which have proliferative capacity. In marked contrast, tissues which have started to differentiate and lost their growth potential, carry either...... and temporal control of epithelial proliferation....

  20. Molecular cloning, characterisation, and tissue distribution of oestrogen receptor alpha in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Thomas K; Skjødt, Karsten; Anglade, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) oestrogen receptor alpha (eERalpha) has been isolated from eelpout liver, cloned and sequenced. The cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 570 amino acid residues (mw: 63.0 kDa). The amino acid sequence of eERalpha showed a high degree...

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization alters subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and resists cadmium toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25-60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg kg(-1 Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mgkg(-1 Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2-80.5% in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization alters subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and resists cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Huang, Jing; Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25-60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg kg(-1) Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mgkg(-1) Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2-80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation.

  3. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally...... amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions: A difference in predilection sites between SIV...

  4. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally...... amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions: A difference in predilection sites between SIV...

  5. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  6. The Distribution between the Dissolved and the Particulate Forms of 49 Metals across the Tigris River, Baghdad, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samera Hussein Hamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of dissolved and particulate forms of 49 elements was investigated along transect of the Tigris River (one of the major rivers of the world within Baghdad city and in its major tributary (Diyala River from 11 to 28 July 2011. SF-ICP-MS was used to measure total and filterable elements at 17 locations along the Tigris River transect, two samples from the Diyala River, and in one sample from the confluence of the two rivers. The calculated particulate forms were used to determine the particle-partition coefficients of the metals. No major changes in the elements concentrations down the river transect. Dissolved phases dominated the physical speciation of many metals (e.g., As, Mo, and Pt in the Tigris River, while Al, Fe, Pb, Th, and Ti were exhibiting high particulate fractions, with a trend of particle partition coefficients of [Ti(40 > Th(35 > Fe(15 > Al(13 > Pb(4.5] * 106 L/kg. Particulate forms of all metals exhibited high concentrations in the Diyala River, though the partition coefficients were low due to high TSS (~270 mg/L. A comparison of Tigris with the major rivers of the world showed that Tigris quality in Baghdad is comparable to Seine River quality in Paris.

  7. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  8. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit;

    2007-01-01

    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were...

  9. Distribution of P2Y6 and P2Y12 receptor: their colocalization with calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhenghua; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2006-04-01

    The distribution of P2Y(6) and P2Y(12) receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers and their coexistence with calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been investigated with single and double labeling immunostaining methods. The results showed that 30-36% of the ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus are strongly P2Y(6) receptor-ir neurons; they are distributed widely in the myenteric plexus of stomach, jejunum, ileum and colon, but not in the submucosal plexus, with a typical morphology of multipolar neurons with a long axon-like process. About 42-46% of ganglion cells in both the myenteric and submucosal plexuses show P2Y(12) receptor-ir. About 28-35% of P2Y(6) receptor-ir neurons were found to coexist with NOS and 41-47% of them coexist with calretinin, but there was no coexistence of P2Y(6) receptor-ir with calbindin. In contrast, all P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons were immunopositive for calbindin, although occasionally P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons without calbindin immunoreactivity were found, while none of the P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons were found to coexist with calretinin or NOS in the gastrointestinal system of guinea pig. The P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons coexpressing calbindin-ir in the small intestine are Dogiel type II/AH, intrinsic primary afferent neurons.

  10. Distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors in rat tissues during embryonic skin development, hair formation, and the adult hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Couchman, J R

    1984-01-01

    on the binding distribution of [125I]EGF, representing the tissue localization of available EGF receptors, during embryonic rat skin development including hair follicle formation and the adult hair growth cycle. At 16 days embryonic development a relatively low receptor density is seen over all the epidermal...... condensates marking the first stage of hair follicle development. This restricted and temporary loss of EGF receptors above these specialized mesenchymal condensates implies a role for the EGF receptor and possibly EGF or an EGF-like ligand in stimulating the epithelial downgrowth required for hair follicle...... development. In the anagen hair bulb, receptors for EGF are detected over the outer root sheath and the epithelial cell layers at the base of the follicle and show a correlation with the areas of epithelial proliferation in the hair bulb. During the catagen and telogen phases of the hair cycle, receptors...

  11. Uptake,Subcellular Distribution,and Chemical Forms of Cadmium in Wild-Type and Mutant Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun-Yu; ZHU Cheng; REN Yan-Fang; YAN Yu-Ping; CHENG Chang; JIANG De-An; SUN Zong-Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Wild-type (Zhonghua 11) and mutant rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were used to investigate the effect of cadmium (Cd) application on biomass production,to characterize the influx of Cd from roots to shoots,and to determine the form,content,and subcellular distribution of Cd in the roots,leaf sheaths,and leaves of the rice plants.Seedlings were cultivated in a nutrient solution and were treated with 0.5 mmol L-1 of Cd2+ for 14 d.The sensitivity of rice plants to Cd toxicity was tested by studying the changes in biomass production and by observing the onset of toxicity symptoms in the plants.Both the wild-type and mutant rice plants developed symptoms of Cd stress.In addition,Cd application significantly (P ≤ 0.01) decreased dry matter production of roots,leaf sheaths,and leaves of both types,especially the mutant.The Cd content in roots of the mutant was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of the wild-type rice.However,there was no significant difference in the Cd content of roots,leaf sheaths,and leaves between the wild-type and mutant rice.Most of the Cd was bound to the cell wall of the roots,leaf sheaths,and leaves,and the mutant had greater Cd content in cell organelles than the wild type.The uneven subcellular distribution could be responsible for the Cd sensitivity of the mutant rice.Furthermore,different chemical forms of Cd were found to occur in the roots,leaf sheaths,and leaves of both types of rice plants.Ethanol-,water-,and NaCl-extractable Cd had greater toxicity than the other forms of Cd and induced stunted growth and chlorosls in the plants.The high Cd content of the toxic forms of Cd in the cell organelles could seriously damage the cells and the metabolic processes in mutant rice plants.

  12. Characterization of elemental and structural composition of corrosion scales and deposits formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Korshin, Gregory V; Valentine, Richard L; Hill, Andrew S; Friedman, Melinda J; Reiber, Steve H

    2010-08-01

    Corrosion scales and deposits formed within drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) have the potential to retain inorganic contaminants. The objective of this study was to characterize the elemental and structural composition of extracted pipe solids and hydraulically-mobile deposits originating from representative DWDSs. Goethite (alpha-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and siderite (FeCO(3)) were the primary crystalline phases identified in most of the selected samples. Among the major constituent elements of the deposits, iron was most prevalent followed, in the order of decreasing prevalence, by sulfur, organic carbon, calcium, inorganic carbon, phosphorus, manganese, magnesium, aluminum and zinc. The cumulative occurrence profiles of iron, sulfur, calcium and phosphorus for pipe specimens and flushed solids were similar. Comparison of relative occurrences of these elements indicates that hydraulic disturbances may have relatively less impact on the release of manganese, aluminum and zinc, but more impact on the release of organic carbon, inorganic carbon, and magnesium.

  13. Long-term succession of structure and diversity of a biofilm formed in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, A.C.; Jørgensen, T.M.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we examined the long-term development of the overall structural morphology and community composition of a biofilm formed in a model drinking water distribution system with biofilms from 1 day to 3 years old. Visualization and subsequent quantification showed how the biofilm developed...... length polymorphisms showed a correlation between the population profile and the age of the sample, separating the samples into young (1 to 94 days) and old (571 to 1,093 days) biofilms, whereas a limited spatial variation in the biofilm was observed. A more detailed analysis with cloning and sequencing......% of the community by day 256, and which resulted in a reduction in the overall richness. After 500 days, the biofilm entered a stable population state, which was characterized by a greater richness of bacteria, including Nitrospira, Planctomyces, Acidobacterium, and Pseudomonas. The combination of different...

  14. Effect of Electrolyte on the Dissolution of Aluminum from Acid Sois and the Distribution of Aluminum Forms in Soil Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XURENKOU; JIGUOLIANG

    1997-01-01

    KCl,CaCl2,NH4Cl,NaCl,K2SO4 and KF solutions were used for studying the effects of cations and anions on the dissolution of aluminum and the distribution of aluminum forms respectively.Power of exchanging and releasing aluminum of four kinds of cations was in the decreasing order Ca2+>K+>NH4+>Na+,The dissolution of aluminum increased with the cation concentration.The adsorption affinity of various soils fro aluminum was different.The aluminum in the soil with a stronger adsorption affinity was diffcult to be exchanged and released by cations.The Al-F complexes were main species of inorganic aluminum at a low concentration of cations,while Al3+ became major species of inorganic aluminum at a hiht concentration of cations .The results on the effct of anions indicated that the concentrations of total aluminum,three kinds of inorganc aluminum(Al3+,Al-F and Al-OH complexes) and organic aluminum complexes(Al-OM) when SO42- was added into soil suspension were lower than those when Cl- was added.The dissolution of aluminum from soils and the distribution of aluminum forms in solution were affected by the adsorption of F- on the soil.For soils with strong affinity for F-,the concentrations of the three inorganic aluminum species in soil solution after addition of F- were lower than those after addition of Cl-;but for soils with weak affinity for F-,the concentrations of Al3+ and Al-OM were lower and the concentrations of Al-F complexes and total inorganic aluminum after addition of F- were higher than those after addition of Cl- .The increase of F- concentration in soil solution accelerated the dissolution of aluminum from soils.

  15. Families of Fokker-Planck equations and the associated entropic form for a distinct steady-state probability distribution with a known external force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarani, Somayeh

    2015-02-01

    A method of finding entropic form for a given stationary probability distribution and specified potential field is discussed, using the steady-state Fokker-Planck equation. As examples, starting with the Boltzmann and Tsallis distribution and knowing the force field, we obtain the Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis entropies. Also, the associated entropy for the gamma probability distribution is found, which seems to be in the form of the gamma function. Moreover, the related Fokker-Planck equations are given for the Boltzmann, Tsallis, and gamma probability distributions.

  16. μ and κ opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragen, B J; Freeman, S M; Laredo, S A; Mendoza, S P; Bales, K L

    2015-04-02

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MORs) and κ opioid receptors (KORs) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [(3)H][D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to label MORs and [(3)H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus (CG), striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in "neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen" (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the CG, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function.

  17. A juvenile form of postsynaptic hippocampal long-term potentiation in mice deficient for the AMPA receptor subunit GluR-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Vidar; Kaiser, Katharina M M; Borchardt, Thilo; Adelmann, Giselind; Rozov, Andrei; Burnashev, Nail; Brix, Christian; Frotscher, Michael; Andersen, Per; Hvalby, Øivind; Sakmann, Bert; Seeburg, Peter H; Sprengel, Rolf

    2003-12-15

    In adult mice, long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission at CA3-to-CA1 synapses induced by tetanic stimulation requires L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors containing GluR-A subunits. Here, we report a GluR-A-independent form of LTP, which is comparable in size to LTP in wild-type mice at postnatal day 14 (P14) but diminishes between P14 and P42 in brain slices of GluR-A-deficient mice. The GluR-A-independent form of LTP is sensitive to D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), but lacks short-term potentiation (STP) and can also be observed in the pairing induction protocol. As judged by unaltered paired-pulse facilitation, this LTP form is postsynaptically expressed despite depleted extrasynaptic AMPA receptor pools with reduced levels of GluR-B, which accumulates in somata and synapses of CA1 pyramidal neurons in GluR-A-deficient mice. Our results show that in the developing hippocampus synaptic plasticity can be expressed by AMPA receptors lacking the GluR-A subunit.

  18. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of copper in tomato seedlings under copper stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hui; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Yin, Bo; Li, Xiao-Yun; Cui, Xiu-Min

    2012-11-01

    A nutrient solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) on the subcellular distribution and chemical form of copper (Cu) in tomato seedlings under the stress of 50 micromol x L(-1) of Cu2+ (CuCl2). Under this stress, the biomass and plant height of tomato seedlings decreased by 33.7% and 23.1%, respectively. Exogenous NO alleviated this inhibition effect significantly, but the Cu concentration and accumulation in the seedling organs still had a significant increase. Under the Cu stress, the Cu concentration and accumulation in the seedling organs were in the order of root > leaf > stem > petiole. Exogenous NO limited the absorbed Cu transferred from root to shoot, but could not remove this translocation. Exogenous NO increased the Cu concentration in vacuole and cell wall significantly, and decreased the Cu concentration in organelle, which lessened the damage of Cu on the regular metabolic balance in cytoplasm and increased the tolerance of organelle against Cu. Exogenous NO increased the acetic acid-extractable Cu (F(HAc)) in root, sodium chloride-extractable Cu (F(NaCl)) in stem, F(HAc) in petiole, and ethanol-extractable Cu (F(E)) and F(NaCl) in leaf, while decreased the concentration and distribution of water-extractable Cu (F(W)) in different organs, which efficiently reduced the bio-toxicity of excessive copper.

  19. ALMA REDSHIFTS OF MILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM THE SPT SURVEY: THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Breuck, C.; Aravena, M.; Biggs, A. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Marrone, D. P.; Bothwell, M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Vieira, J. D.; Bock, J. J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bethermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 Canada (Canada); and others

    2013-04-10

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope. The sources were selected to have S{sub 1.4{sub mm}} > 20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S{sub 843{sub MHz}} < 6 mJy) or far-infrared counterparts (S{sub 100{sub {mu}m}} < 1 Jy, S{sub 60{sub {mu}m}} < 200 mJy). We robustly detect 44 line features in our survey, which we identify as redshifted emission lines of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C I, H{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O{sup +}. We find one or more spectral features in 23 sources yielding a {approx}90% detection rate for this survey; in 12 of these sources we detect multiple lines, while in 11 sources we detect only a single line. For the sources with only one detected line, we break the redshift degeneracy with additional spectroscopic observations if available, or infer the most likely line identification based on photometric data. This yields secure redshifts for {approx}70% of the sample. The three sources with no lines detected are tentatively placed in the redshift desert between 1.7 < z < 2.0. The resulting mean redshift of our sample is z-bar = 3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of z-bar = 2.3 and for which only 10%-15% of the population is expected to be at z > 3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

  20. Intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase receptor enhance discrimination of cancer from non-malignant conditions in patients presenting with symptoms related to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, A F; Høyer-Hansen, G; Nielsen, H J;

    2009-01-01

    plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was proposed as a marker in CRC patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the individual molecular forms of suPAR as discriminators in a group of patients undergoing endoscopical examination following symptoms related to colorectal cancer. METHODS: In a case......-control study comprising 308 patients undergoing endoscopical examination following CRC-related symptoms, 77 CRC patients with adenocarcinoma were age and gender matched to: 77 patients with adenomas; 77 with other non-malignant findings, and 77 with no findings. The different uPAR forms were measured...

  1. A soluble form of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc-epsilon-RI, circulates in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dehlink

    Full Text Available Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum.

  2. Discrimination of different forms of the murine urokinase plasminogen activator receptor on the cell surface using monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, M.G.; Pass, J.; Illemann, M.

    2008-01-01

    of saturation with the amino-terminal fragment of uPA, ATF. However, the signal intensity obtained using another uPAR domain I specific mAb, mR1, was significantly reduced upon ATF saturation. Furthermore, when adding ATF, mR4 selectively stained the cleaved receptor. Applying these newly generated mAbs, we...

  3. A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 2: application of homogeneity indices to solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    This article is the second of a series of two articles detailing the application of mixing index to assess homogeneity distribution in oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms by image analysis. Chemical imaging (CI) is an emerging technique integrating conventional imaging and spectroscopic techniques with a view to obtaining spatial and spectral information from a sample. Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) has proved an excellent analytical tool for extracting high-quality information from sample surfaces. The primary objective of this second part was to demonstrate that the approach developed in the first part could be successfully applied to near infrared hyperspectral images of oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms such as coated, uncoated and effervescent tablets, as well as to powder blends. To this end, we assessed a new criterion for establishing mixing homogeneity by using four different methods based on a three-dimensional (M×N×λ) data array of hyperspectral images (spectral standard deviations and correlation coefficients) or a two-dimensional (M×N) data array (concentration maps and binary images). The four methods were used applying macropixel analysis to the Poole (M(P)) and homogeneity (H%(Poole)) indices. Both indices proved useful for assessing the degree of homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples. The results testify that the proposed approach can be effectively used in the pharmaceutical industry, in the finished products (e.g., tablets) and in mixing unit operations for example, as a process analytical technology tool for the blending monitoring (see part 1).

  4. Two P2X1 receptor transcripts able to form functional channels are present in most human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Cintya; Jaramillo-Polanco, Josue; Portales-Pérez, Diana P; Gómez-Coronado, Karen S; Rodríguez-Meléndez, Jessica G; Cortés-García, Juan D; Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Montaño, Luis M; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2016-12-15

    To characterize the presence and general properties of P2X1 receptors in single human monocytes we used RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and the patch-clamp and the two-electrode voltage-clamp techniques. Most human monocytes expressed the canonical P2X1 (90%) and its splicing variant P2X1del (88%) mRNAs. P2X1 receptor immunoreactivity was also observed in 70% of these cells. Currents mediated by P2X1 (EC50=1.9±0.8µm) and P2X1del (EC50 >1000µm) channels, expressed in Xenopus leavis oocytes, have different ATP sensitivity and kinetics. Both currents mediated by P2X1 and P2X1del channels kept increasing during the continuous presence of high ATP concentrations. Currents mediated by the native P2X1 receptors in human monocytes showed an EC50=6.3±0.2µm. Currents have kinetics that resemble those observed for P2X1 and P2X1del receptors in oocytes. Our study is the first to demonstrate the expression of P2X1 transcript and its splicing variant P2X1del in most human monocytes. We also, for the first time, described functional homomeric P2X1del channels and demonstrated that currents mediated by P2X1 or P2X1del receptors, during heterologous expression, increased in amplitude when activated with high ATP concentrations in a similar fashion to those channels that increase their conductance under similar conditions, such as P2X7, P2X2, and P2X4 channels.

  5. A Structural Model for the Membrane-Bound Form of the Juxtamembrane Domain of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Carlin, Cathleen R.; Sonnichsen, Frank D.

    2005-06-24

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Its juxtamembrane domain (JX), the region located between the transmembrane and kinase domains, plays important roles in receptor trafficking. Two sorting signals, a PXXP motif and a 658LL659 motif, are responsible for basolateral sorting in polarized epithelial cells, and a 679LL680 motif targets the ligand-activated receptor for lysosomal degradation. To understand the regulation of these signals, we characterized the structural properties of recombinant JX domain in aqueous solution and in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) detergent. JX is inherently unstructured in aqueous solution, albeit a nascent helix encompasses the lysosomal sorting signal. In DPC micelles, structures derived from NMR data showed three amphipathic, helical segments. A large, internally inconsistent group of long range nuclear Overhauser effects suggest a close proximity of the helices, and the presence of significant conformational averaging. Models were determined for the average JX conformation using restraints representing the translational restriction due to micelle-surface adsorption, and the helix orientations were determined from residual dipolar couplings. Two equivalent average structural models were obtained that differ only in the relative orientation between first and second helices. In these models, the 658LL659 and 679LL680 motifs are located in the first and second helices and face the micelle surface, whereas the PXXP motif is located in a flexible helix-connecting region. The data suggest that the activity of these signals may be regulated by their membrane association and restricted accessibility in the intact receptor.

  6. The turbulent structures around clusters formed under a range of armoring shear stresses and grain size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. C.; Tan, L.

    2011-12-01

    In gravel bed rivers, low flows generate shear stresses less than what is needed to entrain the largest particles but large enough to transport the fines. During sustained low flows, fine sediment winnows from the bed surface and an armored surface layer forms. As the surface armor forms, a surface structure develops that increases bed roughness and flow resistance and can be characterized by the presence of clusters. Individual clusters are known to exert a significant influence over the spatial and temporal flow processes acting in the vicinity of the bed. A series of flume experiments investigated the turbulent structures formed around clusters naturally developed during bed armoring. The series of experiments created armored beds using four different flow rates and four different bulk grain size distributions which progressively increased in the percent sand in the bed sediment. Following an initial run segment that established equilibrium sediment transport and full bed mobility, the flow rate in the flume was reduced and the bed surface fully armored. Once armored, clusters were identified using a combination of bed DEM, vertical profile, and visual analysis. Instantaneous three-dimensional flow velocities were measured around the clusters using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, and these values were used to calculate Reynolds shear stresses, turbulence intensities, and turbulent kinetic energy in the flow field. Results show a significant change in the flow profiles over a cluster when compared to an open area of the armored bed. Reynolds shear stresses doubled over the cluster and turbulence intensity reached a peak value right above the single cluster. The results also suggest the effects of the single cluster on the surrounding flow dynamics are quite localized and limited to 30cm in lateral orientation. Quadrant analysis showing large ejection and sweep events around clusters indicates vortex formation at the cluster crest. The magnitude of the coherent

  7. Pharmacology, Distribution and Development of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, C. M.; Pauly, J. R.; Wilkins, L. H.; Dwoskin, L. P.; Debski, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Visually evoked behaviors mediated by the frog optic tectum require cholinergic activity, but the receptor subtypes through which acetylcholine acts are not yet identified. Using quantitative autoradiography and scintillation spectrometry, we examined the binding of [3H]pirenzepine and [3H]AF-DX 384 in the laminated optic tectum of the frog. In mammalian systems, these substances bind excitatory (m1 and m3 subtypes) and inhibitory (m2 and m4 subtypes) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively. Pharmacological analyses, including the use of specific muscarinic toxins, confirmed the subtype selectivity of the radioligands in the frog brain. Binding sites for [3H]pirenzepine were distinct from those for [3H]AF-DX 384. In the adult tectum, [3H]pirenzepine demonstrated specific binding in tectal layers 5–9. [3H]Pirenzepine binding was also present in tadpoles as young as stage V, but all sampled stages of tadpole tectum had significantly less binding when compared to adults. Lesioning of the optic nerve had no effect on [3H]pirenzepine binding. Specific [3H]AF-DX 384 binding was found in all layers of the adult tectum. All sampled tadpole stages exhibited binding sites for [3H]AF-DX 384, but the densities of these sites were also significantly higher in adults than they were in developing stages. Short-term lesions of the optic nerve reduced [3H]AF-DX 384 binding in all tectal layers of the deafferented lobe when compared to the afferented one. Long-term lesions decreased [3H]AF-DX 384 sites in both lobes. These results indicate that multiple muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites reside in the frog optic tectum at all stages of development, and their pharmacology resembles that of mammalian m1/m3, m2 and m4 subtypes. Our data indicate that few, if any, of these receptors are likely to be located on retinal ganglion cell terminals. Furthermore, the expression of inhibitory muscarinic subtypes seems to be regulated by different mechanisms than that for

  8. The distribution of transient receptor potential melastatin-8 in the rat soft palate, epiglottis, and pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadasu; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kano, Mitsuhiro; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Kondo, Teruyoshi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Kasahara, Eriko; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Immunohistochemistry for transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8), the cold and menthol receptor, was performed on the rat soft palate, epiglottis and pharynx. TRPM8-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers were located beneath the mucous epithelium, and occasionally penetrated the epithelium. These nerve fibers were abundant in the posterior portion of the soft palate and at the border region of naso-oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx. The epiglottis was free from such nerve fibers. The double immunofluorescence method demonstrated that TRPM8-IR nerve fibers in the pharynx and soft palate were mostly devoid of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactivity (CGRP-IR). The retrograde tracing method also demonstrated that 30.1 and 8.7 % of sensory neurons in the jugular and petrosal ganglia innervating the pharynx contained TRPM8-IR, respectively. Among these neurons, the co-expression of TRPM8 and CGRP-IR was very rare. In the nodose ganglion, however, pharyngeal neurons were devoid of TRPM8-IR. Taste bud-like structures in the soft palate and pharynx contained 4-9 TRPM8-IR cells. In the epiglottis, the mucous epithelium on the laryngeal side had numerous TRPM8-IR cells. The present study suggests that TRPM8 can respond to cold stimulation when food and drinks pass through oral and pharyngeal cavities.

  9. Magnetization of type-II superconductors in the form of short cylinders and the screening supercurrent distribution in the Bean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'michev, N. D.; Fedchenko, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    The simplest analytical form of the screening supercurrent distribution is found, and the magnetization of type-II (hard) superconductors in the form of finite-length cylinders and disks (pellets) is calculated. Calculations are carried out in terms of the Bean model taking into account the curvature of magnetic field lines. From this distribution, the total magnetic field intensity and the magnetization hysteresis loop are calculated for such samples in different cases.

  10. The matricellular receptor LRP1 forms an interface for signaling and endocytosis in modulation of the extracellular tumor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eVan Gool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The membrane protein low-density lipoprotein receptor related-protein 1 (LRP1 has been attributed a role in cancer. However, its presumably often indirect involvement is far from understood. LRP1 has both endocytic and signaling activities. As a matricellular receptor it is involved in regulation, mostly by clearing, of various extracellular matrix degrading enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteases, protease-inhibitor complexes and the endoglycosidase heparanase. Furthermore, by binding extracellular ligands including growth factors and subsequent intracellular interaction with scaffolding and adaptor proteins it is involved in regulation of various signaling cascades. LRP1 expression levels are often downregulated in cancer and some studies consider low LRP1 levels a poor prognostic factor. On the contrary, upregulation in brain cancers has been noted and clinical trials explore the use of LRP1 as cargo receptor to deliver cytotoxic agents.This mini-review focuses on LRP1’s role in tumor growth and metastasis especially by modulation of the extracellular tumor environment. In relation to this role its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential will be discussed.

  11. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and alternative splice forms of the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezumi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Takayama, H

    2000-10-14

    Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is the major collagen receptor underlying platelet activation. We cloned the full-length cDNA for GPVI (GPVI-1) and its two isoforms (GPVI-2 and -3) from phorbol-ester-stimulated CMK cells. The GPVI-1 cDNA was identical in the coding region with the cDNA that has recently been reported to belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily. The GPVI gene consisted of 8 exons spanning over 23 kbp and was mapped on the chromosome 19q13. 4. The promoter of GPVI gene lacked TATA and CAAT boxes and had multiple transcription start sites like other megakaryocytic genes. When COS-7 cells were cotransfected with the GPVI isoforms and Fc receptor gamma chain, Fc receptor gamma chain was associated with GPVI-1 and -2 but did not affect the GPVI expression levels. GPVI-1 and -2 could bind the collagen-related peptide, which exhibits triple-helical and polymeric structure of collagen to activate platelets via GPVI. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Preliminary X-ray investigations of several crystal forms of the ferripyoverdine FpvA outer membrane receptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Christophe; Hoegy, Françoise; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David, E-mail: cobessi@esbs.u-strasbg.fr [Institut Gilbert-Laustriat UMR 7175 CNRS/Université Strasbourg I, Département Récepteurs et Protéines Membranaires, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brandt, BP 10413, F-67412 Illkirch (France)

    2006-05-01

    The crystallization and X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of the outer membrane pyoverdine transducer FpvA from P. aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine are described. The resolution of the crystals ranges from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form; all were obtained in the presence of C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent. Ferripyoverdine transport across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the pyoverdine receptor FpvA and the transcriptional regulation of FpvA involve interactions of the FpvA N-terminal TonB box and signalling domain with proteins from the inner membrane. Several crystallization conditions of FpvA–Pvd-Fe solubilized in C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent were obtained and X-ray data were collected from three crystal forms. The resolution limits range from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. From preliminary analysis of the electron-density maps, the first full-length structure of an outer membrane receptor including a signalling domain should be determined.

  13. Natural reward experience alters AMPA and NMDA receptor distribution and function in the nucleus accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K Pitchers

    Full Text Available Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge upon the mesolimbic system which mediates motivation and reward behaviors. Drugs induce neural adaptations in this system, including transcriptional, morphological, and synaptic changes, which contribute to the development and expression of drug-related memories and addiction. Previously, it has been reported that sexual experience in male rats, a natural reward behavior, induces similar neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic system and affects natural reward and drug-related behavior. The current study determined whether sexual experience causes long-lasting changes in mating, or ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking or function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, following 3 different reward abstinence periods: 1 day, 1 week, or 1 month after final mating session. Male Sprague Dawley rats mated during 5 consecutive days (sexual experience or remained sexually naïve to serve as controls. Sexually experienced males displayed facilitation of initiation and performance of mating at each time point. Next, intracellular and membrane surface expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA: NR1 subunit and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA: GluA1, GluA2 subunits receptors in the NAc was determined using a bis(sulfosuccinimidylsuberate (BS(3 protein cross-linking assay followed by Western Blot analysis. NR1 expression was increased at 1 day abstinence both at surface and intracellular, but decreased at surface at 1 week of abstinence. GluA2 was increased intracellularly at 1 week and increased at the surface after 1 month of abstinence. Finally, whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiological recordings determined reduced AMPA/NMDA ratio of synaptic currents in NAc shell neurons following stimulation of cortical afferents in sexually experienced males after all reward abstinence periods. Together, these data show that sexual experience causes long-term alterations in glutamate receptor expression and

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of human interleukin-7 bound to unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of its α-receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, Joseph Jr; Walsh, Scott T. R., E-mail: walsh.220@osu.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, 467 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Bacterial and insect cell expression systems have been developed to produce unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of human interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the extracellular domain of its α receptor, IL-7Rα. We report the crystallization and X-ray diffraction of IL-7 complexes to both unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of the IL-7Rα to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. The interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the development, proliferation and homeostasis of T and B cells in cell-mediated immunity. Understimulation and overstimulation of the IL-7 signaling pathway leads to severe combined immunodeficiency, autoimmune reactions, heart disease and cancers. Stimulation of the IL-7 pathway begins with IL-7 binding to its α-receptor, IL-7Rα. Protein crystals of unglycosylated and glycosylated complexes of human IL-7–IL-7Rα extracellular domain (ECD) obtained using a surface entropy-reduction approach diffract to 2.7 and 3.0 Å, respectively. Anomalous dispersion methods will be used to solve the unglycosylated IL-7–IL-7Rα ECD complex structure and this unglycosylated structure will then serve as a model in molecular-replacement attempts to solve the structure of the glycosylated IL-7–α-receptor complex.

  15. The Mass and Size Distribution of Planetesimals Formed by the Streaming Instability. I. The Role of Self-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Li, Rixin; Youdin, Andrew N.

    2016-05-01

    We study the formation of planetesimals in protoplanetary disks from the gravitational collapse of solid over-densities generated via the streaming instability. To carry out these studies, we implement and test a particle-mesh self-gravity module for the Athena code that enables the simulation of aerodynamically coupled systems of gas and collisionless self-gravitating solid particles. Upon employment of our algorithm to planetesimal formation simulations, we find that (when a direct comparison is possible) the Athena simulations yield predicted planetesimal properties that agree well with those found in prior work using different numerical techniques. In particular, the gravitational collapse of streaming-initiated clumps leads to an initial planetesimal mass function that is well-represented by a power law, {dN}/{{dM}}p\\propto {M}p-p, with p≃ 1.6+/- 0.1, which equates to a differential size distribution of {dN}/{{dR}}p\\propto {R}p-q, with q≃ 2.8+/- 0.1. We find no significant trends with resolution from a convergence study of up to 5123 grid zones and {N}{{par}}≈ 1.5× {10}8 particles. Likewise, the power-law slope appears indifferent to changes in the relative strength of self-gravity and tidal shear, and to the time when (for reasons of numerical economy) self-gravity is turned on, though the strength of these claims is limited by small number statistics. For a typically assumed radial distribution of minimum mass solar nebula solids (assumed here to have dimensionless stopping time τ =0.3), our results support the hypothesis that bodies on the scale of large asteroids or Kuiper Belt Objects could have formed as the high-mass tail of a primordial planetesimal population.

  16. JAK1 kinase forms complexes with interleukin-4 receptor and 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like protein and is activated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-9 in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Tsang, M L; Yang, Y C

    1994-10-28

    Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-9 regulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes through interactions with their receptors. Previous studies have shown that unknown tyrosine kinases are involved in the proliferative signaling triggered by IL-4 and IL-9. Here we show that IL-4 and IL-9 induce overlapping (170, 130, and 125 kilodalton (kDa)) and distinct (45 and 88/90 kDa, respectively) protein tyrosine phosphorylation in T lymphocytes. We further identify the 170-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein as 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like (IRS-1L) protein and 130-kDa protein as JAK1 kinase. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that JAK1 forms complexes with the IL-4 receptor and 4PS/IRS-1L protein following ligand-receptor interaction. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-9, but not IL-4, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat 91 transcriptional factor. The overlapping and distinct protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the same JAK1 kinase in T lymphocytes strongly suggests that IL-4 and IL-9 share the common signal transduction pathways and that the specificity for each cytokine could be achieved through the unique tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins triggered by individual cytokines.

  17. Distribution of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha-1 in the brain of adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Carla; Carla, Lucini; Facello, Bruna; Bruna, Facello; Maruccio, Lucianna; Lucianna, Maruccio; Langellotto, Fernanda; Fernanda, Langellotto; Sordino, Paolo; Paolo, Sordino; Castaldo, Luciana; Luciana, Castaldo

    2010-08-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent trophic factor for several types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The biological activity of GDNF is mediated by a multicomponent receptor complex that includes a common transmembrane signaling component (the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene product, a tyrosine kinase receptor) as well as a GDNF family receptor alpha (GFRalpha) subunit, a high-affinity glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked binding element. Among the four known GFRalpha subunits, GFRalpha1 preferentially binds to GDNF. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, the expression of the GFRalpha1a and GFRalpha1b genes has been shown in primary motor neurons, the kidney, and the enteric nervous system. To examine the activity of GFRalpha in the adult brain of a lower vertebrate, we have investigated the localization of GFRalpha1a and GFRalpha1b mRNA and the GFRalpha1 protein in zebrafish. GFRalpha1a and GFRalpha1b transcripts were observed in brain extracts by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Whole-mount in-situ hybridization experiments revealed a wide distribution of GFRalpha1a and GFRalpha1b mRNAs in various regions of the adult zebrafish brain. These included the olfactory bulbs, dorsal and ventral telencephalic area (telencephalon), preoptic area, dorsal and ventral thalamus, posterior tuberculum and hypothalamus (diencephalon), optic tectum (mesencephalon), cerebellum, and medulla oblongata (rhombencephalon). Finally, expression patterns of the GFRalpha1 protein, detected immunohistochemically, correlated well with the mRNA expression and provided further insights into translational activity at the neuroanatomical level. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that the presence of GFRalpha1 persists beyond the embryonic development of the zebrafish brain and, together with the GDNF ligand, is probably implicated in the brain physiology of an adult teleost fish.

  18. Identification and distribution of a GABA receptor mutation conferring dieldrin resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondji, Charles S; Dabire, Roch K; Tukur, Zainab; Irving, Helen; Djouaka, Rousseau; Morgan, John C

    2011-07-01

    Growing problems of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus have intensified efforts to identify alternative insecticides. Many agrochemicals target the GABA receptors, but cross-resistance from dieldrin resistance may preclude their introduction. Dieldrin resistance was detected in An. funestus populations from West (Burkina Faso) and central (Cameroon) Africa, but populations from East (Uganda) and Southern Africa (Mozambique and Malawi) were fully susceptible to this insecticide. Partial sequencing of the dieldrin target site, the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, identified two amino acid substitutions, A296S and V327I. The A296S mutation has been associated with dieldrin resistance in other species. The V327I mutations was detected in the resistant sample from Burkina Faso and Cameroon and consistently associated with the A296S substitution. The full-length of the An. funestus GABA-receptor gene, amplified by RT-PCR, generated a sequence of 1674 bp encoding 557 amino acid of the protein in An. funestus with 98% similarity to that of Anopheles gambiae. Two diagnostic assays were developed to genotype the A296S mutation (pyrosequencing and PCR-RFLP), and use of these assays revealed high frequency of the resistant allele in Burkina Faso (60%) and Cameroon (82%), moderate level in Benin (16%) while low frequency or absence of the mutation was observed respectively in Uganda (7.5%) or 0% in Malawi and Mozambique. The distribution of the Rdl(R) mutation in An. funestus populations in Africa suggests extensive barriers to gene flow between populations from different regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 一种可能的简并谱NNS分布%A Possible Form of NNS Distribution for Degenerate Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖长明; 赵楠蓉; 罗久里

    2006-01-01

    利用随机矩阵理论,通过对一特殊情形的简并谱展开研究,得到了简并谱一种可能的最小相邻间距NNS分布函数.研究表明,由于简并的存在,简并谱不仅可分解成随机谱和规则谱两个子谱,同时还影响其规则谱,使规则谱的能级斥力减少.%To expose the statistical properties of the degenerated spectrum, with the aid of the random matrix theory,a possible form of the NNS distribution function of the degenerate spectrum was proposed by providing a solution in terms of the same-degeneracy case. The results indicate that the target spectrum is transformed into two sub-spectra: a random one and a regular one, and that the repulsion level of the regular spectrum is also decreased.

  20. Properties of wine polymeric pigments formed from anthocyanin and tannins differing in size distribution and subunit composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Kassara, Stella; Hayasaka, Yoji; Schulkin, Alex; Smith, Paul

    2014-11-26

    To explore the effect of tannin composition on pigment formation, model ferments of purified 3-O-monoglucoside anthocyanins (ACN) were conducted either alone or in the presence of two different tannins. Tannins were isolated from grape seeds (Sd) or skins (Sk) following exhaustive extraction in 70% v/v acetone. The Sd and Sk tannin fractions had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 25.6, respectively. The Sd fraction was highly galloylated, at 22%, but galloylation was pigments were quantified and their color properties determined following isolation by solid-phase extraction. Wine color and polymeric pigment were highest in the treatment containing ACN+Sd and similar in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments. The same trend between treatments was observed for total and polymeric nonbleachable pigments. Only minor changes in tannin subunit composition were found following ACN incorporation, but the size distribution of polymeric pigments determined by gel permeation chromatography decreased, in particular for the ACN+Sk treatment. Color incorporation in the higher molecular mass range was lower for ACN+Sk wines than for ACN+Sd wines. Compositional differences between the two tannin fractions may therefore limit the incorporation of ACNs in the colored form. The results suggest that in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments, the formation of lower molecular mass oligomeric pigments was favored. In polymeric pigments derived from ACNs, the presence of ethyl- and vinyl-linked ACNs to the level of trimers was identified using mass spectrometry.

  1. Particle-size distribution and phosphorus forms as a function of hydrological forcing in the Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qing-Zhen; Du, Jun-Tao; Chen, Hong-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-02-01

    Samples were collected monthly from January to December in 2010, and daily observations were made during the water-sediment regulation event in June-July 2010. Sequential extractions were applied to determine the forms of P in different particle-size fractions and to assess the potential bioavailability of particulate phosphorus (PP). The results indicated that exchangeable phosphorus, organic phosphorus, authigenic phosphorus, and refractory phosphorus increased with the decreasing of particulate size; conversely, detrital phosphorus decreased with the decreasing of particulate size. The content of bioavailable particulate phosphorus (BAPP) varied greatly in different sizes of particles. In general, the smaller the particle size, the higher the content of bioavailable phosphorus and its proportion in total phosphorous was found in these particles. Hydrological forcing controlled the variability in the major P phases found in the suspended sediments via changes in the sources and the particle grain-size distribution. The variation of particle sizes can be attributed also to different total suspended sediment (TSS) sources. Water-sediment regulation (WSR) mobilized only particulate matter from the riverbed, while during the rainstorm soil erosion and runoff were the main source. The BAPP fluxes associated with the "truly suspended" fraction was approximately 200 times larger than the dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) flux. Thus, the transfer of fine particles to the open sea is most probably accompanied by BAPP release to the DIP and can support greater primary and secondary production.

  2. Cellular distribution of {sup 111}In-LDTPA galactose BSA in normal and asialoglycoprotein receptor-deficient mouse liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, Kim A.; Cristel, Michael E.; Welch, Michael J

    1998-05-01

    {sup 111}In-LDTPA galactose BSA (bovine serum albumin) was used to evaluate the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) system in both normal and ASGPR-deficient mice. The radiolabeled glycoprotein had complete liver uptake in both normal and ASGPR-deficient mice. Metabolism and hepatic cell-type distribution studies were performed. The normal mouse excreted greater than 60% of the hepatic activity, while the ASGPR-deficient mouse excreted less than 40% of the hepatic activity. {sup 111}In-LDTPA galactose BSA was metabolized to {sup 111}In-LDTPA-L-lysine in both mouse types. Normal mice showed 70% of the radioactivity in the hepatocyte, whereas the homozygous ASGPR-deficient mouse had equal activity in the hepatocyte and the hepatic endothelial cell.

  3. A New Splice Variant of the Major Subunit of Human Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Encodes a Secreted Form in Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Liu; Bin Hu; Yan Yang; Zhiyong Ma; Yuan Yu; Shenpei Liu; Baoju Wang; Xiping Zhao; Mengji Lu; Dongliang Yang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is composed of two polypeptides, designated H1 and H2. While variants of H2 have been known for decades, the existence of H1 variants has never been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified two splice variants of ASGPR H1 transcripts, designated H1a and H1b, in human liver tissues and hepatoma cells. Molecular cloning of ASGPR H1 variants revealed that they differ by a 117 nucleotide segment corresponding to exon 2 in the ASGPR geno...

  4. Fluorescence histochemical study of the localisation and distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites in the spinal cord and cerebellum of the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondok, A A; Botros, K G; el-Mohandes, E A

    1988-10-01

    The distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites has been studied in chicken spinal cord and cerebellum using a fluorescent analogue of propranolol, 9-amino-acridin-propranolol (9-AAP). In the cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, beta-adrenoceptor sites were concentrated on cell bodies of alpha-motor neurons of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral nuclear groups of the ventral horn. In the thoracic region, they were present on cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus (dorsal commissural nucleus). In the dorsal horn, the receptor sites were present mainly on cell bodies of columna dorsalis magnocellularis. Sparse distribution of fluorescence was present in other regions of the gray matter. In the cerebellum, a dense distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites was observed on Purkinje cell bodies and their apical dendrites. Sparse distribution of receptor sites was present on fine ramifications of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer. Receptor sites were absent in the granule cell layer and the white matter. These observations indicate that alpha-motor neurons, preganglionic sympathetic neurons, neurons of columna dorsalis magnocellularis, and Purkinje cells are adrenoceptive, while granule cells are non-adrenoceptive.

  5. The sigma-1 receptors are present in monomeric and oligomeric forms in living cells in the presence and absence of ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deo R.; Biener, Gabriel; Yang, Jay; Oliver, Julie A.; Ruoho, Arnold; Raicu, Valerică

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223-amino-acid membrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane of some mammalian cells. The S1R is regulated by various synthetic molecules including (+)-pentazocine, cocaine and haloperidol and endogenous molecules such as sphingosine, dimethyltryptamine and dehydroepiandrosterone. Ligand-regulated protein chaperone functions linked to oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuropathic pain have been attributed to the S1R. Several client proteins that interact with S1R have been identified including various types of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). When S1R constructs containing C-terminal monomeric GFP2 and YFP fusions were co-expressed in COS-7 cells and subjected to FRET spectrometry analysis, monomers, dimers and higher oligomeric forms of S1R were identified under non-liganded conditions. In the presence of the prototypic S1R agonist, (+)-pentazocine, however, monomers and dimers were the prevailing forms of S1R. The prototypic antagonist, haloperidol, on the other hand, favoured higher order S1R oligomers. These data, in sum, indicate that heterologously expressed S1Rs occur in vivo in COS-7 cells in multiple oligomeric forms and that S1R ligands alter these oligomeric structures. We suggest that the S1R oligomerization states may regulate its function(s). PMID:25510962

  6. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration.

  7. Immunohistochemical distribution of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase in the dog claustrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Andrea; Cantile, Carlo; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Lenzi, Carla; Giannessi, Elisabetta; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are part of the endocannabinoid system (ECB) which exerts a neuromodulatory activity on different brain functions and plays a key role in neurogenesis. Although many studies have reported FAAH and CB1R expression in the brain of different animal species, to the best of our knowledge they have never been described in the canine claustrum. Claustrum samples, obtained from necropsy of four neurologically normal dogs, were formalin fixed for paraffin embedding. Sections were either stained for morpho-histological analysis or immunostained for CB1R and FAAH. Analysis of adjacent sections incubated with the two antisera showed a complementary labeling pattern in the claustrum, with CB1R antibody staining fibers while anti-FAAH antibody stained cell bodies and the proximal portion of dendrites; this particular anatomical relationship suggests a retrograde endocannabinoid action via CB1R. CB1R and FAAH complementary immunostaining and their cellular localization reported here provide the first anatomical evidence for existence of the ECB in the dog claustrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prorenin/Renin Receptor Blockade Promotes a Healthy Fat Distribution in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paul; Blais, Carolane; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Schiller, Peter W.; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. Methods Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. Results In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT. A reduction was also observed in circulating free fatty acids in these animals which was accompanied by normalized adipocyte size in VAT and increased adipocyte size in SCF. “Beiging“ is the evolution of a white adipose tissue toward a brown-like phenotype characterized by an increased mitochondrial density and small lipid droplets. HRP increased the expression of’ “beiging” markers in SCF of HF/HC diet-fed mice. Conclusions HRP treatment may favor healthy fat storage in SCF by activating a triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and “beiging,” which could explain the body weight and fat mass reduction. PMID:27458124

  9. The role of leptin and its short-form receptor in inflammation in db/db mice infused with peritoneal dialysis fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Joseph C K; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Lam, Man Fai; Tang, Sydney C W; Chow, Chui Wa; Lim, Ai Ing; Lai, Kar Neng

    2012-08-01

    In peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane exhibits structural and functional changes following continuous exposure to the non-physiological peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). In this study, we examined the effect of PDF on peritoneal adipose tissue in a diabetic milieu. Six-week-old db/db mice and their non-diabetic littermates (db/m) were subjected to uninephrectomy. All animals then received intra-abdominal infusion of lactated Ringer's solution (Ringer) or 1.5% glucose-containing PDF (Dianeal) twice daily. Mice were sacrificed 4 weeks later. Parietal and visceral adipose tissues were harvested for examining gene and protein expression of adiponectin, leptin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Expression of TNF-α and F4/80+ macrophage accumulation in adipose tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Modulation of leptin synthesis and leptin receptors expression and the relevant signaling pathways were also determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to Ringer infusion, Dianeal infusion significantly increased serum leptin but decreased adiponectin in db/db mice. Increased expression of leptin, TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in visceral but not in parietal adipose tissue. Dianeal infusion also increased F4/80+ macrophage accumulation and enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α in the visceral adipose tissue. Compared to db/m mice, infusion with Dianeal exhibited a more deleterious effect on db/db mice, characterized by an upregulation of short-form leptin receptor ObRa and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In conclusion, PD-induced hyperleptinemia amplifies the inflammatory response of adipose tissue through short-form leptin receptor when the long-form

  10. Expression and distribution of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiqun; Hill, Warren G; Apodaca, Gerard; Zeidel, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    The urothelium is proposed to be a sensory tissue that responds to mechanical stress by undergoing dynamic membrane trafficking and neurotransmitter release; however, the molecular basis of this function is poorly understood. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are ideal candidates to fulfill such a role as they can sense changes in temperature, osmolarity, and mechanical stimuli, and several are reported to be expressed in the bladder epithelium. However, their complete expression profile is unknown and their cellular localization is largely undefined. We analyzed expression of all 33 TRP family members in mouse bladder and urothelium by RT-PCR and found 22 specifically expressed in the urothelium. Of the latter, 10 were chosen for closer investigation based on their known mechanosensory or membrane trafficking functions in other cell types. Western blots confirmed urothelial expression of TRPC1, TRPC4, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM4, TRPM7, TRPML1, and polycystins 1 and 2 (PKD1 and PKD2) proteins. We further defined the cellular and subcellular localization of all 10 TRP channels. TRPV2 and TRPM4 were prominently localized to the umbrella cell apical membrane, while TRPC4 and TRPV4 were identified on their abluminal surfaces. TRPC1, TRPM7, and TRPML1 were localized to the cytoplasm, while PKD1 and PKD2 were expressed on the apical and basolateral membranes of umbrella cells as well as in the cytoplasm. The cellular location of TRPV1 in the bladder has been debated, but colocalization with neuronal marker calcitonin gene-related peptide indicated clearly that it is present on afferent neurons that extend into the urothelium, but may not be expressed by the urothelium itself. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the urothelium acts as a sentinel and by expressing multiple TRP channels it is likely it can detect and presumably respond to a diversity of external stimuli and suggest that it plays an important role in urothelial signal

  11. Effectiveness of distributed form of constraint induced movement therapy to improve functional outcome in chronic hemiparesis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha J. Diwan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper limb hemiparesis is among the most common deficits after stroke that leads to disability. Learned nonuse develops due to over-reliance on the less affected limb for the functional activities. However for many stroke patients, participation in a traditional, more intense CIMT may be problematic, given the required practice intensity and the duration of the restraint schedule. So it is necessary to evaluate the effects of distributed form of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (dCIMT in improving functional outcome and quality of life in patients with chronic hemiparesis. Methods: 36 hemiplegic patients following stroke were included. The experimental group was given dCIMT for 5sessions/week for 4 consecutive weeks in addition to conventional therapy while the control group received only conventional therapy. The outcome measures were motor activity log, wolf motor functional test and nine hole peg test. Results: The results of within group analysis for both the experimental group (Group-A and control group B showed highly significant improvement on all the 3 outcome measures with P <0.0001.But the difference in the improvement of group-A compared to group-B was highly significant on the MAL and NHPT (P <0.0001 whereas it was not significant for WMFT performance score but highly significant for WMFT duration (U=23. Conclusion: dCIMT is an effective measure in improving the upper extremity motor function in terms of the quality and amount of use and speed and co- ordination. Thus improves the functional level and the quality of life of the patients with chronic stroke. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1423-1430

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  13. α7 and β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits Form Heteromeric Receptor Complexes that Are Expressed in the Human Cortex and Display Distinct Pharmacological Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Zwart, Ruud; Ursu, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    AChRs in the human brain. We validated these results by demonstrating co-purification of β2 from wild-type, but not α7 or β2 knock-out mice. The pharmacology and kinetics of human α7β2 nAChRs differed significantly from that of α7 homomers in response to nAChR agonists when expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293...... cells. Notably, α7β2 heteromers expressed in HEK293 cells display markedly slower rise and decay phases. These results demonstrate that α7 subunits in the human brain form heteromeric complexes with β2 subunits, and that human α7β2 nAChR heteromers respond to nAChR agonists with a unique pharmacology...

  14. Distribution and functional properties of glutamate receptors in the leech central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, P W; Hochstrate, P; Schlue, W R

    1996-06-01

    1. The effect of kainate and other glutamatergic agonists on the membrane potential (Em), the intracellular Na+ activity (aNai), and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of identified leech neurons and neuropile glial cells was measured with conventional and ion-sensitive microelectrodes, as well as with the use of the iontophoretically injected fluorescent indicators sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate and Fura-2. 2. In Retzius neurons, AE, L, 8, and 101 motoneurons, and in the unclassified 50 neurons (Leydig cells) and AP neurons, as well as in neuropile glial cells, bath application of 100 microM kainate evoked a marked membrane depolarization and an increase in aNai and [Ca2+]i. The kainate-induced aNai increase persisted in solutions with high Mg2+ concentration in which synaptic transmission is blocked. 3. A membrane depolarization as well as an increase in aNai and [Ca2+]i was also evoked by L-glutamate, quisqualate, and L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA). The agonist-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX). 4. In Ca(2+)-free solution, the kainate-induced [Ca2+]i increase was abolished in the neurons and in neuropile glial cells, whereas membrane depolarization and aNai increase were unchanged. In Na(+)-free solution, kainate had no effect on Em, aNai, or [Ca2+]i in the neurons. 5. In the mechanosensory T, P, and N neurons, kainate induced considerably smaller membrane depolarizations than in the other neurons or in neuropile glial cells, and it had no significant effect on aNai or [Ca2+]i. 6. It is concluded that in leech segmental ganglia the majority of the neurons and the neuropile glial cells, but probably not the mechanosensory neurons, possess glutamate receptors of the AMPA-kainate type. In the neurons, the [Ca2+]i increase caused by glutamatergic agonists is due to Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels that are activated by the agonist

  15. Distribution of nitric oxide synthase, nerve growth factor receptor and interstitial cells of Cajal in hirschsprung s disease and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Methods The distribution of NOS, NGFR and ICCs was studied by using NADPH diaphorase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody to human NGFR and the specific polyclonal antibody against c-kit in 8 normal controls and 10 cases of HD. Results NOS and NGFR were abundantly present in the myenteric plexus and in ...

  16. Receptor modelling of both particle composition and size distribution from a background site in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Green, D. C.; Fuller, G. W.

    2015-09-01

    Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis was applied to PM10 chemical composition and particle number size distribution (NSD) data measured at an urban background site (North Kensington) in London, UK, for the whole of 2011 and 2012. The PMF analyses for these 2 years revealed six and four factors respectively which described seven sources or aerosol types. These included nucleation, traffic, urban background, secondary, fuel oil, marine and non-exhaust/crustal sources. Urban background, secondary and traffic sources were identified by both the chemical composition and particle NSD analysis, but a nucleation source was identified only from the particle NSD data set. Analysis of the PM10 chemical composition data set revealed fuel oil, marine, non-exhaust traffic/crustal sources which were not identified from the NSD data. The two methods appear to be complementary, as the analysis of the PM10 chemical composition data is able to distinguish components contributing largely to particle mass, whereas the number particle size distribution data set - although limited to detecting sources of particles below the diameter upper limit of the SMPS (604 nm) - is more effective for identifying components making an appreciable contribution to particle number. Analysis was also conducted on the combined chemical composition and NSD data set, revealing five factors representing urban background, nucleation, secondary, aged marine and traffic sources. However, the combined analysis appears not to offer any additional power to discriminate sources above that of the aggregate of the two separate PMF analyses. Day-of-the-week and month-of-the-year associations of the factors proved consistent with their assignment to source categories, and bivariate polar plots which examined the wind directional and wind speed association of the different factors also proved highly consistent with their inferred sources. Source attribution according to the air mass back trajectory showed, as

  17. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...... tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were...... determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. RESULTS: Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased...

  18. AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION OF TURBAN FORMS OF CUCUMBER, AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION, EVOLUTION AND USE OF THIS CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers turban cucumber forms, we have also described the origin of this characteristic, briefly overviewed turban forms in species of the family of Cucurbitaceae. We have given the agro-botanical iconography of this trait in pumpkin cultures for cucumis. In Europe, China and America turbanoformis cucumber forms are used as a vegetable, there are some varieties. It is shown that turbanoformis forms are found in the fruit of the cucumber with hermaphrodite flower, polunina ovaries, short or shareplace the melon, and also in forms with the ongoing evolutionary process

  19. Comparative distribution of binding of the muscarinic receptor ligands pirenzepine, AF-DX 384, (R,R)-I-QNB and (R,S)-I-QNB to human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, Margaret; Owens, Jonathan; O'Brien, John; Paling, Sean; Wyper, David; Fenwick, John; Johnson, Mary; Perry, Robert; Perry, Elaine

    2002-09-01

    Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and its derivatives are being developed to investigate muscarinic receptor changes in vivo in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. This is the first study of [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [125I]-(R,S)-I-QNB binding in vitro in human brain. We have compared the in vitro binding of the muscarinic ligands [3H]pirenzepine and [3H]AF-DX 384, which have selectivity for the M1 and M2/M4 receptor subtypes, respectively, to the binding of [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [125I]-(R,S)-I-QNB. This will provide a guide to the interpretation of in vivo SPET images generated with [123I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [123I]-(R,S)-I-QNB. Binding was investigated in striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus and cerebellum, and cingulate, insula, temporal and occipital cortical areas, which show different proportions of muscarinic receptor subtypes, in post-mortem brain from normal individuals. M1 receptors are of high density in cortex and striatum and are relatively low in the thalamus and cerebellum, while M4 receptors are mainly expressed in the striatum, and M2 receptors are most evident in the cerebellum and thalamus. [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [125I]-(R,S)-I-QNB density distribution patterns were consistent with binding to both M1 and M4 receptors, with [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB additionally binding to a non-cholinergic site not displaceable by atropine. This distribution can be exploited by in vivo imaging, developing ligands for both SPET and PET, to reveal muscarinic receptor changes in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies during the disease process and following cholinergic therapy.

  20. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 during megakaryocytic differentiation of UT-7/TPO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsaka, Akimichi, E-mail: ohsaka@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Transfusion Medicine and Stem Cell Regulation, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Hirota-Komatsu, Satoko; Shibata, Miki [Department of Transfusion Medicine and Stem Cell Regulation, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Komatsu, Norio [Department of Hematology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    We investigated whether the gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR and neuropilin-1 [NRP-1]) could be specifically regulated during the megakaryocytic differentiation of human thrombopoietin (TPO)-dependent UT-7/TPO cells. Undifferentiated UT-7/TPO cells expressed a functional VEGFR-2, leading to VEGF binding and VEGF{sub 165}-induced tyrosine phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis inhibition. The megakaryocytic differentiation of UT-7/TPO cells on treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was accompanied by a marked up-regulation of NRP-1 mRNA and protein expression and by an increase in VEGF-binding activity, which was mainly mediated by VEGFR-2. VEGF{sub 165} promoted the formation of complexes containing NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 in undifferentiated UT-7/TPO cells in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike human umbilical vein endothelial cells, PMA-differentiated UT-7/TPO cells exhibited complex formation between NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 even in the absence of VEGF{sub 165}. These findings suggest that NRP-1-VEGFR-2-complex formation may contribute to effective cellular functions mediated by VEGF{sub 165} in megakaryocytic cells.

  1. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 during megakaryocytic differentiation of UT-7/TPO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, Akimichi; Hirota-Komatsu, Satoko; Shibata, Miki; Komatsu, Norio

    2009-12-25

    We investigated whether the gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR and neuropilin-1 [NRP-1]) could be specifically regulated during the megakaryocytic differentiation of human thrombopoietin (TPO)-dependent UT-7/TPO cells. Undifferentiated UT-7/TPO cells expressed a functional VEGFR-2, leading to VEGF binding and VEGF(165)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis inhibition. The megakaryocytic differentiation of UT-7/TPO cells on treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was accompanied by a marked up-regulation of NRP-1 mRNA and protein expression and by an increase in VEGF-binding activity, which was mainly mediated by VEGFR-2. VEGF(165) promoted the formation of complexes containing NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 in undifferentiated UT-7/TPO cells in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike human umbilical vein endothelial cells, PMA-differentiated UT-7/TPO cells exhibited complex formation between NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 even in the absence of VEGF(165). These findings suggest that NRP-1-VEGFR-2-complex formation may contribute to effective cellular functions mediated by VEGF(165) in megakaryocytic cells.

  2. Development of a New Class of Drugs to Inhibit All Forms of Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Cherkasov labs in this reporting period were to a) model and synthesize derivatives of VCP-14449, b) form a strategic partnership with Industry ( Roche ... Pharmaceuticals ) to accelerate the development of better and more metabolically stable inhibitors, and c) To experimentally evaluate the new...cell lines. VPC-14449 was tested in transcriptional activation and cell growth assays using various cell lines that express mutated versions of the AR

  3. Leveraging Fourth and Sixth Graders' Experiences to Reveal Understanding of the Forms and Features of Distributed Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.; Derbiszewska, Katarzyna; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2017-01-01

    Research has focused on students' difficulties understanding phenomena in which agency is distributed across actors whose individual-level behaviors converge to result in collective outcomes. Building on Levy and Wilensky (2008), this study identified features of distributed causality students understand and that may offer affordances for…

  4. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in the Onuf's nucleus of the rat spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanqing Zeng; Chen Xu; Ge Xu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motoneurons from the Onuf's nucleus of the spinal cord, which innervate the striated muscle of the pelvic floor, play an important role in erection, ejaculation, and urine control. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) regulates motoneuron activity from the Onuf's nucleus of the spinal cord.However, few studies exist that describe 5-HT receptor distribution in the Onuf's nucleus. In addition, the nature of the effects of 5-HT receptor on the innervating striated muscle of the pelvic floor is controversial.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in motoneurons of Onuf's nucleus in the spinal cord of male rats, and to analyze the relationship of 5-HT2A and 5-H7 receptors to central modulation of urogenital function.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neural morphology experiment was performed at the Ultramicrostructure Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Basic Medical College, Chongqing Medical University, China from April to December 2007.MATERIALS: Ten adult, Sprague Dawley rats (eight males and two females) were randomly divided into a gender control group (n = 4,50% male and 50% female) and a retrograde tracing group (n = 6, 100% male).Recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV-152) was provided by Professor LW Enquist from Princeton University, USA. Rabbit anti-5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptor antibodies were purchased from Diasorin, France.METHODS: In the gender control group, the spinal L5-6segments were harvested, sliced, and then incubated antibodies specific against 5-HT2A or 5-HT7 receptors for immunohistochemical staining. In the retrograde tracing group, PRV-152 was separately injected into the right ischiocavernosus (ischiocavernosus subgroup,n = 3) and the fight external urethral sphincter (external urethral sphincter subgroup, n = 3). Four days after injection, L5-6 segments were harvested, sliced, and incubated with antibodies specific against 5-HT2A or 5-HT7 receptors for double-labeling immunofluoresccnce

  5. A Study of the Distribution of Star-Forming Regions in Luminous Infrared Galaxies by Means of H$\\alpha$ Imaging Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, T; Ohtani, H; Sugai, H; Ishigaki, T; Sasaki, M; Hayashi, T; Ozaki, S; Ishii, M; Kawai, A

    2003-01-01

    We performed H-alpha imaging observations of 22 luminous infrared galaxies to investigate how the distribution of star-forming regions in these galaxies is related to galaxy interactions. Based on correlation diagrams between H-alpha flux and continuum emission for individual galaxies, a sequence for the distribution of star-forming regions was found: very compact (~100 pc) nuclear starbursts with almost no star-forming activity in the outer regions (type 1), dominant nuclear starbursts 1 kpc in size and a significant contribution from the outer regions (type 3), and extended starbursts with relatively faint nuclei (type 4). These classes of star-forming region were found to be strongly related to global star-forming properties such as star-formation efficiency, far-infrared color, and dust extinction. There was a clear tendency for the objects with more compact distributions of star-forming regions to show a higher star-formation efficiency and hotter far-infrared color. An appreciable fraction of the sampl...

  6. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    therefore been acknowledged to be a third endogenous ligand at SRIF receptors. This review goes through mechanisms of signal transduction, pharmacology, and anatomical distribution of SRIF receptors. Structurally, SRIF receptors belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled (GPC) receptors, sharing....... The generation of knock-out (KO) mice, intended as a means to define the contributions made by individual receptor subtypes, necessarily marks but an approximation. Furthermore, we must now take into account the stunning complexity of receptor co-operation indicated by the observation of receptor homo......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  7. The Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits Dα5 and Dα7 form functional homomeric and heteromeric ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lansdell Stuart J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play an important role as excitatory neurotransmitters in vertebrate and invertebrate species. In insects, nAChRs are the site of action of commercially important insecticides and, as a consequence, there is considerable interest in examining their functional properties. However, problems have been encountered in the successful functional expression of insect nAChRs, although a number of strategies have been developed in an attempt to overcome such difficulties. Ten nAChR subunits have been identified in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster (Dα1-Dα7 and Dβ1-Dβ3 and a similar number have been identified in other insect species. The focus of the present study is the Dα5, Dα6 and Dα7 subunits, which are distinguished by their sequence similarity to one another and also by their close similarity to the vertebrate α7 nAChR subunit. Results A full-length cDNA clone encoding the Drosophila nAChR Dα5 subunit has been isolated and the properties of Dα5-, Dα6- and Dα7-containing nAChRs examined in a variety of cell expression systems. We have demonstrated the functional expression, as homomeric nAChRs, of the Dα5 and Dα7 subunits in Xenopus oocytes by their co-expression with the molecular chaperone RIC-3. Also, using a similar approach, we have demonstrated the functional expression of a heteromeric ‘triplet’ nAChR (Dα5 + Dα6 + Dα7 with substantially higher apparent affinity for acetylcholine than is seen with other subunit combinations. In addition, specific cell-surface binding of [125I]-α-bungarotoxin was detected in both Drosophila and mammalian cell lines when Dα5 was co-expressed with Dα6 and RIC-3. In contrast, co-expression of additional subunits (including Dα7 with Dα5 and Dα6 prevented specific binding of [125I]-α-bungarotoxin in cell lines, suggesting that co-assembly with other nAChR subunits can block maturation of correctly folded nAChRs in

  8. A subcellular distribution of estrogen receptor-alpha is changed during artificially induced senescence of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju; Mun, Ga Hee; Oh, Chang Seok; Chung, Yoon Hee; Cha, Choong Lk; Lee, Young Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2004-11-30

    Although estrogen has been considered as a sex hormone for decades, recent reports suggest that estrogen might modulate the development and physiological function of the brain. In addition, the subcellular localization of estrogen receptors (ERs) has shown their presence within both the perinuclear cytoplasm and nuclei, suggesting that these ERs may differ functionally. We, therefore, assayed changes in the subcellular localization of ER-alpha immunoreactivity (IR) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells during the artificial senescence induced by the telomerase inhibitor, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). After 2 months of culture with AZT, PC12 cells showed morphological and biochemical characteristics of cellular senescence. In the cells showing artificial senescence, the ER-alpha IR was mainly localized within the cytoplasm, whereas in control cells, ER-alpha IR was found only in the nuclei. Since senescence was induced by AZT, which inhibits the action of telomerase whenever the cells divide, the change in subcellular distribution of ER-alpha IR may be correlated with the length of the telomere.

  9. Nanoscale distribution of ryanodine receptors and caveolin-3 in mouse ventricular myocytes: dilation of t-tubules near junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joseph; Baddeley, David; Bushong, Eric A; Yu, Zeyun; Ellisman, Mark H; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Soeller, Christian

    2013-06-04

    We conducted super-resolution light microscopy (LM) imaging of the distribution of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and caveolin-3 (CAV3) in mouse ventricular myocytes. Quantitative analysis of data at the surface sarcolemma showed that 4.8% of RyR labeling colocalized with CAV3 whereas 3.5% of CAV3 was in areas with RyR labeling. These values increased to 9.2 and 9.0%, respectively, in the interior of myocytes where CAV3 was widely expressed in the t-system but reduced in regions associated with junctional couplings. Electron microscopic (EM) tomography independently showed only few couplings with caveolae and little evidence for caveolar shapes on the t-system. Unexpectedly, both super-resolution LM and three-dimensional EM data (including serial block-face scanning EM) revealed significant increases in local t-system diameters in many regions associated with junctions. We suggest that this regional specialization helps reduce ionic accumulation and depletion in t-system lumen during excitation-contraction coupling to ensure effective local Ca²⁺ release. Our data demonstrate that super-resolution LM and volume EM techniques complementarily enhance information on subcellular structure at the nanoscale.

  10. Morphology and distribution of neurons expressing serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the rat hypothalamus and the surrounding diencephalic and telencephalic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Eric; Scrogin, Karie; Dudás, Bertalan

    2010-07-01

    Disorders of serotonergic neurotransmission are involved in disturbances of numerous hypothalamic functions including circadian rhythm, mood, neuroendocrine functions, sleep and feeding. Among the serotonin receptors currently recognized, 5-HT(1A) receptors have received considerable attention due to their importance in the etiology of mood disorders. While previous studies have shown the presence of 5-HT(1A) receptors in several regions of the rat brain, there is no detailed map of the cellular distribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the rat diencephalon. In order to characterize the distribution and morphology of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors in the diencephalon and the adjacent telencephalic areas, single label immunohistochemistry was utilized. Large, multipolar, 5-HT(1A)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were mainly detected in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and in the nucleus of diagonal band of Broca, while the supraoptic nucleus contained mainly fusiform neurons. Medium-sized 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons with triangular or round-shaped somata were widely distributed in the diencephalon, populating the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, substantia innominata, dorsomedial and premamillary nuclei, paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of stria terminalis. The present study provides schematic mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons in the rat diencephalon. In addition, the morphology of the detected 5-HT(1A)-IR neural elements is also described. Since rat is a widely used laboratory animal in pharmacological models of altered serotoninergic neurotransmission, detailed mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR structures is pivotal for the neurochemical characterization of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors.

  11. Subcellular distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit 1 in neural stem cells within subventricular zone of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhining Li; Wenlong Lü; Hongyan Dong; Hongbin Fan; Ruiguo Dong; Tiejun Xu

    2011-01-01

    The subcellular localization of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit 1 in neural stem cells of the subventricular zone of adult rats was detected using electron microscopy, following immunohistochemistry and immunogold-silver double staining. Results confirmed the presence of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone, which is a key neurogenic region in the central nervous system of adult mammals. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit 1 was higher than that of nestin and mainly distributed in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex of neural stem cells.

  12. The distribution and 'in vivo' phase variation status of haemoglobin receptors in invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease: genotypic and phenotypic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lucidarme

    Full Text Available Two haemoglobin-binding proteins, HmbR and HpuAB, contribute to iron acquisition by Neisseria meningitidis. These receptors are subject to high frequency, reversible switches in gene expression--phase variation (PV--due to mutations in homopolymeric (poly-G repeats present in the open reading frame. The distribution and PV state of these receptors was assessed for a representative collection of isolates from invasive meningococcal disease patients of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Most of the major clonal complexes had only the HmbR receptor whilst the recently expanding ST-275-centred cluster of the ST-269 clonal complex had both receptors. At least one of the receptors was in an 'ON' configuration in 76.3% of the isolates, a finding that was largely consistent with phenotypic analyses. As PV status may change during isolation and culture of meningococci, a PCR-based protocol was utilised to confirm the expression status of the receptors within contemporaneously acquired clinical specimens (blood/cerebrospinal fluid from the respective patients. The expression state was confirmed for all isolate/specimen pairs with <15 tract repeats indicating that the PV status of these receptors is stable during isolation. This study therefore establishes a protocol for determining in vivo PV status to aid in determining the contributions of phase variable genes to invasive meningococcal disease. Furthermore, the results of the study support a putative but non-essential role of the meningococcal haemoglobin receptors as virulence factors whilst further highlighting their vaccine candidacy.

  13. Changes in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit expression caused by binocular form deprivation and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingming Liu; Wei Qin; Hanping Xie

    2011-01-01

    Light deprivation is known to induce a significant decrease in the percentage of N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor 2A subunit (NR2A)-expressing neurons during development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of binocular form deprivation (BFD) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) degradation on NR2A expression via an immunohistochemical study, around the end of a critical developmental period. The results show that the positive staining of NR2A in the normal rat visual cortex increases gradually from postnatal 3-5 weeks (P 0.05). The positive staining of NR2A in the CSPG-treated group was insignificant compared with the BFD group at the same time point from 4 weeks to 7 weeks (P > 0.05). Thus, the effect of BFD on NR2A expression in the rat visual cortex was similar to that of CSPG degradation around the end of the critical developmental period.

  14. Distribution of P2Y2 receptors in the guinea pig enteric nervous system and its coexistence with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y, nitric oxide synthase and calretinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhenghua; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    The distribution of P2Y2 receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers and coexistence of P2Y2 with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin (CR), calbindin (CB) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was investigated with immunostaining methods. The results showed that P2Y2-ir neurons and fibers were distributed widely in myenteric and submucous plexuses of the guinea pig stomach corpus, jejunum, ileum and colon. The typical morphology of P2Y2-ir neurons was a long process with strong positive staining on the same side of the cell body. The P2Y2-ir neurons could be Dogiel type 1. About 40-60% P2X3-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2Y2 in the myenteric plexus and all the P2X3-ir neurons expressed the P2Y2 receptor in the submucosal plexus; almost all the NPY-ir neurons and the majority of CR-ir neurons were also immunoreactive for P2Y2, especially in the myenteric plexus of the small intestine; no P2Y2-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2X2 receptors, CB and NOS. It is shown for the first time that S type/Dogiel type 1 neurons with fast P2X and slow P2Y receptor-mediated depolarizations could be those neurons expressing both P2Y2-ir and P2X3-ir and that they are widely distributed in myenteric and submucosal plexuses of guinea pig gut.

  15. Depth distribution of Frank loop defects formed in ion-irradiated stainless steel and its dependence on Si addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyue, E-mail: dychen@safety.n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Kenta [The University of Tokyo, Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Dohi, Kenji; Nishida, Kenji; Soneda, Naoki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Li, Zhengcao, E-mail: zcli@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Li; Sekimura, Naoto [The University of Tokyo, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Although heavy ion irradiation is a good tool to simulate neutron irradiation-induced damages in light water reactor, it produces inhomogeneous defect distribution. Such difference in defect distribution brings difficulty in comparing the microstructure evolution and mechanical degradation between neutron and heavy ion irradiation, and thus needs to be understood. Stainless steel is the typical structural material used in reactor core, and could be taken as an example to study the inhomogeneous defect depth distribution in heavy ion irradiation and its influence on the tested irradiation hardening by nano-indentation. In this work, solution annealed stainless steel model alloys are irradiated by 3 MeV Fe{sup 2+} ions at 400 °C to 3 dpa to produce Frank loops that are mainly interstitial in nature. The silicon content of the model alloys is also tuned to change point defect diffusion, so that the loop depth distribution influenced by diffusion along the irradiation beam direction could be discussed. Results show that in low Si (0% Si) and base Si (0.42% Si) samples the depth distribution of Frank loop density quite well matches the dpa profile calculated by the SRIM code, but in high Si sample (0.95% Si), the loop number density in the near-surface region is very low. One possible explanation could be Si’s role in enhancing the effective vacancy diffusivity, promoting recombination and thus suppressing interstitial Frank loops, especially in the near-surface region, where vacancies concentrate. By considering the loop depth distribution, the tested irradiation hardening is successfully explained by the Orowan model. A hardening coefficient of around 0.30 is obtained for all the three samples. This attempt in interpreting hardening results may make it easier to compare the mechanical degradation between different irradiation experiments.

  16. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MOLECULAR FORMS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN A AND RECOMBINANT DERIVATIVES POLYPEPTIDES OF BAC RECEPTOR PROTEINS FROM GROUP B STREPTOCOCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Korzhueva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article concerns interactions between immunoglobulin A and recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides, designed on the basis of externally localized Bac protein of the Group B streptococci, possessing IgA-binding activity.There is a current demand for immunochemical reagents that are strictly specific for IgA, in order to develop antigenic standards for detection of IgA levels in biological fluids, as well as for affinity purification of IgA and its fragments.To analyze an opportunity of the abovementioned application ways for these proteins, a special study was performed to assay an interaction capability of recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides binding to Fc regions of different IgA forms (serum IgA, secretory IgA, subclasses of serum IgA – IgA1, IgA2. Selectivity of ligand binding was specially confirmed.It was found out that, among three presented polypeptides, the structure of recombinant P6 derivative proved to be optimal for IgA-binding ability of Bac protein.Structural features of IgA-binding fragments of Bac protein, i.e., binding site position on the IgA molecule (proximity to epitopes for three monoclonal antibodies, variability of the site structure, as well as resistance of binding site for P6, P7, P8 in IgA molecule against partial disulfide bonds reduction. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 327-336.

  17. Differential distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor components in the human trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, S; Salvatore, C A; Calamari, A;

    2010-01-01

    system and hence the potential antagonist sites of action remain unknown. Therefore we designed a study to evaluate the localization of CGRP and its receptor components calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 1 in the human trigeminal ganglion using...... immunohistochemistry and compare with that of rat. Antibodies against purified CLR and RAMP1 proteins were produced and characterized for this study. Trigeminal ganglia were obtained at autopsy from adult subjects and sections from rat trigeminal ganglia were used to compare the immunostaining pattern. The number...

  18. Multiple benzodiazepine receptors in the ovine brain: ontogenesis, properties, and distribution of /sup 3/H-diazepam binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiger, J.W.; Taylor, K.M.; Gluckman, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors in the ovine frontal cortex were present at 56 days gestation and developed slowly until 96 days when the number increased rapidly, reaching adult levels by 120 days gestation. Scatchard analysis of 3H-diazepam specifically bound to cortical membranes suggested high (KD approximately equal to 2.0 nM) and low (KD approximately equal to 20.0 nM) affinity benzodiazepine receptors at all stages of development. Whereas the affinity of these receptors for 3H-diazepam did not alter during development, the number of both high and low affinity receptors increased significantly between 56 and 120 days gestation. The number of low affinity receptors were higher in late gestation and early neonatal life than in adulthood. The functional state of these receptors as determined by sensitivity to GABA did not alter during development. However, in the adult, nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, midazolam, and 1-methylisoguanosine were more potent in displacing 3H-diazepam at the low affinity than the high affinity receptor, whereas chlordiazepoxide and diazepam had greater potency at the high affinity binding site. Development of the benzodiazepine receptor in the majority of other brain regions studied occurred primarily after 68 days gestation, as was the case in frontal cortex. In contrast, hindbrain and midbrain benzodiazepine receptors had reached adult levels by 68 days gestation.

  19. Systemic distribution, subcellular localization and differential expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors in benign and malignant human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyi; Mao, Jinghe; Redfield, Samantha; Mo, Yinyuan; Lage, Janice M; Zhou, Xinchun

    2014-10-01

    Five sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PR): S1PR1, S1PR2, S1PR3, S1PR4 and S1PR5 (S1PR1-5) have been shown to be involved in the proliferation and progression of various cancers. However, none of the S1PRs have been systemically investigated. In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for S1PR1-S1PR5 on different tissues, in order to simultaneously determine the systemic distribution, subcellular localization and expression level of all five S1PRs. We constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs) from 384 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks containing 183 benign and 201 malignant tissues from 34 human organs/systems. Then we performed IHC for all five S1PRs simultaneously on these TMA slides. The distribution, subcellular localization and expression of each S1PR were determined for each tissue. The data in benign and malignant tissues from the same organ/tissue were then compared using the Student's t-test. In order to reconfirm the subcellular localization of each S1PR as determined by IHC, immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed on several malignant cell lines. We found that all five S1PRs are widely distributed in multiple human organs/systems. All S1PRs are expressed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, except S1PR3, whose IHC signals are only seen in the nucleus. Interestingly, the S1PRs are rarely expressed on cellular membranes. Each S1PR is unique in its organ distribution, subcellular localization and expression level in benign and malignant tissues. Among the five S1PRs, S1PR5 has the highest expression level (in either the nucleus or cytoplasm), with S1PR1, 3, 2 and 4 following in descending order. Strong nuclear expression was seen for S1PR1, S1PR3 and S1PR5, whereas S1PR2 and S1PR4 show only weak staining. Four organs/tissues (adrenal gland, liver, brain and colon) show significant differences in IHC scores for the multiple S1PRs (nuclear and/or cytoplasmic), nine (stomach, lymphoid tissues, lung, ovary, cervix, pancreas, skin, soft

  20. Cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), their distribution, ligands and functional involvement in nervous system structures--a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svízenská, Ivana; Dubový, Petr; Sulcová, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    In the last 25 years data has grown exponentially dealing with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system consisting of specific cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and enzymatic systems of their biosynthesis and degradation. Progress is being made in the development of novel agonists and antagonists with receptor subtype selectivity which should help in providing a greater understanding of the physiological role of the endocannabinoid system and perhaps also in a broad number of pathologies. This could lead to advances with important therapeutic potential of drugs modulating activity of endocannabinoid system as hypnotics, analgesics, antiemetics, antiasthmatics, antihypertensives, immunomodulatory drugs, antiphlogistics, neuroprotective agents, antiepileptics, agents influencing glaucoma, spasticity and other "movement disorders", eating disorders, alcohol withdrawal, hepatic fibrosis, bone growth, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this review is to highlight distribution of the CB1 and CB2 receptor subtypes in the nervous system and functional involvement of their specific ligands.

  1. Two gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes with distinct ligand selectivity and differential distribution in brain and pituitary in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Illing, Nicola; Troskie, Brigitte E.; Nahorniak, Carol S.; Janet P Hapgood; Peter, Richard E.; Millar, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    In the goldfish (Carassius auratus) the two endogenous forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), namely chicken GnRH II ([His5,Trp7,Tyr8]GnRH) and salmon GnRH ([Trp7,Leu8]GnRH), stimulate the release of both gonadotropins and growth hormone from the pituitary. This control is thought to occur by means of the stimulation of distinct GnRH receptors. These receptors can be distinguished on the basis of differential gonadotropin and growth hormone releasing activities of naturally occurring...

  2. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  3. Appearance and cellular distribution of lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the developing rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    glycoprotein glycoforms to their receptors is inhibited by steroids. Testosterone, oestradiol and progesterone inhibited the binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform A to its receptor. Cortisone, aldosterone, oestradiol and progesterone inhibited the binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms B...

  4. [Content of natural uranium in the lichens and distribution of forms in the soil at the coastal area of Lakes Itkul and Sinara of Chelyabinsk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyudina, A L; Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of natural uranium in soils superaquatic and transeluvial positions of the coastal landscape of lakes Itkul and Sinara, and liches on this site.The necessity of analysis of the content item in accordance with its form of occurrence in the natural environment. The peculiarities of the migration, accumulation and distribution of uranium in soils of the mountain areas of the watersheds of lakes Itkul and Sinara are found. Identified of specificity species lichens on the content of uranium in the substrate.

  5. Forme de la distribution des masses molaires pour supprimer le défaut de peau de requin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allal, Ahmed; Vergnes, Bruno; Marin, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    In this Note, we focused on the sharkskin defect, classically observed in linear polymer extrusion. The aim of this work is to link the sharkskin onset to the rheological properties of polymer melt and more particularly to the shape of the molecular weight distribution. Using the model of Brochard-de Gennes, we show that it is possible to eliminate the sharkskin if M≈10M. To cite this article: A. Allal et al., C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  6. The serotonin-1A receptor distribution in healthy men and women measured by PET and [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]WAY-100635

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Patrycja; Savli, Markus; Fink, Martin; Spindelegger, Christoph; Moser, Ulrike; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, Wolfgang; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus; Mien, Leonhard-Key [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-12-15

    The higher prevalence rates of depression and anxiety disorders in women compared to men have been associated with sexual dimorphisms in the serotonergic system. The present positron emission tomography (PET) study investigated the influence of sex on the major inhibitory serotonergic receptor subtype, the serotonin-1A (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptor. Sixteen healthy women and 16 healthy men were measured using PET and the highly specific radioligand [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]WAY-100635. Effects of age or gonadal hormones were excluded by restricting the inclusion criteria to young adults and by controlling for menstrual cycle phase. The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor BP{sub ND} was quantified using (1) the 'gold standard' manual delineation approach with ten regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) a newly developed delineation method using a PET template normalized to the Montreal Neurologic Institute space with 45 ROIs based on automated anatomical labeling. The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor BP{sub ND} was found equally distributed in men and women applying both the manual delineation method and the automated delineation approach. Women had lower mean BP{sub ND} values in every region investigated, with a borderline significant sex difference in the hypothalamus (p=0.012, uncorrected). There was a high intersubject variability of the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor BP{sub ND} within both sexes compared to the small mean differences between men and women. To conclude, when measured in the follicular phase, women do not differ from men in the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor binding. To explain the higher prevalence of affective disorders in women, further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between hormonal status and the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor expression. (orig.)

  7. A dominant negative form of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor induces metacyclogenesis and increases mitochondrial density in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Muneaki; Nara, Takeshi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Sakurai, Takashi; Mita, Toshihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-23

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is a key regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that release Ca(2+) from Ca(2+) stores in response to various external stimuli. IP3R also works as a signal hub which form a platform for interacting with various proteins involved in diverse cell signaling. Previously, we have identified an IP3R homolog in the parasitic protist, Trypanosoma cruzi (TcIP3R). Parasites expressing reduced or increased levels of TcIP3R displayed defects in growth, transformation, and infectivity. In the present study, we established parasitic strains expressing a dominant negative form of TcIP3R, named DN-TcIP3R, to further investigate the physiological role(s) of TcIP3R. We found that the growth of epimastigotes expressing DN-TcIP3R was significantly slower than that of parasites with TcIP3R expression levels that were approximately 65% of wild-type levels. The expression of DN-TcIP3R in epimastigotes induced metacyclogenesis even in the normal growth medium. Furthermore, these epimastigotes showed the presence of dense mitochondria under a transmission electron microscope. Our findings confirm that TcIP3R is crucial for epimastigote growth, as previously reported. They also suggest that a strong inhibition of the IP3R-mediated signaling induces metacyclogenesis and that mitochondrial integrity is closely associated with this signaling.

  8. Distribution and genotype frequency of the C1431T and pro12ala polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma gene in an Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Rooki; Monir-Sadat Haerian; Pedram Azimzadeh; Mahmoud Ebrahimi; Reza Mirhafez; Gordon Ferns; Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan; Mohammad-Reza Zali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear transcription factor regulating multiple genes involved in cell growth, differentiation, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and energy production. Several genetic variations in the PPARγ gene have been identified to be associated with diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The present study was designed to explore the distribution of two common single n...

  9. Theoretical span load distributions and rolling moments for sideslipping wings of arbitrary plan form in incompressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queijo, M J

    1956-01-01

    A method of computing span loads and the resulting rolling moments for sideslipping wings of arbitrary plan form in incompressible flow is derived. The method requires that the span load at zero sideslip be known for the wing under consideration. Because this information is available for a variety of wings, this requirement should not seriously restrict the application of the present method. The basic method derived herein requires a mechanical differentiation and integration to obtain the rolling moment for the general wing in sideslip. For wings having straight leading and trailing edges over each semispan, the rolling moment due to sideslip is given by a simple equation in terms of plan-form parameters and the lateral center of pressure of the lift due to angle of attack. Calculated span loads and rolling-moment parameters are compared with experimental values. The comparison indicates good agreement between calculations and available experimental data.

  10. CRF receptor 1 antagonism and brain distribution of active components contribute to the ameliorative effect of rikkunshito on stress-induced anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogami, Sachiko; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Yamada, Chihiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-06-08

    Rikkunshito (RKT), a Kampo medicine, has been reported to show an ameliorative effect on sustained hypophagia after novelty stress exposure in aged mice through serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonism. We aimed to determine (1) whether the activation of anorexigenic neurons, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, is involved in the initiation of hypophagia induced by novelty stress in aged mice; (2) whether the ameliorative effect of RKT is associated with CRF and POMC neurons and downstream signal transduction; and (3) the plasma and brain distribution of the active components of RKT. The administration of RKT or 5-HT2CR, CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1), and melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists significantly restored the decreased food intake observed in aged male C57BL/6 mice in the early stage after novelty stress exposure. Seven components of RKT exhibited antagonistic activity against CRFR1. Hesperetin and isoliquiritigenin, which showed antagonistic effects against both CRFR1 and 5-HT2CR, were distributed in the plasma and brain of male Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of RKT. In conclusion, the ameliorative effect of RKT in this model is assumed to be at least partly due to brain-distributed active components possessing 5-HT2CR and CRFR1 antagonistic activities.

  11. Mössbauer study of oxide phase distributions in rust formed on steel constructions near the Black Sea in Sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru; Lauer, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Goloborodko, P. G.; Polyakov, A. M. [Sanatorium “Progress” (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The phase composition of the intermediate oxide layers formed on elements of steel structures at different positions relative to the sea water of the Black Sea near Sochi are investigated. The differences of the phase composition of these oxide layers are shown, depending on the location of the design details in relation to the sea and the abundancies of certain types of oxides in the studied layers are discussed.

  12. Effect of harvest time and physical form of alfalfa silage on chewing time and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornfelt, L. F.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Norgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of physical form and harvest time of alfalfa silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in dry cows. The alfalfa crop was harvested at two stages of growth (early: NDF 37 late: NDF 44% in dry matter.......01), physical form (P time (P feeding late-harvested alfalfa silage. Two peaks on the probability density distribution function...... (DM)), and from each harvest, a chopped (theoretical cutting length: 19 mm) and an unchopped crop was ensiled in bales. The silages were fed restrictively to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (391 +/- 26 kg) in a 434 Latin square design. The cows were fed restrictively 80% of their ad...

  13. The effects of inorganic nitrogen form and CO2 concentration on wheat yield and nutrient accumulation and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli eCarlisle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth and primary productivity. Inorganic N is available to plants from the soil as ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3–. We studied how wheat grown hydroponically to senescence in controlled environmental chambers is affected by N form (NH4+ vs. NO3– and CO2 concentration (‘subambient’, ‘ambient’, and ‘elevated’ in terms of biomass, yield, and nutrient accumulation and partitioning. NH4+-grown wheat had the strongest response to CO2 concentration. Plants exposed to subambient and ambient CO2 concentrations typically had the greatest biomass and nutrient accumulation under both N forms. In general NH4+ plants had higher concentrations of total N, P, K, S, Ca, Zn, Fe, and Cu, while NO3– plants had higher concentrations of Mg, B, Mn, and NO3–-N. NH4+ plants contained amounts of phytate similar to NO3– plants but had higher bioavailable Zn, which could have ramifications for human health. NH4+ plants allocated more nutrients and biomass to aboveground tissues whereas NO3– plants allocated more nutrients to the roots. The two inorganic nitrogen forms influenced plant growth and nutrient status so distinctly that they should be treated separately. Moreover, plant growth and nutrient status varied in a non-linear manner with atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  14. Induction of progesterone receptor A form attenuates the induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Ni, Xiaotian; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Zhu, Xiaoou; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA(2alpha), now known as PLA2G4A) is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of the rate-limiting substrate, arachidonic acid, for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The increasing expression of PLA2G4A toward term gestation in human amnion fibroblasts is believed to be the crucial event in parturition. Human amnion fibroblasts produce cortisol, progesterone and express glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor A (PGRA) form at term. The roles of progesterone and PGRA in the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol via GR in the amnion fibroblasts remain largely unknown. Using cultured human term amnion fibroblasts, we found that cortisol induced the expression of PGRA, which was attenuated by inhibiting PG synthesis with indomethacin. Knockdown of PGRA expression or inhibition of endogenous progesterone production with trilostane significantly enhanced the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol, whereas overexpression of PGRA attenuated the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Although exogenous progesterone did not alter PLA2G4A expression under basal conditions, it attenuated cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression at concentrations about tenfold higher, which might be achieved by competition with cortisol for GR. In conclusion, PGRA in the presence of endogenous progesterone is a transdominant repressor of the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. High level of progesterone may compete with cortisol for GR, thus further inhibiting the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Moreover, increased PG synthesis by cortisol may feed back on the expression of PGRA leading to attenuation of cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression. The above findings may be pertinent to the inconsistent effects of glucocorticoids on parturition in humans.

  15. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae in Slovakia, Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Panigaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea was dominant along alongitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  16. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  17. A Simple and Effective Closed-Form GN-Model Correction Formula Accounting for Signal Non-Gaussian Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, A; Curri, V; Poggiolini, P; Jiang, Y; Forghieri, F

    2014-01-01

    The GN-model has been shown to overestimate the variance of non-linearity due to the signal Gaussianity approximation, leading to realistic system maximum reach predictions which may be pessimistic by about 5% to 15%, depending on fiber type and system set-up. Analytical corrections have been proposed, which however substantially increase the model complexity. In this paper we provide a closed-form simple GN-model correction which we show to be very effective in correcting for the GN-model tendency to overestimate non-linearity. Our formula also allows to clearly identify the correction dependence on key system parameters, such as the span length and loss.

  18. Cloning of somatolactin alpha, beta forms and the somatolactin receptor in Atlantic salmon: Seasonal expression profile in pituitary and ovary of maturing female broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranger Geir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatolactin (Sl is a fish specific adenohypophyseal peptide hormone related to growth hormone (Gh. Some species, including salmonids, possess two forms: Sl alpha and Sl beta. The somatolactin receptor (slr is closely related to the growth hormone receptor (ghr. Sl has been ascribed many physiological functions, including a role in sexual maturation. In order to clarify the role of Sl in the sexual maturation of female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, the full length cDNAs of slr, Sl alpha and Sl beta were cloned and their expression was studied throughout a seasonal reproductive cycle using real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR. Methods Atlantic salmon Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr cDNAs were cloned using a PCR approach. Gene expression of Sl alpha, SL beta and slr was studied using RTqPCR over a 17 month period encompassing pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis, ovulation and post ovulation in salmon females. Histological examination of ovarian samples allowed for the classification according to the degree of follicle maturation into oil drop, primary, secondary or tertiary yolk stage. Results The mature peptide sequences of Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr are highly similar to previously cloned salmonid forms and contained the typical motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of Atlantic salmon Sl alpha and Sl beta shows that these peptides group into the two Sl clades present in some fish species. The Atlantic salmon slr grouped with salmonid slr amongst so-called type I ghr. An increase in pituitary Sl alpha and Sl beta transcripts before and during spawning, with a decrease post-ovulation, and a constant expression level of ovarian slr were observed. There was also a transient increase in Sl alpha and Sl beta in May prior to transfer from seawater to fresh water and ensuing fasting. Conclusion The up-regulation of Sl alpha and Sl beta during vitellogenesis and spawning, with a subsequent decrease post-ovulation, supports a role for Sl during gonadal

  19. Ejecta velocity distribution of impact craters formed on quartz sand: Effect of projectile density on crater scaling law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujido, Sayaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Suzuki, Ayako I.; Yasui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    In order to clarify the effects of projectile density on ejecta velocity distributions for a granular target, impact cratering experiments on a quartz sand target were conducted by using eight types of projectiles with different densities ranging from 11 g cm-3 to 1.1 g cm-3, which were launched at about 200 m s-1 from a vertical gas gun at Kobe University. The scaling law of crater size, the ejection angle of ejecta grains, and the angle of the ejecta curtain were also investigated. The ejecta velocity distribution obtained from each projectile was well described by the π-scaling theory of v0/√{gR} =k2(x0/R)-1/μ, where v0, g, R and x0 are the ejection velocity, gravitational acceleration, crater radius and ejection position, respectively, and k2 and μ are constants mostly depending on target material properties (Housen, K.R., Holsapple, K.A. [2011]. Icarus 211, 856-875). The value of k2 was found to be almost constant at 0.7 for all projectiles except for the nylon projectile, while μ increased with the projectile density, from 0.43 for the low-density projectile to 0.6-0.7 for the high-density projectile. On the other hand, the π-scaling theory for crater size gave a μ value of 0.57, which was close to the average of the μ values obtained from ejecta velocity distributions. The ejection angle, θ, of each grain decreased slightly with distance, from higher than 45° near the impact point to 30-40° at 0.6 R. The ejecta curtain angle is controlled by the two elementary processes of ejecta velocity distribution and ejection angle; it gradually increased from 52° to 63° with the increase of the projectile density. The comparison of our experimental results with the theoretical model of the crater excavation flow known as the Z-model revealed that the relationship between μ and θ obtained by our experiments could not be described by the Z-model (Maxwell, D.E. [1977]. In: Roddy, D.J., Pepin, R.O., Merrill, R.B. (Eds.), Impact and Explosion Cratering

  20. Altered dendritic distribution of dopamine D2 receptors and reduction in mitochondrial number in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Megan L; Chan, June; Mackie, Kenneth; Lupica, Carl R; Pickel, Virginia M

    2012-12-01

    The prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) is a brain region integral to complex behaviors that are highly influenced by cannabinoids and by dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated regulation of fast-firing parvalbumin-containing interneurons. We have recently shown that constitutive deletion of the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) greatly reduces parvalbumin levels in these neurons. The effects of CB1R deletion on PL parvalbumin interneurons may be ascribed to loss of CB1R-mediated retrograde signaling on mesocortical dopamine transmission, and, in turn, altered expression and/or subcellular distribution of D2R in the PL. Furthermore, diminished parvalbumin expression could indicate metabolic changes in fast-firing interneurons that may be reflected in changes in mitochondrial density in this population. We therefore comparatively examined electron microscopic dual labeling of D2R and parvalbumin in CB1 (-/-) and CB1 (+/+) mice to test the hypothesis that absence of CB1R produces changes in D2R localization and mitochondrial distribution in parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the PL. CB1 (-/-) mice had a significantly lower density of cytoplasmic D2R-immunogold particles in medium parvalbumin-labeled dendrites and a concomitant increase in the density of these particles in small dendrites. These dendrites received both excitatory and inhibitory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and contained many mitochondria, whose numbers were significantly reduced in CB1 (-/-) mice. Non-parvalbumin dendrites showed no between-group differences in either D2R distribution or mitochondrial number. These results suggest that cannabinoid signaling provides an important determinant of dendritic D2 receptor distribution and mitochondrial availability in fast-spiking interneurons.

  1. CHARACTER AND FORMS OF INDUSTRIAL GOODS DISTRIBUTION ON DON AND THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR DAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. PANARINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to realization of a state policy of distribution of industrial goods on Don and the North Caucasus in days of the Great Patriotic War. The principles of use of a rationing system of distribution of essentials, her differentiated character, preferential categories of consumers providing allocation are considered. Concrete examples of application of coupons at acquisition of clothes, footwear and other goods are given. Conditions of execution of this order by local bodies of Don and the North Caucasus are analyzed; the attention to limitation of the allocated manufactured goods from the centralized funds is paid. Much attention is paid to the measures for research of additional sources of providing the population of Don and the North Caucasus taken from local bodies by essentials. The attention to especially difficult situation with providing the population of the region, owing to occupation consequences is paid. Data on restoration and development of the local industry, cooperative artels, increase in release of goods, necessary for the population, are provided. The role of the trade-union organizations in supply of the most needing workers with clothes, footwear and other manufactured goods reveals. The assessment is given to results of collaboration of local bodies and public organizations in providing the population with manufactured goods, the remaining difficult situation in questions of providing inhabitants of Don and the North Caucasus by essentials throughout the entire period of the Great Patriotic War is noted.

  2. Sex differences in subcellular distribution of delta opioid receptors in the rat hippocampus in response to acute and chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sanoara Mazid; Hall, Baila S.; Odell, Shannon C.; Khalifa Stafford; Dyer, Andreina D.; Van Kempen, Tracey A.; Jane Selegean; McEwen, Bruce S.; Elizabeth M. Waters; Milner, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs). Immediately after acute immobili...

  3. The normal genital tract of the female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): cyclic changes in histomorphology and hormone receptor distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Changes in reproductive tract histomorphology, and estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression throughout the breeding cycle were evaluated in free-ranging stranded female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. During a large portion of the cycle, ovaries contained both a corpora lutea (CL) and follicles in varying stages of development. In the periods of pupping and estrus during June and July, and in the spring morphologic features of the endometrium suggested estrogen influence. There were areas of squamous differentiation in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the cervix and vagina in some animals during estrus and in the spring. Estrogen receptor immunohistochemical scores were highest during pupping and estrus and in the spring and lowest during embryonic diapause. Cyclic changes in uterine PR expression throughout the cycle were minimal. Both ERalpha and PR were expressed in epithelial and stromal cells throughout the cervix and vagina, however, receptor expression was typically higher in the stroma. Stromal cell hormone receptors may play an important role in epithelial responses to circulating sex hormones. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of California sea lion reproduction and establish baseline information on reproductive tract hormone receptors that will aid in determining the factors involved in urogenital cancer development in sea lions.

  4. Infection of Polarized MDCK Cells with Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Two Asymmetrically Distributed Cell Receptors Interact with Different Viral Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Amy E.; McGwire, Bradford S.; Roizman, Bernard

    1991-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 attaches to at least two cell surface receptors. In polarized epithelial (Madin-Darby canine kidney; MDCK) cells one receptor is located in the apical surface and attachment to the cells requires the presence of glycoprotein C in the virus. The second receptor is located in the basal surface and does not require the presence of glycoprotein C. Exposure of MDCK cells at either the apical or basal surface to wild-type virus yields plaques and viral products whereas infection by a glycoprotein C-negative mutant yields identical results only after exposure of MDCK cells to virus at the basal surface. Multiple receptors for viral entry into cells expand the host range of the virus. The observation that glycoprotein C-negative mutants are infectious in many nonpolarized cell lines suggests that cells in culture may express more than one receptor and explains why genes that specify the viral proteins that recognize redundant receptors, like glycoprotein C, are expendable.

  5. Atypical form of Alzheimer's disease with prominent posterior cortical atrophy: a review of lesion distribution and circuit disconnection in cortical visual pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Vogt, B. A.; Bouras, C.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, the existence of visual variants of Alzheimer's disease characterized by atypical clinical presentation at onset has been increasingly recognized. In many of these cases post-mortem neuropathological assessment revealed that correlations could be established between clinical symptoms and the distribution of neurodegenerative lesions. We have analyzed a series of Alzheimer's disease patients presenting with prominent visual symptomatology as a cardinal sign of the disease. In these cases, a shift in the distribution of pathological lesions was observed such that the primary visual areas and certain visual association areas within the occipito-parieto-temporal junction and posterior cingulate cortex had very high densities of lesions, whereas the prefrontal cortex had fewer lesions than usually observed in Alzheimer's disease. Previous quantitative analyses have demonstrated that in Alzheimer's disease, primary sensory and motor cortical areas are less damaged than the multimodal association areas of the frontal and temporal lobes, as indicated by the laminar and regional distribution patterns of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. The distribution of pathological lesions in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease cases with visual symptomatology revealed that specific visual association pathways were disrupted, whereas these particular connections are likely to be affected to a less severe degree in the more common form of Alzheimer's disease. These data suggest that in some cases with visual variants of Alzheimer's disease, the neurological symptomatology may be related to the loss of certain components of the cortical visual pathways, as reflected by the particular distribution of the neuropathological markers of the disease.

  6. Elevated heavy metal concentrations in top soils of an Aegean island town (Greece): total and available forms, origin and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, I; Ehaliotis, C; Gerontidis, S; Sarris, E

    2009-04-01

    Elevated heavy metal concentrations in urban top soils are principal indicators of environmental pollution; however, relative data on the heavy metal status in soils of Greek island towns, that are regional administrative centers and popular tourist destinations, are missing. A survey was conducted to examine heavy metal concentrations in the urban soils of Ermoupolis, the capital of Syros island and of the prefecture of Cyclades complex in the Aegean Sea. Total (aqua-regia extracted) and available (DTPA extracted) concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Sn and Fe were determined in top soil samples collected from green areas and open spaces of the town and in surface samples from inland reference soils of the island. Mean values for the aqua-regia extracted fraction of Cu, Pb and Zn were 117, 155 and 440 mg kg(-1) respectively, up to four times higher than the respective mean values of the reference soils. Enrichment factors (EFs) for these metals indicated high accumulation in the urban top soils and the available to total concentration ratio of Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe was higher for the urban compared to the reference soils, suggesting differences in metal sequestration, resulting in higher metal availability in the urban soils. GIS analysis was used to visualize the spatial distribution of EFs of the studied heavy metals. Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis, applied to aqua-regia and DTPA data sets, adequately elucidated the origin of metals grouped under each factor or cluster.

  7. Pulmonary infection with hypervirulent Mycobacteria reveals a crucial role for the P2X7 receptor in aggressive forms of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Amaral

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R is a sensor of extracellular ATP, a damage-associated molecule that is released from necrotic cells and that induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. To investigate whether the innate immune response to damage signals could contribute to the development of pulmonary necrotic lesions in severe forms of tuberculosis, disease progression was examined in C57BL/6 and P2X7R-/- mice that were intratracheally infected with highly virulent mycobacterial strains (Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain 1471 of the Beijing genotype family and Mycobacterium bovis strain MP287/03. The low-dose infection of C57BL/6 mice with bacteria of these strains caused the rapid development of extensive granulomatous pneumonia with necrotic areas, intense bacillus dissemination and anticipated animal death. In contrast, in P2X7R-/- mice, the lung pathology presented with moderate infiltrates of mononuclear leukocytes without visible signs of necrosis; the disease attenuation was accompanied by a delay in mortality. In vitro, the hypervirulent mycobacteria grew rapidly inside macrophages and induced death by a P2X7R-dependent mechanism that facilitated the release of bacilli. Furthermore, these bacteria were resistant to the protective mechanisms elicited in macrophages following extracellular ATP stimulation. Based on this study, we propose that the rapid intracellular growth of hypervirulent mycobacteria results in massive macrophage damage. The ATP released by damaged cells engages P2X7R and accelerates the necrotic death of infected macrophages and the release of bacilli. This vicious cycle exacerbates pneumonia and lung necrosis by promoting widespread cell destruction and bacillus dissemination. These findings suggest the use of drugs that have been designed to inhibit the P2X7R as a new therapeutic approach to treat the aggressive forms of tuberculosis.

  8. Yeast-expressed recombinant protein of the receptor-binding domain in SARS-CoV spike protein with deglycosylated forms as a SARS vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hsiang; Du, Lanying; Chag, Shivali M; Ma, Cuiqing; Tricoche, Nancy; Tao, Xinrong; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Lustigman, Sara; Tseng, Chien-Te K; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Zhan, Bin; Jiang, Shibo

    2014-01-01

    Development of vaccines for preventing a future pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and for biodefense preparedness is urgently needed. Our previous studies have shown that a candidate SARS vaccine antigen consisting of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV spike protein can induce potent neutralizing antibody responses and protection against SARS-CoV challenge in vaccinated animals. To optimize expression conditions for scale-up production of the RBD vaccine candidate, we hypothesized that this could be potentially achieved by removing glycosylation sites in the RBD protein. In this study, we constructed two RBD protein variants: 1) RBD193-WT (193-aa, residues 318-510) and its deglycosylated forms (RBD193-N1, RBD193-N2, RBD193-N3); 2) RBD219-WT (219-aa, residues 318-536) and its deglycosylated forms (RBD219-N1, RBD219-N2, and RBD219-N3). All constructs were expressed as recombinant proteins in yeast. The purified recombinant proteins of these constructs were compared for their antigenicity, functionality and immunogenicity in mice using alum as the adjuvant. We found that RBD219-N1 exhibited high expression yield, and maintained its antigenicity and functionality. More importantly, RBD219-N1 induced significantly stronger RBD-specific antibody responses and a higher level of neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice than RBD193-WT, RBD193-N1, RBD193-N3, or RBD219-WT. These results suggest that RBD219-N1 could be selected as an optimal SARS vaccine candidate for further development.

  9. A retinoic acid receptor RARα pool present in membrane lipid rafts forms complexes with G protein αQ to activate p38MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, A; Rochette-Egly, C

    2012-07-12

    Retinoic acid (RA) regulates several gene programs by nuclear RA receptors (RARs) that are ligand-dependent transcriptional transregulators. The basic mechanism for switching on transcription of cognate-target genes involves RAR binding at specific response elements and a network of interactions with coregulatory protein complexes. In addition to these classical genomic effects, we recently demonstrated that RA also induces the rapid activation of the p38MAPK/MSK1 pathway, with characteristic downstream consequences on the phosphorylation of RARs and the expression of their target genes. Here, we aimed at deciphering the underlying mechanism of the rapid non-genomic effects of RA. We highlighted a novel paradigm in which a fraction of the cellular RARα pool is present in membrane lipid rafts, where it forms complexes with G protein alpha Q (Gαq) in response to RA. This rapid RA-induced formation of RARα/Gαq complexes in lipid rafts is required for the activation of p38MAPK that occurs in response to RA. Accordingly, in RA-resistant cancer cells, characterized by the absence of p38MAPK activation, RARα present in membrane lipid rafts does not associate with Gαq, pointing out the essential contribution of RARα/Gαq complexes in RA signaling.

  10. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors form complexes with neuropilin-1 during megakaryocytic differentiation of thrombopoietin-dependent UT-7/TPO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, Akimichi; Hirota-Komatsu, Satoko; Araki, Marito; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-04-10

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is involved in angiogenesis, but the role of NRP-1 in megakaryocytopoiesis is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether thrombopoietin (TPO) regulates the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors (PDGFRs) on TPO-dependent UT-7/TPO cells and whether PDGFRs and NRP-1 on UT-7/TPO cells form complexes during megakaryocytic differentiation. When UT-7/TPO cells were starved of TPO for 24 h and then stimulated with 5 ng/ml TPO, the expression of PDGF-B, PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ were significantly up-regulated after the addition of TPO. TPO also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGFRα but not PDGFRβ, and promoted the formation of PDGFRαβ heterodimer complexes. Furthermore, megakaryocytic differentiation of UT-7/TPO cells on treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was accompanied by a marked up-regulation of PDGFRβ and NRP-1 protein expression, complex formation between PDGFRs and NRP-1, PDGFRαβ heterodimer complexes, and an increase in PDGF-BB-binding activity. Immunocytochemistry confirmed complex formation between PDGFRs and NRP-1 and PDGFRαβ heterodimer complexes in PMA-differentiated UT-7/TPO cells. Our observations suggest that NRP-1 is involved in megakaryocytopoiesis through complex formation with PDGFRs, and that NRP-1-PDGFR-complexes may contribute to effective cellular functions mediated by TPO and PDGF in megakaryocytic cells.

  11. PSM/SH2-B distributes selected mitogenic receptor signals to distinct components in the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youping; Xu, Hu; Riedel, Heimo

    2007-02-15

    The Pro-rich, PH, and SH2 domain containing mitogenic signaling adapter PSM/SH2-B has been implicated as a cellular partner of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and related signaling mechanisms. Here, we report in a direct comparison of three peptide hormones, that PSM participates in the assembly of distinct mitogenic signaling complexes in response to insulin or IGF-I when compared to PDGF in cultured normal fibroblasts. The complex formed in response to insulin or IGF-I involves the respective peptide hormone receptor and presumably the established components leading to MAP kinase activation. However, our data suggest an alternative link from the PDGF receptor via PSM directly to MEK1/2 and consequently also to p44/42 activation, possibly through a scaffold protein. At least two PSM domains participate, the SH2 domain anticipated to link PSM to the respective receptor and the Pro-rich region in an association with an unidentified downstream component resulting in direct MEK1/2 and p44/42 regulation. The PDGF receptor signaling complex formed in response to PDGF involves PI 3-kinase in addition to the same components and interactions as described for insulin or IGF-I. PSM associates with PI 3-kinase via p85 and in addition the PSM PH domain participates in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity, presumably through membrane interaction. In contrast, the PSM Pro-rich region appears to participate only in the MAP kinase signal. Both pathways contribute to the mitogenic response as shown by cell proliferation, survival, and focus formation. PSM regulates p38 MAP kinase activity in a pathway unrelated to the mitogenic response.

  12. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Involved in Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Cu2+Under Copper Stress in Tomato Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-xiu; WANG Xiu-feng; CUI Xiu-min

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a bioactive signaling molecule, serves as an antioxidant and anti-stress agent under abiotic stress. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on tomato seedlings exposed to 50 µmol L-1 CuCl2. The results show that copper is primarily stored in the soluble cell sap fraction in the roots, especially after treatment with Cu+SNP treatment, which accounted for 66.2%of the total copper content. The copper concentration gradually decreased from the roots to the leaves. In the leaves, exogenous NO induces the storage of excess copper in the cell walls. Copper stress decreases the proportion of copper integrated with pectates and proteins, but exogenous NO remarkably reverses this trend. The alleviating effect of NO is blocked by hemoglobin. Thus, exogenous NO is likely involved in the regulation of the subcellular copper concentrations and its chemical forms under copper stress. Although exogenous NO inhibited the absorption and transport of excess copper to some extent, the copper accumulation in tomato seedlings signiifcantly increased under copper stress. The use of exogenous NO to enhance copper tolerance in some plants is a promising method for copper remediation.

  13. Regular cellular distribution of plasmids by oscillating and filament-forming ParA ATPase of plasmid pB171

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Ringgaard, Simon; Møller-Jensen, Jakob;

    2006-01-01

    with each other in a bacterial two-hybrid assay but do not interact with FtsZ, eight other essential cell division proteins or MreB actin. Based on these observations, we propose a simple model for how oscillating ParA filaments can mediate regular cellular distribution of plasmids. The model functions......Centromere-like loci from bacteria segregate plasmids to progeny cells before cell division. The ParA ATPase (a MinD homologue) of the par2 locus from plasmid pB171 forms oscillating helical structures over the nucleoid. Here we show that par2 distributes plasmid foci regularly along the length...... of the cell even in cells with many plasmids. In vitro, ParA binds ATP and ADP and has a cooperative ATPase activity. Moreover, ParA forms ATP-dependent filaments and cables, suggesting that ParA can provide the mechanical force for the observed regular distribution of plasmids. ParA and ParB interact...

  14. Regular Cellular Distribution of Plasmids by Oscillating and Filament-forming ParA ATPase of Plasmid pB171

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Ringgaard, Simon; Møller-Jensen, Jakob;

    2006-01-01

    with each other in a bacterial two-hybrid assay but do not interact with FtsZ, eight other essential cell division proteins or MreB actin. Based on these observations, we propose a simple model for how oscillating ParA filaments can mediate regular cellular distribution of plasmids. The model functions......Centromere-like loci from bacteria segregate plasmids to progeny cells before cell division. The ParA ATPase (a MinD homologue) of the par2 locus from plasmid pB171 forms oscillating helical structures over the nucleoid. Here we show that par2 distributes plasmid foci regularly along the length...... of the cell even in cells with many plasmids. In vitro, ParA binds ATP and ADP and has a cooperative ATPase activity. Moreover, ParA forms ATP-dependent filaments and cables, suggesting that ParA can provide the mechanical force for the observed regular distribution of plasmids. ParA and ParB interact...

  15. Comparative genomics reveals diversified CRISPR-Cas systems of globally distributed Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eYang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common and dominant bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater lakes around the world. Microcystis cells can produce toxic secondary metabolites, such as microcystins, which are harmful to human health. Two M. aeruginosa strains were isolated from two highly eutrophic lakes in China and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis was performed with the 12 other available M. aeruginosa genomes and closely related unicellular cyanobacterium. Each genome of M. aeruginosa containing at least one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR locus and total 71 loci were identified, suggesting it is ubiquitous in M. aeruginosa genomes. In addition to the previously reported subtype I-D cas gene sets, three CAS subtypes I-A, III-A and III-B were identified and characterized in this study. Seven types of CRISPR direct repeat have close association with CAS subtype, confirming that different and specific secondary structures of CRISPR repeats are important for the recognition, binding and process of corresponding cas gene sets. Homology search of the CRISPR spacer sequences provides a history of not only resistance to bacteriophages and plasmids known to be associated with M. aeruginosa, but also the ability to target much more exogenous genetic material in the natural environment. These adaptive and heritable defense mechanisms play a vital role in keeping genomic stability and self-maintenance by restriction of horizontal gene transfer. Maintaining genomic stability and modulating genomic plasticity are both important evolutionary strategies for M. aeruginosa in adaptation and survival in various habitats.

  16. Comparative genomics reveals diversified CRISPR-Cas systems of globally distributed Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Lin, Feibi; Li, Qi; Li, Tao; Zhao, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common and dominant bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater lakes around the world. Microcystis cells can produce toxic secondary metabolites, such as microcystins, which are harmful to human health. Two M. aeruginosa strains were isolated from two highly eutrophic lakes in China and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis was performed with the 12 other available M. aeruginosa genomes and closely related unicellular cyanobacterium. Each genome of M. aeruginosa containing at least one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus and total 71 loci were identified, suggesting it is ubiquitous in M. aeruginosa genomes. In addition to the previously reported subtype I-D cas gene sets, three CAS subtypes I-A, III-A and III-B were identified and characterized in this study. Seven types of CRISPR direct repeat have close association with CAS subtype, confirming that different and specific secondary structures of CRISPR repeats are important for the recognition, binding and process of corresponding cas gene sets. Homology search of the CRISPR spacer sequences provides a history of not only resistance to bacteriophages and plasmids known to be associated with M. aeruginosa, but also the ability to target much more exogenous genetic material in the natural environment. These adaptive and heritable defense mechanisms play a vital role in keeping genomic stability and self-maintenance by restriction of horizontal gene transfer. Maintaining genomic stability and modulating genomic plasticity are both important evolutionary strategies for M. aeruginosa in adaptation and survival in various habitats.

  17. Expression and distribution of the glucocorticoid receptor DlGR1 in the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Parrinello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is the main corticosteroid secreted by the interrenal cells of the head kidney and it exerts a role in mantaining the omeostatic status in fish. In teleosts its effects are mediated through intracellular receptors expressed in several tissues, that are ligand-dependent transcription factors by binding to specific tissue DNA sequences. In Dicentrarchus labrax we previously cloned and sequenced a glucocorticoid receptor, DlGR1, isolated from leukocytes of peritoneal cavity. In this work we showed mRNA expression and tissue immunohistochemical localization of brain DlGR1 by in situ hybridization assays, with a riboprobe with DlGR1 cDNA trascriptional activation domain, and by immunohistochemical methods, using a specific antibody for a selected sequence of the receptor tran- scriptional domain. The mRNA and the protein are expressed in pyramidal cells of the optic lobe and in the small globular neurons of the diencephalon.

  18. A dominant negative form of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor induces metacyclogenesis and increases mitochondrial density in Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Muneaki, E-mail: muneaki@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Nara, Takeshi, E-mail: tnara@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Enomoto, Masahiro, E-mail: menomoto@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, M5G1L7, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kurebayashi, Nagomi, E-mail: nagomik@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Yoshida, Mitsutaka, E-mail: myoshida@juntendo.ac.jp [Laboratoly of Morphology and Image Analysis, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Sakurai, Takashi, E-mail: tsakurai@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Mita, Toshihiro, E-mail: tmita@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko, E-mail: mikosiba@brain.riken.jp [Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Calcium Oscillation Project, International Cooperative Research Project and Solution-Oriented Research for Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP{sub 3}R) is a key regulator of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration that release Ca{sup 2+} from Ca{sup 2+} stores in response to various external stimuli. IP{sub 3}R also works as a signal hub which form a platform for interacting with various proteins involved in diverse cell signaling. Previously, we have identified an IP{sub 3}R homolog in the parasitic protist, Trypanosoma cruzi (TcIP{sub 3}R). Parasites expressing reduced or increased levels of TcIP{sub 3}R displayed defects in growth, transformation, and infectivity. In the present study, we established parasitic strains expressing a dominant negative form of TcIP{sub 3}R, named DN-TcIP{sub 3}R, to further investigate the physiological role(s) of TcIP{sub 3}R. We found that the growth of epimastigotes expressing DN-TcIP{sub 3}R was significantly slower than that of parasites with TcIP{sub 3}R expression levels that were approximately 65% of wild-type levels. The expression of DN-TcIP{sub 3}R in epimastigotes induced metacyclogenesis even in the normal growth medium. Furthermore, these epimastigotes showed the presence of dense mitochondria under a transmission electron microscope. Our findings confirm that TcIP{sub 3}R is crucial for epimastigote growth, as previously reported. They also suggest that a strong inhibition of the IP{sub 3}R-mediated signaling induces metacyclogenesis and that mitochondrial integrity is closely associated with this signaling. - Highlights: • We established T. cruzi strains expressing a dominant negative form of the TcIP{sub 3}R. • DN-TcIP{sub 3}R expression inhibits epimastigote growth and induces metacyclogenesis. • Microscopic analysis indicated TcIP{sub 3}R role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. • Growth, but not microbial density, was altered by mammalian IP{sub 3}R inhibitor (2-APB).

  19. The Presence of Clitoromegaly in the Nonclassical Form of 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency Could Be Partially Modulated by the CAG Polymorphic Tract of the Androgen Receptor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Gomes, Larissa; Bugano Diniz Gomes, Diogo; Marcondes, José Antônio Miguel; Madureira, Guiomar; de Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Bachega, Tânia A. Sartori Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Background In the nonclassical form (NC), good correlation has been observed between genotypes and 17OH-progesterone (17-OHP) levels. However, this correlation was not identified with regard to the severity of hyperandrogenic manifestations, which could depend on interindividual variability in peripheral androgen sensitivity. Androgen action is modulated by the polymorphic CAG tract (nCAG) of the androgen receptor (AR) gene and by polymorphisms in 5α-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) enzyme, both of which are involved in the severity of hyperandrogenic disorders. Objectives To analyze whether nCAG-AR and SRD5A2 polymorphisms influence the severity of the nonclassical phenotype. Patients NC patients (n = 114) diagnosed by stimulated-17OHP ≥10 ng/mL were divided into groups according to the beginning of hyperandrogenic manifestations (pediatric and adolescent/adult) and CYP21A2 genotypes (C/C: homozygosis for mild mutations; A/C: compound heterozygosis for severe/mild mutations). Methods CYP21A2 mutations were screened by allelic-specific PCR, MLPA and/or sequencing. HpaII-digested and HpaII-undigested DNA samples underwent GeneScan analysis to study nCAG, and the SRD5A2 polymorphisms were screened by RLFP. Results Mean nCAG did not differ among pediatric, adolescent/adult and asymptomatic subjects. In the C/C genotype, we observed a significantly lower frequency of longer CAG alleles in pediatric patients than in adolescent/adults (p = 0.01). In patients carrying the A/C genotype, the frequencies of shorter and longer CAG alleles did not differ between pediatric patients and adolescent/adults (p>0.05). Patients with clitoromegaly had significantly lower weighted CAG biallelic mean than those without it: 19.1±2.7 and 21.6±2.5, respectively (p = 0.007), independent of the CYP21A2 genotype's severity. The SRD5A2 polymorphisms were not associated with the variability of hyperandrogenic NC phenotypes. Conclusions In this series, we observed a modulatory effect of the CAG

  20. Closed-form cdf and pdf of Tukey's h-distribution, the heavy-tail Lambert W approach, and how to bijectively "Gaussianize" heavy-tailed data

    CERN Document Server

    Goerg, Georg M

    2010-01-01

    Recently Goerg (2010) introduced Lambert W - F random variables (RVs), a new family of generalized skewed distributions. Here I will adapt this appealing framework to generate heavy (heavier) tailed versions of arbitrary distributions. As in the skewed case a non-linear, parametric transformation of an input RV X with arbitrary cumulative distribution function (cdf) FX(x) yields a heavy-tailed version Y . The tail behavior depends on a tail parameter gamma > = 0; for gamma = 0, Y = X, for gamma > 0 Y has heavier tails than X. It turns out that heavy-tail Lambert W - Gaussian RVs equals heavy-tailed Tukey h RVs (the g - h family with g = 0), with the major advantage that the Lambert W framework gives closed-form solution of the inverse transformation of the h-transformation, and thus a analytical expressions for the cdf and pdf for Tukey's h distribution - to the author's knowledge the ?rst time in the literature. Furthermore, the Lambert W approach allows practicioners to "Gaussianize" their heavy-tailed data...

  1. The longitudinal and transverse distributions of the pion wave function from the present experimental data on the pion-photon transition form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Wu, Xing-Gang; Huang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    The low-energy and high-energy behavior of the pion-photon transition form factor F_{π γ }(Q^2) are sensitive to the transverse and longitudinal distributions of the pion wave function, respectively. A careful study of F_{π γ }(Q^2) shall thus provide helpful constraints on the properties of the pion wave function. In this paper, we present a combined analysis of the data on F_{π γ }(Q^2) reported by the CELLO, the CLEO, the BABAR, and the BELLE Collaborations. It is performed by using the method of least squares. By using the combined measurements of the BELLE and CLEO Collaborations, the pion wave function longitudinal and transverse behavior can be fixed to a certain degree, i.e. we obtain β in [0.691,0.757] GeV and B in [0.00,0.235] for P_{χ ^2} ≥ 90 %, where β and B are two parameters of a convenient pion wave function model. It is noted that the distribution amplitude of such a pion wave function can mimic various longitudinal behaviors, as suggested in the literature under a proper choice of parameters. We observe that the CELLO, CLEO, and BELLE data are consistent with each other, all of which prefer the asymptotic-like distribution amplitude; while the BABAR data prefers a more broad distribution amplitude, such as the CZ-like one.

  2. Lipid domain formation and ligand-receptor distribution in lipid bilayer membranes investigated by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel experimental technique, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), is proposed to visualize the lateral organization of membrane systems in the nanometer range. The technique involves the use of a ligand-receptor pair, biotin-avidin, which introduces a height variation on a solid-supported l......A novel experimental technique, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), is proposed to visualize the lateral organization of membrane systems in the nanometer range. The technique involves the use of a ligand-receptor pair, biotin-avidin, which introduces a height variation on a solid...

  3. Distributed piezoelectric vibration control for a flexible-link manipulator based on an observer in the form of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongjun; Liu, Jinkun

    2016-02-01

    This paper mainly focuses on designing a distributed observer-based controller for a flexible-link manipulator bonded with piezoelectric actuators. The dynamic model of the link can be taken as an Euler-Bernoulli beam and takes on the form of partial differential equations (PDEs). The proposed observer, which is proven exponentially stable, has the ability to estimate infinite dimensional states, and only the boundary practical measurement values are needed. A novel distributed observer-based controller is subsequently developed to make the joint position track a desired trajectory and rapidly regulate vibrations on the whole beam, which is the main contribution of the paper. The closed-loop system is guaranteed exponentially stable by theoretical analysis and its favorable performance is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  4. Nucleon form factors and moments of generalized parton distributions using N{sub f}= 2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Constantinou, M.; Kallidonis, C. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dinter, S.; Drach, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Jansen, K. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Koutsou, G. [Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    We present results on the axial and the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, as well as, on the first moments of the nucleon generalized parton distributions using maximally twisted mass fermions. We analyze two N{sub f}=2+1+1 ensembles having pion masses of 210 MeV and 354 MeV at two values of the lattice spacing. The lattice scale is determined using the nucleon mass computed on a total of 18 N{sub f}=2+1+1 ensembles generated at three values of the lattice spacing, a. The renormalization constants are evaluated non-perturbatively with a perturbative subtraction of O(a''2)-terms. The moments of the generalized parton distributions are given in the MS scheme at a scale of {mu}=2 GeV. We compare with recent results obtained using different discretization schemes. The implications on the spin content of the nucleon are also discussed.

  5. Temporal and spatial distribution of Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and source of ore-forming materials in the Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua mantle-branch metallogenetic zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua area is a mineral resource-concentrated area for gold-silver polymetallic ore deposits. The temporal and spatial distribution and origin of mineral resources have been argued for a long time. Based on the comprehensive studies of geochronology and sulfur, lead, oxygen, carbon and noble gas isotopes, it is considered that the temporal and spatial distribution of mineral resources in this area is obviously controlled by the Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua mantle branch structure, as is reflected by the occurrence of gold deposits in the inner parts and of Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposits in the outer parts. The mineralization took place mainly during the Yanshanian period. Ore-forming materials came largely from the deep interior of the Earth, and hydrothermal fluids were derived predominantly from Yanshanian magmatism.

  6. Drugs targeting 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in acute treatments of migraine attacks. A review of new drugs and new administration forms of established drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Pihl, Thomas Peter Boye; Hougaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of migraines. Areas covered: This evaluation reviews the recent advances in acute migraine therapy targeting the 5-HT receptor. Specifically, the authors review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy and safety of 5-HT1F receptor agonists and new formulations of sumatriptan...

  7. Distribution of paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B in the nervous system related to regeneration dififculties after unilateral lumbar spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-shu Peng; Chao Qi; Hong Zhang; Mei-ling Gao; Hong Wang; Fei Ren; Xia-qing Li

    2015-01-01

    Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) is a functional receptor of myelin-associated in-hibitors for axonal regeneration and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, and thus suppresses nerve regeneration. The regulatory effect of PirB on injured nerves has received a lot of attention. To better understand nerve regeneration inability after spinal cord injury, this study aimed to investigate the distribution of PirB (via immunolfuorescence) in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system 10 days after injury. Immunoreactivity for PirB increased in the dorsal root ganglia, sciatic nerves, and spinal cord segments. In the dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves, PirB was mainly distributed along neuronal and axonal membranes. PirB was found to exhibit a diffuse, intricate distribution in the dorsal and ventral regions. Immunore-activity for PirB was enhanced in some cortical neurons located in the bilateral precentral gyri. Overall, the ifndings suggest a pattern of PirB immunoreactivity in the nervous system after uni-lateral spinal transection injury, and also indicate that PirB may suppress repair after injury.

  8. Ontogeny of expression of transforming growth factor-β and its receptors and their possible relationship with scarless or scar-forming healing in human fetal and postnatal skins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Fu Xiaobing; Ge Shili; Sun Tongzhu; Zhou Gang; Jiang Duyin; Sheng Zhiyong

    2003-01-01

    @@ Fetal cutaneous wounds that occur in early gestation heal without scar formation. Although much work has been done to characterize the role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms and their receptors in wound healing process, their roles in scarless wound repair in early gestation,their functions in human fetal skin development and structural and functional maintenance are still not well understood. In this study, we explore the expression and distribution characteristics of three TGF-β isoforms, their receptors, i. e.

  9. Immunohistochemical distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and tissue concentrations of oestrogens in the cervix of non-pregnant cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Mostl, E.; Soede, N.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Dissel-Emiliani, van F.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in different regions along the longitudinal and vertical axes of the cervix of non-pregnant cows was performed. Animals were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a functional

  10. Temporal and spatial distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 during development in the rat cortex and hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinli Xiao; Ming Hu; Pengbo Yang; Lin Zhang; Xinlin Chen; Yong Liu

    2011-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is expressed by neurons in zones of active neurogenesis and is involved in the development of neural stem cells in vivo and in vitro. We examined the expression of mGluR5 in the cortex and hippocampus of rats during various prenatal and postnatal periods using immunohistochemistry. During prenatal development, mGluR5 was primarily localized to neuronal somas in the forebrain. During early postnatal periods, the receptor was mainly present on somas in the cortex. mGluR5 immunostaining was visible in apical dendrites and in the neuropil of neurons and persisted throughout postnatal development. During this period, pyramidal neurons were strongly labeled for the receptor. In the hippocampal CA1 region, mGluR5 immunoreactivity was more intense in the stratum oriens, stratum radiatum, and lacunosum moleculare at P0, P5 and P10 relative to P60. mGluR5 expression increased significantly in the molecular layer and decreased significantly in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus at P5, P10 and P60 in comparison with P0. Furthermore, some mGluR5-positive cells were also bromodeoxyuridine- or NeuroD-positive in the dentate gyrus at P14. These results demonstrate that mGluR5 has a differential expression pattern in the cortex and hippocampus during early growth, suggesting a role for this receptor in the control of domain specific brain developmental events.

  11. Ganglioside GD3 Enhances Invasiveness of Gliomas by Forming a Complex with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α and Yes Kinase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Yuki; Momota, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akira; Hashimoto, Noboru; Tsuda, Yusuke; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi; Suzumura, Akio; Furukawa, Keiko; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFRα, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFRα and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFRα and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFRα, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas. PMID:25940087

  12. Expression of Leptin Long-form Receptor mRNA in Luteinized Granulosa Cells of Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jie; LIU Yi; LV Liqun; WANG Donghua; GONG Cheng; XIAO Wei; SHENG Hui

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the expression of mRNA of leptin long-form receptor (OB-Rb) in luteinized granulosa cells of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to determine the role of leptin in the physiopathology of PCOS, luteinized granulosa cells were collected from the follicle fluid of 10 obese women who met the diagnostic criteria for PCOS and their BMI was equal to or greater than 25 kg/m2, and at the same time, granulosa cells were collected from 10 normal women undergoing IVF-ET who served as the control group. Some luteinized granulosa cells were taken from normal women for in-vitro culture, into which human leptin of different concentrations was added (0, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/mL). After stimulation with leptin for 48 h, RT-PCR was employed for the detection of the expression of OB-RLmRNA in the luteinized granulosa cells. Our results showed that the level of OB-RLmRNA in luteinized granulosa cells of obese PCOS women was higher than those in the control (P<0.05). In luteinized granulosa cells cultured in vitro and stimulated by human leptin for 48 h, the level of OB-RLmRNA was higher than those without leptin stimulation (P<0.01), and when leptin concentration was at 100 ng/mL, and the level of OB-RLmRNA reached a peak. It is concluded that in obese PCOS women, the level of serum leptin is increased, which promotes the expression of OB-RL in luteinized granulosa cells and increases the sensitivity of the granulosa cells to leptin. Leptin may contribute to anovulation in obese women with PCOS.

  13. WKYMVm-induced activation of formyl peptide receptor 2 stimulates ischemic neovasculogenesis by promoting homing of endothelial colony-forming cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Soon Chul; Kwon, Yang Woo; Jang, Il Ho; Jeong, Geun Ok; Yoon, Jung Won; Kim, Chi Dae; Kwon, Sang Mo; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Kim, Jae Ho

    2014-03-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are recruited to the sites of ischemic injury in order to contribute to neovascularization and repair of injured tissues. However, therapeutic potential of ECFCs is limited due to low homing and engraftment efficiency of transplanted ECFCs. The G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 2 has been implicated in regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis, while the role of FPR2 in homing and engraftment of ECFCs and neovascularization in ischemic tissues has not been fully defined. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of WKYMVm, a selective FPR2 agonist isolated by screening synthetic peptide libraries, on homing ability of ECFCs and vascular regeneration of ischemic tissues. WKYMVm stimulated chemotactic migration, angiogenesis, and proliferation ability of human ECFCs in vitro. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of FPR2, but not FPR3, abrogated WKYMVm-induced migration and angiogenesis of ECFCs. Intramuscular injection of WKYMVm resulted in attenuation of severe hind limb ischemia and promoted neovascularization in ischemic limb. ECFCs transplanted via tail vein into nude mice were incorporated into capillary vessels in the ischemic hind limb, resulting in augmented neovascularization and improved ischemic limb salvage. Intramuscular injection of WKYMVm promoted homing of exogenously administered ECFCs to the ischemic limb and ECFC-mediated vascular regeneration. Silencing of FPR2 expression in ECFCs resulted in abrogation of WKYMVm-induced in vivo homing of exogenously transplanted ECFCs to the ischemic limb, neovascularization, and ischemic limb salvage. These results suggest that WKYMVm promotes repair of ischemic tissues by stimulating homing of ECFCs and neovascularization via a FPR2-dependent mechanism. © AlphaMed Press.

  14. Soluble Forms and Ligands of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Observational Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jabaudon

    Full Text Available The main soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE is elevated during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. However other RAGE isoforms and multiple ligands have been poorly reported in the clinical setting, and their respective contribution to RAGE activation during ARDS remains unclear. Our goal was therefore to describe main RAGE isoforms and ligands levels during ARDS.30 ARDS patients and 30 mechanically ventilated controls were prospectively included in this monocenter observational study. Arterial, superior vena cava and alveolar fluid levels of sRAGE, endogenous-secretory RAGE (esRAGE, high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1, S100A12 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs were measured in duplicate ELISA on day 0, day 3 and day 6. In patients with ARDS, baseline lung morphology was assessed with computed tomography.ARDS patients had higher arterial, central venous and alveolar levels of sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, but lower levels of esRAGE and AGEs, than controls. Baseline arterial sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12 were correlated with nonfocal ARDS (AUC 0.79, 0.65 and 0.63, respectively. Baseline arterial sRAGE, esRAGE, S100A12 and AGEs were associated with severity as assessed by PaO2/FiO2.This is the first kinetics study of levels of RAGE main isoforms and ligands during ARDS. Elevated sRAGE, HMGB1 and S100A12, with decreased esRAGE and AGEs, were found to distinguish patients with ARDS from those without. Our findings should prompt future studies aimed at elucidating RAGE/HMGB1/S100A12 axis involvement in ARDS.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01270295.

  15. Ganglioside GD3 Enhances Invasiveness of Gliomas by Forming a Complex with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α and Yes Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Yuki; Momota, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akira; Hashimoto, Noboru; Tsuda, Yusuke; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi; Suzumura, Akio; Furukawa, Keiko; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Koichi

    2015-06-26

    There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFRα, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFRα and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFRα and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFRα, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas.

  16. Distribution of genes for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide, Indian hedgehog, PTH receptor and patched in the process of experimental spondylosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Takanobu; Ariga, Kenta; Meng, Wenxiang; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tomita, Tetsuya; Myoui, Akira; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2002-07-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of spondylosis. The authors determined the extent of genetic localization of major regulators of chondrogenesis such as Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) and their receptors during the development of spondylosis in their previously established experimental mouse model. Experimental spondylosis was induced in 5-week-old ICR mice. The cervical spines were chronologically harvested, and histological sections were prepared. Messenger (m) RNA for PTHrP, Ihh, PTH receptor (PTHR; a receptor for PTHrP), patched (Ptc; a receptor for Ihh), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, and collagen type X (COL10; a marker for mature chondrocyte) was localized in the tissue sections by performing in situ hybridization. In the early stage, mRNA for COL10, Ihh, and BMP-6 was absent; however, mRNA for PTHrP, PTHR, and Ptc was detected in the anterior margin of the cervical discs. In the late stage, evidence of COL10 mRNA began to be detected, and transcripts for Ihh, PTHrP, and BMP-6 were localized in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the bone-forming area in osteophyte. Messenger RNA for Ptc and PTHR continued to localize at this stage. In control mice, expression of these genes was absent. The localization of PTHrP, Ihh, BMP-6, and the receptors PTHR and Ptc demonstrated in the present experimental model indicates the possible involvement of molecular signaling by PTHrP (through the PTHR), Ihh (through the Ptc), and BMP-6 in the regulation of chondrocyte maturation leading to endochondral ossification in spondylosis.

  17. Comparison of blood flow and distribution of benzodiazepine receptors in focal epilepsy: Preliminary results of a SPECT study. Vergleich von Blutfluss und Benzodiazepin-Rezeptorverteilung bei fokaler Epilepsie: Vorlaeufige Ergebnisse einer SPECT-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenstein, P.; Schober, O.; Lottes, G.; Boettger, I. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Ludolph, A. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie); Beer, H.F. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Wuerenlingen (Switzerland))

    1989-10-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-SPECT and SPECT with the {sup 123}I-labelled benzodiazepine (Bz) receptor ligand Ro 16-0154 were performed in 10 patients suffering from partial epilepsy, without cerebral lesion in MRT or CT.2 h p.i. of Ro 16-0154 the distribution of activity correlated with the known distribution of Bz-receptors in the human brain. Perfusion and receptor-binding were found decreased in 7 patients of each study in the suspicious brain-area. {sup 123}I-labelled Ro 16-0154 is suitable for Bz-receptor mapping by SPECT. The decrease of Bz-receptor binding in epileptic foci, as described in PET-studies, was also detected by SPECT in 7 of 10 patients. (orig.).

  18. T regulatory cells (TREG)(TCD4+CD25+FOXP3+) distribution in the different clinical forms of leprosy and reactional states*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, José Napoleão Tavares; Talhari, Carolina; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Massone, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy is characterized histologically by a spectrum of different granulomatous skin lesions, reflecting patients' immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae. Although CD4+CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells are pivotal in the immuneregulation, presence, frequency, and distribution of Tregs in leprosy, its reactional states have been investigated in few studies. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to verify the frequency and distribution of regulatory T cells in different clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy. METHODS We performed an immunohistochemical study on 96 leprosy cases [Indeterminate (I): 9 patients; tuberculoid tuberculoid: 13 patients; borderline tuberculoid: 26 patients; borderline borderline: 3 patients; borderline lepromatous: 8 patients; lepromatous lepromatous: 27 patients; reversal reaction: 8 patients; and erythema nodosum leprosum: 2 patients]. RESULTS FoxP3-positive cells were present in 100% of the cases with an average density of 2.82% of the infiltrate. Their distribution was not related to granulomatous structures or special locations. There was a statistically significant increment of FoxP3 expression in patients with leprosy reversal reactions when compared with patients presenting with type I leprosy (P= 0.0228); borderline tuberculoid leprosy (P = 0.0351) and lepromatous leprosy (P = 0.0344). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that Tregs play a relevant role in the etiopathogenesis of leprosy, mainly in type I leprosy reaction. PMID:25672298

  19. Distribution of D1 and D2-dopamine receptors in calcium-binding-protein expressing interneurons in rat anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Han

    2015-04-25

    Dopamine plays an important role in cognitive functions including decision making, attention, learning and memory in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, little is known about dopamine receptors (DAR) expression patterns in ACC neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the most abundant DAR subtypes, D1 receptors (D1Rs) and D2 receptors (D2Rs), in major types of GABAergic interneurons in rat ACC, including parvalbumin (PV)-, calretinin (CR)-, and calbindin D-28k (CB)-containing interneurons. Double immunofluorescence staining and confocal scanning were used to detect protein expression in rat brain sections. The results showed a high proportion of PV-containing interneurons express D1Rs and D2Rs, while a low proportion of CR-positive interneurons express D1Rs and D2Rs. D1R- and D2R-expressing PV interneurons are more prevalently distributed in deep layers than superficial layers of ACC. Moreover, we found the proportion of D2Rs expressed in CR cells is much greater than that of D1Rs. These regional and interneuron type-specific differences of D1Rs and D2Rs indicate functionally distinct roles for dopamine in modulating ACC activities via stimulating D1Rs and D2Rs.

  20. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  1. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... vocabulary of form. Even in cases in which teaching uses terms and phrases from everyday life (for instance, ‘intersection’), the meaning of the word cannot necessarily be transmitted directly from an ordinary vocabulary into a design context. And it is clearly a common issue for the contributions...

  2. Cellular distribution of the histamine H3 receptor in the basal ganglia : functional modulation of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission

    OpenAIRE

    González Sepúlveda, Marta; Rosell Vilar, Santi; Hoffmann, Hanne M.; Castillo Ruiz, Mª del Mar; Mignon, Virginie; Moreno Delgado, David; Vignes, Michel; Díaz, Jorge; Sabrià i Pau, Josefa; Ortiz de Pablo, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Basal ganglia. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Vol. 3 Núm. 2 (Jul. 2013) Histamine H3 receptors (H3R) are widely expressed in the ...

  3. Emotional stress induced by parachute jumping enhances blood nerve growth factor levels and the distribution of nerve growth factor receptors in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, L; Bracci-Laudiero, L; Alleva, E; Lambiase, A; Micera, A; Tirassa, P

    1994-10-25

    We examined the plasma nerve growth factor (NGF) level and the distribution of NGF receptors in peripheral lymphocytes of young soldiers (mean age, 20-24 yr) experiencing the thrill of a novice about to make their first parachute jumps. Blood was collected from soldiers who knew they were selected to jump (n = 26), as well as from soldiers who knew they were not selected (n = 17, controls). The former group was sampled the evening before the jump and 20 min after landing. Compared with controls, NGF levels increased 84% in prejump and 107% in postjump sampling. Our studies also showed that the increase of NGF levels preceded the increase of plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone. No changes in the baseline levels of circulating interleukin 1 beta or tumor necrosis factor were found, suggesting that the increased levels of NGF were not correlated with change in these cytokines. Moreover, immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that parachuting stress enhances the distribution of low-affinity p75LNGFR and high-affinity p140trkA NGF receptors in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the release of NGF might be involved in the activation of cells of the immune system and is most probably associated with homeostatic adaptive mechanisms, as previously shown for stressed rodents.

  4. Colocalization and shared distribution of endomorphins with substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and the mu opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, Thomas N; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Inglis, Fiona M; Zadina, James E

    2007-07-10

    The endomorphins are endogenous opioids with high affinity and selectivity for the mu opioid receptor (MOR, MOR-1, MOP). Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2); EM1) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2); EM2) have been localized to many regions of the central nervous system (CNS), including those that regulate antinociception, autonomic function, and reward. Colocalization or shared distribution (overlap) of two neurotransmitters, or a transmitter and its cognate receptor, may imply an interaction of these elements in the regulation of functions mediated in that region. For example, previous evidence of colocalization of EM2 with substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and MOR in primary afferent neurons suggested an interaction of these peptides in pain modulation. We therefore investigated the colocalization of EM1 and EM2 with SP, CGRP, and MOR in other areas of the CNS. EM2 was colocalized with SP and CGRP in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and with SP, CGRP and MOR in the parabrachial nucleus. Several areas in which EM1 and EM2 showed extensive shared distributions, but no detectable colocalization with other signaling molecules, are also described.

  5. Different distributions of the 5-HT reuptake complex and the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors in Brodmann areas and brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, Pilar; Arranz, Belén; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Oros, Miguel; San, Luis; Vallejo, Julio; Navarro, Miguel Angel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake complex and the 5-HT(2A) receptors through Brodmann areas from two control subjects, together with the possible existence of laterality between both brain hemispheres. A left laterality was observed in the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) binding sites, with significantly higher B(max) values in the left frontal and cingulate cortex. In frontal cortex, [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine binding showed the highest B(max) values in areas 25, 10 and 11. In cingulate cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) values were noted in Brodmann area 33 followed by area 24, while postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors were mainly distributed through Brodmann areas 23 and 29. In temporal cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) was noted in Brodmann areas 28 and 34, followed by areas 35 and 38. All Brodmann areas from parietal cortex (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 39, 40 and 43) showed similar presynaptic and postsynaptic binding values. In occipital cortex no differences were observed with regard to the brain hemisphere or to the Brodmann area (17, 18 and 19). These results suggest the need to carefully define the brain hemisphere and the Brodmann areas studied, as well to avoid comparisons between studies including different Brodmann areas or brain hemispheres.

  6. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and distribution of feline GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and resequencing of canine GnRHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylov, Alexandre M; Napier, India D; Morrison, Nancy E; Martin, Douglas R; Cox, Nancy R; Samoylova, Tatiana I

    2015-01-15

    GnRH receptors play vital roles in mammalian reproduction via regulation of gonadotropin secretion, which is essential for gametogenesis and production of gonadal steroids. GnRH receptors for more than 20 mammalian species have been sequenced, including human, mouse, and dog. This study reports the molecular cloning and sequencing of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) cDNA from the pituitary gland of the domestic cat, an important species in biomedical research. Feline GnRHR cDNA is composed of 981 nucleotides and encodes a 327 amino acid protein. Unlike the majority of mammalian species sequenced so far, but similar to canine GnRHR, feline GnRHR protein lacks asparagine in position three of the extracellular domain of the protein. At the amino acid level, feline GnRHR exhibits 95.1% identity with canine, 93.8% with human, and 88.9% with mouse GnRHR. Comparative sequence analysis of GnRHRs for multiple mammalian species led to resequencing of canine GnRHR, which differed from that previously published by a single base change that translates to a different amino acid in position 193. This single base change was confirmed in dogs of multiple breeds. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of GnRHR messenger RNA in different tissues from four normal cats indicated the presence of amplicons of varying lengths, including full-length as well as shortened GnRHR amplicons, pointing to the existence of truncated GnRHR transcripts in the domestic cat. This study is the first insight into molecular composition and expression of feline GnRHR and promotes better understanding of receptor organization, and distribution in various tissues of this species.

  7. Cerebral morphology and dopamine D2/D3 receptor distribution in humans: a combined [18F]fallypride and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Zald, David H; Ding, Zhaohua; Riccardi, Patrizia; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Cowan, Ronald L; Li, Rui; Kessler, Robert M

    2009-05-15

    The relationship between cerebral morphology and the expression of dopamine receptors has not been extensively studied in humans. Elucidation of such relationships may have important methodological implications for clinical studies of dopamine receptor ligand binding differences between control and patient groups. The association between cerebral morphology and dopamine receptor distribution was examined in 45 healthy subjects who completed T1-weighted structural MRI and PET scanning with the D(2)/D(3) ligand [(18)F]fallypride. Optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to create grey matter volume and density images. Grey matter volume and density images were correlated with binding potential (BP(ND)) images on a voxel-by-voxel basis using the Biological Parametric Mapping toolbox. Associations between cerebral morphology and BP(ND) were also examined for selected regions-of-interest (ROIs) after spatial normalization. Voxel-wise analyses indicated that grey matter volume and density positively correlated with BP(ND) throughout the midbrain, including the substantia nigra. Positive correlations were observed in medial cortical areas, including anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and circumscribed regions of the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. ROI analyses revealed significant positive correlations between BP(ND) and cerebral morphology in the caudate, thalamus, and amygdala. Few negative correlations between morphology and BP(ND) were observed. Overall, grey matter density appeared more strongly correlated with BP(ND) than grey matter volume. Cerebral morphology, particularly grey matter density, correlates with [(18)F]fallypride BP(ND) in a regionally specific manner. Clinical studies comparing dopamine receptor availability between clinical and control groups may benefit by accounting for potential differences in cerebral morphology that exist even after spatial normalization.

  8. Cholinergic neurons of the pelvic autonomic ganglia and uterus of the female rat: distribution of axons and presence of muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papka, R E; Traurig, H H; Schemann, M; Collins, J; Copelin, T; Wilson, K

    1999-05-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) stimulates contraction of the uterus and dilates the uterine arterial supply. Uterine cholinergic nerves arise from the paracervical ganglia and were, in the past, characterized based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. However, the histochemical reaction for acetylcholinesterase provides only indirect evidence of acetylcholine location and is a nonspecific marker for cholinergic nerves. The present study: (1) reevaluated cholinergic neurons of the paracervical ganglia, (2) examined the cholinergic innervation of the uterus by using retrograde axonal tracing and antibodies against molecules specific to cholinergic neurons, choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and (3) examined muscarinic receptors in the paracervical ganglia using autoradiography and a radiolabeled agonist. Most ganglionic neurons were choline acetyltransferase- and vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive and were apposed by choline acetyltransferase/vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive terminals. Retrograde tracing showed that some cholinergic neurons projected axons to the uterus. These nerves formed moderately dense plexuses in the myometrium, cervical smooth muscle and microarterial system of the uterine horns and cervix. Finally, the paracervical ganglia contain muscarinic receptors. These results clearly reveal the cholinergic innervation of the uterus and cervix, a source of these nerves, and demonstrate the muscarinic receptor content of the paracervical ganglia. Cholinergic nerves could play significant roles in the control of uterine myometrium and vasculature.

  9. XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of estrogen receptor 1 gene in females with idiopathic scoliosis: no association with occurrence or clinical form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Janusz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: XbaI single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (A/G rs934099 in estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1 was described to be associated with curve severity in Japanese idiopathic scoliosis (IS patients and in Chinese patients with both curve severity and predisposition to IS. PvuII SNP (C/T rs2234693 of ESR1 was described to be associated with the occurrence of IS in the Chinese population; however, two replication studies did not confirm the findings. The ESR1 SNPs have never been studied in Caucasian IS patients. METHODS: Case-control study. 287 females with IS underwent clinical, radiological and genetic examinations. The patients were divided into three groups according to curve progression velocity: non-progressive IS, slowly progressive IS (progression <1° per month, and rapidly progressive IS (progression ≥1° per month. The radiological maximum Cobb angle was measured and surgery rate established. A control group consisted of 182 healthy females. RESULTS: All results followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In the case-control study, genotype frequency in the patients did not differ for the XbaI (AA = 33.5%, AG = 49.1%, GG = 17.4%, nor for the PvuII (TT = 26.8%, TC = 50.2%, CC = 23.0% comparing to controls (AA = 33.5%, AG = 50.5%, GG = 15.9% and (TT = 23.1%, TC = 51.1%, CC = 25.8%, respectively, p = 0.3685, p = 0.6046. The haplotype frequency for the patients (AT = 47.1%, GC = 39.2%, AC = 8.9%, GT = 2.8% did not differ from the controls (AT = 44.8%, GC = 37.4%, AC = 14.0%, GT = 3.8%, p = 0.0645. No difference was found either in XbaI (p = 0.8671 or PvuII (p = 0.3601 allele distribution between the patients and the controls. In the case study, there was no significant difference in genotype frequency for the non-progressive, slowly progressive, and rapidly progressive scoliosis. No difference was found in genotype or haplotype distribution for

  10. NK1 receptor expression in the interstitial cells of Cajal and neurons and tachykinins distribution in rat ileum during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, M G; De Giorgio, R; Faussone-Pellegrini, M S

    1997-06-30

    The origin and function of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) that are located at the level of the deep muscular plexus (DMP) have not been completely identified. It has been recently reported that these cells express neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors to which substance P (SP) shows the highest affinity. Studies during pre- and postnatal life have demonstrated that ICCs are identifiable in the rat ileum soon after birth and already show adult features at 7 days of postnatal life. Several neurotransmitters have been identified at the DMP which appear at specific times during development. We have studied the expression of NK1 receptors by ICCs and enteric neurons and the timing of the appearance of SP in the DMP, myenteric plexus (MP) and submucous plexus (SMP) of rat ileum during development. Rats, aged from 18 days of fetal life to adulthood, were used. NK1 receptors and SP were identified by using NK1 polyclonal antibodies and tachykinin (SP/TK) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. NK1-immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in the ICCs immediately after birth and reached maximal intensity at 7 days. From birth, SP/TK-IR fibers originated from short excitatory neurons at the MP and reached the DMP at 1 week of postnatal life. NK1- and SP/TK-IR appeared in the MP neurons in the fetus and in the SMP neurons at weaning. The present study demonstrates that by the first days of postnatal life, the NK1-IR might be used as a marker of the ICCs at the DMP and suggests that these cells may participate in the actions exerted by tachykinins on muscle cells.

  11. Distribution of interleukin-1 receptor complex at the synaptic membrane driven by interleukin-1β and NMDA stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Marinovich Marina; Cattabeni Flaminio; Galli Corrado L; Corsini Emanuela; Zianni Elisa; Boraso Mariaserena; Gardoni Fabrizio; Di Luca Monica; Viviani Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to neuronal injury in various degenerative diseases, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. It exerts its biological effect by activating the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and recruiting a signalling core complex consisting of the myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) and the IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). This pathway has been clearly described in the peripheral immun...

  12. Combustion of Biosolids in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Part 1: Main Ash-Forming Elements and Ash Distribution with a Focus on Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This is the first in a series of three papers describing combustion of biosolids in a 5-kW bubbling fluidized bed, the ash chemistry, and possible application of the ash produced as a fertilizing agent. This part of the study aims to clarify whether the distribution of main ash forming elements from biosolids can be changed by modifying the fuel matrix, the crystalline compounds of which can be identified in the raw materials and what role the total composition may play for which compounds are formed during combustion. The biosolids were subjected to low-temperature ashing to investigate which crystalline compounds that were present in the raw materials. Combustion experiments of two different types of biosolids were conducted in a 5-kW benchscale bubbling fluidized bed at two different bed temperatures and with two different additives. The additives were chosen to investigate whether the addition of alkali (K2CO3) and alkaline-earth metal (CaCO3) would affect the speciation of phosphorus, so the molar ratios targeted in modified fuels were P:K = 1:1 and P:K:Ca = 1:1:1, respectively. After combustion the ash fractions were collected, the ash distribution was determined and the ash fractions were analyzed with regards to elemental composition (ICP-AES and SEM-EDS) and part of the bed ash was also analyzed qualitatively using XRD. There was no evidence of zeolites in the unmodified fuels, based on low-temperature ashing. During combustion, the biosolid pellets formed large bed ash particles, ash pellets, which contained most of the total ash content (54%–95% (w/w)). This ash fraction contained most of the phosphorus found in the ash and the only phosphate that was identified was a whitlockite, Ca9(K,Mg,Fe)(PO4)7, for all fuels and fuel mixtures. With the addition of potassium, cristobalite (SiO2) could no longer be identified via X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the bed ash particles and leucite (KAlSi2O6) was formed. Most of the alkaline-earth metals calcium and

  13. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  14. Robust expression of the human neonatal Fc receptor in a truncated soluble form and as a full-length membrane-bound protein in fusion with eGFP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Seijsing

    Full Text Available Studies on the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn have revealed a multitude of important functions in mammals, including protection of IgG and serum albumin (SA from lysosomal degradation. The pharmacokinetic behavior of therapeutic antibodies, IgG-Fc- and SA-containing drugs is therefore influenced by their interaction with FcRn. Pre-clinical development of such drugs is facilitated if their interaction with FcRn can be studied in vitro. For this reason we have developed a robust system for production of the soluble extracellular domain of human FcRn as well as the full-length receptor as fusion to green fluorescent protein, taking advantage of a lentivirus-based gene delivery system where stable over-expressing cells are easily and rapidly generated. Production of the extracellular domain in multiple-layered culture flasks, followed by affinity purification using immobilized IgG, resulted in capture of milligram amounts of soluble receptor per liter cell culture with retained IgG binding. The receptor was further characterized by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, circular dichroism spectroscopy, ELISA, surface plasmon resonance and a temperature stability assay showing a functional and stable protein of high purity. The full-length receptor was found to be successfully over-expressed in a membrane-bound form with retained pH-dependent IgG- and SA-binding.

  15. A liquid-helium-free superconducting coil system forming a flat minimum-magnetic-field distribution of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yoshida.kennichi71@jaea.go.jp; Nara, Takayuki; Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A flat distribution of the minimum magnetic field (flat-B{sub min}) of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is expected to perform better in highly charged ion production than classical B{sub min}. To form a flat-B{sub min} structure with a liquid helium-free superconducting device, a coil system of seven coils with four current leads has been designed. The lead number was reduced by connecting the plural coils in series to maintain the flat-B{sub min} structure even when the coil currents are changed for adjustment. This coil system can be operated with a helium-free cryostat, since the estimation of heat from the leads to the coils is nearly equivalent to the existing superconducting ECRIS of a similar type.

  16. 二项分布可靠度E-Bayes估计的性质%Properties of E-Bayesian Estimation for the Reliability Derived form Binomial Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明

    2013-01-01

    作者以前提出了一种新的参数估计方法——E-Bayes估计法,对二项分布的可靠度,给出了E-Bayes估计的定义、E-Bayes估计和多层Bayes估计公式,但没有给出E-Bayes估计的性质.该文给出了二项分布可靠度F-Bayes估计的性质.%Previously, the author introduces a new parameter estimation method-E-Bayesian estimation method, to estimate the reliability derived form Binomial distribution, the definition of E-Bayesian estimation of the reliability is provided; moreover, formulas of E-Bayesian estimation and hierarchical Bayesian estimation for the reliability are also provided, but the author did not provide propertiy of E-Bayesian estimation. This paper, properties of E-Bayesian estimation are provided.

  17. Neuroprotection by α2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation after Excitotoxic Retinal Injury: A Study of the Total Population of Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Distribution in the Chicken Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effect of α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation on the total excitotoxically injured chicken retinal ganglion cell population. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was intraocularly injected at embryonic day 18 and Brn3a positive retinal ganglion cells (Brn3a+ RGCs) were counted in flat-mounted retinas using automated routines. The number and distribution of the Brn3a+ RGCs were analyzed in series of normal retinas from embryonic day 8 to post-hatch day 11 retinas and in retinas 7 or 14 days post NMDA lesion. The total number of Brn3a+ RGCs in the post-hatch retina was approximately 1.9x106 with a density of approximately 9.2x103 cells/mm2. The isodensity maps of normal retina showed that the density decreased with age as the retinal size increased. In contrast to previous studies, we did not find any specific region with increased RGC density, rather the Brn3a+ RGCs were homogeneously distributed over the central retina with decreasing density in the periphery and in the region of the pecten oculli. Injection of 5–10 μg NMDA caused 30–50% loss of Brn3a+ cells and the loss was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina. Pretreatment with brimonidine reduced the loss of Brn3a+ cells both 7 and 14 days post lesion and the protective effect was higher in the dorsal than in the ventral retina. We conclude that α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation reduced the impact of the excitotoxic injury in chicken similarly to what has been shown in mammals. Furthermore, the data show that the RGCs are evenly distributed over in the retina, which challenges previous results that indicate the presence of specific high RGC-density regions of the chicken retina. PMID:27611432

  18. Isoproterenol disperses distribution of NADPH oxidase, MMP-9, and pPKCε in the heart, which are mitigated by endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusi CHENG; De-zai DAI; Yin DAI

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Spatial dispersion of bioactive substances in the myocardium could serve as pathological basis for arrhythmogenesis and cardiac impairment by β-adrenoceptor stimulation. We hypothesized that dispersed NADPH oxidase, protein kinase Cε (PKCε), early response gene (ERG), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) across the heart by isoproterenol (ISO) medication might be mediated by the endothelin (ET) - ROS pathway. We aimed to verify if ISO induced spatially heterogeneous distribution of pPKCε, NAPDH oxidase, MMP-9 and ERG could be mitigated by either an ET receptor antagonist CPU0213 or iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine.Methods: Rats were treated with ISO (1 mg/kg sc) for 10 days, and drug interventions (mg/kg) either CPU0213 (30 sc) or aminoguani-dine (100 ip) were administered on days 8-10. Expression of NADPH oxidase, MMP-9, ERG, and PKCε in the left and right ventricle (LV, RV) and septum (S) were measured separately.Results: Ventricular hypertrophy was found in the LV, S, and RV, in association with dispersed QTc and oxidative stress in ISO-treated rats. mRNA and protein expression of MMP-9, PKCε, NADPH oxidase and ERG in the LV, S, and RV were obviously dispersed, with aug-mented expression mainly in the LV and S. Dispersed parameters were re-harmonized by either CPU0213, or aminoguanidine. Conclusion: We found at the first time that ISO-induced dispersed distribution of pPKCε, NADPH oxidase, MMP-9, and ERG in the LV, S,and RV of the heart, which were suppressed by either CPU0213 or aminoguanidine. It indicates that the ET-ROS pathway plays a role in the dispersed distribution of bioactive substances following sustained β-receptor stimulation.

  19. Glutamine synthetase stability and subcellular distribution in astrocytes are regulated by γ-aminobutyric type B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Deborah; Nakamura, Yasuko; Terunuma, Miho; Faideau, Mathilde; Haydon, Philip; Pangalos, Menelas N; Moss, Stephen J

    2014-10-17

    Emerging evidence suggests that functional γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors (GABABRs) are expressed by astrocytes within the mammalian brain. GABABRs are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors that are composed of R1/R2 subunits. To date, they have been characterized in neurons as the principal mediators of sustained inhibitory signaling; however their roles in astrocytic physiology have been ill defined. Here we reveal that the cytoplasmic tail of the GABABR2 subunit binds directly to the astrocytic protein glutamine synthetase (GS) and that this interaction determines the subcellular localization of GS. We further demonstrate that the binding of GS to GABABR2 increases the steady state expression levels of GS in heterologous cells and in mouse primary astrocyte culture. Mechanistically this increased stability of GS in the presence of GABABR2 occurs via reduced proteasomal degradation. Collectively, our results suggest a novel role for GABABRs as regulators of GS stability. Given the critical role that GS plays in the glutamine-glutamate cycle, astrocytic GABABRs may play a critical role in supporting both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission.

  20. N- and C-terminally truncated forms of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are high-affinity competitive antagonists of the human GIP receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L S; Sparre-Ulrich, A H; Christensen, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) impacts lipid, bone, and glucose homeostasis. The GIP receptor belongs to G protein-coupled receptor family B1 and signals through GαS. High affinity ligands for in vivo use are needed to elucidate GIP's physiological...... functions and pharmacological potential. GIP(1-30)NH2 is a naturally occurring truncation of GIP(1-42). Here we characterize eight N-terminal trrncations of human GIP(1-30)NH2 : GIP(2- to 9-30)NH2 . EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with the human GIP receptor and assessed......, but superior antagonist GIP(3-30)NH2 , that together with GIP(5-30)NH2 were high-affinity competitive antagonist and thus may be suitable tool compounds for basic GIP research and future pharmacological interventions....

  1. $B\\to \\rho$ transition form factors within the QCD light-cone sum rules and the $\\rho$-meson leading-twist distribution amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Hai-Bing; Han, Hua-Yong; Ma, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The QCD light-cone sum rules (LCSR) provides an effective way for dealing with the heavy-to-light transition form factors (TFFs), whose non-perturbative dynamics are parameterized into the light-meson's light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) with various twist structures. By taking the chiral correlator as the starting point, we calculate the LCSRs for the $B\\to\\rho$ TFFs up to twist-4 accuracy. As for the TFFs at the large recoil region, we observe that the twist-2 transverse DA $\\phi_{2;\\rho}^\\bot$ provides the dominant contribution, while the contributions from the remaining twist-3 and twist-4 terms are $\\delta^2$-suppressed. Thus, our present improved LCSRs provides a good platform for testing the $\\phi_{2;\\rho}^\\bot$ behavior. For the purpose, we suggest a convenient WH-model for the $\\rho$-meson leading-twist wavefunction, in which the parameter $B_{2;\\rho}^\\bot\\sim a^\\bot_2$ dominantly controls its longitudinal distribution. Typically, its DA $\\phi_{2;\\rho}^\\bot$ is CZ-like as $B_{2;\\rho}^\\bot\\sim...

  2. Impact of the putative cancer stem cell markers and growth factor receptor expression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanenthiran, Soozana; Essapen, Sharadah; Seddon, Alan M.; Modjtahedi, Helmout

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression and activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 have been reported in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a large panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines (OCCLs) to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic drugs. The aim was to see if there was any association between the protein expression of various biomarkers including three putative ovarian cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD24, CD44, CD117/c-Kit), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and HER family members and response to treatment with these agents. The sensitivity of 10 ovarian tumour cell lines to the treatment with various forms of HER TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sapitinib, afatinib, canertinib, neratinib), as well as other TKIs (dasatinib, imatinib, NVP-AEW541, crizotinib) and cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin), as single agents or in combination, was determined by SRB assay. The effect on these agents on the cell cycle distribution, and downstream signaling molecules and tumour migration were determined using flow cytometry, western blotting, and the IncuCyte Clear View cell migration assay respectively. Of the HER inhibitors, the irreversible pan-TKIs (canertinib, neratinib and afatinib) were the most effective TKIs for inhibiting the growth of all ovarian cancer cells, and for blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR, HER-2, AKT and MAPK in SKOV3 cells. Interestingly, while the majority of cancer cells were highly sensitive to treatment with dasatinib, they were relatively resistant to treatment with imatinib (i.e., IC50 >10 μM). Of the cytotoxic agents, paclitaxel was the most effective for inhibiting the growth of OCCLs, and of various combinations of these drugs, only treatment with a combination of NVP-AEW541 and paclitaxel produced a synergistic or additive anti-proliferative effect in all three cell lines examined (i.e., SKOV3, Caov3, ES2

  3. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy for mapping nano-scale distribution of organic carbon forms in soil: Application to black carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Liang, Biqing; Solomon, Dawit; Lerotic, Mirna; LuizãO, Flavio; Kinyangi, James; SchäFer, Thorsten; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2005-03-01

    Small-scale heterogeneity of organic carbon (C) forms in soils is poorly quantified since appropriate analytical techniques were not available up to now. Specifically, tools for the identification of functional groups on the surface of micrometer-sized black C particles were not available up to now. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) using synchrotron radiation was used in conjunction with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate nano-scale distribution (50-nm resolution) of C forms in black C particles and compared to synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. A new embedding technique was developed that did not build on a C-based embedding medium and did not pose the risk of heat damage to the sample. Elemental sulfur (S) was melted to 220°C until it polymerized and quenched with liquid N2 to obtain a very viscous plastic S in which the black C could be embedded until it hardened to a noncrystalline state and was ultrasectioned. Principal component and cluster analysis followed by singular value decomposition was able to resolve distinct areas in a black carbon particle. The core of the studied biomass-derived black C particles was highly aromatic even after thousands of years of exposure in soil and resembled the spectral characteristics of fresh charcoal. Surrounding this core and on the surface of the black C particle, however, much larger proportions of carboxylic and phenolic C forms were identified that were spatially and structurally distinct from the core of the particle. Cluster analysis provided evidence for both oxidation of the black C particle itself as well as adsorption of non-black C. NEXAFS spectroscopy has great potential to allow new insight into black C properties with important implications for biogeochemical cycles such as mineralization of black C in soils and sediments, and adsorption of C, nutrients, and pollutants as well as transport in the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

  4. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  5. Variation in the coding and 3’ untranslated regions of the porcine prolactin receptor short form modifies protein expression and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The actions of prolactin (PRL) are mediated by both long (LF) and short isoforms (SF) of the PRL receptor (PRLR). Here, we report on a genetic and functional analysis of the porcine PRLR (pPRLR) SF. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 11 of the pPRLR-SF give rise to four amino a...

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the new non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy) propyl]piperidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafarz, Malgorzata; Kryczyk, Agata; Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Wyska, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of novel histamine H3 receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (compound DL76). 2. Following intravenous administration of DL76 at the dose of 3 mg/kg, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. The systemic serum clearance was 10.08 L/h/kg and the estimated blood clearance was 5.64 L/h/kg. The volume of distribution at steady state was 16.1 L/kg which was greater than total body water, terminal half-life and MRT equalled 1.41 h and 1.6 h, respectively. The two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with enterohepatic circulation was also successfully fitted to the experimental data. 3. After systemic administration, DL76 was rapidly distributed into all organs studied (liver, kidney, brain, and lung). The highest AUC of DL76 was observed in lungs followed by brain, where the exposure to the investigated compound expressed as AUC was almost 30 times higher than in serum. 4. Bioavailability, calculated based on the area-under-the-concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity after intravenous and intragastric administration of the dose 3 mg/kg, equalled 60.9%.

  7. Distribution and genotype frequency of the C1431T and pro12ala polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma gene in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooki, Hassan; Haerian, Monir-Sadat; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Mirhafez, Reza; Ferns, Gordon; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Zali, Mohammad-Reza

    2013-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear transcription factor regulating multiple genes involved in cell growth, differentiation, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and energy production. Several genetic variations in the PPARγ gene have been identified to be associated with diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The present study was designed to explore the distribution of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the PPARγ gene (C1431T and Pro12Ala) in an Iranian population. Genotype frequencies for these two polymorphisms were compared for 160 healthy Iranian individuals with reports from other populations. The Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The genotype distribution of the C1431T PPARγ polymorphism was 0.869 for the CC genotype, 0.119 for the CT genotype and 0.013 for uncommon TT genotype. Allelic frequencies were 0.93 for C and 0.07 for T allele respectively. For the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARγ gene, genotypic distributions and allelic frequencies were, 0.813 for CC, 0.181 for CG and 0.06 for GG and 0.903 for C and 0.097 for G respectively. Allelic and genotypic frequencies for both polymorphisms of PPARγ gene were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Iran is a country with an ethnically diverse population and a comparison of allelic and genotypic frequencies of PPARγ C1431T and Pro12Ala polymorphisms between our population and others showed significant differences.

  8. In vitro effects of genistein on the synthesis and distribution of glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans by estrogen receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulou, Theoni N; Tzanakakis, George N; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2002-01-01

    Genistein, a soy isoflavone, affects the proliferation of both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative cancer cells. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/proteoglycans (PGs) are considered to be of great importance in the treatment of cancer. The synthesis of GAGs by two human breast cancer epithelial cell lines, the ER-positive MCF-7 and the ER-negative BT-20, was studied under the effects of genistein, and their distribution in the culture medium and the cell membranes was determined. The results obtained show that both cell lines synthesize extracellular hyaluronic acid (HA) and both extracellular and cell-associated galactosaminoglycans (GalAGs) and heparan sulphate (HS). The MCF-7 cell line synthesizes HA, GalAGs and HS at considerably lower rates than the BT-20 cell line. The effect of genistein on the synthesis of extracellularly secreted GAGs/PGs by ER-positive MCF-7 cells is dose-dependent and follows two mechanisms; one at low concentrations (BT-20 cells is mediated by a PTK mechanism. It is concluded that genistein affects the synthesis of GAGs/PGs, by breast cancer epithelial cells depending on the presence or absence of estrogen receptor and the localisation of PGs.

  9. Distribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 A-2518G) and chemokine receptor (CCR2-V64Ι) gene variants in hyperbilirubinemic newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narter, Fatma; Bireller, Elif Sinem; Engin, Can; Catmakas, Tolga; Narter, Fehmi; Ergen, Arzu; Cakmakoglu, Bedia

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most crucial syndromes, which is characterized by high levels of bilirubin, especially when it occurs in newborns. Bilirubin has cytoprotective properties with an antioxidant function and plays several major roles in the inflammation process with its members such as chemokines. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the C-C chemokine family and it has been associated with the inflammatory process. There are no data on the chemokine and its receptor genotypes in hyperbilirubinemic newborns to show their distribution. The aim of this study is to investigate the genotypic relationship of MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2-V64Ι with hyperbilirubinemia in Turkish newborns. A total of 85 newborns were included in the study: 20 infants with hyperbilirubinemia (hyperbilirubinemic group) and 65 infants without hyperbilirubinemia (non-hyperbilirubinemic group). Genotyping of MCP-1 A-2518G and CCR2-V64Ι gene polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP, respectively. MCP-1 GG genotype in patients was higher than the controls and this genotype had 2.69 times higher risk for hyperbilirubinemic neonates (P: 0.20). The frequency of MCP-1 A-2518G G+ genotype in patients was higher than the controls (55.0% and 38.5%, respectively). The results of our preliminary study suggest that MCP-1 G+ genotype has the ability to increase the hyperbilirubinemia risk of newborns. These results should be focused on to research on a larger scale to confirm the findings.

  10. Generation of a Potent Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Antagonist by Engineering a Stable Form of the Receptor-associated Protein (RAP) D3 Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Joni M; Migliorini, Mary; Galisteo, Rebeca; Strickland, Dudley K

    2015-07-10

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family and plays important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Expression of LRP1 requires the receptor-associated protein (RAP), a molecular chaperone that binds LRP1 and other low density lipoprotein receptor family members in the endoplasmic reticulum and traffics with them to the Golgi where the acidic environment causes its dissociation. Exogenously added RAP is a potent LRP1 antagonist and binds to LRP1 on the cell surface, preventing ligands from binding. Following endocytosis, RAP dissociates in the acidic endosome, allowing LRP1 to recycle back to the cell surface. The acid-induced dissociation of RAP is mediated by its D3 domain, a relatively unstable three-helical bundle that denatures at pH RAP D3 domain. By combining this disulfide bond with elimination of key histidine residues, we generated a stable RAP molecule that is resistant to both pH- and heat-induced denaturation. This molecule bound to LRP1 with high affinity at both neutral and acidic pH and proved to be a potent inhibitor of LRP1 function both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that our stable RAP molecule may be useful in multiple pathological settings where LRP1 blockade has been shown to be effective. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Generation of a Potent Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 (LRP1) Antagonist by Engineering a Stable Form of the Receptor-associated Protein (RAP) D3 Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Joni M.; Migliorini, Mary; Galisteo, Rebeca; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2015-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family and plays important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Expression of LRP1 requires the receptor-associated protein (RAP), a molecular chaperone that binds LRP1 and other low density lipoprotein receptor family members in the endoplasmic reticulum and traffics with them to the Golgi where the acidic environment causes its dissociation. Exogenously added RAP is a potent LRP1 antagonist and binds to LRP1 on the cell surface, preventing ligands from binding. Following endocytosis, RAP dissociates in the acidic endosome, allowing LRP1 to recycle back to the cell surface. The acid-induced dissociation of RAP is mediated by its D3 domain, a relatively unstable three-helical bundle that denatures at pH RAP D3 domain. By combining this disulfide bond with elimination of key histidine residues, we generated a stable RAP molecule that is resistant to both pH- and heat-induced denaturation. This molecule bound to LRP1 with high affinity at both neutral and acidic pH and proved to be a potent inhibitor of LRP1 function both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that our stable RAP molecule may be useful in multiple pathological settings where LRP1 blockade has been shown to be effective. PMID:26013822

  12. Distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor proteins in the fetal and postnatal hippocampus and cerebellum of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieni, Sandra; Rees, Sandra

    2002-12-16

    This study investigates the distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, during the development of hippocampus and cerebellum in a long-gestation species, the guinea pig. In the granule cell populations of both structures, BDNF immunoreactivity (-IR) was exclusive to postmigratory, mature neurons. In dentate granule cells, TrkB-IR was coexpressed with BDNF-IR, suggesting that the ligand-receptor interaction could occur by means of an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. In cerebellar granule cells, TrkB-IR was detected in both pre- and postmigratory cells, indicating that immature neurons are also BDNF-responsive. With advancing gestational age an increase in the intensity of BDNF-IR in granule cells was accompanied by concomitant increases in the staining and areal growth of the associated mossy fiber layer in the hippocampus, and the molecular layer in the cerebellum. The developmental increase in BDNF- and TrkB-IR in the neuropil of both structures coincided with periods of significant growth in all strata, indicating a role for BDNF and TrkB in process outgrowth. In the hippocampus, CA2, CA3, and hilar, neurons demonstrated both BDNF- and TrkB-IR during development and maturation, whereas CA1 neurons showed TrkB-IR throughout this period but only transient BDNF-IR in early gestation. In the fetal cerebellum, Purkinje cell bodies coexpressed BDNF-IR and TrkB-IR. In the postnatal period, BDNF-IR was down-regulated but TrkB-IR persisted, indicating that mature Purkinje cells might retain their responsiveness to BDNF. Thus, we have demonstrated in both the hippocampus and cerebellum that the spatiotemporal distribution of BDNF-IR and TrkB-IR coincides with the maturation of granule cells prenatally and with significant periods of neuropil growth, both prenatally and in the immediate postnatal period.

  13. Sex differences in subcellular distribution of delta opioid receptors in the rat hippocampus in response to acute and chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoara Mazid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs. Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS, the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes. The CA3b region and the dentate hilus of the dorsal hippocampus were quantitatively analyzed by light microscopy using DOR immunoperoxidase or dual label electron microscopy for DOR using silver intensified immunogold particles (SIG and GABA using immunoperoxidase. At baseline, females compared to males had more DORs near the plasmalemma of pyramidal cell dendrites and about 3 times more DOR-labeled CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers. In AIS females, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in GABAergic hilar dendrites. However, in AIS males, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in CA3 pyramidal cell and hilar GABAergic dendrites and the percentage of CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers increased to about half that seen in unstressed females. Conversely, after CIS, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in hilar GABA-labeled dendrites of females whereas in males plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in CA3 pyramidal cell dendrites and near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased hilar GABA-labeled dendrites. As CIS in females, but not males, redistributed DOR-SIGs near the plasmalemmal of hilar GABAergic dendrites, a subsequent experiment examined the acute affect of oxycodone on the redistribution of DOR-SIGs in a separate cohort of CIS females. Plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs were significantly elevated on hilar

  14. Sex differences in subcellular distribution of delta opioid receptors in the rat hippocampus in response to acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazid, Sanoara; Hall, Baila S; Odell, Shannon C; Stafford, Khalifa; Dyer, Andreina D; Van Kempen, Tracey A; Selegean, Jane; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M; Milner, Teresa A

    2016-12-01

    Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs). Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS) or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS), the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes. The CA3b region and the dentate hilus of the dorsal hippocampus were quantitatively analyzed by light microscopy using DOR immunoperoxidase or dual label electron microscopy for DOR using silver intensified immunogold particles (SIG) and GABA using immunoperoxidase. At baseline, females compared to males had more DORs near the plasmalemma of pyramidal cell dendrites and about 3 times more DOR-labeled CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers. In AIS females, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in GABAergic hilar dendrites. However, in AIS males, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in CA3 pyramidal cell and hilar GABAergic dendrites and the percentage of CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers increased to about half that seen in unstressed females. Conversely, after CIS, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in hilar GABA-labeled dendrites of females whereas in males plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in CA3 pyramidal cell dendrites and near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased hilar GABA-labeled dendrites. As CIS in females, but not males, redistributed DOR-SIGs near the plasmalemmal of hilar GABAergic dendrites, a subsequent experiment examined the acute affect of oxycodone on the redistribution of DOR-SIGs in a separate cohort of CIS females. Plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs were significantly elevated on hilar interneuron

  15. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: Enhanced bromate formation in the presence ofsynthetic metal oxides and deposits formed indrinking water distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2013-09-01

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate>>sulfate>bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: enhanced bromate formation in the presence of synthetic metal oxides and deposits formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2013-09-15

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate > sulfate > bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution and its influencing factors ofbloom-forming cyanobacteria in Poyang Lake%鄱阳湖蓝藻分布及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱奎梅; 刘霞; 段明; 陈宇炜

    2016-01-01

    The field monitoring data was used to analyze the distribution and its influencing factors of bloom-forming cyanobacteria and explore the sourceof bloom-forming cyanobacteria in Poyang Lake. It resulted that diatoms was dominant in Poyang Lake, cyanobacteria was sub-dominant, and there is a rising trend of the proportion of cyanobacteria in the composition of phytoplankton. The dominant species of cyanobacteria wereAnabaenaSp.,MicrocystisSp. and Planktonic Lansi. The basic law of the formation of cyanobacterial blooms at the initial stage was that cyanobacteria grow and distributed in the lentic regions with relatively high nutrient concentrations and slow flow, and then transported and gathered in the main channel under stress of flow and wind in summer and autumn in Poyang Lake. Combined with hydrologic characteristics, cyanobacteria aggregates floating in the surface of main channel in Poyang Lake was the combined effects of other four upstream regions. It can provide the basic data and information for the prevention and control of cyanobacteria blooms.%利用鄱阳湖的原位监测数据,分析鄱阳湖水华蓝藻的分布现状及其影响因素,探索鄱阳湖水华蓝藻的源头。研究结果表明,鄱阳湖浮游植物的优势种为硅藻,蓝藻为鄱阳湖的次级优势种,蓝藻在浮游植物总生物量的比例有逐年增加的趋势。水华蓝藻的主要优势种为鱼腥藻,其次为微囊藻和浮游蓝丝藻。鄱阳湖蓝藻水华形成初期的基本规律为水华蓝藻在营养盐浓度相对较高且水流较缓的内湾及尾闾区生长分布,在夏秋季水位较高时在水流和风的作用下向主航道输移聚集。结合鄱阳湖水文特点,主航道的水华蓝藻聚集有可能是上游四个湖区的蓝藻向下游漂移综合作用的结果。研究成果可为控制鄱阳蓝藻水华区域风险灾害提供基础数据。

  18. Opposing Roles of Membrane and Soluble Forms of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory pathogen in infants and the older population, causes pulmonary inflammation and airway occlusion that leads to impairment of lung function. Here, we have established a role for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in RSV infection. RAGE-deficient (ager−/− ) mice were protected from RSV-induced weight loss and inflammation. This protection correlated with an early increase in type I interferons, later decreases in proinflam...

  19. Distribution of neurotransmitter receptors and zinc in the pigeon (Columba livia) hippocampal formation: A basis for further comparison with the mammalian hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christina; Bingman, Verner P; Ströckens, Felix; Letzner, Sara; Sauvage, Magdalena; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl; Güntürkün, Onur

    2014-08-01

    The avian hippocampal formation (HF) and mammalian hippocampus share a similar functional role in spatial cognition, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms allowing the functional similarity are incompletely understood. To understand better the organization of the avian HF and its transmitter receptors, we analyzed binding site densities for glutamatergic AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors; GABAA receptors; muscarinic M1 , M2 and nicotinic (nACh) acetylcholine receptors; noradrenergic α1 and α2 receptors; serotonergic 5-HT1A receptors; dopaminergic D1/5 receptors by using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Additionally, we performed a modified Timm staining procedure to label zinc. The regionally different receptor densities mapped well onto seven HF subdivisions previously described. Several differences in receptor expression highlighted distinct HF subdivisions. Notable examples include 1) high GABAA and α1 receptor expression, which rendered distinctive ventral subdivisions; 2) high α2 receptor expression, which rendered distinctive a dorsomedial subdivision; 3) distinct kainate, α2 , and muscarinic receptor densities that rendered distinctive the two dorsolateral subdivisions; and 4) a dorsomedial region characterized by high kainate receptor density. We further observed similarities in receptor binding densities between subdivisions of the avian and mammalian HF. Despite the similarities, we propose that 300 hundred million years of independent evolution has led to a mosaic of similarities and differences in the organization of the avian HF and mammalian hippocampus and that thinking about the avian HF in terms of the strict organization of the mammalian hippocampus is likely insufficient to understand the HF of birds.

  20. NEW DATA ABOUT COMPOSITION, GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND POSSIBLE WAYS OF FORMING OF DARKLING BEETLES FAUNA (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN PERI-CASPIAN AND ISLAND CASPIAN ECOSYSTEMS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim is study of biological diversity of the Caspian coasts and islands ecosystems, the composition, especially geographical distribution and possible ways of forming of darkling beetles fauna (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand collecting, soil traps, light traps, processing and material definition. List discussed tenebrionid fauna is composed using Abdurakhmanov and Medvedev (1994, Abdurakhmanov and Nabozhenko (2011.Results. The paper includes a comparative analysis of darkling beetles (341 species of 17 regions of 5 Caspian countries. Diversity of Tenebrionidae of the Caspian islands Chechen (32 species, Tyuleniy (29 species, Nordovyi (24 species, Kulaly (16 species is discussed for the first time. Faunistic base of discussed ecosystems includes species with turanian (sensu lato, 204 species, steppe (42 species, caucasian (30 species, including subendemics of the Caucasus, mediterranean (19 species, western asian (17 species biogeographic complexes with background of widespread euro-siberian, transpalearctic, paleotropical species. Сonnections and relations of regional and island faunas are discussed.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the coastal level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  1. Effects of Different Forms of Selenium Fertilizers on Se Accumulation, Distribution, and Residual Effect in Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Yu, Yao; Li, Jixiang; Wan, Yanan; Huang, Qingqing; Guo, Yanbin; Li, Huafen

    2017-02-15

    Foliar Se fertilizers were applied to investigate the effects of Se forms on Se accumulation and distribution in the wheat-maize rotation system and residual concentration of Se in subsequent crops. Sodium selenite, sodium selenate, selenomethionine, chemical nano-Se, humic acid + sodium selenite, and compound fertilizer + sodium selenite were applied once at the flowering stage of wheat (30 g ha(-1)) and at the bell stage of maize (60 g ha(-1)). Compared with the control treatment, foliar Se applications significant increased the grain Se concentration of wheat and maize by 0.02-0.31 and 0.07-1.09 mg kg(-1), respectively. Wheat and maize grain Se recoveries were 3.0-10.4 and 4.1-18.5%, respectively. However, Se concentrations in the grain of subsequent wheat and maize significantly decreased by 77.9 and 91.2%, respectively. The change of Se concentration in soil was a dynamic process with Se depletion after harvest of maize.

  2. Excitation energy dependence of fragment-mass distributions from fission of 180,190Hg formed in fusion reactions of 36Ar + 144,154Sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass distributions of fission fragments from the compound nuclei 180Hg and 190Hg formed in fusion reactions 36Ar + 144Sm and 36Ar + 154Sm, respectively, were measured at initial excitation energies of E⁎(Hg180=33–66 MeV and E⁎(Hg190=48–71 MeV. In the fission of 180Hg, the mass spectra were well reproduced by assuming only an asymmetric-mass division, with most probable light and heavy fragment masses A¯L/A¯H=79/101. The mass asymmetry for 180Hg agrees well with that obtained in the low-energy β+/EC-delayed fission of 180Tl, from our earlier ISOLDE(CERN experiment. Fission of 190Hg is found to proceed in a similar way, delivering the mass asymmetry of A¯L/A¯H=83/107, throughout the measured excitation energy range. The persistence as a function of excitation energy of the mass-asymmetric fission for both proton-rich Hg isotopes gives strong evidence for the survival of microscopic effects up to effective excitation energies of compound nuclei as high as 40 MeV. This behavior is different from fission of actinide nuclei and heavier mercury isotope 198Hg.

  3. Effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist treatment on elemental and biomolecular content and distribution in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, J.; Gajda, M.; Jawień, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Appel, K.; Dumas, P.

    2013-12-01

    Gene-targeted apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice display early and highly progressive vascular lesions containing lipid deposits and they became a reliable animal model to study atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist on the distribution of selected pro- and anti- inflammatory elements as well as biomolecules in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared (micro-FTIR) microspectroscopies were applied. Two-month-old apoE-KO mice were fed for following four months diet supplemented with AVE 0991 (0.58 μmol/kg b.w. per day). Histological sections of ascending aortas were analyzed spectroscopically. The distribution of P, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to correspond with histological structure of the lesion. Significantly lower contents of P, Ca, Zn and significantly higher content of Fe were observed in animals treated with AVE 0991. Biomolecular analysis showed lower lipids saturation level and lower lipid to protein ratio in AVE 0991 treated group. Protein secondary structure was studied according to the composition of amide I band (1660 cm-1) and it demonstrated higher proportion of β-sheet structure as compared to α-helix in both studied groups.

  4. Distribution of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 in medaka (Oryzias latipes): cues to the definition of homologous cell groups in the vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, M; Bourrat, F; Vernier, P

    2001-03-12

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 has been extensively studied in mammals and shown to contribute to the differentiation of several cell phenotypes in the nervous and endocrine systems. In this study, the gene homologous to the mammalian Nurr1 (NR4A2) was isolated in the teleost fish medaka (Oryzias latipes), and the distribution of its transcripts was analyzed within brains of embryos and adults. Nurr1 has a widespread distribution in the medaka brain. Large amounts of Nurr1 transcripts were found in the intermediate nucleus of the ventral telencephalon, preoptic magnocellular nucleus, ventral habenula, nucleus of the periventricular posterior tuberculum, and nuclei of glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. To search for homologous cell groups between teleost fish and tetrapods brains, the co-localization of Nurr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) transcripts was analyzed. Neither Nurr1 nor TH expression was detected in the ventral midbrain, but both transcripts were present in the periventricular nucleus of the posterior tuberculum. This observation supports the hypothesis that this nucleus is homologous to dopaminergic mesencephalic nuclei of mammals. The presence of Nurr1 in the preoptic magnocellular nucleus of medaka and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of mammals reinforces the hypothesis of homology between these areas. TH and Nurr1 transcripts are also co-localized, among others, in the nucleus of the paraventricular organ and nucleus of the vagus nerve. This work suggests that the differentiating role of Nurr1 in the central nervous system is conserved in gnathostomes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a coastal receptor site in Hong Kong – Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Bian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here one-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium and oxalate at a coastal suburban receptor site in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size segregated samples in the size range of 0.056–18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD in the range of ~0.7–0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/[Na+] + 2[Ca2+] × (1/Ke'. The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined datasets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor site, especially on high sulfate days, while local formation processes

  6. Expression and distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A/B in anterior thalamic nuclei and hippocampus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Fan; Xiaokai Ma; Bin Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies have demonstrated the localization of various N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) subunits in certain brain regions of mammals. These studies indicate that NMDAR are widespread in mammal brains, especially in cerebral cortex and hippocam pus.OBJECTIVE: To validate whether or not the NMDAR 2A/B localizes in rat anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and hippocampus, and observe its expression and distribution characteristics. DESIGN: Controlled study.SETTING: Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medicine, Dalian Medical University. MATERIALS: Ten adult Sprague-Dawley rats of either gender, weighing 180-250 g, of clean grade, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center, Dalian Medical University. Rabbit polyclonal antibody to NMDAR 2A/B was the product of Chemicon Company.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medicine, Dalian Medical University from September 2005 to May 2006. The anesthetized SD rats were transcardially perfused with 100 mL phosphate buffer solution, then perfused with paraformaldehyde through ascending aorta. After 30 minutes, their brains were harvested and post-fixed in PFA at 4 ℃ overnight. Hippocampal and anterior thalamic nuclear tissues were sliced in the coronal plane at 40 μm. The sections were stained by immunohistochemical ABC method, visualized by DAB, dehydrated routinely, performed transparence and coverslipped. Expression and distribution of NMDAR 2A/B in ATN and hippocampus of rats were observed under an optical microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution and expression of NMDAR 2A/B in ATN and hippocampus of rats, RESULTS: NMDAR 2A/B positive neurons localized in ATN, pyramidal layer of hippocampus and granular layer of dentate gyrus in a compact and orderly pattern, and immunostained intensely. NMDAR 2A/B receptor positive neurons scattered with lower intensity of immunolabeling in other regions of

  7. Characterization in vitro of a human tumor necrosis factor-binding protein. A soluble form of a tumor necrosis factor receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Lantz, M.; Gullberg, U; Nilsson, E; OLSSON, I.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic mediator of inflammatory responses. A cysteine-rich, highly glycosylated 30-kD TNF-binding protein (TNF-BP) purified from urine may have a role in regulation because it protects in vitro against the biological effects of TNF. The cytotoxic effect of TNF on the fibrosarcoma cell line WEHI 164 was inhibited by 50% at a 10-fold excess of TNF-BP. The binding of TNF to the receptor was partially reversed after the addition of TNF-BP. Results from biosyn...

  8. Differential coupling of Arg- and Gly389 polymorphic forms of the β1-adrenergic receptor leads to pathogenic cardiac gene regulatory programs

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR; ADRB1) polymorphism Arg389Gly is located in an intracellular loop and is associated with distinct human and mouse cardiovascular phenotypes. To test the hypothesis that β1-Arg389 and β1-Gly389 alleles could differentially couple to pathways beyond that of classic Gs-adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP signaling, we performed comparative gene expression profile analyses on hearts from wild-type and transgenic mice that expressed either human β1-Arg389 or β1-Gly389 rece...

  9. Kinetic interaction analysis of human interleukin 5 receptor alpha mutants reveals a unique binding topology and charge distribution for cytokine recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Tetsuya; Pasut, Gianfranco; Scibek, Jeffery; Chaiken, Irwin

    2004-03-05

    Human interleukin 5 receptor alpha (IL5Ralpha) comprises three fibronectin type III domains (D1, D2, and D3) in the extracellular region. Previous results have indicated that residues in the D1D2 domains are crucial for high affinity interaction with human interleukin 5 (IL5). Yet, it is the D2D3 domains that have sequence homology with the classic cytokine recognition motif that is generally assumed to be the minimum cytokine-recognizing unit. In the present study, we used kinetic interaction analysis of alanine-scanning mutational variants of IL5Ralpha to define the residues involved in IL5 recognition. Soluble forms of IL5Ralpha variants were expressed in S2 cells, selectively captured via their C-terminal V5 tag by anti-V5 tag antibody immobilized onto the sensor chip and examined for IL5 interaction by using a sandwich surface plasmon resonance biosensor method. Marked effects on the interaction kinetics were observed not only in D1 (Asp(55), Asp(56), and Glu(58)) and D2 (Lys(186) and Arg(188)) domains, but also in the D3 (Arg(297)) domain. Modeling of the tertiary structure of IL5Ralpha indicated that these binding residues fell into two clusters. The first cluster consists of D1 domain residues that form a negatively charged patch, whereas the second cluster consists of residues that form a positively charged patch at the interface of D2 and D3 domains. These results suggest that the IL5 x IL5Ralpha system adopts a unique binding topology, in which the cytokine is recognized by a D2D3 tandem domain combined with a D1 domain, to form an extended cytokine recognition interface.

  10. Lipoxin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Romano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxins (LXs represent a class of arachidonic acid (AA metabolites that carry potent immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, LXA4 and LXB4 being the main components of this series. LXs are generated by cooperation between 5-lipoxygenase (LO and 12- or 15-LO during cell-cell interactions or by single cell types. LX epimers at carbon 15, the 15-epi-LXs, are formed by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in cooperation with 5-LO. 15-epi-LXA4 is also termed aspirin-triggered LX (ATL. In vivo studies with stable LX and ATL analogs have established that these eicosanoids possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. A LXA4 receptor has been cloned. It belongs to the family of chemotactic receptors and clusters with formyl peptide receptors on chromosome 19. Therefore, it was initially denominated formyl peptide receptor like 1 (FPRL1. This receptor binds with high affinity and stereoselectivity LXA4 and ATL. It also recognizes a variety of peptides, synthetic, endogenously generated, or disease associated, but with lower affinity compared to LXA4. For this reason, this receptor has been renamed ALX. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ALX expression, signaling, and potential pathophysiological role. The involvement of additional recognition sites in LX bioactions is also discussed.

  11. Differences in lipid distribution and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and lipoprotein lipase genes in torafugu and red seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Gen; Yamada, Toshihiro; Han, Yuna; Hirano, Yuki; Khieokhajonkhet, Anurak; Shirakami, Hirohito; Nagasaka, Reiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-04-01

    Lipid content is one of the major determinants of the meat quality in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying the species-specific distribution of lipid are still poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms associated with lipid accumulation in two species of fish: torafugu (a puffer fish) and red seabream. The lipid content of liver and carcass were 67.0% and 0.8% for torafugu, respectively, and 8.8% and 7.3% for red seabream, respectively. Visceral adipose tissue was only apparent in the red seabream and accounted for 73.3% of its total lipid content. Oil red O staining confirmed this species-specific lipid distribution, and further demonstrated that the lipid in the skeletal muscle of the red seabream was mainly localized in the myosepta. We subsequently cloned cDNAs from torafugu encoding lipoprotein lipase 1 (LPL1) and LPL2, important enzymes for the uptake of lipids from blood circulation system into various tissues. The relative mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the LPLs of torafugu were determined by quantitative real-time PCR together with their counterparts in red seabream previously reported. The relative mRNA levels of PPARγ and LPL1 correlated closely to the lipid distribution of both fish, being significantly higher in liver than skeletal muscle in torafugu, whereas the highest in the adipose tissue, followed by liver and skeletal muscle in red seabream. However, the relative mRNA levels of LPL2 were tenfold lower than LPL1 in both species and only correlated to lipid distribution in torafugu, suggesting that LPL2 has only a minor role in lipid accumulation. In situ hybridization revealed that the transcripts of LPL1 co-localized with lipids in the adipocytes located along the myosepta of the skeletal muscle of red seabream. These results suggest that the transcriptional regulation of PPARγ and LPL1 is responsible for the species-specific lipid distribution of torafugu

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIGMA-1 RECEPTOR IN C-TERMINALS OF MOTONEURONS AND COLOCALIZATION WITH THE N,N’-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE FORMING ENZYME, INDOLE-N-METHYL TRANSFERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles L.; Liu, Patricia; Verbny, Yakov I.; Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that Indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and SIRs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  13. Development of the sigma-1 receptor in C-terminals of motoneurons and colocalization with the N,N'-dimethyltryptamine forming enzyme, indole-N-methyl transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, T A; Epstein, M L; Liu, P; Verbny, Y I; Ziskind-Conhaim, L; Ruoho, A E

    2012-03-29

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS, the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and S1Rs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Distribution of aromatase and sex steroid receptors in the baculum during the rat life cycle: effects of estrogen during the early development of the baculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Higashi, Mayuko; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-ichiro

    2011-07-01

    The baculum, also called os penis, plays an important role during copulation. However, the hormonal regulation of its development remains to be elucidated. To determine the direct involvement of sex steroids in the development of the baculum of rats, t