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Sample records for forming stacking interactions

  1. A 3D network of helicates fully assembled by pi-stacking interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Miguel; Taglietti, Angelo; Gatteschi, Dante; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sangregorio, Claudio; González, Ana M; Maneiro, Marcelino; Pedrido, Rosa M; Bermejo, Manuel R

    2003-08-07

    The neutral dinuclear dihelicate [Cu2(L)2] x 2CH3CN (1) forms a unique 3D network in the solid state due to pi-stacking interactions, which are responsible for intermolecular antiferromagnetic coupling between Cu(II) ions.

  2. Chemical forms and discharge ratios to stack and sea of tritium from Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Satoshi; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Miyabe, Kenjiro

    2002-03-01

    Chemical forms and discharge ratios to stack and sea of tritium form Tokai Reprocessing Plant of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) were investigated by analyzing monitoring data. It was ascertained that approximately 70-80% of tritium discharged from the main stack was tritiated water vapor (HTO) and approximately 20-30% was tritiated hydrogen (HT) as a result of analyzing the data taken from reprocessing campaign's in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000 and 2001, and also that the amount of tritium released from the stack was less than 1% of tritium inventory in spent fuel and the amount of tritium released into sea was approximately 20-40% of inventory. (author)

  3. Atomic-scale details of dislocation-stacking fault tetrahedra interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetsky, Yu. N.; Stoller, R.E.; Rodney, D.; Bacon, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed during irradiation of f.c.c. metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. Key issue is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is characterized by a small physical scale of about 100 nm. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of edge and screw dislocations interacting with small SFTs at different temperatures and strain rates and present mechanisms which can explain the formation of defect-free channels observed experimentally

  4. Do Identical Polar Diatomic Molecules Form Stacked or Linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    tractive and repulsive Coulomb interactions balance and cancel. Of course ... life, carbon (group 14), i.e., carbon bonding, has been proposed based ... Medical Institute EXROP program. ..... Hughes Medical Institute for support of this work. CW.

  5. 3D tissue formation by stacking detachable cell sheets formed on nanofiber mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Byungjun; Kim, Hong Nam; Bang, Seokyoung; Yang, Hee Seok; Kang, Seong Min; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Park, Suk-Hee; Jeon, Noo Li

    2017-03-23

    We present a novel approach for assembling 3D tissue by layer-by-layer stacking of cell sheets formed on aligned nanofiber mesh. A rigid frame was used to repeatedly collect aligned electrospun PCL (polycaprolactone) nanofiber to form a mesh structure with average distance between fibers 6.4 µm. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human foreskin dermal fibroblasts, and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were cultured on the nanofiber mesh, they formed confluent monolayers and could be handled as continuous cell sheets with areas 3 × 3 cm 2 or larger. Thicker 3D tissues have been formed by stacking multiple cell sheets collected on frames that can be nested (i.e. Matryoshka dolls) without any special tools. When cultured on the nanofiber mesh, skeletal muscle, C2C12 cells oriented along the direction of the nanofibers and differentiated into uniaxially aligned multinucleated myotube. Myotube cell sheets were stacked (upto 3 layers) in alternating or aligned directions to form thicker tissue with ∼50 µm thickness. Sandwiching HUVEC cell sheets with two dermal fibroblast cell sheets resulted in vascularized 3D tissue. HUVECs formed extensive networks and expressed CD31, a marker of endothelial cells. Cell sheets formed on nanofiber mesh have a number of advantages, including manipulation and stacking of multiple cell sheets for constructing 3D tissue and may find applications in a variety of tissue engineering applications.

  6. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  7. Electrostatic double-layer interaction between stacked charged bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Nomura, Yoko; Akiyama, Ryo; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2017-10-01

    The inapplicability of the DLVO theory to multilayered anionic bilayers is found in terms of the co-ion-valence dependence of the lamellar repeat distance. Most of the added salt is expelled from the interlamellar space to the bulk due to the Gibbs-Donnan effect on multiple bilayers with the bulk. The electrostatic double-layer interaction is well expressed by the formula recently proposed by Trefalt. The osmotic pressure due to the expelled ions, rather than the van der Waals interaction, is the main origin of the attractive force between the bilayers.

  8. Interactions between stacked layers of phenyl-modified silicene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Michelle J S; Snook, Ian K; Bassett, Michael R; Morishita, Tetsuya; Nakano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    We use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine the interaction between phenyl-modified silicene nanosheets. The adhesion energy curves between the nanosheets are compared for different van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) functionals and the DFT-D2 Grimme method. Our results show that there is a weak attraction between the sheets at close separations, that is stronger when vdWs forces are included. Without including vdWs forces the interaction is negligible and occurs at a much larger separation, highlighting the need to include such forces when modelling these nanosheets. Of the vdWs methods, the optB88 functional gives the strongest interaction energy while the Grimme gives the weakest, with the separation at which the nanosheets adhere more strongly varying between 10.04 and 11.24 Å, as measured by the distance between the silicene layers. As the modified nanosheets are brought closer together at separations as close at  ∼ 8 Å, the phenyl groups on the bottom of one nanosheet can fit in between the phenyl groups on the top of the adjacent nanosheet allowing some π − π interaction between the phenyl groups. We showed that the band gap can be modified by compressing the nanosheets together while retaining a small attraction between them. There is also a change from a direct to an indirect band gap. Such a property may be exploited for the application of these nanomaterials in optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  9. DNA-Conjugated Organic Chromophores in DNA Stacking Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of the intercalation of acridine derivatives into DNA (1961), chemists have synthesized many intercalators tethered to DNA. Advances in the chemical synthesis of modified nucleosides along with progress in oligonucleotide synthesis have made it possible to introduce organic ch...... review presents those efforts in the design of intercalators/organic chromophores as oligonucleotide conjugates that form a foundation for the generation of novel nucleic acid architectures......Since the discovery of the intercalation of acridine derivatives into DNA (1961), chemists have synthesized many intercalators tethered to DNA. Advances in the chemical synthesis of modified nucleosides along with progress in oligonucleotide synthesis have made it possible to introduce organic...

  10. The collapse of stacking-fault tetrahedra by interaction with gliding dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Y.; Osetsky, Yu.N.; Stoller, R.E.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The collapse of stacking-fault tetrahedra (SFT) by gliding dislocations was observed in in situ straining experiments in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A stacking-fault tetrahedron was collapsed by intersection with a gliding perfect dislocation: only the base portion divided by the gliding plane of the dislocation annihilated, while the apex portion remained intact. As a result of analysis on evolution of atom configuration induced by intersection with perfect dislocation in SFT, it was found that an unusual atom configuration inevitably appeared in one of the ledges formed on stacking-fault planes, which is traditionally called I-ledge: the atoms on adjacent (1 1 1) planes were overlapping each other. The overlapping configuration provides a strong repulsive force, being a conceivable driving force to induce a chain reaction of atom displacements that collapses the SFT base portion

  11. Stacking of purines in water: the role of dipolar interactions in caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, L; Di Fonzo, S; D'Amico, F; Masciovecchio, C; Brady, J W; Cesàro, A

    2016-05-11

    During the last few decades it has been ascertained that base stacking is one of the major contributions stabilizing nucleic acid conformations. However, the understanding of the nature of the interactions involved in the stacking process remains under debate and it is a subject of theoretical and experimental studies. Structural similarity between purine bases (guanine and adenine) in DNA and the caffeine molecule makes caffeine an excellent model for the purine bases. The present study clearly shows that dipolar interactions play a fundamental role in determining stacking of purine molecules in solution. In order to reach this achievement, polarized ultraviolet Raman resonant scattering experiments have been carried out on caffeine aqueous solutions as a function of concentration and temperature. The investigation pointed out at the aggregation and solvation properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. Kubo-Anderson theory was used as a framework to investigate the non-coincidence effect (NCE) occurring in the totally symmetric breathing modes of the purine rings, and in the bending modes of the methyl groups of caffeine. The NCE concentration dependence shows that caffeine aggregation at 80 °C occurs by planar stacking of the hydrophobic faces. The data clearly indicate that dipolar interactions determine the reorientational motion of the molecules in solution and are the driving force for the stacking of caffeine. In parallel, the observed dephasing times imply a change in caffeine interactions as a function of temperature and concentration. A decrease, at low water content, of the dephasing time for the ring breathing vibration mode indicates that self-association alters the solvation structure that is detectable at low concentration. These results are in agreement with simulation predictions and serve as an important validation of the models used in those calculations.

  12. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M. [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine); Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Evstigneev, Maxim P., E-mail: max_evstigneev@mail.ru [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. > The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. > Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  13. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M.; Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. → The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. → Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  14. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    temporal forms by letting a series of expert designers reflect upon them. We borrow a framework from Boorstin’s film theory in which he distinguishes between the voyeuristic, the vicarious, and the visceral experience. We show how to use rhythms, complexity, gentle or forceful behavior, etc., to create...

  15. Crystal structures of 4-chloropyridine-2-carbonitrile and 6-chloropyridine-2-carbonitrile exhibit different intermolecular π-stacking, C—H...Nnitrile and C—H...Npyridine interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Montgomery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two title compounds are isomers of C6H3ClN2 containing a pyridine ring, a nitrile group, and a chloro substituent. The molecules of each compound pack together in the solid state with offset face-to-face π-stacking, and intermolecular C—H...Nnitrile and C—H...Npyridine interactions. 4-Chloropyridine-2-carbonitrile, (I, exhibits pairwise centrosymmetric head-to-head C—H...Nnitrile and C—H...Npyridine interactions, forming one-dimensional chains, which are π-stacked in an offset face-to-face fashion. The intermolecular packing of the isomeric 6-chloropyridine-2-carbonitrile, (II, which differs only in the position of the chloro substituent on the pyridine ring, exhibits head-to-tail C—H...Nnitrile and C—H...Npyridine interactions, forming two-dimensional sheets which are π-stacked in an offset face-to-face fashion. In contrast to (I, the offset face-to-face π-stacking in (II is formed between molecules with alternating orientations of the chloro and nitrile substituents.

  16. Shapes formed by interacting cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Brittle failure through multiple cracks occurs in a wide variety of contexts, from microscopic failures in dental enamel and cleaved silicon to geological faults and planetary ice crusts. In each of these situations, with complicated stress geometries and different microscopic mechanisms, pairwise interactions between approaching cracks nonetheless produce characteristically curved fracture paths. We investigate the origins of this widely observed ``en passant'' crack pattern by fracturing a rectangular slab which is notched on each long side and subjected to quasi-static uniaxial strain from the short side. The two cracks propagate along approximately straight paths until they pass each other, after which they curve and release a lens-shaped fragment. We find that, for materials with diverse mechanical properties, each curve has an approximately square-root shape, and that the length of each fragment is twice its width. We are able to explain the origins of this universal shape with a simple geometrical model.

  17. Occurrence and stability of lone pair–π stacking interactions between ribose and nucleobases in functional RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit; Chermak, Edrisse; Zhang, Qingyun; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The specific folding pattern and function of RNA molecules lies in various weak interactions, in addition to the strong base-base pairing and stacking. One of these relatively weak interactions, characterized by the stacking of the O4′ atom of a ribose on top of the heterocycle ring of a nucleobase, has been known to occur but has largely been ignored in the description of RNA structures. We identified 2015 ribose–base stacking interactions in a high-resolution set of non-redundant RNA crystal structures. They are widespread in structured RNA molecules and are located in structural motifs other than regular stems. Over 50% of them involve an adenine, as we found ribose-adenine contacts to be recurring elements in A-minor motifs. Fewer than 50% of the interactions involve a ribose and a base of neighboring residues, while approximately 30% of them involve a ribose and a nucleobase at least four residues apart. Some of them establish inter-domain or inter-molecular contacts and often implicate functionally relevant nucleotides. In vacuo ribose-nucleobase stacking interaction energies were calculated by quantum mechanics methods. Finally, we found that lone pair–π stacking interactions also occur between ribose and aromatic amino acids in RNA–protein complexes.

  18. Occurrence and stability of lone pair–π stacking interactions between ribose and nucleobases in functional RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2017-08-18

    The specific folding pattern and function of RNA molecules lies in various weak interactions, in addition to the strong base-base pairing and stacking. One of these relatively weak interactions, characterized by the stacking of the O4′ atom of a ribose on top of the heterocycle ring of a nucleobase, has been known to occur but has largely been ignored in the description of RNA structures. We identified 2015 ribose–base stacking interactions in a high-resolution set of non-redundant RNA crystal structures. They are widespread in structured RNA molecules and are located in structural motifs other than regular stems. Over 50% of them involve an adenine, as we found ribose-adenine contacts to be recurring elements in A-minor motifs. Fewer than 50% of the interactions involve a ribose and a base of neighboring residues, while approximately 30% of them involve a ribose and a nucleobase at least four residues apart. Some of them establish inter-domain or inter-molecular contacts and often implicate functionally relevant nucleotides. In vacuo ribose-nucleobase stacking interaction energies were calculated by quantum mechanics methods. Finally, we found that lone pair–π stacking interactions also occur between ribose and aromatic amino acids in RNA–protein complexes.

  19. Dislocation-stacking fault tetrahedron interaction: what can we learn from atomic-scale modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetsky, Yu.N.; Stoller, R.E.; Matsukawa, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The high number density of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) observed in irradiated fcc metals suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, taken into account when estimating mechanical properties changes of irradiated materials. The central issue is describing the individual interaction between a moving dislocation and an SFT, which is characterized by a very fine size scale, ∼100 nm. This scale is amenable to both in situ TEM experiments and large-scale atomic modelling. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of dislocation-SFT interactions using molecular dynamics (MD). The results are compared with observations from in situ deformation experiments. It is demonstrated that in some cases the simulations and experimental observations are quite similar, suggesting a reasonable interpretation of experimental observations

  20. Characterization of double Shockley-type stacking faults formed in lightly doped 4H-SiC epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T.; Hayashi, S.; Naijo, T.; Momose, K.; Osawa, H.; Senzaki, J.; Kojima, K.; Kato, T.; Okumura, H.

    2018-05-01

    Double Shockley-type stacking faults (2SSFs) formed in 4H-SiC epitaxial films with a dopant concentration of 1.0 × 1016 cm-3 were characterized using grazing incident X-ray topography and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The origins of 2SSFs were investigated, and it was found that 2SSFs in the epitaxial layer originated from narrow SFs with a double Shockley structure in the substrate. Partial dislocations formed between 4H-type and 2SSF were also characterized. The shapes of 2SSFs are related with Burgers vectors and core types of the two Shockley partial dislocations.

  1. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J W; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-04-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs-CG, GC and GG-could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  2. Flat-on ambipolar triphenylamine/C60 nano-stacks formed from the self-organization of a pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Wei; Huang, Chi-Feng; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Wu, San-Lien; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Wang, Chien-Lung

    2016-04-21

    A giant amphiphile, which is constructed with an amorphous nano-pyramid (triphenylamine, TPA) and a crystalline nano-sphere (C 60 ), was synthesized. Structural characterization indicates that this pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile ( TPA-C 60 ) forms a solvent-induced ordered phase, in which the two constituent units self-assemble into alternating stacks of two-dimensional (2D) TPA and C 60 nano-sheets. Due to the complexity of the molecular structure and the amorphous nature of the nano-pyramid, phase formation was driven by intermolecular C 60 -C 60 interactions and the ordered phase could not be reformed from the TPA-C 60 melt. Oriented crystal arrays of TPA-C 60 , which contain flat-on TPA/C 60 nano-stacks, can be obtained via a PDMS-assisted crystallization (PAC) technique. The flat-on dual-channel supramolecular structure of TPA-C 60 delivered ambipolar and balanced charge-transport characteristics with an average μ e of 2.11 × 10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and μ h of 3.37 × 10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The anisotropic charge-transport ability of the pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile was further understood based on the lattice structure and the lattice orientation of TPA-C 60 revealed from electron diffraction analyses.

  3. Note: Resonance magnetoelectric interactions in laminate of FeCuNbSiB and multilayer piezoelectric stack for magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Zhong, Ming

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a simple miniature magnetoelectric (ME) laminate FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack made up of magnetostrictive Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (FeCuNbSiB) foils and piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) multilayer stack vibrator. Resonant ME interactions of FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with different layers of FeCuNbSiB foil (L) are investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the ME voltage coefficient reaches maximum value of 141.5 (V/cm Oe) for FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack with L = 6. The AC-magnetic sensitivities can reach 524.29 mV/Oe and 1.8 mV/Oe under resonance 91.6 kHz and off-resonance 1 kHz, respectively. The FeCuNbSiB/PZT-stack can distinguish small dc-magnetic field of ˜9 nT. The results indicate that the proposed ME composites are very promising for the cheap room-temperature magnetic field sensing technology.

  4. Accurate interaction energies of base pairing and base stacking. The final chapter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šponer, Jiří; Jurečka, Petr; Hobza, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2005), s. 767 ISSN 0739-1102. [Albany 2005. Conversation /14./. 14.06.2005-18.06.2005, Albany] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : base pairing * base stacking * nucleic acids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  5. Open and Closed Form in Interactive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can be expan......Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can...

  6. Stacking effect on the ferroelectric properties of PZT/PLZT multilayer thin films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.

    2004-01-01

    The ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) multilayer films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) using photosensitive precursors have been characterized. The substitution of La for Pb was reported to induce improved ferroelectric properties, especially fatigue resistance, through the reduction of oxygen vacancies. The relation between La-substitution and the ferroelectric properties was investigated by characterization of the effect of the order of stacking four ferroelectric layers of PZT or PLZT in the multilayer films 4-PZT, PZT/2-PLZT/PZT, PLZT/2-PZT/PLZT, and 4-PLZT. The films with the PLZT layer at the top and bottom showed an improvement in the fatigue resistance. It was revealed that defect dipole such as O vacancy was reduced at the ferroelectric/Pt interface by doping with La. Also, the bottom layer, just on Pt substrate had a significant influence on the surface microstructure and growth orientation of ferroelectric film

  7. Energy hyperspace for stacking interaction in AU/AU dinucleotide step: Dispersion-corrected density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kailasam, Senthilkumar; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2014-01-01

    Double helical structures of DNA and RNA are mostly determined by base pair stacking interactions, which give them the base sequence-directed features, such as small roll values for the purine-pyrimidine steps. Earlier attempts to characterize stacking interactions were mostly restricted to calculations on fiber diffraction geometries or optimized structure using ab initio calculations lacking variation in geometry to comment on rather unusual large roll values observed in AU/AU base pair step in crystal structures of RNA double helices. We have generated stacking energy hyperspace by modeling geometries with variations along the important degrees of freedom, roll, and slide, which were chosen via statistical analysis as maximally sequence dependent. Corresponding energy contours were constructed by several quantum chemical methods including dispersion corrections. This analysis established the most suitable methods for stacked base pair systems despite the limitation imparted by number of atom in a base pair step to employ very high level of theory. All the methods predict negative roll value and near-zero slide to be most favorable for the purine-pyrimidine steps, in agreement with Calladine's steric clash based rule. Successive base pairs in RNA are always linked by sugar-phosphate backbone with C3'-endo sugars and this demands C1'-C1' distance of about 5.4 Å along the chains. Consideration of an energy penalty term for deviation of C1'-C1' distance from the mean value, to the recent DFT-D functionals, specifically ωB97X-D appears to predict reliable energy contour for AU/AU step. Such distance-based penalty improves energy contours for the other purine-pyrimidine sequences also. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 107-120, 2014. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Framework for Interactively Helpful Web Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Gammelmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    AdapForms is a framework for adaptive forms, consisting of a form definition language designating structure and constraints upon acceptable input, and a software architecture that continuously validates and adapts the form presented to the user. The validation is performed server-side, which enab...

  9. NEW FORMS OF INTERACTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Maria AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactivity in the academic environment is a key element of the communication policy of higher education institutions. In the teaching-learning process, mobile technology creates interactivity and offers the ability to access learning resources anywhere and anytime. The main objective of this study is to highlight the importance of mobile technology in the communication and learning process in academia. The results reveal that learning activities which are engaged in the university classroom could be continued and developed through mobile interaction which has become a great tool for the higher education institutions to communicate virtually with anyone despite physical distance. Mobile technologies offer new ways of creating and disseminating knowledge and can be used to improve the overall learning experience of students and teachers.

  10. Catalysis with Gold Complexes Immobilised on Carbon Nanotubes by π-π Stacking Interactions: Heterogeneous Catalysis versus the Boomerang Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriamont, Charles; Devillers, Michel; Riant, Olivier; Hermans, Sophie

    2013-09-02

    A new pyrene-tagged gold(I) complex has been synthesised and tested as a homogeneous catalyst. First, a simple 1,6-enyne was chosen as a model substrate for cyclisation by using different solvents to optimise the reaction conditions. The non-covalent immobilisation of our pyrene-tagged gold complex onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes through π-π stacking interactions was then explored to obtain a supported homogeneous catalyst. The heterogenised catalyst and its homogeneous counterpart exhibited similar activity in a range of enyne cyclisation reactions. Bearing in mind that π-π interactions are affected by temperature and solvent polarity, the reuse and robustness of the supported homogeneous catalyst was tested to explore the scope and limitations of the recyclability of this catalyst. Under the optimised conditions, recyclability was observed by using the concept of the boomerang effect. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Universal Shapes formed by Interacting Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Melissa; Lechenault, Frederic; Daniels, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Brittle failure through multiple cracks occurs in a wide variety of contexts, from microscopic failures in dental enamel and cleaved silicon to geological faults and planetary ice crusts. In each of these situations, with complicated curvature and stress geometries, pairwise interactions between approaching cracks nonetheless produce characteristically curved fracture paths known in the geologic literature as en passant cracks. While the fragmentation of solids via many interacting cracks has seen wide investigation, less attention has been paid to the details of individual crack-crack interactions. We investigate the origins of this widely observed crack pattern using a rectangular elastic plate which is notched on each long side and then subjected to quasistatic uniaxial strain from the short side. The two cracks propagate along approximately straight paths until the pass each other, after which they curve and release a lenticular fragment. We find that, for materials with diverse mechanical properties, the shape of this fragment has an aspect ratio of 2:1, with the length scale set by the initial cracks offset s and the time scale set by the ratio of s to the pulling velocity. The cracks have a universal square root shape, which we understand by using a simple geometric model and the crack-crack interaction.

  12. Stacking interactions between carbohydrate and protein quantified by combination of theoretical and experimental methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Wimmerová

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-receptor interactions are an integral part of biological events. They play an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell differentiation and in-cell signaling. Carbohydrates can interact with a receptor by using several types of intermolecular interactions. One of the most important is the interaction of a carbohydrate's apolar part with aromatic amino acid residues, known as dispersion interaction or CH/π interaction. In the study presented here, we attempted for the first time to quantify how the CH/π interaction contributes to a more general carbohydrate-protein interaction. We used a combined experimental approach, creating single and double point mutants with high level computational methods, and applied both to Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL lectin complexes with α-L-Me-fucoside. Experimentally measured binding affinities were compared with computed carbohydrate-aromatic amino acid residue interaction energies. Experimental binding affinities for the RSL wild type, phenylalanine and alanine mutants were -8.5, -7.1 and -4.1 kcal x mol(-1, respectively. These affinities agree with the computed dispersion interaction energy between carbohydrate and aromatic amino acid residues for RSL wild type and phenylalanine, with values -8.8, -7.9 kcal x mol(-1, excluding the alanine mutant where the interaction energy was -0.9 kcal x mol(-1. Molecular dynamics simulations show that discrepancy can be caused by creation of a new hydrogen bond between the α-L-Me-fucoside and RSL. Observed results suggest that in this and similar cases the carbohydrate-receptor interaction can be driven mainly by a dispersion interaction.

  13. Van der Waals stacks of few-layer h-AlN with graphene: an ab initio study of structural, interaction and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, Renato B; Mota, F de Brito; Rivelino, R; Kakanakova-Georgieva, A; Gueorguiev, G K

    2016-01-01

    Graphite-like hexagonal AlN (h-AlN) multilayers have been experimentally manifested and theoretically modeled. The development of any functional electronics applications of h-AlN would most certainly require its integration with other layered materials, particularly graphene. Here, by employing vdW-corrected density functional theory calculations, we investigate structure, interaction energy, and electronic properties of van der Waals stacking sequences of few-layer h-AlN with graphene. We find that the presence of a template such as graphene induces enough interlayer charge separation in h-AlN, favoring a graphite-like stacking formation. We also find that the interface dipole, calculated per unit cell of the stacks, tends to increase with the number of stacked layers of h-AlN and graphene. (paper)

  14. New forms of man-machine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.E.; Elmqvist, H.; Brueck, D.

    1986-01-01

    The new workstation with high performance graphics offer new possibilities for visualizing and giving a more concrete form to important concepts. In this project, some of these possibilities have been investigated by developing and implementing a prototype simulator for dynamical systems. The attention has been focused on the user interface for model development. In automatic control the notion of system is important and its representation is a key issue. The simulator support hierarchical block diagrams to describe the model decomposition and the interconnection structure. At the highest level the user sees a block diagram of annotated boxes connected with lines. The user can scroll, pan and zoom the block diagram continuously in real-time. Zooming controls the amount of information displayed. When zooming in on a block, it changes from an annotated box into a representation showing internal structure with increasing detail. Since the block diagrams can be hierarchical, it is possible to make the description at each level simple and clear. The simulator is called Hibliz which stands for HIerarchial BLock diagrams with Information Zooming. The user creates and edits his block diagrams in a Mackintosh-like fashion. He can also create overview windows which indicated where he is when he pans and zooms. Hibliz also simplified model development by allowing submodels in the form of ordinary differential and algebraic equations rather than assignment statements for derivatives and algebraic variables. (authors)

  15. Theoretical study on effects of curvature of graphene in conjunction with simultaneous anion- and - stacking interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Karimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A graphene sheet (C102H30 has been rolled up by computational quantum chemistry methods to construct single-walled carbon nanotube fragments (SWCNTFs. The anion-π interactions of F- anion together with π-π stacking interactions of benzene on inner face and outer face of the central rings of SWCNTFs have been concurrently investigated. Structural parameters and energy data of the ternary benzene-SWCNTF-F- complexes were considered. Also, effects of charge transfer and aromaticity were estimated to determine how curvature of graphene influences on simultaneous anion-π and π-π stacking interactions.  Results indicate that curvature of graphene leads to structural changes in SWCNTFs which effects on simultaneous interactions of F- anion and benzene with SWCNTFs. Also, results show that although p-p stacking is a weak interaction, but it can impact on order of binding energies in complexes involved both p-p stacking and anion-p interactions

  16. Interaction Forms in Successful Collaborative Learning in Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuopala, Essi; Hyvönen, Pirkko; Järvelä, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies on social interaction in collaborative learning, little is known about interaction forms in successful computer-supported collaborative learning situations. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand student interaction in successful collaborative learning during a university course which was mediated by…

  17. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  18. π-Stacking, C-H/π, and halogen bonding interactions in bromobenzene and mixed bromobenzene-benzene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A; Nyambo, Silver; Muzangwa, Lloyd; Uhler, Brandon

    2013-12-19

    Noncovalent interactions play an important role in many chemical and biochemical processes. Building upon our recent study of the homoclusters of chlorobenzene, where π-π stacking and CH/π interactions were identified as the most important binding motifs, in this work we present a study of bromobenzene (PhBr) and mixed bromobenzene-benzene clusters. Electronic spectra in the region of the PhBr monomer S0-S1 (ππ*) transition were obtained using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) methods combined with time-of-flight mass analysis. As previously found for related systems, the PhBr cluster spectra show a broad feature whose center is red-shifted from the monomer absorption, and electronic structure calculations indicate the presence of multiple isomers and Franck-Condon activity in low-frequency intermolecular modes. Calculations at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVDZ level find in total eight minimum energy structures for the PhBr dimer: four π-stacked structures differing in the relative orientation of the Br atoms (denoted D1-D4), one T-shaped structure (D5), and three halogen bonded structures (D6-D8). The calculated binding energies of these complexes, corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE) and zero-point energy (ZPE), are in the range of -6 to -24 kJ/mol. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations predict that these isomers absorb over a range that is roughly consistent with the breadth of the experimental spectrum. To examine the influence of dipole-dipole interaction, R2PI spectra were also obtained for the mixed PhBr···benzene dimer, where the spectral congestion is reduced and clear vibrational structure is observed. This structure is well-simulated by Franck-Condon calculations that incorporate the lowest frequency intermolecular modes. Calculations find four minimum energy structures for the mixed dimer and predict that the binding energy of the global minimum is reduced by ~30% relative to the global minimum PhBr dimer

  19. Loop Entropy Assists Tertiary Order: Loopy Stabilization of Stacking Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aalberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The free energy of an RNA fold is a combination of favorable base pairing and stacking interactions competing with entropic costs of forming loops. Here we show how loop entropy, surprisingly, can promote tertiary order. A general formula for the free energy of forming multibranch and other RNA loops is derived with a polymer-physics based theory. We also derive a formula for the free energy of coaxial stacking in the context of a loop. Simulations support the analytic formulas. The effects of stacking of unpaired bases are also studied with simulations.

  20. Effects of structure and number of heteroatom on the π-π stacking inte-ractions of benzene with N-substituted coronenes: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Karimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the π-π stacking interactions in the Ben||N-substituted-coronene complexes was stu-died using the computational quantum chemistry methods (where Ben is benzene and || denotes π-π stacking interaction, and N-substituted-coronene is coronene molecule which substituted with different number of N atoms. The results reveal simultaneous effects of structure and number of Heteroatom on the π-π stacking interactions with N-substituted-coronenes. Changing the number of Heteroatom N in N-substituted-coronenes and substitution of 8N-coronene with electron-withdrawing or electron-donating X groups alter the electron charge density at rings of this molecule and leads to different binding energies in the Ben||X-8N-substituted-coronene com-plexes. Results indicate that electron-withdrawing groups lead to higher π–π stacking binding energies compared to electron-donating ones in the Ben||X-8N-substituted-coronene complexes.

  1. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarri, J. I.; Kesler, O.

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes.

  2. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2008-01-21

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes. (author)

  3. Shape Displays: Spatial Interaction with Dynamic Physical Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithinger, Daniel; Follmer, Sean; Olwal, Alex; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Shape displays are an emerging class of devices that emphasize actuation to enable rich physical interaction, complementing concepts in virtual and augmented reality. The ability to render form introduces new opportunities to touch, grasp, and manipulate dynamic physical content and tangible objects, in both nearby and remote environments. This article presents novel hardware, interaction techniques, and applications, which point to the potential for extending the ways that we traditionally interact with the physical world, empowered by digital computation.

  4. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Battle, G.C. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  5. Influence of stacking fault energies on the size distribution and character of defect clusters formed by collision cascades in face-centered cubic metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to evaluate the influence of the stacking fault energy (SFE as a single variable parameter on defect formation by collision cascades in face-centered cubic metals. The simulations are performed for energies of a primary knock-on atom (EPKA up to 50keV at 100K by using six sets of the recently developed embedded atom method–type potentials. Neither the number of residual defects nor their clustering behavior is found to be affected by the SFE, except for the mean size of the vacancy clusters at EPKA=50keV. The mean size increases as the SFE decreases because of the enhanced formation of large vacancy clusters, which prefer to have stacking faults inside them. On the other hand, the ratio of glissile self-interstitial atom (SIA clusters decreases as the SFE increases. At higher SFEs, both the number of Frank loops and number of perfect loops tend to decrease; instead, three-dimensional irregular clusters with higher densities appear, most of which are sessile. The effect of SFE on the number of Frank loops becomes apparent only at a high EPKA of 50keV, where comparably large SIA clusters can be formed with a higher density.

  6. A spectroscopic study of the hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking interactions of harmane with quinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balón, M; Guardado, P; Muñoz, M A; Carmona, C

    1998-01-01

    A spectroscopic (UV-vis, Fourier transform IR, steady state, and time-resolved fluorescence) study of the interactions of the ground and excited singlet states of harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido/3,4-b/indole) with quinoline has been carried out in cyclohexane, toluene, and buffered pH=8.7 aqueous solutions. To analyze how the number of rings in the substrate influences these interactions, pyridine and phenanthridine have also been included in this study. In cyclohexane and toluene 1:1 stoichiometric hydrogen-bonded complexes are formed in both the ground and the excited singlet states. As the number of rings of the benzopyridines and the solvent polarity increase hydrogen-bonding interactions weaken and pi-pi van der Waals interactions become apparent.

  7. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  8. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  9. Working with simulated forms of interaction in health care education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Lektor Birgitte Ravn

    This paper argues that role-play as a simulated form of interaction - live and performed on video - is a creative method which has the potential to generate and support authentic dialogues in practice. In the paper we draw on experiences from 6 interdisciplinary workshops at a Danish hospital...... in which role-play of practice situations - both live and performed on video - formed the launching-pad for participants’ oral and written reflections. Our findings show that role-play has the potential to 1) develop professionals’ sensitivity to the significance of unexpected, embodied and emotional...

  10. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Maksim; Davydova, Anna; Kyrchanova, Olga; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel; Chetverina, Darya

    2011-09-01

    Chromatin insulators are regulatory elements involved in the modulation of enhancer-promoter communication. The 1A2 and Wari insulators are located immediately downstream of the Drosophila yellow and white genes, respectively. Using an assay based on the yeast GAL4 activator, we have found that both insulators are able to interact with their target promoters in transgenic lines, forming gene loops. The existence of an insulator-promoter loop is confirmed by the fact that insulator proteins could be detected on the promoter only in the presence of an insulator in the transgene. The upstream promoter regions, which are required for long-distance stimulation by enhancers, are not essential for promoter-insulator interactions. Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription.

  11. 3-Form Cosmology: Phantom Behaviour, Singularities and Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Morais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest cosmological observations by the Planck collaboration (and combined with others are compatible with a phantom-like behaviour ( w < − 1 for the dark energy equation of state that drives the current acceleration of the Universe. With this mindset, we look into models where dark energy is described by a 3-form field minimally coupled to gravity. When compared to a scalar field, these models have the advantage of more naturally accommodating a cosmological-constant and phantom-like behaviours. We show how the latter happens for a fairly general class of positive-valued potentials, and through a dynamical system approach, we find that in such cases the 3-form field leads the Universe into a Little Sibling of the Big Rip singular event into the future. In this work, we explore the possibility of avoiding such singularity via an interaction in the dark sector between cold dark matter and the 3-form field. For the kind of interactions considered, we deduce a condition for replacing the LSBR by a late time de Sitter phase. For specific examples of interactions that meet this condition, we look for distinctive imprints in the statefinder hierarchy { S 3 ( 1 ; S 4 ( 1 } , { S 3 ( 1 ; S 5 ( 1 } , and in the growth rate of matter, ϵ ( z , through the composite null diagnostic (CND.

  12. The Importance of Electron Correlation on Stacking Interaction of Adenine-Thymine Base-Pair Step in B-DNA: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Kenta; Cuong, Nguyen Thanh; Maezono, Ryo

    2013-02-12

    We report fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of stacking interaction energy between two adenine(A)-thymine(T) base pairs in B-DNA (AA:TT), for which reference data are available, obtained from a complete basis set estimate of CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples). We consider four sets of nodal surfaces obtained from self-consistent field calculations and examine how the different nodal surfaces affect the DMC potential energy curves of the AA:TT molecule and the resulting stacking energies. We find that the DMC potential energy curves using the different nodes look similar to each other as a whole. We also benchmark the performance of various quantum chemistry methods, including Hartree-Fock (HF) theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and density functional theory (DFT). The DMC and recently developed DFT results of the stacking energy reasonably agree with the reference, while the HF, MP2, and conventional DFT methods give unsatisfactory results.

  13. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  14. Symmetry Relations and the Nonperturbative Form of Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Applying QCD to study and understand hadronic physics and nuclear physics is one of basic goals of modern nuclear physics. Developing nonperturbative approach of QCD to understand the dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking and color confinement then becomes one of our most important challenges. Besides the lattice gauge theory, the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) formalism is such an appropriate nonperturbative approach. In undertaking nonperturbative studies using DSEs, we immediately have to confront the issue of what is the nonperturbative form of interactions. In recent 20 years, there have been considerable efforts to solve this open problem, however, all such attempts

  15. What Is the Structure of the Naphthalene-Benzene Heterodimer Radical Cation? Binding Energy, Charge Delocalization, and Unexpected Charge-Transfer Interaction in Stacked Dimer and Trimer Radical Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attah, Isaac K; Platt, Sean P; Meot-Ner Mautner, Michael; El-Shall, M Samy; Peverati, Roberto; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-04-02

    The binding energy of the naphthalene(+•)(benzene) heterodimer cation has been determined to be 7.9 ± 1 kcal/mol for C10H8(+•)(C6H6) and 8.1 ± 1 kcal/mol for C10H8(+•)(C6D6) by equilibrium thermochemical measurements using the mass-selected drift cell technique. A second benzene molecule binds to the C10H8(+•)(C6D6) dimer with essentially the same energy (8.4 ± 1 kcal/mol), suggesting that the two benzene molecules are stacked on opposite sides of the naphthalene cation in the (C6D6)C10H8(+•)(C6D6) heterotrimer. The lowest-energy isomers of the C10H8(+•)(C6D6) and (C6D6)C10H8(+•)(C6D6) dimer and trimer calculated using the M11/cc-pVTZ method have parallel stacked structures with enthalpies of binding (-ΔH°) of 8.4 and 9.0 kcal/mol, respectively, in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The stacked face-to-face class of isomers is calculated to have substantial charge-transfer stabilization of about 45% of the total interaction energy despite the large difference between the ionization energies of benzene and naphthalene. Similarly, significant delocalization of the positive charge is found among all three fragments of the (C6D6)C10H8(+•)(C6D6) heterotrimer, thus leaving only 46% of the total charge on the central naphthalene moiety. This unexpectedly high charge-transfer component results in activating two benzene molecules in the naphthalene(+•)(benzene)2 heterotrimer cation to associate with a third benzene molecule at 219 K to form a benzene trimer cation and a neutral naphthalene molecule. The global minimum of the C10H8(+•)(C6H6)2 heterotrimer is found to be the one where the naphthalene cation is sandwiched between two benzene molecules. It is remarkable, and rather unusual, that the binding energy of the second benzene molecule is essentially the same as that of the first. This is attributed to the enhanced charge-transfer interaction in the stacked trimer radical cation.

  16. Interactive Forms of Open Scientific and Educational Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova Galina Alekseevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the innovative chain of the Russian economy which consists of three stages: “Idea” (academic science, “Technology” (applied science, and “Production”. The authors describe the innovative system of Russia in terms of infrastructure devices, the functioning of the financial system and human resources. Special attention is paid to the problem of staff training for the innovation economy in Russia. The authors propose the use of scientific and educational public workshop as a form of interactive courses in training staff for the “economy of knowledge”. The article describes the experience of holding open seminars at the Department of Innovation Studies of Volgograd State University. The members of project teams of scientific and Interdisciplinary Innovative Design educational center take part in these discussions. Four scenarios of public workshops are suggested. The first one refers to the joint research work of students, undergraduates and graduate students. The activity includes the presentation of research projects, collective work of students in the creation of business models, innovative projects, debates in the format of a talk show on current topics in the field of innovation and business. The participants also discuss the latest technological and scientific advances in the field of innovations with practical application in business by means of webinars. The second scenario implies an open workshop in the form of presentation of research results based on the technology of group project-based learning as an interactive method which is widely used in the leading universities of the world, and is the organization of educational process in the form of implementation of group projects, from the stage of their development to practical implementation. Team work (“brainstorming” open workshop consists in the creation of business models, innovative projects based on the use of techniques of prominent

  17. A series of Cd(II) complexes with π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions: Structural diversities by varying the ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuli; Zhang Jinxia; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan

    2011-01-01

    Seven new Cd(II) complexes consisting of different phenanthroline derivatives and organic acid ligands, formulated as [Cd(PIP) 2 (dnba) 2 ] (1), [Cd(PIP)(ox)].H 2 O (2), [Cd(PIP)(1,4-bdc)(H 2 O)].4H 2 O (3), [Cd(3-PIP) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ].4H 2 O (4), [Cd 2 (3-PIP) 4 (4,4'-bpdc)(H 2 O) 2 ].5H 2 O (5), [Cd(3-PIP)(nip)(H 2 O)].H 2 O (6), [Cd 2 (TIP) 4 (4,4'-bpdc)(H 2 O) 2 ].3H 2 O (7) (PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 3-PIP=2-(3-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, TIP=2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, Hdnba=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, H 2 ox=oxalic acid, 1,4-H 2 bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-H 2 bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H 2 nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 4 possess mononuclear structures; complexes 5 and 7 are isostructural and have dinuclear structures; complexes 2 and 3 feature 1D chain structures; complex 6 contains 1D double chain, which are further extended to a 3D supramolecular structure by π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The N-donor ligands with extended π-system and organic acid ligands play a crucial role in the formation of the final supramolecular frameworks. Moreover, thermal properties and fluorescence of 1-7 are also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Seven new supramolecular architectures have been successfully isolated under hydrothermal conditions by reactions of different phen derivatives and Cd(II) salts together with organic carboxylate anions auxiliary ligands. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Complexes 1-7 are 0D or 1D polymeric structure, the π-π stacking and H-bonding interactions extend the complexes into 3D supramolecular network. To our knowledge, systematic study on π-π stacking and H-bonding interactions in cadmium(II) complexes are still limited. → The structural differences among the title complexes indicate the importance of N-donor chelating ligands for the creation of molecular

  18. Effects of stacking fault energies on the interaction between an edge dislocation and an 8.0-nm-diameter Frank loop of self-interstitial atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hayakawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of stacking fault energy (SFE as a single variable parameter on the interaction between an edge dislocation and a Frank loop of self-interstitial atoms with a diameter of 8.0nm. The physical contact between the edge dislocation and the loop causes constriction of the edge dislocation, followed by the formation of a D-Shockley partial dislocation. The latter process is associated with either the formation of a screw component and its cross-slip, or the direct core reaction between the dislocation and the loop. These processes induce either the absorption of the loop into the dislocation or the transformation of the loop into a perfect loop. The SFE influences the interaction morphologies by determining the separation distance of the two partial dislocations and consequently the rate of constriction. The dependence of the interaction morphology on the SFE varies with the habit plane of the loop. A higher SFE increases the probability of the absorption or transformation interaction; however, only loop shearing is observed at the lower limit of the SFE range of austenitic stainless steels.

  19. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  20. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  1. Analysis of chemical bond states and electrical properties of stacked AlON/HfO{sub 2} gate oxides formed by using a layer-by-layer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Wonjoon; Lee, Jonghyun; Yang, Jungyup; Kim, Chaeok; Hong, Jinpyo; Nahm, Tschanguh; Byun, Byungsub; Kim, Moseok [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Stacked AlON/HfO{sub 2} thin films for gate oxides in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices are successfully prepared on Si substrates by utilizing a layer-by-layer technique integrated with an off-axis RF remote plasma sputtering process at room temperature. This off-axis structure is designed to improve the uniformity and the quality of gate oxide films. Also, a layer-by-layer technique is used to control the interface layer between the gate oxide and the Si substrate. The electrical properties of our stacked films are characterized by using capacitance versus voltage and leakage current versus voltage measurements. The stacked AlON/HfO{sub 2} gate oxide exhibits a low leakage current of about 10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2} and a high dielectric constant value of 14.26 by effectively suppressing the interface layer between gate oxide and Si substrate. In addition, the chemical bond states and the optimum thickness of each AlON and HfO{sub 2} thin film are analyzed using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurement.

  2. Phases of a stack of membranes in a large number of dimensions of configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E.; Kleinert, H.

    2001-05-01

    The phase diagram of a stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is calculated exactly in a large number of dimensions of configuration space. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase with spontaneously broken translational symmetry in the vertical direction. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a meltinglike transition. The critical temperature is determined as a function of the interlayer separation l.

  3. Giving form to computational things: developing a practice of interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2014-01-01

    between states. Thus, an interaction design practice needs to encompass this temporal form giving in combination with physical form giving and performances of the interaction gestalt. In this paper, I propose this trinity of forms as a framework to unfold the practice of interaction design. I further...

  4. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-07-01

    New typological features of social movements are formed on the basis of a new type of social and communication links. Social hierarchy and class antagonisms, which provided the basis for the existence and development of trade unions in the past, expired. Therefore, the organizational forms of trade unions as social movements have become more available and acceptable for contemporary citizens.

  5. Physical equivalence of three forms of relativistic dynamics and addition of interactions in the front and instant forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The point, instant and front forms of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory are shown to be S-matrix equivalent in the general case (of many channels and particles with spin). The corresponding transformations are found. The problem of relativistic addition of the direct interactions is solved for the front and instant forms of dynamics

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-46, 119-F Stack Sampling French Drain. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 100-F-46 french drain consisted of a 1.5 to 3 m long, vertically buried, gravel-filled pipe that was approximately 1 m in diameter. Also included in this waste site was a 5 cm cast-iron pipeline that drained condensate from the 119-F Stack Sampling Building into the 100-F-46 french drain. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  7. The polar 2e/12c bond in phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl hetero-dimers: Stronger stacking interaction and fascinating interlayer charge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Rong-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru, E-mail: hlxu@nenu.edu.cn, E-mail: lzr@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu, Hong-Liang, E-mail: hlxu@nenu.edu.cn, E-mail: lzr@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China)

    2016-08-07

    An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.

  8. Designing Mobile Interactions: The continual convergence of form and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    fremmes en design-orienteret måde at opnå konvergens mellem form og kontekst gennem en kontekstuelt forankret, helhedsorienteret, og kontinuerligt udfoldende designproces. “Fantasi er vigtigere end viden. For viden er begrænset, mens fantasien favner hele verden” sagde Albert Einstein i 1931. Inden...

  9. On the Elementary Neural Forms of Micro-Interactional Rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2016-01-01

    of the neural basis for rhythmic entrainment. The polyvagal theory furthermore challenges IR theory to reconsider the importance of individual biological differences ritual success may not merely be ascribed to interactional effects, but also to reciprocal causality between situations and neurobiological......Randall Collins’s interaction ritual (IR) theory suggests social solidarity as hardwired in the human neurological capacity for rhythmic entrainment. Yet, this article suggests that IR theory may benefit from being tied more firmly to recent neurobiological research, specifically Stephen W. Porges......’s polyvagal theory that proposes autonomic nervous system functioning as a basis for emotions and social behavior. In this perspective, IR theory does not sufficiently acknowledge the human nervous system as a system involving a phylogenetically ordered response hierarchy, of which only one subsystem supports...

  10. Calibrated and Interactive Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, Gregory; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Piker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) couple two or more different structural elements of low self weight and low or negligible bending flexural stiffness (such as slender beams, cables and membranes) into one structural assembly of high global stiffness. They offer high load-bearing capacity...... software packages which introduce interruptions and data exchange issues in the modelling pipeline. The mechanical precision, stability and open software architecture of Kangaroo has facilitated the development of proof-of-concept modelling pipelines which tackle this challenge and enable powerful...... materially-informed sketching. Making use of a projection-based dynamic relaxation solver for structural analysis, explorative design has proven to be highly effective....

  11. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  12. Isospin invariant forms of interacting boson model (IBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the original version of the interacting boson model, IBM1, there are only two quantum numbers with exact values: the angular momentum and the number of bosons. IBM2 distinguishes between two kinds of bosons. However, the IBM2 algebra does not include the operators T± and consequently the states in the model have no good isospin, generally. IBM3 includes the isospin in the algebra and therefore the construction of states with any number of bosons and good isospin presents no problem. In this work, IBM3 is compared with the shell model. IBFM3 is also studied, which describes an odd nucleus as a system of N bosons plus a single nucleon that is a neutron with some probability and a proton with the complementary probability. The spectra obtained in the shell model, IBFM3 and IBFM2 for 45 Ti and 45 Sc are compared. (Author) [es

  13. On the elementary neural forms of interaction rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Randall Collins’ interaction ritual (IR) theory suggests solidarity as neurologically hardwired in the capacity for rhythmic entrainment. Yet, this article suggests that IR theory may benefit from being tied more firmly to recent neurological research, specifically Stephen W. Porges......’ neurophysiological polyvagal theory. IR theory does not sufficiently acknowledge the autonomic nervous system as a system involving a phylogenetically ordered response hierarchy, of which only one subsystem supports prosocial behavior. The ritual ingredients of shared attention and mood may be clarified as part...... of a social engagement system, neurally regulating attention and arousal via brain-face-heart circuits. This allows rhythmic entrainment to be specified as a neural epiphenomenon of the social engagement system. The polyvagal perspective, moreover, challenges IR theory to reconsider the importance...

  14. Intracomplex {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction between adjacent phenanthroline molecules in complexes with rare-earth nitrates: Crystal and molecular structures of bis(1,10-Phenanthroline)trinitratoytterbium and bis(1,10-Phenanthroline)trinitratolanthanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadikov, G. G., E-mail: sadgg@igic.ras.ru; Antsyshkina, A. S.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15

    Crystals of the compounds Yb(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(Phen){sub 2} and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(Phen){sub 2} (Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) are investigated using X-ray diffraction. It is established that there exist two different crystalline modifications: the main modification (phase 1) is characteristic of all members of the isostructural series, and the second modification (phase 2) is observed only for the Eu, Er, and Yb elements. It is assumed that the stability and universality of main phase 1 are associated with the occurrence of the nonbonded {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between the adjacent phenanthroline ligands in the complexes. The indication of the interactions is a distortion of the planar shape of the Phen molecule (the folding of the metallocycle along the N-N line with a folding angle of 11{sup o}-13{sup o} and its 'boomerang' distortion). The assumption regarding the {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction is very consistent with the shape of the ellipsoids of atomic thermal vibrations, as well as with the data obtained from thermography and IR spectroscopy. An analysis of the structures of a number of rare-earth compounds has demonstrated that the intracomplex {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions directly contribute to the formation of supramolecular associates in the crystals, such as molecular dimers, supramolecules, chain and layered ensembles, and framework systems.

  15. Forms and Functions of Idiomatic Expressions in Conversational Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmale, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a study of the conversational treatment of idiomatic expressions of German talk shows, the present treaty examines in which form and in which way idiomatic expressions are being employed and treated by participants in authentic conversations. Based on four conversational corpora from various domains seven different types of auto- and hetero-rephrasals and paraphrases are described. For each type general and specific functions are then analyzed. The article also deals with idiomatic expressions which remain untreated, i. e. where no subsequent activity might provide a clue as to the understanding of the idiom in question. The study thus concentrates on co(ntextual or semantic indicators which might facilitate the understanding and interpretation of untreated idioms. Finally the hypothesis is put forward that not the correct understanding of an idiom is decisive but rather the production of a next activity meeting the idiom producer's expectations. The idiom may even be misinterpreted as long as its host turn can be interpreted adequately in order to produce a conditionally relevant following turn.

  16. Role of Teacher in Forming Experience of Intercultural Interaction in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kazarenkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the teacher in the realization of one of the significant aspects of the problem of forming the experience of intercultural interaction in higher school students. The significance of personal and professional resources of the higher school teacher for the effective development in the future experts the requirement for intercultural interaction, the experience of intercultural interaction is revealed. The separate directions and forms of the activity of the teacher aimed at forming in students the experience of intercultural interaction in socially-educational space of the higher school are presented.

  17. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship.

  18. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  19. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  20. Stack gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  1. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  2. Cross-Racial Interactions during College: A Longitudinal Study of Four Forms of Interracial Interactions among Elite White College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carson Byrd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available College and universities present distinct opportunities to interact across racial and ethnic lines that may influence people’s prejudice toward different groups. This study examines the influence of four forms of cross-race interaction on traditional and modern forms of racial prejudice among white college students at 28 of the most selective colleges and universities in the US. This study finds that, although white students’ level of racial prejudice declines over four years, interracial contact during college does not significantly influence their level of prejudice. Moreover, a race-related form of social identity is the most consistent influence on students’ racial prejudice.

  3. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  4. Diffractive stacks of metamaterial lattices with a complex unit cell : Self-consistent long-range bianisotropic interactions in experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadrin, A.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces and metamaterials promise arbitrary rerouting of light using two-dimensional (2D) planar arrangements of electric and magnetic scatterers, respectively, 3D stacks built out of such 2D planes. An important problem is how to self-consistently model the response of these systems in a

  5. INTERACTIVE FORMS OF EDUCATION AS A CONDITION AND MEANS OF FORMING THE COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL-COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Nikolaevich Pustovoytov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experience in the sphere of independent cognitive activity - cognitive competence - and the experience of communication and awareness of the significance of its activity in some field - social-communicative competence are important quality of modern man. Article considers the problem of forming the informative and social-communicative competences of students. It is shown that these competencies are key personal meta- and cross-competencies. Psycho-pedagogical strategies supporting their formation can be designed and implemented as a unified process. Effective medium formation of experience in the field of self-regulated learning, communicative experience and awareness of the personal importance of cognitive activity is learning academic subjects, and the condition and means - interactive forms of learning. The implementation of group-differentiated form of organization of students is analyzed in this context. Results of the study outlined in this article, have contributed to the problems of implementing competence-based approach to learning. 

  6. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the energetic contributions to π stacking in nucleic acids versus rise, twist, and slide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Trent M; Hohenstein, Edward G; Parrish, Robert M; Hud, Nicholas V; Sherrill, C David

    2013-01-30

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is applied to pairs of hydrogen-bonded nucleobases to obtain the energetic components of base stacking (electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, induction/polarization, and London dispersion interactions) and how they vary as a function of the helical parameters Rise, Twist, and Slide. Computed average values of Rise and Twist agree well with experimental data for B-form DNA from the Nucleic Acids Database, even though the model computations omitted the backbone atoms (suggesting that the backbone in B-form DNA is compatible with having the bases adopt their ideal stacking geometries). London dispersion forces are the most important attractive component in base stacking, followed by electrostatic interactions. At values of Rise typical of those in DNA (3.36 Å), the electrostatic contribution is nearly always attractive, providing further evidence for the importance of charge-penetration effects in π-π interactions (a term neglected in classical force fields). Comparison of the computed stacking energies with those from model complexes made of the "parent" nucleobases purine and 2-pyrimidone indicates that chemical substituents in DNA and RNA account for 20-40% of the base-stacking energy. A lack of correspondence between the SAPT results and experiment for Slide in RNA base-pair steps suggests that the backbone plays a larger role in determining stacking geometries in RNA than in B-form DNA. In comparisons of base-pair steps with thymine versus uracil, the thymine methyl group tends to enhance the strength of the stacking interaction through a combination of dispersion and electrosatic interactions.

  7. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  8. Interfacial, Electrical, and Band Alignment Characteristics of HfO2/Ge Stacks with In Situ-Formed SiO2 Interlayer by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan-Qiang; Wu, Bing; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2017-05-01

    In situ-formed SiO2 was introduced into HfO2 gate dielectrics on Ge substrate as interlayer by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The interfacial, electrical, and band alignment characteristics of the HfO2/SiO2 high-k gate dielectric stacks on Ge have been well investigated. It has been demonstrated that Si-O-Ge interlayer is formed on Ge surface during the in situ PEALD SiO2 deposition process. This interlayer shows fantastic thermal stability during annealing without obvious Hf-silicates formation. In addition, it can also suppress the GeO2 degradation. The electrical measurements show that capacitance equivalent thickness of 1.53 nm and a leakage current density of 2.1 × 10-3 A/cm2 at gate bias of Vfb + 1 V was obtained for the annealed sample. The conduction (valence) band offsets at the HfO2/SiO2/Ge interface with and without PDA are found to be 2.24 (2.69) and 2.48 (2.45) eV, respectively. These results indicate that in situ PEALD SiO2 may be a promising interfacial control layer for the realization of high-quality Ge-based transistor devices. Moreover, it can be demonstrated that PEALD is a much more powerful technology for ultrathin interfacial control layer deposition than MOCVD.

  9. Skyrme-model πNN form factor and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzwarth, G.; Machleidt, R.

    1997-01-01

    We apply the strong πNN form factor, which emerges from the Skyrme model, in the two-nucleon system using a one-boson-exchange (OBE) model for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Deuteron properties and phase parameters of NN scattering are reproduced well. In contrast to the form factor of monopole shape that is traditionally used in OBE models, the Skyrme form factor leaves low-momentum transfers essentially unaffected while it suppresses the high-momentum region strongly. It turns out that this behavior is very appropriate for models of the NN interaction and makes it possible to use a soft pion form factor in the NN system. As a consequence, the πN and the NN systems can be described using the same πNN form factor, which is impossible with the monopole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Resistive switching mechanism of ZnO/ZrO2-stacked resistive random access memory device annealed at 300 °C by sol-gel method with forming-free operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Yi; You, Hsin-Chiang; Wu, Cheng-Yen

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we used a sol-gel process to fabricate a ZnO-ZrO2-stacked resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) device and investigated its switching mechanism. The Gibbs free energy in ZnO, which is higher than that in ZrO2, facilitates the oxidation and reduction reactions of filaments in the ZnO layer. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device revealed a forming-free operation because of nonlattice oxygen in the oxide layer. In addition, the device can operate under bipolar or unipolar conditions with a reset voltage of 0 to ±2 V, indicating that in this device, Joule heating dominates at reset and the electric field dominates in the set process. Furthermore, the characteristics reveal why the fabricated device exhibits a greater discrete distribution phenomenon for the set voltage than for the reset voltage. These results will enable the fabrication of future ReRAM devices with double-layer oxide structures with improved characteristics.

  11. Single camera analyses in studying pattern forming dynamics of player interactions in team sports.

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandes, Orlando; Folgado, Hugo; Araújo, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A network of patterned interactions between players characterises team ball sports. Thus, interpersonal coordination patterns are an important topic in the study of performance in such sports. A very useful method has been the study of inter-individual interactions captured by a single camera filming an extended performance area. The appropriate collection of positional data allows investigating the pattern forming dynamics emerging in different performance sub-phases of team ball sports. Thi...

  12. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  13. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  14. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  15. Short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie L; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are commonly used self-report measures that assess 2 dimensions of social anxiety. Given the need for short, readable measures, this research proposes short forms of both scales. Item-level analyses of readability characteristics of the SIAS and SPS items led to the selection of 6 items from each scale for use in the short forms. The SIAS and SPS short forms had reading levels at approximately the 6th and 5th grade level, respectively. Results using nonclinical (Study 1: N = 469) and clinical (Study 2: N = 145) samples identified these short forms as being factorially sound, possessing adequate internal consistency, and having strong convergence with their full-length counterparts. Moreover, these short forms showed convergence with other measures of social anxiety, showed divergence from measures assessing related constructs, and predicted concurrent interpersonal functioning. Recommendations for the use of these short forms are discussed.

  16. Relativistic two-fermion equations with form factors and anomalous magnetic moment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1977-04-01

    Relativistic equations for two-fermion systems are derived from quantum field theory taking into account the form factors of the particles. When the q 2 dependence of the form factors is disregarded, in the static approximation, the two-fermion equations with Coulomb and anomalous magnetic moment interactions are obtained. Separating the angular variables, a sixteen-component relativistic radial equation are finally given

  17. Theoretical Substantiation of Formation of Integration Forms of Interaction of Enterprises when Developing the Innovation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoylenko Oleksandr V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues, connected with activation of innovation activity of engineering enterprises on the basis of application of integration forms of interaction. It justifies a necessity of formation of infrastructure of interaction of an enterprise when introducing innovation models of development with consideration of realisation of goals of all interested parties. The article offers a generalised scheme of organisational interaction of an enterprise in external environment and a matrix of functional provision of the integration process. The theoretical approach that is considered in the article allows increase of innovation activity of engineering enterprises and minimisation of expenditures of own resources when realising innovation policy of an enterprise.

  18. Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Luchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography The article proves the necessity and possibility of compiling dictionaries with intermediate existence status glossary units, to which the word equivalents belong. In order to form the Ukrainian-Polish dictionary glossary of this type the form and meaning analysis of Ukrainian and Polish word equivalents is done, the common and distinctive features of these language system elements are described, the compiling principles of such dictionary are clarified.

  19. Forms of Mediation: The Case of Interpreter-Mediated Interactions in Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the forms of mediation in interlinguistic interactions performed in Italian healthcare services and in contexts of migration. The literature encourages dialogic transformative mediation, empowering participants' voices and changing cultural presuppositions in social systems. It may be doubtful, however, whether mediation can…

  20. Microfluidic biofunctionalisation protocols to form multi-valent interactions for cell rolling and phenotype modification investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Simone, Giuseppina; Malara, Natalia Maria; La Rocca, Rosanna; Tallerico, Rossana; Catalano, Rossella; Pardeo, Francesca; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Giovanni; Carbone, Ennio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    for cellomic studies. Based on this principle, we exploit the streptavidin-biotin interaction to couple antibodies to the biofunctionalised microfluidic environment within 5 h using 200 μL of reagents and biomolecules. We selected the antibodies able to form

  1. Urban form and psychosocial factors : Do they interact for leisure-time walking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, Mariëlle A.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Prins, Richard G.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Burdorf, Alex; Van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study uses an adaptation of a social-ecological model on the hierarchy of walking needs to explore direct associations and interactions of urban-form characteristics and individual psychosocial factors for leisure-time walking. METHODS: Questionnaire data (n = 736)

  2. Features of Interaction of Business and Government in the Form of Public-private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana N. Taranenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today modernization of relations between the government and the business sector is an important issue particularly relevant in the context of financial globalization in the transition to a market economy. The paper discusses the theoretical concept of public-private partnership, as a form of business organization, combining the functional features of an independent firm or companies and the government, which implementation is caused by the need to ensure the production of the most important benefits in various areas, as well as the features of the interaction of business and government. It is proposed to highlight the definition of public-private partnerships in the form of a special system of relations of economic agents, as well to determine the required features that separate this form of interaction as a partnership from other forms of interaction. Also the authors consider a system of public-private partnership in terms of coordination of joint relations between the government and business, try to identify the basic principles of interaction between the participants, identify their main advantages that each of the participants in the partnership seeks to contribute to the joint project, and identifiess areas to support sustainable development the country's economy. The paper describes the problems associated with the implementation of projects in the public-private partnership system and suggests ways to improve them, discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of such members, as the government and business.

  3. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  4. Correlated lateral phase separations in stacks of lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Takuma, E-mail: hoshino-takuma@ed.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Komura, Shigeyuki, E-mail: komura@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Andelman, David, E-mail: andelman@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-28

    Motivated by the experimental study of Tayebi et al. [Nat. Mater. 11, 1074 (2012)] on phase separation of stacked multi-component lipid bilayers, we propose a model composed of stacked two-dimensional Ising spins. We study both its static and dynamical features using Monte Carlo simulations with Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics that conserves the order parameter. We show that at thermodynamical equilibrium, due to strong inter-layer correlations, the system forms a continuous columnar structure for any finite interaction across adjacent layers. Furthermore, the phase separation shows a faster dynamics as the inter-layer interaction is increased. This temporal behavior is mainly due to an effective deeper temperature quench because of the larger value of the critical temperature, T{sub c}, for larger inter-layer interaction. When the temperature ratio, T/T{sub c}, is kept fixed, the temporal growth exponent does not increase and even slightly decreases as a function of the increased inter-layer interaction.

  5. Interaction between droplets in a ternary microemulsion evaluated by the relative form factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the concentration dependence of the interaction between water droplets coated by a surfactant monolayer using the contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering technique. In the first part, we explain the idea of how to extract a relatively model free structure factor from the scattering data, which is called the relative form factor method. In the second part, the experimental results for the shape of the droplets (form factor) are described. In the third part the relatively model free structure factor is shown, and finally the concentration dependence of the interaction potential between droplets is discussed. The result indicates the validity of the relative form factor method, and the importance of the estimation of the model free structure factor to discuss the nature of structure formation in microemulsion systems

  6. Effects of molecular interactions and the existence of different molecular forms of sodium fluoresceinate in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubeva, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurement of fluorescence and absorption spectra of sodium fluoresceinate (FLNa) in different solutions and blood plasma are presented. The influence of solvent nature, its polarity, medium concentration and acidity on frequency, intensity and shape of fluorescence and absorption lines was analyzed. A general medium effect on fluorescence line spectral absorption was calculated from Lippert's equation. The influence of specific interactions has been analyzed on the example of acid-base interactions and hydrogen bonds in two- and multicomponent solutions. Computer processing of the spectra obtained allows to separate some forms of existing fluorophor molecules and to get data on the dynamics of their changes in different solutions. A special attention was given to the analysis of absorption and fluorescence bands of FLNa at its interaction with different proteins and lipids in solutions. From the analysis of data obtained a number of conclusions was drawn on the state of fluophor at its interactions with biological media. (author)

  7. Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B. J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V., E-mail: veronika.haug@de.bosch.com; Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-11-07

    In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

  8. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  9. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  10. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies

  11. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  12. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  13. Chiral-model of weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of octet baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, K.; Kohyama, Y.; Tsushima, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-01-01

    For baryon spectroscopy, magnetic moments and weak interaction form factors provide valuable information, and the impressive amount of available experimental data on these quantities for the octet baryons invites detailed investigations. The authors of this paper have made extensive studies of the weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of the octet baryons within the framework of the volume-type cloudy-bag model (v-type CBM). The clouds of all octet mesons have been included. Furthermore, we have taken into account in a unified framework various effects that were so far only individually discussed in the literature. Thus, the gluonic effects, center-of-mass (CM0 corrections, and recoil corrections have been included). In this talk, after giving a brief summary of some salient features of the results, we discuss a very interesting application of our model to the problem of the spin content of nucleons

  14. Secondary phases formed during nuclear waste glass-water interactions: Thermodynamic and derived properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of secondary phases observed to form during nuclear waste glass-water interactions are of particular interest as it is with the application of these properties together with the thermodynamic properties of other solid phases, fluid phases, and aqueous species that one may predict the environmental consequences of introducing radionuclides contained in the glass into groundwater at a high-level nuclear waste repository. The validation of these predicted consequences can be obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations at natural analogue sites. The purpose of this report is to update and expand the previous compilation (McKenzie, 1991) of thermodynamic data retrieved from the literature and/or estimated for secondary phases observed to form (and candidate phases from observed chemical compositions) during nuclear waste glass-water interactions. In addition, this report includes provisionally recommended thermodynamic data of secondary phases

  15. Influence of the Communication Channel on the Forms of Impoliteness in Company-Customer Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Pierre-Nicolas; Rosier, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to examine verbal violence in companies’ answers sent in response to customers’ complaints through two different channels: online (on a public forum) vs. offline (by postal mail). We draw on a recent body of marketing literature pertaining to employees’ dysfunctional behaviors, as well as on conceptualizations of impoliteness, to analyze which role the communication method plays on the forms of impoliteness taken in those interactions.The online dataset of impolite answ...

  16. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  17. Method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, and device provided with such a thin film barrier stack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, such as, for instance, an OLED, wherein the thin film barrier stack forms a barrier to at least moisture and oxygen, wherein the stack is built up from a combination of org. and inorg. layers, characterized in that a

  18. Interactive forms of conducting business and role games in dialogical training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, L.; Yushkov, E.; Yakovlev, D.; Bogatyreova, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mastering interactive technologies by teachers of higher educational institutions is the basis of enhancing the quality of education. The competent use of interactive forms of business and role-play games at seminars strengthens a pedagogical effect on the development of the culture of thinking, professional and personal qualities of students, as well as provides an in-depth study of the subject and acquisition of scientific cognition methods. Dialogical thinking creates a truly open mind for sharing opinions and freely discussing suggestions made by the participants, especially in situations of seeking effective task-solving methods. In order to train competitive graduates, ready to act efficiently in their future career, it is necessary to apply innovational interactive technologies in the educational process.

  19. Understanding Motivations and User Interests as Antecedents for Different Interaction Forms in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  20. Forming H-shaped and barrel-shaped nebulae with interacting jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Muhammad; Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of two opposite jets with large opening angles launched from a binary stellar system into a previously ejected shell and show that the interaction can form barrel-like and H-like shapes in the descendant nebula. Such features are observed in planetary nebulae (PNe) and supernova remnants. Under our assumption, the dense shell is formed by a short instability phase of the giant star as it interacts with a stellar companion, and the jets are then launched by the companion as it accretes mass through an accretion disc from the giant star. We find that the H-shaped and barrel-shaped morphological features that the jets form evolve with time, and that there are complicated flow patterns, such as vortices, instabilities, and caps moving ahead along the symmetry axis. We compare our numerical results with images of 12 PNe, and show that jet-shell interaction that we simulate can account for the barrel-like or H-like morphologies that are observed in these PNe.

  1. Interactive language learning by robots: the transition from babbling to word forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Caroline; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Saunders, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of humanoid robots has enabled a new approach to investigating the acquisition of language, and we report on the development of robots able to acquire rudimentary linguistic skills. Our work focuses on early stages analogous to some characteristics of a human child of about 6 to 14 months, the transition from babbling to first word forms. We investigate one mechanism among many that may contribute to this process, a key factor being the sensitivity of learners to the statistical distribution of linguistic elements. As well as being necessary for learning word meanings, the acquisition of anchor word forms facilitates the segmentation of an acoustic stream through other mechanisms. In our experiments some salient one-syllable word forms are learnt by a humanoid robot in real-time interactions with naive participants. Words emerge from random syllabic babble through a learning process based on a dialogue between the robot and the human participant, whose speech is perceived by the robot as a stream of phonemes. Numerous ways of representing the speech as syllabic segments are possible. Furthermore, the pronunciation of many words in spontaneous speech is variable. However, in line with research elsewhere, we observe that salient content words are more likely than function words to have consistent canonical representations; thus their relative frequency increases, as does their influence on the learner. Variable pronunciation may contribute to early word form acquisition. The importance of contingent interaction in real-time between teacher and learner is reflected by a reinforcement process, with variable success. The examination of individual cases may be more informative than group results. Nevertheless, word forms are usually produced by the robot after a few minutes of dialogue, employing a simple, real-time, frequency dependent mechanism. This work shows the potential of human-robot interaction systems in studies of the dynamics of early language

  2. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  3. Current interactions from the one-form sector of nonlinear higher-spin equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The form of higher-spin current interactions in the sector of one-forms is derived from the nonlinear higher-spin equations in AdS4. Quadratic corrections to higher-spin equations are shown to be independent of the phase of the parameter η = exp ⁡ iφ in the full nonlinear higher-spin equations. The current deformation resulting from the nonlinear higher-spin equations is represented in the canonical form with the minimal number of space-time derivatives. The non-zero spin-dependent coupling constants of the resulting currents are determined in terms of the higher-spin coupling constant η η bar . Our results confirm the conjecture that (anti-)self-dual nonlinear higher-spin equations result from the full system at (η = 0) η bar = 0.

  4. High-Density Stacked Ru Nanocrystals for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Mao; Zhi-Gang, Zhang; Li-Yang, Pan; Jun, Xu; Pei-Yi, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stacked ruthenium (Ru) nanocrystals (NCs) are formed by rapid thermal annealing for the whole gate stacks and embedded in memory structure, which is compatible with conventional CMOS technology. Ru NCs with high density (3 × 10 12 cm −2 ), small size (2–4 nm) and good uniformity both in aerial distribution and morphology are formed. Attributed to the higher surface trap density, a memory window of 5.2 V is obtained with stacked Ru NCs in comparison to that of 3.5 V with single-layer samples. The stacked Ru NCs device also exhibits much better retention performance because of Coulomb blockade and vertical uniformity between stacked Ru NCs

  5. A closed form for the electrostatic interaction between two rod-like charged objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, M; Abouie, J

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the electrostatic interaction between two rod-like charged objects with arbitrary orientations in three dimensions. We obtained a closed-form formula expressing the interaction energy in terms of the separation distance between the centers of the two rod-like objects, r, their lengths (denoted by 2l 1 and 2l 2 ) and their relative orientations (indicated by θ and φ). When the objects have the same length (2l 1 = 2l 2 = l), for particular values of separations, i.e. for r ≤ 0.8l, two types of minimum appear in the interaction energy with respect to θ. By employing the closed-form formula and introducing a scaled temperature t, we have also studied the thermodynamic properties of a 1D system of rod-like charged objects. For different separation distances, the dependence of the specific heat of the system to the scaled temperature has been studied. It is found that, for r < 0.8l, the specific heat has a maximum.

  6. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  7. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  8. Interaction of water with oriented DNA in the A- and B-form conformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, R.; Rupprecht, A.; Kearns, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    High resolution 2 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to investigate the interaction of D 2 O with solid samples of uniaxially oriented Li-DNA (B-form DNA) and Na-DNA (A- and B-form DNA). At low levels of hydration, 0 approximately 4 D 2 O/nucleotide, the 2 H spectra shows a very weak (due to short T2) broad single resonance, suggestive of unrestricted rotational diffusion of the water. At approximately 5 or more D 2 O/nucleotide, the Li-DNA (B-form) spectra suddenly exhibit a large doublet splitting, characteristic of partially ordered water. With increasing hydration, the general trend is a decrease of this splitting. From our analysis we show that the DNA water structure reorganizes as the DNA is progressively hydrated. The D 2 O interaction with Na-DNA is rather different than with Li-DNA. Below 10 D 2 O/nucleotide Na-DNA is normally expected to be in the A-form, and a small, or negligible splitting is observed. In the range 9-19 D 2 O/nucleotide, the splitting increases with increasing hydration. Above approximately 20 D 2 O/nucleotide Na-DNA converts entirely to the B-form and the D 2 O splittings are then similar to those found in Li-DNA. We show that the complex Na-DNA results obtained in the range 0-20 D 2 O/nucleotide are caused by a mixture of A- and B-DNA in those samples

  9. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  10. Chemotherapy drugs form ion pores in membranes due to physical interactions with lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Duszyk, Marek; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate the effects on membrane of the tubulin-binding chemotherapy drugs: thiocolchicoside and taxol. Electrophysiology recordings across lipid membranes in aqueous phases containing drugs were used to investigate the drug effects on membrane conductance. Molecular dynamics simulation of the chemotherapy drug-lipid complexes was used to elucidate the mechanism at an atomistic level. Both drugs are observed to induce stable ion-flowing pores across membranes. Discrete pore current-time plots exhibit triangular conductance events in contrast to rectangular ones found for ion channels. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that drugs and lipids experience electrostatic and van der Waals interactions for short periods of time when found within each other's proximity. The energies from these two interactions are found to be similar to the energies derived theoretically using the screened Coulomb and the van der Waals interactions between peptides and lipids due to mainly their charge properties while forming peptide-induced ion channels in lipid bilayers. Experimental and in silico studies together suggest that the chemotherapy drugs induce ion pores inside lipid membranes due to drug-lipid physical interactions. The findings reveal cytotoxic effects of drugs on the cell membrane, which may aid in novel drug development for treatment of cancer and other diseases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Evaluation of virtual environment as a form of interactive resuscitation exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Piotr; Charuta, Anna; Kołodziejczak, Barbara; Roszak, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    There is scientific evidence confirming the effectiveness of e-learning within resuscitation, however, there is not enough research on modern examination techniques within the scope. The aim of the pilot research is to compare the exam results in the field of Advanced Life Support in a traditional (paper) and interactive (computer) form as well as to evaluate satisfaction of the participants. A survey was conducted which meant to evaluate satisfaction of exam participants. Statistical analysis of the collected data was conducted at a significance level of α = 0.05 using STATISTICS v. 12. Final results of the traditional exam (67.5% ± 15.8%) differed significantly (p test. Significant differences between the results of a traditional test and the one supported by Computer Based Learning system showed the possibility of achieving a more detailed competence verification in the field of resuscitation thanks to interactive solutions.

  12. Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel A; Weeks, Justin W; Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; McEvoy, Peter M; Horswill, Samantha C; Heimberg, Richard G

    2014-12-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) are companion scales developed to measure anxiety in social interaction and performance situations, respectively. The measures have strong discriminant and convergent validity; however, their factor structures remain debated, and furthermore, the combined administration length (i.e., 39 items) can be prohibitive for some settings. There have been 4 attempts to assess the factor structures of the scales and reduce the item content: the 14-item Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009), the 12-item SIAS-6/SPS-6 (Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012), the 21-item abbreviated SIAS/SPS (ASIAS/ASPS; Kupper & Denollet, 2012), and the 12-item Readability SIAS and SPS (RSIAS/RSPS; Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012). The current study compared the short forms on (a) factor structure, (b) ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations, (c) sensitivity to change following therapy, and (d) convergent validity with related measures. Participants included 3,607 undergraduate students (55% women) and 283 patients with social anxiety disorder (43% women). Results of confirmatory factor analyses, sensitivity analyses, and correlation analyses support the robust utility of items in the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 relative to the other short forms; furthermore, the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 were also supported by convergent validity analyses within the undergraduate sample. The RSIAS/RSPS and the ASIAS/ASPS were least supported, based on the current results and the principle of parsimony. Accordingly, researchers and clinicians should consider carefully which of the short forms will best suit their needs. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  14. EFFECTS OF NEUTRINO ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS ON NEUTRINO INTERACTION WITH FINITE TEMPERATURE ELECTRON MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Sulaksono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross-section of neutrino interaction with dense and warm electron gasses has been calculated by takinginto account the neutrino electromagnetic form factors. The significant effect of electromagnetic properties of neutrinocan be found if the neutrino dipole moment, μ ν , is ≥ 5.10-9 μB and neutrino charge radius, Rv, is ≥ 5.10-6 MeV-1. Theimportance of the retarded correction, detailed balance and Pauli blocking factors is shown and analyzed. Many-bodyeffects on the target matter which are included via random phase approximation (RPA correlation as well as photoneffective mass are also investigated.

  15. Searching new forms of social and discursive interaction in virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Elena Turizo Arzuza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary society, the technology provides great benefits to the educational processes and knowledge management. Given the avalanche of media products, education in Latin America welcomes the virtuality, as a complementing to classroom activity or as distance methodology, whose distinguishing feature is the use of Information Technology and Communication (ICT. Thus, we have new forms of social and discursive interaction that give dynamic to academic and research processes, by strengthening collective intelligence enriched by the experiences of the users. As teachers or students, we must prepare to accept with responsibility, the technological tools available.

  16. FcγRll: Characterisation of novel Fc receptor interactions and a new receptor form.

    OpenAIRE

    JESSICA CLAIRE ANANIA

    2018-01-01

    Leukocyte Fc receptors (FcR) bind to immunogloulins (Ig) to link the innate and humoral immune system to help balance the immune system and clear infections. We have characterised a novel FcR for IgG (FcγR) form, designated FcγRIIa3, which contains a 19 amino acid insert. This insert interacts with cytoskeletal structures allowing the receptor to be retained for longer periods of time at the cells surface upon activation, higher cell signalling which causes greater cellular activation. Theref...

  17. Designing products as an integral part of choreography of interaction : the product's form as an integral part of movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, S.; Overbeeke, C.J.; Feijs, L.; Kyffin, S.; Young, B.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in design research concentrate on two themes (1) the unity of form, function and interaction and (2) the semantics of movement. The Design Movement approach incorporates unity of form, function and interaction through movement. Design Movement introduces the design of products as

  18. Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mancuso, Francesco P; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the

  19. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  20. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Sekerin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  1. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  2. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  3. Calculation of the hyperfine interaction using an effective-operator form of many-body theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garpman, S.; Lindgren, I.; Lindgren, J.; Morrison, J.

    1975-01-01

    The effective-operator form of many-body theory is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the hyperfine structure. Numerical results are given for the 2p, 3p, and 4p excited states of Li and the 3p state of Na. This is the first complete calculation of the hyperfine structure using an effective-operator form of perturbation theory. As in the Brueckner-Goldstone form of many-body theory, the various terms in the perturbation expansion are represented by Feynman diagrams which correspond to basic physical processes. The angular part of the perturbation diagrams are evaluated by taking advantage of the formal analogy between the Feynman diagrams and the angular-momentum diagrams, introduced by Jucys et al. The radial part of the diagrams is calculated by solving one- and two-particle equations for the particular linear combination of excited states that contribute to the Feynman diagrams. In this way all second- and third-order effects are accurately evaluated without explicitly constructing the excited orbitals. For the 2p state of Li our results are in agreement with the calculations of Nesbet and of Hameed and Foley. However, our quadrupole calculation disagrees with the work of Das and co-workers. The many-body results for Li and Na are compared with semiempirical methods for evaluating the quadrupole moment from the hyperfine interaction, and a new quadrupole moment of 23 Na is given

  4. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  6. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  7. SEARCH OF MECHANISMS AND FORMS OF COOPERATION INTERACTION IN CHAINS OF DELIVERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny V. Brykin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article features of development of the Russian model of mixed economy and integration of the private, public and state beginnings, and also conditions of financial and economic uncertainty which introduced the additional, difficult operated risks and problems to domestic industrial production are considered. According to the author, in modern conditions, considering external calls and threats, and also internal risks, coordination in cooperation communications is of particular importance. Exactly here the greatest extent of development of cooperation communications and tools of an innovative paradigm of development of business is required. The author gives examples of mechanisms and forms of cooperation interaction in chains of deliveries and offers coordination options in cooperation communications in the conditions of an economic crisis. 

  8. π-exchange NN interaction model with overlapping nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, X.

    1986-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction model includes a π-exchange and takes into account the first excited state Δ(1232) of the nucleon. It is supplemented by a short-range repulsion which has been derived from the nucleon form factor (rms radius b/sub f/) combined with the three-quark wave function (rms radius b/sub q/). The optimization of the model on empirical scattering phase shifts below 300 MeV gives, for a minimum chi 2 , the root-mean-square radii b/sub f/ = b/sub q/ = 0.51 fm and a coupling constant G/sub π/ 2 /4π = 13

  9. METHODOLOGY FOR FORMING MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL NETWORK INTERACTION BETWEEN SMALL CITIES AND DISTRICT CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for networking between small towns and regional centres on the basis of developing areas of mutual benefit. It is important to assess the possibility of cooperation between small towns and regional centres and local selfgovernment bodies on the example of individual territorial entities of Russia in the context of the formation and strengthening of networks and support for territorial development. Methods Systemic and functional methodical approaches were taken. The modelling of socio-economic processes provides a visual representation of the direction of positive changes for small towns and regional centres of selected Subjects of the Russian Federation. Results Specific examples of cooperation between small towns and district centres are revealed in some areas; these include education, trade and public catering, tourist and recreational activities. The supporting role of subsystems, including management, regulatory activity, transport and logistics, is described. Schemes, by to which mutually beneficial network interaction is formed, are characterised in terms of the specific advantages accruing to each network subject. Economic benefits of realising interaction between small cities and regional centres are discussed. The methodology is based on assessing the access of cities to commutation, on which basis contemporary regional and city networks are formed. Conclusion On the basis of the conducted study, a list of areas for mutually beneficial networking between small towns and district centres has been identified, allowing the appropriate changes in regional economic policies to be effected in terms of programmes aimed at the development of regions and small towns, including those suffering from economic depression.

  10. The correlation between fragility, density, and atomic interaction in glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijin; Guan, Pengfei, E-mail: pguan@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193 (China); Wang, W. H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-07-21

    The fragility that controls the temperature-dependent viscous properties of liquids as the glass transition is approached, in various glass-forming liquids with different softness of the repulsive part of atomic interactions at different densities, is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. We show that the landscape of fragility in purely repulsive systems can be separated into three regions denoted as R{sub I,} R{sub II}, and R{sub III}, respectively, with qualitatively disparate dynamic behaviors: R{sub I} which can be described by “softness makes strong glasses,” R{sub II} where fragility is independent of softness and can only be tuned by density, and R{sub III} with constant fragility, suggesting that density plays an unexpected role for understanding the repulsive softness dependence of fragility. What is more important is that we unify the long-standing inconsistence with respect to the repulsive softness dependence of fragility by observing that a glass former can be tuned more fragile if nonperturbative attraction is added into it. Moreover, we find that the vastly dissimilar influences of attractive interaction on fragility could be estimated from the structural properties of related zero-temperature glasses.

  11. The correlation between fragility, density, and atomic interaction in glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijin; Guan, Pengfei; Wang, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    The fragility that controls the temperature-dependent viscous properties of liquids as the glass transition is approached, in various glass-forming liquids with different softness of the repulsive part of atomic interactions at different densities, is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. We show that the landscape of fragility in purely repulsive systems can be separated into three regions denoted as R I, R II , and R III , respectively, with qualitatively disparate dynamic behaviors: R I which can be described by “softness makes strong glasses,” R II where fragility is independent of softness and can only be tuned by density, and R III with constant fragility, suggesting that density plays an unexpected role for understanding the repulsive softness dependence of fragility. What is more important is that we unify the long-standing inconsistence with respect to the repulsive softness dependence of fragility by observing that a glass former can be tuned more fragile if nonperturbative attraction is added into it. Moreover, we find that the vastly dissimilar influences of attractive interaction on fragility could be estimated from the structural properties of related zero-temperature glasses.

  12. The correlation between fragility, density, and atomic interaction in glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijin; Guan, Pengfei; Wang, W H

    2016-07-21

    The fragility that controls the temperature-dependent viscous properties of liquids as the glass transition is approached, in various glass-forming liquids with different softness of the repulsive part of atomic interactions at different densities, is investigated by molecular dynamic simulations. We show that the landscape of fragility in purely repulsive systems can be separated into three regions denoted as RI, RII, and RIII, respectively, with qualitatively disparate dynamic behaviors: RI which can be described by "softness makes strong glasses," RII where fragility is independent of softness and can only be tuned by density, and RIII with constant fragility, suggesting that density plays an unexpected role for understanding the repulsive softness dependence of fragility. What is more important is that we unify the long-standing inconsistence with respect to the repulsive softness dependence of fragility by observing that a glass former can be tuned more fragile if nonperturbative attraction is added into it. Moreover, we find that the vastly dissimilar influences of attractive interaction on fragility could be estimated from the structural properties of related zero-temperature glasses.

  13. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  14. APPLICATION OF FORMS AND METHODS OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF INNOVATIONS THROUGH THE INTERACTION OF UNIVERSITIES AND ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana E. Sitnikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of formation of economy based on knowledge, a key condition for successful development is the effective integration of science, education and business. Currently, the commercialization of innovation becomes a necessary factor for sustainable development of universities, one of their main tools to increase its competitiveness in the market of educational services and products. The efficiency of the process of innovation commercialization is conditioned by the rational choice of forms and methods of implementing this process. The interaction of universities and enterprises in the innovative clusters provides benefits such as effective dissemination of information about the creation of innovations, the relevant areas of research, the granting of preferences to cluster participants. The creation of technoparks suggests the presence of a specially allocated site, which houses many new businesses, so that existing institutions can only be partners of the technopark. From the point of view of commercialization of University innovation, the cluster seems to be a more attractive method compared with the creation of technology parks, but its application is necessary to adjust the approach to conducting the state policy in the field of innovation management. The interaction of universities and enterprises via an intermediary – the chamber of commerce and industry – can be described as an obstacle to the commercialization of university innovations. On the contrary, technological innovation center protects the interests of universities, rather than enterprises, as it is created to facilitate the commercialization of university innovation. Direct interaction of universities and enterprises becomes possible with the help of methods of a single transaction, a regular cooperation and a contract for the supply of innovation. The choice of methods of commercialization of innovations should be made on the basis of existing university

  15. Pi-pi Stacking Mediated Cooperative Mechanism for Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Fa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily with responsibility for metabolizing ~50% of clinical drugs. Experimental evidence showed that CYP3A4 can adopt multiple substrates in its active site to form a cooperative binding model, accelerating substrate metabolism efficiency. In the current study, we constructed both normal and cooperative binding models of human CYP3A4 with antifungal drug ketoconazoles (KLN. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation were then carried out to study the cooperative binding mechanism. Our simulation showed that the second KLN in the cooperative binding model had a positive impact on the first one binding in the active site by two significant pi-pi stacking interactions. The first one was formed by Phe215, functioning to position the first KLN in a favorable orientation in the active site for further metabolism reactions. The second one was contributed by Phe304. This pi-pi stacking was enhanced in the cooperative binding model by the parallel conformation between the aromatic rings in Phe304 and the dioxolan moiety of the first KLN. These findings can provide an atomic insight into the cooperative binding in CYP3A4, revealing a novel pi-pi stacking mechanism for drug-drug interactions.

  16. Essential Assembly Factor Rpf2 Forms Novel Interactions within the 5S RNP in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamina, Anyango D; Jaremko, Daniel; Christen, Linda; Williams, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    the regulatory checkpoints during ribosome biogenesis. We have previously characterized the 5S RNP in T. brucei and showed that trypanosome-specific proteins P34 and P37 are part of this complex. In this study, we characterize for the first time the interactions of the homolog of the assembly factor Rpf2 with members of the 5S RNP in another organism besides fungi. Our studies show that Rpf2 is essential in T. brucei and that it forms unique interactions within the 5S RNP, particularly with P34 and P37. These studies have identified parasite-specific interactions that can potentially function as new therapeutic targets against sleeping sickness.

  17. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  18. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  19. Interactions of two co-propagating laser beams in underdense plasmas using a generalized Peaceman-Rachford ADI form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, A.I.

    2005-12-01

    A generalized Peaceman-Rachford (P-R) ADI form based on the regularized finite difference scheme is employed in order to study the interactions of two co-propagating laser beams in underdense plasmas. A numerical algorithm using the P-R ADI form is constructed for solution of coupled 2D time-dependent non-linear Schroedinger equations for quasineutral plasmas in paraxial approximation. The ability of the form to solve the equations is discussed, and its performance in simulating phenomena associated with the interactions in the presence of pondermotive nonlinearity and relativistic nonlinearity is examined. It is shown that the generalized P-R ADI form can accurately solve the coupled NLS equations. With simulation results, the form is shown to be suitable to simulate the interactions of two co-propagating laser beams with underdense plasma, and it can successively simulate the associated phenomena at varying conditions. (author)

  20. Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    ) accumulation within the stack, reducing overall system performance. The management and minimization of bubbles formed in RED flow fields is an important operational issue which has yet to be addressed. Flow fields with and without spacers in RED stacks were

  1. Microfluidic biofunctionalisation protocols to form multi-valent interactions for cell rolling and phenotype modification investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we propose a fast, simple method to biofunctionalise microfluidic systems for cellomic investigations based on micro-fluidic protocols. Many available processes either require expensive and time-consuming protocols or are incompatible with the fabrication of microfluidic systems. Our method differs from the existing since it is applicable to an assembled system, uses few microlitres of reagents and it is based on the use of microbeads. The microbeads have specific surface moieties to link the biomolecules and couple cell receptors. Furthermore, the microbeads serve as arm spacer and offer the benefit of the multi-valent interaction. Microfluidics was adapted together with topology and biochemistry surface modifications to offer the microenvironment for cellomic studies. Based on this principle, we exploit the streptavidin-biotin interaction to couple antibodies to the biofunctionalised microfluidic environment within 5 h using 200 μL of reagents and biomolecules. We selected the antibodies able to form complexes with the MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules present on the cell membrane and involved in the immune surveillance. To test the microfluidic system, tumour cell lines (RMA) were rolled across the coupled antibodies to recognise and strip MHC-I molecules. As result, we show that cell rolling performed inside a microfluidic chamber functionalised with beads and the opportune antibody facilitate the removal of MHC class I molecules. We showed that the level of median fluorescent intensity of the MHC-I molecules is 300 for cells treated in a not biofunctionalised surface. It decreased to 275 for cells treated in a flat biofunctionalised surface and to 250 for cells treated on a surface where biofunctionalised microbeads were immobilised. The cells with reduced expression of MHC-I molecules showed, after cytotoxicity tests, susceptibility 3.5 times higher than normal cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Wong, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thompson, K. L., E-mail: ladd@bucknell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star

  3. Modeling The Interaction Effects Between Tools And The Work Piece For Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, Martin; Puchhala, Sreedhar; Dackweiler, Harald

    2007-01-01

    In metal forming processes especially in cold forming, elastic deformation of the tools has a big impact on the final shape of the work-piece. Computation of such processes considering the plastic effects of the work-piece and elastic deformations of the tools at a time in a single FE model complicates to manage the convergence criteria. This situation is even aggravated if the contact situations (between working and support rolls) have to be considered in the simulation, which requires a very fine discretization of the contact zones of both the tool and work piece. This paper presents recently developed concept which meets the above mentioned demands very effectively. Within this concept, the computation of the elastic effects of the tools is separated from the process simulation (which considers elastic-plastic effects of the work-piece). Both simulations are coupled via automatic data interchange, which is bi-directional, because both simulations influence each other. The advantages of this concept include a quite easy to handle contact situations in process simulation, smaller stiffness matrix compared to single model approach and good convergence of the computation. This concept is highly generalized and successfully applied to simulate rolling, drawing, extrusion and forging processes. The above mentioned concept is being implemented into the FE package PEP and LARSTRAN/SHAPE. Rolling experiments are conducted in duo and quarto configuration. Optical three-dimensional digitalizing system was used to measure the deformations within the machine and work-piece profile. These results are used for the validation of FE simulations. This work is being sponsored by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project ''Interaction effects between processes and structures-SPP1180''

  4. How Does the VSG Coat of Bloodstream Form African Trypanosomes Interact with External Proteins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Schwede

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations on the statement "the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG coat that covers the external face of the mammalian bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei acts a physical barrier" appear regularly in research articles and reviews. The concept of the impenetrable VSG coat is an attractive one, as it provides a clear model for understanding how a trypanosome population persists; each successive VSG protects the plasma membrane and is immunologically distinct from previous VSGs. What is the evidence that the VSG coat is an impenetrable barrier, and how do antibodies and other extracellular proteins interact with it? In this review, the nature of the extracellular surface of the bloodstream form trypanosome is described, and past experiments that investigated binding of antibodies and lectins to trypanosomes are analysed using knowledge of VSG sequence and structure that was unavailable when the experiments were performed. Epitopes for some VSG monoclonal antibodies are mapped as far as possible from previous experimental data, onto models of VSG structures. The binding of lectins to some, but not to other, VSGs is revisited with more recent knowledge of the location and nature of N-linked oligosaccharides. The conclusions are: (i Much of the variation observed in earlier experiments can be explained by the identity of the individual VSGs. (ii Much of an individual VSG is accessible to antibodies, and the barrier that prevents access to the cell surface is probably at the base of the VSG N-terminal domain, approximately 5 nm from the plasma membrane. This second conclusion highlights a gap in our understanding of how the VSG coat works, as several plasma membrane proteins with large extracellular domains are very unlikely to be hidden from host antibodies by VSG.

  5. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-08

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  6. A novel form of the membrane protein CD147 that contains an extra Ig-like domain and interacts homophilically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Marion H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD147 is a broadly distributed integral membrane glycoprotein with two Ig-like domains implicated in a wide range of functions. It is associated at the cell surface with the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and 4 but interactions of the extracellular region have not been characterised. Results We report the characterisation of a form of CD147 with an additional membrane-distal Ig-like domain. In contrast to the two domain form, this three domain form of CD147 interacts homophilically. Surface plasmon resonance analysis using recombinant proteins showed that the interaction was of low affinity (KD ~ 40 μM and this is typical of many interactions between membrane proteins. cDNA for the 3 domain form are rare but have been identified in human and mouse retina. Conclusion The finding that the three domain form of CD147 has an extracellular ligand, that is it interacts homophilically, suggests this interaction may be important in aligning lactate transporters in the retina where lactate is an important metabolite.

  7. Interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaolong; Tu, Yenan; Song, Chaofeng; Li, Tiancui; Lin, Juan; Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Jiantong; Wu, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Triclosan inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa at environmental relevant level. • TEM imaging showed destruction of M. aeruginosa cell ultrastructure during triclosan exposure. • Triclosan can be biotransformed by M. aeruginosa with methylation as a major pathway. • Presence of M. aeruginosa enhanced the photodegradation of triclosan. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria can co-exist in eutrophic waters with chemicals or other substances derived from personal care products discharged in wastewater. In this work, we investigate the interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa was very sensitive to TCS with the 96 h lowest observed effect concentration of 1.0 and 10 μg/L for inhibition of growth and photosynthetic activity, respectively. Exposure to TCS at environmentally relevant levels (0.1–2.0 μg/L) also affected the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the generation of reduced glutathione (GSH), while microcystin production was not affected. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination showed the destruction of M. aeruginosa cell ultrastructure during TCS exposure. TCS however, can be biotransformed by M. aeruginosa with methylation as a major biotransformation pathway. Furthermore, the presence of M. aeruginosa in solution promoted the photodegradation of TCS. Overall, our results demonstrate that M. aeruginosa plays an important role in the dissipation of TCS in aquatic environments but high residual TCS can exert toxic effects on M. aeruginosa.

  8. Interacting forms of expertise in security governance: the example of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    The paper investigates the multiple public-private exchanges and cooperation involved in the installation and development of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport. Emphasis is placed on the interacting forms of authority and expertise of five parties: the user(s), owner and supplier of the camera system, as well as the technical managers of the airport and the Swiss regulatory bodies in airport security. While placing the issues of airport surveillance in the particular context of a specific range of projects and transformations relating to the developments of CCTV at Geneva Airport, the paper not only provides important insights into the micro-politics of surveillance at Geneva Airport, but aims to re-institute these as part of a broader 'problematic': the mediating role of expertise and the growing functional fragmentation of authority in contemporary security governance. On this basis, the paper also exemplifies the growing mutual interdependences between security and business interests in the ever growing 'surveillant assemblage' in contemporary security governance.

  9. Interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaolong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wuhan Zhongke Hydrobiological Environment Engineering Co., Ltd, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tu, Yenan; Song, Chaofeng; Li, Tiancui; Lin, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Yonghong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Liu, Jiantong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, Chenxi, E-mail: chenxi.wu@ihb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Triclosan inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa at environmental relevant level. • TEM imaging showed destruction of M. aeruginosa cell ultrastructure during triclosan exposure. • Triclosan can be biotransformed by M. aeruginosa with methylation as a major pathway. • Presence of M. aeruginosa enhanced the photodegradation of triclosan. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria can co-exist in eutrophic waters with chemicals or other substances derived from personal care products discharged in wastewater. In this work, we investigate the interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa was very sensitive to TCS with the 96 h lowest observed effect concentration of 1.0 and 10 μg/L for inhibition of growth and photosynthetic activity, respectively. Exposure to TCS at environmentally relevant levels (0.1–2.0 μg/L) also affected the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the generation of reduced glutathione (GSH), while microcystin production was not affected. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination showed the destruction of M. aeruginosa cell ultrastructure during TCS exposure. TCS however, can be biotransformed by M. aeruginosa with methylation as a major biotransformation pathway. Furthermore, the presence of M. aeruginosa in solution promoted the photodegradation of TCS. Overall, our results demonstrate that M. aeruginosa plays an important role in the dissipation of TCS in aquatic environments but high residual TCS can exert toxic effects on M. aeruginosa.

  10. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Kyohei [Department of Life and Functional Material Science, Graduate School of Natural Science, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (DC1), Ichibancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8471 (Japan); Kimoto, Atsushi [Department of Chemistry of Functional Molecules, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Watanabe, Junji, E-mail: junjiknd@konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry of Functional Molecules, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10 mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH 2–11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100 μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are dominant factor for forming hydrogels. • Hydrogel properties were tuned by changing in graft length and macromonomer content in feed. • The resulting graft gel could encapsulate and retain organic dye in the hydrogel. • Poly(trimethylene carbonate) segment in the hydrogel was dominant unit for hydrogel.

  11. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Kyohei; Kimoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10 mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH 2–11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100 μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are dominant factor for forming hydrogels. • Hydrogel properties were tuned by changing in graft length and macromonomer content in feed. • The resulting graft gel could encapsulate and retain organic dye in the hydrogel. • Poly(trimethylene carbonate) segment in the hydrogel was dominant unit for hydrogel.

  12. Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A.; Premawardhena, A.; Arambepola, M.; Samaranayake, R.; Allen, S. J.; Peto, T. E. A.; Fisher, C. A.; Cook, J.; Corran, P. H.; Olivieri, Nancy F.; Weatherall, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    In many Asian populations, the commonest form of severe thalassemia results from the coinheritance of HbE and β thalassemia. The management of this disease is particularly difficult because of its extreme clinical diversity; although some genetic and adaptive factors have been identified as phenotypic modifiers, the reasons remain unclear. Because the role of the environment in the course of severe thalassemia has been neglected completely and because malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has been prevalent in Sri Lanka, we carried out a pilot study of patients with HbE β thalassemia that showed high frequencies of antibodies to both parasite species and that 28.6% of the children had DNA-based evidence of current infection with P. vivax. Malarial antibodies then were assessed in patients with HbE β thalassemia compared with those in age-matched controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of antibodies in the thalassemic patients, particularly against P. vivax and in young children. There was also a higher frequency in those who had been splenectomized compared with those with intact spleens, although in the latter it was still higher than that in the controls. The thalassemic patients showed significant correlations between malaria antibody status and phenotype. Patients with HbE β thalassemia may be more prone to malaria, particularly P. vivax, which is reflected in their clinical severity. Because P. vivax malaria is widespread in Asia, further studies of its interaction with HbE β thalassemia and related diseases are required urgently as a part of ongoing thalassemia control programs. PMID:19841268

  13. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  14. Side-chain interactions form late and cooperatively in the binding reaction between disordered peptides and PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haq, S Raza; Chi, Celestine N; Bach, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are very common and mediate numerous protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. While it is clear that these interactions are instrumental for the life of the mammalian cell, there is a paucity of data regarding their molecular binding mechanisms. We have here...... used short peptides as a model system for intrinsically disordered proteins. Linear free-energy relationships based on rate and equilibrium constants for the binding of these peptides to ordered target proteins, PDZ domains, demonstrate that native side-chain interactions form mainly after the rate......-limiting barrier for binding, in a cooperative fashion. This finding suggests that these disordered peptides first form a weak encounter complex with non-native interactions. The data do not support the recent notion that the affinities of intrinsically disordered proteins towards their targets are generally...

  15. Chemical composition of sublates (difficultly soluble substances) which form on interaction of polyvalent metal ions with potassium alkylcarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Skryleva, T.L.; Sazonova, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    The pH value is considered for its effect on chemical composition of sublates which form on interaction of fatty acid collectors (potassium alkylcarboxylate) with polyvalent ions of Ni, An, Cu and Be. It is shown that interaction of these ions with fatty acid collectors in weakly acid, neutral and weakly alkaline solutions is accompanied by formation of medium soaps. Acid soaps are formed in more acid solutions, while in more alkaline-basic soaps. Domains of stability for medium soaps of Ni, Zn, Cu and Be are determined. 17 refs.; 4 figs

  16. Influence of selenium amount on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Opasanont, B.; Haug, V. [Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Zweigart, S. [Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    In the following article the influence of selenium supply on the stacked elemental layer process during the final annealing step is investigated. We find that the Se supply strongly influences the phase formation in the Cu(In,Ga)Se {sub 2} resulting in a modified Ga/In distribution. The effects of Se supply on the structural and electronic properties of the films are reported. The solar cell performance has been investigated in detail using current voltage and external quantum efficiency measurements. We find that the chalcopyrite crystal formation is strongly influenced by the Se supply during the growth process. Furthermore the interdiffusion of Ga and In is accelerated with increasing Se amount. This has direct consequences on band gap and series resistance, which leads to changes in the values of short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The open-circuit voltage increases with increasing band gap of the Cu(In,Ga)Se {sub 2}, whereas the short-circuit current density decreases with increasing band gap. The fill factor is affected by the formation of MoSe {sub 2} at the back contact. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical efficiency limits calculated from the Shockley–Queisser model, and also with numerical 1D SCAPS simulations. - Highlights: • Adjustment of the Ga/In distribution by the Se supply • Enhanced Ga incorporation near-surface • Interdiffusion coefficients of Ga/In are investigated. • Shockley–Queisser modeling and 1D SCAPS simulations • Fill factor is strongly coupled on the MoSe2/Mo ratio.

  17. Mass matrices of weak interaction, quark flavour mixing and exponential form of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.

    1995-01-01

    The quark mixing matrix is diagonalized. The use of the exponential parametrization leads to straightforward results, obtained in exact form, without simplifying assumptions. In this study, it is defined weak interaction eigenstates in the sense of Fritzch and Planckl. The relevant mass matrices are derived and are shown to belong to Barnhill canonical forms. It is proven that, at lowest order, these matrices exhibit a democratic structure. The mechanism of democracy breaking is finally discussed

  18. Multiple forms of stakeholder interaction in environmental management: business arguments regarding differences in stakeholder relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Onkila, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    This study describes and interprets differences in stakeholder interaction as rhetorically constructed in environmental reports and in interviews with environmental managers. It also interprets the role of the natural environment among stakeholders, and discusses how that role is justified or not justified. The study focuses in a business perspective on stakeholder interaction in environmental management. Characteristically, stakeholder studies of environmental management have concentrated on...

  19. Interaction of modulated REB with plasma, formed at its transit through high-density neutral gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of investigations of the relativistic electron beam interactions with plasma, created during its penetration into neutral gas of large pressure, are presented. It is shown that by using of deeply modulated beam it is possible to avoid the depressive influence of dissipation and longitudinal nonuniform plasma density on the beam-plasma interaction efficiency

  20. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  1. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  2. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, G.; Pavan, A.; Bellacosa Marotti, R.; Campana, G.; Casco, C.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form proce...

  3. Optimal Stack Layout in a Sea Container Terminal with Automated Lifting Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, D.; Gupta, A.; Parhi, S.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContainer terminal performance is largely determined by its design decisions, which include the number and type of quay cranes (QCs), stack cranes (SCs), transport vehicles, vehicle travel path, and stack layout. The terminal design process is complex because it is affected by factors such as topological constraints, stochastic interactions among the quayside, vehicle transport and stackside operations. Further, the orientation of the stack layout (parallel or perpendicular to the...

  4. Three-body interactions in sociophysics and their role in coalition forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.; Samaniego-Steta, F.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Vázquez, G. J.

    2007-06-01

    An study of the effects of three-body interactions in the process of coalition formation is presented. In particular, we modify a spin glass model of bimodal propensities and also a Potts model in order to include a particular three-body Hamiltonian that reproduces the main features of the required interactions. The model can be used to study conflicts, political struggles, political parties, social networks, wars and organizational structures. As an application, we analyze a simplified model of the Iraq war.

  5. Scale up issues involved with the ceramic waste form: ceramic-container interactions and ceramic cracking quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, K. J.; DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T.; Riley, W. P. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel to prepare the material for final disposal. Two waste streams will result from the treatment process, a stainless steel based form and a ceramic based form. The ceramic waste form will be enclosed in a stainless steel container. In order to assess the performance of the ceramic waste form in a repository two factors must be examined, the surface area increases caused by waste form cracking and any ceramic/canister interactions that may release toxic material. The results indicate that the surface area increases are less than the High Level Waste glass and any toxic releases are below regulatory limits

  6. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  7. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  8. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  9. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  10. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  11. Materials interactions test methods to measure radionuclide release from waste forms under repository-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.; Erikson, R.L.; Shade, J.W.

    1984-10-01

    At the request of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Materials Characterization Center has collected and developed a set of procedures into a waste form compliance test method (MCC-14.4). The purpose of the test is to measure the steady-state concentrations of specified radionuclides in solutions contacting a waste form material. The test method uses a crushed waste form and basalt material suspended in a synthetic basalt groundwater and agitated for up to three months at 150 0 C under anoxic conditions. Elemental and radioisotopic analyses are made on filtered and unfiltered aliquots of the solution. Replicate experiments are performed and simultaneous tests are conducted with an approved test material (ATM) to help ensure precise and reliable data for the actual waste form material. Various features of the test method, equipment, and test conditions are reviewed. Experimental testing using actinide-doped borosilicate glasses are also discussed. 9 references, 2 tables

  12. Stabilities of nuclear waste forms and their geochemical interactions in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The stabilities of high-level nuclear waste forms in a repository environment are briefly discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such waste forms as borosilicate glass, supercalcine ceramics, and synthetic minerals are presented in context with the different rock types which have been proposed as possible host rocks for repositories. It is concluded that the growing geochemical evidence favors the use of a silicate rock repository because of the effectiveness of aluminosilicate rocks as chemical barriers for most radionuclides

  13. The interaction of linear and ring forms of DNA molecules with nanodiamonds synthesized by detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtov, K V; Burakova, L P; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S

    2008-01-01

    Nanodiamonds synthesized by detonation have been found not to immobilize the ring form of pUC19 plasmid DNA. Linear pUC19 molecules with blunt ends, prepared by restriction of the initial ring form of pUC19 DNA, and linear 0.25-10 kb DNA fragments are adsorbed on nanodiamonds. The amount of adsorbed linear DNA molecules depends on the size of the molecules and the size of the nanodiamond clusters

  14. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George; Pavan, Andrea; Bellacosa Marotti, Rosilari; Campana, Gianluca; Casco, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However, recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by "motion-streaks" influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus, form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  15. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eMather

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by ‘motion-streaks’ influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  16. Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Clauss, T; Moessle, M; Müller, A; Weber, A; Kölle, D; Kleiner, R

    2002-01-01

    A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.

  17. Evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral and work hardening effect in copper single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai Tao; Zhu, Xiu Fu; Sun, Ya Zhou; Xie, Wen Kun

    2017-11-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedral (SFT), generated in machining of copper single crystal as one type of subsurface defects, has significant influence on the performance of workpiece. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to investigate the evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral in nano-cutting of copper single crystal. The result shows that SFT is nucleated at the intersection of differently oriented stacking fault (SF) planes and SFT evolves from the preform only containing incomplete surfaces into a solid defect. The evolution of SFT contains several stress fluctuations until the complete formation. Nano-indentation simulation is then employed on the machined workpiece from nano-cutting, through which the interaction between SFT and later-formed dislocations in subsurface is studied. In the meanwhile, force-depth curves obtained from nano-indentation on pristine and machined workpieces are compared to analyze the mechanical properties. By simulation of nano-cutting and nano-indentation, it is verified that SFT is a reason of the work hardening effect.

  18. Forms of memory: Investigating the computational basis of semantic-episodic memory interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neville, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis investigated how the memory systems related to the processing of semantic and episodic information combine to generate behavioural performance as measured in standard laboratory tasks. Across a series of behavioural experiment I looked at different types of interactions between

  19. Cell interaction with modified nanotubes formed on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, H.; Vandrovcová, Marta; Chotová, K.; Fojt, J.; Průchová, E.; Joska, L.; Bačáková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Aug 1 (2016), s. 313-322 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01558S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : titanium * electrochemical oxidation * hydrothermal modification * thermal treatment * protein adsorption * cell interaction Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 4.164, year: 2016

  20. Very Weak Signals (VWS detected by stacking method according to different astronomical periodicities (HiCum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Ruymbeke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A stacking method to detect very weak signals is introduced in this paper. This method is to stack observed data in different well known periodicities according to the astronomical clock since majority geophysical observations are time based. We validated this method by applying it in four different cases. Interactions behind the observed parameters become obviously after it is stacked in two diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periodical waves. Amplitude and phase variations will be also measurable when a sliding windows stacking is used. This could be an important reference to find precursors before some earthquakes and volcanic events, corresponding to attenuations of medium patterns.

  1. Stacked nickelocenes: synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtica, Sabrina; Prosenc, Marc Heinrich; Schmidt, Michael; Heck, Jürgen; Albrecht, Ole; Görlitz, Detlef; Reuter, Frank; Rentschler, Eva

    2010-02-15

    The disubstitution of 1,8-diiodonaphthalene (1) with cyclopentadienyl nucleophiles reveals 1,8-(dicyclopentadienyl)-naphthalene, which rapidly undergoes Diels-Alder reaction forming 1,8-(3a',4',7',7a'-tetrahydro-4',7'-methanoindene-7a',8'-diyl)-naphthalene (2). A subsequent retro-Diels-Alder reaction in the presence of sodium hydride yields the disodium salt of 1,8-(dicyclopentadiendiyl)-naphthalene 3. The disodium salt 3 was the starting material to obtain the paramagnetic bisnickelocene derivative 4, which structure was obtained by X-ray structure analysis, revealing two nickelocenes kept together in a stacked fashion by a 1,8-naphthalene clamp. An electronic interaction between the two nickel atoms is found as a result of cyclic voltammetry, indicating five different oxidation states +4, +3, +2, +1, and 0. The magnetic properties of 4 in solution were studied by variable temperature paramagnetic (1)H NMR spectroscopy and Evans method and revealed Curie behavior between 213 and 293 K. The magnetic susceptibility of a powdered sample of 4 was measured, and an antiferromagnetic interaction with an exchange coupling of J(12) = -31.49 cm(-1) is found. In accord with experimental data, broken symmetry density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed four antiferromagnetically coupled electrons resulting in an open shell singlet ground state.

  2. Aggressive Forms and Functions on School Playgrounds: Profile Variations in Interaction Styles, Bystander Actions, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Karin S.; Newman, Jodi Burrus; Onyewuenyi, Adaurennaya C.

    2014-01-01

    Coders used real-time focal-child sampling methods to observe the playground behavior and victimization experiences of 600 third to sixth grade youth. Person-centered analyses yielded three profiles that specified aggressive function (reactive, proactive) and form (direct, indirect), and conformed to social-information-processing functional…

  3. A general transformation to canonical form for potentials in pairwise interatomic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2015-06-14

    A generalized formulation of explicit force-based transformations is introduced to investigate the concept of a canonical potential in both fundamental chemical and intermolecular bonding. Different classes of representative ground electronic state pairwise interatomic interactions are referenced to a chosen canonical potential illustrating application of such transformations. Specifically, accurately determined potentials of the diatomic molecules H2, H2(+), HF, LiH, argon dimer, and one-dimensional dissociative coordinates in Ar-HBr, OC-HF, and OC-Cl2 are investigated throughout their bound potentials. Advantages of the current formulation for accurately evaluating equilibrium dissociation energies and a fundamentally different unified perspective on nature of intermolecular interactions will be emphasized. In particular, this canonical approach has significance to previous assertions that there is no very fundamental distinction between van der Waals bonding and covalent bonding or for that matter hydrogen and halogen bonds.

  4. The Evolution of the Collective Forms of Interaction between Foreign Business and Government in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Yakovlev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the evidence from Russia to analyze the arrangements for interaction between foreign firms and key national partners in the countries of their operations. We identify the main stages and factors that were driving the evolution of the two main channels of collective action for foreign firms in Russia over the last 25 years – the Foreign Investment Advisory Council under the Office of the Russian Prime Minister and foreign business associations. We also provide the comparative analysis of the effectiveness of these two main channels, as well as highlight the factors contributing to higher effectiveness of individual foreign business associations under the current Russia’s circumstances. We show that political rather than economic or institutional factors play a more significant role in explaining the changes in the effectiveness of collective efforts of foreign firms. Russia’s experience suggests that the mechanisms of interaction between foreign business and the authorities can work effectively only if there is mutual interest in such interaction. In Russia since the mid-2000s there have been relatively favorable political conditions for the dialogue between the Government and foreign firms, and the respective interaction mechanisms produced some positive effects regarding e.g. attraction of additional foreign investment inflows and modernization of the regulatory framework. However, with worsening the political situation in 2013, political priorities of the Russian Government became markedly more important than the economic ones, and thus, the effectiveness of the existing instruments for collective action of foreign firms significantly decreased. One consequence of this has been the greater willingness of foreign business associations to cooperate with Russian business in order to promote jointly a pragmatic reform agenda.

  5. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  6. Interrelation of Entropic Contributors to π -Stacking in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Maria A.; Lantushenko, Anastasia O.; Evstigneev, Vladislav P.; Golovchenko, Igor V.; Mykhina, Yulia V.; Savin, Valery V.; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2016-08-01

    The recently published most complete set of thermodynamical data on self- and hetero-complexation of aromatic molecules measured under comparable experimental conditions were analyzed. The main aim of this study is to get insights into contribution of various entropic factors to π -stacking in aqueous solution. It was found that the experimental entropy change on π -stacking is determined by counterbalancing effects of two principal factors, i.e., the hydrophobic interaction (positive contribution) and the loss of degrees of freedom (negative contribution) modulated by the electrostatic contribution. Other factors, including the mixing entropy contribution, were shown to be less important.

  7. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; Kim, Hyun-Soo; McGrath, Patrick B

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke's (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.'s and Peters et al.'s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.'s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.'s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Predictions of baryon form factors for the electromagnetic and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehlmann, H.D.

    1978-05-01

    The electromagnetic and weak form factors of the baryon matrix elements (with B the nucleon or the Λ(1232)-resonance) are determined via sumrules by the experimentally known form factors of the nucleon matrix element for momentum transfers 0 2 2 . The operator Jμ denotes either the electromagnetic current or the weak hypercharge-conserving current of the I. class. The sumrules are derived from the superconvergence of properly chosen reaction amplitudes. The results allow an absolute determination of the cross sections of a series of peripheral reactions. An important and interesting consequence for the considered matrix elements of the weak current is that the properties of CVC of PCAC follow from the sumrules without additional assumptions. Finally the predictions of relativistic SU(6)-models are checked. One gets surprisingly a good confirmation of the essential results of these models, the reliability of which has almost been unknown on account of a series of speculative assumptions. (orig.) [de

  9. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  10. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables

  11. Theoretical investigation on hydrogen bond interaction of diketo/keto-enol form uracil and thymine tautomers with intercalators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anithaa, V S; Vijayakumar, S; Sudha, M; Shankar, R

    2017-11-06

    The interaction of diketo and keto-enol form of thymine and uracil tautomers with acridine (Acr), phenazine (Phen), benzo[c]cinnoline (Ben), 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-Phe), and 4,7-phenenthroline (4,7-Phe) intercalating drug molecules was studied using density functional theory at B3LYP/6-311++G** and M05-2×/6-311++G** levels of theory. From the interaction energy, it is found that keto-enol form tautomers have stronger interaction with intercalators than diketone form tautomers. On complex formation of thymine and uracil tautomers with benzo[c]cinnoline the drug molecules have high interaction energy values of -20.14 (BenT3) and -20.55 (BenU3) kcal mol -1 , while phenazine has the least interaction energy values of -6.52 (PhenT2) and -6.67 (PhenU2) kcal mol -1 . The closed shell intermolecular type interaction between the molecules with minimum elliptical value of 0.018 and 0.019 a.u at both levels of theory has been found from topological analysis. The benzo[c]cinnoline drug molecule with thymine and uracil tautomers has short range intermolecular N-H…N, C-H…O, and O-H...N hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) resulting in higher stability than other drug molecules. The proper hydrogen bonds N-H..N and O-H..N have the frequency shifted toward the lower side (red shifted) with the elongation in their bond length while the improper hydrogen bond C-H...O has the frequency shifted toward the higher side (blue shifted) of the spectral region with the contraction in their bond length. Further, the charge transfer between proton acceptor and donor along with stability of the bond is studied using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Graphical abstract Hydrogen bond interaction of diketo/keto-enol form uracil and thymine tautomers with intercalators.

  12. Machine-Building for Fuel and Energy Complex: Perspective Forms of Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, S. M.; Goosen, E. V.; Pakhomova, E. A.; Rozhkova, O. V.; Mesyats, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the existing forms of cooperation between the authorities, business and science in the fuel and energy complex and the machine-building industry at the regional level. The possibilities of applying the concept of the “triple helix” and its multi-helix modifications for the implementation of the import substitution program for high- tech products have been considered.

  13. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  14. Docker on OpenStack

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro

    2014-01-01

    Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...

  15. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  16. A Simple Semantics and Static Analysis for Stack Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Banerjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Java virtual machine and the .NET common language runtime feature an access control mechanism specified operationally in terms of run-time stack inspection. We give a denotational semantics in "eager" form, and show that it is equivalent to the "lazy" semantics using stack inspection. We give a static analysis of safety, i.e., the absence of security errors, that is simpler than previous proposals. We identify several program transformations that can be used to remove run-time checks. We give complete, detailed proofs for safety of the analysis and for the transformations, exploiting compositionality of the eager semantics.

  17. Inter-layered clay stacks in Jurassic shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, K.; Krinsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered electron mode is used together with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to show that Lower Jurassic shales from the North Sea Basin contain large numbers of clay mineral stacks up to 150 microns in size. Polished shale sections are examined to determine the size, shape orientation, textural relationships, and internal compositional variations of the clays. Preliminary evidence that the clay stacks are authigenic, and may have formed at shallow burial depths during early diagenesis, is presented.

  18. Interaction of different forms of graphene with chicken embryo red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, S.; Hinzmann, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    , while others have indicated that graphene might become health hazards. In this study, we explore the biocompatibility of graphene-related materials with chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC). The hemolysis assay was employed to evaluate the in vitro blood compatibility of reduced graphene, graphene oxide......, and reduced graphene oxide, because these materials have recently been used for biomedical applications, including injectable graphene-related particles. This study investigated structural damage, ROS production and hemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells. Different forms of graphene, when incubated...... with chicken embryo RBC, were harmful to cell structure and induced hemolysis....

  19. Contrastive grammar and culture: the alternation of verbal forms in the interaction of tense, mood and aspect in translation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Guimarães Savedra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies based on the theme of languages in/of contact, the process of language acquisition is treated as a relative process, which involves many factors determined by the context of acquisition and of topical and dynamic uses of languages in different communicative environments. In these studies it is possible to identify that next to sociolinguistic and sociocultural factors, other factors established by structural and conceptual dimensions also emanate as relevant to the process of acquisition and use of languages. In this project we united the paradigm of the Sociolinguistics to the paradigm of the Contrastive Linguistics (Kontrastive Linguistik, more precisely of the Contrastive Grammar, in interaction with the Contrastive Culture (Kulturkontrastive Grammatik. The object of our study is the form and the functionality of verbal forms in German and Portuguese. The aim of this study is to identify and to analyze the choice of verbal forms in translations of contemporary literary texts in the pair of languages selected based on the alternation of these forms in the interaction of Tense, Mood and Aspect, with special attention to the verbal aspect and the distinction between grammatical aspect (Aspekt and lexical aspect (Aktionsart.

  20. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two short forms of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blanc, Allura L; Bruce, Laura C; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are widely used measures of social anxiety. Using data from individuals with social anxiety disorder (n = 435) and nonanxious controls (n = 86), we assessed the psychometric properties of two independently developed short forms of these scales. Indices of convergent and discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, sensitivity to treatment, and readability were examined. Comparisons of the two sets of short forms to each other and the original long forms were conducted. Both sets of scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency in the patient sample, showed expected patterns of correlation with measures of related and unrelated constructs, adequately discriminated individuals with social anxiety disorder from those without, and showed decreases in scores over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or pharmacotherapy. However, some significant differences in scale performance were noted. Implications for the clinical assessment of social anxiety are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The Membrane-Associated Form of αs1-Casein Interacts with Cholesterol-Rich Detergent-Resistant Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that αs1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that αs1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of αs1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25549363

  2. The membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1)-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1)-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1)-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells.

  3. The membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Le Parc

    Full Text Available Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells.

  4. Optimization of hole generation in Ti/CFRP stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Y. N.; Pashkov, A. E.; Chashhin, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article aims to describe methods for improving the surface quality and hole accuracy in Ti/CFRP stacks by optimizing cutting methods and drill geometry. The research is based on the fundamentals of machine building, theory of probability, mathematical statistics, and experiment planning and manufacturing process optimization theories. Statistical processing of experiment data was carried out by means of Statistica 6 and Microsoft Excel 2010. Surface geometry in Ti stacks was analyzed using a Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf i200 Series Profilometer, and in CFRP stacks - using a Bruker ContourGT-Kl Optical Microscope. Hole shapes and sizes were analyzed using a Carl Zeiss CONTURA G2 Measuring machine, temperatures in cutting zones were recorded with a FLIR SC7000 Series Infrared Camera. Models of multivariate analysis of variance were developed. They show effects of drilling modes on surface quality and accuracy of holes in Ti/CFRP stacks. The task of multicriteria drilling process optimization was solved. Optimal cutting technologies which improve performance were developed. Methods for assessing thermal tool and material expansion effects on the accuracy of holes in Ti/CFRP/Ti stacks were developed.

  5. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  6. Transmembrane helix M6 in sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase forms a functional interaction site with phospholamban. Evidence for physical interactions at other sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, M; Kimura, Y; Kurzydlowski, K; Tada, M; MacLennan, D H

    1999-11-12

    In an earlier study (Kimura, Y., Kurzydlowski, K., Tada, M., and MacLennan, D. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 15061-15064), mutation of amino acids on one face of the phospholamban (PLN) transmembrane helix led to loss of PLN inhibition of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) molecules. This helical face was proposed to form a site of PLN interaction with a transmembrane helix in SERCA molecules. To determine whether predicted transmembrane helices M4, M5, M6, or M8 in SERCA1a interact with PLN, SERCA1a mutants were co-expressed with wild-type PLN and effects on Ca(2+) dependence of Ca(2+) transport were measured. Wild-type inhibitory interactions shifted apparent Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA1a by an average of -0.34 pCa units, but four of the seven mutations in M4 led to a more inhibitory shift in apparent Ca(2+) affinity, averaging -0.53 pCa units. Seven mutations in M5 led to an average shift of -0.32 pCa units and seven mutations in M8 led to an average shift of -0.30 pCa units. Among 11 mutations in M6, 1, Q791A, increased the inhibitory shift (-0.59 pCa units) and 5, V795A (-0.11), L802A (-0.07), L802V (-0.04), T805A (-0.11), and F809A (-0.12), reduced the inhibitory shift, consistent with the view that Val(795), Leu(802), Thr(805), and Phe(809), located on one face of a predicted M6 helix, form a site in SERCA1a for interaction with PLN. Those mutations in M4, M6, or M8 of SERCA1a that enhanced PLN inhibitory function did not enhance PLN physical association with SERCA1a, but mutants V795A and L802A in M6, which decreased PLN inhibitory function, decreased physical association, as measured by co-immunoprecipitation. In related studies, those PLN mutants that gained inhibitory function also increased levels of co-immunoprecipitation of wild-type SERCA1a and those that lost inhibitory function also reduced association, correlating functional interaction sites with physical interaction sites. Thus, both functional and physical data confirm that PLN

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  8. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O2 molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlein, R; Van Bui, H; Wiggers, F B; Yamada-Takamura, Y; Kovalgin, A Y; de Jong, M P

    2014-05-28

    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O2 molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB2(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O2 gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O2 molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  9. The empirical form of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a model space with correlated J = O pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkermans, J.N.L.; Allaart, K.

    1982-01-01

    Like in earlier work by Schiffer et al. the effective interaction is derived from experimental two-body multiplets. However, now the assumption is that a multiplet state is formed by two unpaired fermions relative to a core of correlated J = 0 pairs. Then the need for two ranges, as proposed Schiffer, disappears for the force between identical nucleons in a model space which is large enough to include pairing correlations. A form with a single attractive medium range is preferred for the identical nucleon interaction in order to reproduce collective 2 + states in even-even nuclei. In contrast, the proton-neutron force requires a very short range or two ranges to reproduce the empirical values of multipole coefficients, observed in odd-odd nuclei. Therefore we discuss the fact that the effective interaction is not always isospin invariant. As a typical case broken-pair calculations in the N = 50 region are considered. But the conclusions drawn, will also apply to other regions of the periodic table. (orig.)

  10. Mannan-binding protein forms complexes with alpha-2-macroglobulin. A protein model for the interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, P; Holm Nielsen, E; Skriver, E

    1995-01-01

    We report that alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) can form complexes with a high molecular weight porcine mannan-binding protein (pMBP-28). The alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes was isolated by PEG-precipitation and affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose, protein A-Sepharose and anti-IgM Sepharose......-PAGE, which reacted with antibodies against alpha 2M and pMBP-28, respectively, in Western blotting. Furthermore, alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes were demonstrated by electron microscopy. Fractionation of pMBP-containing D-mannose eluate from mannan-Sepharose on Superose 6 showed two protein peaks which reacted...... with anti-C1 s antibodies in ELISA, one of about 650-800 kDa, which in addition contained pMBP-28 and anti-alpha 2M reactive material, the other with an M(r) of 100-150 kDa. The latter peak revealed rhomboid molecules (7 x 15 nm) in the electron microscope and a 67 kDa band in SDS-PAGE under reducing...

  11. Structure and interactions of a malarial vaccine candidate, AMA1, form the parasite plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, L.A.; Keizer, D.W.; Hodder, A.N.; Nair, M.; Hinds, M.G.; Norton, R.S.; Li, F.; Foley, M.; Coley, A.; Anders, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), a merozoite surface protein found in all species of Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites, is a strong candidate for inclusion in a malarial vaccine. Recombinant AMA1 protected against P. fragile in monkeys and P. chabaudi adami in mice. P. falciparum AMA1 which has a 62-kDa ectodomain consisting of three disulphide-stabilised domains, is a target of antibodies that inhibit merozoite invasion in vitro. Here we describe the solution structure of domain III (14 kDa), determined by NMR on 15 N- and 13 C/ 15 N-labelled samples. It has a well-defined disulphide-stabilised core interrupted by a disordered loop, and both the N- and C-terminal regions of the molecule are unstructured. The structured region includes all three disulphide bonds. Naturally-occurring mutations across 11 different P falciparum strains that are located far apart in the sequence cluster around the disulphide core in the 3D structure of domain III, suggesting that this region contains the major epitopes recognised by neutralising antibodies. Consistent with this, the disulphide-bond stabilised conformation of the ectodomain was essential for protection, as the antigen was not an effective vaccine after reduction and alkylation. Peptides have been found by phage display that bind to AMA1 and block merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. We have investigated their solution structures and interaction with full-length AMA1 ectodomain in an effort to understand the structure-function relationships of this important vaccine candidate

  12. Interaction between the physical forms of starter and forage source on growth performance and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Kiani, A; Mirzaei, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS). Both starters had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their physical forms. Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained in the study until d 70. All calves had free access to drinking water and the starter feeding at all times. No interaction was detected between the physical forms of starter feeds and forage source concerning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain (ADG)/ME intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (FE). The preweaning and overall starter feed intake, dry matter intake, and ME intake were greater for calves fed TF starter diets than those fed CM starter diets. The ADG/ME intake was greater for calves fed TF starter diets than that fed CM starter. The FE was greater for calves fed TF starter diets compared with those fed CM starter during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The WS improved FE during the postweaning period compared with AH. The physical form of starter, forage source, and their interaction did not affect plasma glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein

  13. Frictional interactions in forming processes: New studies with transparent sapphire strip-drawing dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Wright, P. K.; Devenpeck, M. L.; Richmond, O.; Appleby, E. J.

    1982-05-01

    This research is concerned with the frictional interactions at the toolwork interfaces in the machining and strip-drawing processes. A novel feature is that transparent sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) is being used as the tool and die material. This allows the tribological features of the interface to be directly observed and recorded on movie-film. These qualitative studies provide information on the role of lubricants. In addition, techniques are being developed to quantify the velocity gradient along the interface. For example, in the drawing work it has been found that tracer markings (e.g. dye-spots), applied to the undrawn strip, remain intact during drawing and can be tracked along the sapphire/strip interface. Such data will be used as input to a finite-element, elasto-plastic-workhardening model of the deformation process. The latter can compute strip deformation characteristics, drawing forces and local coefficients of friction at the interface. Introductory results will be presented in this paper, obtained from drawing tin-plated mild steel with sapphire and cemented carbide dies. Drawing loads and die-separating forces will be presented and movie-films of the action of tracer markings at the interface shown. In order to demonstrate how this data can be used in an analysis of a large strain deformation process with friction, initial results from running the FIPDEF elasto-plastic code will be discussed. From a commercial viewpoint research on strip-drawing is of special interest to the can-making industry. From a physical viewpoint stripdrawing is of particular interest because it is a symmetrical, plane strain deformation and, in comparison with other metal processing operations, it is more readily modeled. However, until now the elasto-plastic codes that have been developed to predictively model drawing have had limitations: the most notable being that of quantifying the friction conditions at the die-work interface. Hence the specification of the

  14. Simulation of Different Truncated p16INK4a Forms and In Silico Study of Interaction with Cdk4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Fahham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions studies can greatly increase the amount of structural and functional information pertaining to biologically active molecules and processes. The information obtained from such studies can lead to design and application of new modification in order to obtain a desired bioactivity. Many application packages and servers performing docking, such as HEX, DOT, AUTODOCK, and ZDOCK are now available for predicting the lowest free energy state of a protein complex. In this study, we have focused on cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4, a key molecule in the regulation of cell cycle progression at the G1-S phase restriction point and p16INK4a, a tumor suppressor which inhibits Cdk4 activity. Truncated structures were created to find the more critical regions of p16 for interaction. The tertiary structures were determined by ProSAL, GENO3D Web Server. We evaluated their interactions with Cdk4 using two docking systems, HEX 4.5 and DOT 1. Calculations were performed on a high-speed computer. Minimizations and visualizations were carried out by PdbViewer 3.7. Considering shape and shape/electrostatic total energy, structures containing ANK II, III and IV motifs that lack the N-terminal region of the full length p16 molecule showed the best fi t complexes among the p16 truncated forms. The free energies were compatible with that of p16 full length original form, the full length. It seems that the N-terminal of the molecule is not crucial for the interaction since the truncated structure containing only this region did not show a good total energy.

  15. Computationally simple, analytic, closed form solution of the Coulomb self-interaction problem in Kohn Sham density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonis, Antonios; Daene, Markus W.; Nicholson, Don M.; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and tested in terms of atomic calculations an exact, analytic and computationally simple procedure for determining the functional derivative of the exchange energy with respect to the density in the implementation of the Kohn Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT), providing an analytic, closed-form solution of the self-interaction problem in KS-DFT. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through ground-state calculations of the exchange potential and energy for atomic He and Be atoms, and comparisons with experiment and the results obtained within the optimized effective potential (OEP) method.

  16. High-resolution structure of AKR1a4 in the apo form and its interaction with ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Frédérick; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-01-01

    Despite its high affinity for NADPH, AKR1a4 crystallized in the apo form, which is very rare for aldo-keto reductase enzymes. Aldo-keto reductase 1a4 (AKR1a4; EC 1.1.1.2) is the mouse orthologue of human aldehyde reductase (AKR1a1), the founding member of the AKR family. As an NADPH-dependent enzyme, AKR1a4 catalyses the conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate. AKR1a4 is involved in ascorbate biosynthesis in mice, but has also recently been found to interact with SMAR1, providing a novel mechanism of ROS regulation by ATM. Here, the crystal structure of AKR1a4 in its apo form at 1.64 Å resolution as well as the characterization of the binding of AKR1a4 to NADPH and P44, a peptide derived from SMAR1, is presented

  17. Rapid interactions between lexical semantic and word form analysis during word recognition in context: evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert; Lai, Vicky

    2012-05-01

    We used ERPs to investigate the time course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form processing during word recognition. Participants read sentence-embedded pseudowords that orthographically resembled a contextually supported real word (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a ceke…") or did not (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a tont…") along with nonword consonant strings (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a srdt…"). Pseudowords that resembled a contextually supported real word ("ceke") elicited an enhanced positivity at 130 msec (P130), relative to real words (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a cake…"). Pseudowords that did not resemble a plausible real word ("tont") enhanced the N170 component, as did nonword consonant strings ("srdt"). The effect pattern shows that the visual word recognition system is, perhaps, counterintuitively, more rapidly sensitive to minor than to flagrant deviations from contextually predicted inputs. The findings are consistent with rapid interactions between lexical and sublexical representations during word recognition, in which rapid lexical access of a contextually supported word (CAKE) provides top-down excitation of form features ("cake"), highlighting the anomaly of an unexpected word "ceke."

  18. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  19. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  20. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  1. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  2. Interactions between concentric form-from-structure and face perception revealed by visual masking but not adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczko, Eric; Shulman, Gordon L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Pruett, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from diverse subfields of vision research suggest a potential link between high-level aspects of face perception and concentric form-from-structure perception. To explore this relationship, typical adults performed two adaptation experiments and two masking experiments to test whether concentric, but not nonconcentric, Glass patterns (a type of form-from-structure stimulus) utilize a processing mechanism shared by face perception. For the adaptation experiments, subjects were presented with an adaptor for 5 or 20 s, prior to discriminating a target. In the masking experiments, subjects saw a mask, then a target, and then a second mask. Measures of discriminability and bias were derived and repeated measures analysis of variance tested for pattern-specific masking and adaptation effects. Results from Experiment 1 show no Glass pattern-specific effect of adaptation to faces; results from Experiment 2 show concentric Glass pattern masking, but not adaptation, may impair upright/inverted face discrimination; results from Experiment 3 show concentric and radial Glass pattern masking impaired subsequent upright/inverted face discrimination more than translational Glass pattern masking; and results from Experiment 4 show concentric and radial Glass pattern masking impaired subsequent face gender discrimination more than translational Glass pattern masking. Taken together, these findings demonstrate interactions between concentric form-from-structure and face processing, suggesting a possible common processing pathway. PMID:24563526

  3. (Anti-)chiral superfield approach to interacting Abelian 1-form gauge theories: Nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, B.; Kumar, S.; Malik, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent (fermionic) (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations by exploiting the (anti-)chiral superfield approach (ACSA) to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism for the interacting Abelian 1-form gauge theories where there is a coupling between the U(1) Abelian 1-form gauge field and Dirac as well as complex scalar fields. We exploit the (anti-)BRST invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral superfields to derive the fermionic symmetries of our present D-dimensional Abelian 1-form gauge theories. The novel observation of our present investigation is the derivation of the absolute anticommutativity of the nilpotent (anti-)BRST charges despite the fact that our ordinary D-dimensional theories are generalized onto the (D,1)-dimensional (anti-) chiral super-submanifolds (of the general (D,2)-dimensional supermanifold) where only the (anti-)chiral super expansions of the (anti-)chiral superfields have been taken into account. We also discuss the nilpotency of the (anti-)BRST charges and (anti-)BRST invariance of the Lagrangian densities of our present theories within the framework of ACSA to BRST formalism.

  4. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  5. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  6. Some general properties of the Floquet states for the two dimensional interacting fermion systems with quadratic form Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    time-periodic field is present) differs from the quasi-energy of the free system (that is, the same system without self-interactions) by an integral over a constant coupling of the time average of the expectation value of the self-interaction potential. We remark that the Floquet version of the Pauli theorem is not a strait transposition of the conservative form, because there are some complications due to the fact that extension in the Floquet space needs the use of singular state vectors for the scalar product; however, if the system is homogeneous when the external field is absent, this theorem becomes very similar to the corresponding conservative version. (author)

  7. Structure of a stacked anthraquinone–DNA complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luchi, Daniela; Usón, Isabel; Wright, Glenford; Gouyette, Catherine; Subirana, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the telomeric sequence d(UBrAGG) interacting with an anthraquinone derivative has been solved by MAD. In all previously studied complexes of intercalating drugs, the drug is usually sandwiched between two DNA base pairs. Instead, the present structure looks like a crystal of stacked anthraquinone molecules in which isolated base pairs are intercalated. Unusual base pairs are present in the structure, such as G·G and A·UBr reverse Watson–Crick base pairs. PMID:20823516

  8. Stress-induced formation mechanism of stacking fault tetrahedra in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quanlong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bai, Qingshun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Jiaxuan, E-mail: wangquanlong0@hit.edu.cn [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Yongbo [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xie, Wenkun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the distribution of dislocation defects and local atomic crystal structure of single crystal copper. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static pressure. The results are shown in (a)–(d). It is indicated that the compressive stress mainly spreads over the shear-slip zone, and the tensile stress is consisted in flank friction zone, shown in (a). The high tensile stress in subsurface is the source of stress, shown in (b). By the driven action of the stress source, the initial stair-rod dislocation nucleates. Then the dislocation climbs along four {1 1 1} planes under the stress driven action, shown in (d). Finally, the SFT is formed by the interaction of the compressive stress and the tensile stress which come from the shear-slip zone and friction zone, respectively. Besides, stair-rod dislocation, stacking faults and dislocation loop are also nucleated in the subsurface, shown in (c). Dislocation distribution, local atomic crystal structure state and stress-induced formation process of SFT by atomic. - Highlights: • A novel defect structure “stress-induced stacking fault tetrahedra” is revealed. • Atomic structural evolution and stress state distribution of the SFT are studied. • The stress-induced formation mechanism of the SFT is proposed. - Abstract: Stacking fault tetrahedra commonly existed in subsurface of deformed face center cubic metals, has great influence on machining precision and surface roughness in nano-cutting. Here we report, a stacking fault tetrahedra is formed in subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting. The variation of cutting force and subsurface defects distribution are studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static compression. The result shows that the cutting force has a rapidly

  9. Stress-induced formation mechanism of stacking fault tetrahedra in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Guo, Yongbo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the distribution of dislocation defects and local atomic crystal structure of single crystal copper. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static pressure. The results are shown in (a)–(d). It is indicated that the compressive stress mainly spreads over the shear-slip zone, and the tensile stress is consisted in flank friction zone, shown in (a). The high tensile stress in subsurface is the source of stress, shown in (b). By the driven action of the stress source, the initial stair-rod dislocation nucleates. Then the dislocation climbs along four {1 1 1} planes under the stress driven action, shown in (d). Finally, the SFT is formed by the interaction of the compressive stress and the tensile stress which come from the shear-slip zone and friction zone, respectively. Besides, stair-rod dislocation, stacking faults and dislocation loop are also nucleated in the subsurface, shown in (c). Dislocation distribution, local atomic crystal structure state and stress-induced formation process of SFT by atomic. - Highlights: • A novel defect structure “stress-induced stacking fault tetrahedra” is revealed. • Atomic structural evolution and stress state distribution of the SFT are studied. • The stress-induced formation mechanism of the SFT is proposed. - Abstract: Stacking fault tetrahedra commonly existed in subsurface of deformed face center cubic metals, has great influence on machining precision and surface roughness in nano-cutting. Here we report, a stacking fault tetrahedra is formed in subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting. The variation of cutting force and subsurface defects distribution are studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. The stress distribution is investigated which is calculated by virial stress and analyzed by static compression. The result shows that the cutting force has a rapidly

  10. Mena–GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. PMID:26538023

  11. A Generalized Form of Context-Dependent Psychophysiological Interactions (gPPI): A Comparison to Standard Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Donald G.; Ries, Michele L.; Xu, Guofan; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2012-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) allows one to study task-related regional responses and task-dependent connectivity analysis using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) methods. The latter affords the additional opportunity to understand how brain regions interact in a task-dependent manner. The current implementation of PPI in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) is configured primarily to assess connectivity differences between two task conditions, when in practice fMRI tasks frequently employ more than two conditions. Here we evaluate how a generalized form of context-dependent PPI (gPPI; http://www.nitrc.org/projects/gppi), which is configured to automatically accommodate more than two task conditions in the same PPI model by spanning the entire experimental space, compares to the standard implementation in SPM8. These comparisons are made using both simulations and an empirical dataset. In the simulated dataset, we compare the interaction beta estimates to their expected values and model fit using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We found that interaction beta estimates in gPPI were robust to different simulated data models, were not different from the expected beta value, and had better model fits than when using standard PPI (sPPI) methods. In the empirical dataset, we compare the model fit of the gPPI approach to sPPI. We found that the gPPI approach improved model fit compared to sPPI. There were several regions that became non-significant with gPPI. These regions all showed significantly better model fits with gPPI. Also, there were several regions where task-dependent connectivity was only detected using gPPI methods, also with improved model fit. Regions that were detected with all methods had more similar model fits. These results suggest that gPPI may have greater sensitivity and specificity than standard implementation in SPM. This notion is tempered slightly as there is no gold standard; however, data simulations with a known outcome support our

  12. Interaction of Various Generic Forms in the 12th–17th Century Texts and the Mindsets of Old Russian Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly S. Demin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay focuses on the understudied question of the poetics of Old Russian literature: it is the first study of the kind that analyzes semantic interaction of different generic forms in the works of the period. The essay is comprised of five section each devoted to a specific work. The first section examines historical narrative in its relation to sermons, eulogies, and biblical excerpts in The Tale of Bygone Years (the beginning of the twelfth century and comes to the conclusion that the chronicler was not content with the negligence of his listeners and readers. The second section examines the interrelation of factual material and sermon in Novgorodskaa First Chronicle (the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and reveals the chronicler’s severe attitude towards his contemporaries. The third section examines a series of two works by Moscow Dyak Rodion Kozhuh as part of Sofiyskaya Second Chronicle and shows the author’s personal inclination to the expressiveness of style. The fourth section examines a combination of prosaic and rhymed fragments from the Saying of Avraamy Palitsyn written in the 1620s and comes to the conclusion that the author was inclined to philosophically reflect on the Time of Troubles. Finally, the fifth section examines a combination of the rhymed narrative with poetical sermons in The Story of Unfortunate Misfortune (1660s and shows the author’s pessimistic mindset. The essay ends with a very tentative conclusion: the interaction of different generic forms of narration was typical for the whole оf Оld Russian literature. The variety of purposes and mindsets prompted authors to employ various generic types of narration.

  13. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  14. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  15. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  16. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  17. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  18. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  19. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  20. In vivo sulfation of cholecystokinin octapeptide. Possible interactions of the two forms of cholecystokinin with dopamine in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penke, B.; Kovacs, G.L.; Zsigo, J.; Kadar, T.; Szabo, G.; Kovacs, K.; Telegdy, G.

    1985-01-01

    In most laboratories CCK-8(s) has been found to be the biologically active form of CCK-8 in the CNS. The role of CCK-8(ns) has scarcely been investigated and is poorly understood. These results point to the equivalence of CCK-8(s) and CCK-8(ns) in the CNS in most biological tests. It is most likely that a brain receptor population exists which can bind both forms of CCK-8 and even CCK-4. Nevertheless, the CNS could contain binding sites which bind only CCK-8(s) as a ligand. The authors have found that an unidentified sulfotransferase of the brain can sulfate CCK-8(ns) and thereby provide a ligand for the special receptors of CCK-8(s). The authors have focused their investigations on the enzymic sulfation-desulfation processes of both CCK-8 and DA and have devised a hypothetical model for the possible interactions. Both CCK-8(ns) and DA could be sulfated in vivo, this enzymic reaction generally requiring active sulfate (PAPS). These two compounds could compete for the limited pool of PAPS, and thus CCK-8 and DA could mutually regulate their levels in the same cell by influencing one of the metabolic (DA) or synthetic (CCK-8(s)) pathways

  1. Research and Development of Fully Automatic Alien Smoke Stack and Packaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Ge, Qingkuan; Peng, Tao; Zuo, Ping; Dong, Weifu

    2017-12-01

    The problem of low efficiency of manual sorting packaging for the current tobacco distribution center, which developed a set of safe efficient and automatic type of alien smoke stack and packaging system. The functions of fully automatic alien smoke stack and packaging system adopt PLC control technology, servo control technology, robot technology, image recognition technology and human-computer interaction technology. The characteristics, principles, control process and key technology of the system are discussed in detail. Through the installation and commissioning fully automatic alien smoke stack and packaging system has a good performance and has completed the requirements for shaped cigarette.

  2. Thermodynamic and critical properties of an antiferromagnetically stacked triangular Ising antiferromagnet in a field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, M.; Borovský, M.; Bobák, A.

    2018-05-01

    We study a stacked triangular lattice Ising model with both intra- and inter-plane antiferromagnetic interactions in a field, by Monte Carlo simulation. We find only one phase transition from a paramagnetic to a partially disordered phase, which is of second order and 3D XY universality class. At low temperatures we identify two highly degenerate phases: at smaller (larger) fields the system shows long-range ordering in the stacking direction (within planes) but not in the planes (stacking direction). Nevertheless, crossovers to these phases do not have a character of conventional phase transitions but rather linear-chain-like excitations.

  3. A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhai; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui; Liang, Shuyan

    2016-01-21

    We report an ultrafast optical switching device constructed by stacking two layers of gold nanowires into a perpendicularly crossed network, which works at a speed faster than 280 fs with an on/off modulation depth of about 22.4%. The two stacks play different roles in enhancing consistently the optical switching performance due to their different dependence on the polarization of optical electric fields. The cross-plasmon resonance based on the interaction between the perpendicularly stacked gold nanowires and its Fano-coupling with Rayleigh anomaly is the dominant mechanism for such a high-contrast optical switching device.

  4. SiliPET: An ultra-high resolution design of a small animal PET scanner based on stacks of double-sided silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni; Zavattini, Guido; Cesca, Nicola; Auricchio, Natalia; Andritschke, Robert; Schopper, Florian; Kanbach, Gottfried

    2007-01-01

    We investigated with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSNrcMP code, the capabilities of a small animal PET scanner based on four stacks of double-sided silicon strip detectors. Each stack consists of 40 silicon detectors with dimension of 60x60x1 mm 3 and 128 orthogonal strips on each side. Two coordinates of the interaction are given by the strips, whereas the third coordinate is given by the detector number in the stack. The stacks are arranged to form a box of 5x5x6 cm 3 with minor sides opened; the box represents the minimal FOV of the scanner. The performance parameters of the SiliPET scanner have been estimated giving a (positron range limited) spatial resolution of 0.52 mm FWHM, and an absolute sensitivity of 5.1% at the center of system. Preliminary results of a proof of principle measurement done with the MEGA advanced Compton imager using a ∼1 mm diameter 22 Na source, showed a focal ray tracing FWHM of 1 mm

  5. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  6. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  7. Self-Assembly of Ureido-Pyrimidinone Dimers into One-Dimensional Stacks by Lateral Hydrogen Bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Marko M.L.; de Greef, Tom F.A.; van der Bruggen, Rob L.J.; Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; Appel, Wilco P.J.; Smulders, Maarten M.J.; Sijbesma, Rint P.; Meijer, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) dimers substituted with an additional urea functionality self-assemble into one-dimensional stacks in various solvents through lateral non-covalent interactions. 1H NMR and DOSY studies in CDCl3 suggest the formation of short stacks (<10), whereas temperature-dependent

  8. Five stacks over the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)

  9. Characterizing edge and stacking structures of exfoliated graphene by photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Ishii, Ryo; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Morita, Makoto; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Koh, Shinji; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    The two-dimensional C 1s photoelectron intensity angular distributions (PIADs) and spectra of exfoliated graphene flakes and crystalline graphite were measured using a focused soft X-ray beam. Suitable graphene samples were selected by thickness characterization using Raman spectromicroscopy after transferring mechanically exfoliated graphene flakes onto a 90-nm-thick SiO 2 film. In every PIAD, a Kagomé interference pattern was observed, particularly clearly in the monolayer graphene PIAD. Its origin is the overlap of the diffraction rings formed by an in-plane C-C bond honeycomb lattice. Thus, the crystal orientation of each sample can be determined. In the case of bilayer graphene, PIAD was threefold-symmetric, while those of monolayer graphene and crystalline graphite were sixfold-symmetric. This is due to the stacking structure of bilayer graphene. From comparisons with the multiple scattering PIAD simulation results, the way of layer stacking as well as the termination types in the edge regions of bilayer graphene flakes were determined. Furthermore, two different C 1s core levels corresponding to the top and bottom layers of bilayer graphene were identified. A chemical shift to a higher binding energy by 0.25 eV for the bottom layer was attributed to interfacial interactions. (author)

  10. Layanan Infrastruktur Komputasi Multitenant dengan OpenStack di Lingkungan MaaS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Ricard Panggabean

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of high-quality computing needs triggers the development of infrastructure that requires huge costs and resources. This research applied OpenStack in Metal as a Service (MaaS environment to provide multitenant infrastructure services in the form of virtual machines (IaaS. The capacity of this IaaS system can be configured based on the needs of the computing resources (CPUs, memory, storage, and network interfaces. Users within the tenant can request infrastructure services as their needs without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Meningkatnya kebutuhan komputasi berkualitas tinggi mendorong pengembangan infrastruktur server yang membutuhkan biaya dan sumber daya besar. Penelitian ini mengaplikasikan OpenStack dalam lingkungan Metal as a Service (MaaS untuk menyediakan layanan infrastruktur multitenant berupa mesin-mesin virtual sebagai Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS. Kapasitas sistem layanan IaaS ini dapat dikonfigurasi berdasarkan kebutuhan sumber daya komputasi (CPU, memori, ruang penyimpan, dan antarmuka jaringan. Pengguna dalam tenant dapat meminta layanan infrastruktur secara mandiri dengan kapasitas komputasi sesuai yang dibutuhkan.

  11. Stacking faults on (001) in transition-metal disilicides with the C11b structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Inui, H.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Stacking faults on (001) in MoSi 2 and WSi 2 with the C11 b structure have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using their single crystals grown by the floating-zone method. Although WSi 2 contains a high density of stacking faults, only several faults are observed in MoSi 2 . For both crystals, (001) faults are characterized to be of the Frank-type in which two successive (001) Si layers are removed from the lattice, giving rise to a displacement vector parallel to [001]. When the displacement vector of faults is expressed in the form of R = 1/n[001], however, their n values are slightly deviated from the exact value of 3, because of dilatation of the lattice in the direction perpendicular to the fault, which is caused by the repulsive interaction between Mo (W) layers above and below the fault. Matching of experimental high-resolution TEM images with calculated ones indicates n values to be 3.12 ± 0.10 and 3.34 ± 0.10 for MoSi 2 and WSi 2 , respectively

  12. Nb/NiCu bilayers in single and stacked superconductive tunnel junctions: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, G.P.; Ruotolo, A.; Parlato, L.; Peluso, G.; Ausanio, G.; Carapella, G.; Latempa, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary experimental results concerning both single and stacked tunnel junctions in which one of the electrodes was formed by a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) bi-layer. In particular, in the stacked configuration a Nb/NiCu bi-layer was used as the intermediate electrode, and it was probed by tunneling on both sides. Tunnel junctions have been characterized in terms of current-voltage characteristics (IVC), and differential conductance. Preliminary steady-state injection-detection measurements performed in the stacked devices at T=4.2 K are also presented and discussed

  13. Taxonomy of multi-focal nematode image stacks by a CNN based image fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Wang, Xueping; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2018-03-01

    In the biomedical field, digital multi-focal images are very important for documentation and communication of specimen data, because the morphological information for a transparent specimen can be captured in form of a stack of high-quality images. Given biomedical image stacks containing multi-focal images, how to efficiently extract effective features from all layers to classify the image stacks is still an open question. We present to use a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) image fusion based multilinear approach for the taxonomy of multi-focal image stacks. A deep CNN based image fusion technique is used to combine relevant information of multi-focal images within a given image stack into a single image, which is more informative and complete than any single image in the given stack. Besides, multi-focal images within a stack are fused along 3 orthogonal directions, and multiple features extracted from the fused images along different directions are combined by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Because multi-focal image stacks represent the effect of different factors - texture, shape, different instances within the same class and different classes of objects, we embed the deep CNN based image fusion method within a multilinear framework to propose an image fusion based multilinear classifier. The experimental results on nematode multi-focal image stacks demonstrated that the deep CNN image fusion based multilinear classifier can reach a higher classification rate (95.7%) than that by the previous multilinear based approach (88.7%), even we only use the texture feature instead of the combination of texture and shape features as in the previous work. The proposed deep CNN image fusion based multilinear approach shows great potential in building an automated nematode taxonomy system for nematologists. It is effective to classify multi-focal image stacks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MOLECULAR FORMS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN A AND RECOMBINANT DERIVATIVES POLYPEPTIDES OF BAC RECEPTOR PROTEINS FROM GROUP B STREPTOCOCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Korzhueva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article concerns interactions between immunoglobulin A and recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides, designed on the basis of externally localized Bac protein of the Group B streptococci, possessing IgA-binding activity.There is a current demand for immunochemical reagents that are strictly specific for IgA, in order to develop antigenic standards for detection of IgA levels in biological fluids, as well as for affinity purification of IgA and its fragments.To analyze an opportunity of the abovementioned application ways for these proteins, a special study was performed to assay an interaction capability of recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides binding to Fc regions of different IgA forms (serum IgA, secretory IgA, subclasses of serum IgA – IgA1, IgA2. Selectivity of ligand binding was specially confirmed.It was found out that, among three presented polypeptides, the structure of recombinant P6 derivative proved to be optimal for IgA-binding ability of Bac protein.Structural features of IgA-binding fragments of Bac protein, i.e., binding site position on the IgA molecule (proximity to epitopes for three monoclonal antibodies, variability of the site structure, as well as resistance of binding site for P6, P7, P8 in IgA molecule against partial disulfide bonds reduction. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 327-336.

  15. The TRPC2 channel forms protein-protein interactions with Homer and RTP in the rat vomeronasal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brann Jessica H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal transduction cascade operational in the vomeronasal organ (VNO of the olfactory system detects odorants important for prey localization, mating, and social recognition. While the protein machinery transducing these external cues has been individually well characterized, little attention has been paid to the role of protein-protein interactions among these molecules. Development of an in vitro expression system for the transient receptor potential 2 channel (TRPC2, which establishes the first electrical signal in the pheromone transduction pathway, led to the discovery of two protein partners that couple with the channel in the native VNO. Results Homer family proteins were expressed in both male and female adult VNO, particularly Homer 1b/c and Homer 3. In addition to this family of scaffolding proteins, the chaperones receptor transporting protein 1 (RTP1 and receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1 were also expressed. RTP1 was localized broadly across the VNO sensory epithelium, goblet cells, and the soft palate. Both Homer and RTP1 formed protein-protein interactions with TRPC2 in native reciprocal pull-down assays and RTP1 increased surface expression of TRPC2 in in vitro assays. The RTP1-dependent TRPC2 surface expression was paralleled with an increase in ATP-stimulated whole-cell current in an in vitro patch-clamp electrophysiological assay. Conclusions TRPC2 expression and channel activity is regulated by chaperone- and scaffolding-associated proteins, which could modulate the transduction of chemosignals. The developed in vitro expression system, as described here, will be advantageous for detailed investigations into TRPC2 channel activity and cell signalling, for a channel protein that was traditionally difficult to physiologically assess.

  16. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  17. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  18. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  19. Recoil properties of radionuclides formed in the interaction of 1--300-GeV protons with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.B.; Steinberg, E.P.; Weisfield, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The thick-target recoil properties of a number of nuclides, varying from 22 Na to 196 AU, formed in the interaction of 1--300-GeV protons with 197 Au have been measured in order to study the systematics of their variation with product mass and incident energy. The forward-to-backward ratios (F/B) of many of the products have a peak at 3 GeV and decrease at higher energies, with products in the mass region 46 or approx. = 140 decrease montonically between 1 and 300 GeV. The results are analyzed by the two-step model of high-energy reactions and discussed in terms of the different reaction mechanisms, spallation, fission and fragmentation. Fission contributes appreciably to the formation of products in the mass region 46 < or = A < or =103 at 1 GeV bombarding energy, but other mechanisms predominate at and above 11.5 GeV. The results are compared to the predictions of intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and are in reasonable agreement at 1 and 3 GeV, although the calculations predict more forward momentum transfer than is observed. At higher energies the relation between forward momentum and mean deposition energy derived from the calculations must break down, because nuclides requiring high deposition energies for their formation have little or no forward momentum. Some possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed

  20. Multiple Forms and Settings of Exposure to Violence and Values: Unique and Interactive Relationships With Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Affuso, Gaetana; Aquilar, Serena

    2015-10-01

    The general purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between multiple forms and settings of exposure to violence (ETV) as well as personal values and antisocial behavior (ASB) in adolescence. The association of ETV as witness or victim in different contexts (family, school, or neighborhood) and the association of the selected values of power, universalism, and conformity with ASB were analyzed. In addition, the role of ETV in moderating the relationship between values and ASB was tested. A total of 369 adolescents participated in the study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed. Results revealed that ASB was independently affected by exposure to family violence as a victim, exposure to school violence as a witness, exposure to neighborhood violence as a witness, and by all three selected values. The associations of ASB with universalism and conformity were negative. Conversely, the association of ASB with power was positive. One interaction had statistically significant effects. Results revealed that exposure to school violence as a witness moderates the relationship between universalism and ASB. The results highlight a high percentage of explained variance by ETV and values on ASB and suggest the importance of adopting a socio-ecological framework in interpreting adolescent behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Stacking fault tetrahedra formation in the neighbourhood of grain boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, M; Van Swygenhoven, H; Victoria, M

    2003-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations are performed to study the role of the grain boundary (GB) during the cascade evolution in irradiated nanocrystalline Ni. At all primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies in cascades near GBs, the damage produced after cooling down is vacancy dominated. Truncated stacking fault tetrahedra (TSFTs) are easily formed at 10 keV and higher PKA energies. At the higher energies a complex partial dislocation network forms, consisting of TSFTs. The GB acts as an interstitial sink without undergoing major structural changes.

  2. Improved DNA clamps by stacking to adjacent nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatthalla, M.I.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Three or four aromatic rings interconnected by acetylene bridges form a stiff conjugated system with sufficient conformational freedom to make it useful to link together the two strands of a DNA clamp. Upon targeting a ssDNA, the conformational flexibility allows better stacking of the linker...... to the underlying non-planar base triplet in the formed triplex. This type of triplexes has a substantially higher thermal melting temperature which can be further improved by inserting locked nucleic acids (LNAs) in the Hoogsteen part of the clamp. An extremely high sensitivity to mismatches is observed...

  3. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  4. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  5. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  6. Exploring online evolution of network stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...

  7. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  8. StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...

  9. Multi-Stacked Supported Lipid Bilayer Micropatterning through Polymer Stencil Lift-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Complex multi-lamellar structures play a critical role in biological systems, where they are present as lamellar bodies, and as part of biological assemblies that control energy transduction processes. Multi-lamellar lipid layers not only provide interesting systems for fundamental research on membrane structure and bilayer-associated polypeptides, but can also serve as components in bioinspired materials or devices. Although the ability to pattern stacked lipid bilayers at the micron scale is of importance for these purposes, limited work has been done in developing such patterning techniques. Here, we present a simple and direct approach to pattern stacked supported lipid bilayers (SLBs using polymer stencil lift-off and the electrostatic interactions between cationic and anionic lipids. Both homogeneous and phase-segregated stacked SLB patterns were produced, demonstrating that the stacked lipid bilayers retain lateral diffusivity. We demonstrate patterned SLB stacks of up to four bilayers, where fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET and quenching was used to probe the interactions between lipid bilayers. Furthermore, the study of lipid phase behaviour showed that gel phase domains align between adjacent layers. The proposed stacked SLB pattern platform provides a robust model for studying lipid behaviour with a controlled number of bilayers, and an attractive means towards building functional bioinspired materials or devices.

  10. Inorganic salts interact with oxalic acid in submicron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, G.; Woo, J.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, di-carboxylic acids (DCA), and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of these components, as they are typically found in the atmosphere, has not been fully characterized. Here we show that inorganic-organic component interactions typically not considered in atmospheric models can lead to very strongly bound metal-organic complexes and greatly affect aerosol volatility and hygroscopicity; in particular, the bi-dentate binding of DCA to soluble inorganic ions. We have studied the volatility of pure, dry organic salt particles and the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of oxalic acid (OxA, the dominant DCA in the atmosphere) and a number of salts, both mono- and di-valent. The formation of very low volatility organic salts was confirmed, with minimal evaporation of oxalate salt particles below 75 °C. Dramatic increases in the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation diameter for particles with di-valent salts (e.g., CaCl2) and relatively small particle volume fractions of OxA indicate that standard volume additivity rules for hygroscopicity do not apply. Thus small organic compounds with high O : C ratios are capable of forming low-volatility and very low hygroscopicity particles. Given current knowledge of the formation mechanisms of OxA and M-Ox salts, surface enrichment of insoluble M-Ox salts is expected. The resulting formation of an insoluble coating of metal-oxalate salts can explain low-particle hygroscopicities. The formation of particles with a hard coating could offer an alternative explanation for observations of glass-like particles without the need for a phase transition.

  11. Extent of intramolecular pi stacks in aqueous solution in mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes formed by heteroaromatic amines and the anticancer and antivirally active 9[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]guanine (PMEG). A comparison with related acyclic nucleotide analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blindauer, C. A.; Sigel, A.; Operschall, B. P.; Griesser, R.; Holý, Antonín; Sigel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, Jan 8 (2016), s. 248-260 ISSN 0277-5387 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : anticancer activity * antivirals * aromatic-ring stacking * isomeric equilibria * nucleotide analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  12. Bilinear forms, N-soliton solutions and soliton interactions for a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation in condensed-matter physics and biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong-Xiang; Tian, Bo; Liu, Li-Cai; Qin, Bo; Lü, Xing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a fourth-order dispersive nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the dynamics of a one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple–dipole interaction in condensed-matter physics as well as the alpha helical proteins with higher-order excitations and interactions in biophysics. Beyond the existing constraint, upon the introduction of an auxiliary function, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions are constructed with the Hirota method. Asymptotic analysis on the two-soliton solutions indicates that the soliton interactions are elastic. Soliton velocity varies linearly with the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Bound-state solitons can also exist under certain conditions. Period of a bound-state soliton is inversely correlated to the coefficient of discreteness and higher-order magnetic interactions. Interactions among the three solitons are all pairwise elastic

  13. Intramolecular stacking interactions in ternary copper(II) complexes formed by a heteroaromatic amine and 9-[2-(2-phosphonoethoxy)ethyl]adenine, a relative of the antiviral nucleotide analogue 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Botello, A.; Holý, Antonín; Moreno, V.; Sigel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, - (2004), s. 2114-2124 ISSN 0162-0134 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D20.002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : adenine nucleotide analogues * intramolecular equilibria * isomeric complexes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.225, year: 2004

  14. Intramolecular .pi.-.pi. stacking interactions in aqueous solution in mixed-ligand copper (II) complexes formed by heteroaromatic amines and the nucleotide analogue (PME2AP), an isomer of the antivirally active (PMEA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Botello, A.; Holý, Antonín; Moreno, V.; Operschall, B. P.; Sigel, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 362, č. 3 (2009), s. 799-810 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antiviral activity * intramolecular equilibria * isomeric complexes * phosphonate complexes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2009

  15. Performance Analysis of Air Breathing Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) At Different Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, V.; Venkata siva, G.; Yoganjaneyulu, G.; Ravikumar, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The answer for an emission free power source in future is in the form of fuel cells which combine hydrogen and oxygen producing electricity and a harmless by product-water. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is ideal for automotive applications. A single cell cannot supply the essential power for any application. Hence PEM fuel cell stacks are used. The effect of different operating parameters namely: type of convection, type of draught, hydrogen flow rate, hydrogen inlet pressure, ambient temperature and humidity, hydrogen humidity, cell orientation on the performance of air breathing PEM fuel cell stack was analyzed using a computerized fuel cell test station. Then, the fuel cell stack was subjected to different load conditions. It was found that the stack performs very poorly at full capacity (runs only for 30 min. but runs for 3 hours at 50% capacity). Hence, a detailed study was undertaken to maximize the duration of the stack’s performance at peak load.

  16. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  17. Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…

  18. Infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on sodium borosilicate glass interacted with thermally oxidized aluminides formed on alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufali, C.; Dutta, R.S.; Dey, G.K.; Kshirsagar, R.J.; Jagannath; Mishra, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Thermally oxidized aluminides formed on Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates were subjected to interaction with sodium borosilicate melt (used as matrices for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste) at 1248 K for 192 hours. After the interaction, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of glass samples indicated the incorporation of Al in the glass network. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of glass specimens revealed modified glass structure. (author)

  19. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothmann, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces

  20. Stacking fault-mediated ultrastrong nanocrystalline Ti thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cui, J. C.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline (NC) Ti thin films with abundant stacking faults (SFs), which were created via partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries and which were insensitive to grain sizes. By employing the nanoindentation test, we investigated the effects of SFs and grain sizes on the strength of NC Ti films at room temperature. The high density of SFs significantly strengthens NC Ti films, via dislocation-SF interactions associated with the reported highest Hall-Petch slope of ˜20 GPa nm1/2, to an ultrahigh strength of ˜4.4 GPa, approaching ˜50% of its ideal strength.

  1. Magnetoband structures of AB-stacked zigzag nanographite ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.P.; Chiu, C.W.; Shyu, F.L.; Chen, R.B.; Lin, M.F

    2002-12-30

    Magnetoband structures of AB-stacked zigzag nanographite ribbons are studied by the tight-binding model. The magnetic field changes band width, energy space, and energy dispersions (the produce of Landau subbands and Landau levels). It causes many zero energy points. Such points and corresponding localized states are studied in detail. There are certain important differences between localized states and edge states. Oscillation period of Landau subbands are determined by these points. The interribbon interactions also affect magnetoband structures, such as energy dispersions, band width, oscillation period of Landau subbands, and flux dependence of Hofstadter butterflies.

  2. Cations form sequence selective motifs within DNA grooves via a combination of cation-pi and ion-dipole/hydrogen bond interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mikaela; Dunlap, Tori; Dourlain, Elizabeth; Grant, Bryce; McFail-Isom, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The fine conformational subtleties of DNA structure modulate many fundamental cellular processes including gene activation/repression, cellular division, and DNA repair. Most of these cellular processes rely on the conformational heterogeneity of specific DNA sequences. Factors including those structural characteristics inherent in the particular base sequence as well as those induced through interaction with solvent components combine to produce fine DNA structural variation including helical flexibility and conformation. Cation-pi interactions between solvent cations or their first hydration shell waters and the faces of DNA bases form sequence selectively and contribute to DNA structural heterogeneity. In this paper, we detect and characterize the binding patterns found in cation-pi interactions between solvent cations and DNA bases in a set of high resolution x-ray crystal structures. Specifically, we found that monovalent cations (Tl⁺) and the polarized first hydration shell waters of divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺) form cation-pi interactions with DNA bases stabilizing unstacked conformations. When these cation-pi interactions are combined with electrostatic interactions a pattern of specific binding motifs is formed within the grooves.

  3. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  4. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  5. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  7. Annex I.G. Demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule by toppling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The G1 stack at Marcoule was constructed during the first half of 1956 as a ventilation outlet for the G1 reactor, which is cooled by air. After the G1 reactor was decommissioned, the G1 stack served as a ventilation outlet for two new nuclear facilities on the site. Being no longer in compliance with regulations and having many inadequacies and uncertainties in terms of the prestressed concrete, the stack posed a potential damage risk in extreme wind or in the event of an earthquake. In 1994 it was decided that a new stack would be built to act as an outlet for the existing nuclear facilities, and that the old one would be demolished. The G1 stack was 100 m in height, 10 m in diameter and constructed with 24 vertically stacked concrete rings consisting of nine prefabricated sections, each 3.6 m in height. It was capped by a metal deflector (about 6 m in height and weighing 50 t). The inside consisted of nine semicircular tubes constructed of steel sheet metal weighing 120 t. The base of the stack consisted of the foundation, a plate and a base plate which were constructed at the site. The barrel sections were prefabricated. Construction lasted from January 1956 to June 1956. At the base, the cylindrical portion of the stack widened to form three feet extending to a depth of 7.5 m. The base plate of the stack was formed onsite to the height of 16.7 m and then prestressed using cables. A repair carried out in 1964 included adding a concrete lining of the initial rings of the cylinder up to a level of 22.1 m. Additional prestressing with the base plate and repair of the horizontal and vertical prestressing of the barrel were also carried out, leaving only 22 rings and 43 visible cables. The total mass of the stack was 2170 t, including: - Concrete: cylinder 800 t, base plate 1200 t; - Steel: internal structures 120 t, deflector 50 t. The main radiological risk was the presence of traces of tritium. The radioactive inventory for the entire stack was estimated in 2000

  8. Radiation Induced Removal of Stacking Faults in Quenched Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenlid, U

    1965-12-15

    The effect of neutron irradiation on specimens of quenched aluminium containing Frank sessile dislocation loops has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The Frank loops were found to trans. form into perfect loops at doses less than 10{sup 17} nvt. A possible reason for the removal of the stacking faults is the displacement of a number of atoms at the faults, leading to the passage of a Shockley partial. Unfaulting induced by stress fields from dislocations, released during the irradiation, can also be important.

  9. Radiation Induced Removal of Stacking Faults in Quenched Aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergenlid, U.

    1965-12-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on specimens of quenched aluminium containing Frank sessile dislocation loops has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The Frank loops were found to trans. form into perfect loops at doses less than 10 17 nvt. A possible reason for the removal of the stacking faults is the displacement of a number of atoms at the faults, leading to the passage of a Shockley partial. Unfaulting induced by stress fields from dislocations, released during the irradiation, can also be important

  10. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  11. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  12. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  13. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Ab-initio calculation of electronic structure and optical properties of AB-stacked bilayer α-graphyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2016-09-01

    Monolayer α-graphyne is a new two-dimensional carbon allotrope with many special features. In this work the electronic properties of AA- and AB-stacked bilayers of this material and then the optical properties are studied, using first principle plane wave method. The electronic spectrum has two Dirac cones for AA stacked bilayer α-graphyne. For AB-stacked bilayer, the interlayer interaction changes the linear bands into parabolic bands. The optical spectra of the most stable AB-stacked bilayer closely resemble to that of the monolayer, except for small shifts of peak positions and increasing of their intensity. For AB-stacked bilayer, a pronounced peak has been found at low energies under the perpendicular polarization. This peak can be clearly ascribed to the transitions at the Dirac point as a result of the small degeneracy lift in the band structure.

  15. Power station stack gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  16. Performance evaluation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack under ambient conditions: Case study of United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zeyoudi, Hend; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of open-cathode PEM fuel cell stacks with forced air-convection. • Stack performance can vary up to 40% from winter to summer. • Hot and arid condition leads to membrane drying and performance deterioration. • Anode humidification improves the stack performance up to 40% during summer. - Abstract: The open-cathode polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack has been a promising candidate as a sustainable energy conversion system for replacing fossil fuel-based energy conversion devices in portable and automotive applications. As the ambient air is directly used to provide both oxidant and cooling, the complex cooling loop can be avoided which reduces the complexity and cost. However, the stack performance is highly affected by ambient conditions, i.e., ambient temperature and humidity. In this study, the effect of monthly ambient air conditions (temperature and humidity) is evaluated with respect to the stack’s power production performance as well as thermal, water and gas management by employing a validated three-dimensional open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack model. The annual climate data from the hot and arid environment of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) are used as a case study. The objective is to develop a better fundamental understanding of the interactions of physical phenomena in a fuel cell stack, which can assist in improving the performance and operation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell-powered vehicle. The results indicate that the stack performance can vary significantly (up to 40%) from winter to summer, especially at high operating currents, with significant changes in the stack temperature and the water content at the membrane. Moreover, the anode humidification results in a significant improvement in the stack performance (up to 40%) in hot and dry conditions. However, a careful balance has to be struck between the humidifier parasitic load and the stack power.

  17. The role of the lysyl binding site of tissue-type plasminogen activator in the interaction with a forming fibrin clot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.H.F.; Weening-Verhoeff, E.J.D.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    To describe the role of the lysyl binding site in the interaction of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, FGK1K2P) with a forming fibrin clot, we performed binding experiments with domain deletion mutants GK1K2P, K2P, and the corresponding point mutants lacking the lysyl binding site in the

  18. Relationship of Non-Structural Forms of Social Interaction with Problems of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Students Prone to Chemical Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilemkhanova, Elvira N.

    2016-01-01

    The changes in contemporary social and cultural environment determine the necessity to increase the efficiency of adaptive mechanisms, especially for those categories of people who are subject to social risks. One of those categories is students prone to chemical addictions. To study the relationship of forms of social interaction with problems of…

  19. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  20. Interspecies interactions that result in Bacillus subtilis forming biofilms are mediated mainly by members of its own genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Elizabeth A; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Powers, Gordon E; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-11-29

    Many different systems of bacterial interactions have been described. However, relatively few studies have explored how interactions between different microorganisms might influence bacterial development. To explore such interspecies interactions, we focused on Bacillus subtilis, which characteristically develops into matrix-producing cannibals before entering sporulation. We investigated whether organisms from the natural environment of B. subtilis--the soil--were able to alter the development of B. subtilis. To test this possibility, we developed a coculture microcolony screen in which we used fluorescent reporters to identify soil bacteria able to induce matrix production in B. subtilis. Most of the bacteria that influence matrix production in B. subtilis are members of the genus Bacillus, suggesting that such interactions may be predominantly with close relatives. The interactions we observed were mediated via two different mechanisms. One resulted in increased expression of matrix genes via the activation of a sensor histidine kinase, KinD. The second was kinase independent and conceivably functions by altering the relative subpopulations of B. subtilis cell types by preferentially killing noncannibals. These two mechanisms were grouped according to the inducing strain's relatedness to B. subtilis. Our results suggest that bacteria preferentially alter their development in response to secreted molecules from closely related bacteria and do so using mechanisms that depend on the phylogenetic relatedness of the interacting bacteria.

  1. Stacks with TiN/titanium as the bipolar plate for PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Dongming; Wang, Zaiyi

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a potential alternative for the internal combustion engine. But many problems, such as metallic bipolar plate instead of graphite bipolar plate to decrease the cost, should be solved before its application. Based on the previous results that single cell with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates shows high performance and enough long-time durability, the progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported in this manuscript. Till now seldom report is focused on stacks because of the complicated processing technique, especially for that with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate. The flow field in the plate is punched from titanium deformation, and two plates are welded by laser welding to form one piece of bipolar plate. The adopted processing techniques for stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate exhibit advantage and feasibility in industry. The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 , although it still has space to be improved. Next work should be focused on the design of flow channel parameters and flow field type based on plastic deformation of metal materials. -- Highlights: ► The progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported. ► The adopted processing techniques exhibit feasibility in industry. ► The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 .

  2. Pre-stack estimation of time-lapse seismic velocity changes : an example from the Sleipner CO2-sequestration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Landro, M.; Ghaderi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is being injected into a shallow sand formation at around a 1,000 metre depth at the Sleipner Field located in the North Sea. It is expected that the CO 2 injected in the bottom of the formation, will form a plume consisting of CO 2 accumulating in thin lenses during migration up through the reservoir. Several studies have been published using stacked seismic data from 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2002. A thorough analysis of post-stack seismic data from the Sleipner CO2-Sequestration Pilot Project was conducted. Interpretation of seismic data is usually done on post-stack data. For a given subsurface reflection point, seismic data are acquired for various incidence angles, typically 40 angles. These 40 seismic signals are stacked together in order to reduce noise. The term pre-stack refers to seismic data prior to this step. For hydrocarbon-related 4-dimensional seismic studies, travel time shift estimations have been used. This paper compared pre-stack and post-stack estimation of average velocity changes based on measured 4-dimensional travel time shifts. It is more practical to compare estimated velocity changes than the actual travel time changes, since the time shifts vary with offset for pre-stack time-lapse seismic analysis. It was concluded that the pre-stack method gives smaller velocity changes when estimated between two key horizons. Therefore, pre-stack travel time analysis in addition to conventional post-stack analysis is recommended. 6 refs., 12 figs

  3. Harry Stack Sullivan Colloquium: George Herbert Mead and Harry Stack Sullivan: an unfinished synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, L S

    1978-05-01

    HOW DO YOU create a new self? However he may phrase this question, it is a central theoretical and practical concern of the therapist every time he confronts a client who comes to him for help. What are the processes out of which the human self emerges? However he may phrase the question, it is a central concern of the social psychologist. The obvious convergence of interests indicated by these two questions should occasion no surprise among students of Sullivan and Mead. What perhaps should be surprising is that an effective synthesis of their theories has progressed no further than it has to date. My remarks today are based on the conviction that a more adequate psychiatric theory and practice and a more complete social psychological theory and research program depend on such a synthesis. Behavioral scientists concerned with the development of a truly interactionist social psychology are, I believe, generally agreed that George Herbert Mead (1863-1931), philosopher and social psychologist, and Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949), psychiatrist and social psychologist, have laid conceptual foundations upon which such a discipline can be erected. Now a vast assortment of activities is tagged as social psychology and its boundaries are, indeed, difficult to draw. However, for our present purposes we can define its focus as the study of the processes and products of inter- and intrapersonal and inter- and intragoup interaction, let the boundaries fall where they will.

  4. Photonic Crystal Waveguide Weakly Interacting with Multiple Off-Channel Resonant Features Formed of Kerr Nonlinear Dielectric Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. McGurn

    2007-01-01

    a number of analytical results are presented providing simple explanations of the quantitative behaviors of the systems. A relationship of these systems to forms of electromagnetic-induced transparency and modifications of waveguide dispersion relations is discussed.

  5. A meson-theoretical model for the πρinteraction and the πNN form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, G.

    1993-02-01

    Based on the successful description of ππ interaction within the meson exchange framework we extend our model to a further meson-meson process, the πρ interaction. In comparison with ππ interaction several new aspects appear in the πρ system. Besides other points the main new aspect is due to the instability of the ρ-meson, which induces a transition of the πρ system into a 3π system. A realistic model for the πρ interaction should take into account coupling to this three-particle channel and thus requires application of the complicated three-body formalism. Having obtained the πρ T-matrix we first investigate the L JT = S 11 partial wave, i.e. the A 1 -channel. Here, ρ-exchange provides the dominant exchange contribution; however, it is definitely necessary to include the genuine A 1 -pole term. The detailed investigation of the structure of the resulting T-matrix provides an explanation for discrepancies existing in the interpretation of different experimental data sets. As a first application of our πρ interaction model we investigate the πNN vertex. We consider the meson cloud part of the vertex extension by calculating loop corrections to the pointlike vertex. It turns out that the formfactor is rather soft in our calculation (Λ πNN ≅ 1.0GeV; monopole parametrization). For this result the inclusion of the πρ interaction is quite important, because it leads to a remarkable shift in the formfactor towards lower cut-off masses. (orig.) [de

  6. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  7. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  8. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  9. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  10. Stacking non-BPS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu

    2001-08-01

    We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)

  11. Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, M.

    1990-01-01

    The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period

  12. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  13. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  14. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  15. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  16. Toward advising SME's on stacked funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table

  17. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  18. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  19. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  20. A comparative study on the interaction of phenazinium dyes with low pH induced protonated structure and B-form structure of naturally occurring deoxyribonucleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Das, Shubhajit; Haque, Lucy; Bhuiya, Sutanwi; Das, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of two phenazinium dyes namely Phenosafranine (PSF) and Safranin T (ST) with right-handed B-form and left-handed protonated form of Calf Thymus (CT) DNA was investigated using different spectroscopic techniques. Both the dyes have been shown to bind strongly to the right-handed B-form of DNA by the mechanism intercalation as revealed from fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosity measurement. From circular dichroic studies it was evidenced that both of them convert the low pH induced left-handed protonated form of DNA back to the bound right-handed form. Scatchard analysis showed that both the dyes bound strongly to B-form of DNA in a non-cooperative manner. In case of protonated form, there was sequential conversion of the polynucleotide from left-handed to the bound right-handed conformation. Our results suggest that the binding environment of the dyes in the two forms of DNA is similar and our data predict that PSF is more effective in the conversion than ST. Experimental data enabled the calculation of the number of base pairs of protonated-form that adopted a right-handed conformation for each bound dye. Our data revealed that PSF is more effective in the conversion compard to that of ST. These results are attributed to greater steric crowd in ST compared to PSF which restricts the former to intercalate between DNA base pairs. The results of these studies allow a better understanding of dye-polymorphic nucleic acid interactions at a molecular level.

  1. Subunit–subunit interactions are weakened in mutant forms of acetohydroxy acid synthase insensitive to valine inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Janata, Jiří; Ságová-Marečková, M.; Kopecký, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 3 (2010), s. 195-200 ISSN 0302-8933 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Streptomyces cinnamonensis * Acetohydroxy acid synthase * Subunit-subunit interaction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.754, year: 2010

  2. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  3. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  4. Effect of stacking fault energy on steady-state creep rate of face ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...

  5. On the consistent interactions in D=11 among a graviton, a massless gravitino and a three-form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioroianu, E.M.; Diaconu, E.; Sararu, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    The couplings that can be introduced between a massless Rarita-Schwinger field, a Pauli-Fierz field and an Abelian three-form gauge field in eleven spacetime dimensions are analyzed in the context of the deformation of the solution of the master equation. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. 新媒介时代人际互动的形态变迁%An analysis of new forms of social interaction in new media era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓婧

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of new media has brought new forms of social interaction. With the help of new media, the interaction has reached across time and space boundaries, the process has been synchronized, the expe- rience has been multiple and sensory, the interactive objects has extended to the public, the interaction scope has a blurred distinction between public and private areas, and the interaction exhibits a tendency of being evident, shal- low and common. As a result, the new media era is of coexistence of traditional and new social interaction forms. While people are concerned about the increasingly significant social impact, they need to re-understand and extend the connotation of social interaction.%新媒介的蓬勃发展,推动了传统人际互动形态的变革。借助新媒介平台实现的互动范围跨越时空界限,互动过程同步共时,互动体验综合感官,互动对象向公众延展,互动领域公私界限模糊,人际互动内容呈现出外显化、浅表化和公共化的趋势。因此,新媒介时代是传统与新型人际互动形态共存的时代,人们在关注其日益显著的社会影响的同时,还将重新认知和延展人际互动的涵义。

  7. The RSV F and G glycoproteins interact to form a complex on the surface of infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Kit-Wei; Tan, Timothy; Ng, Ken; Tan, Boon-Huan; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the interaction between the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins was examined. Immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that the F and G proteins exist as a protein complex on the surface of RSV-infected cells, and this conclusion was supported by ultracentrifugation analysis that demonstrated co-migration of surface-expressed F and G proteins. Although our analysis provided evidence for an interaction between the G and SH proteins, no evidence was obtained for a single protein complex involving all three of the virus proteins. These data suggest the existence of multiple virus glycoprotein complexes within the RSV envelope. Although the stimulus that drives RSV-mediated membrane fusion is unknown, the association between the G and F proteins suggest an indirect role for the G protein in this process

  8. Novelly formed products of the interaction of fuel with construction materials of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoj, A.A.; Galkin, B.Ya.; Drapchinskij, L.V.; Krinitsyn, A.P.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Petrov, B.F.; Pleskachevskij, L.A.; Checherov, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation environment and position of fuel-containing masses in the bubbler pond of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP are described. Classification of the products of fuel interaction with structural materials is given. Amounts of fuel on the 1st and 2nd floor of the bubbler pond are estimated. Postaccident pictures of the premises of the bubbler pond are presented for the first time

  9. Analysis of stacking overlap in nucleic acid structures: algorithm and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Pavan Kumar; Halder, Sukanya; Mukherjee, Debasish; Basu, Sankar; Banerjee, Rahul; Choudhury, Devapriya; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2014-08-01

    RNA contains different secondary structural motifs like pseudo-helices, hairpin loops, internal loops, etc. in addition to anti-parallel double helices and random coils. The secondary structures are mainly stabilized by base-pairing and stacking interactions between the planar aromatic bases. The hydrogen bonding strength and geometries of base pairs are characterized by six intra-base pair parameters. Similarly, stacking can be represented by six local doublet parameters. These dinucleotide step parameters can describe the quality of stacking between Watson-Crick base pairs very effectively. However, it is quite difficult to understand the stacking pattern for dinucleotides consisting of non canonical base pairs from these parameters. Stacking interaction is a manifestation of the interaction between two aromatic bases or base pairs and thus can be estimated best by the overlap area between the planar aromatic moieties. We have calculated base pair overlap between two consecutive base pairs as the buried van der Waals surface between them. In general, overlap values show normal distribution for the Watson-Crick base pairs in most double helices within a range from 45 to 50 Å(2) irrespective of base sequence. The dinucleotide steps with non-canonical base pairs also are seen to have high overlap value, although their twist and few other parameters are rather unusual. We have analyzed hairpin loops of different length, bulges within double helical structures and pseudo-continuous helices using our algorithm. The overlap area analyses indicate good stacking between few looped out bases especially in GNRA tetraloop, which was difficult to quantitatively characterise from analysis of the base pair or dinucleotide step parameters. This parameter is also seen to be capable to distinguish pseudo-continuous helices from kinked helix junctions.

  10. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  11. The use of Graphic User Interface for development of a user-friendly CRS-Stack software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Rachmat; Prayudhatama, Dythia; Perkasa, Muhammad D.; Hendriyana, Andri; Fatkhan; Sardjito; Adriansyah

    2017-04-01

    The development of a user-friendly Common Reflection Surface (CRS) Stack software that has been built by implementing Graphical User Interface (GUI) is described in this paper. The original CRS-Stack software developed by WIT Consortium is compiled in the unix/linux environment, which is not a user-friendly software, so that a user must write the commands and parameters manually in a script file. Due to this limitation, the CRS-Stack become a non popular method, although applying this method is actually a promising way in order to obtain better seismic sections, which have better reflector continuity and S/N ratio. After obtaining successful results that have been tested by using several seismic data belong to oil companies in Indonesia, it comes to an idea to develop a user-friendly software in our own laboratory. Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a type of user interface that allows people to interact with computer programs in a better way. Rather than typing commands and module parameters, GUI allows the users to use computer programs in much simple and easy. Thus, GUI can transform the text-based interface into graphical icons and visual indicators. The use of complicated seismic unix shell script can be avoided. The Java Swing GUI library is used to develop this CRS-Stack GUI. Every shell script that represents each seismic process is invoked from Java environment. Besides developing interactive GUI to perform CRS-Stack processing, this CRS-Stack GUI is design to help geophysicists to manage a project with complex seismic processing procedures. The CRS-Stack GUI software is composed by input directory, operators, and output directory, which are defined as a seismic data processing workflow. The CRS-Stack processing workflow involves four steps; i.e. automatic CMP stack, initial CRS-Stack, optimized CRS-Stack, and CRS-Stack Supergather. Those operations are visualized in an informative flowchart with self explanatory system to guide the user inputting the

  12. Modeling the kinematics of multi-axial composite laminates as a stacking of 2D TIF plies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Ruben; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Chinesta, Francisco; Huerta, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Thermoplastic composites are widely considered in structural parts. In this paper attention is paid to sheet forming of continuous fiber laminates. In the case of unidirectional prepregs, the ply constitutive equation is modeled as a transversally isotropic fluid, that must satisfy both the fiber inextensibility as well as the fluid incompressibility. When the stacking sequence involves plies with different orientations the kinematics of each ply during the laminate deformation varies significantly through the composite thickness. In our former works we considered two different approaches when simulating the squeeze flow induced by the laminate compression, the first based on a penalty formulation and the second one based on the use of Lagrange multipliers. In the present work we propose an alternative approach that consists in modeling each ply involved in the laminate as a transversally isotropic fluid - TIF - that becomes 2D as soon as incompressibility constraint and plane stress assumption are taken into account. Thus, composites laminates can be analyzed as a stacking of 2D TIF models that could eventually interact by using adequate friction laws at the inter-ply interfaces.

  13. A facile approach to prepare porous cup-stacked carbon nanotube with high performance in adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wen, Xin; Mijowska, Ewa; Tang, Tao; Chen, Xuecheng

    2015-05-01

    Novel porous cup-stacked carbon nanotube (P-CSCNT) with special stacked morphology consisting of many truncated conical graphene layers was synthesized by KOH activating CSCNT from polypropylene. The morphology, microstructure, textural property, phase structure, surface element composition and thermal stability of P-CSCNT were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM, N2 sorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. A part of oblique graphitic layers were etched by KOH, and many holes with a diameter of several to a doze of nanometers connecting inner tube with outside were formed, which endowed P-CSCNT with high specific surface area (558.7 m(2)/g), large pore volume (1.993 cm(3)/g) and abundant surface functional groups. Subsequently, P-CSCNT was used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. Langmuir model closely fitted the adsorption results, and the maximum adsorption capacity of P-CSCNT was as high as 319.1mg/g. This was ascribed to multiple adsorption mechanisms including pore filling, hydrogen bonding, π-π and electrostatic interactions. Pseudo second-order kinetic model was more valid to describe the adsorption behavior. Besides, P-CSCNT showed good recyclablity and reusability. These results demonstrated that P-CSCNT had potential application in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks

  15. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  16. Visual form Cues, Biological Motions, Auditory Cues, and Even Olfactory Cues Interact to Affect Visual Sex Discriminations

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Van Der Zwan; Anna Brooks; Duncan Blair; Coralia Machatch; Graeme Hacker

    2011-01-01

    Johnson and Tassinary (2005) proposed that visually perceived sex is signalled by structural or form cues. They suggested also that biological motion cues signal sex, but do so indirectly. We previously have shown that auditory cues can mediate visual sex perceptions (van der Zwan et al., 2009). Here we demonstrate that structural cues to body shape are alone sufficient for visual sex discriminations but that biological motion cues alone are not. Interestingly, biological motions can resolve ...

  17. Geometrical treatment of non-potential interactions: the exterior variational calculus, dynamical systems, physical 1-forms and variational selfadjointness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trostel, R.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical objective of this paper is to provide geometrical formulation of the integrability conditions for the existence of an action functional, that is, to provide a geometrical counterpart (similar to that by Abraham, Marsden, and Hughes) of the variational and functional approach to self-adjointness. This objective is achieved via the exterior variational calculus, an exterior differential calculus on the vector space of functions depending on time or space time, using from the outset extensively the concept of functional differentiation as its foundation. Variational self-adjointness equals the variational closure of the physical 1-form, the vanishing of a generalized curl-operation applied to the equations of motion. The convenience of this more formal approach is demonstrated, not only when deriving the conditions of variational self-adjointness for materials of differential type of arbitrary order (particles or fields), using roughly no more than Dirac's delta-distributions, but also when treating materials of a broader class (including causal and acausal constitutive functionals, materials of rate type, integral type, etc.). A physical objective of this paper is achieved by pointing out that, as physics is primarily concerned with the solutions of the evolution equations, i.e., with the set of the zero points of the physical 1-form, an equivalence relation among the physical 1-forms on the infinite dimensional vector space of functions is constructed by leaving the set of their zero points unchanged. Using this result, a direct Lagrangian universality is indicated and an almost one presented. Moreover, all physical 1-forms connected by invertible supermatrices (thus mixing the evolution law of different times or space-time) are equivalent. Choosing these supermatrices to be diagonal in time or space-time yields the indirect analytical representation factors

  18. HOXA1 and TALE proteins display cross-regulatory interactions and form a combinatorial binding code on HOXA1 targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kumar, Bony; Parker, Hugo J; Paulson, Ariel; Parrish, Mark E; Pushel, Irina; Singh, Narendra Pratap; Zhang, Ying; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Florens, Laurence; Zeitlinger, Julia; Krumlauf, Robb

    2017-09-01

    Hoxa1 has diverse functional roles in differentiation and development. We identify and characterize properties of regions bound by HOXA1 on a genome-wide basis in differentiating mouse ES cells. HOXA1-bound regions are enriched for clusters of consensus binding motifs for HOX, PBX, and MEIS, and many display co-occupancy of PBX and MEIS. PBX and MEIS are members of the TALE family and genome-wide analysis of multiple TALE members (PBX, MEIS, TGIF, PREP1, and PREP2) shows that nearly all HOXA1 targets display occupancy of one or more TALE members. The combinatorial binding patterns of TALE proteins define distinct classes of HOXA1 targets, which may create functional diversity. Transgenic reporter assays in zebrafish confirm enhancer activities for many HOXA1-bound regions and the importance of HOX-PBX and TGIF motifs for their regulation. Proteomic analyses show that HOXA1 physically interacts on chromatin with PBX, MEIS, and PREP family members, but not with TGIF, suggesting that TGIF may have an independent input into HOXA1-bound regions. Therefore, TALE proteins appear to represent a wide repertoire of HOX cofactors, which may coregulate enhancers through distinct mechanisms. We also discover extensive auto- and cross-regulatory interactions among the Hoxa1 and TALE genes, indicating that the specificity of HOXA1 during development may be regulated though a complex cross-regulatory network of HOXA1 and TALE proteins. This study provides new insight into a regulatory network involving combinatorial interactions between HOXA1 and TALE proteins. © 2017 De Kumar et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Single-Event Transgene Product Levels Predict Levels in Genetically Modified Breeding Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampala, Satyalinga Srinivas; Fast, Brandon J; Richey, Kimberly A; Gao, Zhifang; Hill, Ryan; Wulfkuhle, Bryant; Shan, Guomin; Bradfisch, Greg A; Herman, Rod A

    2017-09-13

    The concentration of transgene products (proteins and double-stranded RNA) in genetically modified (GM) crop tissues is measured to support food, feed, and environmental risk assessments. Measurement of transgene product concentrations in breeding stacks of previously assessed and approved GM events is required by many regulatory authorities to evaluate unexpected transgene interactions that might affect expression. Research was conducted to determine how well concentrations of transgene products in single GM events predict levels in breeding stacks composed of these events. The concentrations of transgene products were compared between GM maize, soybean, and cotton breeding stacks (MON-87427 × MON-89034 × DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 × MON-87411 × DAS-59122-7 × DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 × MON-88913-8 × DAS-81910-7 cotton) and their component single events (MON-87427, MON-89034, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, MON-87411, DAS-59122-7, and DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2, and DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5, DAS-24236-5, SYN-IR102-7, MON-88913-8, and DAS-81910-7 cotton). Comparisons were made within a crop and transgene product across plant tissue types and were also made across transgene products in each breeding stack for grain/seed. Scatter plots were generated comparing expression in the stacks to their component events, and the percent of variability accounted for by the line of identity (y = x) was calculated (coefficient of identity, I 2 ). Results support transgene concentrations in single events predicting similar concentrations in breeding stacks containing the single events. Therefore, food, feed, and environmental risk assessments based on concentrations of transgene products in single GM events are generally applicable to breeding stacks composed of these events.

  20. Interaction on boundary of current-conducting and glass-forming phases in cermet films under annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulishova, O.I.; Zyrin, A.V.; Ismalgaliev, R.K.; Izmajlov, Sh.Z.; Kovylyaev, V.V.; Shevchuk, N.V.; Shcherbak, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    The electron-probe microanalysis permits investigating the interaction on the boundary of current-conducting and glass-binding phases in cermet films without noble metals on the base of ruthenium oxide. The performed studies along with experiments on model microsections subject to annealing in different media have shown the differences in the process of formation of structure and properties of cermet resistive elements as well as a significance of the oxidation process of current-conducting phase in formation of high working characteristics of cermet resistors on the base of hexaborides of the rare-earth elements

  1. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. PMID:25276860

  2. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility.

  3. Effect of Web Holes and Bearing Stiffeners on Flexural-Shear Interaction Strength of Steel Cold-Formed C-Channel Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an investigation on interaction equation between the required flexural strength, M, and the required shear strength, V, of cold-formed C-channels with web holes and bearing stiffeners. The primarily shear condition test was employed to study total 8 back to back lipped C channel sections of 95 and 100 mm depth when bearing stiffeners and circular holes were placed at center and both ends of specimens. The interaction equation were evaluated via Direct Strength Method, DSM, in accordance with the American Iron and Steel Institute for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, AISI 2007. A nonlinear finite element model was developed and verified against the test results in terms of failure buckling modes. It was concluded that the M-V interaction equation for specimens with web stiffeners was conservative where these specimens experienced plastic failure mode rather than local (Msl or distortional (Msd buckling mode. Moreover, the results indicated that proposed M-V interaction equation calculated by local buckling strength (Msl adequately predicted the behavior of specimens with circular web holes.

  4. Efficiency of the intermolecular interaction of salicylic acid neutral form and monoanion with Cd2 + ion studied by methods of absorption and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2018-02-01

    The methods of absorption and fluorescence were used to study the efficiency of the interaction between salicylic acid derivatives SAD (neutral SA form and SA monoanion) and Cd2 + ions (in CdBr2 salt) within the range pH = 1.5 ÷ 8. The efficiency was determined from the change in both the absorption band contour and the fluorescence intensity of various SAD forms. It has been established that depending on the SAD form, the addition of CdBr2 to a starting solution leads to the formation of additional absorption for both the shorter wave lengths in the absorption spectrum of the neutral form (at pH 4). In the fluorescence spectra, the intensity was observed to increase for the neutral SAD form (at pH 4) after addition of CdBr2. The spectral changes were interpreted in the framework of common notions about the effect of three physicochemical factors that determine the interaction between the SAD and the Cd2 + ion and affect the parameters of absorption and fluorescence spectra. These factors are: (1) the decrease in pH after addition of CdBr2 to the SAD solution, (2) the decrease in the efficiency of the H-bonding of SAD molecules to the water ones, and (3) the existence of electrostatic ion-ion interaction between the HSal- monoanion and the Cd2 + ion. The bimolecular fluorescence quenching constants Kq of HSal- monoanion fluorescence quenching by the Cd2 + ion appeared to be substantially less than those of the quenching which would follow either the dynamic (diffusion) or the concentration (static) mechanisms.

  5. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F μ factor. The calculated value of F μ exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F μ value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', R w or F μ for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  6. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  7. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  8. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  9. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  10. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  11. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  12. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  13. Serendipity in the Stacks: Libraries, Information Architecture, and the Problems of Accidental Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Serendipity in the library stacks is generally regarded as a positive occurrence. While acknowledging its benefits, this essay draws on research in library science, information systems, and other fields to argue that, in two important respects, this form of discovery can be usefully framed as a problem. To make this argument, the essay examines…

  14. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  15. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  16. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  17. Limitations on anti p-p luminosity with direct injection and stacking of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Teng, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    If protons of very high energy impinge on a target, a large part of the resulting antiprotons are sufficiently collimated to be injectible into a stacking and accelerating ring. They can then be stacked and injected into the main proton accelerator so as to produce anti p-p collisions without low energy antiproton cooling. A scheme is presented for the VBA, where 20 TeV protons produce 9 x 10 -4 antiprotons per proton at 100 GeV, which are then stacked, accelerated to 1 TeV, and injected into the main ring. With 16 proton pulses of 10 15 protons, one obtains a luminosity of the order of 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 with a beam-beam tune shift of 10 -3 per interaction region. The beams are bunched into 1000 bunches; the orbits are separated by means of relatively modest electostatic electrodes

  18. Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.

  19. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  20. Properties of deposited layer formed by interaction with Be seeded D–He mixture plasma and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, K., E-mail: tokunaga@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Baldwin, M.J.; Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Nagata, S. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tsuchiya, B. [Department of General Education, Faculty of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, 468-8502 (Japan); Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, IMR, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Fujiwara, T.; Araki, K.; Miyamoto, Y. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ohno, N. [School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Be-seeded, high-flux, deuterium/helium mixture plasma exposure experiments on tungsten target materials have been performed to simulate ITER all tungsten divertor erosion/modification and deposition phenomena. The exposure conditions are kept fixed at a typical low-ion-energy of 60 eV and a flux of 3–6 × 10{sup 22}/m{sup 2}/s. Sample temperature is 1123 K and plasma exposure times spanning 1050–10,100 s are explored. The typical ratio of He/D ions is 0.2 and Be content is 0.2%. A He-induced nanostructure layer is formed on the exposure surfaces of tungsten materials and the surface of the nanostructure is covered by a thin layer of Be and O. A fraction of the re-eroded Be from the target is deposited on a glassy carbon plate with line of sight to the tungsten target. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses show that the Be redeposit layer is in the form of laminae. Small amounts of Mo, W and C are also found in the redeposited Be layer. Elastic recoil detection analyses show that D, He and H are also included in the redeposited Be layer.

  1. Indicators of allogenic interactions of lymphocytes in spouses as additional diagnostic and prognostic criteria of immune forms of reproductive failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belenkova O.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to search new laboratory approaches to the diagnostics of immune forms of reproductive failures. Materials and methods. Retrospective research a case — control of 54 married couples with idiopathic reproductive failures (in the anamnesis — 3 and more spontaneously interrupted pregnancy in the 4-8th weeks and 47 married couples having two and more children has been conducted. Results. It has been revealed that at the immune form of reproductive failures increase of cells of level A- mononuclear cells, expression of HLDR takes place that promotes tolerance cancellation to allogenic germs and to immune interruption of pregnancy. At reproductive failures female au-toserum positively influences activation of T-lymphocyte (CD3 +/HLADR + that may lead to the death of half- allogenic germ. Conclusion. Level of expression of CD3 and HLADR on CD45 + of mixed allogenic mononuclear cells of spouses may serve as a diagnostic significant criterion for revealing immune reasons of reproductive failures.

  2. Crystal structure of a human single domain antibody dimer formed through V(H-V(H non-covalent interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toya Nath Baral

    Full Text Available Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs derived from human V(H are considered to be less soluble and prone to aggregate which makes it difficult to determine the crystal structures. In this study, we isolated and characterized two anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2 sdAbs, Gr3 and Gr6, from a synthetic human V(H phage display library. Size exclusion chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analyses demonstrated that Gr3 is a monomer, but that Gr6 is a strict dimer. To understand this different molecular behavior, we solved the crystal structure of Gr6 to 1.6 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed that the homodimer assembly of Gr6 closely mimics the V(H-V(L heterodimer of immunoglobulin variable domains and the dimerization interface is dominated by hydrophobic interactions.

  3. Interaction of intermetallic compounds formed by rare earths, scandium, yttrium and 3d-transition metals, with gaseous ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilkin, S.P.; Volkova, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Interaction of the RT n intermetallic compounds, where R Sc, Y, rare earths, T = Fe, Co, Ni; n = 2,3,5, with gaseous ammonia under pressure of 1MPa and at temperatures of 293, 723 and 798 K is studied. It is established on the basis of roentgenographic studied, chemical analysis data, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and specific surface measurements that metallic matrixes of intermetallides decompose into nitrides and transition metal phases at temperatures of 723 and 798 K under effect of ammonia and independent of structural types of the source materials; partial or complete decomposition of intermetallides through ammonia with formation of transition metal mixture, binary hydrides and nitrides of the most electropositive metal the above systems occurs at the temperature of 293 K depending on the heat of the source compounds and their tendency to decomposition under ammonia effect

  4. Enhanced optical fields in a multilayered microsphere with a quasiperiodic spherical stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlak, Gennadiy N

    2007-01-01

    Radiation of a nanosource placed in a microsphere with a quasiperiodic subwavelength spherical stack is studied. The spectral evolution of transmittance at the change of the thickness of two-layer blocks constructed following the Fibonacci sequence is investigated. When the number of layers (Fibonacci order) increases the structure of the spectrum acquires a fractal form. Our calculations show a rising strong field peak, when the ratio of width of layers in two-layer blocks of the stack is close to the golden mean value

  5. The Subwavelength Optical Field Confinement in a Multilayered Microsphere with Quasiperiodic Spherical Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy N. Burlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the frequency spectrum of nanoemitters placed in a microsphere with a quasiperiodic subwavelength spherical stack. The spectral evolution of transmittancy at the change of thickness of two-layer blocks, constructed following the Fibonacci sequence, is investigated. When the number of layers (Fibonacci order increases, the structure of spectrum acquires a fractal form. Our calculations show the radiation confinement and gigantic field enhancement, when the ratio of layers’ widths in twolayer blocks of the stack is close to the golden mean value.

  6. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  7. Light-switchable polymer from cationic to zwitterionic form: synthesis, characterization, and interactions with DNA and bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolčiak, Patrik; Spírek, Mário; Katrlík, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Peter; Lacík, Igor; Kasák, Peter

    2013-04-25

    A novel cationic polymer poly(N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(methacroylamino) propyl]-N-[2-[(2-nitrophenyl)methoxy]-2-oxo-ethyl]ammonium chloride) is synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide and subsequent quaternization with o-nitrobenzyl 2-chloroacetate. The photolabile o-nitrobenzyl carboxymethyl pendant moiety is transformed to the zwitterionic carboxybetaine form upon the irradiation at 365 nm. This feature is used to condense and, upon the light irradiation, to release double-strand DNA tested by gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance experiments as well as to switch the antibacterial activity to non-toxic character demonstrated for Escherichia coli bacterial cells in solution and at the surface using the self-assembled monolayers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  9. Stacking change in MoS2 bilayers induced by interstitial Mo impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Natalia; Rosales, Luis; Orellana, Pedro A; Ayuela, Andrés; González, Jhon W

    2018-02-01

    We use a theoretical approach to reveal the electronic and structural properties of molybdenum impurities between MoS 2 bilayers. We find that interstitial Mo impurities are able to reverse the well-known stability order of the pristine bilayer, because the most stable form of stacking changes from AA' (undoped) into AB' (doped). The occurrence of Mo impurities in different positions shows their split electronic levels in the energy gap, following octahedral and tetrahedral crystal fields. The energy stability is related to the accommodation of Mo impurities compacted in hollow sites between layers. Other less stable configurations for Mo dopants have larger interlayer distances and band gaps than those for the most stable stacking. Our findings suggest possible applications such as exciton trapping in layers around impurities, and the control of bilayer stacking by Mo impurities in the growth process.

  10. Plants with stacked genetically modified events: to assess or not to assess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Esther J; Pedersen, Jan; Onori, Roberta; Sowa, Slawomir; Schauzu, Marianna; De Schrijver, Adinda; Teeri, Teemu H

    2014-02-01

    The principles for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) are harmonised worldwide to a large extent. There are, however, still differences between the European GMO regulations and the GMO regulations as they have been formulated in other parts of the world. One of these differences relates to the so-called 'stacked GM events', that is, GMOs, plants so far, where new traits are combined by conventional crossing of different GM plants. This paper advocates rethinking the current food/feed safety assessment of stacked GM events in Europe based on an analysis of different aspects that currently form the rationale for the safety assessment of stacked GM events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prototype particulate stack sampler with single-cut nozzle and microcomputer calculating/display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eler, J.C.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tillery, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype particulate stack sampler (PPSS) has been developed to improve on the existing EPA Method 5 sampling apparatus. Its primary features are (1) higher sampling rate (56 1/min); (2) display (on demand) of all required variables and calculated values by a microcomputer-based calculating and display system; (3) continuous stack gas moisture determination; (4) a virtual impactor nozzle with 3 μm mass median diameter cutpoint which collects fine and coarse particle fractions on separate glass fiber filters; (5) a variable-area inlet to maintain isokinetic sampling conditions; and (6) conversion to stainless steel components from the glass specified by EPA Method 5. The basic sampling techniques of EPA Method 5 have been retained; however, versatility in the form of optional in-stack filters and general modernization of the stack sampler have been provided in the prototype design. Laboratory testing with monodisperse dye aerosols has shown the present variable inlet, virtual impactor nozzle to have a collection efficiency which is less than 77% and significant wall losses. This is primarily due to lack of symmetry in this rectangular jet impactor and short transition lengths dictated by physical design constraints (required passage of the nozzle through a 7.6 cm (3 in) diameter stack port). Electronic components have shown acceptable service in laboratory testing although no field testing of the prototype under a broad range of temperature, humidity, and SO 2 concentration has been undertaken

  12. Frequency domain method for the stack of seismic and radar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H; Sato, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Xu, S

    1997-10-22

    With relation to the stacking method of elastic wave and radar wave, the frequency domain stacking method using the Fourier conversion was proposed as a method for automatically removing errors in time correction leaving advantages of the conventional horizontal stacking method. Concerning an example of wave motion with the same wave form and time difference, as a result of the analysis conducted by this method, it was found that not only effects are kept of suppressing random noise and regular noise in the conventional horizontal stacking method, but the resolution in the original wave motion data is kept. In the example, amplitude of the noise was a half of the wave motion signal, but if it is more than 0.85 times of the wave motion signal, favorable result cannot be obtained in this method. In the analysis in the area where time correction is very difficult and the correction cannot be made completely, it is useful also for the time domain stacking method to acquire data on high resolution of elastic wave and radar wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlein, R.; Yamada-Takamura, Y. [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, School of Materials Science, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Van Bui, H.; Wiggers, F. B.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; Jong, M. P. de, E-mail: M.P.deJong@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-05-28

    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O{sub 2} molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB{sub 2}(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O{sub 2} gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O{sub 2} molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  14. Experimental study on the interspecific interactions between the two bloom-forming algal species and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihao; Xiao, Hui; Tang, Xuexi; Cai, Hengjiang

    2009-06-01

    The interspecific interactions between the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and two harmful algal blooms (HAB) species were investigated experimentally by single culture method. B. plicatilis population and the growth of the two algae were compared at different algal cell densities. The results demonstrated that the B. plicatilis obtained sufficient nutrition from Prorocentrum donghaiense to support net population increase. With exposure to 2.5×104 cells mL-1 of P. donghaiense, the number of B. plicatilis increased faster than it did when exposed to other four algal densities (5, 10, 15 and 20 ×104 cells mL-1), and the increase rate of B. plicatilis population ( r) at this algal density was 0.104 ± 0.015 rd-1. Cell densities of P. donghaiense decreased due to the grazing of B. plicatilis. In contrast, Heterosigma akashiwo had an adverse effect on B. plicatilis population and its growth was largely unaffected by rotifer grazing. In this case, B. plicatilis population decreased and H. akashiwo grew at a rate similar to that of the control.

  15. Interactions between Neighbourhood Urban Form and Socioeconomic Status and Their Associations with Anthropometric Measurements in Canadian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. McCormack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic composition and built context are correlates of weight-related behaviours. We investigated the relations between objective measures of neighbourhood design and socioeconomic status (SES and their interaction, in relation to self-reported waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI in a sample of Canadian adults (n=851 from 12 Calgary neighbourhoods. WC and BMI were higher among residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, independent of neighbourhood design (grid, warped grid, and curvilinear street patterns and individual-level characteristics (sex, age, education, income, dog ownership, marital status, number of dependents, motor vehicle access, smoking, sleep, mental health, physical health, and past attempts to modify bodyweight. The association between neighbourhood-level SES and WC was modified by neighbourhood design; WC was higher in disadvantaged-curvilinear neighbourhoods and lower in advantaged-grid neighbourhoods. Policies making less obesogenic neighbourhoods affordable to low socioeconomic households and that improve the supportiveness for behaviours leading to healthy weight in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods are necessary.

  16. Interactions between Neighbourhood Urban Form and Socioeconomic Status and Their Associations with Anthropometric Measurements in Canadian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenreich, Christine; McLaren, Lindsay; Potestio, Melissa; Sandalack, Beverly; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic composition and built context are correlates of weight-related behaviours. We investigated the relations between objective measures of neighbourhood design and socioeconomic status (SES) and their interaction, in relation to self-reported waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Canadian adults (n = 851 from 12 Calgary neighbourhoods). WC and BMI were higher among residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, independent of neighbourhood design (grid, warped grid, and curvilinear street patterns) and individual-level characteristics (sex, age, education, income, dog ownership, marital status, number of dependents, motor vehicle access, smoking, sleep, mental health, physical health, and past attempts to modify bodyweight). The association between neighbourhood-level SES and WC was modified by neighbourhood design; WC was higher in disadvantaged-curvilinear neighbourhoods and lower in advantaged-grid neighbourhoods. Policies making less obesogenic neighbourhoods affordable to low socioeconomic households and that improve the supportiveness for behaviours leading to healthy weight in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods are necessary. PMID:29056976

  17. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  18. LAYER STRUCTURES FORMED BY SILICA NANOPARTICLES AND CELLULOSE NANOFIBRILS WITH CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (C-PAM ON CELLULOSE SURFACE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Salmi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D was used to study the adsorption of the layer formed by silica nanoparticles (SNP and cellulose nanofibrils (NFC together with cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM on cellulose surface, accompanied by use of atomic force microscope (AFM to study the interactions between cellulose surfaces. The purpose was to understand the multilayer build-up compared to complex structure adsorption. The layer thickness and consequently also the repulsion between surfaces increased with each addition step during layer formation in the SNP-C-PAM systems, whereas the second addition of C-PAM decreased the repulsion in the case of NFC-C-PAM multilayer formation. An exceptionally high repulsion between surfaces was observed when nanofibrillar cellulose was added. This together with the extremely high dissipation values recorded with QCM-D indicated that nanofibrillar cellulose formed a loose and thick layer containing a lot of water. The multilayer systems formed fully and uniformly covered the surfaces. Silica nanoparticles were able to penetrate inside the loose C-PAM structure due to their small size. In contrast, NFC formed individual layers between C-PAM layers. The complex of C-PAM and SNP formed only a partly covered surface, leading to long-ranged pull-off force. This might explain the good flocculation properties reported for polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle systems.

  19. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  20. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic as "water - rock" interaction. Case study of lake Inari and river Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Sandimirov, Sergey; Pozhilenko, Vladimir; Ivanov, Stanislav; Maksimova, Viktoriia

    2017-04-01

    Due to the depletion of fresh water supplies and the deterioration of their quality as a result of anthropogenic impact on the Arctic ecosystems, the research questions of forming surface and ground waters, their interactions with the rocks, development of the foundations for their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of rocks of the northern part of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) shield on forming surface waters chemical composition (Lake Inari, river Paz) using physical-chemical modeling (Chudnenko, 2010, Selector software package). River Paz (Paatsjoki) is the largest river in North Fennoscandia and flows through the territory of three countries - Finland, Russia and Norway. It originates from Lake Inari, which a large number of streams and rivers flow into, coming from the mountain range of the northern Finland (Maanselkä hill). Within the catchment of inflows feeding the lake Inari and river Paz in its upper flow there are mainly diverse early Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Lapland granulite belt and its framing, and to a lesser extent - various gneisses and migmatites with relicts of amphibolites, granitic gneisses, plagioclase and plagio- and plagiomicrocline granites, and quartz diorites of Inari terrane (Meriläinen, 1976, fig 1; Hörmann et al, 1980, fig 1; Geologicalmap, 2001). Basing on the techniques developed earlier (Mazukhina, 2012), and the data of monitoring of the chemical composition of surface waters and investigation of the chemical composition of the rocks, physical-chemical modeling (FCM) (Selector software package) was carried out. FCM includes 34 independent components (Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-Fe-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-Ni-Pb-V-Ba-Co-Cr-Hg-As-Cd-H-O-e), 996 dependent components, of them 369 in aqueous solution, 76 in the gas phase, 111 liquid hydrocarbons, and 440 solid phases, organic and mineral

  1. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  2. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the α1 pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Alan; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. PMID:24917826

  3. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the alpha1 pore-forming subunit of high voltage-activated calcium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eNeely

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Openings of high-voltage-activated calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, high-voltage-activated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1 associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels.

  4. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( intake, with the greatest intake for TS-CS treatment during the preweaning and overall periods. Regardless of the physical form of starter, starter intake, ADG, weaning BW, final BW, ruminal pH, the molar proportion of acetate, and the acetate-to-propionate ratio were greater ( calves compared with unsupplemented calves. No interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of

  5. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  6. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  7. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  8. Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  9. How the cation-cation π-π stacking occurs: A theoretical investigation into ionic clusters of imidazolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Tian, Yong; Xuan, Xiaopeng

    2015-07-01

    The cation-cation π-π stacking is uncommon but it is essential for the understanding of some supramolecular structures. We explore theoretically the nature of non-covalent interaction occurring in the stacked structure within modeled clusters of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium and halide. The evidences of the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and reduced density gradient (RDG) approach are different from those of common π-π interaction. Isosurfaces with RDG also illustrate the strength of the titled π-π interaction and their region. Additionally, we find that the occurrence of this interaction is attributed to a few C-H···X interactions, as depicted using atom in molecule (AIM) method. This work presents a clear picture of the typical cation-cation π-π interaction and can serve to advance the understanding of this uncommon interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  11. Control of heteroepitaxial stacking by substrate miscut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, S.W.; Flynn, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    We report studies of fcc epitaxial crystals, grown on Nb(110), in which the Nb surface offers a template for selection between the two alternative stackings, ABCA hor-ellipsis and ACBA hor-ellipsis of the fcc close-packed planes. The Nb templates were grown epitaxially about 500 Angstrom thick on sapphire (11 bar 20), and the fcc material studied was Cu 3 Au. From symmetry it is not possible for the perfect bcc (110) surface to cause any such selection, which is here attributed instead to vicinal miscut: the logarithm of the stacking ratio must be even in miscut along [001] and odd in miscut along [1 bar 10]. We find that the measured selectivity is small for miscuts less than about 0.5 degree, but approaches a factor 10 3 for miscuts along [1 bar 10] greater than about 1 degree. A mechanism for the selection process is discussed in terms of fingered mesostructures that grow on Nb(110) in this regime, as observed first by Zhou, Bonham, and Flynn. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  13. Uranium chemistry in stack solutions and leachates of phosphogypsum disposed at a coastal area in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysandrou, M; Pashalidis, I

    2008-02-01

    The effect of the matrix composition (main constituents) on the concentration and chemical behavior of uranium in phosphogypsum stack solutions and leachates has been investigated. Solid and aqueous samples were taken from three different sub-areas of a phosphogypsum stack at a coastal area in Vasilikos (Cyprus). The sub-areas are characterized whether by their acidity (e.g. "aged" and "non-aged" phosphogypsum) or by their salt content, originating from pulping water during wet stacking or (after deposition) from the adjacent sea. Measurements in stack solutions and leachates showed that phosphogypsum characteristics affect both, the concentration and the chemical behavior of uranium in solution. Uranium concentration in solutions of increased salinity is up to three orders of magnitude higher than in solutions of low salinity and this is attributed to the effect of ionic strength on the solubility of phosphogypsum. Modelling showed that uranium in stack solutions is predominantly present in the form of uranium(VI) phosphate complexes (e.g. UO(2)(H(2)PO(4))(2), UO(2)HPO(4)), whereas in leachates uranium(VI) fluoro complexes (e.g. UO(2)F(2), UO(2)F(3)(-)) are predominant in solution. The latter indicates that elution of uranium from phosphogypsum takes places most probably in the form of fluoro complexes. Both, effective elution by saline water and direct migration of uranium to the sea, where it forms very stable uranium(VI) carbonato complexes, indicate that the adjacent sea will be the final receptor of uranium released from Vasilikos phosphogypsum.

  14. The interaction of hepatitis A virus (HAV with soluble forms of its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1 share the physiological requirements of infectivity in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Gerardo G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV, an atypical Picornaviridae that causes acute hepatitis in humans, usurps the HAV cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1 to infect cells. HAVCR1 is a class 1 integral membrane glycoprotein that contains two extracellular domains: a virus-binding immunoglobulin-like (IgV domain and a mucin-like domain that extends the IgV from the cell membrane. Soluble forms of HAVCR1 bind, alter, and neutralize cell culture-adapted HAV, which is attenuated for humans. However, the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether HAVCR1 also serves as a receptor for wild-type (wt HAV. Here, we used HAV soluble receptor neutralization and alteration assays to study the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction and to determine whether HAVCR1 is also a receptor for wt HAV. Results Treatment of HAV with a soluble form of HAVCR1 that contained the IgV and two-thirds of the mucin domain fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (D1 muc-Fc, altered particles at 37°C but left a residual level of unaltered particles at 4°C. The kinetics of neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc was faster at 37°C than at 4°C. Alteration of HAV particles by D1 muc-Fc required Ca, which could not be replaced by Li, Na, Mg, Mn, or Zn. Neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc occurred at pH 5 to 8 but was more efficient at pH 6 to 7. D1 muc-Fc neutralized wt HAV as determined by a cell culture system that allows the growth of wt HAV. Conclusion The interaction of HAV with soluble forms of HAVCR1 shares the temperature, Ca, and pH requirements for infectivity in cell culture and therefore mimics the cell entry process of HAV. Since soluble forms of HAVCR1 also neutralized wt HAV, this receptor may play a significant role in pathogenesis of HAV.

  15. Nature of Interlayer Binding and Stacking of sp–sp 2 Hybridized Carbon Layers: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeondeok; Lee, Hoonkyung; Heinonen, Olle; Benali, Anouar; Kwon, Yongkyung

    2017-01-01

    α-graphyne is a two-dimensional sheet of sp-sp2 hybridized carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice. While the geometrical structure is similar to that of graphene, the hybridized triple bonds give rise to electronic structure that is different from that of graphene. Similar to graphene, α-graphyne can be stacked in bilayers with two stable configurations, but the different stackings have very different electronic structures: one is predicted to have gapless parabolic bands and the other a tunable bandgap which is attractive for applications. In order to realize applications, it is crucial to understand which stacking is more stable. This is difficult to model, as the stability is a result of weak interlayer van der Waals interactions which are not well captured by density functional theory (DFT). We have used quantum Monte Carlo simulations that accurately include van der Waals interactions to calculate the interlayer binding energy of bilayer graphyne and to determine its most stable stacking mode. Our results show that inter-layer bindings of sp- and sp2-bonded carbon networks are significantly underestimated in a Kohn-Sham DFT approach, even with an exchange-correlation potential corrected to include, in some approximation, van der Waals interactions. Finally, our quantum Monte Carlo calculations reveal that the interlayer binding energy difference between the two stacking modes is only 0.9(4) eV/atom. From this we conclude that the two stable stacking modes of bilayer α-graphyne are almost degenerate with each other, and both will occur with about the same probability at room temperature unless there is a synthesis path that prefers one stacking over the other.

  16. Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)

    2007-06-10

    This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)

  17. Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmario Scotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.

  18. Size effects of nano-spaced basal stacking faults on the strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline pure hcp metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Jiang, Ping; Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The size effects of nano-spaced basal stacking faults (SFs) on the tensile strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium have been investigated by a series of large-scale 2D columnar and 3D molecular dynamics simulations. Unlike the strengthening effect of basal SFs on Mg alloys, the nano-spaced basal SFs are observed to have no strengthening effect on the nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium from MD simulations. These observations could be attributed to the following two reasons: (i) Lots of new basal SFs are formed before (for cobalt) or simultaneously with (for magnesium) the other deformation mechanisms (i.e. the formation of twins and the edge dislocations) during the tensile deformation; (ii) In hcp alloys, the segregation of alloy elements and impurities at typical interfaces, such as SFs, can stablilise them for enhancing the interactions with dislocation and thus elevating the strength. Without such segregation in pure hcp metals, the edge dislocations can cut through the basal SFs although the interactions between the dislocations and the pre-existing SFs/newly formed SFs are observed. The nano-spaced basal SFs are also found to have no restriction effect on the formation of deformation twins.

  19. Anisotropic formation and distribution of stacking faults in II-VI semiconductor nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven M; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2013-01-09

    Nanocrystals of cadmium selenide exhibit a form of polytypism with stable forms in both the wurtzite and zinc blende crystal structures. As a result, wurtzite nanorods of cadmium selenide tend to form stacking faults of zinc blende along the c-axis. These faults were found to preferentially form during the growth of the (001) face, which accounts for 40% of the rod's total length. Since II-VI semiconductor nanorods lack inversion symmetry along the c-axis of the particle, the two ends of the nanorod may be identified by this anisotropic distribution of faults.

  20. Dispersion Interactions between Urea and Nucleobases Contribute to the Destabilization of RNA by Urea in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasavajhala, Koushik; Bikkina, Swetha; Patil, Indrajit; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Priyakumar, U. Deva

    2015-01-01

    Urea has long been used to investigate protein folding and, more recently, RNA folding. Studies have proposed that urea denatures RNA by participating in stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases. In this study, the ability of urea to form unconventional stacking interactions with RNA bases is investigated using ab initio calculations (RI-MP2 and CCSD(T) methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set). A total of 29 stable nucleobase-urea stacked complexes are identified in which the intermolecular interaction energies (up to −14 kcal/mol) are dominated by dispersion effects. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations further confirm strong interactions between urea and nucleobases. Calculations on model systems with multiple urea and water molecules interacting with a guanine base lead to a hypothesis that urea molecules along with water are able to form cage-like structures capable of trapping nucleic acid bases in extrahelical states by forming both hydrogen bonded and dispersion interactions, thereby contributing to the unfolding of RNA in the presence of urea in aqueous solution. PMID:25668757

  1. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  2. Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Leon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.

  3. Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-03-01

    We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.

  4. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  5. Linear identification and model adjustment of a PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunusch, C; Puleston, P F; More, J J [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Husar, A [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), c/ Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mayosky, M A [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIC), Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    In the context of fuel cell stack control a mayor challenge is modeling the interdependence of various complex subsystem dynamics. In many cases, the states interaction is usually modeled through several look-up tables, decision blocks and piecewise continuous functions. Many internal variables are inaccessible for measurement and cannot be used in control algorithms. To make significant contributions in this area, it is necessary to develop reliable models for control and design purposes. In this paper, a linear model based on experimental identification of a 7-cell stack was developed. The procedure followed to obtain a linear model of the system consisted in performing spectroscopy tests of four different single-input single-output subsystems. The considered inputs for the tests were the stack current and the cathode oxygen flow rate, while the measured outputs were the stack voltage and the cathode total pressure. The resulting model can be used either for model-based control design or for on-line analysis and errors detection. (author)

  6. Stress concentration during pellet cladding interaction: Comparison of closed-form solutions with 2D(r,θ) finite element simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sercombe, Jérôme; Masson, Renaud; Helfer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents closed-formed solutions concerning pellet cladding interaction. • First, the opening of a radial crack in a pellet fragment is estimated. • Second, the stresses in the cladding in front of the pellet crack are calculated. • The closed-formed solutions are found in good agreement with 2D FE simulations. • They are then used in the fuel code ALCYONE to model PCI during power ramps. -- Abstract: This paper presents two closed-form solutions that can be used to enrich the mechanical description of fuel pellets and cladding behavior in standard one-dimensional based fuel performance codes. The first one is concerned with the estimation of the opening of a radial crack in a pellet fragment induced by the radial thermal gradient in the pellet and limited by the pellet-clad contact pressure. The second one describes the stress distribution in a cladding bore in front of an opening pellet crack. A linear angular variation of the pellet-clad contact pressure and a constant prescribed radial displacement are considered. The closed-form solutions are checked by comparison to independent finite element models of the pellet fragment and of the cladding. Their ability to describe non-axisymmetric displacement and stress fields during loading histories representative of base irradiation and power ramps is then demonstrated by cross-comparison with the 2D pellet fragment-cladding model of the multi-dimensional fuel performance code ALCYONE. The calculated radial crack opening profiles at different times and the hoop stress concentration in the cladding at the top of the ramp are found in good agreement with ALCYONE

  7. Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Chen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)

  8. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  9. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  10. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  11. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  12. Thermal conductivity measurement of HTS tapes and stacks for current lead applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Michael; Weiss, Klaus-Peter; Heller, Reinhard; Fietz, Walter H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of high-temperature-superconductors (HTS) within current leads offers a high potential to save cooling-power. The principle of HTS current leads is well established, e.g. for particle accelerators (LHC-CERN) but also on the commercial sector, which offer HTS current leads ready for use in small scale magnets and magnets systems. Future fusion machines currently under construction like ITER, W7-X or JT-60SA also will use HTS current leads. At the moment the standard material for HTS current leads is a Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BSCCO)-AgAu composite tape. The common way to receive high current capacity current leads is to form stacks by sintering or soldering these tapes together. The solder changes the thermal conductivity of the stacks compared to the single tape in the temperature range from 4 K to 60 K. To estimate the heat flux from the warm environment to the cold application the measurement of the thermal conductivity of the soldered stack is mandatory. Therefore the thermal conductivity of stacks with different number of tapes is investigated. To measure the thermal conduction in the current flow direction, the axial heat flow method is used. Combining these results with FEM simulations gives the possibility to estimate the thermal conductivity normal to the flat tape plane. The resulting anisotropic thermal conductivity can be used to model the behaviour of the HTS tape under thermal disturbances more accurately.

  13. Evaluation of field emission properties from multiple-stacked Si quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Daichi; Makihara, Katsunori; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-stacked Si quantum dots (QDs) with ultrathin SiO 2 interlayers were formed on ultrathin SiO 2 layers by repeating a process sequence consisting of the formation of Si-QDs by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using a SiH 4 gas and the surface oxidation and subsequent surface modification by remote hydrogen and oxygen plasmas, respectively. To clarify the electron emission mechanism from multiple-stacked Si-QDs covered with an ultrathin Au top electrode, the energy distribution of the emitted electrons and its electric field dependence was measured using a hemispherical electron energy analyzer in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system under DC bias application to the multiple-stacked Si-QD structure. At − 6 V and over, the energy distributions reached a peak at ~ 2.5 eV with a tail toward the higher energy side. While the electron emission intensity was increased exponentially with an increase in the applied DC bias, there was no significant increase in the emission peak energy. The observed emission characteristics can be interpreted in terms of field emissions from the second and/or third topmost Si-QDs resulting from the electric concentration there. - Highlights: • Electron field emission from 6-fold stack of Si-QDs has been evaluated. • AFM measurements show the local electron emission from individual Si-QDs. • Impact of applied bias on the electron emission energy distribution was investigated.

  14. Coherent stacking of picosecond laser pulses in a high-Q optical cavity for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    2007-01-01

    We have performed the harmonic analysis of the steady-state coherent pulse-stacking process in a high-Q Fabry-Perot cavity. The expression for the stacked pulse shape is obtained as a function of both the laser cavity and pulse-stacking cavity parameters. We have also estimated the pulse power gains attainable in the laser-optical system of NESTOR storage ring, which is under development at Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology. It is shown that high power gains (∼10 4 ) can be, in principle, achieved in a cavity, formed with low-absorption, high reflectivity (R ∼ 0.9999) mirrors, if the laser cavity length will differ exactly by half wavelength from the pulse-stacking cavity length. It implies development of the sophisticated frequency stabilization loop for maintaining the cavity length constant within a sub-nanometer range. At the same time, power gains of ∼10 3 can be obtained with medium reflectivity mirrors (R ∼ 0.999) at considerably lower cost

  15. A dual-route perspective on brain activation in response to visual words: evidence for a length by lexicality interaction in the visual word form area (VWFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does xxx sound like an existing word?") presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-05-27

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins.

  17. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins. PMID:26013289

  18. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  19. On-Demand Micro-Power Generation from an Origami-Inspired Paper Biobattery Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Mohammadifar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We use origami to create a compact, scalable three-dimensional (3-D biobattery stack that delivers on-demand energy to the portable biosensors. Folding allows a two-dimensional (2-D paper sheet possessing predefined functional components to form nine 3-D microbial fuel cells (MFCs, and connect them serially within a small and single unit (5.6 cm × 5.6 cm. We load the biocatalyst Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in predefined areas that form the MFCs, and freeze-dry them for long-term storage. The biobattery stack generates a maximum power and current of 20 μW and 25 μA, respectively, via microbial metabolism when the freeze-dried cells are rehydrated with readily available wastewater. This work establishes an innovative strategy to revolutionize the fabrication, storage, operation, and application of paper-based MFCs, which could potentially make energy available even in resource-limited settings.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Materials Interface Interactions Test: Papers presented at the Commission of European Communities workshop on in situ testing of radioactive waste forms and engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1993-08-01

    The three papers in this report were presented at the second international workshop to feature the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT). This Workshop on In Situ Tests on Radioactive Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers was held in Corsendonk, Belgium, on October 13--16, 1992, and was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre D'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN, Belgium), and the US Department of Energy (via Savannah River) also cosponsored this workshop. Workshop participants from Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States gathered to discuss the status, results and overviews of the MIIT program. Nine of the twenty-five total workshop papers were presented on the status and results from the WIPP MIIT program after the five-year in situ conclusion of the program. The total number of published MIIT papers is now up to almost forty. Posttest laboratory analyses are still in progress at multiple participating laboratories. The first MIIT paper in this document, by Wicks and Molecke, provides an overview of the entire test program and focuses on the waste form samples. The second paper, by Molecke and Wicks, concentrates on technical details and repository relevant observations on the in situ conduct, sampling, and termination operations of the MIIT. The third paper, by Sorensen and Molecke, presents and summarizes the available laboratory, posttest corrosion data and results for all of the candidate waste container or overpack metal specimens included in the MIIT program

  1. A dual shared stack for FSLM in Erika Enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, S.M.N.; Afshar, S.; Gai, P.; Behnam, M.; Bril, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the flexible spin-lock model (FSLM) has been introduced, unifying spin-based and suspension-based resource sharing protocols for real-time multi-core platforms. Unlike the multiprocessor stack resource policy (MSRP), FSLM doesn’t allow tasks on a core to share a single stack, however. In

  2. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...... transition, induced by the cavity, to a bunched state....

  3. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  4. Analysis of preemption costs for the stack cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Amine; Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian

    2018-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  5. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  6. A Software Managed Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In a real-time system, the use of a scratchpad memory can mitigate the difficulties related to analyzing data caches, whose behavior is inherently hard to predict. We propose to use a scratchpad memory for stack allocated data. While statically allocating stack frames for individual functions...

  7. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  8. CELLMATE: Prototype HyperCard Stack for Anatomic Pathology Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Jules J.; Moore, G. William

    1990-01-01

    Apple Macintosh HyperCardR is a hierarchical programming environment, with linkages between visual data fields. CELLMATE is a public-domain hyperCard stack containing three graphic user templates: a report template modeled on the standard U. S. Government tissue consultation form, a quality assurance template, and a statistics template that automatically compiles data retrieved from the report files according to the specific search and organization instructions contained in the statistics “bu...

  9. Experiments on Classification of Electroencephalography (EEG Signals in Imagination of Direction using Stacked Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Tomonaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents classification methods for electroencephalography (EEG signals in imagination of direction measured by a portable EEG headset. In the authorsr previous studies, principal component analysis extracted significant features from EEG signals to construct neural network classifiers. To improve the performance, the authors have implemented a Stacked Autoencoder (SAE for the classification. The SAE carries out feature extraction and classification in a form of multi-layered neural network. Experimental results showed that the SAE outperformed the previous classifiers.

  10. Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.

  11. Reflector imaging by diffraction stacking with stacking velocity analysis; Jugo sokudo kaiseki wo tomonau sanran jugoho ni yoru hanshamen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J; Rokugawa, S; Kato, Y [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning seismic reflection survey for geometrical arrangement between pits, the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis is compared with the CDP (common depth point horizontal stacking method). The advantages of the CDP supposedly include the following. Since it presumes an average velocity field, it can determine velocities having stacking effects. The method presumes stratification and, since such enables the division of huge quantities of observed data into smaller groups, more data can be calculated in a shorter time period. The method has disadvantages, attributable to its presuming an average velocity field, that accuracy in processing is lower when the velocity field contrast is higher, that accuracy in processing is low unless stratification is employed, and that velocities obtained from stacking velocity analysis are affected by dipped structures. Such shortcomings may be remedied in the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis. Possibilities are that, as far as the horizontal reflection plane is concerned, it may yield stack records higher in S/N ratio than the CDP. Findings relative to dipped reflection planes will be introduced at the presentation. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  13. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  14. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  15. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  16. Weyl magnons in noncoplanar stacked kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Weyl nodes have been experimentally realized in photonic, electronic, and phononic crystals. However, magnonic Weyl nodes are yet to be seen experimentally. In this paper, we propose Weyl magnon nodes in noncoplanar stacked frustrated kagome antiferromagnets, naturally available in various real materials. Most crucially, the Weyl nodes in the current system occur at the lowest excitation and possess a topological thermal Hall effect, therefore they are experimentally accessible at low temperatures due to the population effect of bosonic quasiparticles. In stark contrast to other magnetic systems, the current Weyl nodes do not rely on time-reversal symmetry breaking by the magnetic order. Rather, they result from explicit macroscopically broken time reversal symmetry by the scalar spin chirality of noncoplanar spin textures and can be generalized to chiral spin liquid states. Moreover, the scalar spin chirality gives a real space Berry curvature which is not available in previously studied magnetic Weyl systems. We show the existence of magnon arc surface states connecting projected Weyl magnon nodes on the surface Brillouin zone. We also uncover the first realization of triply-degenerate nodal magnon point in the noncollinear regime with zero scalar spin chirality.

  17. Lithiation-induced shuffling of atomic stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2014-09-10

    In rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, understanding the atomic-scale mechanism of Li-induced structural evolution occurring at the host electrode materials provides essential knowledge for design of new high performance electrodes. Here, we report a new crystalline-crystalline phase transition mechanism in single-crystal Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires upon lithiation. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observed that stacks of atomic planes in an intermediate hexagonal (h-)LiZnSb phase are "shuffled" to accommodate the geometrical confinement stress arising from lamellar nanodomains intercalated by lithium ions. Such atomic rearrangement arises from the anisotropic lithium diffusion and is accompanied by appearance of partial dislocations. This transient structure mediates further phase transition from h-LiZnSb to cubic (c-)Li2ZnSb, which is associated with a nearly "zero-strain" coherent interface viewed along the [001]h/[111]c directions. This study provides new mechanistic insights into complex electrochemically driven crystalline-crystalline phase transitions in lithium-ion battery electrodes and represents a noble example of atomic-level structural and interfacial rearrangements.

  18. Captioning Transformer with Stacked Attention Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning is a challenging task. Meanwhile, it is important for the machine to understand the meaning of an image better. In recent years, the image captioning usually use the long-short-term-memory (LSTM as the decoder to generate the sentence, and these models show excellent performance. Although the LSTM can memorize dependencies, the LSTM structure has complicated and inherently sequential across time problems. To address these issues, recent works have shown benefits of the Transformer for machine translation. Inspired by their success, we develop a Captioning Transformer (CT model with stacked attention modules. We attempt to introduce the Transformer to the image captioning task. The CT model contains only attention modules without the dependencies of the time. It not only can memorize dependencies between the sequence but also can be trained in parallel. Moreover, we propose the multi-level supervision to make the Transformer achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on the challenging MSCOCO dataset and the proposed Captioning Transformer achieves competitive performance compared with some state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Theoretical Characterization of the H-Bonding and Stacking Potential of Two Non-Standard Nucleobases Expanding the Genetic Alphabet

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2016-02-16

    We report a quantum chemical characterization of the non-natural (synthetic) H-bonded base pair formed by 6-amino-5-nitro-2(1H)-pyridone (Z) and 2-amino-imidazo [1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one (P). The Z:P base pair, orthogonal to the classical G:C base pair, has been introduced in DNA molecules for expanding the genetic code. Our results indicate that the Z:P base pair closely mimics the G:C base pair both in terms of structure and stability. To clarify the role of the NO2 group on the C5 position of the Z base, we compared the stability of the Z:P base pair with that of base pairs having different functional group on the C5 position of Z. Our results indicate that the electron donating/withdrawing properties of the group in the C5 position has a clear impact on the stability of the Z:P base pair, with the strong electron withdrawing nitro group achieving the largest stabilizing effect on the H-bonding interaction, and the strong electron donating NH2 group destabilizing the Z:P pair by almost 4 kcal/mol. Finally, our gas phase and in water calculations confirm that the Z-nitro group reinforce the stacking interaction with its adjacent purine or pyrimidine ring.

  20. Exciplexes and conical intersections lead to fluorescence quenching in π-stacked dimers of 2-aminopurine with natural purine nucleobases†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, JingXin; Nguyen, Quynh L.; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent analogues of the natural DNA bases are useful in the study of nucleic acids’ structure and dynamics. 2-Aminopurine (2AP) is a widely used analogue with environmentally sensitive fluorescence behavior. The quantum yield of 2AP has been found to be significantly decreased when engaged in π-stacking interactions with the native bases. We present a theoretical study on fluorescence quenching mechanisms in dimers of 2AP π-stacked with adenine or guanine as in natural DNA. Relaxation pathways on the potential energy surfaces of the first excited states have been computed and reveal the importance of exciplexes and conical intersections in the fluorescence quenching process. PMID:23625036

  1. On the interaction of pure and impure supercritical CO2 with rock forming minerals in saline aquifers: An experimental geochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Franziska D.H.; Vásquez, Mónica; Wiersberg, Thomas; Naumann, Rudolf; Erzinger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the geochemical impact of pure and impure CO 2 on rock forming minerals of possible CO 2 storage reservoirs. This geochemical approach takes into account the incomplete purification of industrial captured CO 2 and the related effects during injection, and provides relevant data for long-term storage simulations of this specific greenhouse gas. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the interactions of supercritical CO 2 , brine and rock-forming mineral concentrates (albite, microcline, kaolinite, biotite, muscovite, calcite, dolomite and anhydrite) using a newly developed experimental setup. After up to 42 day (1000 h) experiments using pure and impure supercritical CO 2 the dissolution and solution characteristics were examined by XRD, XRF, SEM and EDS for the solid, and ICP–MS and IC for the fluid reactants, respectively. Experiments with mixtures of supercritical CO 2 (99.5 vol.%) and SO 2 or NO 2 impurities (0.5 vol.%) suggest the formation of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 , reflected in pH values between 1 and 4 for experiments with silicates and anhydrite and between 5 and 6 for experiments with carbonates. These acids should be responsible for the general larger amount of cations dissolved from the mineral phases compared to experiments using pure CO 2 . For pure CO 2 a pH of around 4 was obtained using silicates and anhydrite, and 7–8 for carbonates. Dissolution of carbonates was observed after both pure and impure CO 2 experiments. Anhydrite was corroded by approximately 50 wt.% and gypsum precipitated during experiments with supercritical CO 2 + NO 2 . Silicates do not exhibit visible alterations during all experiments but released an increasing amount of cations in the reaction fluid during experiments with impure CO 2 . Nonetheless, precipitated secondary carbonates could not be identified.

  2. Seismic analysis, evaluation and upgrade design for a nuclear facility exhaust stack building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, L.E.; Kabir, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration that has been analyzed and evaluated for seismic forces. This building was built in the 1950's and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A very rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize the costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic forces. The seismic evaluations were performed for the building in its as-is configuration, and as modified for several upgrade schemes. Soil-structure-interaction, base mat flexibility and the influence of the nearby reactor building have been considered in the seismic analyses. The rigorous analyses and evaluation enabled limited upgrades to qualify the stack building for the seismic forces

  3. Creating a Rackspace and NASA Nebula compatible cloud using the OpenStack project (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.

    2010-12-01

    NASA and Rackspace have both provided technology to the OpenStack that allows anyone to create a private Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud using open source software and commodity hardware. OpenStack is designed and developed completely in the open and with an open governance process. NASA donated Nova, which powers the compute portion of NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform, and Rackspace donated Swift, which powers Rackspace Cloud Files. The project is now in continuous development by NASA, Rackspace, and hundreds of other participants. When you create a private cloud using Openstack, you will have the ability to easily interact with your private cloud, a government cloud, and an ecosystem of public cloud providers, using the same API.

  4. Efficiency of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bosma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a feedforward control of optimal oxygen excess ratio that maximize net power (improve efficiency of a NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack (FCS system. Net powers profile as a function of oxygen excess ratio for some points of operation are analyzed by using FCS model. The relationships between stack current and the corresponding control input voltage that gives an optimal oxygen excess ratio are used to design a feedforward control scheme. The results of this scheme are compared to the results of a feedforward control using a constant oxygen excess ratio. Simulation results show that optimal oxygen excess ratio improves fuel cell performance compared to the results of constant oxygen excess ratio. The same procedures are performed experimentally for the FCS system. The behaviour of the net power of the fuel cell stack with respect to the variation of oxygen excess ratio is analyzed to obtain optimal values. Data of stack current and the corresponding voltage input to the compressor that gives optimal values of oxygen excess ratio are used to develop a feedforward control. Feedforward control based on constant and optimal oxygen excess ratio control, are implemented in the NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack system by using LabVIEW. Implementation results shows that optimal oxygen excess ratio control improves the fuel cell performance compared to the constant oxygen excess ratio control.

  5. The performance of silicon detectors for the SiliPET project: A small animal PET scanner based on stacks of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auricchio, Natalia; Domenico, Giovanni di; Zavattini, Guido; Milano, Luciano; Malaguti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scanner for small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based on stacks of double sided silicon detectors. Each stack is made of 40 planar detectors with dimension 60x60x1 mm 3 and 128 orthogonal strips on both sides to read the two coordinates of interaction, the third being the detector number in the stack. Multiple interactions in a stack are discarded by an exclusive OR applied between each detector plane of a stack. In this way we achieve a precise determination of the interaction point of the two 511 keV photons. The reduced dimensions of the scanner also improve the solid angle coverage resulting in a high sensitivity. Preliminary results were obtained with MEGA prototype tracker (11 double sided Si detector layers), divided into two stacks 2 cm apart made of, respectively, 5 and 6 prototype layers, placing a small spherical 22 Na source in different positions. We report on the results, spatial resolution, imaging and timing performances obtained with double sided silicon detectors, manufactured by ITC-FBK, having an active area of 3x3 cm 2 , thickness of 1 mm and a strip pitch of 500μm. Two different strip widths of 300 and 200μm equipped with 64 orthogonal p and n strips on opposite sides were read out with the VATAGP2.5 ASIC, a 128-channel 'general purpose' charge sensitive amplifier.

  6. Reliability analysis and initial requirements for FC systems and stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, K.; Fontell, E.; Virtanen, S.

    In the year 2000 Wärtsilä Corporation started an R&D program to develop SOFC systems for CHP applications. The program aims to bring to the market highly efficient, clean and cost competitive fuel cell systems with rated power output in the range of 50-250 kW for distributed generation and marine applications. In the program Wärtsilä focuses on system integration and development. System reliability and availability are key issues determining the competitiveness of the SOFC technology. In Wärtsilä, methods have been implemented for analysing the system in respect to reliability and safety as well as for defining reliability requirements for system components. A fault tree representation is used as the basis for reliability prediction analysis. A dynamic simulation technique has been developed to allow for non-static properties in the fault tree logic modelling. Special emphasis has been placed on reliability analysis of the fuel cell stacks in the system. A method for assessing reliability and critical failure predictability requirements for fuel cell stacks in a system consisting of several stacks has been developed. The method is based on a qualitative model of the stack configuration where each stack can be in a functional, partially failed or critically failed state, each of the states having different failure rates and effects on the system behaviour. The main purpose of the method is to understand the effect of stack reliability, critical failure predictability and operating strategy on the system reliability and availability. An example configuration, consisting of 5 × 5 stacks (series of 5 sets of 5 parallel stacks) is analysed in respect to stack reliability requirements as a function of predictability of critical failures and Weibull shape factor of failure rate distributions.

  7. Comparative study of the interaction of meso-tetrakis (N-para-trimethyl-anilium) porphyrin (TMAP) in its free base and Fe derivative form with oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathaie, S Zahra; Ajloo, Davood; Daraie, Marzieh; Ghadamgahi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between a cationic porphyrin and its ferric derivative with oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15 was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, resonance light scattering (RLS), and circular dichroism (CD) at different ionic strengths; molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation were also used for completion. Followings are the observed changes in the spectral properties of meso-tetrakis (N-para-trimethyl-anilium) porphyrin (TMAP), as a free-base porphyrin with no axial ligand, and its Fe derivative (FeTMAP) upon interaction with oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15: (1) the substantial red shift and hypochromicity at the Soret maximum in the UV-vis spectra; (2) the increased RLS intensity by increasing the ionic strength; and (3) an intense bisignate excitonic CD signal. All of them are the reasons for TMAP and FeTMAP binding to oligo(dA.dT)15 and oligo(dG.dC)15 with the outside binding mode, accompanied by the self-stacking of the ligands along the oligonucleotide helix. The CD results demonstrated a drastic change from excitonic in monomeric behavior at higher ionic strengths, which indicates the groove binding of the ligands with oligonucleotides. Molecular docking also confirmed the groove binding mode of the ligands and estimated the binding constants and energies of the interactions. Their interaction trend was further confirmed by molecular dynamics technique and structure parameters obtained from simulation. It showed that TMAP reduced the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and increased the solvent accessible surface area in the oligonucleotide. The self-aggregation of ligands at lower concentrations was also confirmed.

  8. Mixed Mechanism of Lubrication by Lipid Bilayer Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boţan, Alexandru; Joly, Laurent; Fillot, Nicolas; Loison, Claire

    2015-11-10

    Although the key role of lipid bilayer stacks in biological lubrication is generally accepted, the mechanisms underlying their extreme efficiency remain elusive. In this article, we report molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer stacks undergoing load and shear. When the hydration level is reduced, the velocity accommodation mechanism changes from viscous shear in hydration water to interlayer sliding in the bilayers. This enables stacks of hydrated lipid bilayers to act as efficient boundary lubricants for various hydration conditions, structures, and mechanical loads. We also propose an estimation for the friction coefficient; thanks to the strong hydration forces between lipid bilayers, the high local viscosity is not in contradiction with low friction coefficients.

  9. Study and Development of an OpenStack solution

    OpenAIRE

    Jorba Brosa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Estudi i desenvolupament d'una solució de virtualització amb Openstack. Es farà un especial èmfasi en la part de seguretat. Deployment of a solution based in OpenStack for the creation of an Infrastructure service cloud. Implementación de una solución basada en OpenStack para la creación de una infrastructura de servicios cloud. Implementació d'una solució basada en OpenStack per la creació d'una infrastructura de serveis cloud.

  10. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical

  11. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  12. Fuel flow distribution in SOFC stacks revealed by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation. An oper......As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation...... utilizations. The fuel flow distribution provides important information about the operating limits of the stack when high electrical efficiency is required....

  13. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  14. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative development methodology for a production and reliability oriented SOFC cell and stack design aiming at improving the stacks robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost. Multi-physics models allowed a probabilistic approach to consider statistical variations...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...... and output parameters and to perform a sensitivity analysis were developed and implemented. The capabilities of the methodology is illustrated on two practical cases....

  15. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting...... allowing for overcritical current densities to be considered. The method presented here allowed for a computational speedup factor of up to 2 orders of magnitude when compared to full 2-D simulations taking into account the actual structure of the stacks without compromising accuracy....

  16. Optimized stacked RADFETs for milli-rad dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, B.; Lane, B.; Mohammadzadeh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper details the improvements in the design of stacked RADFETs for increased radiation sensitivity. The issues of high read-out voltage has been shown to be a draw-back. It is the body (bulk)effect factor that is responsible for the increased overall stack Threshold voltage (V T ), which is greater than the sum of the individual devices V T . From extensive process and device simulation and resultant circuit simulation, modified stack structures have been proposed and designed. New and exciting result of lower initial (pre-irradiation) output voltage as well as increased radiation sensitivity will be presented. (author)

  17. Ablation of film stacks in solar cell fabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-04-02

    A dielectric film stack of a solar cell is ablated using a laser. The dielectric film stack includes a layer that is absorptive in a wavelength of operation of the laser source. The laser source, which fires laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate, is configured to ablate the film stack to expose an underlying layer of material. The laser source may be configured to fire a burst of two laser pulses or a single temporally asymmetric laser pulse within a single pulse repetition to achieve complete ablation in a single step.

  18. Interaction of inhibitors with corrosion scale formed on N80 steel in CO{sub 2}-saturated NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Service Failure, Wuhan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China); Qiu, Y.B.; Guo, X.P. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Service Failure, Wuhan (China); Tomoe, Y.; Bando, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, The Former Japan National Oil Corporation, Hamada, Mihama-ku, Chiba-City, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The performance of the selected inhibitors, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and naphthene acid imidazolines (IM), on the bare surface of N80 steel and its scaled surface pre-corroded in CO{sub 2}-saturated 1%NaCl solution was investigated by weight-loss method, electrochemical measurements using rotating cylinder electrode and surface analytical methods (SEM, XRD, and EPMA). The results indicate that there is a remarkable difference in inhibition efficiency of inhibitors on the N80 steel with and without pre-corrosion scale. The synergistic effect between inhibitors and corrosion scale not only depends on the size of inhibitor molecules, but also depends on the interaction of the inhibitor with the corrosion scale. It shows that IM and DETA have a good positive synergistic effect with the corrosion scale formed on N80 steel, although DETA has no inhibition efficiency for bare N80 steel, which can easily enter into the apertures of the corrosion scale, and block the active sites on the metal surface and the diffusion routeways of the reactant so as to depress the corrosion of the substrate metal. While TGA shows excellent inhibition efficiency on bare N80 steel, but it has an antagonistic effect with the corrosion scale although it has a small molecular weight as well as DETA, because TGA can dissolve corrosion scale and break its integrality and protectiveness performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Hsp90α forms a stable complex at the cilium neck for the interaction of signalling molecules in IGF-1 receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhong; Zou, Xinle; Wei, Zhuang; Wu, Yuan; Li, Rongxia; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Zhengjun; Liao, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The primary cilium is composed of an axoneme that protrudes from the cell surface, a basal body beneath the membrane and a transition neck in between. It is a sensory organelle on the plasma membrane, involved in mediating extracellular signals. In the transition neck region of the cilium, the microtubules change from triplet to doublet microtubules. This region also contains the transition fibres that crosslink the axoneme with the membrane and the necklace proteins that regulate molecules being transported into and out of the cilium. In this protein-enriched, complex area it is important to maintain the correct assembly of all of these proteins. Here, through immunofluorescent staining and protein isolation, we identify the molecular chaperone Hsp90α clustered at the periciliary base. At the transition neck region, phosphorylated Hsp90α forms a stable ring around the axoneme. Heat shock treatment causes Hsp90α to dissipate and induces resorption of cilia. We further identify that Hsp90α at the transition neck region represents a signalling platform on which IRS-1 interacts with intracellular downstream signalling molecules involved in IGF-1 receptor signalling. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Development of a short form Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lorna; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin; Rapee, Ronald M; Mattick, Richard P

    2012-03-01

    Shortened forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) were developed using nonparametric item response theory methods. Using data from socially phobic participants enrolled in 5 treatment trials (N = 456), 2 six-item scales (the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6) were developed. The validity of the scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 was then tested using traditional methods for their convergent validity in an independent clinical sample and a student sample, as well as for their sensitivity to change and diagnostic sensitivity in the clinical sample. The scores on the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 correlated as well as the scores on the original SIAS and SPS, with scores on measures of related constructs, discriminated well between those with and without a diagnosis of social phobia, providing cutoffs for diagnosis and were as sensitive to measuring change associated with treatment as were the SIAS and SPS. Together, the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6 appear to be an efficient method of measuring symptoms of social phobia and provide a brief screening tool.

  1. Excitation of macromagnetohydrodynamic mode due to multiscale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between microturbulence and zonal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first numerical simulation demonstrating that a macromagnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) mode is excited as a result of multi-scale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between microturbulence and zonal flow based on a reduced two-fluid model. This simulation of a macro-MHD mode, a double tearing mode, is accomplished in a reversed shear equilibrium that includes zonal flow and turbulence due to kinetic ballooning modes. In the quasi-steady equilibrium, a macroscale fluctuation that has the same helicity as the double tearing mode is a part of the turbulence. After a certain period of time, the macro-MHD mode begins to grow. It effectively utilizes free energy of the equilibrium current density gradient and is destabilized by a positive feedback loop between zonal flow suppression and magnetic island growth. Thus, once the macro-MHD appears from the quasi-equilibrium, it continues to grow steadily. This simulation is more comparable with experimental observations of growing macro-MHD activity than earlier MHD simulations starting from linear macroinstabilities in a static equilibrium

  2. On the interplay between chirality and exciton coupling: a DFT calculation of the circular dichroism in π-stacked ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Patrick; Linares, Mathieu

    2014-09-01

    The chirality of stacked weakly interacting π-systems was interpreted in terms of Frenkel exciton states and the formation of excitonic circular dichroism (CD) bands was monitored for ethylene stacks of varying sizes. Convergence of CD bands with respect to the system size was observed for stacks involving around 10 molecules. By means of rotation around the C-C double bond in ethylene, chirality was induced in the monomeric system and which was shown to dominate the spectral responses, even for polymer aggregates. In helical assemblies of chiral entities, there will always be a mix of excitonic and monomeric contributions to the CD signal and it is demonstrated that the complex polarization propagator approach in combination with Density Functional Theory is a suitable method to address this situation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Scaling of Engineered Vascular Grafts Using 3D Printed Guides and the Ring Stacking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Xu, Zhengfan; Lam, Mai T

    2017-03-27

    Coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of death, affecting millions of Americans. With the lack of autologous vascular grafts available, engineered grafts offer great potential for patient treatment. However, engineered vascular grafts are generally not easily scalable, requiring manufacture of custom molds or polymer tubes in order to customize to different sizes, constituting a time-consuming and costly practice. Human arteries range in lumen diameter from about 2.0-38 mm and in wall thickness from about 0.5-2.5 mm. We have created a method, termed the "Ring Stacking Method," in which variable size rings of tissue of the desired cell type, demonstrated here with vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), can be created using guides of center posts to control lumen diameter and outer shells to dictate vessel wall thickness. These tissue rings are then stacked to create a tubular construct, mimicking the natural form of a blood vessel. The vessel length can be tailored by simply stacking the number of rings required to constitute the length needed. With our technique, tissues of tubular forms, similar to a blood vessel, can be readily manufactured in a variety of dimensions and lengths to meet the needs of the clinic and patient.

  4. Intrinsic coincident linear polarimetry using stacked organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S Gupta; Awartani, O M; Sen, P; O'Connor, B T; Kudenov, M W

    2016-06-27

    Polarimetry has widespread applications within atmospheric sensing, telecommunications, biomedical imaging, and target detection. Several existing methods of imaging polarimetry trade off the sensor's spatial resolution for polarimetric resolution, and often have some form of spatial registration error. To mitigate these issues, we have developed a system using oriented polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that can preferentially absorb linearly polarized light. Additionally, the OPV cells can be made semitransparent, enabling multiple detectors to be cascaded along the same optical axis. Since each device performs a partial polarization measurement of the same incident beam, high temporal resolution is maintained with the potential for inherent spatial registration. In this paper, a Mueller matrix model of the stacked OPV design is provided. Based on this model, a calibration technique is developed and presented. This calibration technique and model are validated with experimental data, taken with a cascaded three cell OPV Stokes polarimeter, capable of measuring incident linear polarization states. Our results indicate polarization measurement error of 1.2% RMS and an average absolute radiometric accuracy of 2.2% for the demonstrated polarimeter.

  5. Stacking Faults and Mechanical Behavior beyond the Elastic Limit of an Imidazole-Based Metal Organic Framework: ZIF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinay I; Tan, Jin-Chong; Waghmare, Umesh V; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2013-10-17

    We determine the nonlinear mechanical behavior of a prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) along two modes of mechanical failure in response to tensile and shear forces using first-principles simulations. Our generalized stacking fault energy surface reveals an intrinsic stacking fault of surprisingly low energy comparable to that in copper, though the energy barrier associated with its formation is much higher. The lack of vibrational spectroscopic evidence for such faults in experiments can be explained with the structural instability of the barrier state to form a denser and disordered state of ZIF-8 seen in our analysis, that is, large shear leads to its amorphization rather than formation of faults.

  6. Finite Element Method in the Three Dimensions Deformation Computation ofKartini Reactor Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyono; Syarip; Wibisono, I

    2000-01-01

    The calculation of the Kartini reactor stack i.e. one of the nuclearinstallations in P3TM-BATAN Yogyakarta by using SAP 90 software have beendone. The calculation is done as a safety review of building towards theearthquake style in Yogyakarta. The 3-dimension deformation calculation isperformed by the numeric method i.e. finite element method with the form ofelements is the shell. The result obtained showed that the construction oftower safe to the existing earthquake, where the moment exerted as a resultof earthquake style was different under the moment having been kept by thebuilding structure. By knowing the deformation on the stack it is expectedcould be used for concluding the strength of the whole reactor building.(author)

  7. Mena-GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. © 2016 Tang et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. The Effects of Graphene Stacking on the Performance of Methane Sensor: A First-Principles Study on the Adsorption, Band Gap and Doping of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of graphene stacking are investigated by comparing the results of methane adsorption energy, electronic performance, and the doping feasibility of five dopants (i.e., B, N, Al, Si, and P via first-principles theory. Both zigzag and armchair graphenes are considered. It is found that the zigzag graphene with Bernal stacking has the largest adsorption energy on methane, while the armchair graphene with Order stacking is opposite. In addition, both the Order and Bernal stacked graphenes possess a positive linear relationship between adsorption energy and layer number. Furthermore, they always have larger adsorption energy in zigzag graphene. For electronic properties, the results show that the stacking effects on band gap are significant, but it does not cause big changes to band structure and density of states. In the comparison of distance, the average interlamellar spacing of the Order stacked graphene is the largest. Moreover, the adsorption effect is the result of the interactions between graphene and methane combined with the change of graphene’s structure. Lastly, the armchair graphene with Order stacking possesses the lowest formation energy in these five dopants. It could be the best choice for doping to improve the methane adsorption.

  9. Construction of energy transfer pathways self-assembled from DNA-templated stacks of anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaura, Rika; Yui, Hiroharu; Someya, Yuu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi

    2014-01-05

    We describe optical properties of anthracene stacks formed from single-component self-assembly of thymidylic acid-appended anthracene 2,6-bis[5-(3'-thymidylic acid)pentyloxy] anthracene (TACT) and the binary self-assembly of TACT and complementary 20-meric oligoadenylic acid (TACT/dA20) in an aqueous buffer. UV-Vis and emission spectra for the single-component self-assembly of TACT and the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20 were very consistent with stacked acene moieties in both self-assemblies. Interestingly, time-resolved fluorescence spectra from anthracene stacks exhibited very different features of the single-component and binary self-assemblies. In the single-component self-assembly of TACT, a dynamic Stokes shift (DSS) and relatively short fluorescence lifetime (τ=0.35ns) observed at around 450nm suggested that the anthracene moieties were flexible. Moreover, a broad emission at 530nm suggested the formation of an excited dimer (excimer). In the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20, we detected a broad, red-shifted emission component at 534nm with a lifetime (τ=0.4ns) shorter than that observed in the TACT single-component self-assembly. Combining these results with the emission spectrum of the binary self-assembly of TACT/5'-HEX dA20, we concluded that the energy transfer pathway was constructed by columnar anthracene stacks formed from the DNA-templated self-assembly of TACT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  11. Fast principal component analysis for stacking seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-04-01

    Stacking seismic data plays an indispensable role in many steps of the seismic data processing and imaging workflow. Optimal stacking of seismic data can help mitigate seismic noise and enhance the principal components to a great extent. Traditional average-based seismic stacking methods cannot obtain optimal performance when the ambient noise is extremely strong. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for stacking seismic data without being sensitive to noise level. Considering the computational bottleneck of the classic PCA algorithm in processing massive seismic data, we propose an efficient PCA algorithm to make the proposed method readily applicable for industrial applications. Two numerically designed examples and one real seismic data are used to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  12. Sample Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis : Principles, advantages and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.; Bocek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The principles of stacking procedures are described and their properties are discussed, including the fundamentals of the behavior of zone boundaries and the consequences of the self-correcting properties of boundaries in moving boundary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis.

  13. DBaaS with OpenStack Trove

    CERN Document Server

    Giardini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the Trove component for OpenStack, understand if it can be used with the CERN infrastructure and report the benefits and disadvantages of this software. Currently, databases for CERN projects are provided by a DbaaS software developed inside the IT-DB group. This solution works well with the actual infrastructure but it is not easy to maintain. With the migration of the CERN infrastructure to OpenStack the Database group started to evaluate the Trove component. Instead of mantaining an own DbaaS service it can be interesting to migrate everything to OpenStack and replace the actual DbaaS software with Trove. This way both virtual machines and databases will be managed by OpenStack itself.

  14. Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue

    2009-01-01

    High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)

  15. Simulation of magnetization and levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, I. V.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Mineev, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work it is presented a computational model of a magnetic levitation system based on stacks of high-temperature second generation superconducting tapes (HTS) GdBa2Cu3O7-x. Calculated magnetic field and the current distributions in the system for different stacks geometries in the zero-field cooling mode are also presented. The magnetization curves of the stacks in the external field of a permanent NdFeB magnet and the levitation force dependence on the gap between the magnet and the HTS tapes stack were obtained. A model of the magnetic system, oriented to levitation application, is given. Results of modeling were compared with the experimental data.

  16. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  17. Stacking faults and microstructural parameters in non-mulberry silk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rameters like crystal size (〈N〉), lattice strain (g) and stacking faults in polymer materials ... metal oxide compounds, but may be inadequate for describing diffraction patterns .... Further, with these model parameters for individual Bragg reflec-.

  18. Manipulative interplay of two adozelesin molecules with d(ATTAAT)₂achieving ligand-stacked Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base-paired duplex adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopton, Suzanne R; Thompson, Andrew S

    2011-05-17

    Previous structural studies of the cyclopropapyrroloindole (CPI) antitumor antibiotics have shown that these ligands bind covalently edge-on into the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. Reversible covalent modification of the DNA via N3 of adenine occurs in a sequence-specific fashion. Early nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular modeling studies with both mono- and bis-alkylating ligands indicated that the ligands fit tightly within the minor groove, causing little distortion of the helix. In this study, we propose a new binding model for several of the CPI-based analogues, in which the aromatic secondary rings form π-stacked complexes within the minor groove. One of the adducts, formed with adozelesin and the d(ATTAAT)(2) sequence, also demonstrates the ability of these ligands to manipulate the DNA of the binding site, resulting in a Hoogsteen base-paired adduct. Although this type of base pairing has been previously observed with the bisfunctional CPI analogue bizelesin, this is the first time that such an observation has been made with a monoalkylating nondimeric analogue. Together, these results provide a new model for the design of CPI-based antitumor antibiotics, which also has a significant bearing on other structurally related and structurally unrelated minor groove-binding ligands. They indicate the dynamic nature of ligand-DNA interactions, demonstrating both DNA conformational flexibility and the ability of two DNA-bound ligands to interact to form stable covalent modified complexes.

  19. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in ...... are developed for the problem and used with each of the heuristics. Finally some computational results are given along with lower bounds on the objective value....

  20. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in ...... are developed for the problem and used with each of the heuristics. Finally some computational results are given along with lower bounds on the objective value....