WorldWideScience

Sample records for forming hydrogen chloride

  1. X-ray diffraction study of choline chloride's β form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrouleas, V.; Lemmon, R.M.; Christensen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The organic salt choline chloride exists in two crystalline polymorphs. One (the α form) is extraordinarily sensitive to ionizing radiation, the other (the β form) is not. The present report describes an x-ray diffraction study of the β form. The structure has been found to be highly disordered face centered cubic. A reasonable least-square refinement of the intensity data has been achieved in the centrosymmetric space group Fm3 or Fm3m by use of a molecular model with restrained bond lengths. The results show that in the β form the electronic density due to the choline cation is closely spaced around the N, so that hydrogen bonding to the chloride is unlikely. Comparison with infrared and NMR data indicates that the disordering is dynamic and can be ascribed to rotations of the choline ion around crystallographic symmetry axes. Possible connections of these results with the radiation stability of the β form are discussed

  2. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Bhatt, Anand I.; May, Iain; Griffiths, Trevor R.; Thied, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  3. Dominant rate process of silicon surface etching by hydrogen chloride gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Sunao; Nakamura, Akio; Takeuchi, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    Silicon surface etching and its dominant rate process are studied using hydrogen chloride gas in a wide concentration range of 1-100% in ambient hydrogen at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range of 1023-1423 K, linked with the numerical calculation accounting for the transport phenomena and the surface chemical reaction in the entire reactor. The etch rate, the gaseous products and the surface morphology are experimentally evaluated. The dominant rate equation accounting for the first-order successive reactions at silicon surface by hydrogen chloride gas is shown to be valid. The activation energy of the dominant surface process is evaluated to be 1.5 x 10 5 J mol - 1 . The silicon deposition by the gaseous by-product, trichlorosilane, is shown to have a negligible influence on the silicon etch rate

  4. 40 CFR 266.107 - Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control hydrogen chloride... WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.107 Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions...

  5. Estimating Anthropogenic Emissions of Hydrogen Chloride and Fine Particulate Chloride in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can significantly impact the atmospheric photochemistry via photolysis and subsequent reactions of chlorine radical with other gases. The formation of ClNO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to the emissions of chlorine-containing particulates from oceanic and anthropogenic sources. For China, the only available anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory was compiled for the year 1990 with a coarse resolution of 1 degree. In this study, we developed an up-to-date anthropogenic inventory of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fine particulate chloride (Cl-) emissions in China for the year 2014, including coal burning, industrial processes, biomass burning and waste burning. Bottom-up and top-down methodologies were combined. Detailed local data (e.g. Cl content in coal, control technologies, etc.) were collected and applied. In order to improve the spatial resolution of emissions, detailed point source information were collected for coal-fired power plants, cement factories, iron & steel factories and waste incineration factories. Uncertainties of this emission inventory and their major causes were analyzed using the Monte Carlo method. This work enables better quantification of the ClNO2 production and impact over China.

  6. MLS/Aura L2 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCL is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen chloride derived from radiances measured primarily by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  7. MLS/Aura Level 2 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCL is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen chloride derived from radiances measured primarily by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  8. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH) 2 ] + cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network

  9. Effect of hydrogen chloride on the corrosion of an FeCrAlY alloy in simulated coal gasifier atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coley, K.S.; Rhoades-Brown, J.E.; Blick, K.

    1989-03-01

    An iron chromium aluminium yttrium steel was exposed to a simulated coal gasifier atmosphere containing 1000 ppm and 2200 ppm hydrogen chloride at 450/sup 0/C. Increasing hydrogen chloride content was found to accelerate reaction rates, and significantly alter the microstructure and composition of the corrosion product. Tentative explanations for these results, involving vapour phase transport of metal chlorides are proposed.

  10. 40 CFR 63.7507 - What are the health-based compliance alternatives for the hydrogen chloride (HCl) and total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternatives for the hydrogen chloride (HCl) and total selected metals (TSM) standards? 63.7507 Section 63.7507... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process... the hydrogen chloride (HCl) and total selected metals (TSM) standards? (a) As an alternative to the...

  11. The Cl-35/Cl-37 isotopic ratio in dense molecular clouds : HIFI observations of hydrogen chloride towards W3 A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Daniel, F.; Agundez, M.; Caux, E.; de Graauw, T.; De Jonge, A.; Kester, D.; Leduc, H. G.; Steinmetz, E.; Stutzki, J.; Ward, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detection with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel satellite of the two hydrogen chloride isotopologues, (HCl)-Cl-35 and (HCl)-Cl-37, towards the massive star-forming region W3 A. The J = 1-0 line of both species was observed with receiver 1b of the HIFI instrument at similar

  12. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Terrain...

  13. Decomposition analysis of cupric chloride hydrolysis in the Cu-Cl cycle of hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daggupati, V.N.; Naterer, G.F.; Gabriel, K.S.; Gravelsins, R.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines cupric chloride solid conversion during hydrolysis in a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for hydrogen production. The hydrolysis reaction is a challenging step, in terms of the excess steam requirement and the decomposition of cupric chloride (CuCl 2 ) into cuprous chloride (CuCl) and chlorine (Cl 2 ). The hydrolysis and decomposition reactions are analyzed with respect to the chemical equilibrium constant. The effects of operating parameters are examined, including the temperature, pressure, excess steam and equilibrium conversion. A maximization of yield and selectivity are very important. Rate constants for the simultaneous reaction steps are determined using a uniform reaction model. A shrinking core model is used to determine the rate coefficients and predict the solid conversion time, with diffusional and reaction control. These new results are useful for scale-up of the engineering equipment in the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle for hydrogen production. (author)

  14. Prompt and delayed Coulomb explosion of doubly ionized hydrogen chloride molecules in intense femtosecond laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junyang; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Hanxiao; Sun, Fenghao; Qiang, Junjie; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2018-06-01

    We experimentally investigate the dissociative double ionization of hydrogen chloride (HCl) molecules in intense femtosecond laser pulses. In addition to the prompt dissociation channels which occur on femtosecond timescales, long-lived hydrogen chloride dications which Coulomb-explode in flight towards the detector are clearly identified in the photoion-photoion coincidence spectrum. Different pathways leading to these prompt and delayed dissociation channels involving various bound and repulsive states of the HCl dication are discussed based on the observed kinetic energy release and momentum distributions. Our results indicate that the specific features of the HCl dication potential energy curves are responsible for the generation of the delayed fragmentation channels, which are expected to be general processes for the hydrogen halides.

  15. Kinetics of gaseous uranium hexafluoride reaction with hydrogen chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezubchenko, A.N.; Ilyukhin, A.I.; Merzlyakov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Kinetics of decrease of concentration of gaseous uranium hexafluoride in reaction with hydrogen chloride at temperatures close to room ones, was investigated by the method of IR spectroscopy. It was established that the process represented the first order reaction by both UF 6 and HCl. Activation energy of the reaction was determined: 7.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol. Specific feature of reaction kinetics was noted: inversely proportional dependence of effective constant on UF 6 initial pressure. 5 refs., 3 figs

  16. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl 3 ) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report

  17. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  18. 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmin E. González-Padilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C13H11N2O+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes as a monohydrate. In the cation, the phenol and benzimidazole rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 3.18 (4°. The chloride anion and benzimidazole cation are linked by two N+—H...Cl− hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked through O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds involving the water molecule and the chloride anion, which form a diamond core, giving rise to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to (10-2. Two π–π interactions involving the imidazolium ring with the benzene and phenol rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.859 (3 and 3.602 (3 Å, respectively], contribute to this second dimension. A strong O—H...O hydrogen bond involving the water molecule and the phenol substituent on the benzimidazole unit links the networks, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  19. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  20. Organotrichlorogermane synthesis by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chloride via dichlorogermylene intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaki; Asano, Takuya; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2004-08-07

    Organotrichlorogermanes were synthesized by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides, methyl, propyl, isopropyl and allyl chlorides. Dichlorogermylene formed by the reaction of elemental germanium with tetrachlorogermane was the reaction intermediate, which was inserted into the carbon-chlorine bond of the organic chloride to give organotrichlorogermane. When isopropyl or allyl chloride was used as an organic chloride, organotrichlorogermane was formed also in the absence of tetrachlorogermane. These chlorides were converted to hydrogen chloride, which subsequently reacted with elemental germanium to give the dichlorogermylene intermediate. The reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides provides a simple and easy method for synthesizing organotrichlorogermanes, and all the raw materials are easily available.

  1. Texaco, carbide form hydrogen plant venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Texaco Inc. and Union Carbide Industrial Gases Inc. (UCIG) have formed a joint venture to develop and operate hydrogen plants. The venture, named HydroGEN Supply Co., is owned by Texaco Hydrogen Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Texaco, and UCIG Hydrogen Services Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of UCIG. Plants built by HydroGEN will combine Texaco's HyTEX technology for hydrogen production with UCIG's position in cryogenic and advanced air separation technology. Texaco the U.S. demand for hydrogen is expected to increase sharply during the next decade, while refinery hydrogen supply is expected to drop. The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require U.S. refiners to lower aromatics in gasoline, resulting in less hydrogen recovered by refiners from catalytic reforming units. Meanwhile, requirements to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel will require more hydrogen capacity

  2. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  3. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpHCl) contains zonal means and related...

  4. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  5. Subsurface injection of dissolved ferric chloride to form a chemical barrier: Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.; Morris, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A chemical barrier is a permeable zone of reactive materials emplaced in the subsurface to remove ground-water contaminants while allowing clean ground water to pass through. Because dissolved ferric chloride hydrolyzes to amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide when it contacts calcite (CaCO 3 ), it may be viable to emplace a zone of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (an absorbent for U, Mo, and other inorganic contaminants) into calcite-bearing geologic units by injecting ferric chloride through wells. For a chemical barrier to be successful, it must remain permeable and must be immobile. This investigation monitored chemical compositions, hydraulic conductivity, and iron mobility in laboratory columns and in a two-dimensional tank to determine the viability of injecting ferric chloride to form an amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide chemical barrier. The authors introduced a ferric chloride solution (1,345 mg/1[0.024 m] Fe) to calcite-bearing alluvial gravel to form a chemical barrier of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide, followed by solutions contaminated with U and Mo. The simulated chemical barriers decreased U and Mo concentrations to less than 0.05 mg/l (2.1 x 10 -7 m) and 0.01 (1.0 x 10 -7 m), respectively; however, the breakthrough front is spread out with concentrations increasing to more than regulatory guideline values sooner than predicted. The hydraulic conductivity of calcite-bearing alluvial gravel decreased substantially during ferric chloride introduction because of the formation of carbon dioxide but increased to within factors of 1 to 5 of the original value as synthetic ground water flowed through the system. Amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide that formed in these experiments remained immobile at flow rates exceeding those typical of ground water. These laboratory results, in conjunction with site-specific characterization data, can be used to design chemical barriers emplaced by injection of ferric chloride

  6. Hydrogen gas driven permeation through tungsten deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Keiichiro; Katayama, Kazunari; Date, Hiroyuki; Fukada, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • H permeation tests for W layer formed by H plasma sputtering are performed. • H permeation flux through W layer is larger than that through W bulk. • H diffusivity in W layer is smaller than that in W bulk. • The equilibrium H concentration in W layer is larger than that in W bulk. - Abstract: It is important to evaluate the influence of deposition layers formed on plasma facing wall on tritium permeation and tritium retention in the vessel of a fusion reactor from a viewpoint of safety. In this work, tungsten deposition layers having different thickness and porosity were formed on circular nickel plates by hydrogen RF plasma sputtering. Hydrogen permeation experiment was carried out at the temperature range from 250 °C to 500 °C and at hydrogen pressure range from 1013 Pa to 101,300 Pa. The hydrogen permeation flux through the nickel plate with tungsten deposition layer was significantly smaller than that through a bare nickel plate. This indicates that a rate-controlling step in hydrogen permeation was not permeation through the nickel plate but permeation though the deposition layer. The pressure dependence on the permeation flux differed by temperature. Hydrogen permeation flux through tungsten deposition layer is larger than that through tungsten bulk. From analysis of the permeation curves, it was indicated that hydrogen diffusivity in tungsten deposition layer is smaller than that in tungsten bulk and the equilibrium hydrogen concentration in tungsten deposition layer is enormously larger than that in tungsten bulk at same hydrogen pressure.

  7. Effect of cation nature of Cl2- yields in pulse radiolysis of alkali metal chloride aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabakchi, S.A.; Zansokhova, A.A.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is made of the amount of Cl 2 - formed during a pulsating radiolysis of potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in aqueous solutions saturated with air. An equation is presented relating the yield of Cl 2 - and the concentration of the starting materials. Various mechanisms describing the radiolysis of neutral aqueous solutions of the chlorides are proposed. The observed effect of the cation on the efficiency of Cl 2 - formations favours the mechanism according to which Cl 2 - forms through the reaction of Cl - ion with a ''hole''. Due to charge migration in the conductivity zone the electron transfer reaction either goes steadily by jumps. As a result of the interaction between the ''hole'' and water [H 3 O + ...OH] a complex is formed from a hydrogen ion and OH radical, which are united trhough the hydrogen bond. Disturbance of the hydrogen bond structure should increase the probability of disintegration of the complex

  8. Reaction of Hydrogen Chloride Gas with Sodium Carbonate and Its Deep Removal in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Chen, Po-Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 49 (2014), s. 19145-19158 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 102WBS0300011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hot fuel gas purification * hydrogen chloride gas * active sodium carbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014

  9. Thermal decomposition of silane to form hydrogenated amorphous Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Wiesmann, H.J.; Rock, E.B.; Lutz, H.A. III

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is produced by thermally decomposing silane (SiH/sub 4/) or other gases comprising H and Si, at elevated temperatures of about 1700 to 2300/sup 0/C, in a vacuum of about 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -4/ torr. A gaseous mixture is formed of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon. The gaseous mixture is deposited onto a substrate to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

  10. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  11. Crystal forms of the hydrogen oxalate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichiarante, Elena; Curzi, Marco; Giaffreda, Stefano L; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Braga, Dario

    2015-06-01

    To prepare new crystalline forms of the antidepressant o-desmethylvenlafaxine salt as potential new commercial forms and evaluate their physicochemical properties, in particular the dissolution rate. A new hydrogen oxalate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine hydrogen oxalate (ODV-OX) was synthesized, and a polymorph screening was performed using different solvents and crystallization conditions. Crystalline forms were characterized by a combination of solid-state techniques: X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The stability of all crystalline phases was tested under International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) conditions (40°C and 75% Relative Humidity (RH)) for 1 week. Dissolution tests were performed on the hydrogen oxalate salt ODV-OX Form 1 and compared with dissolution test on the commercial form of the succinate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine. Five crystalline forms of ODV-OX were isolated, namely three hydrated forms (Form 1, Form 2, Form 3) and two anhydrous forms (Form 4 and Form 5). Comparative solubility tests on ODV-OX Form 1 and o-desmethylvenlafaxine succinate evidenced a significant increase in solubility for the hydrogen oxalate salt (142 g/l) with respect to the succinate salt (70 g/l). © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Vapour pressure isotope effects in liquid hydrogen chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.N.C.; Calado, J.C.G. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)); Jancso, Gabor (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1992-08-10

    The difference between the vapour pressures of HCl and DCl has been measured over the temperature range 170-203 K by a differential manometric technique in a precision cryostat. In this range the vapour pressure of HCl is higher than that of DCl by 3.2% at 170 K, decreasing to 0.9% at 200 K. The reduced partition function ratios f[sub l]/f[sub g] derived from the vapour pressure data can be described by the equation ln(f[sub l]/f[sub g]) = (3914.57[+-]10)/T[sup 2] - (17.730[+-]0.055)/T. The experimentally observed H-D vapour pressure isotope effect, together with the values on the [sup 35]Cl-[sup 37]Cl isotope effect available in the literature, is interpreted in the light of the statistical theory of isotope effects in condensed systems by using spectroscopic data of the vapour and liquid phases. The results indicate that the rotation in liquid hydrogen chloride is hindered. Temperature-dependent force constants for the hindered translational and rotational motions were invoked in order to obtain better agreement between the model calculation and experiment. (author).

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Hydrogen Chloride Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Hydrogen Chloride Emission Limits 4 Table 4 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  14. Activity coefficients in (hydrogen chloride+holmium chloride) (aq) from T=(278.15 to 328.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Rabindra N.; Roy, Lakshmi N.; Tabor, Bennett J.; Richards, Sarah J.; Cummins, Mason P.; Himes, Curtis A.; Gibbs, Stephanie N.; Christiansen, Edward B.

    2005-01-01

    Activity coefficients of HCl in (hydrogen chloride+holmium chloride) (aq) have been calculated from the observed e.m.f.s using the Nernst equation. The temperatures ranged from (278.15 to 328.15) K at 5 K intervals and at constant total ionic strengths of (0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) mol.kg -1 . Electromotive-force measurements were made on the cell without liquid junction of the type:Pt vertical bar H 2 (g,p=101.325kPa) vertical bar HCl(m A ),HoCl 3 (m B ) vertical bar AgCl(s), vertical bar Ag(s) The results of the activity coefficients of HCl for this mixed electrolyte mixture have been interpreted in terms of the simpler Harned's equations and the ion-interaction model of Pitzer. Results show that the quadratic term is sufficient for the full range of Y B (the ionic strength fraction of the salt) to 0.9 at all the ionic strengths studied. The Pitzer's mixing parameters S θH,Ho and Ψ H,Ho,Cl (including higher order electrostatic effects) and θ H,Ho and Ψ H,Ho,Cl (excluding higher order electrostatic effects) have been determined. These values at T=298.15 K are: S θH , Ho =0.115, Ψ H,Ho,Cl =-.071; and θ H,Ho =-.663, Ψ H,Ho,Cl =0.165. The parameters obtained in this study reproduce the activity coefficients of HCl in the mixtures within 0.015 over the entire range of ionic strengths and within 0.009 for I>=0.05 mol.kg -1 over the entire temperature range

  15. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  16. Activity coefficients in (hydrogen chloride+holmium chloride) (aq) from T=(278.15 to 328.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Rabindra N. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)]. E-mail: rroy@drury.edu; Roy, Lakshmi N. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Tabor, Bennett J. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Richards, Sarah J. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Cummins, Mason P. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Himes, Curtis A. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Gibbs, Stephanie N. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States); Christiansen, Edward B. [Hoffman Department of Chemistry, Drury University, Springfield, MO 65802 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    Activity coefficients of HCl in (hydrogen chloride+holmium chloride) (aq) have been calculated from the observed e.m.f.s using the Nernst equation. The temperatures ranged from (278.15 to 328.15) K at 5 K intervals and at constant total ionic strengths of (0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) mol.kg{sup -1}. Electromotive-force measurements were made on the cell without liquid junction of the type:Pt vertical bar H{sub 2}(g,p=101.325kPa) vertical bar HCl(m{sub A}),HoCl{sub 3}(m{sub B}) vertical bar AgCl(s), vertical bar Ag(s) The results of the activity coefficients of HCl for this mixed electrolyte mixture have been interpreted in terms of the simpler Harned's equations and the ion-interaction model of Pitzer. Results show that the quadratic term is sufficient for the full range of Y{sub B} (the ionic strength fraction of the salt) to 0.9 at all the ionic strengths studied. The Pitzer's mixing parameters S{sub {theta}}{sub H,Ho} and {psi}{sub H,Ho,Cl} (including higher order electrostatic effects) and {theta}{sub H,Ho} and {psi}{sub H,Ho,Cl} (excluding higher order electrostatic effects) have been determined. These values at T=298.15 K are: S{sub {theta}}{sub H},{sub Ho}=0.115, {psi}{sub H,Ho,Cl}=-.071; and {theta}{sub H,Ho}=-.663, {psi}{sub H,Ho,Cl}=0.165. The parameters obtained in this study reproduce the activity coefficients of HCl in the mixtures within 0.015 over the entire range of ionic strengths and within 0.009 for I>=0.05 mol.kg{sup -1} over the entire temperature range.

  17. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  18. Coupling of copper-chloride hybrid thermochemical water splitting cycle with a desalination plant for hydrogen production from nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, Mehmet F.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Naterer, Greg F.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy and environmental concerns have motivated research on clean energy resources. Nuclear energy has the potential to provide a significant share of energy supply without contributing to environmental emissions and climate change. Nuclear energy has been used mainly for electric power generation, but hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition provides another pathway for the utilization of nuclear thermal energy. One option for nuclear-based hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition uses a copper-chloride (Cu-Cl) cycle. Another societal concern relates to supplies of fresh water. Thus, to avoid causing one problem while solving another, hydrogen could be produced from seawater rather than limited fresh water sources. In this study we analyze a coupling of the Cu-Cl cycle with a desalination plant for hydrogen production from nuclear energy and seawater. Desalination technologies are reviewed comprehensively to determine the most appropriate option for the Cu-Cl cycle and a thermodynamic analysis and several parametric studies of this coupled system are presented for various configurations. (author)

  19. Hydrogen retention in carbon-tungsten co-deposition layer formed by hydrogen RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, K.; Kawasaki, T.; Manabe, Y.; Nagase, H.; Takeishi, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-tungsten co-deposition layers (C-W layers) were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen or deuterium RF plasma. The deposition rate of the C-W layer by deuterium plasma was faster than that by hydrogen plasma, where the increase of deposition rate of tungsten was larger than that of carbon. This indicates that the isotope effect on sputtering-depositing process for tungsten is larger than that for carbon. The release curve of hydrogen from the C-W layer showed two peaks at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Comparing the hydrogen release from the carbon deposition layer and the tungsten deposition layer, it is considered that the increase of the release rate at 400 deg. C is affected by tungsten and that at 700 deg. C is affected by carbon. The obtained hydrogen retention in the C-W layers which have over 60 at.% of carbon was in the range between 0.45 and 0.16 as H/(C + W)

  20. Tetrel, Chalcogen, and Charge-Assisted Hydrogen Bonds in 2-((2-Carboxy-1-(substituted-2-hydroxyethylthio Pyridin-1-ium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firudin I. Guseinov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of 2-chloro-2-(diethoxymethyl-3-substitutedoxirane or 1-chloro-1-(substituted -3,3-diethoxypropan-2-one with pyridine-2-thiol in EtOH at 25 °C yields 3-(diethoxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2-substituted-2,3-dihydrothiazolo[3,2-a]pyridin-4-ium chlorides, which subsequently, in MeCN at 85°C, transforms into ring-opening products, 2-((2-carboxy-1-(substituted -2-hydroxyethylthiopyridin-1-ium chlorides. The tetrel (C···O and chalcogen (S···O bonds are found in the structures of 5 and 6, respectively. Compound 6 is also present in halogen bonding with a short O···Cl distance (3.067 Å. Both molecules are stabilized in crystal by tetrel, chalcogen, and multiple charge-assisted hydrogen bonds.

  1. Formation of an Ion-Pair Molecule with a Single NH+...Cl- Hydrogen Bond: Raman spectra of 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidinium chloride in the solid state, in solution and in the vapor phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Some ionic compounds (salts) form liquids when heated to temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C. They may be referred to as moderate temperature ionic liquids. An example of such a compound is the 1,1,3,3- tetramethylguanidinium chloride, [TMGH]Cl, melting at ∼212 °C. The chemistry of this compo......Some ionic compounds (salts) form liquids when heated to temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C. They may be referred to as moderate temperature ionic liquids. An example of such a compound is the 1,1,3,3- tetramethylguanidinium chloride, [TMGH]Cl, melting at ∼212 °C. The chemistry...... and the dimeric chloride ion-pair salt converged to give geometries near the established crystal structure of [TMGH]Cl. The structures and their binding energies are given as well as calculated vibrational harmonic normal modes (IR and Raman band wavenumbers and intensities). Experimentally obtained Raman...... scattering spectra are presented and assigned, by comparing to the quantum mechanical calculations. It is concluded that dimeric molecular ion pairs with four N-H+ · · · Cl- hydrogen bonds probably exist in the solutions and are responsible for the relatively high solubility of the “salt” in ethanol...

  2. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Kihara, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ohuchi, Misao

    1996-06-01

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl{sub 2} and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} were formed. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl{sub 2}, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 4} were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  3. The use of immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole in the treatment of purulent wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia S. Gorohova; Arsen Yu. Grigoryan; Alexander I. Bezhin; Tatyana A. Pankrusheva; Boris S. Sukovatykh; Ludmila V. Zhilyaeva; Ekaterina S. Mishina; Elena V. Kobzareva

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the wound-healing effect of the immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole based on the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) or polyethylene oxide (PEO) in the treatment of an experimental purulent wound.Materials and methods. The following compositions were studied, %. Combination 1: benzalkonium chloride – 0.02; Metronidazole – 1,0; Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) – 4,0; Purified water – up to 100,0. Combination 2: ...

  4. Hydrogen in hot subdwarfs formed by double helium white dwarf mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon

    2016-01-01

    Isolated hot subdwarfs might be formed by the merging of two helium-core white dwarfs. Before merging, helium-core white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich envelopes and some of this hydrogen may survive the merger. We calculate the mass of hydrogen that is present at the start of such mergers and, with the assumption that hydrogen is mixed throughout the disrupted white dwarf in the merger process, estimate how much can survive. We find a hydrogen mass of up to about $2 \\times 10^{-3}\\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\o...

  5. Corrosive gas generation potential from chloride salt radiolysis in plutonium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, L.; Allen, T.H.; Mason, R.E.; Penneman, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The specific goal of this project was to evaluate the magnitude and practical significance of radiation effects involving mixtures of chloride salts and plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ) sealed in stainless steel containers and stored for up to 50 yr, after stabilization at 950 C and packaging according to US Department of Energy (DOE) standards. The potential for generating chemically aggressive molecular chlorine (and hydrogen chloride by interaction with adsorbed water or hydrogen gas) by radiolysis of chloride ions was studied. To evaluate the risks, an annotated bibliography on chloride salt radiolysis was created with emphasis on effects of plutonium alpha radiation. The authors present data from the material identification and surveillance (MIS) project obtained from examination and analysis of representative PuO 2 items from various DOE sites, including the headspace gas analysis data of sealed mixtures of PuO 2 and chloride salts following long-term storage

  6. Chemical bridges for enhancing hydrogen storage by spillover and methods for forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwei; Qi, Gongshin; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2012-12-25

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a source of hydrogen atoms, a receptor, and a chemical bridge formed between the source and the receptor. The chemical bridge is formed from a precursor material. The receptor is adapted to receive hydrogen spillover from the source.

  7. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  8. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  9. Hydrogen and helium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by RF plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunari Katayama; Kazumi Imaoka; Takayuki Okamura; Masabumi Nishikawa

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of tritium behavior in plasma facing materials is an important issue for fusion reactor from viewpoints of fuel control and radiation safety. Tungsten is used as a plasma facing material in the divertor region of ITER. However, investigation of hydrogen isotope behavior in tungsten deposition layer is not sufficient so far. It is also necessary to evaluate an effect of helium on a formation of deposition layer and an accumulation of hydrogen isotopes because helium generated by fusion reaction exists in fusion plasma. In this study, tungsten deposition layers were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen and helium RF plasma. An erosion rate and a deposition rate of tungsten were estimated by weight measurement. Hydrogen and helium retention were investigated by thermal desorption method. Tungsten deposition was performed using a capacitively-coupled RF plasma device equipped with parallel-plate electrodes. A tungsten target was mounted on one electrode which is supplied with RF power at 200 W. Tungsten substrates were mounted on the other electrode which is at ground potential. The plasma discharge was continued for 120 hours where pressure of hydrogen or helium was controlled to be 10 Pa. The amounts of hydrogen and helium released from deposition layers was quantified by a gas chromatograph. The erosion rate of target tungsten under helium plasma was estimated to be 1.8 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. The deposition rate on tungsten substrate under helium plasma was estimated to be 4.1 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. Atomic ratio of hydrogen to tungsten in a deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma was estimated to be 0.17 by heating to 600 o C. From a deposition layer formed by helium plasma, not only helium but also hydrogen was released by heating to 500 o C. Atomic ratios of helium and hydrogen to tungsten were estimated to be 0.080 and 0.075, respectively. The trapped hydrogen is probably impurity hydrogen

  10. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  11. Buried chloride stereochemistry in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero

    2014-09-23

    Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity chloride anion shows that the first coordination spheres of the chlorides are essentially constituted by hydrogen bond donors. Amongst the side-chains positively charged, arginine interacts with chlorides much more frequently than lysine. Although the most common coordination number is 4, the coordination stereochemistry is closer to the expected geometry when the coordination number is 5, suggesting that this is the coordination number towards which the chlorides tend when they interact with proteins. The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions.

  12. Experimental evidence for blue-shifted hydrogen bonding in the fluoroform-hydrogen chloride complex: a matrix-isolation infrared and ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, R; Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K

    2014-07-24

    The 1:1 hydrogen-bonded complex of fluoroform and hydrogen chloride was studied using matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. Using B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory with 6-311++G(d,p) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets, the structures of the complexes and their energies were computed. For the 1:1 CHF3-HCl complexes, ab initio computations showed two minima, one cyclic and the other acyclic. The cyclic complex was found to have C-H · · · Cl and C-F · · · H interactions, where CHF3 and HCl sub-molecules act as proton donor and proton acceptor, respectively. The second minimum corresponded to an acyclic complex stabilized only by the C-F · · · H interaction, in which CHF3 is the proton acceptor. Experimentally, we could trap the 1:1 CHF3-HCl cyclic complex in an argon matrix, where a blue-shift in the C-H stretching mode of the CHF3 sub-molecule was observed. To understand the nature of the interactions, Atoms in Molecules and Natural Bond Orbital analyses were carried out to unravel the reasons for blue-shifting of the C-H stretching frequency in these complexes.

  13. Method for near-real-time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Frank G.; Paul, Donald G.

    1996-11-01

    A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-sit use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

  14. Study of the hydrolysis reaction of the copper-chloride hybrid thermochemical cycle using optical spectrometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doizi, D.; Borgard, J.M.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J.L.; Zanella, Y.; Croize, L.; Cartes, Ph.; Hartmann, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The copper-chloride hybrid thermochemical cycle is one of the best potential low temperature thermochemical cycles for the massive production of hydrogen. It could be used with nuclear reactors such as the sodium fast reactor or the supercritical water reactor. Nevertheless, this thermochemical cycle is composed of an electrochemical reaction and two thermal reactions. Its efficiency has to be compared with other hydrogen production processes like alkaline electrolysis for example. The purpose of this article is to study the viability of the copper chloride thermochemical cycle by studying the hydrolysis reaction of CuCl 2 which is not favoured thermodynamically. To better understand the occurrence of possible side reactions, together with a good control of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction, the use of optical absorption spectrometries, UV visible spectrometry to detect molecular chlorine which may be formed in side reactions, FTIR spectrometry to follow the concentrations of H 2 O and HCl is proposed. (authors)

  15. Optochemical sensing of hydrogen chloride gas using meso-tetramesitylporphyrin deposited glass plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimuthu, Palanisamy; Abraham John, S.

    2008-01-01

    Meso-tetramesitylporphyrin (MTMP) deposited glass plate (solid state sensor) was used to sense hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas based on optochemical method. Exposure of the solid state sensor to HCl vapor results in the formation of protonated meso-tetramesitylporphyrin (PMTMP). UV-vis and fluorescence spectral techniques were used to study the protonation of MTMP in dichloromethane-methanol mixture. The optical spectra of MTMP show an intense Soret band at 418 nm with a 14 nm red shift upon protonation by HCl. Ab-initio calculations were carried out to visualize the effect of protonation on planarity and stability of the porphyrin ring. The solid state sensor was characterized by UV-vis spectral technique. The sensor exhibits characteristic Soret and Q bands for the deposited MTMP with slight red shift when compared to MTMP in dichloromethane. The concentration of gaseous HCl was monitored from the changes in the absorbance of Soret band of PMTMP at 452 nm. The detection limit of the solid state sensor towards gaseous HCl was found to be 0.03 ppm. The present solid state sensor was highly stable for several months

  16. Complexes of metal chlorides with proton donors — promising polyfunctional catalysts for electrophilic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsker, Karl S.; Ivanova, S. R.; Biglova, Raisa Z.

    1995-05-01

    The Bronsted acids formed as a result of the interaction of aluminium chlorides with Group I and II metal chlorides in the presence of proton-donating compounds are promising polyfunctional catalysts for electrophilic processes (polymerisation, depolymerisation and degradation of macromolecules, alkylation, desulfurisation, and hydrogenation). The factor determing the electrophilic activity and selectivity of the action of the catalysts is their acidity. This makes it possible to predict the direction of the changes in the activity and selectivity of the catalyst in specific chemical processes in conformity with the opposite variation rule: with increase in the acidity of the electrophilic catalyst, their activity increases but the selectivity of their action diminishes. The bibliography includes 72 references.

  17. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes : First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied

  18. A comparison of hydrogen with alternate energy forms from coal and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Alternate energy forms that can be produced from coal and nuclear energy have been analyzed on efficiency, economic and end-use grounds. These forms include hydrogen, methane, electricity, and EVA-ADAM, a 'chemical heat pipe' approach to energy transmission. The EVA-ADAM system for nuclear heat appears to be economically competitive with the other energy carriers except over very large distances. The cost of hydrogen derived from coal is approximately equal to that of methane derived from the same source when compared on an equal BTU basis. Thermochemically derived hydrogen from nuclear energy shows a break-even range with hydrogen derived from coal at coal costs of from Pound33 to 80/ton depending on the cost of nuclear heat. Electricity and electrolytically derived hydrogen are the most expensive energy carriers and electricity's use should be limited to applications involving work rather than heat. Continued work in thermochemical hydrogen production schemes should be supported as an energy option for the future. (author)

  19. Electrochemical modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical kinetic model (EKM) is developed, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials under equilibrium conditions. This model is based on first principles of electrochemical reaction kinetics and statistical thermodynamics and describes the complex,

  20. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  1. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca–, Na–, Mg– and Fe–chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe–chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and

  2. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C; Rogers, A Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C; Jensen, Heidi B; Reeder, Richard J; Dyar, M Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO 3 ) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  3. EFFECT OF DIATOMEAOUS EARTH TREATMENT USING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND SULFURIC ACID ON KINETICS OF CADMIUM(II ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, treatment of diatomaceous earth, Sangiran, Central Java using hydrogen chloride (HCl and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 on kinetics of Cd(II adsorption in aqueous solution has been carried out. The work was conducted by mixing an amount of grounded diatomaceous earth (200 mesh in size with HCl or H2SO4 solution in various concentrations for two hours at temperature range of 100 - 150oC. The mixture was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate pH is approximately 7 and then the residue was dried for four hours at a temperature of 70oC. The product was used as an adsorbent to adsorb Cd(II in aqueous solution with various concentrations. The Cd(II adsorbed was determined by analyzing the rest of Cd(II in the solution using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of treatment was evaluated from kinetic parameter of adsorption rate constant calculated based on the simple kinetic model. Results showed  that before equilibrium condition reached, adsorpstion of Cd(II occurred through two steps, i.e. a step tends to follow a reaction of irreversible first order  (step I followed by reaction of reversible first order (step II. Treatment with acids, either hydrogen chloride or sulfuric acid, decreased adsorption rate constant for the step I from 15.2/min to a range of 6.4 - 9.4/min.  However, increasing concentration of acid (in a range of concentration investigated did not give significant and constant change of adsorption rate constant. For step II process,  adsorption involved physical interaction with the sufficient low adsorption energy (in a range of 311.3 - 1001 J/mol.     Keywords: adsorption, cdmium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics.

  4. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... abbreviations are used in this document. CAA Clean Air Act CDD/CDF chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans CDX... chloride and chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (CDD/CDF)) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). We did not... chloride leak action level because if either of these pollutants is detected in the cooling water or in the...

  5. Identification of chlorinated oligomers formed during anodic oxidation of phenol in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Linxi; Campo, Pablo; Kupferle, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • By-products from anodic oxidation of phenol in the presence of chloride are investigated. • Chlorinated oligomer formation is demonstrated by LC-QTOF-MS. • They have structures similar to triclosan and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. - Abstract: Chlorinated oligomer intermediates formed during the anodic electrochemical oxidation of phenol with a boron-doped diamond electrode were studied at two different concentrations of chloride (5 mM and 50 mM). Under the same ionic strength, with sodium sulfate being the make-up ion, a 10-fold increase in Cl − led to removal rates 10.8, 1.5, and 1.4 times higher for phenol, TOC, and COD, respectively. Mono-, di- and trichlorophenols resulting from electrophilic substitution were the identified by-products. Nevertheless, discrepancies between theoretical and measured TOC values along with gaps in the mass balance of chlorine-containing species indicated the formation of unaccounted-for chlorinated by-products. Accurate mass measurements by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MS-MS fragmentation spectra showed that additional compounds formed were dimers and trimers of phenol with structures similar to triclosan and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

  6. Identification of chlorinated oligomers formed during anodic oxidation of phenol in the presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Linxi; Campo, Pablo; Kupferle, Margaret J., E-mail: margaret.kupferle@uc.edu

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • By-products from anodic oxidation of phenol in the presence of chloride are investigated. • Chlorinated oligomer formation is demonstrated by LC-QTOF-MS. • They have structures similar to triclosan and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. - Abstract: Chlorinated oligomer intermediates formed during the anodic electrochemical oxidation of phenol with a boron-doped diamond electrode were studied at two different concentrations of chloride (5 mM and 50 mM). Under the same ionic strength, with sodium sulfate being the make-up ion, a 10-fold increase in Cl{sup −} led to removal rates 10.8, 1.5, and 1.4 times higher for phenol, TOC, and COD, respectively. Mono-, di- and trichlorophenols resulting from electrophilic substitution were the identified by-products. Nevertheless, discrepancies between theoretical and measured TOC values along with gaps in the mass balance of chlorine-containing species indicated the formation of unaccounted-for chlorinated by-products. Accurate mass measurements by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MS-MS fragmentation spectra showed that additional compounds formed were dimers and trimers of phenol with structures similar to triclosan and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

  7. Mechanisms of hydrogen induced delayed cracking in hydride forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Nuttall, K.; Puls, M.P.; Simpson, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms which have been formulated to describe delayed hydrogen cracking in hydride-forming metals are reviewed and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the commercial alloy Zr--2.5% Nb (Cb) which is extensively used in nuclear reactor core components. A quantitative model for hydrogen cracking in this material is presented and compared with available experimental data. The kinetics of crack propagation are controlled by the growth of hydrides at the stressed crack tip by the diffusive ingress of hydrogen into this region. The driving force for the diffusion flux is provided by the local stress gradient which interacts with both hydrogen atoms in solution and hydrogen atoms being dissolved and reprecipitated at the crack tip. The model is developed using concepts of elastoplastic fracture mechanics. Stage I crack growth is controlled by hydrides growing in the elastic stress gradient, while Stage II is controlled by hydride growth in the plastic zone at the crack tip. Recent experimental observations are presented which indicate that the process occurs in an intermittent fashion; hydride clusters accumulate at the crack tip followed by unstable crack advance and subsequent crack arrest in repeated cycles

  8. Mechanisms of hydrogen induced delayed cracking in hydride forming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Nuttall, K.; Puls, M.P.; Simpson, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms which have been formulated to describe delayed hydrogen cracking in hydride-forming metals are reviewed and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the commercial alloy Zr-2.5 pct Nb which is extensively used in nuclear reactor core components. A quantitative model for hydrogen cracking in this material is presented and compared with available experimental data. The kinetics of crack propagation are controlled by the growth of hydrides at the stressed crack tip by the diffusive ingress of hydrogen into this region. The driving force for the diffusion flux is provided by the local stress gradient which interacts with both hydrogen atoms in solution and hydrogen atoms being dissolved and reprecipitated at the crack tip. The model is developed using concepts of elastoplastic fracture mechanics. Stage I crack growth is controlled by hydrides growing in the elastic stress gradient, while Stage II is controlled by hydride growth in the plastic zone at the crack tip. Recent experimental observations are presented which indicate that the process occurs in an intermittent fashion; hydride clusters accumulate at the crack tip followed by unstable crack advance and subsequent crack arrest in repeated cycles. 55 refs., 6 figs

  9. Solubility of hydrogen isotopes in stressed hydride-forming metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Ambler, J.F.R.

    1983-01-01

    Components made from hydride-forming metals can be brittle when particles of hydride are present. The solid solubility limit of hydrogen in these metals needs to be known so that fracture resistance can be properly assessed. Stress affects the solubility of hydrogen in metals. As hydrogen dissolves the metal volume increases, an applied hydrostatic tensile stress supplies work to increase the solubility. Precipitation of hydrides increases the volume further. A hydrostatic tensile stress promotes the formation of hydrides and tends to reduce the terminal solubility. For materials containing hydrogen in solution in equilibrium with hydrides, the effect of stress on the terminal solubility is given. Hydrogen migrates up tensile stress gradients because of the effect of stress on the solubility and solubility limit. Consequently, hydrogen concentrates at flaws. When hydrides are present in the metal matrix, those remote from the flaw tip will preferentially dissolve in favor of those precipitated at the flaw. If the stress is large enough, at some critical condition the hydrides at the flaw will crack. This is delayed hydrogen cracking. Notched and fatigue-cracked cantilever beam specimens (6) (38 x 4 x 3 mm) were machined from the circumferential direction of several cold-worked Zr-2.5 at. % Nb pressure tubes. The chemical compositions had the ranges (in atomic %) Nb - 2.5 to 2.7; O - 0.58 to 0.71; H - 0.018 to 0.18. The effect of test temperature is for a specimen containing 0.13 at. % protium and 0.29 at .% deuterium. Between 505 K and 530 K was less than 1 hr, between 530 K and 537 K it increased to 25.8 h, while at 538 K no cracking was observed up to the 54 h

  10. Crystal structure of 4,6-diamino-2,2-dimethyl-3-[3-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropoxy]-2,3-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium chloride methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarapol Khongsuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title methanol-solvated salt, C14H19Cl3N5O2+·Cl−·CH3OH, the triazine molecule is protonated at one of the triazine N atoms. In the crystal, the triazine cations are linked through a pair of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, with graph-set R22(8, forming an inversion dimer. The protonated N atom and the 2- and 4-amino groups of the triazine cation interact with the chloride anion through N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a tape structure running along the b-axis direction. A short Cl...Cl contact [3.2937 (9 Å] is observed in the tape. The methanol molecule is linked to the chloride anion and the triazine cation, respectively, by an O—H...Cl hydrogen bond and a C—H...O interaction.

  11. Spectrofluorimetric protocol for antidepressant drugs in dosage forms and human plasma through derivatization with dansyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Omar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A reliable, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of certain antidepressant drugs namely sertraline hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride, paroxetine hydrochloride, amineptine hydrochloride and bupropion hydrochloride in pure forms, pharmaceutical formulation and human plasma. The method is based on the reaction of investigated drugs with 5-(dimethylamino naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride in the presence of 0.5 M sodium carbonate to yield highly fluorescent derivatives, measured at 450 nm (excitation at 347 nm. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the reaction products were carefully studied and optimized. The calibration plots were constructed over the range of 0.02–0.14 μg mL−1. The proposed method was successfully applied for analysis of cited drugs in dosage forms. The high sensitivity of the proposed method allows the determination of investigated drugs in spiked and real human plasma. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show an excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  12. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  13. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  14. Review on Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Choline Chloride/Urea Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima J. Isaifan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past few years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs were developed sharing similar characteristics to ionic liquids but with more advantageous features related to preparation cost, environmental impact, and efficiency for gas separation processes. Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date.

  15. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming [Augusta, GA

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  16. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  17. The use of additives for reducing hydrogen yield in mortar containing slag and chloride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Warren, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Cementitious waste forms are being considered for immobilizing nuclear waste before disposal. In earlier work, it was found that irradiation of a mortar formulation consisting of slag, portland cement, fly ash, water, and up to 10 wt% KCl endash LiCl salt resulted in the generation of hydrogen. Yields were relatively high and the rates of generation were constant for the irradiation period investigated. The addition of small amounts of oxygen-rich electron scavengers to the mortar was investigated as a means for reducing hydrogen yields. The addition of NaNO 3 reduced the hydrogen yield; changed the radiolytic products from hydrogen to a mixture of hydrogen, nitrogen, and N 2 O; and reduced the pressurization rate after exposure to 400 Mrads. The addition of NaIO 4 and KMnO 4 reduced hydrogen yields slightly while the addition of Ag 2 O increased the yield. Moreover, the addition of FeS to a non-slag mortar changed the radiolysis mechanism but the addition of FeO did not. The results of these experiments provided an insight into the nature of the radiolytic reactions occurring in the mortar formulations and indicated that the radiolytic generation of gases might be controlled with the proper choice of additive. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Crystal structures of diaquadi-μ-hydroxido-tris[trimethyltin(IV] diformatotrimethylstannate(IV and di-μ-hydroxido-tris[trimethyltin(IV] chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Otte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds, [Sn3(CH39(OH2(H2O2][Sn(CH33(CHO22] (1 and [Sn3(CH39(OH2]Cl·H2O (2, are partially condensed products of hydrolysed trimethyltin chloride. In the structures of 1 and 2, short cationic tristannatoxanes (C9H29O2Sn3 are bridged by a diformatotrimethyltin anion or a chloride anion, respectively. Hydrogen bridges are present and supposedly stabilize these structures against further polymerization to the known polymeric trimethyltin hydroxide. Especially noteworthy is that the formate present in this structure was formed from atmospheric CO2.

  19. Reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Akimasa; Matsuzaki, Ryoko; Saeki, Yuzo

    1978-01-01

    The details of the reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide were examined at 20 and 60 0 C. The main products by the reaction were vanadium dichloride oxide, sulfur, and hydrogen chloride. In addition to these products, small amounts of vanadium trichloride, vanadium tetrachloride, disulfur dichloride, and sulfur dioxide were formed. The formations of the above-mentioned reaction products can be explained as follows: The first stage is the reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + H 2 S(g)→2VOCl 2 (s) + S(s) + 2HCl(g). Then the resulting sulfur reacts with the unreacted vanadium trichloride oxide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + 2S(s)→2VOCl 2 (s) + S 2 Cl 2 (l). The resulting disulfur dichloride subsequently reacts with the unreacted vanadium trichloride oxide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + S 2 Cl 2 (l)→2VCl 4 (l) + S(s) + SO 2 (g). The resulting vanadium tetrachloride reacts with the sulfur formed during the reaction, 2VCl 4 (l) + 2S(s)→2VCl 3 (s) + S 2 Cl 2 (l), and also reacts with hydrogen sulfide, 2VCl 4 (l) + H 2 S(g)→2VCl 3 (s) + S(s) + 2HCl(g). (auth.)

  20. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a

  1. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin

  2. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Anne; Leone, Stefano; Beyer, Franziska C.; Pedersen, Henrik; Kordina, Olof; Andersson, Sven; Janzén, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  3. Modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials : statistical thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Rey, W.J.J.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new lattice gas model has been developed, describing the hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials. This model is based on the mean-field theory and Bragg-Williams approximation. To describe first-order phase transitions and two-phase coexistence regions, a binary alloy approach has been

  4. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  5. Separation coefficients of liquid-vapor in systems formed by yttrium chloride with some impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.T.; Nikiforova, T.V.; Nisel'son, L.A.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Using equilibrium Rayleigh distillation in the 800-950 deg C temperature range, separation coefficients of liquid-vapor for systems, formed by yttrium chloride with Co, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Li impurities are determined. The impurity concentration lies within 0.02-0.4 mass. % limits of each impurity, and total impurity concentration does not exceed 1 mass. %. The tested impurities, except for calcium, are more volatile than the base, yttrium trichloride. In most systems negative deviation from the Raoult's law is observed

  6. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT TO W31C (G10.6-0.4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, MC 301-17, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125-4700 (United States); Roueff, E. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LUTH UMR 8102, 5 Pl. Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M. [LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris and ENS, F-75231 Paris Cedex (France); Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Godard, B., E-mail: raquel@caltech.edu [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Crta. Torrejon km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-10

    We report the detection of hydrogen chloride, HCl, in diffuse molecular clouds on the line of sight toward the star-forming region W31C (G10.6-0.4). The J = 1-0 lines of the two stable HCl isotopologues, H{sup 35}Cl and H{sup 37}Cl, are observed using the 1b receiver of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HCl line is detected in absorption, over a wide range of velocities associated with diffuse clouds along the line of sight to W31C. The analysis of the absorption strength yields a total HCl column density of a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, implying that HCl accounts for {approx}0.6% of the total gas-phase chlorine, which exceeds the theoretical model predictions by a factor of {approx}6. This result is comparable to those obtained from the chemically related species H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and HCl{sup +}, for which large column densities have also been reported on the same line of sight. The source of discrepancy between models and observations is still unknown; however, the detection of these Cl-bearing molecules provides key constraints for the chlorine chemistry in the diffuse gas.

  7. The use of tristimulus colorimetry for the determination of hydrogen cyanide in air by a modified König method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR PITSCHMANN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual and tristimulus colorimetric method (three-dimensional system CIE-L*a*b* for the determination of trace amounts of hydrogen cyanide in air has been developed. The method is based on the suction of hydrogen cyanide through a chlorinating cartridge where cyanogen chloride is formed, which is further driven to an indicator disc made of a modified cotton fabric. This indicator disc is placed into an adapter. Prior to analysis, the disc is saturated with a chromogenic reagent, a solution of 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone and 4-benzylpyridine in ethanol. In the presence of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogen chloride, a pink coloration emerges on the indicator disc, the intensity of which is evaluated either visually or by use of a tristimulus colorimeter. The detection limit is 0.1 mg m-3. The method is mainly suitable for mobile field analyses. It was applied for the CHP-5 chemical agent detector introduced into the equipment of the Czech Army corps.

  8. On the Rust Products Formed on Weathering and Carbon Steels Exposed to Chloride in Dry-Wet Cyclical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Barrero, C. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The rust products formed on weathering and carbon steels exposed to dry-wet cyclical processes in different chloride-rich solutions are carefully examined by means of different techniques. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis of the data using 300 K and 77 K Moessbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The rust that is loosely bound to the metal surface and that it is lost during the corrosion process, for both types of steel, was found to be composed of lepidocrocite, superparamagnetic goethite, hematite, and traces of akaganeite. On the other hand, the adherent rust, which is differentiated as scraped and hit according to the way it is obtained, from both steels was found to be composed of akaganeite, spinel phase, goethite exhibiting broad distribution of particle sizes and lepidocrocite. The relative abundances of rust components for both steels were very similar, suggesting similar corrosion processes. Mass loss measurements show that the corrosion rates increases with increasing the chloride concentration. The presence of large quantities of spinel phase and akaganeite are a consequence of a corrosion process under the influence of very high chloride concentrations. Our results are useful for assessing the behavior of weathering steels where the levels of chlorides are high or in contact with sea water.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of berberine chloride: a perspective in the development of a solution dosage form for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, Sunil Kumar; Repka, Michael A; Maddineni, Sindhuri; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avery, Mitchell A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of berberine chloride and to assess the complexation of drug with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a first step towards solution dosage form development. The parameters such as log P value were determined experimentally and compared with predicted values. The pH-dependent aqueous solubility and stability were investigated following standard protocols at 25°C and 37°C. Drug solubility enhancement was attempted utilizing both surfactants and cyclodextrins (CDs), and the drug/CD complexation was studied employing various techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental log P value suggested that the compound is fairly hydrophilic. Berberine chloride was found to be very stable up to 6 months at all pH and temperature conditions tested. Aqueous solubility of the drug was temperature dependent and exhibited highest solubility of 4.05 ± 0.09 mM in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25°C, demonstrating the effect of buffer salts on drug solubility. Decreased drug solubility was observed with increasing concentrations of ionic surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of berberine chloride-HPβCD inclusion complex with 1:1 stoichiometry, and the aqueous solubility of the drug improved almost 4.5-fold in the presence of 20% HPβCD. The complexation efficiency values indicated that the drug has at least threefold greater affinity for hydroxypropyl-β-CD compared to randomly methylated-β-CD. The characterization techniques confirmed inclusion complex formation between berberine chloride and HPβCD and demonstrated the feasibility of developing an oral solution dosage form of the drug.

  10. Pressure-induced localisation of the hydrogen-bond network in KOH-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Andreas, E-mail: a.hermann@ed.ac.uk; Nelmes, Richard J.; Loveday, John S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Guthrie, Malcolm [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); European Spallation Source AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-12-28

    Using a combination of ab initio crystal structure prediction and neutron diffraction techniques, we have solved the full structure of KOH-VI at 7 GPa. Rather than being orthorhombic and proton-ordered as had previously be proposed, we find that this high-pressure phase of potassium hydroxide is tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) and proton disordered. It has an unusual hydrogen bond topology, where the hydroxyl groups form isolated hydrogen-bonded square planar (OH){sub 4} units. This structure is stable above 6.5 GPa and, despite being macroscopically proton-disordered, local ice rules enforce microscopic order of the hydrogen bonds. We suggest the use of this novel type of structure to study concerted proton tunneling in the solid state, while the topology of the hydrogen bond network could conceivably be exploited in data storage applications based solely on the manipulations of hydrogen bonds. The unusual localisation of the hydrogen bond network under applied pressure is found to be favored by a more compact packing of the constituents in a distorted cesium chloride structure.

  11. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl(2), and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl(2) decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al(2)O(3).CaCl(2)) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl(2). Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl(2). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 in aqueous solutions at elevated temperature. Pt. II. Effects of chloride and sulphate ions on the electrochemical behaviour of Inconel 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, E.A.; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.151-6, 1997. The influencing effects of temperature, potential and electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behaviour of Inconel 600 in aqueous solutions are presented. Considering these effects the connection between the data have been obtained from chemo-mechanical fracture investigation on CT-samples in Part I of this paper and pitting corrosion are discussed. The results have shown that chloride ions depassivate the surfaces of cracks locally and hinder the formation of a new protective oxide layer on the fracture surfaces. Furthermore, chloride promotes the dissolution of metal and initiates the cracking, respectively. The resulting crevice corrosion promotes an increase of hydrogen absorption by the metal. The increase of the hydrogen content of the metal influences the mechanical fracture behaviour. Contrary, sulphate ions inhibit the initiation of corrosion mainly due to a hinderance of chloride ions adsorption on active sites of the fracture surfaces. The initiation of localized corrosion in the crevice region may be stimulated by chromate ions formed by oxidation of chromium from the oxide layer or the base metal in oxygen containing solutions. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of thermochemical hydrogen production. Project 8994 mid-contract progress report, July 1--November 1, 1977. [Iron chloride and copper sulfate cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafler, J.R.; Foh, S.E.; Schreiber, J.D.

    1977-12-01

    We have completed the base-case (first-cut) flowsheet analysis for two thermochemical water-splitting cycles that have been under study at the Institute of Gas Technology: a four-step iron chloride cycle (denoted B-1) and a four-step copper sulfate cycle (denoted H-5). In the case of Cycle B-1, an energy balance has located the worst problem areas in the cycle, and flowsheet modifications have begun. Calculations of equilibrium effects due to the hydrolysis of ferrous chloride at pressures high enough to interface with projected hydrogen transmission systems will, apparently, necessitate higher temperature process heat input for this step. Higher pressure operation of some critical separation processes yields more favorable heat balances. For Cycle H-5, the unmodified (base-case) flowsheet indicates that reaction product separations will be relatively simple with respect to Cycle B-1. Work of Schuetz and others dealing with the electrolysis and thermodynamics of HBr/H/sub 2/O/SO/sub 2/ systems is being extensively reviewed. Work plans for this part of the contract are currently being reviewed.

  14. The influence of ppb levels of chloride impurities on the stress corrosion crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels under simulated boiling water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chloride effects on SCC crack growth in RPV steels under boiling water reactor conditions. • ppb-levels of chloride may result in fast SCC in normal water chemistry environment. • Much higher chloride tolerance for SCC in hydrogen water chemistry environment. • Potential long-term (memory) effects after severe and prolonged temporary chloride transients. - Abstract: The effect of chloride on the stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth behaviour in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels was evaluated under simulated boiling water reactor conditions. In normal water chemistry environment, ppb-levels of chloride may result in fast SCC after rather short incubation periods of few hours. After moderate and short-term chloride transients, the SCC crack growth rates return to the same very low high-purity water values within few 100 h. Potential long-term (memory) effects on SCC crack growth cannot be excluded after severe and prolonged chloride transients. The chloride tolerance for SCC in hydrogen water chemistry environment is much higher.

  15. Separation of cerium and fractionation of rare earths from mixed chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Sood, S.P.; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of cerium from rare earths chlorides solutions by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide/air/dil. ammonium hydroxide; purification of cerium; fractionation by ion exchange and analytical control of the process are presented. (A.R.H.) [pt

  16. Nuclear excited power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop

  17. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  18. A study of semiconducting properties of hydrogen containing passive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Y.M.; Luo, J.L.; Norton, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    Mott-Schottky and photoelectrochemical measurements were used to explore the effects of hydrogen and chloride ions on the electronic properties of the passive film on X70 micro-alloyed steel in a solution of 0.5 M NaHCO 3 . Mott-Schottky analyses have shown that hydrogen increases the capacitance and donor density, and decreases the flat band potential and the space charge layer thickness of the passive film. The photocurrent of the film is remarkably increased by hydrogen. The effects of hydrogen become more pronounced with an increase in the hydrogen charging current densities. Hydrogen has no noticeable effect on the band gap energy E g and the process by which hole-electron pairs are photo-generated in the film. The presence of chloride ions in the solution produces some similar effects on the electronic properties of the passive film to those observed with hydrogen, but reduces the photocurrent and increases the band gap energy of the film. No significant synergistic effects on the electronic properties of the passive film were observed in the presence of hydrogen and Cl - . These results provide very useful information for elucidating the mechanism by which hydrogen changes the properties of passive film and then promotes localized corrosion

  19. Chemical corrosion by chlorides on ancient-like bronzes and treatment by hydrogen glow discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, O.; Novakovic, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Filippaki, E.; Bassiakos, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Three representative ancient-like bronzes are employed for the chemical synthesis of Cu2(OH)3Cl rich patinas in order to study the influence of the alloying elements in the evolution of the chloride attack and to further conduct stabilization treatment via Hydrogen Glow Discharge Plasma (HGDP) at low temperature and pressure. The corrosion behavior of specimens having Sn and Pb as main alloying elements is governed by a decuprification mechanism and by the formation of Sn-Pb-O enriched barrier layers. In the case of the Zn containing alloy, dezincification is more pronounced at the corrosion initial stages, and copper species predominate the corrosion products evolution. A three-hour HGDP treatment leads to Cu+ production and metallic Cu, Sn, Zn, and Pb redeposition, as a result of metal cation reduction. This process is accompanied by partial removal of Cl species, O diminution, and change in coloration. The further increase of the Cl/O atomic ratio measured on the post-treated surfaces leads to the formation of nantokite and thus to the conclusion that the stabilization of objects with extensive Cl attack is not feasible by HGDP without preliminary chemical treatment.

  20. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by electrocoagulation with presence of hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent and polialuminum chloride as coagulant-aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasrullah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of operating parameters, such as electrode material, current density, percentage of hydrogen peroxide and amount of polialuminum chloride (PAC on chemical oxygen demand (COD removal of palm oil mill effluent (POME. The current density was varied between 30–80 mA cm−2, PAC (1–3 g L−1 as coagulant-aid and 1 and 2% of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. As for the performance of electrode type, iron was more effective than aluminum. It appeared that the removal of COD increased with the increased of current density. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The overall results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180 min at current density 30–80 mA cm−2 reliant upon the concentration of H2O2 and PAC.

  1. Destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; Dufour, L

    1929-01-21

    Oils of high boiling point, e.g. gas oil, lamp oil, schist oil, brown coal tar etc., are converted into motor benzine by heating them at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressure of 5 to 40 kilograms/cm/sup 2/ in the presence of ferrous chloride and gases such as hydrogen, or water gas, the desulfurization of the oils proceeding simultaneously. One kilogram of lamp oil and 100 g. ferrous chloride are heated in an autoclave in the presence of water gas under a pressure of 18 kg/cm/sup 2/ to 380 to 400/sup 0/C. The gaseous products are allowed to escape intermittently and are replaced by fresh water gas. A product distilling between 35 and 270/sup 0/C is obtained.

  2. Stationary inverted Lyman population formed from incandescently heated hydrogen gas with certain catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Randell L; Ray, Paresh C; Mayo, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    A new chemically generated plasma source is reported. The presence of gaseous Rb + or K + ions with thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a low applied temperature, extremely low voltage plasma called a resonant transfer or rt-plasma having strong vacuum ultraviolet emission. We propose an energetic catalytic reaction involving a resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and Rb + or 2K + since Rb + to Rb 2+ , 2K + to K + K 2+ , and K to K 3+ each provide a reaction with a net enthalpy equal to the potential energy of atomic hydrogen. Remarkably, a stationary inverted Lyman population was observed; thus, these catalytic reactions may pump a cw HI laser as predicted by a collisional radiative model used to determine that the observed overpopulation was above threshold

  3. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  4. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. Influence of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in bicarbonate/carbonate buffer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Xi' an 710065 (China)], E-mail: dangguoli78@yahoo.com.cn; Feng, Y.R.; Bai, Z.Q. [Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Xi' an 710065 (China); Zhu, J.W.; Zheng, M.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2007-11-01

    The influences of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} buffer solution are investigated by capacitance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the passive film appears n-type semiconductive character; with increasing the solution temperature, the addition of chromium into carbon steel and increasing the concentration of chloride ions, the slopes of Mott-Schottky plots decrease, which indicates the increment of the defect density in the passive film. EIS results show that the transfer impedance R{sub 1} and the diffusion impedance W decrease with increasing the solution temperature, with the addition of chromium into carbon steel and with increasing the chloride ions concentration. It can be concluded that the corrosion protection effect of passive film on the substrate decreases with increasing the solution temperature, adding chromium into carbon steel and increasing chloride ions concentration.

  6. Hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, M. G.; Santana, C. C.; Santos, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Reversible reactions between hydrogen and such materials as iron/titanium and magnesium/ nickel alloy may provide a means for storing hydrogen fuel. A demonstration model of an iron/titanium hydride storage bed is described. Hydrogen from the hydride storage bed powers a converted gasoline electric generator.

  7. Study on the gamma radiolysis of poly (vinyl chloride). Application to the study on degradation by irradiation and leaching of industrial PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombani, J.

    2006-01-01

    The works presented in this memory enter in the context of the management of plastic nuclear waste. This study was carried out on pure PVC and industrial PVC (formulated polymer). The radiolysis at high doses (up to 4 MGy) of pure PVC in anaerobic condition involves the formation of polyenyl radicals, polyenic sequences, hydrogen chloride and reactions of crosslinking. In aerobic condition, the radiolysis at high doses of pure PVC generates the formation of peroxyl radicals, hydrogen chloride, acid water, carboxylic acids, saturated or conjugated ketones and phenomena of scission. The production of HCl generated by irradiation of industrial PVC was carried out up to 40 MGy. The HCl formed by radiolysis is completely trapped by the calcic loads contained in industrial PVC and by the water produced by these reactions of trapping. A qualitative study on the formation of the products of radiolysis highlighted that the mechanisms of radiolysis of industrial PVC are different from those of pure PVC. This difference is due to the presence of additives belonging to the formulation of industrial PVC. The irradiation of plasticizers such as phthalic esters could induce the formation of radicals being able to react, by reaction of grafting, with the macro-radicals of PVC or with the polyenic sequences formed by radiolysis of PVC macromolecules. The results of leaching experiments tend to confirm this type of mechanism. (author)

  8. Conversion of Aryl Iodides into Aryliodine(III Dichlorides by an Oxidative Halogenation Strategy Using 30% Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide in Fluorinated Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Podgoršek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative chlorination with HCl/H2O2 in 1,1,1-trifluoroethanol was used to transform aryl iodides into aryliodine(III dihalides. In this instance 1,1,1-trifluoroethanol is not only the reaction medium, but is also an activator of hydrogen peroxide for the oxidation of hydrochloric acid to molecular chlorine. Aryliodine(III dichlorides were formed in 72–91% isolated yields in the reaction of aryl iodides with 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid at ambient temperature. A study of the effect that substituents on the aromatic ring have on the formation and stability of aryliodine(III dichlorides shows that the transformation is easier to achieve in the presence of the electron-donating groups (i.e. methoxy, but in this case the products rapidly decompose under the reported reaction conditions to form chlorinated arenes. The results suggest that oxidation of hydrogen chloride with hydrogen peroxide is the initial reaction step, while direct oxidation of aryl iodide with hydrogen peroxide is less likely to occur.

  9. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  10. Stationary inverted Lyman population formed from incandescently heated hydrogen gas with certain catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Randell L; Ray, Paresh C; Mayo, Robert M [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States)

    2003-07-07

    A new chemically generated plasma source is reported. The presence of gaseous Rb{sup +} or K{sup +} ions with thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a low applied temperature, extremely low voltage plasma called a resonant transfer or rt-plasma having strong vacuum ultraviolet emission. We propose an energetic catalytic reaction involving a resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and Rb{sup +} or 2K{sup +} since Rb{sup +} to Rb{sup 2+}, 2K{sup +} to K + K{sup 2+}, and K to K{sup 3+} each provide a reaction with a net enthalpy equal to the potential energy of atomic hydrogen. Remarkably, a stationary inverted Lyman population was observed; thus, these catalytic reactions may pump a cw HI laser as predicted by a collisional radiative model used to determine that the observed overpopulation was above threshold.

  11. Detecting Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) in the Polluted Marine Boundary Layer Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlani, T.; Dawe, K.; VandenBoer, T. C.; Young, C.

    2017-12-01

    Oxidation initiated with chlorine atoms yields more ozone than oxidation initiated with hydroxyl radicals. Reasons for this are not fully understood, but the implications for mechanisms of oxidation chemistry are significant.1,2 Chlorine atoms have not been directly measured to date in the atmosphere and its abundance is usually inferred through steady-state approximations from all known formation and loss processes. A major reservoir for chlorine in the troposphere is by proton abstraction of organic compounds to form HCl.3 HCl can also be formed heterogeneously via acid displacement reactions with ubiquitously-found sodium chloride (NaCl) on solid surfaces with nitric acid (HNO3). The majority of the available chloride in the marine boundary layer comes from the sea salt in and around marine derived sea-spray aerosols. HCl is not a perfect sink and can react with hydroxyl radicals or be photolyzed to form chlorine atoms. The balance between loss and formation processes of chlorine atoms from HCl is highly dependent on many external factors, such as the wet and dry deposition rate of HCl. Measuring HCl in the gas and aerosol phase is important to the understanding of chlorine chemistry in the polluted marine boundary layer. HCl levels in the polluted marine boundary layer are typically between 100pptv-1ppbv,3 requiring the sensitive and selective detection capabilities of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS).4 We measured HCl using a Picarro CRDS in the polluted marine boundary layer for the first time. Measurements were conducted during April and May of 2017 in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. The performance of the instrument will be discussed, as well as observations of HCl in the context of local conditions. References1Osthoff, H. D. et al. Nat. Geosci 1, 324-328 (2008). 2Young, C. J. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 3427-3440 (2014). 3Crisp, T. a et al. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 6897-6915 (2014). 4Hagen, C. L. et al. Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7, 345-357 (2014).

  12. Analysis of corrosion data for carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Hull, A.B.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-03-01

    Carbon steel is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, corrosion is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant corrosion data for carbon steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ∼ 20 and 400 0 C. The hydrolysis of Mg 2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 25 0 C, which, in turn, influences the protective nature of the magnetite corrosion product layer on carbon steel. The corrosion data for the steels were analyzed, and an analytical model for general corrosion was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of corrosion product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the corrosion rate of steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the steels or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the corrosion rate

  13. Crystal structure, thermal and fluorescence properties of 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine-1,1′,1′′-triium tetrachloridonickelate(II chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouahida Zeghouan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C15H14N3[NiCl4]Cl, comprises an NiII cation tetrahedrally coordinated by four chloride anions, a non-coordinating chloride anion and an essentially planar terpyridinium trication (tpyH33+, in which the central pyridinium ring forms dihedral angles of 5.7 (2 and 6.0 (2° with the peripheral pyridinium rings. Three inter-species N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds are formed with the Cl− anion, which also forms a link between the (tpyH33+ cations through an aromatic C—H...Cl interaction, forming a zigzag chain extending along the 21 (b screw axis. Two of the anionic Cl atoms of the [NiCl4]2− anions form Ni—Cl...π interactions with separate pyridinium rings [Ni...Cg = 3.669 (3 and 3.916 (4 Å]. In the crystal, successive undulating inorganic and organic layers are formed, extending across the (100 plane. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA indicate that the compound starts to decompose at 313 K and may be a candidate for use as a blue-light luminescent material.

  14. τ - hydrogen phosphate of zirconia in sodium salt form and some of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S.M.; Ordonez R, E.

    2004-01-01

    It is reported the obtaining and characterization in the sodium salt form of the τ-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodium form, this compound it was synthesized, for a new technique developed in the laboratory of Dept. of Chemistry of the ININ. The characterization was carried out for XRD, IR, Sem and EDS the thermal gravimetric analysis is also reported. (Author)

  15. Purification of hydrogen under a free or combined form in a gaseous mixture, by chemical reactions with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron Charles, M.

    1988-03-01

    Within the framework of the european fusion program, we are dealing with the purification of hydrogen (tritium) under a free or combined form, from a H 2 , N 2 , NH 3 , CH 4 , O 2 , gaseous mixture. The process consists in cracking the hydrogenated molecules and absorbing the impurities by chemical reactions with uranium, without holding back hydrogen. In the temperature range: 950 K [fr

  16. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  17. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  18. 2-[(Prop-2-yn-1-ylamino]anilinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhanine Essaghouani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H11N2+·Cl−, is an anilinium chloride salt, in which the Car—N—C—C (ar = aromatic torsion angle is −84.95 (18°. In the crystal, a bilayer of cation–anion sheets runs parallel to (100, primarily through an extensive range of N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. Weak offset π-stacking interactions between the benzene rings stack molecules along c.

  19. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  20. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Ciotti, Michael [H2 Fueling and CIP Markets Engineering

    2017-11-16

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small and inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.

  1. Behavior of molybdenum in pyrochemical reprocessing: A spectroscopic study of the chlorination of molybdenum and its oxides in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovicha, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R.; Thied, Robert C.; Lewin, Bob

    2003-01-01

    The high temperature reactions of molybdenum and its oxides with chlorine and hydrogen chloride in molten alkali metal chlorides were investigated between 400 and 700 deg. C. The melts studied were LiCl-KCl, NaCl-CsCl and NaCl-KCl and the reactions were followed by in situ electronic absorption spectroscopy measurements. In these melts Mo reacts with Cl 2 and initially produces MoCl 6 2- and then a mixture of Mo(III) and Mo(V) chlorocomplexes, the final proportion depending on the reaction conditions. The Mo(V) content can be removed as MoCl 5 from the melt under vacuum or be reduced to Mo(III) by Mo metal. The reaction of Mo when HCl gas is bubbled into alkali chloride melts yields only MoCl 6 3- . MoO 2 reacts in these melts with chlorine to form soluble MoOCl 5 2- and volatile MoO 2 Cl 2 . MoO 3 is soluble in chloride melts and then decomposes into the oxychloride MoO 2 Cl 2 , which sublimes or can be sparged from the melt, and molybdate. Pyrochemical reprocessing can thus be employed for molybdenum since, after various intermediates, the end-products are chloride melts containing chloro and oxychloro anions of molybdenum plus molybdate, and volatile chlorides and oxychlorides that can be readily separated off. The reactions were fastest in the NaCl-KCl melt. The X-ray diffraction pattern of MoO 2 Cl 2 is reported for the first time

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  3. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  4. Homogeneous deuterium exchange using rhenium and platinum chloride catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawdry, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies of homogeneous hydrogen isotope exchange are mostly confined to one catalyst, the tetrachloroplatinite salt. Recent reports have indicated that chloride salts of iridium and rhodium may also be homogeneous exchange catalysts similar to the tetrachloroplatinite, but with much lower activities. Exchange by these homogeneous catalysts is frequently accompanied by metal precipitation with the termination of homogeneous exchange, particularly in the case of alkane exchange. The studies presented in this thesis describe two different approaches to overcome this limitation of homogeneous hydrogen isotope exchange catalysts. The first approach was to improve the stability of an existing homogeneous catalyst and the second was to develop a new homogeneous exchange catalyst which is free of the instability limitation

  5. In-situ complex with by-product HCl and release chloride ions to dissolve aramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Cheng, Zheng; Yuan, Yihao; Meng, Chenbo; Qin, Jiaqiang; Liu, Xiangyang

    2018-06-20

    Because of the strong hydrogen-bond interaction among macromolecular chains, addition of chloride salts is generally needed to offer Cl- ions for dissolution of aromatic polyamides. In this paper, poly-(benzimidazole-terephthalamide) which complexed with by-product HCl during polymerization (PABI-HCl) was prepared and imidazole compound as cosolvent was added into dimethylacetamide (DMAc) to dissolve PABI-HCl. Due to stronger affinity to protons, imidazole compound could in-situ complex with HCl of PABI-HCl and form imidazolium hydrochloride. Then imidazolium hydrochloride would ionize and produce much free Cl- ions which acted as stronger hydrogen-bond acceptor to disrupt interaction among macromolecular chains. As a result, solubility of PABI-HCl in DMAc was improved significantly in existence of small amount of imidazole compound. Moreover, DMAc-imidazole mixture was utlized for synthesis of different kinds of aramids and no precipitation was observed with progress of the reaction. So the mixture was suitable to be utlized as solvent for polymerization of aramid. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The gastric H,K-ATPase blocker lansoprazole is an inhibitor of chloride channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmarda, Andreas; Dinkhauser, Patrick; Gschwentner, Martin; Ritter, Markus; Fürst, Johannes; Scandella, Elke; Wöll, Ewald; Laich, Andreas; Rossmann, Heidi; Seidler, Ursula; Lang, Florian; Paulmichl, Markus

    2000-01-01

    It was postulated that swelling dependent chloride channels are involved in the proton secretion of parietal cells. Since omeprazole, lansoprazole and its acid activated sulphenamide form AG2000 are structurally related to phenol derivatives known to block swelling dependent chloride channels, we set out to test, whether these substances – which are known to block the H,K-ATPase – could also lead to an inhibition of swelling-dependent chloride channels. Swelling-dependent chloride channels – characterized in many different cell types – show highly conserved biophysical and pharmacological features, therefore we investigated the effect of omeprazole, lansoprazole and its acid activated sulphenamide form AG2000 on swelling-dependent chloride channels elicited in fibroblasts, after the reduction of the extracellular osmolarity. Omeprazole, lansoprazole and its acid activated sulphenamide form AG2000 are able to block swelling-dependent chloride channels (IClswell). Lansoprazole and its protonated metabolite AG2000 act on at least two different sites of the IClswell protein: on an extracellular site which seems to be in a functional proximity to the nucleotide binding site, and on an intracellular site which allows the formation of disulfide-bridges. The inhibition of the proton pump and the simultaneous blocking of chloride channels by omeprazole, lansoprazole and its acid activated sulphenamide form AG2000, as described here could be an effective mode to restrict proton secretion in parietal cells. PMID:10711360

  7. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  8. Hydrogen-promoted chlorination of RuO2(110)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, J.P.; Zweidinger, S.; Knapp, M.; Seitsonen, A.P.; Schulte, K.; Andersen, J.N.; Lundgren, E.; Over, H.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution core-level photoemission spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reaction experiments together with density functional theory calculations were used to elucidate on the atomic scale the chlorination mechanism of ruthenium dioxide RuO2(110) by hydrogen chloride exposure. The

  9. Nickel-hydrogen battery and hydrogen storage alloy electrode; Nikkeru suiso denchi oyobi suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-03-22

    Hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery has such problem that the inner pressure of the battery elevates when it is overcharged since the oxygen gas evolves from the positive electrode. This invention relates to the hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery consisting of positive electrode composed mainly of nickel hydroxide and negative electrode composed mainly of hydrogen storage alloy. According to the invention, the negative electrode contains organic sulfur compound having carbon-sulfur bond. As a result, the elevation of battery inner pressure due to the hydrogen gas evolution, the decrease in discharge capacity due to the repetition of charge and discharge, and the lowering of voltage after charging can be suppressed. The adequate content of the organic sulfur compound is 0.05 - 1 part in weight to 100 part in weight of hydrogen storage alloy. As for the organic sulfur compound, n-butylthiol, ethylthioethane, phenyldithiobenzene, trimethylsulfonium bromide, thiobenzophenone, 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride, and ethylene sulphidic acid are employed. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs

  11. Hydrocracking mechanisms in molten zinc chloride. Isotope scrambling and pyrolysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.W.; Earnest, S.

    1979-01-01

    Bruceton coal was hydrocracked in molten zinc chloride using H 2 -D 2 mixtures. No H-D was observed. The pyrolysis of Bruceton coal and a lignite in molten zinc chloride and an inert salt was carried out and the tetrahydrofuran and pyridine extractability of the products determined. In the absence of H 2 , zinc chloride is not an effective cracking catalyst. It is tentatively concluded that the catalytically active species is formed from zinc chloride and something in the coal and H 2 . The interactions between zinc chloride and the lignite appear to be significantly different than the interactions between zinc chloride and the bituminous coal. (Auth.)

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  13. Analysis of the corrosion of carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-04-01

    An analysis of literature data on the corrosion of carbon steels in anoxic brines and acid chloride solutions was performed, and the results were used to assess the expected life of high-level nuclear waste package containers in a salt repository environment. The corrosion rate of carbon steels in moderately acidic aqueous chloride environments obeys an Arrhenius dependence on temperature and a (pH 2 ) -1/2 dependence on hydrogen partial pressure. The cathodic reduction of water to produce hydrogen is the rate-controlling step in the corrosion process. An expression for the corrosion rate incorporating these two dependencies was used to estimate the corrosion life of several proposed waste package configurations. 42 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  15. Prospects for using multi-walled carbon nanotubes formed from renewable feedstock in hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanoactivation of amorphous carbon synthesized from renewable feedstock promotes formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and the best results were obtained using the feedstock of sphagnum moss. It is shown that the carbon nanotubes formed from different plant feedstock have a high sorption capacity with respect to hydrogen. (author)

  16. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of unprotected NH imines assisted by a thiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingyang; Wen, Jialin; Tan, Renchang; Huang, Kexuan; Metola, Pedro; Wang, Rui; Anslyn, Eric V; Zhang, Xumu

    2014-08-04

    Asymmetric hydrogenation of unprotected NH imines catalyzed by rhodium/bis(phosphine)-thiourea provided chiral amines with up to 97% yield and 95% ee. (1)H NMR studies, coupled with control experiments, implied that catalytic chloride-bound intermediates were involved in the mechanism through a dual hydrogen-bonding interaction. Deuteration experiments proved that the hydrogenation proceeded through a pathway consistent with an imine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Indirect, reversible high-density hydrogen storage in compact metal ammine salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Klerke, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    The indirect hydrogen storage capabilities of Mg(NH3)(6)Cl-2, Ca(NH3)(6)Cl-2, Mn(NH3)(6)Cl-2, and Ni(NH3)(6)Cl-2 are investigated. All four metal ammine chlorides can be compacted to solid tablets with densities of at least 95% of the crystal density. This gives very high indirect hydrogen...

  18. The use of immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole in the treatment of purulent wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Gorohova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate the wound-healing effect of the immobilized form of benzalkonium chloride and metronidazole based on the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC or polyethylene oxide (PEO in the treatment of an experimental purulent wound.Materials and methods. The following compositions were studied, %. Combination 1: benzalkonium chloride – 0.02; Metronidazole – 1,0; Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC – 4,0; Purified water – up to 100,0. Combination 2: benzalkonium chloride – 0,02; Metronidazole – 1,0; Polyethylene oxide, m. 400 – 80.0; Polyethylene oxide, m. 1500 – 20,0. The experiment was performed on 180 male Wistar rats, which were divided into three statistically homogeneous groups of 60 animals in each, a purulent wound was modeled in all experimental rats using the method of P.I. Tolstykh. In the control group local treatment of the wound was performed with the help of “Levomekol” ointment, in two experimental groups, the combination was treated with 1 and 2.The course evaluation of the wound process was carried out using planimetric, microbiological and histological methods of investigation. The data were recorded and the animals were eliminated from the experiment on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 10th and 15th days.Results. The data of the microbiological study confirmed the high efficiency of the combinations developed by the authors in relation to standard test strains of pathogen microorganisms. As a result of the planimetric study, a significant decrease in the area of wounds in the experimental group 1 was found compared to the ontrol group, which indicates a more effective course of the healing process in experimental group 1. The same process was noted in the experimental group 2, starting from the 5th day of observation relative to the Control. The use of combinations developed by the authors in the treatment of the purulent-inflammatory process of the subcutaneous layer

  19. Mass transport and chloride ion complexes in occluded cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Nishikata, A.; Haruyama, S.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the transport and the concentration of ions in a model occluded cell are traced during galvanostatic anodic polarization of a mild steel and a stainless steel. Apparent transport numbers of anions and cations, which were estimated from chemical analysis of solution, were different from those calculated from known mobility data. At the initial stage of the polarization, the transport number of chloride ion was almost unity, and then decreased gradually. For the mild steel, the concentration of total chloride ion accumulated in the occluded compartment increased with the anodic charge passed, and the amount of chloride ion complexed with cations also increased. The chloride complex was estimated as FeCl + . For SUS304 stainless steel, the total chloride ion increased, however, the free chloride ion, which responded to an Ag/AgCl electrode remained approximately 2 mol/dm 3 . Therefore, most of the chloride ions transferred into the occluded cell formed complex ions, such as CrCl n 3-n . The number of chloride ion coordinated to ferrous and chromic ions was estimated from the data fo mass transport for the case of the mild steel and the stainless steel. (author) 9 refs., 14 figs

  20. Fluorinated tripodal receptors for potentiometric chloride detection in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Nadezda; Cuartero, Maria; Jowett, Laura A; Howe, Ethan N W; Gale, Philip A; Bakker, Eric; Crespo, Gastón A

    2018-01-15

    Fluorinated tripodal compounds were recently reported to be efficient transmembrane transporters for a series of inorganic anions. In particular, this class of receptors has been shown to be suitable for the effective complexation of chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate and sulfate anions via hydrogen bonding. The potentiometric properties of urea and thiourea-based fluorinated tripodal receptors are explored here for the first time, in light of the need for reliable sensors for chloride monitoring in undiluted biological fluids. The ion selective electrode (ISE) membranes with tren-based tris-urea bis(CF 3 ) tripodal compound (ionophore I) were found to exhibit the best selectivity for chloride over major lipophilic anions such as salicylate ( [Formula: see text] ) and thiocyanate ( [Formula: see text] ). Ionophore I-based ISEs were successfully applied for chloride determination in undiluted human serum as well as artificial serum sample, the slope of the linear calibration at the relevant background of interfering ions being close to Nernstian (49.8±1.7mV). The results of potentiometric measurements were confirmed by argentometric titration. Moreover, the ionophore I-based ISE membrane was shown to exhibit a very good long-term stability of potentiometric performance over the period of 10 weeks. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titrations, potentiometric sandwich membrane experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies were performed to determine the binding constants and suggest 1:1 complexation stoichiometry for the ionophore I with chloride as well as salicylate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical investigation on hydrogen bond interaction of diketo/keto-enol form uracil and thymine tautomers with intercalators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anithaa, V S; Vijayakumar, S; Sudha, M; Shankar, R

    2017-11-06

    The interaction of diketo and keto-enol form of thymine and uracil tautomers with acridine (Acr), phenazine (Phen), benzo[c]cinnoline (Ben), 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-Phe), and 4,7-phenenthroline (4,7-Phe) intercalating drug molecules was studied using density functional theory at B3LYP/6-311++G** and M05-2×/6-311++G** levels of theory. From the interaction energy, it is found that keto-enol form tautomers have stronger interaction with intercalators than diketone form tautomers. On complex formation of thymine and uracil tautomers with benzo[c]cinnoline the drug molecules have high interaction energy values of -20.14 (BenT3) and -20.55 (BenU3) kcal mol -1 , while phenazine has the least interaction energy values of -6.52 (PhenT2) and -6.67 (PhenU2) kcal mol -1 . The closed shell intermolecular type interaction between the molecules with minimum elliptical value of 0.018 and 0.019 a.u at both levels of theory has been found from topological analysis. The benzo[c]cinnoline drug molecule with thymine and uracil tautomers has short range intermolecular N-H…N, C-H…O, and O-H...N hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) resulting in higher stability than other drug molecules. The proper hydrogen bonds N-H..N and O-H..N have the frequency shifted toward the lower side (red shifted) with the elongation in their bond length while the improper hydrogen bond C-H...O has the frequency shifted toward the higher side (blue shifted) of the spectral region with the contraction in their bond length. Further, the charge transfer between proton acceptor and donor along with stability of the bond is studied using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Graphical abstract Hydrogen bond interaction of diketo/keto-enol form uracil and thymine tautomers with intercalators.

  2. Two-electron oxidation of cobalt phthalocyanines by thionyl chloride: Implications for lithium/thionyl chloride batteries. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, P.A.; Lever, A.B.

    1989-10-20

    Cyclic voltammetry, DPV and electronic spectroscopy are used to study the reaction between thionyl chloride and cobalt phthalocyanine. SOCl2 reacts with (Co(I)Tn Pc(2-)) and Co(II)Tn Pc(2-) to give two-electron oxidized species. Implications for Li/SOCl2 batteries are discussed. Thionyl chloride also forms a mono SOCl2 adduct with Co(II)TnPc(2-). Driving forces (Delta E values) were calculated for CoTnPc comproportionation and CoTnPc + SOCl2 reactions. Rest potential measurements of a Li/SOCl2 cells show that addition of AlCl3 stabilizes the LiCl product as LiAlCl4. A catalytic two-electron mechanism is indicated for the reduction of thionyl chloride in a Li/SOCl2/(CoTnPc,C) battery.

  3. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  4. [Effects of chlorides on Cd transformation in a simulated grate incinerator during sludge incineration process ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yong; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Sun, Shui-yu; Luo, Guang-qian; Li, Xiao-ming; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu- jie; Yang, Zuo-yi; Zhao, Su-ying

    2014-09-01

    The effects of organic chloride-PVC and inorganic chloride-NaCl on Cd partitioning during sludge incineration with adding Cd(CH3COO)2 . 2H2O to the real sludge were investigated using a simulated tubular incineration furnace. And transformation and distribution of Cd were studied in different sludge incineration operation conditions. The results indicated that the partitioning of Cd tended to be enhanced in the fly ash and fule gas as the chloride content increasing. The migration and transformation of Cd-added sludge affected by different chloride were not obvious with the increasing of chloride content. With increasing temperature, organic chloride (PVC) and inorganic chloride (NaC1) can reduce the Cd distribution in the bottom ash. However, the effect of chlorides, the initial concentration and incineration time on Cd emissions had no significant differences. Using SEM-EDS and XRD technique, different Cd compounds including CdCl2, Na2CdCl4, K2CdCl6, K2CdSiO4 and NaCdO2 were formed in the bottom ash and fly ash after adding NaCl to the sludge. In contrast, after adding PVC to the sludge, the Na2CdCl4 and CdCl2 were the main forms of Cd compounds, at the same time, K4CdCI6 and K6CdO4 were also formed. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd partitioning were affected by the products of Cd compound types and forms.

  5. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  6. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhaupt, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readilycorrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature

  7. Flexible Acyclic Polyol-Chloride Anion Complexes and Their Characterization by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Variable Temperature Binding Constant Determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Xue B.; Wang, Yangping; O' Doherty, George A.; Kass, Steven R.

    2016-03-17

    Flexible acyclic alcohols with 1–5 hydroxyl groups were bound to chloride anion and these complexes were interrogated by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and companion density functional theory computations. The resulting vertical detachment energies are reproduced on average to 0.10 eV by M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ predictions and range from 4.45 – 5.96 eV. These values are 0.84 – 2.35 eV larger than the adiabatic detachment energy of Cl– as a result of the larger hydrogen bond networks in the bigger polyols. Adiabatic detachment energies of the alcohol–Cl– clusters are more difficult to determine both experimentally and computationally. This is due to the large geometry changes that occur upon photodetachment and the large bond dissociation energy of H–Cl which enables the resulting chlorine atom to abstract a hydrogen from any of the methylene (CH2) or methine (CH) positions. Both ionic and non-ionic hydrogen bonds (i.e., OH•••Cl– and OH•••OH•••Cl–) form in the larger polyols complexes, and are found to be energetically comparable. Subtle structural differences, consequently can lead to the formation of different types of hydrogen bonds and maximizing the ionic ones is not always preferred. Solution equilibrium binding constants between the alcohols and tetrrabuylammonium chloride (TBACl) in acetonitrile at -24.2, 22.0, and 53.6 °C were also determined. The free energies of association are nearly identical for all of the substrates (i.e., ΔG° = -2.8 ± 0.7 kcal mol–1). Compensating enthalpy and entropy values reveal, contrary to expectation and the intrinsic gas-phase preferences, that the bigger systems with more hydroxyl groups are entropically favored and enthalpically disfavored relative to the smaller species. This suggests that more solvent molecules are released upon binding TBACl to alcohols with more hydroxyl groups and is consistent with the measured negative heat capacities. These quantities increase with

  8. Chloride channels as tools for developing selective insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2003-12-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels underlie inhibition in excitable membranes and are proven target sites for insecticides. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(1)) receptor/chloride ionophore complex is the primary site of action for a number of currently used insecticides, such as lindane, endosulfan, and fipronil. These compounds act as antagonists by stabilizing nonconducting conformations of the chloride channel. Blockage of the GABA-gated chloride channel reduces neuronal inhibition, which leads to hyperexcitation of the central nervous system, convulsions, and death. We recently investigated the mode of action of the silphinenes, plant-derived natural compounds that structurally resemble picrotoxinin. These materials antagonize the action of GABA on insect neurons and block GABA-mediated chloride uptake into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes in a noncompetitive manner. In mammals, avermectins have a blocking action on the GABA-gated chloride channel consistent with a coarse tremor, whereas at longer times and higher concentrations, activation of the channel suppresses neuronal activity. Invertebrates display ataxia, paralysis, and death as the predominant signs of poisoning, with a glutamate-gated chloride channel playing a major role. Additional target sites for the avermectins or other chloride channel-directed compounds might include receptors gated by histamine, serotonin, or acetylcholine.The voltage-sensitive chloride channels form another large gene family of chloride channels. Voltage-dependent chloride channels are involved in a number of physiological processes including: maintenance of electrical excitability, chloride ion secretion and resorption, intravesicular acidification, and cell volume regulation. A subset of these channels is affected by convulsants and insecticides in mammals, although the role they play in acute lethality in insects is unclear. Given the wide range of functions that they mediate, these channels are also potential targets for

  9. Crystal structures of 5-amino-N-phenyl-3H-1,2,4-dithiazol-3-iminium chloride and 5-amino-N-(4-chlorophenyl-3H-1,2,4-dithiazol-3-iminium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Ing Yeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of the title salt, C8H8N3S2+·Cl−, (I, and salt hydrate, C8H7ClN3S2+·Cl−·H2O, (II, are described. The heterocyclic ring in (I is statistically planar and forms a dihedral angle of 9.05 (12° with the pendant phenyl ring. The comparable angle in (II is 15.60 (12°, indicating a greater twist in this cation. An evaluation of the bond lengths in the H2N—C—N—C—N sequence of each cation indicates significant delocalization of π-electron density over these atoms. The common feature of the crystal packing in (I and (II is the formation of charge-assisted amino-N—H...Cl− hydrogen bonds, leading to helical chains in (I and zigzag chains in (II. In (I, these are linked by chains mediated by charge-assisted iminium-N+—H...Cl− hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional architecture. In (II, the chains are linked into a layer by charge-assisted water-O—H...Cl− and water-O—H...O(water hydrogen bonds with charge-assisted iminium-N+—H...O(water hydrogen bonds providing the connections between the layers to generate the three-dimensional packing. In (II, the chloride anion and water molecules are resolved into two proximate sites with the major component being present with a site occupancy factor of 0.9327 (18.

  10. Studies on closed-cycle processes for hydrogen production, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoichi; Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Kobayashi, Toshiaki

    1978-10-01

    Studies made in fiscal 1977 on the thermochemical and radiation chemical processes for hydrogen production are reported. In the thermochemical process, cerium (III) carbonate was used as an intermediate, and a workable process was found, which consisted of eight reaction steps. In other feasible processes, carbon dioxide was made to react with iron (II) chloride or iodide at high temperature to form carbon monoxide, and three or four reaction steps ensued. Also, an improved process of the sulfur cycle was studied. In this process, nickel salts were separated by solvent extraction. Estimated thermal efficiency (HHV) of the process was 30 - 40%, assuming 70 - 80% heat recovery. In the radiation chemical process, carbon dioxide was added with propane or nitrogen dioxide and radiolyzed: reaction mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  11. Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela [State College, PA; Narayanan, Deepa [Redmond, WA

    2011-03-08

    A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

  12. Process for the graft polymerization of polyvinyl chloride. [electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageyama, E; Kusama, Y; Udagawa, A; Hashimoto, S

    1970-08-14

    The graft polymerization of acrylonitrile on polyvinyl chloride is effected by simultaneous irradiation with ionizing radiations in a reaction bath consisting of 30% acrylonitrile and 70% n-hexane. The acrylonitrile-hydrocarbon reaction bath increases the graft efficiency markedly when the content of acrylonitrile is 30%. In this case, the formation rate of acrylonitrile homopolymer decreases with a decrease in the content of acrylonitrile. The immersion time may be from a few minutes to a few hours, depending on the type, property and desired graft efficiency of the polyvinyl chloride resin. The polyvinyl chloride may be any available on the market. The acrylonitrile may contain a small quantity of copolymerizable monomer if it does not influence the thermal property of the polyvinyl chloride graft polymer. The ionizing radiations must have enough energy to form an ion pair by removing one electron from one atom of a gas. In examples, 10 g of polyvinyl chloride in powder form were immersed in 100 cc of a mixed solution consisting of 70% to 90% of n-hexane and 10% to 30% of acrylonitrile. The polyvinyl chloride in the solution was exposed to electron beams of 2 Mrad at a dose rate of 7.2 x 10/sup 7/ rad/hr. under a reduced pressure. The graft efficiency was 50% to 80% and the yield of acrylonitrile homopolymer was 0.42 g to 1.26 g.

  13. Internal hydrogen embrittlement of gamma-stabilized uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.L.; Koger, J.W.; Bennett, R.K.; Williamson, A.L.; Hemperly, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships between the tensile ductility and fracture characteristics of as-quenched, gamma-stabilized uranium alloys (uranium--10 wt percent molybdenum, uranium--8.5 wt percent niobium, uranium--10 wt percent niobium, and uranium--7.5 wt percent niobium--2.5 wt percent zirconium), the hydrogen content of the tensile specimens, and the hydrogen gas pressure during the annealing at 850 0 C of the tensile test blanks prior to quenching were established. For these alloys, the tensile ductility decreases only slightly with increasing hydrogen content up to a critical hydrogen concentration above which the tensile ductility drops to nearly zero. The only alloy not displaying this sharp drop in tensile ductility was U--7.5 Nb--2.5 Zr, probably because sufficiently high hydrogen contents could not be achieved under our experimental arrangements. The critical hydrogen content for ductility loss increased with increasing hydrogen solubility in the alloy. Fracture surfaces produced by internal hydrogen embrittlement do not resemble those produced by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aqueous environments containing chloride ions. 8 figs

  14. Dependence of hydrogen-induced lattice defects and hydrogen embrittlement of cold-drawn pearlitic steels on hydrogen trap state, temperature, strain rate and hydrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshida, Tomoki; Takai, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the hydrogen state, temperature, strain rate and hydrogen content on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility and hydrogen-induced lattice defects were evaluated for cold-drawn pearlitic steel that absorbed hydrogen in two trapping states. Firstly, tensile tests were carried out under various conditions to evaluate hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. The results showed that peak 2 hydrogen, desorbed at temperatures above 200 °C as determined by thermal desorption analysis (TDA), had no significant effect on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. In contrast, hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased in the presence of peak 1 hydrogen, desorbed from room temperature to 200 °C as determined by TDA, at temperatures higher than −30 °C, at lower strain rates and with higher hydrogen content. Next, the same effects on hydrogen-induced lattice defects were also evaluated by TDA using hydrogen as a probe. Peak 2 hydrogen showed no significant effect on either hydrogen-induced lattice defects or hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. It was found that hydrogen-induced lattice defects formed under the conditions where hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased. This relationship indicates that hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility was higher under the conditions where the formation of hydrogen-induced lattice defects tended to be enhanced. Since hydrogen-induced lattice defects formed by the interaction between hydrogen and strain were annihilated by annealing at a temperature of 200 °C, they were presumably vacancies or vacancy clusters. One of the common atomic-level changes that occur in cold-drawn pearlitic steel showing higher hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility is the formation of vacancies and vacancy clusters

  15. Study of gold-platinum and platinum-gold surface modification and its influence on hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANIMIR N. GRGUR

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of the electrodes was conducted from sulfuric acid solutions containing the corresponding metal–chloride complexes using cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the charges of the hydrogen underpotential deposition region, and the corresponding oxide reduction regions, it is concluded that a platinum overlayer on gold forms 3D islands, while gold on platinum forms 2D islands. Foreign metals present in an amount of up to one monolayer exert an influence on the change in reaction rate with respect to both hydrogen evolution (HER and oxygen reduction (ORR reactions. Aplatinum overlayer on a gold substrate increases the activity forHER and for ORR, compared with pure gold. These results can be understood in terms of a simple model, in which the change in the H and OH binding energies are directly proportional to the shift of the d-bond center of the overlayer. On the contrary, a gold layer on platinum slightly decreases the activity for both reactions compared with pure platinum.

  16. Hydrogen production from nano-porous Si powder formed by stain etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, S.; Alekseev, S.; Kuznetsov, G.; Skryshevsky, V. [Institute of High Technology of National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Volodymyrs' ka 64, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Lysenko, V.; Barbier, D. [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies (INL), CNRS UMR-5270, University of Lyon, INSA de Lyon, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Venturello, A.; Geobaldo, F.; Garrone, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gulina, L.; Tolstoy, V. [St-Petersburg State University, Chemical Department (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Hydrogen reservoirs based on porous silicon (PS) nanostructures are considered. Silicon-based hydrogen tanks are believed to be applicable for portable device energy supply and compatible with micro-sources of energy of new generation. Stain etching of silicon powder to produce PS is studied as a technology alternative to conventional electrochemical etching and application of the PS powder for hydrogen production is also described. Size selection of initial Si micro-particles constituting the powders was carried out by sedimentation technique. Hydrogen content in PS was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Extraction of hydrogen in water environment in presence of small amount of NH{sub 3} as catalyst was shown to have advantages such as safety and tunability, additional production of hydrogen from water dissociation, and a possibility to characterize PS as a hydrogen source material in terms of hydrogen effective shell and crystalline core conception. (author)

  17. Anodic oxidation of chloride ions in 1-butyl-3-methyl-limidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qibo; Hua, Yixin; Wang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The anodic oxidation of Cl − in BMIMBF 4 is electrochemically irreversible with diffusion controlled. • The oxidation of Cl − in BMIMBF 4 is more likely to form tri-chloride ion, Cl 3 − but not chlorine, Cl 2 . • The minute amount of Cl 2 detected after electrolysis forms according to the equilibrium of Cl 2 + Cl − ⇌ Cl 3 − . -- Abstract: The oxidation behavior of chloride ions on platinum electrodes was investigated in a natural ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-limidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF 4 ) in the presence of high concentrations of 1-butyl-3-methyl-limidazolium chloride (BMIMCl). Analysis of the electrode reaction was explored using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry with a platinum micro-disk electrode, and bulk potentiostatic electrolysis and UV–vis spectroscopy. The anodic oxidation of chloride ions on the platinum micro-disk electrode in the mixture was considered to be an irreversible process with diffusion controlled as revealed by cyclic voltammetry. The diffusion coefficient, D, and the number of electrons transferred, n, for anodic oxidation of Cl − in BMIMBF 4 derived from results of chronoamperometry revealed that the oxidation of chloride ions was more likely to form tri-chloride ion, Cl 3 − but not chlorine, Cl 2 . Bulk electrolysis and UV–vis spectroscopy further confirmed that the tri-chloride ion was the main product from the overall oxidation of the chloride ion

  18. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Quinoxalines Catalyzed by Iridium/PipPhos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrsic, Natasa; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2009-01-01

    A catalyst made in situ from the (cyclooctadiene)iridium chloride dimer, [Ir(COD)Cl](2), and the monodentate phosphoramidite ligand (S)-PipPhos was used in the enantioselective hydrogenation of 2- and 2,6-substituted quinoxalines. In the presence of piperidine hydrochloride as additive full

  19. Resolving the stability and structure of strontium chloride amines from equilibrium pressures, XRD and DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Steen; Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Johnsen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Strontium chloride octamine, Sr(NH3)8Cl2, has been shown to be a highly efficient ammonia reservoir for selective catalytic reduction of NOx gases in vehicle exhaust and to hold great potential for indirect hydrogen storage. The possible applications of such metal amines depend explicitly on the ...

  20. Studying reaction products in a lithium thionyl chloride cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'fkovich, Yu.M.; Sosenkin, V.E.; Nikol'skaya, N.F.; Blinov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Change in the mass, volume and chemical composition of reaction insoluble products (RIP) formed in the course of discharge of thionyl chloride lithium cells under different conditions has been studied by the methods of gravimetry, volumetry and element analysis. It has been ascertained that the measured volume and mass of RIP essentially (by a factor of 1.1-1.8) exceed the calculated values, proceeding from the reaction stoichiometry. Besides lithium chloride and sulfur during discharge additional RIP is formed as LiAlCl 4 · SOCl 2 solvate, its share increasing with temperature decrease, increase in current density and electrolyte concentration [ru

  1. A high-temperature, high-pressure, silver-silver chloride reference electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Bailey, M.G.; Clarke, C.F.; Ikeda, B.M.; Litke, C.D.; Ryan, S.R.

    1989-05-01

    A high-temperature, high-pressure, silver-silver chloride reference electrode is described. This report is meant to serve as a user's guide to the experimentalist. Consequently, the design and construction of the electrode are dealt with in some detail. The problems that may be encountered, along with their possible causes and remedies, are also discussed. Conversion factors are given for both internal and external reference electrodes, so that measured potentials can be related to the standard hydrogen electrode scale

  2. High-resolution Measurements of Gas-Phase Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) in the Atmosphere by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffnagle, John; Chen, Hongbing; Lee, Jim; Rella, Chris; Kim-Hak, David; Winkler, Renato; Markovic, Milos; Veres, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Halogen radical species, such as chlorine and bromine atoms and their oxides, can greatly affect the chemical composition of the troposphere. Hydrogen chloride is the dominant (gas-phase) contributor to the tropospheric chlorine inventory. Real time in situ observations of HCl can provide an important window into the complex photochemical reaction pathways for chlorine in the atmosphere, including heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surfaces. In this work, we report a novel, commercially-available HCl gas-phase analyzer (G2108, Picarro Inc. Santa Clara, CA, USA) based upon Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) in the near-infrared, and discuss its performance. With a measurement interval of approximately 2 seconds, a precision of better than 40 parts-per-trillion (1 sigma, 30 seconds), and a response time of approximately 1-2 minutes (10 - 90% rise time or 90 - 10% fall time), this analyzer is well-suited for measurements of atmospherically-relevant concentrations of HCl, in both laboratory and field. CRDS provides very stable measurements and low drift, requiring infrequent calibration of the instrument, and can therefore be operated remotely for extended periods of time. In this work we also present results from a laboratory intercomparison of the Picarro G2108 analyzer and an iodide ion time-of-flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS), and the results of the analyzer time response tests.

  3. The United Kingdom Hydrogen Association Forms with International Collaboration in Mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen Hall; John Carolin; Ian Williamson

    2006-01-01

    In April 2006, the United Kingdom Hydrogen Association was launched. This paper will describe the context under which the need was established, and address the challenges and opportunities faced in creating the association. A UK Hydrogen Association can encourage information sharing among regional hydrogen efforts, and provide a mechanism for a larger, single voice on the national level. In addition, a UK Hydrogen Association can serve as a focal point for UK participation in EU activities such as the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP), and other international activities such as IPHE and IEA. The results of the stakeholder briefing and progress of a UK Hydrogen Association will be presented, with a focus on international collaboration. (authors)

  4. AlN powder synthesis via nitriding reaction of aluminum sub-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, T.; Nishida, T.; Sugiura, M. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School); Fuwa, A. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    In order to obtain the pertinent properties of aluminium nitride in its sintered form, it is desirable to have powders of finer sizes with narrower size distribution and higher purity, thereby making the sintering processing easier and the final body denser. Instead of using sublimated aluminum tri-chloride vapor (AlCl3) as an aluminum source in the vapor phase nitriding reaction, the mixed aluminum chloride vapor consisted of aluminum tri-chloride, bi-chloride and mono-chloride are used in the reaction with ammonia at temperatures of 1000 and 1200K. The mixed chloride vapors are produced by reacting chlorine with molten aluminum at 1000 or 1200K under atmospheric pressure. The reaction of this mixed chloride vapor with ammonia is then experimentally investigated to study the aluminum nitride powder morphology. The aluminum nitride powders synthesized under various ammonia concentrations are characterized for size distribution, mean particle size and particle morphology. 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  7. Theoretical study of catalytic hydrogenation of oxirane and its methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C3H6O) is its methyl derivative. Theoretical studies on catalytic hydrogenation of both compounds, in presence of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) catalyst, are carried out. The products of reactions are ethanol and propan-1-ol from oxirane and ...

  8. Crystal structures of 5-amino-N-phenyl-3H-1,2,4-di-thia-zol-3-iminium chloride and 5-amino-N-(4-chloro-phen-yl)-3H-1,2,4-di-thia-zol-3-iminium chloride monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chien Ing; Tan, Yee Seng; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2015-10-01

    The crystal and mol-ecular structures of the title salt, C8H8N3S2 (+)·Cl(-), (I), and salt hydrate, C8H7ClN3S2 (+)·Cl(-)·H2O, (II), are described. The heterocyclic ring in (I) is statistically planar and forms a dihedral angle of 9.05 (12)° with the pendant phenyl ring. The comparable angle in (II) is 15.60 (12)°, indicating a greater twist in this cation. An evaluation of the bond lengths in the H2N-C-N-C-N sequence of each cation indicates significant delocalization of π-electron density over these atoms. The common feature of the crystal packing in (I) and (II) is the formation of charge-assisted amino-N-H⋯Cl(-) hydrogen bonds, leading to helical chains in (I) and zigzag chains in (II). In (I), these are linked by chains mediated by charge-assisted iminium-N(+)-H⋯Cl(-) hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional architecture. In (II), the chains are linked into a layer by charge-assisted water-O-H⋯Cl(-) and water-O-H⋯O(water) hydrogen bonds with charge-assisted iminium-N(+)-H⋯O(water) hydrogen bonds providing the connections between the layers to generate the three-dimensional packing. In (II), the chloride anion and water mol-ecules are resolved into two proximate sites with the major component being present with a site occupancy factor of 0.9327 (18).

  9. "In situ" observation of the role of chloride ion binding to monkey green sensitive visual pigment by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Kota; Furutani, Yuji; Iwaki, Masayo; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Imai, Hiroo; Kandori, Hideki

    2018-01-31

    Long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) pigment possesses a chloride binding site in its protein moiety. The binding of chloride alters the absorption spectra of LWS; this is known as the chloride effect. Although the two amino acid substitutions of His197 and Lys200 influence the chloride effect, the molecular mechanism of chloride binding, which underlies the spectral tuning, has yet to be clarified. In this study, we applied ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monkey green (MG) pigment to gain structural information of the chloride binding site. The results suggest that chloride binding stabilizes the β-sheet structure on the extracellular side loop with perturbation of the retinal polyene chain, promotes a hydrogen bonding exchange with the hydroxyl group of Tyr, and alters the protonation state of carboxylate. Combining with the results of the binding analyses of various anions (Br - , I - and NO 3 - ), our findings suggest that the anion binding pocket is organized for only Cl - (or Br - ) to stabilize conformation around the retinal chromophore, which is functionally relevant with absorbing long wavelength light.

  10. The United Kingdom Hydrogen Association Forms with International Collaboration in Mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen Hall; John Carolin; Ian Williamson

    2006-01-01

    In April 2006, the United Kingdom Hydrogen Association was launched. This paper will describe the context under which the need was established, and address the challenges and opportunities faced in creating the association. A UK Hydrogen Association can encourage information sharing among regional hydrogen efforts, and provide a mechanism for a larger, single voice on the national level. In addition, a UK Hydrogen Association can serve as a focal point for UK participation in EU activities such as the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP), and other international activities such as IPHE and IEA. The results of the stake holder briefing and progress of a UK Hydrogen Association will be presented, with a focus on international collaboration. (authors)

  11. Theoretical Study of the Kinetics of the Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction of Ethyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Ajibade Adejoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The products of the gas-phase elimination of ethyl chloride are hydrogen chloride and ethane. Using AM1, MNDO and PM3 Hamiltonians of quantum mechanical computer code called MOPAC, a procedure for the kinetics and computation of the Arrhenius parameters for the pyrolytic elimination reaction of ethyl chloride was devised in order to evaluate the predictive ability of the three Hamiltonians used. The first-order rate coefficient for the three Hamiltonians are 1.15x10-8s-1, 4.55x10-15s-1 and 5.36x10-4s-1 for AM1, MNDO and PM3 respectively. The results obtained showed that the rate constant for the computed Arrhenius parameters compare well with the experimental values in the literature, thus showing that the computational procedure adequately simulates experimental results; also the semi-empirical AMI calculation has the best predictive ability with experiment followed by PM3 while MNDO has the least.

  12. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  13. Hydrogen molecules and hydrogen-related defects in crystalline silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Fukata, N.; Sasak, S.; Murakami, K.; Ishioka, K.; Nakamura, K. G.; Kitajima, M.; Fujimura, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Haneda, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have found that hydrogen exists in molecular form in crystalline silicon treated with hydrogen atoms in the downstream of a hydrogen plasma. The vibrational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 4158cm-1 for silicon samples hydrogenated between 180 and 500 °C. The assignment of the Raman line is confirmed by its isotope shift to 2990cm-1 for silicon treated with deuterium atoms. The Raman intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 400 °C. The vibrational Raman line of the hydro...

  14. Chlorido[1-diphenylphosphanyl-3-(phenylsulfanylpropane-κ2P,S](η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyliridium(III chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Ludwig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ir(C10H15Cl(C21H21PS]Cl·H2O, consists of discrete [Ir(η5-C5Me5Cl{Ph2P(CH23SPh-κP,κS}]+ cations, chloride anions and water molecules. The IrIII atom is coordinated by an η5-C5Me5 ligand, a chloride and a Ph2P(CH23SPh-κP,κS ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool geometry. In the crystal, two water molecules and two chloride anions are linked by weak O—H...Cl hydrogen bonding into tetramers that are located on centers of inversion. The H atoms of one of the methyl groups are disordered and were refined using a split model.

  15. Pitting morphologies of zirconium base alloys in aqueous and non aqueous chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, G.C.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pitting morphology of zirconium and Zr-Cr alloys in aqueous chloride and nonaqueous methanol + 0.4 per cent HCl solution was investigated and observed to follow different modes in these two environments. While in aqueous chloride solution pitting was transgranular and randomly oriented, in methanol-chloride solution pits were observed to initiate and propagate along the grain boundaries. In aqueous chloride solution very irregular and sponge like zirconium metal was formed inside the pit while in methanol-chloride solution the pits were crystallographic in nature. Optical microscopy has revealed that pits preferentially initiate and propagate along scratch line in aqueous chloride solution, but such was not the case in nonaqueous methanol-chloride solution. The nature and the mechanism operating in the catastropic failure of these materials are investigated. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  16. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  17. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  18. A study on chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, H.C.; Kim, T.J.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, G.Y.; Lee, S.J.; Hur, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was conducted to derive an easy and simple uranium chloride production method without impurities. In thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, it was predicted that only uranium chlorides can be produced by the reactions between uranium metal and NH 4 Cl. Experimental conditions for the chlorination of uranium metal were determined using a chlorination test of cerium metal using NH 4 Cl. It was confirmed that UCl 3 and UCl 4 in the form of particles as uranium chlorination products can be obtained from the chlorination method using NH 4 Cl. (author)

  19. High temperature corrosion in the thermochemical hydrogen production from nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen-Porisini, F.; Imarisio, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the production of hydrogen by water decomposition utilizing nuclear heat, a multistep process has to be employed. Water and the intermediate chemical products reach in chemical cycles giving hydrogen and oxygen with regeneration of the primary products used. Three cycles are examined, characterized by the presence of halide compounds and particularly hydracids at temperatures up to 800 0 C. Corrosion tests were carried out in hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, ferric chloride solutions, and hydriodic acid

  20. Calculation of carbon-14, chlorine-37, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects in the solvolysis of tert-butyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Sims, L.B.; Wilson, J.C.; Fry, A.

    1977-01-01

    In the solvolysis of tert-butyl chloride, satisfactory α-carbon-14, β-deuterium, and chlorine kinetic isotope effects (KIE) may be calculated for a productlike transition state characterized by bond orders n/sub C Cl/ = 0.2, n/sub C C/ = 1.18, and n/sub C H/ = 0.94, employing a diagonal valence force field, provided that allowance is made for hydrogen-bonded solvation of the developing chloride ion with n/sub Cl H/ approx. 0.05 (approx. 7 kcal/mole hydrogen bonds). The effect of the three solvating molecules appears to be to increase the ''effective'' mass of the incipient chloride ion and to decrease the loss of zero-point energy in going to the transition state. Reaction coordinates more complicated than a simple heterolysis of the carbon-chlorine bond appear to be unnecessary and there is no advantage in employing force fields more complex than a simple valence force field containing only diagonal elements for both the reactant and the transition state model. The structural and bonding features of the proposed transition state are in accord with earlier more qualitative conclusions concerning the polar nature and productlike character of the transition state, and provide a reasonable explanation of the kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects (EIE) for the reaction. An alternative transition state model involving weak solvent nucleophilic assistance provides reasonable calculated values for the KIE, but the EIE strongly suggest the importance of solvation of the leaving group which, together with the hyperconjugation of the β hydrogens, provides a preferred explanation of the tert-butyl solvolysis results

  1. Direct potentiometric control of chloride-ion content in water coolant of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Vilkov, N.Ya.; Krasnoperov, V.M.; Epimakhova, L.V.

    1979-01-01

    The work of automatic chloride measuring device designed for continuous determination of chloride-ion concentration in water coolants of nuclear power plants is investigated. A series of experiments have been performed to investigate a device with sensitive element in the form of potentiometric cell with two flowing porous metal silver electrodes (PSE), placed in series. A calibration circuit of chloride measuring devices and PSE is described. A comparison is made between the results obtained by means of automatic chloride measuring device and results of manual control of samples. A conclusion is drawn that automatic chloride measuring devices meet the requirements of nuclear power plants for methods and instruments of control of chloride-ions microconcentration. The development and implantation of automatic chloride-ion analizers will make the analytical control on nuclear power plants easier and make it possible to obtain more reliable information

  2. Influence of pozzolana on C4AF hydratio n and the effects of chloride and sulfate io ns on the hydrates formed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIMVYDAS KAMINSKAS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of natural pozzolana additive on the hydration of C4AF (aluminoferrite and the effects of chloride and sulfate ions on the hydrates formed. In the samples, 25% (by weight of the C4AF was replaced with pozzolana. The mixture was then hardened for 28 days in water, soaked in a saturated NaCl solution for 3 months, and then soaked in a 5% Na2SO4 solution for 3 months at 20°C. It is estimated that under normal conditions, pozzolana additive accelerates the formation of CO32-–AFm (monocarboaluminate and gibbsite, however, impede the formation of cubic aluminum hydrates. Also, part of the amorphous SiO2 penetrates into the structure of hydrates of C4AF and initiates the formation of hydrated alumino-silicate (gismondine. Monocarboaluminate affected by NaCl becomes unstable and takes part in reactions producing Ca2Al(OH6Cl·2H2O (hydrocalumite-M. After samples were transferred from a saturated NaCl solution to a 5% Na2SO4 solution, hydrocalumite-M was the source of aluminates for the formation of ettringite. In samples with pozzolana additive, the hydrated alumino-silicate and gibbsite compounds that were formed remained stable in an environment containing chloride and sulfate ions and retarded the corrosion reaction of C4AF hydrates.

  3. Chemical changes in chloroalkanes-dye system irradiated by 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Tomio; Nishiguchi, Yukari; Katou, Keiko.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have been carried out on the amount of hydrogen chloride formed by the radiolysis of some chloroalkanes and the energy absorbed in the solutions. The samples were prepared by dissolving p-dimethylaminoazobenzene as a dye (1.0 x 10 -4 mol/dm 3 ) in the chloroalkanes, and were irradiated at a dose of 2500 R at 20degC. The amount of hydrogen chloride formed in the irradiated sample was determined spectrophotometrically. The absorbed dose of the irradiated sample was calculated from the equation, D M =8.77 x 10 -3 x (Z/A) M /(Z/A) A x R A (Gy). G(HCl) values for hydrogen chloride formed in the solutions of chloroform, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and 1,2-dichloroethane were 10.2, 8.5 and 5.7, respectively. On the other hand, the dielectric constants of the above chloroalkanes measured were 4.3, 7.8 and 10.7, respectively, being in inverse proportion to G(HCl). These results seem to suggest that the formation of hydrogen chloride and its reaction with the dye in the irradiated solution are influenced by the dielectric constant of chloroalkane. (author)

  4. Serum albumin forms a lactoferrin-like soluble iron-binding complex in presence of hydrogen carbonate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi M; Urazono, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-02-15

    The iron-lactoferrin complex is a common food ingredient because of its iron-solubilizing capability in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. However, it is unclear whether the formation of a stable iron-binding complex is limited to lactoferrin. In this study, we investigated the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on iron solubility and iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. BSA could solubilize >100-fold molar equivalents of iron at neutral pH, exceeding the specific metal-binding property of BSA. This iron-solubilizing capability of BSA was impaired by thermally denaturing BSA at ≥ 70 °C for 10 min at pH 8.5. The resulting iron-BSA complex inhibited iron-catalyzed oxidation of soybean oil in a water-in-oil emulsion measured using the Rancimat test. Our study is the first to show that BSA, like lactoferrin, forms a soluble iron-binding complex in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vapour pressure of ammonium chloride aerosol: Effect of temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, Casimiro A.; Harrison, Roy M.

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the constant for dissociation of ammonium chloride into gaseous HCl and NH 3 has been estimated for different temperatures, using thermodynamic data. At RH over 75-85% the ammonium chloride aerosol exists in the liquid phase, with the dissociation constant two orders of magnitude lower at 98% RH than for solid aerosol at the same temperature. It is predicted that ammonium chloride aqueous aerosol forms predominantly in fogwater and cloud droplets, and in regions where local emissions of NH 3 are important.

  6. Cuboid Ni2 P as a Bifunctional Catalyst for Efficient Hydrogen Generation from Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane and Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yeshuang; Liu, Chao; Cheng, Gongzhen; Luo, Wei

    2017-11-16

    The design of high-performance catalysts for hydrogen generation is highly desirable for the upcoming hydrogen economy. Herein, we report the colloidal synthesis of nanocuboid Ni 2 P by the thermal decomposition of nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl 2 ⋅6 H 2 O) and trioctylphosphine. The obtained nanocuboid Ni 2 P was characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. For the first time, the as-synthesized nanocuboid Ni 2 P is used as a bifunctional catalyst for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane and electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Owing to the strong synergistic electronic effect between Ni and P, the as-synthesized Ni 2 P exhibits catalytic performance that is superior to its counterpart without P doping. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  8. Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium Borohydride-Water Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    already use hydrogen for weather balloons . Besides cost, hydrogen has other advantages over helium. Hydrogen has more lift than helium, so larger...of water vapor entering the gas stream, and avoid damaging the balloon /aerostat (aerostats typically have an operational temperature range of -50 to...Aerostats: “Gepard” Tethered Aerostats with Mobile Mooring Systems. Available at http://rosaerosystems.com/aero/obj7. Accessed June 4, 2015. 11

  9. From solar energy to hydrogen via magnesium: a challenging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, H.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the proposed scheme, solar energy is used first to vaporize a dynamic stream of sea water flowing along an inclined Preferential Salt Separator (P S S). Magnesium chloride salts - soluble in seawater - will separate as end products. Once obtained, anhydrous magnesium chloride is to be electrolysed to produce magnesium metal, a reliable source of stored energy. When shipped to remote locations, it is used as electrode to construct a 'galvanic - electrolytic' cell, in which water is electrolysed producing hydrogen as end product. Small scale experimental results are presented. Reference to the work reported by Pacheco is made. (authors)

  10. Salt forms of the pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is well known as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the study of polymorphism and the generation and comparison of cocrystal forms. The pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine (DCBZ) is a less well known material and is largely of interest here as a structural congener of CBZ. Reaction of DCBZ with strong acids results in protonation of the amide functionality at the O atom and gives the salt forms dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)}, dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O} and dihydrocarbamazepine hydrobromide monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium bromide monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Br(-)·H2O}. The anhydrous hydrochloride has a structure with two crystallographically independent ion pairs (Z' = 2), wherein both cations adopt syn conformations, whilst the two hydrated species are mutually isostructural and have cations with anti conformations. Compared to neutral dihydrocarbamazepine structures, protonation of the amide group is shown to cause changes to both the molecular (C=O bond lengthening and C-N bond shortening) and the supramolecular structures. The amide-to-amide and dimeric hydrogen-bonding motifs seen for neutral polymorphs and cocrystalline species are replaced here by one-dimensional polymeric constructs with no direct amide-to-amide bonds. The structures are also compared with, and shown to be closely related to, those of the salt forms of the structurally similar pharmaceutical carbamazepine.

  11. Formation of a bioconjugate composed of hemin, smectite, and quaternary ammonium chloride that is soluble and active in hydrophobic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Masaru; Itoh, Tetsuji; Kodera, Yoh; Matsushima, Ayako; Hiroto, Misao; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Inada, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Hemin (Fe(3+)) was adsorbed onto synthetic smectite (clay mineral) intercalated with a quaternary alkenylammonium compound, dioleyldimethylammonium chloride (DOA), to form a hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate. The hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate was soluble in organic solvents such as benzene and toluene to form a transparent colloidal solution with a light yellow color. Its absorption spectrum in benzene showed two bands, 600 and 568 nm, in the visible region and a sharp Soret band at 400 nm with the molar extinction coefficient of 7.5 x 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1). The formation of the conjugate of smectite and DOA was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis: the basal spacing, d(001), of hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate was 19 A which is an expansion of the interlayer space by 5 A based upon the basal spacing of smectite of 14 A. Hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate catalyzed the peroxidase-like reaction in organic solvents using benzoyl peroxide as the hydrogen acceptor and leucocrystal violet as the hydrogen donor. The temperature-dependent peroxidase-like activity of the conjugate was compared with peroxidase activity of horseradish peroxidase. The hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate exhibited higher activity as the temperature was increased from 30 to 70 degrees C, while horseradish peroxidase activity was reduced as the temperature was increased.

  12. Study on glass-forming ability and hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Mg60Ni30La10−xCox (x = 0, 4) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Peng; Wang, Zhong-min; Zhang, Huai-gang; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Ji, Zi-jun; Deng, Jian-qiu; Zhou, Huai-ying

    2013-01-01

    Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0, 4) amorphous alloys were prepared by rapid solidification, using a melt-spinning technique. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis were employed to measure their microstructure, thermal stability and glass-forming ability, and hydrogen storage properties were studied by means of PCTPro2000. Based on differential scanning calorimetry results, their glass-forming ability and thermal stability were investigated by Kissinger method, Lasocka curves and atomic cluster model, respectively. The results indicate that glass-forming ability, thermal properties and hydrogen storage properties in the Mg-rich corner of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys were enhanced by Co substitution for La. It can be found that the smaller activation energy (ΔΕ) and frequency factor (υ 0 ), the bigger value of B (glass transition point in Lasocka curves), and higher glass-forming ability of Mg–Ni–La–Co alloys would be followed. In addition, atomic structure parameter (λ), deduced from atomic cluster model is valuable in the design of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys with good glass-forming ability. With an increase of Co content from 0 to 4, the hydrogen desorption capacity within 4000 s rises from 2.25 to 2.85 wt.% at 573 K. - Highlights: • Amorphous Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0 and 4) alloys were produced by melt spinning. • The GFA and hydrogen storage properties were enhanced by Co substitution for La. • With an increase of Co content, the hydrogen desorption capacity rises at 573 K

  13. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Henrich H.; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  14. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, Henrich H.; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  15. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  16. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  17. Hydrogen molecules and hydrogen-related defects in crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, N.; Sasaki, S.; Murakami, K.; Ishioka, K.; Nakamura, K. G.; Kitajima, M.; Fujimura, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Haneda, H.

    1997-09-01

    We have found that hydrogen exists in molecular form in crystalline silicon treated with hydrogen atoms in the downstream of a hydrogen plasma. The vibrational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 4158 cm-1 for silicon samples hydrogenated between 180 and 500 °C. The assignment of the Raman line is confirmed by its isotope shift to 2990 cm-1 for silicon treated with deuterium atoms. The Raman intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 400 °C. The vibrational Raman line of the hydrogen molecules is broad and asymmetric. It consists of at least two components, possibly arising from hydrogen molecules in different occupation sites in crystalline silicon. The rotational Raman line of hydrogen molecules is observed at 590 cm-1. The Raman band of Si-H stretching is observed for hydrogenation temperatures between 100 and 500 °C and the intensity has a maximum for hydrogenation at 250 °C.

  18. Modified Borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Au

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing de-hydriding temperature and generating de-hydriding-re-hydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  20. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  1. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  2. Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate: polymer networks formed by sandwich layers of oxygen-coordinated thallium ions cores shielded by hydrogen L-glutamate counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Thomas; Wirnsberger, Bianca; Albering, Jörg; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2011-11-07

    Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate [Tl(L-GluH)] crystallizes from water (space group P2(1)) with a layer structure in which the thallium ions are penta- and hexacoordinated exclusively by the oxygen atoms of the γ-carboxylate group of the hydrogen L-glutamate anions to form a two-dimensional coordination polymer. The thallium-oxygen layer is composed of Tl(2)O(2) and TlCO(2) quadrangles and is only 3 Å high. Only one hemisphere of the thallium ions participates in coordination, indicative of the presence of the 6s(2) lone pair of electrons. The thallium-oxygen assemblies are shielded by the hydrogen l-glutamate anions. Only the carbon atom of the α-carboxylate group deviates from the plane spanned by the thallium ions, the γ-carboxylate groups and the proton bearing carbon atoms, which are in trans conformation. Given the abundance of L-glutamic and L-aspartic acid in biological systems on the one hand and the high toxicity of thallium on the other hand, it is worth mentioning that the dominant structural motifs in the crystal structure of [Tl(L-GluH)] strongly resemble their corresponding analogues in the crystalline phase of [K(L-AspH)(H(2)O)(2)].

  3. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  4. Some thermodynamic properties of hydrogen chloride and deuterium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C; Lewis, D G; Prichard, P C; Staveley, L A.K.; Fonseca, I M.A.; Lobo, L Q

    1986-01-01

    The molar volume of HCl has been measured from 162 to 236 K, and of DCl from 160 to 218 K. Direct measurements of the vapour pressure of HCl have been made from 159 to 220 K, and of DCl from 158 to 188 K. In addition, the difference in the vapour pressure of the two isotopic forms has been measured from 159 to 226 K. At lower temperatures, the vapour pressure of HCl exceeds that of DCl but above 223.35 K that position is reversed. The vapour pressure of each substance has been fitted to a Wagner equation. These equations have been used in conjunction with the Clapeyron equation to calculate the molar enthalpies of vaporization. If r is the ratio of the vapour pressure of HCl to that of DCl, the values of r conform very closely to the equation T ln r = - A + C/T, where A and C are constants.

  5. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  6. Nano-assemblies consisting of Pd/Pt nanodendrites and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated reduced graphene oxide on glassy carbon electrode for hydrogen peroxide sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Di; Ma, Min; Wang, Weizhen; Chen, Qiang, E-mail: qiangchen@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensors were fabricated on the basis of glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with palladium (Pd) core-platinum (Pt) nanodendrites (Pt-NDs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A facile wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. In this approach, the growth of Pt NDs was directed by Pd nanocrystal which could be regarded as seed. The PDDA-coated rGO could form uniform film on the surface of GC electrode, which provided a support for Pd core- Pt NDs adsorption by self-assembly. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (spectrum). Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods. The sensor fabricated by Pd core-Pt NDs/PDDA-rGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity (672.753 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), low detection limit (0.027 μM), wider linear range (0.005–0.5 mM) and rapid response time (within 5 s). Besides, it also exhibited superior reproducibility, excellent anti-interference performance and long-term stability. The present work could afford a viable method and efficient platform for fabricating all kinds of amperometric sensors and biosensors. - Highlights: • A facial wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. • The morphologies of graphene and Pd core-Pt nanodendrites were characterized. • A novel H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was fabricated by nano-assembly. • The performance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods.

  7. Bis(4-aminobenzoic acid-κNdichloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Rademeyer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound [ZnCl2(C7H7NO22], are located on a twofold rotation axis. Two 4-aminobenzoic acid moieties, and two chloride ligands are coordinated to a Zn atom in a tetrahedral fashion, forming an isolated molecule. Neighbouring molecules are linked through hydrogen-bonded carboxyl groups, as well as N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions between amine groups and the chloride ligands of neighbouring molecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  8. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hydrogen safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA experience with hydrogen began in the 1950s when the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) research on rocket fuels was inherited by the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Initial emphasis on the use of hydrogen as a fuel for high-altitude probes, satellites, and aircraft limited the available data on hydrogen hazards to small quantities of hydrogen. NASA began to use hydrogen as the principal liquid propellant for launch vehicles and quickly determined the need for hydrogen safety documentation to support design and operational requirements. The resulting NASA approach to hydrogen safety requires a joint effort by design and safety engineering to address hydrogen hazards and develop procedures for safe operation of equipment and facilities. NASA also determined the need for rigorous training and certification programs for personnel involved with hydrogen use. NASA's current use of hydrogen is mainly for large heavy-lift vehicle propulsion, which necessitates storage of large quantities for fueling space shots and for testing. Future use will involve new applications such as thermal imaging

  10. Behaviour of hydrogen in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Y.C.; Tang, C.H.; Chuang, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Polycrystalline niobium was charged electrolytically with hydrogen at room temperature. The behaviour of hydrogen in niobium has been investigated by optical microscopy, SEM, and ion microprobe analysis. It is shown that, when the hydrogen content in niobium is low, hydride tends to form at the grain boundary. As the hydrogen content is increased, precipitation of hydrides with domain structure takes place in the grain. The habit plane of the hydride formed in the vicinity of the grain boundary has been determined by Laue X-ray back reflection technique to be (130)c and (111)c. The structure of the hydride formed on the surface of niobium after 6 h hydrogen charging at room temperature (c.d. 0.2 A/cm 2 ) has been established to be identical to that of NbHsub(0.89). (orig.) [de

  11. Bio-hydrogen production from glycerol by a strain of Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, P.A.S.S; Bartolomeu, M.L.; Tome, M.M.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Unit of Biomass/Renewable Energy Department, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the H2 production from glycerol-containing byproducts obtained from biodiesel industrial production, using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 Sputum. H2 production using as substrate pure glycerol and glycerol-containing biodiesel byproducts was compared. The effect of parameters such as initial substrate concentration and sodium chloride addition on the bio-hydrogen production efficiency was also investigated. The results showed that using 10 g/L of pure glycerol or biodiesel residues, containing the same concentration of glycerol as substrate, lead to similar bio-hydrogen productions (3.46 LH2/L and 3.28 LH2/L fermentation medium, respectively). This indicates that the performance of the E. aerogenes strain used was not influenced by the presence of other components than glycerol in biodiesel residues, at least for the tested waste concentration range. When sodium chloride was added to the fermentation medium with pure 10 g/L glycerol, H2 production was not affected (3.34 LH2/L fermentation medium), showing that metabolism of the E. aerogenes strain was not inhibited by this biodiesel waste component up to 4 g/L chloride concentration. Biodiesel residues used without sterilization provided a higher H2 production (1.03 L) than the ones submitted to previous sterilization in autoclave (0.89 L).

  12. Crystal structure of tetraethylammonium chloride 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Equimolar quantities of tetraethylammonium chloride (Et4NCl and 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene (o-DITFB or o-C6F4I2 have been co-crystallized in a solution of dichloromethane yielding a pure halogen-bonded compound, 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene–tetraethyl ammonium chloride (2/1, Et4N+·Cl−·2C6F4I2, in the form of translucent needles. [(Et4NCl(o-C6F4I22] packs in the C2/c space group. The asymmetric unit includes one molecule of DITFB, one Et4N+ cation located on a twofold rotation axis, and one chloride anion also located on a twofold rotation symmetry axis. This compound has an interesting halogen-bonding environment surrounding the halide. Here, the chloride anion acts as a tetradentate halogen bond acceptor and forms a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, with I...Cl−...I angles of 80.891 (6 and 78.811 (11°, where two crystallographically distinct iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the chloride anion. Resulting from that square-pyramidal geometry are short contacts between some of the adjacent F atoms. Along the b axis, the halogen-bonding interaction results in a polymeric network, producing a sheet in which the two closest chloride ions are 7.8931 (6 Å apart. The Et4N+ cation alternates in columns with the halide ion. The expected short contacts (shorter than the sum of their van der Waals radii are observed for the halogen bonds [3.2191 (2 and 3.2968 (2 Å], as well as almost linear angles [170.953 (6 and 173.529 (6°].

  13. Hydroxyacetone: A Glycerol-Based Platform for Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation and Hydrodeoxygenation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Waldemar; Bergmann, Olaf L; Schröder, Uwe

    2017-08-10

    Here, we propose the use of hydroxyacetone, a dehydration product of glycerol, as a platform for the electrocatalytic synthesis of acetone, 1,2-propanediol, and 2-propanol. 11 non-noble metals were investigated as electrode materials in combination with three different electrolyte compositions toward the selectivity, Coulombic efficiency (CE), and reaction rates of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation (formation of 1,2-propanediol) and hydrodeoxygenation (formation of acetone and propanol) of hydroxyacetone. With a selectivity of 84.5 %, a reaction rate of 782 mmol h -1  m -2 and a CE of 32 % (for 0.09 m hydroxyacetone), iron electrodes, in a chloride electrolyte, yielded the best 1,2 propanediol formation. A further enhancement of the performance can be achieved upon increasing the educt concentration to 0.5 m, yielding a reaction rate of 2248.1 mmol h -1  m -2 and a CE of 64.5 %. Acetone formation was optimal at copper and lead electrodes in chloride solution, with lead showing the lowest tendency of side product formation. 2-propanol formation can be achieved using a consecutive oxidation of the formed acetone (at iron electrodes). 1-propanol formation was observed only in traces. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Chloride ion-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of biotin on the silver surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fangfang; Gu Huaimin; Yuan Xiaojuan; Dong Xiao; Lin Yue

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique was employed to study the SERS spectra of biotin molecules formed on the silver surface. The adsorption geometries of biotin molecules on the silver surface were analyzed based on the SERS data. It can be found that most vibration modes show a Raman shift in silver sol after the addition of sodium chloride solution. In addition, The Raman signals of biotin become weaker and weaker with the increase of the concentration of sodium chloride. This may be due to that the interaction between chloride ions and silver particles is stronger than the interaction between biotin molecules and silver particles. When the concentration of sodium chloride in silver colloid is higher than 0.05mol/L, superfluous chloride ions may form an absorption layer so that biotin can not be adsorbed on silver surface directly. The changes in intensity and profile shape in the SERS spectra suggest different adsorption behavior and surface-coverage of biotin on silver surface. The SERS spectra of biotin suggest that the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to SERS may be dominant.

  15. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  16. Asymmetric hydrogenation of quinolines catalyzed by iridium complexes of monodentate BINOL-derived phosphoramidites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrsic, Natasa; Lefort, Laurent; Boogers, Jeroen A. F.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Mršić, Nataša

    The monodentate BINOL-derived phosphoramidite PipPhos is used as ligand for the iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of 2- and 2,6-substituted quinolines. If tri-ortho-tolylphosphine and/or chloride salts are used as additives enantioselectivities are strongly enhanced up to 89%. NMR indicates

  17. Hydrogen-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzl, H.; Springer, T.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the alloys of metal crystals with hydrogen. The system niobium-hydrogen and its properties are especially dealt with: diffusion and heat of solution of hydrogen in the host crystal, phase diagram, coherent and incoherent phase separation, application of metal-hydrogen systems in technology. Furthermore, examples from research work in IFF (Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung) of the Nuclear Research Plant, Juelich, in the field of metal-H systems are given in summary form. (GSC) [de

  18. Rust Layer Formed on Low Carbon Weathering Steels with Different Mn, Ni Contents in Environment Containing Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-qin FU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rusting evolution of low carbon weathering steels with different Mn, Ni contents under a simulated environment containing chloride ions has been investigated to clarify the correlation between Mn, Ni and the rust formed on steels. The results show that Mn contents have little impact on corrosion kinetics of experimental steels. Content increase of Ni both enhances the anti-corrosion performance of steel substrate and the rust. Increasing Ni content is beneficial to forming compact rust. Semi-quantitative XRD phase analysis shows that the quantity ratio of α/γ*(α-FeOOH/(γ-FeOOH+Fe3O4 decreases as Mn content increases but it increases as Ni content increases. Ni enhances rust layer stability but Mn content exceeding 1.06 wt.% is disadvantageous for rust layer stability. The content increase of Mn does not significantly alter the parameters of the polarization curve. However, as Ni contents increases, Ecorr has shifted to the positive along with decreased icorr values indicating smaller corrosion rate especially as Ni content increases from 0.42 wt.% to 1.50 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12844

  19. Hydrogen axion star: metallic hydrogen bound to a QCD axion BEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Barger, Vernon; Berger, Joshua [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-12-23

    As a cold dark matter candidate, the QCD axion may form Bose-Einstein condensates, called axion stars, with masses around 10{sup −11} M{sub ⊙}. In this paper, we point out that a brand new astrophysical object, a Hydrogen Axion Star (HAS), may well be formed by ordinary baryonic matter becoming gravitationally bound to an axion star. We study the properties of the HAS and find that the hydrogen cloud has a high pressure and temperature in the center and is likely in the liquid metallic hydrogen state. Because of the high particle number densities for both the axion star and the hydrogen cloud, the feeble interaction between axion and hydrogen can still generate enough internal power, around 10{sup 13} W×(m{sub a}/5 meV){sup 4}, to make these objects luminous point sources. High resolution ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes can discover HAS via black-body radiation.

  20. Metal ammine complexes for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Johannessen, Tue

    2005-01-01

    The hopes of using hydrogen as an energy carrier are severely dampened by the fact that there is still no safe, high-density method available for storing hydrogen. We investigate the possibility of using metal ammine complexes as a solid form of hydrogen storage. Using Mg(NH3)(6)Cl-2 as the example......, we show that it can store 9.1% hydrogen by weight in the form of ammonia. The storage is completely reversible, and by combining it with an ammonia decomposition catalyst, hydrogen can be delivered at temperatures below 620 K....

  1. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Tsunashima, Mikiyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Koyama, Masafumi; Sudo, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  2. The risk of hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength prestressing steels under cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isecke, B.; Mietz, J. (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    High strength prestressing steels in prestressed concrete structures are protected against corrosion due to passivation resulting from the high alkalinity of the concrete. If depassivation of the prestressing steel occurs due to the ingress of chlorides the corrosion risk can be minimized by application of cathodic protection with impressed current. The risk of hydrogen embrittlement of the prestressing steel is especially pronounced if overprotection is applied due to hydrogen evolution in the cathodic reaction. The present work considers this risk by hydrogen activity measurements under practical conditions and application of different levels of cathodic protection potentials. Information on threshold potentials in prestressed concrete structures is provided, too. (orig.).

  3. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  4. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  5. Different Methods for Conditioning Chloride Salt Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Capone, M.; Marzo, G.A.; Mariani, M.; Da Ros, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Macerata, E.; Giola, M.

    2015-01-01

    Three different methods have been used to condition chloride salt wastes coming from pyro-processes. Two of them allow to synthesise sodalite, a naturally occurring mineral containing chlorine: the former, starting from Zeolite 4A, which transforms the zeolite into sodalite; the latter, which starts from kaolinite, giving sodalite as well. In addition, a new matrix, termed SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ), has been synthesised. It is able to form different mineral phases which occlude fission metals. The products from the different processes have been fully characterised. In particular the chemical durability of the final waste forms has been determined using the standard product consistency test. According to the results obtained, SAP seems to be a promising matrix for the incorporation of chloride salt wastes from pyro-processes. Financial support from the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Union (projects ACSEPT, contract FP7-CP-2007- 211 267, and SACSESS, Collaborative Project 323282), as well as from Italian Ministry for Economic Development (Accordo di Programma: Piano Annuale di Realizzazione 2008-2009) is gratefully acknowledged. (authors)

  6. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  7. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  8. Unusual hydrogen bonding in L-cysteine hydrogen fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, V S; Ghazaryan, V V; Boldyreva, E V; Petrosyan, A M

    2015-08-01

    L-Cysteine hydrogen fluoride, or bis(L-cysteinium) difluoride-L-cysteine-hydrogen fluoride (1/1/1), 2C3H8NO2S(+)·2F(-)·C3H7NO2S·HF or L-Cys(+)(L-Cys···L-Cys(+))F(-)(F(-)...H-F), provides the first example of a structure with cations of the 'triglycine sulfate' type, i.e. A(+)(A···A(+)) (where A and A(+) are the zwitterionic and cationic states of an amino acid, respectively), without a doubly charged counter-ion. The salt crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the space group P2(1). The dimeric (L-Cys···L-Cys(+)) cation and the dimeric (F(-)···H-F) anion are formed via strong O-H···O or F-H···F hydrogen bonds, respectively, with very short O···O [2.4438 (19) Å] and F···F distances [2.2676 (17) Å]. The F···F distance is significantly shorter than in solid hydrogen fluoride. Additionally, there is another very short hydrogen bond, of O-H···F type, formed by a L-cysteinium cation and a fluoride ion. The corresponding O···F distance of 2.3412 (19) Å seems to be the shortest among O-H···F and F-H···O hydrogen bonds known to date. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction study was complemented by IR spectroscopy. Of special interest was the spectral region of vibrations related to the above-mentioned hydrogen bonds.

  9. Flash-lamp-crystallized polycrystalline silicon films with high hydrogen concentration formed from Cat-CVD a-Si films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Tomura, Naohito; Ishii, Shohei; Matsumura, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    We investigate residual forms of hydrogen (H) atoms such as bonding configuration in poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) films formed by the flash-lamp-induced crystallization of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) a-Si films. Raman spectroscopy reveals that at least part of H atoms in flash-lamp-crystallized (FLC) poly-Si films form Si-H 2 bonds as well as Si-H bonds with Si atoms even using Si-H-rich Cat-CVD a-Si films, which indicates the rearrangement of H atoms during crystallization. The peak desorption temperature during thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is as high as 900 o C, similar to the reported value for bulk poly-Si.

  10. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Mitsuru; Kamino, Shinichiro; Doi, Mitsunobu; Takada, Shingo; Mitani, Shota; Yanagihara, Rika; Asano, Mamiko; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-03

    Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide was accomplished with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone (MCPF) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In the determination of hydrogen peroxide based on the fading of the color of osmium(VIII)-MCPF complex, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 20-406 ng mL(-1), with an effective molar absorption coefficient (at 580 nm) of 5.21×10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and a relative standard deviation of 0.33% (n=6). Further, we performed the characterization of MCPF and obtained the crystal structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks.

  13. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  14. Dehydration of aluminum chloride hexahydrate: a technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    Physical and chemical properties of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, ACH, and related compounds are noted as well as the relation of these properties to the problem of dehydration of ACH to form anhydrous aluminum chloride. Several approaches to the dehydration of ACH are discussed and a rationale or each approach is given: solvent extraction, ligand exchange, azeotropic distillation, chemical dehydration, and energy specific direct heating. While the thermodynamics of dehydration are frequently favorable, the rate of reaction and the mechanisms of reaction are more frequently unfavorable. However, each approach requires experimentation to test its effectiveness. The stability of the aluminum-oxygen bond in the hydrate is such that dehydration without decomposition to the oxide will be very difficult

  15. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  16. {4-Phenyl-1-[1-(1,3-thiazol-2-ylethylidene]thiosemicarbazidato}{4-phenyl-1-[1-(1,3-thiazol-2-ylethylidene]thiosemicarbazide}nickel(II chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaiyer Venkatraman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C12H11N4S2(C12H12N4S2]Cl·H2O, the NiII ion is chelated by two 2-acetylthiazole-3-phenylthiosemicarbazone ligands, forming a distorted octahedral complex. The metal ion is coordinated via the thiazole nitrogen, imine nitrogen and thione sulfur atoms from each thiosemicarbazone ligand, and two coordinating units lie almost perpendicular to each other give dihedral angle = 81.89 (1°]. One thiosemicarbazone unit is found to bind a chloride anion through two hydrogen bonds, while the other is linked with the disordered crystal water molecule. Two molecules are connected to each other through an intermolecular N—H...S interaction, forming a centrosymmetric dimer. Dimers are linked into sheets by π–π stacking of two phenyl rings [shortest C...C distance = 4.041 (3 Å].

  17. Liquid hydrogen properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. I.; Han, K. Y.; Park, J.H.

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the input data, whose characteristic is thermodynamic and transport, in the form of equation for the thermo-hydraulic calculations using hydrogen as a working substance. The considered data in this report are particularly focused on the properties of para-hydrogen and of equilibrium-hydrogen around the working temperature range of the HANARO-CNS. The discussed properties of hydrogen are, in turn, the pressure of saturated vapors, the density, the heat of vaporization, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and heat capacity. Several equations to fit the above-mentioned experimental data allow calculating the various properties of liquid hydrogen with high accuracy at all considered temperatures

  18. Dual hydrogen-bonding motifs in complexes formed between tropolone and formic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchick, Deacon J.; Cohen, Michael K.; Vaccaro, Patrick H.

    2016-11-01

    The near-ultraviolet π*←π absorption system of weakly bound complexes formed between tropolone (TrOH) and formic acid (FA) under cryogenic free-jet expansion conditions has been interrogated by exploiting a variety of fluorescence-based laser-spectroscopic probes, with synergistic quantum-chemical calculations built upon diverse model chemistries being enlisted to unravel the structural and dynamical properties of the pertinent ground [X˜ 1A'] and excited [A˜ 1A'(" separators="π*π )] electronic states. For binary TrOH ṡ FA adducts, the presence of dual hydrogen-bond linkages gives rise to three low-lying isomers designated (in relative energy order) as INT, EXT1, and EXT2 depending on whether docking of the FA ligand to the TrOH substrate takes place internal or external to the five-membered reaction cleft of tropolone. While the symmetric double-minimum topography predicted for the INT potential surface mediates an intermolecular double proton-transfer event, the EXT1 and EXT2 structures are interconverted by an asymmetric single proton-transfer process that is TrOH-centric in nature. The A ˜ -X ˜ origin of TrOH ṡ FA at ν˜ 00=27 484 .45 cm-1 is displaced by δ ν˜ 00=+466 .76 cm-1 with respect to the analogous feature for bare tropolone and displays a hybrid type - a/b rotational contour that reflects the configuration of binding. A comprehensive analysis of vibrational landscapes supported by the optically connected X˜ 1A' and A˜ 1A'(" separators="π*π ) manifolds, including the characteristic isotopic shifts incurred by partial deuteration of the labile TrOH and FA protons, has been performed leading to the uniform assignment of numerous intermolecular (viz., modulating hydrogen-bond linkages) and intramolecular (viz., localized on monomer subunits) degrees of freedom. The holistic interpretation of all experimental and computational findings affords compelling evidence that an external-binding motif (attributed to EXT1), rather than the

  19. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  20. A mathematical model of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. I.; Nguyen, T. V.; White, R. E.

    1987-08-01

    A 1-D mathematical model for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell was developed to investigate methods of improving its performance and safety. The model includes many of the components of a typical lithium/thionyl chloride cell such as the porous lithium chloride film which forms on the lithium anode surface. The governing equations are formulated from fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to predict 1-D, time dependent profiles of concentration, porosity, current, and potential as well as cell temperature and voltage. When a certain discharge rate is required, the model can be used to determine the design criteria and operating variables which yield high cell capacities. Model predictions can be used to establish operational and design limits within which the thermal runaway problem, inherent in these cells, can be avoided.

  1. Speciation of cobalt-chloride-based ionic liquids and electrodeposition of Co wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lai, Mei-Chun; Huang, Hsin-Liang; Sun, I.-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Template-free electrodeposition of cobalt nanowires arrays can be achieved from Lewis acidic CoCl 2 -EMIC ionic liquids. • SEM and TEM images reveal the diameter of the nanowire is around 200 nm, and the XPS data shows that cobalt oxide is formed at the surface of the nanowire. • MALDI-TOF-MS, XAS, and UV-vis spectroscopy results show that the coordination number and the mean Co-Cl bond length are depending on the molar ratio of CoCl 2 and EMIC. - Abstract: The speciation and coordination of cobalt-chloride-based ionic liquids with various mole percentages of CoCl 2 were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The coordination number and the mean Co-Cl bond length decreases with increasing CoCl 2 concentration, indicating that various Co(II) chloride compounds such as CoCl 4 2- , Co 2 Cl 5 - , and Co 3 Cl 7 − are formed depending on the molar ratio of CoCl 2 and EMIC in the melt. While the [CoCl 4 ] 2− complex formed in the Lewis basic melts and is electrochemically inactive within the electrochemical window of the melt, the other coordination-unsaturated cobalt chloride compounds formed in Lewis acidic melts can be electrochemically reduced to cobalt metal. The template-free electrodeposition of Co nanowires can be achieved from 40-60 mol% and 50-50 mol% CoCl 2 -EMIC (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) ionic liquids without any additives. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface of the deposits

  2. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  3. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  4. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure-temperature diagram for the liquid sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, C.F.; Whittingham, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The underlying equilibria in the sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system are presented in the form of a completmentary hydrogen equilibrium pressure-temperature diagram, constructed by using published data and supplemented by experimental measurements of hydrogen equilibrium pressures over condensed phases in the system. Possible applications of the equilibrium pressure-temperature phase diagram limitations regarding its use are outlined

  5. Study by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and radiochemistry (Cl36) of the interaction of chloride ions with a passive film formed on nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbelin, Jean-Marc

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of chlorides on nickel passivation by using a radiochemical method based on the use of the Cl 36 isotope and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The first one allows the in-situ determination of the adsorption of chlorides on the surface, or their inclusion in surface films during the electrochemical treatment. The XPS analysis allows the characterization of modifications induced by chlorides in passive films. The obtained results allow a better understanding in the interpretation of the mechanisms of corrosion induced by chloride ions [fr

  6. Chlorination of (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc by Thionyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pincer (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc (2 (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene using (PheboxIr(OAc2OH2 (1, was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (PheboxIrCl2OH2 in 87% yield.

  7. Hydrogen permeation preventive structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Nakahigashi, Shigeo; Imura, Masashi; Terasawa, Michitaka; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide highly practical wall materials for use in thermonuclear reactors capable of effectively preventing the permeation of hydrogen isotopes such as tritium thereby preventing the contamination of coolants. Constitution: Helium gas is injected into or at the surface of base materials comprising stainless steel plates to form a helium gas region. Alternatively, boron, nitrogen or the compound thereof having a greater helium forming nuclear reaction cross section than that of the base materials is mixed or injected into the base material to form the helium gas region through (n,α) reaction under neutron irradiation. Since the helium gas region constitutes a diffusion barrier for the tritium as the hydrogen isotope, the permeation amount of tritium is significantly suppressed. Helium gas bubbles or lattice defects are formed in the helium gas region under the neutron irradiation, by which the hydrogen isotope capturing effect can also be effected. In this way, permeation of the hydrogen isotope, contamination of the coolants, etc. can be prevented to provide great practical effectives. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Process chemistry related to hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Matae; Ogata, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes, that is, protium, deuterium and tritium, are all related deeply to energy in engineering region. Deuterium and tritium exist usually as water in extremely thin state. Accordingly, the improvement of the technology for separating these isotopes is a large engineering subject. Further, tritium is radioactive and its half-life period is 12.26 years, therefore, it is desirable to fix it in more stable form besides its confinement in the handling system. As the chemical forms of hydrogen, the molecular hydrogen with highest reactivity, metal hydride, carbon-hydrogen-halogen system compounds, various inorganic hydrides, most stable water and hydroxides are enumerated. The grasping of the behavior from reaction to stable state of these hydrogen compounds and the related materials is the base of process chemistry. The reaction of exchanging isotopes between water and hydrogen on solid catalyzers, the decomposition of ethane halide containing hydrogen, the behavior of water and hydroxides in silicates are reported. The isotope exchange between water and hydrogen is expected to be developed as the process of separating and concentrating hydrogen isotopes. (K.I.) 103 refs

  9. Hazards analyses of hydrogen evolution and ammonium nitrate accumulation in DWPF -- Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1994-01-01

    This revision consists of two reports, the first of which is an analysis of potential ammonium nitrate explosion hazards in the DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Sections describe the effect of impurities (organic and inorganic (chlorides, chromates, metals and oxides)); the consequences of a hydrogen deflagration or detonation; the role of confinement; the action of heat on ammonium nitrate; the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate; the hazard of spontaneous heating; and the explosive decomposition of ammonium nitrate. The second report, Hazard analysis of hydrogen evolution in DWPF: Process vessels and vent system for the late wash/nitric acid flowsheet, contains a description of a revised model for hydrogen generation based on the late wash/nitric acid process. The second part of the report is a sensitivity analysis of the base case conditions and the hydrogen generation model

  10. Global status of hydrogen research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, J.B.; Browning, D.J.

    2001-07-01

    This report surveys the global status of hydrogen research and identifies technological barriers to the implementation of a global hydrogen economy. It is concluded that there will be a 30 year transition phase to the full implementation of the hydrogen economy. In this period, hydrogen will be largely produced by the reformation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane. It will be necessary to ensure that any carbonaceous oxides (and other unwanted species) formed as by-products will be trapped and not released into the atmosphere. Following the transition phase, hydrogen should be largely produced from renewable energy sources using some form of water cracking, largely electrolysis. Target performances and costs are identified for key technologies. The status of hydrogen research in the UK is reviews and it is concluded that the UK does not have a strategy for the adoption of the hydrogen economy, nor does it have a coherent and co-ordinated research and development strategy addressing barriers to the hydrogen economy. Despite this fact, because of the long transition phase, it is still possible for the UK to formulate a coherent strategy and make a significant contribution to the global implementation of the hydrogen economy, as there are still unresolved technology issues. The report concludes with a number of recommendations. (Author)

  11. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  12. Sorption of sulphur dioxide in calcium chloride and nitrate chloride liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzepierczynska, I.; Gostomczyk, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization via application of suspensions has one inherent disadvantage: fixation of sulphur dioxide is very poor. This should be attributed to the low content of calcium ions which results from the solubility of the sorbing species. The solubility of sparingly soluble salts (CaO, CaCO 3 ) may be increased by decreasing the pH of the solution; yet, there is a serious limitation in this method: the corrosivity of the scrubber. The objective of this paper was to assess the sorbing capacity of two soluble calcium salts, calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, as a function of calcium ion concentration in the range of 20 to 82 kg/m 3 . It has been found that sorbing capacity increases with the increasing calcium ion concentration until the calcium concentration in the calcium chloride solution reaches the level of 60 kg/m 3 which is equivalent to the chloride ion content of ∼ 110 kg/m 3 . Addition of calcium hydroxide to the solutions brings about an increase in the sorbing capacity up to 1.6 kg/m 3 and 2.2 kg/m 3 for calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, respectively, as a result of the increased sorbent alkalinity. The sorption capacity of the solutions is considerably enhanced by supplementing them by acetate ions (2.8 to 13.9 kg/m 3 ). Increase in the sorption capacity of calcium nitrate solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions supplemented in the same way. (author). 12 refs, 7 refs, 4 tabs

  13. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  15. Effects of chlormequat chloride and different rates of prohexadione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... percentage of fruits falling into the weight classes and flowering, and fruit development of tomato. In exception of 4 ... Key words: Prohexadione-calcium, chlormequat chloride, seedling height, flowering, yield, tomato. INTRODUCTION ... retardant, can persist in the tree in an unmetabolized form for up to six ...

  16. Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficients of trivalent uranium ions in chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of U 3+ ions are measured by chronopotentiometric method in chloride 3LiCl-2KCl and in mixed chloride fluoride 3LiCl(LiF)-2KCl melts in the temperature range 633-1235 K. It is shown It is shown that experimental values of diffusion-coefficients are approximated in a direct line in lg D-1/T coordinate in chloride melt in the whole temperature range and in chloride-fluoride melt in the range of 644-1040 K. Experimental values of diffusion coefficients diviate from Arrhenius equation in the direction of large values in chloride-fluoride melt at further increase of temperature up to 1235 K. Possible causes of such a diviation are considered [ru

  17. Metal complex derivatives of hydrogen uranyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohol, D.; Blinn, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Derivatives of hydrogen uranyl phosphate were prepared by incorporating transition metal complexes into the uranyl phosphate matrix. The transition metal complexes employed include bis(ethylenediamine)copper(II), bis(1,3-propanediamine)copper(II) chloride, (triethylenetetramine)copper(II), (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)copper(II), (1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclopentadecane)copper(II), (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)nickel(II) chloride, (triethylenetetramine)nickel(II) and others. The chemical analyses of these derivatives indicated that the incorporation of the transition metal complexes into the uranyl phosphate matrix via ion exchange was not stoichiometric. The extent of ion exchange is dependent on the size and structure of the transition metal complex. All complexes were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, electronic and infrared spectra, thermal analyses and chemical analysis. An attempt was made to correlate the degree of quenching of the luminescence of the uranyl ion to the spacing between the uranyl phosphate layers in the derivatives

  18. Determination of hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide in a mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, S.S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in a mixture. The method is based on the quantitative oxidation of sulfide and sulfite with an excess of radiochloramine-T in alkaline medium (0.1N NaOH). The released chloride activity is proportional to the total amount of sulfide and sulfite present. Addition of 1% CdSO 4 solution to the mixture of sulfide and sulfite precipitates sulfide and sulfite in the filtrate determined by the reagent. From the difference in activities, the amount of sulfide can be calculated. This method can be employed for the determination of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in air samples. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  19. Fate of Chloromethanes in the Atmospheric Environment: Implications for Human Health, Ozone Formation and Depletion, and Global Warming Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2017-09-21

    Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH₃Cl; methylene chloride, CH₂Cl₂; chloroform, CHCl₃; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl₄) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed. In addition, this paper further discusses their atmospheric fates and human health implications because they are apt to reside in the lower atmosphere when released into the environment. According to the atmospheric degradation mechanism, their toxic degradation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine (Cl₂), formyl chloride (HCOCl), carbonyl chloride (COCl₂), and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Among them, COCl₂ (also called phosgene) is a powerful irritating gas, which is easily hydrolyzed or thermally decomposed to form hydrogen chloride.

  20. Method of modifying a vinyl chloride resin by utilizing radiation cross-linking polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagiya, T; Fujimoto, T; Hosoi, F; Tsuneta, K; Atogawa, M

    1970-08-26

    The polyvinyl chloride is improved in its mechanical, thermal and chemical properties, with particular advantages gained in dimensional stability at temperatures higher than the plasticizing temperature. The process comprises irradiating a vinyl chloride resin with ionizing radiations in the presence of a vinyl acetate monomer. In this process, the irradiation of vinyl acetate effects cross-linking and the polymerization of the monomer simultaneously. The vinyl chloride resin may be a copolymer along with another monomer, a polyvinyl chloride derivative, a graft polymer of polyvinyl chloride, a mixture of vinyl chloride with another resin and a graft copolymer of vinyl chloride on another resin in any form. The addition of the vinyl acetate monomer to the vinyl chloride is not limited to any particular procedure. The vinyl acetate monomer may be added to the polyvinyl chloride in a quantity ranging from a trace to 200% by weight. The radiation dose may be 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 9/, but preferably 10/sup 3/ roentgen. In one example, 36 parts by weight of market available vinyl acetate monomer immersed in 100 parts by weight of hard vinyl tube were placed in a stainless reacting vessel. After the replacement of inner air with nitrogen, the vessel was exposed to ..gamma.. beams of 4.8 x 10 roentgen from a Co-60 source. After dipping the exposed samples in boiled tetrahydrofuran for 48 hours, the insoluble substance in the samjle was 78.9% by weight. In addition, after heating at 180/sup 0/C for 30 minutes, the sample did not show any deformation.

  1. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waber, H.N.; Hobbs, M.Y.; Frape, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ 37 Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  3. Monomers capable of forming four hydrogen bridges and supramolecular polymers formed by copolymerization of these monomers with regular monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the synthesis of polymers containing self-complementary quadruple hydrogen groups by copolymerizing monomers containing a quadruple hydrogen bonding group with one or more monomers of choice. The resulting polymers show unique new characteristics due to the presence of

  4. Characterizing crystal disorder of trospium chloride: a comprehensive,(13) C CP/MAS NMR, DSC, FTIR, and XRPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Sturcova, Adriana; Brus, Jiri; Benes, Hynek; Skorepova, Eliska; Kratochvil, Bohumil; Cejka, Jan; Sedenkova, Ivana; Kobera, Libor; Policianova, Olivia; Sturc, Antonin

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction data of trospium chloride (TCl) products crystallized from different mixtures of water-ethanol [φ(EtOH) = 0.5-1.0] at various temperatures (0°C, 20°C) and initial concentrations (saturated solution, 30%-50% excess of solvent) revealed extensive structural variability of TCl. Although (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra indicated broad variety of structural phases arising from molecular disorder, temperature-modulated DSC identified presence of two distinct components in the products. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the hydrogen bonding network (ionic hydrogen bond formation), whereas the X-ray diffraction reflected unchanged unit cell parameters. These results were explained by a two-component character of TCl products in which a dominant polymorphic form is accompanied by partly separated nanocrystalline domains of a secondary phase that does not provide clear Bragg reflections. These phases slightly differ in the degree of molecular disorder, in the quality of crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding network. It is also demonstrated that, for the quality control of such complex products, (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy combined with factor analysis (FA) can satisfactorily be used for categorizing the individual samples: FA of (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra found clear relationships between the extent of molecular disorder and crystallization conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1235-1248, 2013. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Experimental investigations on macro cell corrosion in chloride-contaminated concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, J.J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion in concrete is characterised by the action of so-called macrocells. The associated localised form of corrosion results from the strong electrochemical interaction between the relatively small pitting sites acting as anodes and the large passive steel areas

  6. Pourbaix diagrams of actinides in molten chlorides using an indicating electrode for oxide ion activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertin, D.; Lacquement, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pyrochemical separation methods using high temperature molten salt media could emerge as promising and valuable routes compared with aqueous methods for separation and transmutation strategies for long-lived radionuclides. A good knowledge of the molten salt chemistry is essential for controlling these separations, and elementary data are required for molten halide salts, which can be readily provided by electrochemical methods. Applying the chemical principles of aqueous solutions to the molten salt media, Pourbaix diagrams - called in this case potential-oxo-acidity (pO 2- ) - can be plotted. They offer a rapid and comprehensive view of the thermodynamic properties of selected elements in a solvent of interest. Two methods are available for preparing these diagrams. The first is based on available thermodynamic data on pure element oxide (and oxychloride) compounds and on element chloride activity coefficients in melt (which can be electrochemically determined). In this method, we consider the oxide anion exchange reactions between the pure compounds, water and hydrogen chloride. The second method is a direct and experimental determination of the oxo-acidic properties of the studied element chlorides in melts. Use of an Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia Membrane (YSZM) electrode (oxide anion selective electrode) helps determine the nature of the stable oxide compounds in melts as well as their stabilities. The YSZM is used with a silver/silver chloride reference system, and was developed 25 years ago. Two examples of Potential-acidity diagrams. Employing the first method and the determination of the standard potential of plutonium in LiCl-KCl and NaCl-KCl eutectic mixtures, potential-oxo-acidity diagrams were plotted for these melts at various temperatures. It was found that the stability domain for plutonium chloride depends on the melt composition (influence of oxide anion solvation). We also used the Omega acidity function - based on reaction (1) - which is a

  7. Influence of density on radiation-chemical yield of molecular hydrogen formed at radiolysis of aqueous solution of NaOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarov, Y.D.; Hajiyeva, S.R.; Ramazanova, N.K.; Aliyev, S.M.; Alasgarov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : In atom and nuclear energy the specialists knowledge about radiation-chemical yield of the initial products formed under the influence of ionizing rays on water is of great importance from the point of security. The radiation-chemical yields of molecular hydrogen have been defined according to the graph and the obtained results

  8. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  10. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anodic and cathodic reactions in molten calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fray, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Calcium chloride is a very interesting electrolyte in that it is available, virtually free, in high purity form as a waste product from the chemical industry. It has a very large solubility for oxide ions, far greater than many alkali halides and other divalent halides and has the same toxicity as sodium chloride and also a very high solubility in water. Intuitively, on the passage of current, it is expected that calcium would be deposited at the cathode and chlorine would evolve at the anode. However, if calcium oxide is added to the melt, it is possible to deposit calcium and evolve oxygen containing gases at the anode, making the process far less polluting than when chlorine is evolved. This process is discussed in terms of the addition of calcium to molten lead. Furthermore, these reactions can be altered dramatically depending upon the electrode materials and the other ions dissolved in the calcium chloride. As calcium is only deposited at very negative cathodic potentials, there are several interesting cathodic reactions that can occur and these include the decomposition of the carbonate ion and the ionization of oxygen, sulphur, selenium and tellurium. For example, if an oxide is used as the cathode in molten calcium chloride, the favoured reaction is shown to be the ionization of oxygen O + 2e - → O 2- rather than Ca 2+ + 2 e- → Ca. The oxygen ions dissolve in the salt leaving the metal behind, and this leads to the interesting hypothesis that metal oxides can be reduced directly to the metal purely by the use of electrons. Examples are given for the reduction of titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, chromium oxide and niobium oxide and by mixing oxide powders together and reducing the mixed compact, alloys and intermetallic compounds are formed. Preliminary calculations indicate that this new process should be much cheaper than conventional metallothermic reduction for these elements. (author)

  12. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  13. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  14. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  15. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  16. N-[3-(2,6-Dimethylanilino-1-methylbut-2-enylidene]-2,6-dimethylanilinium chlorideThis paper is dedicated to Professor Dr Dr mult. h.c. Herbert W. Roesky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Jiménez-Pérez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, C21H27N2+·Cl− resulted from the condensation between 2,6-dimethylaniline and acetylacetone in acidified ethanol. The bulky cation is stabilized in a β-iminoenamine tautomeric form, and presents a W-shaped conformation. The benzene rings are arranged almost parallel, with a dihedral angle of 6.58 (4° between the mean planes. Both N—H groups in the cation form strong hydrogen bonds with two symmetry-related chloride anions. The resulting supramolecular structure is a one dimensional polymer running along [001], alternating cations and anions. The π–π interaction observed in the molecule, characterized by a centroid–centroid separation of 4.298 (4 Å, is thus extended to the chains, with separations of 5.222 (4 Å between benzene rings of neighbouring cations in the crystal.

  17. Energy infrastructure: hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T N

    1979-02-01

    In a hydrogen system, hydrogen is not a primary source of energy, but an intermediary, an energy carrier between the primary energy sources and the user. The new unconventional energy sources, such as nuclear breeder reactors, fusion reactors, direct solar radiation, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal energy have their shortcomings. These shortcomings of the new sources point out to the need for an intermediary energy system to form the link between the primary energy sources and the user. In such a system, the intermediary energy form must be transportable and storable; economical to produce; and if possible renewable and pollution-free. The above prerequisites are best met by hydrogen. Hydrogen is plentiful in the form of water. It is the cheapest synthetic fuel to manufacture per unit of energy stored in it. It is the least polluting of all of the fuels, and is the lightest and recyclable. In the proposed system, hydrogen would be produced in large plants located away from the consumption centers at the sites where primary new energy sources and water are available. Hydrogen would then be transported to energy consumption centers where it would be used in every application where fossil fuels are being used today. Once such a system is established, it will never be necessary to change to any other energy system.

  18. Determination of chloride in MOX samples using chloride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindan, R; Das, D K; Mallik, G K; Sumathi, A; Patil, Sangeeta; Raul, Seema; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-09-01

    The chloride present in the MOX fuel is separated from the matrix by pyrohydrolysis at a temperature of 950 {+-} 50 degC and is then analyzed by chloride ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE). The range covered is 0.4-4 ppm with a precision of better than {+-}5% R.S.D. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions Trigger a Spin-Flip in Iron(III) Porphyrin Complexes**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipankar; Quesne, Matthew G; de Visser, Sam P; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2015-01-01

    A key step in cytochrome P450 catalysis includes the spin-state crossing from low spin to high spin upon substrate binding and subsequent reduction of the heme. Clearly, a weak perturbation in P450 enzymes triggers a spin-state crossing. However, the origin of the process whereby enzymes reorganize their active site through external perturbations, such as hydrogen bonding, is still poorly understood. We have thus studied the impact of hydrogen-bonding interactions on the electronic structure of a five-coordinate iron(III) octaethyltetraarylporphyrin chloride. The spin state of the metal was found to switch reversibly between high (S=5/2) and intermediate spin (S=3/2) with hydrogen bonding. Our study highlights the possible effects and importance of hydrogen-bonding interactions in heme proteins. This is the first example of a synthetic iron(III) complex that can reversibly change its spin state between a high and an intermediate state through weak external perturbations. PMID:26109743

  20. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  1. A reactive distillation process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.C., E-mail: ehc2004@kaeri.re.kr; Choi, J.H.; Kim, N.Y.; Lee, T.K.; Han, S.Y.; Lee, K.R.; Park, H.S.; Ahn, D.H.

    2016-11-15

    The pyrochemical process, which recovers useful resources (U/TRU metals) from used nuclear fuel using an electrochemical method, generates LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides (RECl{sub 3}). It is necessary to develop a simple process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt in a hot-cell facility. For this reason, a reactive distillation process using a chemical agent was achieved as a method to separate rare earths from the LiCl-KCl waste salt. Before conducting the reactive distillation, thermodynamic equilibrium behaviors of the reactions between rare earth (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) chlorides and the chemical agent (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) were predicted using software. The addition of the chemical agent was determined to separate the rare earth chlorides into an oxide form using these equilibrium results. In the reactive distillation test, the rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were decontaminated at a decontamination factor (DF) of more than 5000, and were mainly converted into oxide (Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or oxychloride (LaOCl, PrOCl) forms. The LiCl-KCl was purified into a form with a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides.

  2. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  3. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H.N. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hobbs, M.Y. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), 22 St. Clair Avenue East, M4T 2S3 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ{sup 37}Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  4. Composition and method for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for hydrogen storage includes providing water and hydrogen gas to a containment volume, reducing the temperature of the water and hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen clathrate at a first cryogenic temperature and a first pressure and maintaining the hydrogen clathrate at second cryogenic temperature within a temperature range of up to 250 K to effect hydrogen storage. The low-pressure hydrogen hydrate includes H.sub.2 O molecules, H.sub.2 molecules and a unit cell including polyhedron cages of hydrogen-bonded frameworks of the H.sub.2 O molecules built around the H.sub.2 molecules.

  5. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  7. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  8. Deconvoluting the memory effect in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation; effect of leaving group and added chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Hoppe, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of product distributions in the Tsuji-Trost reaction indicates that several instances of reported memory effects can be attributed to slow interconversion of the initially formed syn- and anti-[Pd(eta3-allyl)] complexes. Addition of chloride triggers a true memory effect, in which...... the allylic terminus originally bearing the leaving group has a higher reactivity. The latter effect, termed regioretention, can be rationalized by ionization from a palladium complex bearing a chloride ion, forming an unsymmetrically substituted [Pd(eta3-allyl)] complex. DFT calculations verify...

  9. SISGR - Hydrogen Caged in Carbon-Exploration of Novel Carbon-Hydrogen Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Badding, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Crespi, Vinent [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen trapped in a carbon cage, captured through repulsive interactions, is a novel concept in hydrogen storage. Trapping hydrogen via repulsive interactions borrows an idea from macroscale hydrogen storage (i.e. compressed gas storage tanks) and reapplies these concepts on the nanoscale in specially designed molecular containers. Under extreme conditions of pressure, hydrogen solubility in carbon materials is expected to increase and carbon is expected to restructure to minimize volume via a mixed sp2/sp3 hydrogenated state. Thermodynamics dictate that pre-formed C-H structures will rearrange with increased pressure, yet the final carbon-hydrogen interactions may be dependent upon the mechanism by which hydrogen is introduced. Gas “trapping” is meant to denote gas present in a solid in a high density, adsorbed-like state, when the external pressure is much less than that necessary to provide a comparable fluid density. Trapping thus denotes a kinetically metastable state rather than thermodynamic equilibrium. This project probed mechanochemical means to polymerize select hydrocarbons in the presence of gases, in an attempt to form localized carbon cages that trap gases via repulsive interactions. Aromatic, polyaromatic, and hydroaromatic molecules expected to undergo cyclo-addition reactions were polymerized at high (~GPa) pressures to form extended hydrogenated amorphous carbon networks. Notably, aromatics with a pre-existing internal free volume (such as Triptycene) appeared to retain an internal porosity upon application of pressure. However, a high photoluminescence background after polymerization precluded in situ identification of trapped gases. No spectroscopic evidence was found after depressurization that would be indicative of pockets of trapped gases in a localized high-pressure environment. Control studies suggested this measurement may be insensitive to gases at low pressure. Similarly, no spectral fingerprint was found for gas-imbued spherical

  10. Protective effect of selenium against aluminium chloride induced cardiotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Ghorbel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study pertains to evaluate the protective effect of selenium (Se, used as a nutritional supplement, against aluminium chloride induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats have received during 21 days either AlCl3 (400 ppm via drinking water, AlCl3 associated with Na2SeO3 (0.5 mg/kg of diet or only Na2SeO3. Co-administration of Se to AlCl3 treated rats alleviated heart oxidative stress objectified by a decrease of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and protein carbonyls levels. An improvement in antioxidant redox status, enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and non enzymatic (reduced glutathione, non protein thiols and vitamin C was also observed in Se treated rats.  LDH and CK activities, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C and TG decreased in rats treated with AlCl3. Cardiac biomarkers and lipid profile were restored to near control values by the supplementation of Se. Our results revealed that Se, a trace element with antioxidant properties, was effective in preventing heart damage induced by aluminium chloride.

  11. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Znamirowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of curds persisting for 21 days of storage. Enriching goat’s milk yoghurts with magnesium decreased the intensity of „goat” smell and aftertaste and did not cause a change in colour. The most favourable solution is the production of goat’s milk yoghurts enriched with 10-20 mg of magnesium in the form of magnesium chloride. Such doses of enrichment caused successive lowering of perceptibility of „goat” aftertaste and smell together with extension of storage time.

  12. Hydrogen as a New Alloying Element in Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen was regarded as a harmful impurity in many alloys and particularly in steels where it gives rise to a specific type of embrittlement and forms various discontinuities like flakes and blowholes. For this reason, the researcher efforts were mainly focused on eliminating hydrogen's negative impacts and explaining its uncommonly high diffusivity in condensed phases. Meanwhile, positive characteristics of hydrogen as an alloying element remained unknown for quite a long time. Initial reports in this field did not appear before the early 1970s. Data on new phase diagrams are given for metal-hydrogen systems where the metal may or may not form hydrides. Various kinds of hydrogen impact on structure formation in solidification, melting and solid-solid transformations are covered. Special attention is given to the most popular alloys based on iron, aluminum, copper, nickel, magnesium and titanium. Detailed is what is called gas-eutectic reaction resulting in a special type of gas-solid structure named gasarite. Properties and applications of gasars - gasaritic porous materials - are dealt with. Various versions of solid-state alloying with hydrogen are discussed that change physical properties and fabrication characteristics of metals. Details are given on a unique phenomenon of anomalous spontaneous deformation due to combination of hydrogen environment and polymorphic transformation. All currently known versions of alloying with hydrogen are categorized for both hydride-forming and non-hydrid forming metals

  13. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.

  14. Sensors for Highly Toxic Gases: Methylamine and Hydrogen Chloride Detection at Low Concentrations in an Ionic Liquid on Pt Screen Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Murugappan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available Pt screen printed electrodes (SPEs have been employed as possible electrode materials for methylamine (MA and hydrogen chloride (HCl gas detection. The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide ([C2mim][NTf2] was used as a solvent and the electrochemical behaviour of both gases was first examined using cyclic voltammetry. The reaction mechanism appears to be the same on Pt SPEs as on Pt microelectrodes. Furthermore, the analytical utility was studied to understand the behaviour of these highly toxic gases at low concentrations on SPEs, with calibration graphs obtained from 10 to 80 ppm. Three different electrochemical techniques were employed: linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and square wave voltammetry (SWV, with no significant differences in the limits of detection (LODs between the techniques (LODs were between 1.4 to 3.6 ppm for all three techniques for both gases. The LODs achieved on Pt SPEs were lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA PEL limits of the two gases (5 ppm for HCl and 10 ppm for MA, suggesting that Pt SPEs can successfully be combined with RTILs to be used as cheap alternatives for amperometric gas sensing in applications where these toxic gases may be released.

  15. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  16. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  17. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  18. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author) [pt

  19. Hydrogen-oxygen powered internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, H.; Morgan, N.

    1970-01-01

    Hydrogen at 300 psi and oxygen at 800 psi are injected sequentially into the combustion chamber to form hydrogen-rich mixture. This mode of injection eliminates difficulties of preignition, detonation, etc., encountered with carburated, spark-ignited, hydrogen-air mixtures. Ignition at startup is by means of a palladium catalyst.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Kuang, Jia; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Seob Khil, Myung; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV–vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The characterization of zinc chloride containing PAA hydrogel was investigated. • The gel content increased with an increase in absorbed dose up to 75 kGy. • Finally, the zinc chloride based hydrogels have an antibacterial activity

  1. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  2. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  3. Effect of 10% Strontium Chloride and 5% Potassium Nitrate with Fluoride on Bleached Bovine Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Cristiane de Melo; Pedrinha, Victor Feliz; Araújo, Jesuína Lamartine Nogueira; Esteves, Renata Antunes; Silva da Silveira, Ana Daniela; Silva, Cecy Martins

    2017-01-01

    Dental whitening has been increasingly sought out to improve dental aesthetics, but may cause chemical and morphological changes in dental enamel surfaces. This study evaluated in vitro the effect of 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate with fluoride on bovine enamel, through tristimulus colorimetry, Knoop microhardness (KHN), and roughness after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). The specimens were divided into three groups (n=15): GControl received bleaching treatment with 35% HP; GNitrate received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 5% potassium nitrate with 2% sodium fluoride; and GStrontium received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 10% strontium chloride on the enamel. Next, five specimens of each experimental group were subjected to KHN and tristimulus colorimetry tests, and 10 specimens were subjected to surface roughness (SR) tests. The values obtained for the different groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test in addition to Student's T-test for paired data. In the intergroup comparison, KHN final differed statistically ( p 0.05). 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate combined with 2% fluoride downplayed morphological changes to the enamel, without interfering with the effectiveness of the bleaching process.

  4. Investigation of hydrogen bubbles behavior in tungsten by high-flux hydrogen implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangtao; Meng, Xuan; Guan, Xingcai; Wang, Qiang; Fang, Kaihong; Xu, Xiaohui; Lu, Yongkai; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhenlin; Wang, Tieshan

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogen isotopes retention and bubbles formation are critical issues for tungsten as plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors. In this work, the formation and growing up behavior of hydrogen bubbles in tungsten were investigated experimentally. The planar TEM samples were implanted by 6.0keV hydrogens to a fluence of 3.38 ×1018 H ṡ cm-2 at room temperature, and well-defined hydrogen bubbles were observed by TEM. It was demonstrated that hydrogen bubbles formed when exposed to a fluence of 1.5 ×1018 H ṡ cm-2 , and the hydrogen bubbles grew up with the implantation fluence. In addition, the bubbles' size appeared larger with higher beam flux until saturated at a certain flux, even though the total fluence was kept the same. Finally, in order to understand the thermal annealing effect on the bubbles behavior, hydrogen-implanted samples were annealed at 400, 600, 800, and 1000 °C for 3 h. It was obvious that hydrogen bubbles' morphology changed at temperatures higher than 800 °C.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide as pre-treatment stressor in experimental immer-sion challenge of rainbow trout fry with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2012-01-01

    . Non-medical therapeutic substances are routinely used against pathogens in aquacultures, including copper sulphate, chloramine-T, sodium carbonates, sodium chloride, formalin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). One of the more successful immersion models used formalin as a stressor, but a less harmful...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  7. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  8. Effects of chloride ions on corrosion of ductile iron and carbon steel in soil environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yarong; Jiang, Guangming; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Tian, Yimei

    2017-07-31

    Chloride is reported to play a significant role in corrosion reactions, products and kinetics of ferrous metals. To enhance the understanding of the effects of soil environments, especially the saline soils with high levels of chloride, on the corrosion of ductile iron and carbon steel, a 3-month corrosion test was carried out by exposing ferrous metals to soils of six chloride concentrations. The surface morphology, rust compositions and corrosion kinetics were comprehensively studied by visual observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), weight loss, pit depth measurement, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. It showed that chloride ions influenced the characteristics and compositions of rust layers by diverting and participating in corrosion reactions. α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH and iron oxides were major corrosion products, while β-Fe 8 O 8 (OH) 8 Cl 1.35 rather than β-FeOOH was formed when high chloride concentrations were provided. Chloride also suppressed the decreasing of corrosion rates, whereas increased the difficulty in the diffusion process by thickening the rust layers and transforming the rust compositions. Carbon steel is more susceptible to chloride attacks than ductile iron. The corrosion kinetics of ductile iron and carbon steel corresponded with the probabilistic and bilinear model respectively.

  9. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  10. Preparation of pure anhydrous rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kova, N.L.; Slastenova, N.M.; Batyaev, I.M.; Solov'ev, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been suggested for obtaining extra-pure anhydrous REE chlorides by chloridizing corresponding oxalates by chlorine in a fluid bed, the chloridizing agents being diluted by an inert gas in a ratio of 2-to-1. The method is applicable to the manufacture of quality chlorides not only of light, but also of heavy REE. Neodymium chloride has an excited life of tau=30 μs, this evidencing the absence of the damping impurities

  11. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  12. Crystal field influence on vibration spectra: anhydrous uranyl chloride and dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Andre; Caillet, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of anhydrous uranyl chloride UO 2 Cl 2 and so called basic uranyl chloride: dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate /UO 2 (OH) 2 UO 2 /Cl 2 (H 2 O) 4 are reported. Factor group method analysis leads for the first time to complete and comprehensive interpretation of their spectra. Two extreme examples of crystal field influence on vibrational spectra are pointed out: for UO 2 Cl 2 , one is unable to explain spectra without taking into account all the elements of primitive crystalline cell, whilst for dihydroxodiuranyl dichloride tetrahydrate the crystal packing has very little effect on vibrational spectra [fr

  13. The 7-azanorbornane nucleus of epibatidine: 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Britvin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (7-azanorbornane is a bridged heterocyclic nucleus found in epibatidine, the alkaloid isolated from the skin of the tropical poison frog Epipedobates tricolor. Since epibatidine is known as one of the most potent acetylcholine nicotinic receptor agonists, a plethora of literature has been devoted to this alkaloid. However, there are no structural data on the unsubstituted 7-azanorbornane, the parent bicyclic ring of epibatidine and its derivatives. We herein present the structural characterization of the 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane parent ring as its hydrochloride salt, namely 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-ium chloride, C6H12N+·Cl−. The compete cation is generated by a crystallographic mirror plane with the N atom lying on the mirror, as does the chloride anion. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, which generate [001] chains.

  14. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  15. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08

    corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

  16. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ∼5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ∼2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60 C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ∼80 C and ∼95 C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

  17. Redetermination of 1-carboxycyclohexan-1-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa González

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H14NO2+·Cl−, was reported previously [Chacko, Srinivasan & Zand (1975. J. Cryst. Mol. Struct. 5, 353–357] from Weissenberg photographic data with R = 0.113. It has now been redetermined, providing a significant increase in the precision of the derived geometric parameters, viz. mean σ(C—C = 0.003 Å in the present work compared with 0.021 Å for the previous work. The complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirrror symmetry, with three C atoms, two O atoms and the N atom lying on the reflecting plane; the chloride anion also has m site symmetry. The crystal structure is established by a two-dimensional network of O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating C12(4 and C12(7 chains, and R24(8 and R24(14 rings.

  18. Oxidative Esterification of Aldehydes with Urea Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jong Chan [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a new, environmentally benign and highly efficient oxidative preparation of methyl esters by the reaction of various aldehydes with UHP in methanol catalyzed by readily accessible aluminum(III) chloride hexahydrate. This new greener and cost effective direct esterification method can serve as a useful alternative to existing protocols. Esters are some of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry and have been found in the sub-structure of a variety of natural products, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Numerous methods have been reported for the preparation of various esters. In particular, this method gives low yields for both aldehydes containing electron donating substituents in aromatic rings and heterocyclic aldehydes. Therefore, development of a more general, efficient, and greener protocol for the esterification of aldehydes with readily available catalyst is still desirable.

  19. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  20. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  1. Direct determination of tungsten in the presence of high content of molybdenum in the form of its complex with bromopyrogallol red and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, I.Yu.; Lebedeva, L.I.; Flotskaya, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    It has been shown that tungsten reacts with Bromopyrogallol Red and hydrogen peroxide to form a ternary complex. A procedure has been developed of determining tungsten(6) in the presence of 500 times molar amounts of molybdenum(6). Under the conditions chosen molybdenum forms a stable peroxide complex and does not interfere with the determination

  2. Fate of Chloromethanes in the Atmospheric Environment: Implications for Human Health, Ozone Formation and Depletion, and Global Warming Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2017-01-01

    Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH3Cl; methylene chloride, CH2Cl2; chloroform, CHCl3; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed. In addition, this paper further discusses their atmospheric fates and human health implications because they are apt to reside in the lower atmosphere when released into the environment. According to the atmospheric degradation mechanism, their toxic degradation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine (Cl2), formyl chloride (HCOCl), carbonyl chloride (COCl2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Among them, COCl2 (also called phosgene) is a powerful irritating gas, which is easily hydrolyzed or thermally decomposed to form hydrogen chloride. PMID:29051455

  3. Crystal Structure and Hydrogen Bonding Study of (10E-2,2-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione 10-Oxime Derived From a-Lapachone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo C. Visentin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound (10E-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione-10-oxime (1 was synthesized from a-lapachone and hydroxylamine chloride in alkaline medium. Single-crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction measurements were grown from an ethanol solution, and the crystal structure of the title molecule is reported for the first time. The title molecule was also characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR in CDCl3 solution, FTIR and MS. The crystal structure of 1 shows an E stereochemistry and dimers formed through classical hydrogen bonds.

  4. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 2-Amino-4-methoxy-6-methylpyrimidinium hydrogen phthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Sangeetha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrogen phthalate anion of the title molecular salt, C6H10N3O+·C8H5O4−, the dihedral angles formed by the benzene ring and the mean planes of the –COOH and –COO− groups are 16.1 (3 and 19.8 (3°, respectively. There is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond in the anion generating an S(7 ring motif. In the crystal, the protonated N atom of the pyrimidinium ring and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxylate O atoms of the anion via a pair of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming an R22(8 ring motif. The ion pairs are further connected via N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons parallel to the [01-1] direction. The ribbons are linked by off-set π–π stacking interactions [intercentroid distances = 3.8279 (16 and 3.6074 (15 Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  6. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  7. Purification of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, U.

    1978-01-01

    A process is described for purifying a hydrogen sulfide gas stream containing carbon dioxide, comprising (a) passing the gas stream through a bed of solid hydrated lime to form calcium hydrosulfide and calcium carbonate and (b) regenerating hydrogen sulfide from said calcium hydrosulfide by reacting the calcium hydrosulfide with additional carbon dioxide. The process is especially applicable for use in a heavy water recovery process wherein deuterium is concentrated from a feed water containing carbon dioxide by absorption and stripping using hydrogen sulfide as a circulating medium, and the hydrogen sulfide absorbs a small quantity of carbon dioxide along with deuterium in each circulation

  8. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in powder form having a particle size such that 100 percent will pass through a U.S. Standard Sieve No. 40 and such that not more than 10 percent will pass through a U.S. Standard Sieve No. 200. (1... analysis. (e) Other specifications and limitations. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers...

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Furanic Derivatives in the Presence of Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural… from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt that can form a low melting mixture with a carbohydrate (fructose, glucose… or a deep eutectic mixture with carboxylic acid. A review of the studies performed in the conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives in the presence of choline chloride is presented here with the advantages and drawbacks of this solvent. Choline chloride can enhance the selectivity to HMF by stabilizing effect and allows the conversion of highly concentrated feed. However, the extraction of the products from these solvents still needs improvement.

  16. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  17. Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jiao; Hu, Peng-jie; Zhao, Jie; Dong, Chang-xun

    2015-04-01

    Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44% of Cd and 23% of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32% by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal-chloride and metal-citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal-chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe-Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  20. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  1. Study of the Susceptibility of Oxygen-Free Phosphorous Doped Copper to Corrosion in Simulated Groundwater in the Presence of Chloride and Sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Ivan; Lamas, Claudia; Werme, Lars; Oversby, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen free high conductivity copper, doped with phosphorus (Cu OFP) has been chosen as the material for the fabrication of high level nuclear waste containers in Sweden. This material will be the corrosion barrier for spent fuel in the environment of a deep geological repository in granitic rock. The service life of this container is expected to exceed 1,000,000 years. During this time, which includes several glaciations, water of different compositions, including high concentration of chloride ions, will contact the copper surface. This work reports a study of the susceptibility of Cu OFP to corrosion when chloride ions are present, in deionized water (DW) and in synthetic groundwater (SGW). The techniques used were electrochemical methods such as corrosion potential evolution and Tafel curves. The system was studied with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We also used as characterization techniques Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The main conclusions are that copper is more susceptible to corrosion at high chloride ion concentration. When the chloride concentration is low, it is possible to form copper chloride crystals, but at the highest concentration, copper chloride complexes are formed, leaving the copper surface without deposits. When the chloride concentration is low ( -5 M), copper corrosion in the presence of chloride is controlled by diffusional processes, while at higher concentrations corrosion is controlled by charge transfer processes. (authors)

  2. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  3. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  4. Changes in acceleration rate of chloride ions depending on climatic conditions. Influence of rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvo, F.; Arroyave, C.; Autie, M.; Minotas, J.; Balmaseda, J.; Delgado, J.; Haces, C.

    2003-01-01

    Mild steel,copper and aluminum samples were exposed outdoors in two atmospheric test stations located in Havana, Cuba and Medellin, colombia. Two parallel group of samples were formed, one for each station. They were submitted to accelerated outdoor test by intermittent spraying of a salt solution (SCAB test) according to ISO 11474.98, receiving also the influence of the open atmosphere. The acceleration of corrosion rate of the three metals caused by the presence of chloride ions in both stations was determined. As expected, steel shows the higher corrosion rate and acceleration by chlorides, particularly at Cuban corrosion station. A remarkable difference in the acceleration rate of chloride ions for mild steel and copper between Cuban and Colombian acceleration rate of chloride ions of steel and copper. Steel corrosion products were analysed by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Water absorption was also studied. The presence of magnetite, goethite and other Iron compounds was determined. (Author) 10 refs

  5. Conductometric study of lanthanum chloride interaction with potash soaps of higher fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Sazonova, V.F.; Kornelli, M.Eh.; Shumilina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Interaction of lanthanum chloride with potassium salts of higher aliphatic acids, containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms, at room temperature in weakly acid media (pH=5.5) gives rise to neutral soaps of the La[CHsub(3)(CHsub(2))sub(n)COO]sub(3) composition, while in alkaline media (pH=8.0) base soaps of the LaOH[CHsub(3)(CHsub(2))sub(n)COO]sub(2) composition are formed. In acid solutions (pH=2.0) no interaction of lanthanum chloride with potassium soaps of the above carboxylic acids is observed

  6. Alkali metal bismuth(III) chloride double salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Andrew W. [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Nicholas, Aaron; Ahern, John C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Chan, Benny [Department of Chemistry, College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States); Patterson, Howard H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Pike, Robert D., E-mail: rdpike@wm.edu [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Evaporative co-crystallization of MCl (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) with BiOCl in aqueous HCl produces double salts: M{sub x}Bi{sub y}Cl{sub (x+3y)}·zH{sub 2}O. The sodium salt, Na{sub 2}BiCl{sub 5}·5H{sub 2}O (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a = 8.6983(7) Å, b = 21.7779(17) Å, c = 7.1831(6) Å, β = 103.0540(10)°, V = 1325.54(19) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4) is composed of zigzag chains of μ{sub 2}-Cl-cis-linked (BiCl{sub 5}){sub n}{sup 2n–} chains. Edge-sharing chains of NaCl{sub n}(OH{sub 2}){sub 6−n} octahedra (n = 0, 2, 3) are linked through μ{sub 3}-Cl to Bi. The potassium salt, K{sub 7}Bi{sub 3}Cl{sub 16} (trigonal R−3c, a = 12.7053(9) Å, b = 12.7053(9) Å, c = 99.794(7) Å, V = 13,951(2) Å{sup 3}, Z = 18) contains (Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}){sup 4–} edge-sharing dimers of octahedra and simple (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra. The K{sup +} ions are 5- to 8-coordinate and the chlorides are 3-, 4-, or 5-coordinate. The rubidium salt, Rb{sub 3}BiCl{sub 6}·0.5H{sub 2}O (orthorhombic Pnma, a = 12.6778(10) Å, b = 25.326(2) Å, c = 8.1498(7) Å, V = 2616.8(4) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8) contains (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra. The Rb{sup +} ions are 6-, 8-, and 9-coordinate, and the chlorides are 4- or 5-coordinate. Two cesium salts were formed: Cs{sub 3}BiCl{sub 6} (orthorhombic Pbcm, a = 8.2463(9) Å, b = 12.9980(15) Å, c = 26.481(3) Å, V = 2838.4(6) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8) being comprised of (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra, 8-coordinate Cs{sup +}, and 3-, 4-, and 5-coordinate Cl{sup −}. In Cs{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} (orthorhombic Pnma, a = 18.4615(15) Å, b = 7.5752(6) Å, c = 13.0807(11) Å, V = 1818.87(11) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4) Bi octahedra are linked by μ{sub 2}-bridged Cl into edge-sharing Bi{sub 4} squares which form zigzag (Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}){sub n}{sup 3n–} ladders. The 12-coordinate Cs{sup +} ions bridge the ladders, and the Cl{sup −} ions are 5- and 6-coordinate. Four of the double salts are weakly photoluminescent at 78 K, each showing a series of three excitation peaks

  7. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  8. Methyl group dynamics in paracetamol and acetanilide: probing the static properties of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formed by peptide groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. R.; Prager, M.; Grimm, H.; Neumann, M. A.; Kearley, G. J.; Wilson, C. C.

    1999-06-01

    Measurements of tunnelling and librational excitations for the methyl group in paracetamol and tunnelling excitations for the methyl group in acetanilide are reported. In both cases, results are compared with molecular mechanics calculations, based on the measured low temperature crystal structures, which follow an established recipe. Agreement between calculated and measured methyl group observables is not as good as expected and this is attributed to the presence of comprehensive hydrogen bond networks formed by the peptide groups. Good agreement is obtained with a periodic quantum chemistry calculation which uses density functional methods, these calculations confirming the validity of the one-dimensional rotational model used and the crystal structures. A correction to the Coulomb contribution to the rotational potential in the established recipe using semi-emipircal quantum chemistry methods, which accommodates the modified charge distribution due to the hydrogen bonds, is investigated.

  9. Borazine-boron nitride hybrid hydrogen storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K [Knoxville, TN; Simonson, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon [Knoxville, TN; Paine, Robert T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A hybrid hydrogen storage composition includes a first phase and a second phase adsorbed on the first phase, the first phase including BN for storing hydrogen by physisorption and the second phase including a borazane-borazine system for storing hydrogen in combined form as a hydride.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  11. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  12. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  13. Some reactions of uranium chloride pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, A.J.; Gardner, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The molecule UF 5 Cl has been isolated, together with an excess of UF 6 , in a solid matrix of Ar, N 2 , or CO and characterised by its i.r. spectrum. Under these conditions it dissociates under the action of radiation having wavelengths close to 500 nm to give UF 5 ; OCCl and OCClF are also formed on photolysis in a solid CO matrix, whereas a species believed to be U 2 F 11 is formed on photolysis in a solid N 2 matrix. CCl 3 F solutions of fluoride-rich mixtures of uranium(VI) chloride fluorides have been shown to function as chlorinating, fluorinating, or chlorofluorinating reagents in their reactions with various unsaturated molecules at temperatures low enough to preclude thermal decomposition of the mixed halides ( 0 C). (author)

  14. Method of forming components for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Franklin C.; Battles, James E.

    1983-01-01

    A method of forming a component for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell having a positive electrode including a sulfide selected from the group consisting of iron sulfides, nickel sulfides, copper sulfides and cobalt sulfides, a negative electrode including an alloy of aluminum and an electrically insulating porous separator between said electrodes. The improvement comprises forming a slurry of solid particles dispersed in a liquid electrolyte such as the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutetic, casting the slurry into a form having the shape of one of the components and smoothing the exposed surface of the slurry, cooling the cast slurry to form the solid component, and removing same. Electrodes and separators can be thus formed.

  15. Polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil modulates benzalkonium chloride toxicity: comparison of acute corneal barrier dysfunction induced by travoprost Z and travoprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Masafumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Shimoda, Kenichiro; Kusano, Mao; Teshima, Mugen; To, Hideto; Kitahara, Takashi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2011-10-01

    To determine the element that modulates benzalkonium chloride (BAC) toxicity by using a new electrophysiological method to evaluate acute corneal barrier dysfunction induced by travoprost Z with sofZia (Travatan Z(®)), travoprost with 0.015% BAC (Travatan(®)), and its additives. Corneal transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured in live white Japanese rabbits by 2 Ag/AgCl electrodes placed in the anterior aqueous chamber and on the cornea. We evaluated corneal TER changes after a 60-s exposure to travoprost Z, travoprost, and 0.015% BAC. Similarly, TER changes were evaluated after corneas were exposed for 60 s to the travoprost additives ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, boric acid, mannitol, trometamol, and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40) with or without BAC. Corneal damage was examined after exposure to BAC with or without travoprost additives using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a cytotoxicity assay. Although no decreases of TER were noted after exposure to travoprost Z with sofZia and travoprost with 0.015% BAC, a significant decrease of corneal TER was observed after 0.015% BAC exposure. With the exception of BAC, no corneal TER decreases were observed for any travoprost additives. After corneal exposure to travoprost additives with BAC, HCO-40 was able to prevent the BAC-induced TER decrease. SEM observations and the cytotoxicity assay confirmed that there was a remarkable improvement of BAC-induced corneal epithelial toxicity after addition of HCO-40 to the BAC. Travoprost Z with sofZia and travoprost with BAC do not induce acute corneal barrier dysfunction. HCO-40 provides protection against BAC-induced corneal toxicity.

  16. A new technique for pumping hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Hardcastle, K.

    1970-01-01

    A system for pumping hydrogen gas without isotopic fractionation has been developed. The pump contains uranium metal, which when heated to about 80??C reacts with hydrogen to form UH3. The UH3 is heated to above 500??C to decompose the hydride and regenerate the hydrogen. ?? 1970.

  17. Presence of hydrogen peroxide, a source of hydroxyl radicals, in acid electrolyzed water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mokudai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acid electrolyzed water (AEW, which is produced through the electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride (NaCl or potassium chloride solution, is used as a disinfectant in various fields because of its potent antimicrobial activity. The hydroxyl radical, an oxygen radical species, is often suggested as a putative active ingredient for AEW antimicrobial activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present study is to detect hydroxyl radicals in AEW. The hydroxyl radicals in AEW prepared under different conditions were determined using an electron spin resonance (ESR technique. A signal from 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO-OH, an adduct of DMPO and the hydroxyl radical, was detected in AEW prepared by double or triple electrolyses of 1% NaCl but not of 0.1% NaCl solution. Then the presence of hydrogen peroxide as a proposed source of hydroxyl radicals was examined using a combination of ESR and a Fenton reaction. The DMPO-OH signal was clearly detected, even in AEW prepared by single electrolysis of 0.1% NaCl solution, when ferrous sulfate was added to induce a Fenton reaction, indicating the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the AEW. Since sodium formate, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, did not affect the bactericidal activity of AEW, it is concluded that the radical is unlikely to contribute to the antimicrobial activity of AEW, although a small amount of the radical is produced from hydrogen peroxide. Dimethyl sulfoxide, the other hydroxyl radical scavenger used in the present study, canceled the bactericidal activity of AEW, accompanied by complete depletion of free available chlorine, suggesting that hypochlorous acid is probably a major contributor to the antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that although hydrogen peroxide is present in AEW as a source of hydroxyl radicals, the antimicrobial activity of AEW does not depend on these radicals.

  18. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Determination of Chloride Content in Cementitious Materials : From Fundamental Aspects to Application of Ag/AgCl Chloride Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the advantages and drawbacks of available test methods for the determination of chloride content in cementitious materials in general, and the application of Ag/AgCl chloride sensors in particular. The main factors that affect the reliability of a chloride sensor are presented.

  20. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, Laura [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  1. Supra-molecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in the N(9)-H protonated and N(7)-H tautomeric form of an N(6) -benzoyl-adenine salt: N (6)-benzoyl-adeninium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Jeeva Jasmine, Nithianantham; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-02-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H10N5O(+)·NO3 (-), the adenine unit has an N (9)-protonated N(7)-H tautomeric form with non-protonated N(1) and N(3) atoms. The dihedral angle between the adenine ring system and the phenyl ring is 51.10 (10)°. The typical intra-molecular N(7)-H⋯O hydrogen bond with an S(7) graph-set motif is also present. The benzoyl-adeninium cations also form base pairs through N-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the Watson-Crick face of the adenine ring and the C and O atoms of the benzoyl ring of an adjacent cation, forming a supra-molecular ribbon with R 2 (2)(9) rings. Benzoyl-adeninum cations are also bridged by one of the oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion, which acts as a double acceptor, forming a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to generate a second ribbon motif. These ribbons together with π-π stacking inter-actions between the phenyl ring and the five- and six-membered adenine rings of adjacent mol-ecules generate a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  2. Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim

    2007-01-01

    Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K 2 (or Li 2 )CO 3 /Sr(or Ba)Cl 2 ]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments, the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba 0.5 Sr 0.3 CO 3 . And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO 3 . Carbonation ratio increased with a decreasing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K 2 CO 3 injection than that of Li 2 CO 3 . Based on this experiment, it is postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. (authors)

  3. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  4. Influence of hydrogen additions on high-temperature superplasticity of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the addition of up to 1.0 wt pct hydrogen as a transient alloying element on the superplastic formability (SPF) of fine-grained, equiaxed Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) and duplex-annealed Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242) were determined. Small amounts of internal hydrogen greatly improve the SPF of the alloys. Formability at 720-900 C was evaluated by an instrumented cone-forming test with continuous monitoring of strain with time. Argon/1 pct hydrogen and argon/4 pct hydrogen gas mixtures were used for charging the alloys with hydrogen as well as for superplastic forming. Hydrogen additions lower the beta-transus temperature of alpha-beta titanium alloys, and the proportions of the alpha and beta phases required for optimum superplasticity can thus be obtained at lower temperatures in hydrogen-modified alloys than in standard alloys. The increased amount of beta phase in the hydrogen-modified titanium alloys reduces the grain growth rates at forming temperature, thus reducing the time-dependent decrease in superplastic strain rate at constant stress or the increase in flow stress at constant strain rate. Process parameters for superplastic forming of Ti-64 and Ti-6242 using argon-hydrogen gas mixtures were determined. 8 references

  5. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The FY 1988 Summary is the eleventh consecutive yearly report providing an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented on the HECC. A historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of these offices is given. The distribution by mission-related program element for FY 1988, and the non-mission-related activities are given. Total DOE funding in FY 1988 for mission-related hydrogen research was $5.2 million; DOE non-mission-related hydrogen research funding totaled $30.0 million. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information is given in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A. 2 tabs

  6. N-acetylglyoxylic amide bearing a nitrophenyl group as anion receptors: NMR and X-ray investigations on anion binding and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-10-01

    N-Nitrophenylglyoxylic amides 1 and 2 in presence of tetrabutylammonium cation (TBA) act as receptors for anions HSO4-, Cl-, Br- and NO3- as investigated by NMR studies. The receptors formed 1:1 host-guest complexes in solution. X-ray structure of 1 along with TBA that bind a chloride anion is reported. Molecule 1 showed the highest selectivity for HSO4- anion over others measured. X-ray structure of the bound Cl- revealed a pocket containing the anion making strong (Nsbnd H⋯Cl) and weak hydrogen bonds (Csbnd H⋯Cl) that contribute to the recognition of the chloride anion. Nsbnd H and Csbnd H hydrogen bonds resulted in a relatively strong binding for chloride ions.

  7. Atomic hydrogen determination in medium-pressure microwave discharge hydrogen plasmas via emission actinometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Zicai; Xu Yong; Yang Xuefeng; Wang Weiguo; Zhu Aimin

    2005-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen plays an important role in the chemical vapour deposition of functional materials, plasma etching and new approaches to the chemical synthesis of hydrogen-containing compounds. This work reports experimental determinations of atomic hydrogen in microwave discharge hydrogen plasmas formed from the TM 01 microwave mode in an ASTeX-type reactor, via optical emission spectroscopy using Ar as an actinometer. The relative intensities of the H atom Balmer lines and Ar-750.4 nm emissions as functions of input power and gas pressure have been investigated. At an input microwave power density of 13.5 W cm -3 , the approximate hydrogen dissociation fractions calculated from electron-impact excitation and quenching cross sections in the literature, decreased from ∼0.08 to ∼0.03 as the gas pressure was increased from 5 to 25 Torr. The influences of the above cross sections, and the electron and gas temperatures of the plasmas on the determination of the hydrogen dissociation fraction data have been discussed

  8. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  9. High temperature corrosion of silicon carbide and silicon nitride in the presence of chloride compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNallan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon carbide and silicon nitride are resistant to oxidation because a protective silicon dioxide films on their surfaces in most oxidizing environments. Chloride compounds can attack the surface in two ways: 1) chlorine can attack the silicon directly to form a volatile silicon chloride compound or 2) alkali compounds combined with the chlorine can be transported to the surface where they flux the silica layer by forming stable alkali silicates. Alkali halides have enough vapor pressure that a sufficient quantity of alkali species to cause accelerated corrosion can be transported to the ceramic surface without the formation of a chloride deposit. When silicon carbide is attacked simultaneously by chlorine and oxygen, the corrosion products include both volatile and condensed spices. Silicon nitride is much more resistance to this type of attack than silicon carbide. Silicon based ceramics are exposed to oxidizing gases in the presence of alkali chloride vapors, the rate of corrosion is controlled primarily by the driving force for the formation of alkali silicate, which can be quantified as the activity of the alkali oxide in equilibrium with the corrosive gas mixture. In a gas mixture containing a fixed partial pressure of KCl, the rate of corrosion is accelerated by increasing the concentration of water vapor and inhibited by increasing the concentration of HCl. Similar results have been obtained for mixtures containing other alkalis and halogens. (Orig./A.B.)

  10. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  11. Modified chloride diffusion model for concrete under the coupling effect of mechanical load and chloride salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingfeng; Lin, Dayong; Liu, Jianwen; Shi, Chenghua; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Weichao; Yu, Xiaoniu

    2018-03-01

    For the purpose of investigating lining concrete durability, this study derives a modified chloride diffusion model for concrete based on the odd continuation of boundary conditions and Fourier transform. In order to achieve this, the linear stress distribution on a sectional structure is considered, detailed procedures and methods are presented for model verification and parametric analysis. Simulation results show that the chloride diffusion model can reflect the effects of linear stress distribution of the sectional structure on the chloride diffusivity with reliable accuracy. Along with the natural environmental characteristics of practical engineering structures, reference value ranges of model parameters are provided. Furthermore, a chloride diffusion model is extended for the consideration of multi-factor coupling of linear stress distribution, chloride concentration and diffusion time. Comparison between model simulation and typical current research results shows that the presented model can produce better considerations with a greater universality.

  12. A Novel Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Hybrid Polymer/Metal Oxide as Catalysts for p-Chloronitrobenzene Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian H. Campos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reports a novel preparation of gold nanoparticles on polymer/metal oxide hybrid materials (Au/P[VBTACl]-M metal: Al, Ti or Zr and their use as heterogeneous catalysts in liquid phase hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene. The support was prepared by in situ radical polymerization/sol gel process of (4-vinyl-benzyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate in conjunction with metal-alkoxides as metal oxide precursors. The supported catalyst was prepared by an ion exchange process using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 as gold precursor. The support provided the appropriate environment to induce the spontaneous reduction and deposition of gold nanoparticles. The hybrid material was characterized. TEM and DRUV-vis results indicated that the gold forms spherical metallic nanoparticles and that their mean diameter increases in the sequence, Au/P[VBTACl]-Zr > Au/P[VBTACl]-Al > Au/P[VBTACl]-Ti. The reactivity of the Au catalysts toward the p-CNB hydrogenation reaction is attributed to the different particle size distributions of gold nanoparticles in the hybrid supports. The kinetic pseudo-first-order constant values for the catalysts in the hydrogenation reaction increases in the order, Au/P[VBTACl]-Al > Au/P[VBTACl]-Zr > Au/P[VBTACl]-Ti. The selectivity for all the catalytic systems was greater than 99% toward the chloroaniline target product. Finally the catalyst supported on the hybrid with Al as metal oxide could be reused at least four times without loss in activity or selectivity for the hydrogenation of p-CNB in ethanol as solvent.

  13. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Wang Lili; Zhu Lanying; Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei

    2010-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h xy , h xxy , and h xyy ) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h xy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  14. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  15. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  16. Biasing hydrogen bond donating host systems towards chemical warfare agent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Jennifer R; Wells, Neil J; Ede, Jayne A; Gale, Philip A; Sambrook, Mark R

    2016-10-12

    A series of neutral ditopic and negatively charged, monotopic host molecules have been evaluated for their ability to bind chloride and dihydrogen phosphate anions, and neutral organophosphorus species dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) and the chemical warfare agent (CWA) pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD, soman) in organic solvent via hydrogen bonding. Urea, thiourea and boronic acid groups are shown to bind anions and neutral guests through the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the urea and thiourea groups typically exhibiting higher affinity interactions. The introduction of a negative charge on the host structure is shown to decrease anion affinity, whilst still allowing for high stability host-GD complex formation. Importantly, the affinity of the host for the neutral CWA GD is greater than for anionic guests, thus demonstrating the potential for selectivity reversal based on charge repulsion.

  17. High density hydrogen research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The interest in the properties of very dense hydrogen is prompted by its abundance in Saturn and Jupiter and its importance in laser fusion studies. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the metallic form of hydrogen may be a superconductor at relatively high temperatures and/or exist in a metastable phase at ambient pressure. For ten years or more, laboratories have been developing the techniques to study hydrogen in the megabar region (1 megabar = 100 GPa). Three major approaches to study dense hydrogen experimentally have been used, static presses, shockwave compression, and magnetic compression. Static tchniques have crossed the megabar threshold in stiff materials but have not yet been convincingly successful in very compressible hydrogen. Single and double shockwave techniques have improved the precision of the pressure, volume, temperature Equation of State (EOS) of molecular hydrogen (deuterium) up to near 1 Mbar. Multiple shockwave and magnetic techniques have compressed hydrogen to several megabars and densities in the range of the metallic phase. The net result is that hydrogen becomes conducting at a pressure between 2 and 4 megabars. Hence, the possibility of making a significant amount of hydrogen into a metal in a static press remains a formidable challenge. The success of such experiments will hopefully answer the questions about hydrogen's metallic vs. conducting molecular phase, superconductivity, and metastability. 4 figures, 15 references

  18. Separation of hafnium from zirconium in their tetrachloride solution in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, A B; Kudyakov, V Ya; Smirnov, M V; Moskalenko, N I [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii

    1984-08-01

    The coefficient of HfCl/sub 4/ and ZrCl/sub 4/ separation in the process of vapour sublimation from their solutions in molten NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl equimolar mixtures is found to vary in the series from approximately 1.10 to approximately 1.22 and practically not to depend on the temperature (in the 600-910 deg) range and concentration (2-25 mol.% ZrCl/sub 4/+HfCl/sub 4/). HfCl/sub 4/ and ZrCl/sub 4/ are shown to form almost perfect solutions with each other, which in their turn form imperfect solutions with molten alkali metal chlorides, with the strength of hafnium complex chloride anions increasing higher than that of zirconium in the series from NaCl to CsCl.

  19. Separation of hafnium from zirconium in their tetrachloride solution in molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Smirnov, M.V.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The coefficient of HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 separation in the process of vapour sublimation from their solutions in molten NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl equimolar mixtures is found to vary in the series from approximately 1.10 to approximately 1.22 and practically not to depend on the temperature (in the 600-910 deg) range and concentration (2-25 mol.% ZrCl 4 +HfCl 4 ). HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 are shown to form almost perfect solutions with each other, which in their turn form imperfect solutions with molten alkali metal chlorides, with the strength of hafnium complex chloride anions increasing higher than that of zirconium in the series from NaCl to CsCl

  20. Study on the chloride migration coefficient obtained following different Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the differences in the available Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines, and their influence on the values of the chloride migration coefficients DRCM, obtained following these guidelines. It is shown that the differences between the guidelines are significant and concern

  1. Characterization of bentonite pore structure by combining chloride porosity and SAXS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The total water porosity, chloride porosity and the microstructure were studied in compacted samples prepared from MX-80 and Deponit bentonites equilibrated through filter plates with 0.1 M NaCl solution for 12.5 months. The dry densities of the samples varied approximately from 0.7 to 1.55 g/cm 3 . XRD and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) were used to study the microstructure of the bentonites. It was obvious that the chloride porosity was lower than the water porosity in both clays, which indicates the exclusion caused by the negatively charged montmorillonite surfaces. In the XRD and SAXS measurements the measured basal spaces represented by the diffraction peaks were smaller than the theoretical ones assuming a homogenous microstructure. This indicates that there was a substantial amount of water also in the pores, which were not represented by the peaks. This could explain the difference between the measured chloride porosity and the modelling curve obtained with the Donnan model. By combining the information from the SAXS measurements and the chloride exclusion measurements, it was possible to evaluate the volumes of the soft and dense fractions and the pore sizes in each fraction for MX-80. The chloride porosity was mostly caused by the pores in the soft clay where the pore size is larger. The volume of the soft fraction decreased and its density increased with increasing density of the sample. (authors)

  2. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is

  3. Selective Hydrogenation of Biomass-derived Furfural over Supported Ni3Sn2 Alloy: Role of Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly active and selective hydrogenation of biomass-derived furfural into furfuryl alcohol was achieved using supported single phase Ni3Sn2 alloy catalysts. Various supports such as active carbon (AC, g-Al2O3, Al(OH3, ZnO, TiO2, ZrO2, MgO, Li-TN, and SiO2 have been employed in order to understand the role of the support on the formation of Ni3Sn2 alloy phase and its catalytic performance. Supported Ni3Sn2 alloy catalysts were synthesised via a simple hydrothermal treatment of the mixture of aqueous solution of nickel chloride hexahydrate and ethanol solution of tin(II chloride dihydrate in presence of ethylene glycol at 423 K for 24 h followed by H2 treatment at 673 K for 1.5 h, then characterised by using ICP-AES, XRD, H2- and N2-adsorption. XRD profiles of samples showed that the Ni3Sn2 alloy phases are readily formed during hydrothermal processes and become clearly observed at 2θ = 43-44o after H2 treatment. The presence of Ni3Sn2 alloy species that dispersed on the supports is believed to play a key role in highly active and selective hydrogenation of biomass-derived furfural towards furfuryl alcohol. Ni3Sn2 on TiO2 and ZnO supports exhibited much lower reaction temperature to achieved >99% yield of furfuryl alcohol product compared with other supports. The effects of loading amount of Ni-Sn, reaction conditions (temperature and time profile on the activity and selectivity towards the desired product are systematically discussed. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 31st December 2015; Accepted: 5th January 2016 How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Astuti, M.D., Khairi, S., Shimazu, S. (2016. Selective Hydrogenation of Biomass-derived Furfural over Supported Ni3Sn2 Alloy: Role of Supports. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 1-9. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.393.1-9 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.393.1-9

  4. The Absorption-Desorption of Hydrogen by 1.5 g Depleted Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sunmi; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Si-Hyung; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Soon Hwan; Song, Kyu Min [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The form of metal tritides is one of the most popular methods for the storage of hydrogen isotopes. Particularly when metal is in a powder form, the storage capacity of hydrogen isotopes become the maximum value. Here, a 1.5g depleted uranium metal was decrepitated into a powder upon an absorption and desorption of hydrogen gas. The conditions for an activation, absorption-desorption of the hydrogen were defined.

  5. The Absorption-Desorption of Hydrogen by 1.5 g Depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunmi; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Si-Hyung; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Sohn, Soon Hwan; Song, Kyu Min

    2008-01-01

    The form of metal tritides is one of the most popular methods for the storage of hydrogen isotopes. Particularly when metal is in a powder form, the storage capacity of hydrogen isotopes become the maximum value. Here, a 1.5g depleted uranium metal was decrepitated into a powder upon an absorption and desorption of hydrogen gas. The conditions for an activation, absorption-desorption of the hydrogen were defined

  6. A high molybdenum stainless steel and its resistance to chloride environments in the welded condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppolecchia, V.D.; Jasner, M.; Rockel, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Highly alloyed stainless steels, such as 1925 hMo UNS N08925 with 6 percent molybdenum, are finding widespread use in high chloride cooling water and process environments. This alloy has good general corrosion resistance to a variety of chloride environments but it's main attraction is excellent resistance to all forms of localized corrosion. In aggressive chloride environments weldments are generally the area of concern with regard to localized corrosion. Temperature-time-sensitization diagrams are presented that demonstrate the resistance of 1925 hMo weldments to intergranular attack. Immersion tests in 10% ferric chloride substantiate that autogenous tube welds, also have excellent pitting resistance. Various filler metals are compared both electrochemically and in immersion tests. These comparisons reveal that an overalloyed filler metal is required to achieve pitting and crevice corrosion resistance equal or better than that of the base metal. Alloy 625 (UNS NO6625) has been selected. Constant extension rate tests in boiling 62% calcium chloride reveal that 1925 hMo weldments are immune to stress corrosion cracking in this environment which virtually guarantees absence of SCC in seawater regardless of temperature as well as in most commercial chemical environments

  7. Efficiency of hydrogen gas production in a stand-alone solar hydrogen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.; Tamakloe, R.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Many photovoltaic systems operate in a decentralised electricity producing system, or stand-alone mode and the total energy demand is met by the output of the photovoltaic array. The output of the photovoltaic system fluctuates and is unpredictable for many applications making some forms of energy storage system necessary. The role of storage medium is to store the excess energy produced by the photovoltaic arry, to absorb momentary power peaks and to supply energy during sunless periods. One of the storage modes is the use of electrochemical techniques, with batteries and water electrolysis as the most important examples. The present study includes three main parts: the first one is the hydrogen production form the electrolysis of water depending on the DC output current of the photovoltaic (PV) energy source and the charging of the battery. The second part presents the influence of various parameters on the efficiency of hydrogen gas production. The final part includes simulation studies with focus on solar hydrogen efficiency under the influence of various physical and chemical parameters. For a 50W panel-battery-electrolyser system, the dependence of volume of hydrogen gas on voltage, current and power yielded a maximum efficiency of 13.6% (author)

  8. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-08-01

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3 loxloxCre) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3 loxloxCre mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3 loxloxCre mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3 loxloxCre mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3 loxloxCre mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3 loxloxCre mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys in chloride containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Filho, Jorge Eustaquio de

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have been used as cladding materials for nuclear fuel in research reactors due to its corrosion resistance. Aluminum owes its good corrosion resistance to a protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its surface. In pool type TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear in Belo Horizonte, previous immersion coupon tests revealed that aluminum alloys suffer from pitting corrosion, in spite of high quality of water control. Corrosion attack is initiated by breaking the protective oxide film on aluminum alloy surface. Chloride ions can break this oxide film and stimulate metal dissolution. In this study the aluminum alloys 1050, 5052 and 6061 were used to evaluate their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions. The electrochemical techniques used were potentiodynamic anodic polarization and cyclic polarization. Results showed that aluminum alloys 5052 and 6061 present similar corrosion resistance in low chloride solutions (0,1 ppm NaCl) and in reactor water but both alloys are less resistant in high chloride solution (1 ppm NaCl). Aluminum alloy 1050 presented similar behavior in the three electrolytes used, regarding to pitting corrosion, indicating that the concentration of the chloride ions was not the only variable to influence its corrosion susceptibility. (author)

  10. Catalytic Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane by Cobalt Nickel Nanoparticles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Hydrogen Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well dispersed magnetically recyclable bimetallic CoNi nanoparticles (NPs supported on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO were synthesized by one-step in situ coreduction of aqueous solution of cobalt(II chloride, nickel (II chloride, and graphite oxide (GO with ammonia borane (AB as the reducing agent under ambient condition. The CoNi/RGO NPs exhibits excellent catalytic activity with a total turnover frequency (TOF value of 19.54 mol H2 mol catalyst−1 min−1 and a low activation energy value of 39.89 kJ mol−1 at room temperature. Additionally, the RGO supported CoNi NPs exhibit much higher catalytic activity than the monometallic and RGO-free CoNi counterparts. Moreover, the as-prepared catalysts exert satisfying durable stability and magnetically recyclability for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB, which make the practical reusing application of the catalysts more convenient. The usage of the low-cost, easy-getting catalyst to realize the production of hydrogen under mild condition gives more confidence for the application of ammonia borane as a hydrogen storage material. Hence, this general method indicates that AB can be used as both a potential hydrogen storage material and an efficient reducing agent, and can be easily extended to facile preparation of other RGO-based metallic systems.

  11. Hydrogen and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, N J.D.

    1976-03-01

    There is much debate about the form and availability of energy supplies in the future. It is assumed that nuclear fuel is the only source of controlled energy. Energy inputs from the sun, the wind, the waves, the tides, and other sources not available in the form of fuels are not excluded. In this situation it has been argued that because the cost of transporting energy as a liquid or gaseous fuel is lower than the cost of transmitting energy as electricity it would be more effective to transmit and distribute energy from nuclear fuel in the form of a chemical fuel such as hydrogen. This argument has been critized by Hampson et al., (EAPA 1: 2200) who calculate that the reduced costs of transmission only outweigh the costs of production over distances so large that there appears no realistic application. These calculations neglect the time variation of electricity supply which is fundamental to the planning of an electricity supply system; they also do not appear to do justice to the relationship between the costs of hydrogen and electricity production in an integrated system. These points are included in the analysis presented here by means of the observation that hydrogen generated by nuclear plants with high capital cost and low running cost will be burned by the supply system itself in low-capital-cost plants, suitable for chemical fuels, in order to meet peak demands on the system. This establishes a relationship between the long-run marginal costs of electricity at various times of the day and the long-run marginal cost of hydrogen. These costs are then used to show that, in certain favorable, but common, circumstances, electrolytic hydrogen is the lower-cost source of energy. (from Introduction)

  12. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...

  13. Atomic hydrogen in the Orion star-forming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromey, F.R.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale survey of atomic hydrogen in Orion reveals low-density material with a total mass comparable to that in dense molecular clouds. The atomic gas is sufficiently dense that it can shield the molecular material from photodissociative radiation and provide a pressure link to the low-density intercloud medium. An excess of H I emission comes from photodissociation fronts near the bright stars and from a giant shell in the Orion Belt region. This shell may have caused the apparent bifurcation between the Orion A and B clouds, and the associated pressures may have induced peculiar motions and star formation in NGC 2023 and 2024. 49 refs

  14. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of the Drip Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Hua

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen-induced cracking is characterized by the decreased ductility and fracture toughness of a material due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. Corrosion is the source of hydrogen generation. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, hydrogen-induced cracking may be a concern because the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this report is to analyze whether the drip shield will fail by hydrogen-induced cracking under repository conditions within 10,000 years after emplacement. Hydrogen-induced cracking is a scenario of premature failure of the drip shield. This report develops a realistic model to assess the form of hydrogen-induced cracking degradation of the drip shield under the hydrogen-induced cracking. The scope of this work covers the evaluation of hydrogen absorbed due to general corrosion and galvanic coupling to less noble metals (e.g., Stainless Steel Type 316 and carbon steels) under the repository conditions during the 10,000-year regulatory period after emplacement and whether the absorbed hydrogen content will exceed the critical hydrogen concentration value, above which the hydrogen-induced cracking is assumed to occur. This report also provides the basis for excluding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to hydrogen-induced cracking of the drip shield with particular emphasis on FEP 2.1.03.04.OB, hydride cracking of drip shields (DTN: M00407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). This report is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944])

  15. Donor level of interstitial hydrogen in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, L.; Bonde Nielsen, K.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The first data evidencing the existence of the donor level of the interstitial hydrogen in GaAs are presented. The abundant formation of the (0/+) donor level after in situ low-temperature implantation of hydrogen into the depletion layer of GaAs Schottky diodes has been observed and the activation energy and annealing properties have been determined by Laplace DLTS. The activation energy for electron emission of this donor state is 0.14eV. Above 100K the hydrogen deep donor state is unstable, converting to a more stable form when there are electrons available for the capture process. A slightly perturbed form of the hydrogen donor in its neutral charge state can be recovered by illuminating the sample. This process releases twice as many electrons as the ionisation process of the hydrogen donor state itself. This fact, by analogy with the silicon case, evidences the negative-U behaviour of hydrogen in GaAs

  16. Structure of Chloro bis(1,10-phenanthroline)Cobalt(II) Complex, [Co(phen)2(Cl)(H2O)]Cl · 2H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Pu Su; Lu, Lu De; Jian, Fang Fang

    2003-01-01

    The crystal structure of [Co(phen) 2 (Cl)(H 2 O)] Cl · 2H 2 O(phen=1,10-phenanthroline) has been determined by X-ray crystallography. It crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P 1 , with lattice parameters a=9.662(2), b=11.445(1), c=13.037(2)A, α=64.02(1), β=86.364(9), γ=78.58(2) .deg., and Z=2. The coordinated cations contain a six-coordinated cobalt atom chelated by two phen ligands and one chloride anion and one water ligand in cis arrangement. In addition to the chloride coordinated to the cobalt, there are one chloride ion and four water molecules which complete the crystal structure. In the solid state, the title compound forms three dimensional network structure through hydrogen bonds, within which exists the strongest hydrogen bond (O(3)-O(4)=2.33A). The intermolecular hydrogen bonds connect the [Co(phen) 2 (Cl)(H 2 O)] 1+ , H 2 O moieties and chloride ion

  17. Hydrogen migration in Lu at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The migration of hydrogen in Lu is determined by electrical resistance measurements in temperature range of 140-170 K. Disordered hydrogen atoms, which are formed by quenching, migrate to order during annealing in the above temperature range. The rate of the resistance decrease depends on the ordering rate of hydrogen. From the resistance decrease during isothermal annealings, the activation energy of hydrogen migration is determined as 0.43 eV (41.5 kJ mol -1 ). (orig.)

  18. Boron-nitrogen based hydrides and reactive composites for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lars H.; Ley, Morten B.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen forms chemical compounds with most other elements and forms a variety of different chemical bonds. This fascinating chemistry of hydrogen has continuously provided new materials and composites with new prospects for rational design and the tailoring of properties. This review highlights...... a range of new boron and nitrogen based hydrides and illustrates how hydrogen release and uptake properties can be improved. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  19. Benzotriazole as an inhibitor of brass corrosion in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosec, Tadeja; Milosev, Ingrid; Pihlar, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The current research explores the formation of protective layers on copper, zinc and copper-zinc (Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn) alloys in chloride solution containing benzotriazole (BTAH), by use of electrochemical techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical reactions and surface products formed at the open circuit potential and as a function of the potential range are discussed. The addition of benzotriazole to aerated, near neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution affects the dissolution of copper, zinc, Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn alloys. The research also compares the inhibition efficiency and Gibbs adsorption energies of the investigated process. Benzotriazole, generally known as an inhibitor of copper corrosion is also shown to be an efficient inhibitor for copper-zinc alloys and zinc metal. The surface layer formed on alloys in BTAH-inhibited solution comprised both oxide and polymer components, namely Cu 2 O and ZnO oxides, and Cu(I)-BTA and Zn(II)-BTA polymers. The formation of this mixed copper-zinc oxide polymer surface film provides an effective barrier against corrosion of both metal components in chloride solution

  20. Influence of thermal treatment on OSL regeneration in potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majgier, Renata; Biernacka, Magdalena; Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of pure analytical potassium chloride (KCl) prepared in two different forms (crystals and pellets) was studied. The occurrence of regeneration effect (self-renewal of the OSL signal) in the material was examined. The experiments using the variable delay OSL (VD-OSL) method were carried out. Performed measurements allowed to determine time scale of the phenomenon, as well as quantitative changes of regeneration depending on thermal treatment before and after irradiation. Significant increase of the OSL regeneration was noticeable for pellets after the application of the annealing before irradiation, while for crystals a substantial decrease of regeneration was observed. Preheating applied after irradiation caused that self-renewal of OSL signal was drastically reduced or completely suppressed depending on the form of KCl samples. - Highlights: • Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of potassium chloride (KCl) was studied. • The measurements were performed using the variable delay OSL method (VD-OSL). • It was found that regeneration of OSL intensity in KCl could be as high as 2000%. • Annealing caused reduction of OSL renewal for crystals and its increase for pellets. • Preheating after irradiation removed or significantly reduced the OSL regeneration.

  1. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  2. Preparation of bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized halloysite nanotubes for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Guan, Huijuan; Zhao, Yafei; Yang, Jing-He; Zhang, Bing

    2018-01-01

    In present work, we prepared the bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized halloysite nanotubes (Cu-Co/PDDA-HNTs) by a deposition-reduction technique at room temperature. The analysis of XRD, SEM, TEM, HAADF-STEM and XPS were employed to systematically investigate the morphology, particle size, structure and surface properties of the nanocomposite. The results reveal that the PDDA coating with thickness of ∼15 nm could be formed on the surface of HNTs, and the existence of PDDA is beneficial to deposit Cu and Co nanoparticles (NPs) with high dispersibility on the surface. While the cost-effective nanocomposite was used for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane (NH3BH3), the nanocatalyst showed extraordinary catalytic properties with high total turnover frequency of 30.8 molH2/(molmetal min), low activation energy of 35.15 kJ mol-1 and high recycling stability (>90% conversion at 10th reuse). These results indicate that the bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on PDDA functionalized HNTs have particular potential for application in release hydrogen process.

  3. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  4. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  5. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  6. Influence of alloying on hydrogen-assisted cracking and diffusible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    moisture in the welding consumables which dissociate in the welding arc to form hydrogen and oxygen. The susceptibility of the weldment to HAC is assessed from the hydrogen diffused out from the weld after the welding is over. Hydrogen thus diffused out is referred to as diffusible hydrogen (HD) and is estimated from the ...

  7. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the ...

  8. Hydrogen embrittlement of steels: study and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, A.M.; Chene, J.; Coudreuse, L.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of steels is one of the important reason of rupture of pieces in the industry (nuclear, of petroleum..). Indeed, there are a lot of situations which can lead to the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement: introduction of hydrogen in the material during the elaboration or during transformation or implementation processes (heat treatments, welding); use of steels when hydrogen or hydrogenated gaseous mixtures are present; hydrogen produced by electrolytic reactions (surface treatments, cathodic protection). The hydrogen embrittlement can appear in different forms which depend of a lot of parameters: material (state, composition, microstructure..); surrounding medium (gas, aqueous medium, temperature..); condition of mechanical solicitation (static, dynamic, cyclic..). The industrial phenomena which appear during cases of hydrogen embrittlement are more particularly described here. Several methods of steels studies are proposed as well as some possible ways for the prevention of hydrogen embrittlement risks. (O.M.)

  9. Hydrogen bubble formation and evolution in tungsten under different hydrogen irradiation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wenhui; Luo, Fengfeng; Shen, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zheng, Zhongcheng; Wen, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ren, Yaoyao [Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Direct and clear observation of hydrogen bubbles evolution by TEM is provided. • The role of temperature playing in bubble formation and evolution is fully explored. • Vacancy trapping mechanism is verified in this experiment. - Abstract: In order to see how hydrogen is behaving in tungsten and to understand the way bubbles form and grow up, specimens were irradiated by hydrogen ions from room temperature to 800 °C to fluence of 2.25 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −2}. Experimental results show that higher temperature helped bubble acquire higher internal pressure, causing interstitial loop punching to happen. In this process bubbles’ size grew and dislocation loops were formed but dislocation loops migrated away at and above 350 °C. And bubble number density reached peak value at 600 °C but then dropped dramatically at 800 °C. Because continuously increasing temperature would cause small bubbles dissolution or leaking out. Besides, high temperature also prevented tiny bubbles growing to be visible under TEM observation by their reaching equilibrium pressure before reaching threshold pressure for loop punching. In the other set of experiments, specimens were irradiated by low hydrogen fluence of 1 × 10{sup 20} m{sup −2} at 600 °C, in which case few hydrogen bubbles appeared. With further increasing irradiation fluence, bubble number density quickly increased. Small bubbles tended to coalesce to become larger visible bubbles. And they continued to grow through loop punching until their internal pressure cannot support their size expansion any more.

  10. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  11. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  12. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    cause of blistering is well-known, handling and finishing techniques have been developed to minimize this form of damage. Vacuum melting and degassing minimize the quantity of hydrogen in the steels. Acid pickling and other such processes that may introduce hydrogen are avoided when practical, and possible moisture ...

  13. Hydrogen producing method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Takehiko; Goto, Nobuo; Toyota, Ichiro; Tonegawa, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for producing hydrogen from water by utilizing a γ · X ray radiation source such as spent nuclear fuels. Hydrogen is formed from water by combining a scintillator which uses a γ · X ray radiation source as an energy source to emit UV light and an optical catalyst or an optical catalyst electrode which undergoes UV light to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. The present invention provides a method of effectively using spent fuel assemblies which have not been used at present and capable of converting them into hydrogen as storable chemical energy. (N.H.)

  14. Selective hydrogenation processes in steam cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.; Schroeter, M.K.; Hinrichs, M.; Makarczyk, P. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Hydrogen is the key elixir used to trim the quality of olefinic and aromatic product slates from steam crackers. Being co-produced in excess amounts in the thermal cracking process a small part of the hydrogen is consumed in the ''cold part'' of a steam cracker to selectively hydrogenate unwanted, unsaturated hydrocarbons. The compositions of the various steam cracker product streams are adjusted by these processes to the outlet specifications. This presentation gives an overview over state-of-art selective hydrogenation technologies available from BASF for these processes. (Published in summary form only) (orig.)

  15. Measurement of the pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dally, E.; Hauptman, J.; May, C.

    1977-01-01

    The pion form factor has been measured in the momentum transfer range of 0.03( 2 by scattering pions from atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target. The pion form factor is defined to be the elastic scattering cross section divided by that predicted for a point pion. The experiment has been performed in a 100 GeV/c negative pion beam incident on a 50 cm liquid hydrogen target at Fermi laboratory. The corrected form factor equals 0.33+-0.06 f 2 . Vector dominance predicts 0.40 f 2

  16. Microbial chlorination of organic matter in forest soil: investigation using 36Cl-chloride and its methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlenová, J; Gryndler, M; Forczek, S T; Fuksová, K; Handova, V; Matucha, M

    2009-05-15

    Chloride, which comes into the forest ecosystem largely from the sea as aerosol (and has been in the past assumed to be inert), causes chlorination of soil organic matter. Studies of the chlorination showed that the content of organically bound chlorine in temperate forest soils is higher than that of chloride, and various chlorinated compounds are produced. Our study of chlorination of organic matter in the fermentation horizon of forest soil using radioisotope 36Cl and tracer techniques shows that microbial chlorination clearly prevails over abiotic, chlorination of soil organic matter being enzymatically mediated and proportional to chloride content and time. Long-term (>100 days) chlorination leads to more stable chlorinated substances contained in the organic layer of forest soil (overtime; chlorine is bound progressively more firmly in humic acids) and volatile organochlorines are formed. Penetration of chloride into microorganisms can be documented by the freezing/thawing technique. Chloride absorption in microorganisms in soil and in litter residues in the fermentation horizon complicates the analysis of 36Cl-chlorinated soil. The results show that the analytical procedure used should be tested for every soil type under study.

  17. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.A.; Zamorani, E.; Serrini, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 50 0 C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  18. Optimizing the hydrogen storage in boron nitride nanotubes by defect engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdogan, Kemal; Berber, Savas [Physics Department, Gebze Institute of Technology, Cayirova Kampusu, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    We use ab initio density functional theory calculations to study the interaction of hydrogen with vacancies in boron nitride nanotubes to optimize the hydrogen storage capacity through defect engineering. The vacancies reconstruct by forming B-B and N-N bonds across the defect site, which are not as favorable as heteronuclear B-N bonds. Our total energy and structure optimization results indicate that the hydrogen cleaves these reconstructing bonds to form more stable atomic structures. The hydrogenated defects offer smaller charge densities that allow hydrogen molecule to pass through the nanotube wall for storing hydrogen inside the nanotubes. Our optimum reaction pathway search revealed that hydrogen molecules could indeed go through a hydrogenated defect site with relatively small energy barriers compared to the pristine nanotube wall. The calculated activation energies for different diameters suggest a preferential diameter range for optimum hydrogen storage in defective boron nitride nanotubes. (author)

  19. The fusion-hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will describe the structure of the system, from energy generation and hydrogen production through distribution to the end users. It will show how stationary energy users will convert to hydrogen and will outline ancillary uses of hydrogen to aid in reducing other forms of pollution. It will show that the adoption of the fusion hydrogen energy system will facilitate the use of renewable energy such as wind and solar. The development of highly efficient fuel cells for production of electricity near the user and for transportation will be outlined. The safety of the hydrogen fusion energy system is addressed. This paper will show that the combination of fusion generation combined with hydrogen distribution will provide a system capable of virtually eliminating the negative impact on the environment from the use of energy by humanity. In addition, implementation of the energy system will provide techniques and tools that can ameliorate environmental problems unrelated to energy use. (Author)

  20. The behavior of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Makoto

    1975-01-01

    Explanation is made on the equilibrium diagrams of metal-hydrogen systems and the state of hydrogen in metals. Some metals perform exothermic reaction with hydrogen, and the others endothermic reaction. The former form stable hydrides and solid solutions over a wide range of composition. Hydrogen atoms in fcc and bcc metals are present at the interstitial positions of tetrahedron lattice and octahedron lattice. For example, hydrogen atoms in palladium are present at the intersititial positions of octahedron. When the ratio of the composition of hydrogen and palladium is 1:1, the structure becomes NaCl type. Hydrogen atoms in niobium and vanadium and present interstitially in tetrahedron lattice. Metal hydrides with high hydrogen concentration are becoming important recently as the containers of hydrogen. Hydrogen atoms diffuse in metals quite easily. The activation energy of the diffusion of hydrogen atoms in Nb and V is about 2-3 kcal/g.atom. The diffusion coefficient is about 10 -5 cm 2 /sec in alpha phase at room temperature. The number of jumps of a hydrogen atom between neighboring lattice sites is 10 11 --10 12 times per second. This datum is almost the same as that of liquid metals. Discussion is also made on the electronic state of hydrogen in metals. (Fukutomi, T.)

  1. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  2. [Forensic Analysis for 54 Cases of Suxamethonium Chloride Poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y F; Zhao, B Q; Ma, K J; Zhang, J; Chen, F Y

    2017-08-01

    To observe and analyze the performance of forensic science in the cases of suxa- methonium chloride poisoning, and to improve the identification of suxamethonium chloride poisoning. Fifty-four cases of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were collected. The rules of determination of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were observed by the retrospective analysis of pathological and toxicological changes as well as case features. The pathological features of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were similar to the general changes of sudden death, which mainly included acute pulmonary congestion and edema, and partly showed myocardial disarray and fracture. Suxamethonium chloride could be detected in the heart blood of all cases and in skin tissue of part cases. Suxa-methonium chloride poisoning has the characteristics with fast death and covert means, which are difficult to rescue and easily miss inspection. For the cases of sudden death or suspicious death, determination of suxamethonium chloride should be taken as a routine detection index to prevent missing inspection. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  3. {tau} - hydrogen phosphate of zirconia in sodium salt form and some of its properties; {tau} - hidrogenofosfato de zirconio en forma sodica y algunas de sus propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez V, S.M.; Ordonez R, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is reported the obtaining and characterization in the sodium salt form of the {tau}-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodium form, this compound it was synthesized, for a new technique developed in the laboratory of Dept. of Chemistry of the ININ. The characterization was carried out for XRD, IR, Sem and EDS the thermal gravimetric analysis is also reported. (Author)

  4. Interaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III)-Does it lead to gold analogue of Prussian blue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harish, S. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamilnadu (India); Joseph, James, E-mail: jameskavlam@yahoo.com [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamilnadu (India); Phani, K.L.N. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > In group IB, Cu and Ag form Prussian blue analogues but similar formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was not found in the literature and non-existence of gold hexacyanoferrate remains a mystery. > Potential cycling of gold chloride and potassium ferro/ferri cyanide was resulted in the formation of Au-PB nano-composite. > Redox reaction between gold chloride and potassium ferrocyanide ion is spontaneous but no reaction occurs when gold chloride and potassium ferricyanide is mixed. > We are proposing the formation of a compound with general formula 'KFe{sub x}[Au(CN){sub 2}]{sub y}' and discussing the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate is not feasible by simple chemical or electrochemical reaction in contrast to other PB analogues. - Abstract: Prussian blue analogues are a class of compounds formed by the reaction between metal salt and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III). In our earlier report, the formation of Au-Prussian blue nano-composite was noticed on potential cycling the glassy carbon electrode in a medium containing gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). Hence in this work, the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was attempted by a simple chemical reaction. The reaction of gold (III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III) was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and found that there is no redox reaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). However, the redox reaction occurs between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) leading to the formation of charge transfer band and the conversion of hexacyanoferrate (II) to hexacyanoferrate (III) was evidenced by the emergence of new absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectra. The oxidation state of gold in Au-Fe complex was found to be +1 from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stability of the Au-Fe complex was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated the presence of high spin iron in Au

  5. Interaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III)-Does it lead to gold analogue of Prussian blue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, S.; Joseph, James; Phani, K.L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In group IB, Cu and Ag form Prussian blue analogues but similar formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was not found in the literature and non-existence of gold hexacyanoferrate remains a mystery. → Potential cycling of gold chloride and potassium ferro/ferri cyanide was resulted in the formation of Au-PB nano-composite. → Redox reaction between gold chloride and potassium ferrocyanide ion is spontaneous but no reaction occurs when gold chloride and potassium ferricyanide is mixed. → We are proposing the formation of a compound with general formula 'KFe x [Au(CN) 2 ] y ' and discussing the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate is not feasible by simple chemical or electrochemical reaction in contrast to other PB analogues. - Abstract: Prussian blue analogues are a class of compounds formed by the reaction between metal salt and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III). In our earlier report, the formation of Au-Prussian blue nano-composite was noticed on potential cycling the glassy carbon electrode in a medium containing gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). Hence in this work, the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was attempted by a simple chemical reaction. The reaction of gold (III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III) was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and found that there is no redox reaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). However, the redox reaction occurs between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) leading to the formation of charge transfer band and the conversion of hexacyanoferrate (II) to hexacyanoferrate (III) was evidenced by the emergence of new absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectra. The oxidation state of gold in Au-Fe complex was found to be +1 from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stability of the Au-Fe complex was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated the presence of high spin iron in Au-Fe complex. Hence 'as

  6. CO2-based hydrogen storage - Hydrogen generation from formaldehyde/water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincado, Monica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Prechtl, Martin H. G.

    2018-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the simplest and most significant industrially produced aldehyde. The global demand is about 30 megatons annually. Industrially it is produced by oxidation of methanol under energy intensive conditions. More recently, new fields of application for the use of formaldehyde and its derivatives as, i.e. cross-linker for resins or disinfectant, have been suggested. Dialkoxymethane has been envisioned as a combustion fuel for conventional engines or aqueous formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde may act as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier molecule (LOHC) for hydrogen generation to be used for hydrogen fuel cells. For the realization of these processes, it requires less energy-intensive technologies for the synthesis of formaldehyde. This overview summarizes the recent developments in low-temperature reductive synthesis of formaldehyde and its derivatives and low-temperature formaldehyde reforming. These aspects are important for the future demands on modern societies' energy management, in the form of a methanol and hydrogen economy, and the required formaldehyde feedstock for the manufacture of many formaldehyde-based daily products.

  7. Methylation of mercuric chloride by human intestinal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, I R; Grasso, P; Davies, M J

    1975-01-01

    There is now evidence that ingested mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) may be methylated, in vivo, in the rat intestine and, in vitro, by human feces. However, one cannot infer from these experiments that the microbial flora of the intestine is responsible for the methylation reaction, since the gut contents contain several sources of metabolic activity other than bacteria. Data are presented on the ability of pure cultures of bacteria and yeasts, isolated from human feces, to convert HgCl/sub 2/ to methylmercury. Strains of Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, bacteriodes and bifidobacteria were inoculated into a medium containing 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, Bacto-tryptone, yeast extract and D-glucose, each at 0.5% (w/v). Results indicate that most strains of staphylococci, streptococci, yeasts and E. coli isolated from human feces, could synthesize methylmercury compounds. In contrast, few strains of obligate anaerobes could do so. Up to 6 ng methylmercury/ml were formed in 44 h from 2 ..mu..g mercuric chloride.

  8. Growth and characterization of magnesium chloride and lanthanum chloride doped strontium tartrate crystals - gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiarasi, S.; Jaikumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of single crystals of doped strontium tartrate by controlled diffusion of strontium chloride into the silica gel charged with tartaric acid at room temperature is narrated. In this study, we synthesized magnesium chloride (5% and 10%) doped strontium tartrate crystals and Lanthanum chloride (5%, 10% and 15%) doped strontium tartrate crystals are grown. The crystal structure of the compound crystals was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of pure and doped crystals are recorded and analyzed. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum analysis reveals that the optical study of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by using Kurtz powder technique with Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm. (author)

  9. Integrated bicarbonate-form ion exchange treatment and regeneration for DOC removal: Model development and pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Boyer, Treavor H

    2017-05-15

    The application of bicarbonate-form anion exchange resin and sodium bicarbonate salt for resin regeneration was investigated in this research is to reduce chloride ion release during treatment and the disposal burden of sodium chloride regeneration solution when using traditional chloride-form ion exchange (IX). The target contaminant in this research was dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The performance evaluation was conducted in a completely mixed flow reactor (CMFR) IX configuration. A process model that integrated treatment and regeneration was investigated based on the characteristics of configuration. The kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed to obtain required parameters for the process model. The pilot plant tests were conducted to validate the model as well as provide practical understanding on operation. The DOC concentration predicted by the process model responded to the change of salt concentration in the solution, and showed a good agreement with pilot plant data with less than 10% difference in terms of percentage removal. Both model predictions and pilot plant tests showed over 60% DOC removal by bicarbonate-form resin for treatment and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration, which was comparable to chloride-form resin for treatment and sodium chloride for regeneration. Lastly, the DOC removal was improved by using higher salt concentration for regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

    1993-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10(sup -6) torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non

  11. Ultrafast Hydrogen-Bonding Dynamics in Amyloid Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Ileana M; Ma, Jianqiang; Mukherjee, Debopreeti; Gai, Feng

    2018-06-08

    While there are many studies on the subject of hydrogen bonding dynamics in biological systems, few, if any, have investigated this fundamental process in amyloid fibrils. Herein, we seek to add insight into this topic by assessing the dynamics of a hydrogen bond buried in the dry interface of amyloid fibrils. To prepare a suitable model peptide system for this purpose, we introduce two mutations into the amyloid-forming Aβ(16-22) peptide. The first one is a lysine analog at position 19, which is used to help form structurally homogeneous fibrils, and the second one is an aspartic acid derivative (DM) at position 17, which is intended (1) to be used as a site-specific infrared probe and (2) to serve as a hydrogen-bond acceptor to lysine so that an inter-β-sheet hydrogen bond can be formed in the fibrils. Using both infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, we show that (1) this mutant peptide indeed forms well defined fibrils, (2) when bulk solvent is removed, there is no detectable water present in the fibrils, (3) infrared results obtained with the DM probe are consistent with a protofibril structure that is composed of two antiparallel β-sheets stacked in a parallel fashion, leading to formation of the expected hydrogen bond. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, we further show that the dynamics of this hydrogen bond occur on a timescale of ~2.3 ps, which is attributed to the rapid rotation of the -NH3+ group of lysine around its Cε-Nζ bond. Taken together, these results suggest that (1) DM is a useful infrared marker in facilitating structure determination of amyloid fibrils and (2) even in the tightly packed core of amyloid fibrils certain amino acid sidechains can undergo ultrafast motions, hence contributing to the thermodynamic stability of the system.

  12. Palladium coated fibre Bragg grating based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Kishore, S.; Elumalai, V.; Krishnan, R.; Babu Rao, C.; Dash, Sitaram; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of steam generator leaks in fast nuclear reactors is carried out by monitoring hydrogen in argon cover-gas. Hydrogen released during sodium cleaning of fast reactor components is required to be monitored. Hydrogen sensors with good sensitivity, stability and response time are required for all the above applications. We report a new type of hydrogen sensor with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) coated with palladium thin film which is used to detect the leak of hydrogen gas in the Steam Generator (SG) module of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). If water leaks into sodium, it results in sodium-water reaction. In this reaction hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are formed. Due to the explosive risk of hydrogen system, hydrogen sensors are of great interest in this case. It is known that hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air once its concentration exceeds beyond the explosion limit of four percent. The advantages of FBG based hydrogen sensor over the other hydrogen sensors are its inherent property of safety from sparking, immunity to ambient electromagnetic interference. The sensing mechanism in this device is based on mechanical strain that is induced in the palladium coating when it absorbs hydrogen. This process physically stretches the grating and causes the grating period and grating's refractive index, to change. The Bragg wavelength shift is directly proportional to the strain induced and can be directly related to the percentage of hydrogen exposure. The online monitoring of palladium thin film coating on FBG is carried out and recorded the wavelength change and strain induced on the FBG. A hydrogen sensor set up have been fabricated which consists of SS vessel of capacity 10 litres, provided with pressure gauge, Argon filling line with a valve, Hydrogen injection line with flange, a vent line with valve and Hydrogen sensor fixing point. The Palladium coated FBG based Hydrogen sensor is tested in this experimental facility in the exposure of hydrogen in

  13. Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Stephen Milton [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

  14. Electrodeposition of platinum metals and alloys from chloride melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltykova N.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of platinum metals and their alloys deposited by the electrolysis of chloride melts have been investigated. The cathodic deposits were both in the form of compact layers and dendrites. All the alloys of platinum metals obtained are solid solutions in the whole range of composition. Depending on the experimental conditions the layers had columnar, stratum and spiral (dissipative structures. The stratum and dissipative structures were observed in the case of alloys only.

  15. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  16. Atomic hydrogen storage method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compounds maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  17. Electrochemical generation of oxygen. 1: The effects of anions and cations on hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation on platinum electrode. 2: The effects of anions and cations on oxygen generation on platinum electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Yeager, E.; Ogrady, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were studied of anions and cations on hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation on Pt by linear sweep voltammetry, and on oxygen generation on Pt by potentiostatic overpotential measurement. The hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation regions are greatly influenced by anion adsorption. In acids, the strongly bound hydrogen occurs at more cathodic potential when chloride and sulfate are present. Sulfate affects the initial phase of oxide film formation by produced fine structure while chloride retards the oxide-film formation. In alkaline solutions, both strongly and weakly bound hydrogen are influenced by iodide, cyanide, and barium and calcium cations. These ions also influence the oxide film formation. Factors considered to explain these effects are discussed. The Tafel slope for oxygen generation was found to be independent on the oxide thickness and the presence of cations or anions. The catalytic activity indicated by the exchange current density was observed decreasing with increasing oxide layer thickness, only a minor dependence on the addition of certain cations and anions was found.

  18. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.D.; Kocherov, N.P.; Novikova, N.R.; Perfilov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Performance and mechanism of sludge dewaterability enhanced by potassium ferrate pretreatment and calcium chloride addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits and mechanisms of potassium ferrate pretreatment and calcium chloride addition on sludge dewaterability were investigated in this study. The capillary suction time (CST was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Results indicated that potassium ferrate of 0.1 g/g total solids (TS and calcium chloride of 0.4 g/g TS were optimal parameters, and corresponding CST reached 43.7 s. Soluble organics in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS were determined by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, which was used to explain the mechanism of sludge dewaterability. The fluorescence intensities of protein-like and humic-like substances in EPS had a negative relationship with the CST. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that calcium chloride neutralized the surface charge of particles, making the soluble protein-like substances agglomerate and form bigger flocs, consequently enhancing sludge dewaterability.

  20. Magnesium microelectrode corrosion product transport modelling in relation to chloride induced pitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, R.; Cook, A.; Stevens, N.P.C.

    2012-09-01

    The high magnesium alloy Magnox is used as a fuel clad for the UK gas cooled, graphite moderated reactors of the same name. The fuel is metallic uranium (typically natural enrichment), so a low neutron absorption cross-section clad is required. Following discharge from reactor, spent fuel is stored in water, which acts as an effective heat transfer medium and biological shield. The chemistry of these ponds is carefully controlled to ensure that the Magnox clad remains in a passive state. This is primarily through the maintenance of a high pH and very low anion concentration. Of particular concern is the presence of chloride ions as even very low levels may allow localised corrosion to initiate. Although extensive work has been undertaken historically considering the behaviour of Magnox clad and the acceptable storage envelopes, the challenges of ageing plant and aspirations for accelerated decommissioning give value to further understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of this material. Recently, electrochemical techniques have been employed to characterise performance in a variety of chemistries and microelectrodes have been produced which have shown characteristics of salt film corrosion at moderate chloride concentrations under polarisation. A characteristic of the electrochemical response observed during the mass transport limited (potential independent) salt film regime has been periodic transients which correspond to emission of microscopic hydrogen bubbles from the microelectrode cavity. A simple finite element multi-physics model has been employed to assist in understanding the dominant processes of corrosion product transport away from a magnesium electrode surface which is dissolving under a salt film and this shows that characteristic transients observed in electrochemical tests may be simulated with reasonable agreement by consideration of convection from laminar flow around hydrogen micro-bubbles in the pit cavity combined with aqueous diffusion in the

  1. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  2. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  3. Exploring Hydrogen Evolution and the Overpotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Yana A.; Roberts, Adrienne A.; McMillin, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described provides insight into the energetics of hydrogen evolution at an electrode as well as the intrinsic barrier that typically impedes reaction. In the course of the exercise, students find that Sn(s) is thermodynamically capable of combining with protons to form hydrogen, but that the direct reaction occurs at a…

  4. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  7. Methanol from biomass and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    For Hawaii in the near term, the only liquid fuels indigenous sources will be those that can be made from biomass, and of these, methanol is the most promising. In addition, hydrogen produced by electrolysis can be used to markedly increase the yield of biomass methanol. This paper calculates cost of producing methanol by an integrated system including a geothermal electricity facility plus a plant producing methanol by gasifying biomass and adding hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Other studies cover methanol from biomass without added hydrogen and methanol from biomass by steam and carbon dioxide reforming. Methanol is made in a two-step process: the first is the gasification of biomass by partial oxidation with pure oxygen to produce carbon oxides and hydrogen, and the second is the reaction of gases to form methanol. Geothermal steam is used to generate the electricity used for the electrolysis to produce the added hydrogen

  8. Characterization of electrochemically deposited films from aqueous and ionic liquid cobalt precursors toward hydrogen evolution reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushatinski, Thomas; Huff, Clay; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M., E-mail: fattah@cnu.edu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Co films deposition via aqueous and ionic liquid Precursors. • Hydrogen evolution produced from reactive surfaces. • Co deposited films characterized by SEM, AFM, EDX and XRD techniques. - Abstract: Electrodepositions of cobalt films were achieved using an aqueous or an ethylene glycol based non-aqueous solution containing choline chloride (vitamin B4) with cobalt chloride hexahydrate precursor toward hydrogen evolution reactions from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as solid hydrogen feedstock (SHF). The resulting cobalt films had reflectivity at 550 nm of 2.2% for aqueously deposited films (ACoF) and 1.3% for non-aqueously deposited films (NCoF). Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between particle size and thickness. The film thicknesses were tunable between >100 μm and <300 μm for each film. The roughness (Ra) value measurements by Dektak surface profiling showed that the NCoF (Ra = 165 nm) was smoother than the ACoF (Ra = 418 nm). The NCoFs and ACoFs contained only α phase (FCC) crystallites. The NCoFs were crystalline while the ACoFs were largely amorphous from X-ray diffraction analysis. The NCoF had an average Vickers hardness value of 84 MPa as compared to 176 MPa for ACoF. The aqueous precursor has a single absorption maximum at 510 nm and the non-aqueous precursor had three absorption maxima at 630, 670, and 695 nm. The hydrogen evolution reactions over a 1 cm{sup 2} catalytic surface with aqueous NaBH{sub 4} solutions generated rate constants (K) = equal to 4.9 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}, 4.6 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}, and 3.3 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1} for ACoF, NCoF, and copper substrate respectively.

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of 1-hydroxymethyl-eta/sup 3/-allypalladium chloride by p-benzoquinone in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, A.P.; Kalabin, S.M.; Statsenko, O.N.

    1988-03-01

    /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy was used to show that the primary product of the oxidation of the eta/sup 3/-allyl complex of palladium, (based on 1,3-butadiene-1-hydroxymethyl-eta/sup 3/-allylpalladium chloride), by the action of p-benzoquinone in acid aqueous solutions is 4-chloro-2-buten-1-o1. The reaction kinetics were studied colorimetrically. It was found that the rate of reaction is described by a kinetic equation of the second order (first with respect to each of the reagents). It was shown that the second order rate constant increases nonlinearly with increase in the concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions, and tends to a constant value in the region of high concentrations of these ions. The values of the activation parameters and the isotopic kinetic effect were determined. The kinetic equation and the mechanism of the reaction studied were compared with those of the oxidation processes of unsubstituted eta/sup 3/-allyl complexes of palladium.

  10. Thermochemistry of certain rare earth and ammonium double chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubaliev, D.U.; Abramtsev, V.A.; Kydynov, M.K.; Vilyaev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In a calorimeter with isothermal casing at 25 deg C dissolution enthalpies of double chlorides of rare earths and ammonium LnCl 3 x2NH 4 Cl (Ln=La, Sm) and LnCl 3 x3NH 4 Cl (Ln=Gd, Tb, Ho) in water, as well as dissolution enthalpy of rare earth chlorides in solution of ammonium chloride and NH 4 Cl in solution of rare earth chloride, have been measured. Formation enthalpies, standard formation enthalpies, dissociation enthalpies of the above-mentioned double chlorides are calculated

  11. Interstellar hydrogen bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the first extensive study of the existence and effects of interstellar hydrogen bonding. The reactions that occur on the surface of the interstellar dust grains are the dominant processes by which interstellar molecules are formed. Water molecules constitute about 70% of the interstellar ice. These water molecules serve as the platform for hydrogen bonding. High level quantum chemical simulations for the hydrogen bond interaction between 20 interstellar molecules (known and possible) and water are carried out using different ab-intio methods. It is evident that if the formation of these species is mainly governed by the ice phase reactions, there is a direct correlation between the binding energies of these complexes and the gas phase abundances of these interstellar molecules. Interstellar hydrogen bonding may cause lower gas abundance of the complex organic molecules (COMs) at the low temperature. From these results, ketenes whose less stable isomers that are more strongly bonded to the surface of the interstellar dust grains have been observed are proposed as suitable candidates for astronomical observations.

  12. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those...

  15. Study and modeling of the reduction of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen chloride by dry injection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wuyin

    1997-05-01

    The potential and mechanism to reduce acid gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), by dry Ca-based sorbents have been studied to improve the efficiency of the process and sorbent utilization. Several natural limestones were tested for SO{sub 2} removal. Calcium conversion as high as 45 % was achieved in the first 0.3 s at 1000 deg C, 1000 ppm SO{sub 2} and Ca/S=1. A SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of 95 % was reached at Ca/S=2. Two models for estimating the sulfation of CaO at high temperature are presented. Short-residence-time sulfation is described by a pore size distribution model and long-residence-time sulfation by a particle expansion model. The pore size distribution model explains the effects of particle size, pore size distribution and partial pressure of SO{sub 2}, suggesting these three factors be the most important for CaO conversion. For particles larger than 1-2 {mu}m in furnace sorbent injection, pore diameters of 50-300 Aa are desirable. When large particles or long residence times are used, as in fluidized bed combustion, the particle expansion model shows the particle size and the sorbent type to be the main factors affecting the reaction. By using the selected limestone and additives the simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal was also measured. Several ammonium salts as well as urea were tested. Urea was found to give the highest NO{sub x} removal efficiency. To fully utilize the unreacted Ca-based sorbents, the spent sorbents from SO{sub 2} reduction processes were tested in a fixed-bed reactor to measure the capacity for HCl removal at 150-600 deg C. The results showed that all spent materials could react with HCl to some extent. After being calcined and slaked, they even showed the same reactivity as pure Ca(OH){sub 2}. A shrinking core model was derived for fixed-bed reactor. For the best sorbent tested, the multiple sorbent utilization reached about 80 %. 100 refs, 42 figs, 12 tabs

  16. X-ray, MP2 and DFT studies of the structure and vibrational spectra of trigonellinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szafran, M.; Koput, J.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Pankowski, M.; Stobiecka, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen bonding, inter- and intramolecular electrostatic interactions on the conformation of trigonellinium chloride, TRGH...Cl, in the crystal and on that of a single molecule have been studied by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopies, and by MP2 and DFT calculations. In the crystal, the Cl - anion is connected with protonated trigonelline via hydrogen bond, O-H...Cl - =2.915(3) Angst, and three N + ...Cl - intermolecular electrostatic interactions. In a single molecule, the Cl - anion is also engaged in a slightly longer hydrogen bond, O-H...Cl - =2.948-3.019 Angst, but only in one type of intramolecular electrostatic interaction. The optimized bond lengths and bond angles at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory are in good agreement with the X-ray data, except conformation of the COOH group, which is cis (syn) in the crystal and trans (anti) in the single molecule. The probable assignments for the experimental solid state vibrational spectra of TRGH.Cl and TRGD.Cl based on the calculated MP2/cc-pVDZ frequencies and intensities were made. The effect of quaternization of nicotinic acid, its salt and amide on chemical shifts of the ring protons and carbons is analyzed

  17. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.J.; Day, S.D.; Ilevbare, G.O.; Whalen, M.T.; King, K.J.; Hust, G.A.; Wong, L.L.; Estill, J.C.; Rebak, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl 2 at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy

  18. Paleohydrology on Mars constrained by mass balance and mineralogy of pre-Amazonian sodium chloride lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Chloride-bearing deposits on Mars record high-elevation lakes during the waning stages of Mars' wet era (mid-Noachian to late Hesperian). The water source pathways, seasonality, salinity, depth, lifetime, and paleoclimatic drivers of these widespread lakes are all unknown. Here we combine reaction-transport modeling, orbital spectroscopy, and new volume estimates from high-resolution digital terrain models, in order to constrain the hydrologic boundary conditions for forming the chlorides. Considering a T = 0°C system, we find that (1) individual lakes were >100 m deep and lasted decades or longer; (2) if volcanic degassing was the source of chlorine, then the water-to-rock ratio or the total water volume were probably low, consistent with brief excursions above the melting point and/or arid climate; (3) if the chlorine source was igneous chlorapatite, then Cl-leaching events would require a (cumulative) time of >10 years at the melting point; and (4) Cl masses, divided by catchment area, give column densities 0.1-50 kg Cl/m2, and these column densities bracket the expected chlorapatite-Cl content for a seasonally warm active layer. Deep groundwater was not required. Taken together, our results are consistent with Mars having a usually cold, horizontally segregated hydrosphere by the time chlorides formed.

  19. Experimental study on uranium alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaconu, M.; Meleg, T.; Dinu, A.; Mihalache, M.; Ciuca, I.; Abrudeanu, M.

    2013-01-01

    The heaviest isotope of hydrogen is one of critically important elements in the field of fusion reactor technology. Conventionally, uranium metal is used for the storage of heavier isotopes of hydrogen (D and T). Under appropriate conditions, uranium absorbs hydrogen to form a stable UH 3 compound when exposed to molecular hydrogen at the temperature range of 300-500 O C at varied operating pressure below one atmosphere. However, hydriding-dehydriding on pure uranium disintegrates the specimen into fine powder. The powder is highly pyrophoric and has low heat conductivity, which makes it difficult to control the temperature, and has a high possibility of contamination Due to the powdering effect as hydrogen in uranium, alloying uranium with other metal looks promising for the use of hydrogen storage materials. This paper has the aim to study the hydriding properties of uranium alloys, including U-Ti U-Mo and U-Ni. The uranium alloys specimens were prepared by melting the constituent elements by means of simultaneous measurements of thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA-DTA) and studied in as cast condition as hydrogen storage materials. Then samples were thermally treated under constant flow of hydrogen, at various temperatures between 573-973 0 K. The structural and absorption properties of the products obtained were examined by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They slowly reacted with hydrogen to form the ternary hydride and the hydrogenated samples mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride bat contained also U or UO 2 and some transient phase. (authors)

  20. Destabilized and catalyzed borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F [Northville, MI; Nakamura, Kenji [Toyota, JP; Au, Ming [Martinez, GA; Zidan, Ragaiy [Alken, SC

    2012-01-31

    A process of forming a hydrogen storage material, including the steps of: providing a first material of the formula M(BH.sub.4).sub.X, where M is an alkali metal or an alkali earth metal, providing a second material selected from M(AlH.sub.4).sub.x, a mixture of M(AlH.sub.4).sub.x and MCl.sub.x, a mixture of MCl.sub.x and Al, a mixture of MCl.sub.x and AlH.sub.3, a mixture of MH.sub.x and Al, Al, and AlH.sub.3. The first and second materials are combined at an elevated temperature and at an elevated hydrogen pressure for a time period forming a third material having a lower hydrogen release temperature than the first material and a higher hydrogen gravimetric density than the second material.

  1. Study of the transport characteristics of uranyl chloride in a highly concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murso, H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of the transport processes of uranyl chloride at various temperatures, in order to be able to estimate the danger potential of the intrusion of water during storage in salt form. For this the concentration dependency of the approximated principal diffusion coefficients of uranyl chloride in a table salt solution, which with a c(NaCl) = 5.2 mol/l is almost at the saturation point, was studied at 25, 40 and 50degC. The measurements were successful in the ternarian system UO 2 Cl 2 -NaCl-H 2 O with absorption optics. An unexpected temperature dependency of the diffusion coefficients was found, which reached its minimum at 40degC with UO 2 Cl 2 concentrations of less than 2x10 -2 mol/l. For comparison the diffusion coefficients were measured in the binary system UO 2 Cl 2 -H 2 O and compared with theoretical calculations. The cause for the poor correlation found here is thought to be the hydrolysis products, whose formation is strongly influenced by the foreign-electrolyte concentration (NaCl). For clarification, viscosity measurements and molar mass determinations (ultracentrifuge) will be done. Some pH-dependent hydrolysis equilibriums are being postulated and the equilibrium constants of uranyl hydroxo complexes are being determined by sedimentation analysis. (orig./RB) [de

  2. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

    1999-09-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  3. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

    1999-10-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  4. Selective extraction of palladium with caffeine from acidic chloride media; Sansei enkabutsu yoeki karano kafuein ni yoru parajiumu no sentakuteki chushutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikake, K.; Baba, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-10

    In order to examine the possibility of caffeine as an extractant, the extraction of metal ions from acidic chloride media was studied at 298 K using the mixture solvent of chloroform and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Caffeine has exhibited a high selectivity for palladium (2) over base metals such as copper (2), nickel (2), and iron (3), and over precious metal such as platinum (4). The stoichiometric relation in the extraction of palladium (2) with caffeine was elucidated by examining the effects of chloride ion, hydrogen ion, and caffeine concentrations on its extractability. In addition, palladium (2) was found to be extracted selectively with caffeine from the mixture containing a 25-fold amount of platinum (4) or copper (2). The stripping of palladium (2) was performed to an extent of 80% by a single batchwise treatment with an aqueous mixture solution of hydrochloric acid and thiourea. (author)

  5. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  6. Hydrogen injection device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the increasing ratio of main steam system dose rate due to N-16 activity due to excess hydrogen injection in the hydrogen injection operation of BWR type reactors. Constitution: There are provided a hydrogen injection mechanism for injecting hydrogen into primary coolants of a BWR type reactor, and a chemical injection device for injecting chemicals such as methanol, which makes nitrogen radioisotopes resulted in the reactor water upon hydrogen injection non-volatile, into the pressure vessel separately from hydrogen. Injected hydrogen and the chemicals are not reacted in the feedwater system, but the reaction proceeds due to the presence of radioactive rays after the injection into the pressure vessel. Then, hydrogen causes re-combination in the downcomer portion to reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Meanwhile, about 70 % of the chemicals is supplied by means of a jet pump directly to the reactor core, thereby converting the chemical form of N-16 in the reactor core more oxidative (non-volatile). (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  8. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride ( 111 In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific. (author)

  9. Treatment and storage of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Back, S. W.; Kang, H. S.; Eom, K. Y.; Lee, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Storage of gaseous hydrogen isotopes in a cylinder is a well-established technology. However, Immobilization in the solid form is preferred for long-term storage of radioactive isotope gas because of the concern for leakage of the gas. The experimental thermodynamic p-c-T data show that Ti and U soak up hydrogen isotope gas at a temperature of a few hundred .deg. C and modest pressures. It was found that more hydrogen is dissolved in the metal than deuterium at constant pressure. Thus, the lighter isotope tends to be enriched in the solid phase

  10. Small-angle scattering of ions or atoms by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, V.

    1982-01-01

    A theory for small-angle scattering of arbitrary medium- or high-energy atoms or ions by atomic hydrogen is described. Results are obtained in terms of the known closed-form and easily calculable Glauber-approximation scattering amplitudes for electron-hydrogen collisions and for collisions between the nucleus (treated as one charged particle) of the ion or atom and the hydrogen atom, and in terms of the transition form factor of the arbitrary ion or atom. Applications are made to the angular differential cross sections for the excitation of atomic hydrogen to its n = 2 states by singly charged ground-state helium ions having velocities of roughly between 1/2 and 1 a.u. The differential cross sections are obtained in terms of electron-hydrogen amplitudes and the known He + ground-state form factor. Comparisons are made with other calculations and with recent measurements. The results are in good agreement with the data. It is seen that the effect of the He + electron is to produce significant constructive interference at most energies

  11. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  12. Kinetics of hydrogen release from dissolutions of ammonia borane in different ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero-Pedraza, María José; Martín-Cortés, Alexandra; Navarrete, Alexander; Bermejo, María Dolores; Martín, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia borane is a promising hydrogen storage material that liberates hydrogen by thermolysis at moderate temperatures, but it also presents major limitations for practical applications including a long induction time before the initiation of hydrogen release and a difficult regeneration. Previous works have demonstrated that by dissolution of ammonia borane into several ionic liquids, and particularly in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride bmimCl, the induction period at the beginning of the thermolysis is eliminated, but some problems persist, including foaming and the formation of a residue after thermolysis that is insoluble in the ionic liquid. In this work, the release of hydrogen from ammonia borane dissolved in different ionic liquids has been analyzed, measuring the kinetics of hydrogen release, visually following the evolution of the sample during the process using pressure glass tube reactors, and analyzing the residue by spectroscopic techniques. While dissolutions of ammonia borane in most ionic liquids analyzed show similar properties as dissolutions in bmimCl, using ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfanyl)imide Tf_2N anion the foaming problem is reduced, and in some cases the residue remains dissolved in the ionic liquid, while with ionic liquids with choline anion higher hydrogen yields are achieved that indicate that the decomposition of ammonia borane proceeds through a different path. - Highlights: • Hydrogen release from ammonia borane dissolved in 13 ionic liquids has been studied. • Induction time is shortened and hydrogen release rate is accelerated in all cases. • The best results are obtained using ionic liquids with Tf_2N anion. • Ch cation ionic liquids enable higher H_2 yield, but cyclotriborazane is produced.

  13. Correlation between electrochemical impedance measurements and corrosion rate of magnesium investigated by real-time hydrogen measurement and optical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Curioni, M.; Scenini, F.; Monetta, T.; Bellucci, F.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of magnesium in chloride-containing aqueous environment was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) performed simultaneously with real-time hydrogen evolution measurements and optical imaging of the corroding surface. The potentiodynamic investigation revealed substantial deviations from linearity in close proximity of the corrosion potential. In particular, differences in the slope of the current/potential curves w...

  14. Effects of External Hydrogen on Hydrogen Transportation and Distribution Around the Fatigue Crack Tip in Type 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyang; Zhou, Chengshuang; Cai, Xiao; Zheng, Jinyang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-10-01

    The effects of external hydrogen on hydrogen transportation and distribution around the fatigue crack tip in type 304 stainless steel were investigated by using hydrogen microprint technique (HMT) and thermal desorption spectrometry. HMT results show that some silver particles induced by hydrogen release are located near the fatigue crack and more silver particles are concentrated around the crack tip, which indicates that hydrogen accumulates in the vicinity of the crack tip during the crack growth in hydrogen gas environment. Along with the crack propagation, strain-induced α' martensite forms around the crack tip and promotes hydrogen invasion into the matrix, which will cause the crack initiation and propagation at the austenite/ α' martensite interface. In addition, the hydrogen content in the vicinity of the crack tip is higher than that at the crack edge far away from the crack tip, which is related to the stress state and strain-induced α' martensite.

  15. ANALYSIS OF ADIPATE ESTER CONTENTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT......-Raman Spectroscopy, Appl. Spectrosc. 58 (4) (2004) 410–413]—on detection of the presence of phthalate esters in PVC by FT-Raman spectroscopy — is here extended to the similar case of adipate esters (AEs) in samples of soft poly vinyl chloride plastics. Spectra of a range of adipate ester plasticizers (11 AEs......) in pure form are reported. We studied if qualitative and quantitative determination of the adipate ester content would be possible based on the use of proper reference samples. It was found that AEs as a group cannot be definitively identified by their characteristic Raman bands because other aliphatic...

  16. Studies on the mercuric chloride resistance of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaczi, L; Fodor, M; Milch, H; Rethy, A

    1962-01-01

    Among 409 pathogenic Staph. aureus strains 34% have been found to be sensitive, and 66% resistant, to mercuric chloride. The incidence of mercuric chloride resistant cultures among antibiotic sensitive staphylococci was 20%; among strains resistant to penicillin or to more than one antibiotic, 70%. Mercuric chloride resistant organisms occurred chiefly among phage group I and untypable strains; they were especially common among the so called epidemic strains of phage group I, and among cultures resistant to 4-6 antibiotics. In mercuric chloride sensitivity a thirtyfold, in merthiolate sensitivity only a two-fold difference has been revealed among the strains. The sulfydryl group content of mercuric chloride resistant organisms was only 1 1/2 times higher than that of sensitive bacteria. As to p-chlor mercuric benzoate binding capacity, a twofold difference was found between mercuric chloride sensitive and resistant staphylococci. The differences in the mercuric chloride resistance of various staphylococcal strains might be due to differences in the chemical structure of the cell surface. 9 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  17. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride plants. 61.64 Section 61.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a...

  18. Study of the chemisorption and hydrogenation of propylene on platinum by temperature-programed desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, S.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshioka, N.

    1978-01-01

    Temperature-programed desorption (TPD) chromotograms of propylene adsorbed on platinum black in the absence or presence of hydrogen preadsorbed, admitted simultaneously, or admitted later, all showed four peaks at about 260/sup 0/ (A), 380/sup 0/ (B), 570/sup 0/ (C), and higher than 720/sup 0/K (D). Peaks A and B were identified as mixtures of propylene and propane, and peaks C and D were methane formed by thermal decomposition of the chemisorbed propylene during desorption. When nitrogen rather than helium was used as the carrier gas for the TPD, only delta-hydrogen was observed; this suggested that propylene was more strongly adsorbed on the platinum than hydrogen. Studies of the reactivities with propylene of the various types of chemisorbed hydrogen previously detected by TPD showed that propylene reacted with ..gamma..-hydrogen present on the surface in the form of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on top of platinum atoms and with ..beta..-hydrogen, molecular hydrogen chemisorbed in a bridged form, but did not react with delta-hydrogen. Tables and graph.

  19. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl 3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl 3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  20. Lithium alloy-thionyl chloride cells - Performance and safety aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, E.; Lombardi, A.; Schlaikjer, C. R.

    1983-06-01

    It is pointed out that the lithium-thionyl chloride cell has the highest energy density among all the commercially available batteries. The low rate, AA-bobbin cathode cell has been in the marketplace for several years, while the wound or spiral electrode cell is still in the stage of development. The main reason for this are safety problems. These problems are related to the very high reactivity of lithium toward thionyl chloride and the rather low melting point of lithium (180.5 C). The practical stability of the system depends on an LiCl-passivating layer which forms spontaneously on the immersion of the lithium in the electrolyte. This layer serves as a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Under certain extreme conditions, however, the SEI can be damaged in such a way that an explosion of the cell occurs. The present investigation is concerned with the reduction of the short-circuit current and the improvement of the safety performance of the cell by the use of special, treated lithium alloys.

  1. Hydrogen as the solar energy translator. [in photochemical and photovoltaic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Many concepts are being investigated to convert sunlight to workable energy forms with emphasis on electricity and thermal energy. The electrical alternatives include direct conversion of photons to electricity via photovoltaic solar cells and solar/thermal production of electricity via heat-energy cycles. Solar cells, when commercialized, are expected to have efficiencies of about 12 to 14 percent. The cells would be active about eight hours per day. However, solar-operated water-splitting process research, initiated through JPL, shows promise for direct production of hydrogen from sunlight with efficiencies of up to 35 to 40 percent. The hydrogen, a valuable commodity in itself, can also serve as a storable energy form, easily and efficiently converted to electricity by fuel cells and other advanced-technology devices on a 24-hour basis or on demand with an overall efficiency of 25 to 30 percent. Thus, hydrogen serves as the fundamental translator of energy from its solar form to electrical form more effectively, and possibly more efficiently, than direct conversion. Hydrogen also can produce other chemical energy forms using solar energy.

  2. On the function and fate of chloride ions in amyloidogenic self-assembly of insulin in an acidic environment: salt-induced condensation of fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Viktoria; Surmacz-Chwedoruk, Weronika; Dzwolak, Wojciech

    2015-02-24

    Formation of amyloid fibrils is often facilitated in the presence of specific charge-compensating ions. Dissolved sodium chloride is known to accelerate insulin fibrillation at low pH that has been attributed to the shielding of electrostatic repulsion between positively charged insulin molecules by chloride ions. However, the subsequent fate of Cl(-) anions; that is, possible entrapment within elongating fibrils or escape into the bulk solvent, remains unclear. Here, we show that, while the presence of NaCl at the onset of insulin aggregation induces structural variants of amyloid with distinct fingerprint infrared features, a delayed addition of salt to fibrils that have been already formed in its absence and under quiescent conditions triggers a "condensation effect": amyloid superstructures with strong chiroptical properties are formed. Chloride ions appear to stabilize these superstructures in a manner similar to stabilization of DNA condensates by polyvalent cations. The concentration of residual chloride ions trapped within bovine insulin fibrils grown in 0.1 M NaCl, at pD 1.9, and rinsed extensively with water afterward is less than 1 anion per 16 insulin monomers (as estimated using ion chromatography) implying absence of defined solvent-sequestered nesting sites for chloride counterions. Our results have been discussed in the context of mechanisms of insulin aggregation.

  3. Hydrogen production at hydro-power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnay, D. S.

    A tentative design for hydrogen-producing installations at hydropower facilities is discussed from technological, economic and applications viewpoints. The plants would use alternating current to electrolyze purified river water. The hydrogen would be stored in gas or liquid form and oxygen would be sold or vented to the atmosphere. The hydrogen could later be burned in a turbine generator for meeting peak loads, either in closed or open cycle systems. The concept would allow large hydroelectric plants to function in both base- and peak-load modes, thus increasing the hydraulic utilization of the plant and the capacity factor to a projected 0.90. Electrolyzer efficiencies ranging from 0.85-0.90 have been demonstrated. Excess hydrogen can be sold for other purposes or, eventually, as domestic and industrial fuel, at prices competitive with current industrial hydrogen.

  4. Hydrogen in intermetallic phases: the system titanium--nickel--hydrogen. Wasserstoff in intermetallischen phasen am beispiel des systems titan-nickel-wasserftoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, H.; Gutjahr, M. A.; Beccu, K. D.; Saeufferer, H.

    1972-07-01

    The intermetallic phases Ti/sub 2/-Ni (E9/sub 3/-type) and TiNi (B2-type) are able to absorb great amounts of hydrogen interstitially. The E9/sub 3/-structure forms four isotypic hydrogen phases, the lattice parameters of which increase with increasing hydrogen contents (..delta..d/sub max/ = 5.3%). The stoichiometric formulas are: Ti/sub 2/NiH/sub 0/./sub 5/; Ti/sub 2/NiH; Ti/sub 2/NiH/sub 2/; Ti/sub 2/NiH/sub 2/./sub 5/. The lattice parameter of the B2-structure increases from 3.01 A to 3.10 A (..delta..d = 3%), thus forming the stoichiometric TiNiH phase. The TiNiH structure possesses an eight-fold superlattice having a B2 type cell. The positions of hydrogen in the two intermetallic phases Ti/sub 2/Ni and TiNi are discussed from the geometrical point of view. Neutron diffraction diagrams verify these positions for only two hydrogen phases (Ti/sub 2/NiH/sub 0/./sub 5/; Ti/sub 2/NiH). Because of extreme experimental difficulties, the exact hydrogen positions in the phases Ti/sub 2/NiH/sub 2/; Ti/sub 2/NiH/sub 2/./sub 5/; TiNiH are still unknown.

  5. Determination of the stability of the uranyl ion sipped in τ-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodic form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M.; Drot, R.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the uranyl sipped in the zirconium τ-hydrogen phosphate in sodic form (τ-NaZrP), was carried out characterizing the complexes formed by Laser spectroscopy in the visible region and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material was prepared by a new synthesis technique working in nitrogen atmosphere and to low temperatures. The sorption of the uranyl ion was made in acid media with concentrations of 10 -4 and 10 -5 of uranyl nitrate and with ion forces of 0.1 and 0.5 M of NaClO 4 . The spectra of induced fluorescence with laser (TRLFS) show that the uranyl is fixed in very acid media in three well differentiated species, to pH less acid, the specie of long half life disappears and are only those of short half life. The results of the binding energy obtained by XPS indicate that the binding energy of the uranyl confer it a stable character to the complex formed in the τ-NaZP, that makes to this material appropriate to retain to the uranyl in solution to high ion forces and in acid media. (Author)

  6. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreevy, J.; Barton, R.; Housinger, T.

    1986-01-01

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST stimulation. If the Cl pump is independent, HIST should stimulate Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited mucosa. A 1 hr control (CON) interval preceded exposure to OME (10 -4 M) in the nutrient solution. Potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), resistance (R), H flux (J/sup H/) and Cl flux (J/sup Cl/ with 36 Cl) were measured every 15 min. After 1 hr of OME exposure, HIST (10 -5 M) was added to the nutrient solution. The findings demonstrate that HIST stimulates Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited bullfrog gastric mucosa

  7. Tris(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′zinc(II chloride 2-phenyl-4-selenazole-5-carboxylate decahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Bei Shen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Zn(C12H8N23](C10H6NO2SeCl·10H2O, contains a [Zn(phen3]2+ cation (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, uncoordinated chloride and 2-phenyl-4-selenazole-5-carboxylate anions and ten uncoordinated water molecules. The central ZnII ion is six-coordinated by six N atoms from three phen ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. An extensive O—H...O, O—H...N and O—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding network stabilizes the crystal structure.

  8. The evolution of hydrogen and iodine by the decomposition of ammonium iodide and hydrogen iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nakane, Masanori; Ishii, Eiichi; Uehara, Itsuki; Miyake, Yoshizo

    1977-01-01

    As a fundamental study on thermochemical production of hydrogen from water, the evolution of hydrogen and iodine from ammonium iodide and hydrogen iodide was investigated. Hydrogen was evolved by the reaction of nickel with ammonium iodide or with hydrogen iodide, and the resulting nickel(II) iodide was decomposed thermally at 600 -- 700 0 C to form nickel. First, the iodination of powdered nickel with ammonium iodide was studied by heating their powder mixture. The maximum yield of hydrogen was obtained at a temperature near 430 0 C. The iodination of powdered nickel with gaseous ammonium iodide or with dry hydrogen iodide gas was also investigated. In this case, coating of nickel particles with a layer of resulting nickel(II) iodide prevented further conversion of nickel and lowered the reaction rate. Such a retardation effect was appreciably lessened by use of carrier. When nickel was supported on such a carrier as ''isolite'', the nickel was converted into nickel(II) iodide easily. In a reaction temperature from 400 to 500 0 C, the rate of reaction between nickel and hydrogen iodide increased slightly with the elevation of the reaction temperature. In the case of ammonium iodide, the reaction rate was higher than that for hydrogen iodide and decreased apparently with the elevation of the reaction temperature, because ammonium iodide decomposed to ammonia and hydrogen iodide. Tests using a fixed bed reactor charged with 8 -- 10 mesh ''isolite''-nickel (30 wt%) were also carried out. The maximum yield of hydrogen was about 80% for ammonium iodide at 430 0 C of reaction temperature and 60% for hydrogen iodide at 500 0 C. (auth.)

  9. The effect of Cu-rich sub-layer on the increased corrosion resistance of Cu-xZn alloys in chloride containing borate buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosev, Ingrid; Mikic, Tadeja Kosec; Gaberscek, Miran

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Cu-xZn alloys, as well as their constituent metals, in a borate buffer containing chloride ions in the molar range from 0.01 to 1 M are studied. Characteristics of these materials under anodic polarization are compared and the composition and morphology of the corrosion products formed in the course of polarization experiment are analysed by SEM and EDS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance measurements are used for characterization of the surface layers formed on Cu, Zn and Cu-40Zn alloy during 2-h immersion at E oc in a borate buffer containing two different concentrations of chloride ions. New aspects of the behaviour of brass under E oc condition are revealed. The improved corrosion resistance of brass in chloride media, if compared to zinc metal, is attributed to a Cu-rich layer formed by the selective dissolution of zinc. Based on the results, a structural model describing the improved corrosion resistance of Cu-40Zn alloy with respect to Zn metal is proposed

  10. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  11. Review of the methods to form hydrogen peroxide in electrical discharge plasma with liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Bruce R.; Shih, Kai-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature dealing with the formation of hydrogen peroxide from plasma processes. Energy yields for hydrogen peroxide generation by plasma from water span approximately three orders of magnitude from 4 × 10-2 to 80 g kWh-1. A wide range of plasma processes from rf to pulsed, ac, and dc discharges directly in the liquid phase have similar energy yields and may thus be limited by radical quenching processes at the plasma-liquid interface. Reactor modification using discharges in bubbles and discharges over the liquid phase can provide modest improvements in energy yield over direct discharge in the liquid, but the interpretation is complicated by additional chemical reactions of gas phase components such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. The highest efficiency plasma process utilizes liquid water droplets that may enhance efficiency by sequestering hydrogen peroxide in the liquid and by suppressing decomposition reactions by radicals from the gas and at the interface. Kinetic simulations of water vapor reported in the literature suggest that plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide should approach 45% of the thermodynamics limit, and this fact coupled with experimental studies demonstrating improvements with the presence of the condensed liquid phase suggest that further improvements in energy yield may be possible. Plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide directly from water compares favorably with a number of other methods including electron beam, ultrasound, electrochemical and photochemical methods, and other chemical processes.

  12. Review of the methods to form hydrogen peroxide in electrical discharge plasma with liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, Bruce R; Shih, Kai-Yuan [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This paper presents a review of the literature dealing with the formation of hydrogen peroxide from plasma processes. Energy yields for hydrogen peroxide generation by plasma from water span approximately three orders of magnitude from 4 x 10{sup -2} to 80 g kWh{sup -1}. A wide range of plasma processes from rf to pulsed, ac, and dc discharges directly in the liquid phase have similar energy yields and may thus be limited by radical quenching processes at the plasma-liquid interface. Reactor modification using discharges in bubbles and discharges over the liquid phase can provide modest improvements in energy yield over direct discharge in the liquid, but the interpretation is complicated by additional chemical reactions of gas phase components such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. The highest efficiency plasma process utilizes liquid water droplets that may enhance efficiency by sequestering hydrogen peroxide in the liquid and by suppressing decomposition reactions by radicals from the gas and at the interface. Kinetic simulations of water vapor reported in the literature suggest that plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide should approach 45% of the thermodynamics limit, and this fact coupled with experimental studies demonstrating improvements with the presence of the condensed liquid phase suggest that further improvements in energy yield may be possible. Plasma generation of hydrogen peroxide directly from water compares favorably with a number of other methods including electron beam, ultrasound, electrochemical and photochemical methods, and other chemical processes.

  13. Detection of colloidal silver chloride near solubility limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, K. Y.; Adawiah, R.

    2018-03-01

    Detection of nanoparticles in solution has been made possible by several means; one of them is laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD). LIBD is able to distinguish colloids of various sizes and concentrations. This technique has been used in several solubility studies. In this study, the formation of colloids in a mixed system of silver nitrate and sodium chloride was observed by acoustic LIBD. Silver chloride has low solubility limit, therefore LIBD measurement is appropriate. Silver and chloride solutions with equal concentrations, set at below and above the solubility of silver chloride as the expected solid product, were mixed and the resulting colloids were observed. The result of LIBD measurement showed that larger particles were present as more silver and chloride introduced. However, once the concentrations exceeded the solubility limit of silver chloride, the detected particle size seemed to be decreasing, hence suggested the occurrence of coprecipitation process. This phenomenon indicated that the ability of LIBD to detect even small changes in colloid amounts might be a useful tool in study on formation and stability of colloids, i.e. to confirm whether nanoparticles synthesis has been successfully performed and whether the system is stable or not.

  14. Biogeochemical conversion of sulfur species in saline lakes of Steppe Altai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenko, Svetlana V.; Kolpakova, Marina N.; Shvartsev, Stepan L.; Isupov, Vitaly P.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present research is to identify the main mechanisms of sulfur behavior in saline lakes in the course of time and followed transformations in their chemical composition. The influence of water on chemical composition of biochemical processes involved in decomposition of organic matter was determined by the study of behavior of reduced forms of sulfur in lakes. The determination of reduced forms of sulfur was carried out by successive transfer of each form of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide followed by photometric measurements. The other chemical components were determined by standard methods (atomic absorption, potentiometric method, titration method and others). The salt lakes of the Altai steppe were studied in summer season 2013-2015. Analysis of the chemical composition of the saline lakes of Altai Krai has shown that carbonate-, hydrocarbonate- and chloride ions dominate among anions; sodium is main cation; sulfates are found in subordinate amounts. Reduced forms of sulfur occur everywhere: hydrogen and hydrosulfide sulfur S2- prevail in the bottom sediments; its derivative—elemental S0—prevails in the lakes water. The second important species in water of soda lakes is hydrosulfide sulfur S2-, and in chloride lakes is thiosulfate sulfur S2O3 2- . The lag in the accumulation of sulfates in soda lakes in comparison to chloride lakes can be explained by their bacterial reduction, followed by the formation and deposition of iron sulfides in sediments. In chloride lakes gypsum is a predominantly barrier for sulfates.

  15. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  16. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  17. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride...

  18. Hydrogen-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    Hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) signal the explosive death of stars more massive than the progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae, i.e., approximately in the range 15-50 M⊙ in main sequence. Since hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae include those that accompany gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were all rigorously identified with type Ic supernovae, their explosion energies cover almost two decades. The light curves and spectra are consequently very heterogeneous and often bear the signature of an asymmetric, i.e., aspherical, explosion. Asphericity is best traced by early-time (within days of the explosion) optical spectropolarimetry and by late-epoch (more than ˜ 100 days after explosion) low-resolution spectroscopy. While the relationship between hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae to hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae is not understood, a known case of association between an ultra-long gamma-ray burst and a very luminous hydrogen-poor supernova may help unraveling the connection. This is tantalizingly pointing to a magnetar powering source for both phenomena, although this scenario is still highly speculative. Host galaxies of hydrogen-poor supernovae are always star forming; in those of completely stripped supernovae and gamma-ray burst supernovae, the spatial distribution of the explosions follows the blue/ultraviolet light, with a correlation that is more than linear.

  19. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  20. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.