WorldWideScience

Sample records for forming elite culture

  1. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  2. elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-05-01

    As usual, there are a lot of questions, much more than the answers. The questions are urgent and uneasy. Well, the greater the journal’s chances to become interesting, comprehensive and elite, in a good sense.

  3. Research on improvement strategies of elite culture, mass culture and the comprehensive quality of undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongling

    2011-10-01

    This article, placed the comprehensive quality improvement of undergraduates under the background of elite culture and mass culture, analyzed the influences and challenges brought by elite culture and mass culture on the undergraduate education from multiple perspectives of philosophy, ethics, economics, education, sociology and etc. and combing some foreign developed countries' experiences proposed the principles should be insisted by high schools in the context of elite culture and mass culture. With the development of times, undergraduate education should also constantly develop into new historical starting points and thoroughly reform the undergraduate education from content to essence, perception to format with a globalized horizon, so as to be able to reflect the time characteristics and better promote the overall development of undergraduates. Exactly based on such a view, this article, on the premise of full recognition that the flourishing and development of elite culture and mass culture has promoted China into a multicultural situation, proposed the principles for university moral education, such as education should promote the integration of undergraduate multi-values, sticking to the integration of unary guidance with diverse development, insisting on seeking common points while reserving differences and harmony but with differences, and etc.

  4. Comparing cultural classification: high and popular arts in European and U.S. elite newspapers, 1955-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Verboord, M.; Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to elucidate over time changes and cross-national variations in the status of art forms through a comprehensive content analysis of the coverage given to arts and culture in elite newspapers of four different countries - France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States - in

  5. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...... the decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  6. Toward a new concept of the "cultural elite state": Cultural capital and the urban sculpture planning authority in elite coalition in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of an attractive public art scene in urban public areas (termed urban sculpture in the Chinese context) is a recent phenomenon in Shanghai. The role of the local state in urban sculpture planning and development has not been critically examined. This article proposes a model entitled "cultural elite state" to conceptualize the characteristics of urban sculpture authority. The main argument is that the cultural capital held by individual political and social eli...

  7. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies...... – and hence are highly appropriate for direct comparisons with that study. This paper will begin by raising general issues regarding the meaning of the concept, and about how one may make assessments and claims about cultural capital. Here we consider how the legitimacy of certain cultural competencies...

  8. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Transition out of Elite Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas

    This PhD thesis investigates the transition out of elite sport from a holistic and ecological perspective. The framework that guided this project was developed based on sport developmental and transition models and focus on the influence of the macro-level (e.g., culture, welfare system) and the ......This PhD thesis investigates the transition out of elite sport from a holistic and ecological perspective. The framework that guided this project was developed based on sport developmental and transition models and focus on the influence of the macro-level (e.g., culture, welfare system...... after finishing the elite sport career. Furthermore, interviews with experts in athletic dual career were conducted in all three countries to describe the national dual career environments and to better understand the embedded underlying assumptions how to support athletes in their efforts to combine...... elite sport with education or work. Applying a cultural praxis, this thesis emphasizes the importance to consider the socio-cultural context when studying athletes’ careers and transitions....

  9. Contradictories of inherited cultural pattern and contemporary intellectual elite in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanjić Miloš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical basis of this paper is the notion of cultural pattern, or cultural model (Linton, or habitus (Bourdieu. Understood as a system of continuous and transferable dispositions, including all previous experience, it acts in each moment as a matrix of perception, evaluation and act. The cultural pattern of social groups and individuals in Serbia in the last 100 years had been created during a long period of time and cannot be changed quickly, nor easily. During the 19th century we had been trying to get rid of so-called Turkish legacy, mixed with patriarchal cultural pattern, without enough strength to complete the creation of civil and European cultural pattern in all areas of social life in the first decades of the 20th century. In the middle of the last century we were caught into a rigid ideological cultural pattern called social, i.e. communist consciousness. Today we speak about getting rid of communist legacy. However, things are not so simple as they look like. Contradictories of inherited cultural pattern consist of presence of lots of layers of old cultural patterns. What is the role of the intellectual elite in Serbia today? Which cultural patterns does this elite follow? These are the main questions the author is trying to answer.

  10. Women on board: female board membership as a form of elite democratization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, E.M.; Fennema, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corporate elites have been all-male bastions until the twenty-first century. The recent inclusion of women in the corporate elite needs explanation because it is an abrupt change in recruitment practices. We consider female presence in corporate boards as a sign of the democratization of elite

  11. Immersion Ethnography of Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines an innovative form of data-gathering that brings together two of the greatest methodological challenges social scientists face: conducting classical immersion ethnography and gaining access to elites. The difficulties of accessing elites for research purposes have been well......-documented (Conti and O’Neill 2007; Gilding 2010; Harrington 2003). There has been less scholarly discussion of the challenges posed by traditional ethnography, a method whose claim to scientific status is based on the length and depth of the investigator’s immersion in an organization or culture....

  12. Socioeconomic Growth, Culture Scale, and Household Well-Being. A Test of the Power-Elite Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodley

    1999-12-01

    Socioeconomic growth is an elite-directed process that concentrates social power in direct proportion to increases in culture scale. Power elites have controlled social power to their own advantage in at least three different ways: domestically, by means of kinship, politically, by means of rulers, and commercially, by means of the market. Each method produces its own growth trajectory and scale of culture and a distinctive distribution of elite power and household living standards. Ethnographic data on urban property ownership in 27 municipalities in the Palouse region of eastern Washington suggest that when power is commercially organized and villages become towns and cities, there is a dramatic increase not only in the number of prosperous households but even more in the number of poor and maintenance-level households. Elite property owners, who most benefit from growth, assume a larger role in municipal government, where they can encourage further growth through municipal annexations and zoning changes. Thus, as elite power becomes increasingly concentrated, the growth process itself tends to become self-perpetuating. In the Palouse example, small, no-growth municipalities appear to be politically more democratic than larger-scale, growing municipalities and household well-being in them more equitably distributed.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Dual Career Environments for Elite Athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas

    Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was (a) to provide an overview of the provided dual career opportunities for elite athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland; (b) to deepen our understanding of how the cultural context influences the development of dual career programs and trajectories...

  14. Embryo forming cells in carrot suspension cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, M.A.J.

    1997-01-01


    Somatic cells of many plant species can be cultured in vitro and induced to form embryos that are able to develop into mature plants. This process, termed somatic embryogenesis, was originally described in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Somatic embryos develop through the same characteristic

  15. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  16. Elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Schools and Inter-Cultural Understanding in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The number of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) schools has increased rapidly in China in recent years. However, access to schools offering the IBDP remains restricted to a relatively elite minority of China's population due to enrolment barriers for Chinese nationals and relatively high school fees. An implication is that…

  17. Culture brokerage as a form of caring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidy Eliana Arias-Murcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the meanings, uses, and contexts of applying the culture brokerage concept in nursing articles published from 1995 to 2011. Methodology. A total of 32 articles were identified from the following databases: Cuiden, SciElo, Ovid Nursing, Ovid, Medline and Pubmed. Results. It was found that 56.2% of the articles were about research, 37.5% on reflection, and 6.2% topic revision. Five categories emerged from the analysis: culture brokerage concepts, culture brokerage and cultural competence, culture brokerage and the performers, culture brokerage in the care of immigrants, and culture brokerage in the care of individuals with chronic diseases. Conclusion. Culture brokerage is a type of emerging care; it has various approaches and applications in both the community and hospital environments. Its conceptualization helps in the development of the nursing discipline.

  18. Dinamika Elit Lokal Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Zamroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The priyayi played a vital role in leading the Indonesian community during the colonial era. The same applies to Madura society. During the colonial era, power wielded by the priyayi was constricted on the basis of Madura culture and was strengthened by the bureaucratic power structure at both the village and district/ city level. This was manifested in such ways as serving as a klébun or bupati. However, the pattern of priyayi power, which was underpinned by feudalism waned, being replaced by Islamic religious leaders known as kiai. During the New Order regime, kiai in Madura played a very dominant role which was not only limited to the realm of religion, but also all aspects of life ranging from social, politics, economic, to culture. Nevertheless, with the dawn of the reformation era, economic elites have catapulted themselves to prominence, and there are growing signs that they are replacing the role which religious leaders used to play in Madura society in general and in the political domain in particular through forming shadow state as a tool used to exert control over Madura Political dynamics. This concise paper presents as discussion of ‘political fights’ among cultural, religious, bureaucratic, and economic elites in Madura.

  19. Community Psychology, Diversity, and the Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen argued that psychology must broaden its conceptualization of culture to consider its many forms, such as religion, socioeconomic status, and region. The current author could not agree more with Cohen's proposed conceptualization of culture and its potential impact on…

  20. The importance of being earners: the democratic, institutional and socio-political influence of Brazil's elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Coakley Wells

    Full Text Available This article considers the elite in Brazilian society as a core feature of political culture and examines its involvement in the development of democracy in post authoritarian Brazil from a socio-political and institutional point of view. Brazil's elite have been criticized as having an ambiguous attitude towards democracy. Some scholars have suggested that Brazil's elite exhibit no discernible preference for either authoritarian or democratic forms of government, but rather, endorse whichever type of government preserves its economic wellbeing. Does, therefore, the proliferation of the elite in Brazilian politics add a new element to the literature on Brazil's democratic consolidation? Is elite participation in Brazil's burgeoning democracy really just a paradox between developing a stable democracy, on the one hand, and promoting self-serving (elitist interests, on the other? This is perhaps the paramount dilemma of the elite's participation in Brazil's democratic consolidation and the major question which I will consider in the conclusion.

  1. Focusing on Form While Conveying a Cultural Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Examination of the cultural content in grammar exercises in recent college-level Spanish textbooks suggests a trend toward integration of cultural content with grammar, in accordance with recent research on form-based practice within a communicative context. Teachers can supplement their texts' offerings by creating form-focused activities with…

  2. Forming Pedagogical Aesthetic Culture of Students in British Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papushyna Valentyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the concept and primary factors of personality aesthetic culture development in the context of higher education in England. The scholars’ works and pedagogical advanced experience of the country nowadays pay special attention to forming personal creativity and self-realization of modern specialists. They are grounded on a high level of aesthetic culture. Among these essential conditions, the following are indicated: solving the issue of forming aesthetic culture at the national level, financing educational cultural projects and the cultural environment in educational institutions, functioning a wide network of cultural centers, which create the opportunities for everybody to aspire to cultural development. Determining the role of control and coordination of the process of forming students’ aesthetic culture, the author highlights the state policy that is interested in education of personal aesthetic culture as well as encourages students’ creative projects. The pedagogical factors of forming aesthetic culture in higher education institutions have been distinguished, namely, aestheticization of the education process, integration of academic subjects and art, implementation of art disciplines, introduction of new methodologies and technologies in the education process. In the article, there have been shown the best standards of experience of English pedagogy for higher education institutions, indicated on the research base of foreign and native scholars. They deserve a thorough study and adoption: collaboration between artists, culture experts an educational institutions, aesthetic practice of students as a part of public life, support of modern cultural-aesthetic environment of educational institutions. It has been concluded that the British education system offers exciting possibilities for development of aesthetic interests for everybody who aims at cultural growth with the help of the wide network of

  3. Forming health culture as part of general education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines methods of forming health culture in the content of education as a theoretical-methodological area aimed at fostering a positive attitude, sustained motivation for health and personal responsibility for its preservation.

  4. Pleasures of the Learned in Eighteenth-Century Ukraine: The Culture of Tea, Coffee, and Wine Consumption of the Church Elite

    OpenAIRE

    Maksym Iaremenko

    2017-01-01

    The history of stimulants and pleasurable ceremonies in Ukraine of early modern times has hardly been investigated. This article provides an overview of tea, coffee, and wine culture among representatives of the eighteenth-century church elite in the Kyiv Metropoly (subsumed as a synodal entity by the Russian Orthodox Church since 1686). The favour accorded these beverages is indicated in inventories of goods belonging to members of this social micro-group that list virtually an entire spectr...

  5. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. African Elites and their Post-colonial Legacy: Cultural,Political and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... In this article, I propose to discuss the way in which the issues of post- colonial modernism in the .... governments and mostly stayed within the boundaries of their European cultures. They were hardly .... Atlantic slave trade and colonialism, it is clear that in the post-colonial era the. 8-Diop.pmd. 17/12/2012 ...

  7. African Elites and their Post-colonial Legacy: Cultural, Political and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, I propose to discuss the way in which the issues of postcolonial modernism in the context of neoliberal capitalism has impacted on the traditional cultures and economic life of Africa's new classes. These include the bureaucratic and professional classes and the materially less fortunate members of the other ...

  8. Preserving Culture Through New Artistic Forms: the Case of Duro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preserving Culture Through New Artistic Forms: the Case of Duro Ladipo's Folkloric Theatre. ... Research Review of the Institute of African Studies ... Abstract. This study has asserted that art does not only exist for the mere titillation of the senses, but rather, it performs a functional role, its main objective being to affect man.

  9. Fragile Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    China's One Child Policy and its rigorous national focus on educational testing are well known. But what happens to those "lucky" few at the very top of the pyramid? Fragile Elite explores the contradictions of being an elite student through ethnographic research conducted at two top universities...... shifts in educational policy and definition of what a "quality" student, child, and citizen is in contemporary China....

  10. A new form of collaboration in cultural anthropology: Matsutake worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. K, Choy,; Tsing, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in collaboration open new investigative possibilities for cultural anthropologists. In this report, we use our research on matsutake mushrooms to show the promise of collaborative experiments for ethnographers of scale making, global connection, and human–nonhuman relations. Anna Tsing...... introduces. Mogu Mogu (Timothy Choy and Shiho Satsuka) argue that the mushroomic figure of mycorrhizal life illuminates workings of capital and power, nature and culture. Lieba Faier examines contingency—through the effect of weather and bugs on matsutake production—as a form of self-positioning that emerges...

  11. Students of the New Global Elite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrick, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Universities in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly enrolling an elite group of international students who not only are able to pay the high tuition and other expenses of U.S.-based universities, but also are personally familiar with several countries and cultures. These students are part of a new global economic and cultural elite.…

  12. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    there is no shortage of research on the changing nature of politics due to the increasing influence of the media, the relations between the key elites in the age of ‘mediated politics’ have yet to be analyzed thoroughly. Theoretically, the dissertation provides a new bridge between elite theory and political......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite...

  13. Direct broadcast of a sporting event as televisual cultural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct TV broadcasting of sport events is undoubtedly the focal point of interest of sport fans in sports media as well as of sponsors and investors responsible for the global mediatisation of popular sports. In this article, the centrality of direct TV broadcasts in the televisual coverage of sports, as well as in the presence of sports in new media in general is explained in the context of the impact of the mediatisation of sports upon cultural forms of TV coverage of sports. The complexity of these forms and its main features (the role of the commentator, the rules of editing, dramatisation and narrativisation in direct broadcasts are analysed.

  14. Pleasures of the Learned in Eighteenth-Century Ukraine: The Culture of Tea, Coffee, and Wine Consumption of the Church Elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Iaremenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of stimulants and pleasurable ceremonies in Ukraine of early modern times has hardly been investigated. This article provides an overview of tea, coffee, and wine culture among representatives of the eighteenth-century church elite in the Kyiv Metropoly (subsumed as a synodal entity by the Russian Orthodox Church since 1686. The favour accorded these beverages is indicated in inventories of goods belonging to members of this social micro-group that list virtually an entire spectrum of accoutrements, locally made as well as imported (including table services from China and Germany. Although wine and coffee were already consumed in Ukrainian territories, the clergy’s passion for various kinds of tea was sparked only around 1730, when it took consumers by storm throughout the Russian Empire. As medicinal ingredients, all three beverages were also mentioned in medical guides that were used in the Hetmanate at that time. Given that their cost, especially that of tea, was beyond what most could afford, drinking tea, coffee, and expensive wine became a mark of high status. Representatives of the church elite in Russian-ruled Ukraine were able to participated indirectly in the contemporary tea, coffee, and wine culture thanks to their education. In the eighteenth century, being educated assured clerics of a successful career. By the same token, rising to the higher ecclesiastical ranks prompted changes in their day-to-day habits and provided them material possibilities to conform to high-status consumption behaviours.

  15. Cultural forms of thinking as translation-communicative basis of the individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekrygina T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available social psychology approach to cultural dynamics used by the authors formed within the framework of the cultural and historical concept is a comparative analysis of cultural-historical process that helps to identify its main characteristic features of a particular cultural community, which are the most sustainable socio-cultural entities (cultural forms and perform translation-communication function of the culture impact on personality development and social relations. The authors concluded that cultural forms were the main determinants of socio-cultural identification with internal mechanism – cultural forms of thinking

  16. Computer Programming Games and Gender Oriented Cultural Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSulaiman, Sarah Abdulmalik

    I present the design and evaluation of two games designed to help elementary and middle school students learn computer programming concepts. The first game was designed to be "gender neutral", aligning with might be described as a consensus opinion on best practices for computational learning environments. The second game, based on the cultural form of dress up dolls was deliberately designed to appeal to females. I recruited 70 participants in an international two-phase study to investigate the relationship between games, gender, attitudes towards computer programming, and learning. My findings suggest that while the two games were equally effective in terms of learning outcomes, I saw differences in motivation between players of the two games. Specifically, participants who reported a preference for female- oriented games were more motivated to learn about computer programming when they played a game that they perceived as designed for females. In addition, I describe how the two games seemed to encourage different types of social activity between players in a classroom setting. Based on these results, I reflect on the strategy of exclusively designing games and activities as "gender neutral", and suggest that employing cultural forms, including gendered ones, may help create a more productive experience for learners.

  17. Cross-Racial Interactions during College: A Longitudinal Study of Four Forms of Interracial Interactions among Elite White College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carson Byrd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available College and universities present distinct opportunities to interact across racial and ethnic lines that may influence people’s prejudice toward different groups. This study examines the influence of four forms of cross-race interaction on traditional and modern forms of racial prejudice among white college students at 28 of the most selective colleges and universities in the US. This study finds that, although white students’ level of racial prejudice declines over four years, interracial contact during college does not significantly influence their level of prejudice. Moreover, a race-related form of social identity is the most consistent influence on students’ racial prejudice.

  18. Cross-Racial Interactions during College: A Longitudinal Study of Four Forms of Interracial Interactions among Elite White College Students

    OpenAIRE

    William Carson Byrd

    2014-01-01

    College and universities present distinct opportunities to interact across racial and ethnic lines that may influence people’s prejudice toward different groups. This study examines the influence of four forms of cross-race interaction on traditional and modern forms of racial prejudice among white college students at 28 of the most selective colleges and universities in the US. This study finds that, although white students’ level of racial prejudice declines over four years, interracial con...

  19. Everything starts with an 'E': exclusion, ethnicity and elite formation in contemporary English clubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measham, Fiona; Hadfield, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Early Club Studies emphasised the inclusiveness of club cultures and the PLUR ethos of 'peace, love, unity and respect' alongside a polarised characterisation of nightlife contexts, as either commercial, alcohol-oriented nightclubs offering 'mainstream' pop music, or 'authentic'/'alternative' underground dance clubs associated with widespread illicit drug use. This paper adds to the growing body of research problematising these simplistic characterisations of club cultures and leisure venues across the night-time economy, emphasising elements of fragmentation and segregation alongside the continued importance of social structure and resultant social and spatial exclusion. The authors explore how informal processes - such as club launches, internet promotions and dress codes - together result in the production and reproduction of two contrasting forms of English clubland elites: 'cultural elites' produced through the social, cultural and spatial exclusion of electronic dance music of black origin and its minority ethnic, working class and lower income followers from Manchester city centre dance clubs; and 'consumer elites' produced through the economic and cultural exclusion of working class and lower income club-goers from nightclubs in London's West End. The complex and interweaving practices of cultural distinction and structural discrimination which produce such elites are often closely intertwined with the formal and informal regulation, marginalization and criminalization of specific cultural forms. The paper therefore argues for the construction of more nuanced conceptual understandings of the social divisions and inequalities within nightlife and in studies of young people's leisure opportunities more generally.

  20. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    cohesion in political communication, focusing on the extent and patterns of attitudinal cohesion among elites. Empirically the dissertation builds on unique survey data from more than 1,500 high-ranking politicians and journalists in six European countries (Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Austria, France......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite...

  1. Gastronomy as a form of cultural tourism: A Greek typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Polyxeni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods, as well as other factors, such as accommodation, attractions, recreational activities and transport are key parts of the tourism product of host destinations. It has been found that in recent years, tourism choices have not been determined only by the simple biological need to eat, but also by the desire to try interesting products within an appropriate environment. Modern, experienced travelers look for destinations' quality, as linked to a deeper knowledge of the culture and lifestyle of the inhabitants of the place they are visiting. As lifestyles of people are deeply related to what and how they eat, how they prepare food and in what environment, what the rituals of food consumption are, combined with the architecture and place, a strong demand has been created for local food and a trend of what is called 'gastronomic/culinary tourism'. A survey was carried out in order to explore the forms of product supply, commercialization strategy as well as methods to promote gastronomic tourism in Greece. In particular, the search was carried out through the internet businesses in Greece involved in the field of gastronomy and tourism, using keywords such as gastronomy, Greek cuisine, Greek breakfast, wine routes, olive routes, etc. Then, the findings were classified into categories in order to evaluate their activity. The survey revealed that companies involved in the field of gastronomy are numerous and of various nature. These include restaurants, hotels, guest and rural houses, tourism agencies, food manufacturers, food markets, museums, exhibition halls, etc. Their activities are equally varied and creative (related to wine, honey, herbs, etc, cultural routes that have to do with a product, thematic museums, etc. Due to the lack of targeted central tourism policy in the field, it is proposed to further explore the field and record domestic gastronomic resources at regional administrative levels in order to effectively valorize and promote

  2. Forms of Address as Cross-Cultural Code-Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Dissonance for (young) Danes since V isinterpreted as an overt manifestation of power distance in a society which considers itself asegalitarian. Ways to cope with such cognitive dissonance in foreign language teaching arediscussed. Furthermore, the article addresses the broader question of when cultural......, in Denmark they use T. Based on the observation that Danish studentsare very reluctant (and sometimes even opposed) to use V in the classroom in Denmark, thisarticle proposes to consider the use of V and T as a case of Cross-Cultural Code-Switching. Itis hypothesized that V causes Cultural Cognitive...

  3. DRY COMPOSITION OF STARTER CULTURES FORM LACTIC ACID MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of producing of lyophilized lactic acid starter Lb. plantarum strain 226/1, designed for a starter culture in the production of pickles. The results of our studies demonstrate achievement of this goal by the specified process parameters.

  4. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate

  5. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in oil palm elite planting materials propagated by tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate reference genes in other oil palm

  6. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in oil palm elite planting materials propagated by tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Lan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. RESULTS: In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569 outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN. PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection

  7. The General and the Specific in the Psychological ModelsElites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Karabuschenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the general and specific features of the psychology of the political, business and cultural-intellectual elites, reflecting the basic structural components of the psychological concept of elites.

  8. New forms of distribution of popular music in contemporary culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Buil Tercero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current changes in the dissemination of information and transmission technologies have greatly intensified the global distribution of music. Internet has become a great ally for the staging of music thanks to the emergence of various technologies for recording and distribution, supported by new formats, expanding the catalog of messages that the individual can receive through multiple music available and reopening an old debate about the role of music in the cultural universe. The music industry in the digital age, particularly recorded music, is immersed in an unstoppable evolution of the classical paradigms of the market. In this paper we analyze the evolution of the recording industry which is setting a scene of several clashes between the industry itself and other cultural agents who are becoming better positioned to new technologies.

  9. The party of the people versus the cultural elite: Populism and nationalism in Flemish radical right rhetoric about artists

    OpenAIRE

    de Cleen, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the interplay between nationalism and populism in the Flemish \\ud (North-Belgian), Vlaams Bloc/Vlaams Belang’s (VB), populist radical right rhetoric about \\ud expressive culture. Building on a discourse theoretical analysis of three extensive case \\ud studies (concerts against the VB, the opposition between the VB and the Flemish theatres, \\ud and the VB’s criticism of the Flemish National Songfest), and a number of other \\ud controversial moments the article shows that...

  10. KIAI: FIGUR ELITE PESANTREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Takdir Ilahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a pesantren (Islamic boarding school, kiai is an strategic element. Javanese kiai mainly believe that a pesantren is a small palace where he becomes the ultimate source of power and authority. Even though he lives in a rural village, he becomes a member of elite group in social, politic and economic sides in the society. Kiai who leads big pesantren has successfully enlarged their power in term of nation so kiai could be accepted in national elite. The position of kiai is higher among all pesantren elements. The degree as an Islamic scholar is exactly a sacred degree in pesantren culture and tradition. Without his figure, it is impossible for a pesantren to develop and survive. Kiai holds an ultimate position on educate the behavior and morality of the santri (students to be qualified and compatible Muslims generation. Kiai is not only a leader but he is also the man behind the leadership itself in supporting the progress of Islamic education institution for Muslims generations.

  11. 'Elites'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Johanna L.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews three books: (1) "Elite Education: International Perspectives" (edited by C. Maxwell and P. Aggleton); (2) "Class Choreographies: Elite Schools and Globalisation" (J. Kenway, J. Fahey, D. Epstein, A. Koh, C. McCarthy, and F. Rizvi); and (3) "Corporate Elite and the Reform of Public Education"…

  12. Cultural evolution of cooperation : The interplay between forms of social learning and group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; Quiñones, Andres; Weissing, Franz J.

    The role of cultural group selection in the evolution of human cooperation is hotly debated. It has been argued that group selection is more effective in cultural evolution than in genetic evolution, because some forms of cultural transmission (conformism and/or the tendency to follow a leader)

  13. Cultural Competence and Cultural Identity: Using Telementoring to Form Relationships of Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Audrey; Herrmann, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the following research question: How does telementoring urban high school students by English teacher candidates develop candidates' cultural competence and impact mentees' cultural identity development? Mentee-mentor exchanges were analyzed to uncover how mentees used writing to develop cultural identity, how mentors'…

  14. EDUCATIONAL QUEST AS MEANS OF FORMING OF INFORMATION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В И Глизбург

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Creative use of the potential of modern information and communication technologies for solving pedagogical, educational and training tasks is now an urgent problem of education. It is already impossible to isolate pupils from the modern means of communication (smartphones, tablets, etc.. The objective of a teacher to show how you can use the gadgets for educational purposes. Interest in their use as a source of useful information. Learn to evaluate and select information sources on various criteria: reliability, availability, adequacy and completeness of the information, response rate, etc. Theseand other skills to work with information are key in our rapidly changing world, and are part of the concept of information culture of the modern man. This article describes the use of educational technology of QR-codes to address these issues, as well as justification its effectiveness. The intellectual quest, which is the embodiment of the above ideas, combines the dynamism and kindness, interest and attentiveness, ability to work in a team and contribute to the common cause; aimed at the development of tolerance, inquisitiveness, activity, courtesy, accuracy, attention and thinking; as well as to broaden their horizons and the formation of information culture of schoolboys.

  15. Museology: an academic discipline or form of cultural activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ploşniţa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Museology is the science of museums. Most experts characterize it as an independent applied scientific discipline, which studies how museums develop and optimize their activities to meet the needs of society. The term "museology" was first mentioned in the work by P.L. Martin "Praxix der Naturgeschichte" published in 1869 in Germany. But the determination of the status of museology as a science was first given by J. G. Th. Von Graesse in the article "Museology as a Science" published in the magazine „Zeitschrift für Museologie und Antiquitätenkunde" in 1883. The author announced a new scientific discipline of museology and tried to highlight its research potential. Thus, museology as a science began in 1883. Since 1960s museology is introduced as a scientific discipline in many universities around the world; there were created first centers of museological research, published numerous papers on museums. However, so far, some experts deny the scientific character of museology considering it "a discipline that coordinates a specialized type of cultural activity". In his article, the author analyzes the path of museology in the process of its development as a scientific discipline, identifies the problems of its classification in the system of sciences, and highlights the contributions of some researchers (P. van Mensch, J. Neustupny, T. Šola, Z. Stransky, R. Florescu, etc. to the consolidation of its status of an independent science. In conclusion, the author believes that museology is an academic science, but a relatively young and developing.

  16. Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko

    2013-01-01

    Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms...... of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings...

  17. In vitro propagation of plant virus using different forms of plant tissue culture and modes of culture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sharon M-H; Doran, Pauline M

    2009-09-10

    Plant virus accumulation was investigated in vitro using three different forms of plant tissue culture. Suspended cells, hairy roots and shooty teratomas of Nicotiana benthamiana were infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using the same initial virus:biomass ratio. Viral infection did not affect tissue growth or morphology in any of the three culture systems. Average maximum virus concentrations in hairy roots and shooty teratomas were similar and about an order of magnitude higher than in suspended cells. Hairy roots were considered the preferred host because of their morphological stability in liquid medium and relative ease of culture. The average maximum virus concentration in the hairy roots was 0.82+/-0.14 mg g(-1) dry weight; viral coat protein represented a maximum of approximately 6% of total soluble protein in the biomass. Virus accumulation in hairy roots was investigated further using different modes of semi-continuous culture operation aimed at prolonging the root growth phase and providing nutrient supplementation; however, virus concentrations in the roots were not enhanced compared with simple batch culture. The relative infectivity of virus in the biomass declined by 80-90% during all the cultures tested, irrespective of the form of plant tissue used or mode of culture operation. Hairy root cultures inoculated with a transgenic TMV-based vector in batch culture accumulated green fluorescent protein (GFP); however, maximum GFP concentrations in the biomass were relatively low at 39 microg g(-1) dry weight, probably due to genetic instability of the vector. This work highlights the advantages of using hairy roots for in vitro propagation of TMV compared with shooty teratomas and suspended plant cells, and demonstrates that batch root culture is more effective than semi-continuous operations for accumulation of high virus concentrations in the biomass.

  18. Cultural Awareness, a Form of Risk Management in International Business: Case Study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Fadun Solomon Olajide

    2014-01-01

    Mutual awareness of cultural references is essential in international business as levels of formality vary greatly among cultures. The emergence of capitalism into China induces international firms¡¯ investment in the country. This resulted to creation of a production base to explore the inexpensive factors of production, particularly low-cost labour. The study examines cultural awareness as a form of risk management in international business, using China as a case study. The study uses ¡®XYZ...

  19. ABOUT FORMING OF PROFESSIONAL INFORMATIVE CULTURE OF FUTURE TEACHER OF MATHEMATICS.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Shishko; I. Chernenko

    2010-01-01

    The problem of preparation of future teachers of mathematics for general school from the point of methodical and organizational questions of forming of professional informative culture of future teacher of mathematics is considered in the аrticle.

  20. Adherence of yeast and filamentous forms of Candida albicans to cultured enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Stephen M; Bendel, Catherine M; Hess, Donavon J; Erlandsen, Stanley L; Wells, Carol L

    2002-03-01

    Systemic candidiasis is a major cause of complicating infections in intensive care units. Morbidity and mortality are high, even in those who receive appropriate antifungal therapy. Because the intestinal tract is considered a major portal of entry for systemic candidiasis, experiments were designed to clarify the ability of yeast and filamentous forms, as well as the INT1 gene product, to influence adherence of Candida albicans to the intestinal epithelium. Controlled. University teaching hospital research laboratory. Mature Caco-2 and HT-29 cultured enterocytes. C. albicans INT1 mutant strains, defective in filament production, were used to observe the ultrastructural surface interactions of C. albicans with cultured intestinal epithelial cells, namely Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. These mutant strains also were used to quantify the effect of the INT1 gene product on C. albicans adherence (yeast and filamentous forms) to cultured enterocytes. Ultrastructural surface interactions of C. albicans with cultured enterocytes were observed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy. C. albicans adherence to cultured enterocytes was quantified by using a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both yeast and filamentous forms of C. albicans appeared tightly adherent to the apical surface of cultured enterocytes, and INT1 appeared to have little, if any, effect on these ultrastructural surface interactions. The distal ends of C. albicans filaments appeared to mediate adherence to enterocyte apical microvilli, and thigmotropism (contact guidance) appeared to play a role in C. albicans adherence. The absence of functional INT1 was associated with decreased adherence of C. albicans yeast forms to cultured enterocytes. Although functional INT1 appeared to facilitate adherence of C. albicans yeast forms to cultured enterocytes, the role of INT1 in adherence of filamentous forms was unclear, and both yeast and filamentous forms could adhere to, and perhaps invade, the

  1. Business and corporate elites in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković-Njegovan Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of new business and corporate elites in Serbian society as one of the neglected aspects of two-decades-long social and economic transition away from the eyes of the general public. These elites haven't reached their status through typical channels of social mobility, such as education and achievements in professional work. In the struggle for capital allocation most of the business elites took advantage of the accelerated privatization of public property which took place in a climate of illegal business. The political establishment was in favor of the new business tycoons since they themselves also took advantage of the moment to convert their political power into the economic one. By devaluing public enterprises, selling them for a pittance and deceiving small shareholders massively, new corporate owners eroded the social capital. The society was impoverished and instead of developing it followed the path of antimodernization and peripheralization of the economy. That was a clear case of obstructing the democratic development of society by its elites. The majority of the new economic elite have originated from those social layers of the socialist era who had already possessed significant resources, economic, organizational and cultural capital, as well as political power. It can be argued that it was a transition without transformation, i.e. a process of 'remaking' the old establishment into a new elite. However, since the mid-nineties, the business and corporate elites have been penetrated by a new generation of business people, generally not related to the previous establishment. They accept the rules of doing business in a responsible manner. On the other hand, the state has found enough strength to start sanctioning transitional financial frauds and fraudsters from the closed circles of the current financial (pseudo elite.

  2. Comparison of prostanoid forming capacity of neuronal and astroglial cells in primary cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M; Jackisch, R; Seregi, A; Hertting, G

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) and thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis in primary neuronal and astroglial cell cultures was studied. Cultures obtained from fetal (15-16 days old) and neonatal rat brain hemispheres were characterized by chemical and immunocytochemical staining techniques as predominantly neurons or mature and immature astrocytes, respectively. Six-day old neuronal cell cultures grown in the presence of cytosine arabinoside (2 ?M) from the day 3 onwards were contaminated up to 10% with glioblasts. In astroglial cultures up to 3% of the cells were postively stained with a marker for oligodendroglial cells. Fibroblast contamination was below 1% in both cultures. Prostanoid formation (measured by specific radioimmunoassays) in 6-day old neuronal cell cultures was low (sum of the amount of PGs and TX formed: 1.16 +/- 0.17 (ng/mg protein/15 min) as compared to 14-day old cultured astroglial cells: 21.27 +/- 2.53 (ng/mg protein/15 min). Also the pattern of prostanoids formed was different in neuronal (PGD(2) ? PGF(2?) > TXB(2) ? PGE(2)) and astroglial cells (PGD(2) > TXB(2) ? PGF(2?) ? PGE(2) ? 6-ketoPGF(1?)). Preincubation with arachidonic acid (1 ?g/ml) did not affect prostanoid formation in both cultures, whereas it was stimulated 4-6-fold by addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 (1 ?M). These results, although found on cultured neuronal and glial cells of different stages of development, support the view that astroglial cells might play a crucial role in brain prostanoid synthesis.

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Form to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Vania F S; Fukushima, Fernanda B; Rodrigues, Aniela M; Carvalho, Raissa P; Carvalho, Larissa P; Pinheiro, Leandro A F V; Polegato, Bertha F; Minicucci, Marcos F; Bassett, Rick; Moss, Alvin H; Steinberg, Karl E; Vidal, Edison I O

    2018-02-12

    The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) paradigm is considered one of the most important strategies to respect patients' values at the end of life in the United States. The cross-cultural adaptation of POLST entailed several methodological considerations, which may be informative for international researchers who may also consider bringing POLST to their countries as a means to promote care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences. To report the methods and outcome of the cross-cultural adaptation of the POLST form to Brazil. Cross-cultural adaptation study. Twenty physicians and 10 patients at a university hospital participated in the pilot tests. The cross-cultural adaptation process included choosing which existing POLST form(s) to use as a source, deciding the intended reading level, which healthcare professionals should be allowed to sign the form, and consultation with attorneys, bioethicists, and members of the National POLST Paradigm Task Force. Pilot tests occurred in two stages using different approaches. First, 20 physicians were trained about POLST and asked for any unclear aspects related to the form. Second, trained investigators completed POLST forms after engaging in advance care planning conversations with 10 hospitalized patients or patients' surrogates. This report provides a basis for future cross-cultural adaptations of POLST to other countries. The authors hope such new adaptations will broaden the possibilities of research using POLST and also may promote wider provision of care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences.

  4. The architectural form of Qikou Cave dwellings in Chinese "Earth" culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanchen; Feng, Xinqun

    2018-03-01

    Cave building is not only a kind of architecture with unique style, but also a manifestation of Chinese traditional culture. Cave culture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture. The main purpose of this thesis which studies the architectural form of Qikou Cave, is to analyze how the cave building plays a positive role in promoting the development and application of modern resources and in cultural transmission. Based on a large amount of literature material, and taking Qikou Cave as an example, by studying the morphological characteristics of cave building, the paper takes an optimistic outlook on its future development and the sustainable development of the resources. It is expected that the cave culture can be further explored to promote the traditional Chinese culture and to drive the development of modern construction industry and resource conservation.

  5. ASYNCHRONICAL MEANS OF FORMING CROSS CULTURAL COMPETENCE OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (IN THE CASE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy G. Apalkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the key problems of forming cross cultural competence by means of asynchronic Internet-communication techniques. A concise overview of main studies in using e-mail group in forming cross cultural competence. An algorithm of forming cross cultural competence of high school students is described. 

  6. Elite perceptions of poverty and Nigeria's poverty reduction research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The way the elite perceive poverty and the poor in any society constitutes a very important dimension of poverty research. This is because normally there are several areas of interrelationship and interdependence between the poor and the elite, and these form part of the basis for social life in all societies. Perceptions of the ...

  7. The Romantic and the Intentional Forms of Art: Meta-historical Cut, Cultural Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Opanasiuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of regularity of the procedural being of world culture in the last (conditionally 5000-year meta-period there can be defined the context, the principles of the artistic expression, the dimensional borders, the characteristics of romantic and intentional forms of art. Ancient cultures express the context of symbolic formation, the Antique one expresses the classical; the Byzantine and the European cultures in accordance position as the romantic-semantic, generally-romantic, intentionally-semantic / intentionally-romantic, generally-intentional imaginative types.

  8. The cultural currency of a 'good' sense of humour: British comedy and new forms of distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sam

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally considered lowbrow art par excellence, British comedy has grown steadily in legitimacy since the 'Alternative Comedy Movement' of the early 1980s. Yet while there might be evidence of a transformation in British comic production, there is little understanding of how this has been reflected in patterns of consumption. Indeed, there is a remarkable absence of studies probing comedy taste in British cultural sociology, most notably in Bennett et al's (2009) recent and otherwise exhaustive mapping of cultural taste and participation. This paper aims to plug this gap in the literature by examining contemporary comedy taste cultures in Britain. Drawing on a large-scale survey and in-depth interviews carried out at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, it argues that comedy now represents an emerging field for the culturally privileged to activate their cultural capital resources. However, unlike previous studies on cultural capital and taste, this research finds that field-specific 'comic cultural capital' is mobilized less through taste for certain legitimate 'objects' of comedy and more through the expression of rarefied and somewhat 'disinterested'styles of comic appreciation. In short, it is 'embodied' rather than 'objectified' forms of cultural capital that largely distinguish the privileged in the field of comedy. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  9. Elite Puri dalam Lanskap Politik Kontemporer di Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Gede Suwitha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is been few studies on the role of local or traditional elites in Bali in the context of national politics in Bali. It seems that the traditional Balinese elites played a dominant role inthe context of political culture in the past, particularly sincethe fall of Bali in the fourteenth Century until nineteenth century. However, this situation has still developed inthe recent situation and will be in the future. This study concentrates on the role of the traditional Balinese elites in the context of recent situation in terms of democracy and the involvement of the elites particularly after the reformation period and also trying to show to what extent the role of the traditional Balinese elite in terms of democracy in modern politics.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in biofilm forms of staphylococci cultivated in a mixed culture with lactobacilli

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lavryk; O. Korniychuk; M. Tymkiv

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of opportunistic bacteria for biofilm formation plays an important role in the development of chronic inflammatory processes, which are difficult to treat. To improve antimicrobial therapy methods, the influence of lactobacilli on the ultrastructure of biofilm-forming clinical strains of staphylococci when co-cultured was investigated. 5 biofilm-forming clinical strains of S. aureus from the skin of acne vulgaris patients (n = 24) were isolated. Using transmission electron micros...

  11. Interaction forming moral and strong will qualities of college students during physical culture with patriotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraynyuk O.P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It shows the cooperation at education of youth in the spirit of patriotism during the physical training lessons in college. It 102 technical college students of first course take a part in experiment, who will be a soldier. It's formed, that patriotic education of youth is conditioned by educational influence of physical culture means. But traditions of sport and patriotic work nowadays take a very different complexion and modern forms.

  12. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however...

  13. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...... have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit...

  14. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...... have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit...

  15. ABOUT FORMING OF PROFESSIONAL INFORMATIVE CULTURE OF FUTURE TEACHER OF MATHEMATICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shishko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of preparation of future teachers of mathematics for general school from the point of methodical and organizational questions of forming of professional informative culture of future teacher of mathematics is considered in the аrticle.

  16. Ultrastructural changes in biofilm forms of staphylococci cultivated in a mixed culture with lactobacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lavryk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of opportunistic bacteria for biofilm formation plays an important role in the development of chronic inflammatory processes, which are difficult to treat. To improve antimicrobial therapy methods, the influence of lactobacilli on the ultrastructure of biofilm-forming clinical strains of staphylococci when co-cultured was investigated. 5 biofilm-forming clinical strains of S. aureus from the skin of acne vulgaris patients (n = 24 were isolated. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM the morphological changes of S. aureus cells in the mixed culture with standard strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3 and clinical strains of L. fermentum (n = 4 were studied. It was found that in 48 hours after the inoculation on the medium of samples of mixed cultures of L. plantarum 8P-A3 and S. aureus growth of staphylococci was not revealed. Only in some cases of mixed cultures of L. fermentum and biofilm-forming staphylococci was growth of S. aureus obtained. In electron diffraction patterns of control samples of 24-hour staphylococcal monocultures and 48-hour lactobacilli monocultures, natural development of the population at the cellular level was observed. Destructive changes under the influence of lactobacilli (probiotic and clinical strains were detected in all ultrathin sections of the cells of biofilm-forming and planktonic staphylococci. Significant destructive changes in the cell wall of the staphylococci were observed: thickening, obtaining of irregular form, detachment of the cytoplasmic membrane, the complete destruction of the peptidoglycan layer and the emergence of "shadow cells". On all electron diffraction patterns fibrillar-threadlike structures of DNA could not be observed, but in some cases mesosome-like formations were poorly contrasted. It was established that the surface S-layer of lactobacilli was expressed on a significantly larger scale in the mixed culture with staphylococci. In mixed culture of clinical strains

  17. Education of children in Polish family in a context of forming health culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. IERMAKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - analysis of the approaches of family education in a Polish family in the direction of forming a culture of children's health. Material: The analysis of the publications of post-communist countries and Poland scientists. Used the results of a questionnaire on health culture. Results: It was found that healthsaving aspect of family education in Polish family plays a significant role in forming health culture. Highlighted in national traditions of family upbringing of a healthy child. It is noted that social support, as a result of active participation in the religious life, helps to better cope with the challenges of everyday life, reduces anxiety and excessive sadness, increases the feeling of well-being. There is a possibility in the Ukrainian family and the school to ensure the spiritual education of children, the right of parents to ensure the education and upbringing of their children in conformity with their own philosophical convictions. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health. The main factors of a healthy lifestyle today's young people are: quality of food, measures to prevent stress, problems of environmental protection, sports, leisure. Conclusions: It is recommended to involve parents in various activities of the societies and volunteers of various organizations. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health.

  18. Exploring Biographical Learning in Danish Elite Football Coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Exploring Biographical Learning In Danish Elite Football Coaching Mette Krogh Christensen Abstract for EASS 2011(300 words) Background: There is a growing body of studies in sports coaching cultures, comprising research focusing on the individual learning processes and life histories of elite...... football coaches (n=8) about their pathways in elite sport. Using Kvale’s recommendations, thematic analysis was conducted by the use of meaning coding. In addition, a theoretical reading of the interview was conducted on the background of Alheit’s concept of biographicity and Werthner and Trudel...

  19. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Identifying Power Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau Larsen, Anton; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman

    2017-01-01

    Specifying network boundaries is fundamental in the study of social structures of elite networks. However, traditional methods do not offer clear criteria on either size or composition of the elite, and rely on numerous ad hoc decisions. A methodological framework that is inductive, reproducible...... and suitable for comparative research is proposed. First, a comprehensive dataset of the 5079 affiliation networks of all potentially powerful sectors in Denmark was assembled. Second, these heterogeneous affiliation networks were weighted to account for potential level of social integration. Third, a weighted...

  1. Development and Cross-Validation of the Short Form of the Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Chae, PhD, RN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop and validate the short form of the Korean adaptation of the Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses. Methods: To shorten the 33-item Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses, an expert panel (N = 6 evaluated its content validity. The revised items were pilot tested using a sample of nine nurses, and clarity was assessed through cognitive interviews with respondents. The original instrument was shortened and validated through item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity, and reliability using data from 277 hospital nurses. The 14-item final version was cross-validated through confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, discriminant validity, known-group comparisons, and reliability using data from 365 nurses belonging to 19 hospitals. Results: A 4-factor, 14-item model demonstrated satisfactory fit with significant factor loadings. The convergent validity between the developed tool and transcultural self-efficacy was significant (r = .55, p < .001. The convergent validity evaluated using the Average Variance Extracted and discriminant validity were acceptable. Known-group comparisons revealed significant differences in the mean scores of the groups who spent more than one month abroad (p = .002 were able to communicate in a foreign language (p < .001 and had education to care for foreign patients (p = .039. Cronbach's α was .89, and the reliability of the subscales ranged from .74 to .91. Conclusion: The Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses-Short Form demonstrated good reliability and validity. It is a short and appropriate instrument for use in clinical and research settings to assess nurses' cultural competence. Keywords: cultural competence, psychometric properties, nurse

  2. Development and Cross-Validation of the Short Form of the Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Duckhee; Park, Yunhee

    2018-03-01

    To develop and validate the short form of the Korean adaptation of the Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses. To shorten the 33-item Cultural Competence Scale for Nurses, an expert panel (N = 6) evaluated its content validity. The revised items were pilot tested using a sample of nine nurses, and clarity was assessed through cognitive interviews with respondents. The original instrument was shortened and validated through item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity, and reliability using data from 277 hospital nurses. The 14-item final version was cross-validated through confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, discriminant validity, known-group comparisons, and reliability using data from 365 nurses belonging to 19 hospitals. A 4-factor, 14-item model demonstrated satisfactory fit with significant factor loadings. The convergent validity between the developed tool and transcultural self-efficacy was significant (r = .55, p Competence Scale for Nurses-Short Form demonstrated good reliability and validity. It is a short and appropriate instrument for use in clinical and research settings to assess nurses' cultural competence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Hybridization of crime fiction genre forms as a representation of contemporary cultural process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Krapivnyk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the consideration of hybridization of crime fiction forms in the contemporary cultural process. The work showed that, from the point of view of the culture development, sophistication of the classical crime fiction formula, hybridization of detective fiction with other fiction genres is a natural process of the strive to vary і diversify, combine genres, styles and means of text presentation (from a hard copy or audio book to video and computer games, which is related to the crisis of the Modernity project epoch, where fiction genres were quite self­sufficient, and the transition to the postmodern (or updated Modern, where the human consciousness is dominated by the processes of simultaneous specialization and combination of various industries, in other words, divergence and convergence. It may be claimed that a detective text as one of the most popular genres in the contemporary information culture, in particular, because it reveals secrets, clarifies vague things and assists in discovering the truth, transforms so that there is a process of detectivization of different text products of the cultural industry. At the same time the very detective formula as a component of various genres becomes a tool for playing and influencing the consciousness of a contemporary person.

  4. Hvem bliver morgendagens elite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirsøe, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Bare fordi du er født med en guldske i munden, er du ikke sikret en plads blandt morgendagens elite. Vidensamfundet kræver mangfoldighed og krøllede hjerner, og det udfordrer de gængse vinder- og taberetiketter. Eller gør det?...

  5. A Very Economic Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau; Munk, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    degree. Elite universities also hold little importance for Danish top CEOs, partly due to the institutions’ historic decline; instead, reproduction is mediated through time spent in the economic field, placing the case of the Danish CEOs between that of their British and German counterparts. Specific...

  6. Social remittances: migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, P

    1998-01-01

    "Many studies highlight the macro-level dissemination of global culture and institutions. This article focuses on social remittances--a local-level, migration-driven form of cultural diffusion. Social remittances are the ideas, behaviors, identities, and social capital that flow from receiving- to sending-country communities. The role that these resources play in promoting immigrant entrepreneurship, community and family formation, and political integration is widely acknowledged. This article specifies how these same ideas and practices are remolded in receiving countries, the mechanisms by which they are sent back to sending communities, and the role they play in transforming sending-country social and political life." The data concern migrants from the Dominican Republic to the Boston area of the United States. excerpt

  7. Social space and cultural class divisions: the forms of capital and contemporary lifestyle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmen, Magne; Jarness, Vegard; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we address whether and how contemporary social classes are marked by distinct lifestyles. We assess the model of the social space, a novel approach to class analysis pioneered by Bourdieu's Distinction. Although pivotal in Bourdieu's work, this model is too often overlooked in later research, making its contemporary relevance difficult to assess. We redress this by using the social space as a framework through which to study the cultural manifestation of class divisions in lifestyle differences in contemporary Norwegian society. Through a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) of unusually rich survey data, we reveal a structure strikingly similar to the model in Distinction, with a primary dimension of the volume of capital, and a secondary dimension of the composition of capital. While avoiding the substantialist fallacy of predefined notions of 'highbrow' and 'lowbrow' tastes, we explore how 168 lifestyle items map onto this social space. This reveals distinct classed lifestyles according to both dimensions of the social space. The lifestyles of the upper classes are distinctly demanding in terms of resources. Among those rich in economic capital, this manifests itself in a lifestyle which involves a quest for excitement, and which is bodily oriented and expensive. For their counterparts rich in cultural capital, a more ascetic and intellectually oriented lifestyle manifests itself, demanding of resources in the sense of requiring symbolic mastery, combining a taste for canonized, legitimate culture with more cosmopolitan and 'popular' items. In contrast to many studies' descriptions of the lower classes as 'disengaged' and 'inactive', we find evidence of distinct tastes on their part. Our analysis thus affirms the validity of Bourdieu's model of social class and the contention that classes tend to take the form of status groups. We challenge dominant positions in cultural stratification research, while questioning the aptness of the metaphor of

  8. Thermosensitive injectable in-situ forming carboxymethyl chitin hydrogel for three-dimensional cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Jia; Qi, Chao; Fang, Yapeng; Zhang, Lina; Zhuo, Renxi; Jiang, Xulin

    2016-04-15

    Injectable hydrogels have gained great attentions for cell therapy and tissue regeneration as a result of the applications in minimally invasive surgical procedures with the ease of handling and complete filling of the defect area. Here, a novel biodegradable, thermosensitive and injectable carboxymethyl chitin (CMCH) hydrogel was developed for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. The obtained CMCH solution remained transparent liquid flowing easily at low temperatures and gelled rapidly at 37°C. The gelation time of CMCH hydrogels could be easily tuned by varying temperature and the degree of carboxymethylation, which facilitates the cell encapsulation process at room temperature and in-situ forming hydrogel at body temperature. Moreover, the CMCH-14 hydrogels in PBS buffer remained stable and continuous porous structure and could be degraded in the presence of lysozyme or hyaluronidase. HeLa cells proliferated sustainably and self-assembled to form 3D multicellular spheroids with high cell activity on the surface of CMCH-14 hydrogel. Encapsulation of COS-7 cells within the in-situ forming CMCH hydrogel demonstrated that CMCH hydrogels promoted cell survival and proliferation. In vivo mouse study of the CMCH hydrogels showed good in-situ gel formation and tissue biocompatibility. Thus, the biodegradable thermosensitive injectable CMCH hydrogels hold potential for 3D cell culture and biomedical applications. Biodegradable hydrogels have been widely studied for cell therapy and tissue regeneration. Herein, we report a novel thermosensitive injectable carboxymethyl chitin (CMCH) hydrogel for 3D cell culture, which was synthesized homogeneously from the bioactive natural chitin through the "green" process avoiding using organic solvent. The CMCH solutions exhibited rapid thermoresponsive sol-to-gel phase transition behavior at 37°C with controllable gelation times, which facilitates the cell encapsulation process at room temperature and in-situ forming hydrogel at

  9. Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

    2010-05-12

    The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS.

  10. Representation of National Identity in Malaysian State Mosque Built Form as a Socio- cultural Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Sabrina Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of national identity is the essence for a multi-racial country like Malaysia because it can strengthen national solidarity, create a common aspiration, and sustain the continuity of a historical heritage with multiple ethnicity and background. Nevertheless, the characteristics of this national identity is still not fully dealt with from an architectural aspect. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to critically examine the problem of national architectural identity in Malaysia. This is vital to uncover the resulting design principles with national architectural identity characteristics by referencing to three typologies of local state mosque as case study. The finding outlines that there are six architectural principles that influence the formation of national identity. These are the understanding of built form detail elements, materials usage, local style composition and expression, application of organic theory, designing a regionalistic articulation of space and form as well as an understanding of democratic values form to reflect the characteristics of national identity. These established referential guideline design on national identity is of benefit for future designers, builders, developer and related authority to produce built form that symbolizes nation political values as well as responsive to the existing social culture context.

  11. The 'other' London effect: the diversification of London's suburban grammar schools and the rise of hyper-selective elite state schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, Sol

    2018-03-30

    This paper examines the rise of a new elite of 'super-state' schools in London, revealing a growing divide within the state sector which problematizes claims that the capital is a 'hotspot' for social mobility (Social Mobility Commission ). Although recent research has revealed a 'London effect' in which students in the capital on Free School Meals outperform their peers in other regions (Greaves, Macmillan and Sibieta ), inequalities between London's schools in access to elite universities have been overlooked. Drawing on a case study of a suburban London grammar school, 'King Henry's School', I show how ethnic-minority suburbanization has combined with an institutional strategy to compete with elite private schools. Strategies of selection have been mobilized alongside elements of elite 'gentlemanly' educational culture in order to reposition the school within the hierarchy of London's schools. The result is a hyper-selective school which provides a conduit to elite universities for upwardly mobile British-Asian students. I show that this strategy has strong parallels with the school's attempts in the early twentieth century to compete with London's fee-paying 'public' schools. The continuing symbolic value of 'traditional' forms of elite educational culture to a school seeking to reposition itself within the field reflects deep structural patterns of inequality in English education. To understand how apparent improvements in social mobility can sit alongside deepening inequalities between state schools, there is a need for a historical sociological approach that takes account of long-term processes of institutional change (Savage ; Inglis ). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  12. The effect of culture in forming e-loyalty intentions: A cross-cultural analysis between Argentina and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belanche Gracia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase their markets, many companies are starting e-commerce internationalization processes that involve dealing with cultural differences among countries. Although most firms start internationalization strategies to similar countries, previous research has mainly focused on understanding expansion to countries with a great cultural distance. This study analyzes the relevance of culture in the formation of e-loyalty intentions in Argentina and Spain, two countries with slight cultural differences. Specifically, culture is proposed as a moderator of e-service quality and satisfaction effects on e-loyalty intentions. Results confirm that the influence of e-service quality on e-loyalty intentions is greater for Argentinian consumers (a little more individualistic, masculine, and less pragmatic culture compared to Spain. Besides, a greater influence of satisfaction on e-loyalty is found for Spanish consumers (a more pragmatic, collectivistic, and feminine culture compared to Argentina. The introduction of socio-demographic control variables, i.e. gender, age and education level, support the moderation effect of culture. According to these results, marketers should note that e-loyalty formation process differs across cultures, even between similar cultures. Further implications for international marketing strategies are widely discussed.

  13. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueredo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737, while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the

  14. Places of popular music heritage: the local framing of a global cultural form in Dutch museums and archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno); A.M.C. Brandellero (Amanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThrough the prism of popular music, this article examines how the preservation and display of this global cultural form positions itself at the nexus of the local and the global, and in so doing mediates attachment to place. Springing from the increasing cultural legitimacy of popular

  15. The Bristol Stool Form Scale: its translation to Portuguese, cultural adaptation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Anna Paula; de Azevedo, Gisele Regina

    2012-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale is used for describing feces. The objective of this research was its translation, cultural adaptation and validation for Brazil. The methodology was translation, back-translation and discussion. Validation involved 85 nurses, 80 doctors, and 80 patients, who correlated images of seven types of feces with the descriptions. there was a difference in sex distribution, with males predominating among the doctors and females among nurses and patients. In relation to concordance between definitions and pictures, the highest percentage was in type 5 in all three groups and the lowest was in types 6 and 7 for the doctors, in type 3 for the nurses, and type 6 for the patients. The general Kappa index was 0.826. the scale demonstrated high reliability for all the groups studied.

  16. Forming the integrality in health concept based on the historical-cultural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Andrade Aukar de Camargo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the formation of the concept integrality in health by undergraduate students of the nursing bachelor and licensure course in a historical-cultural approach. This is a qualitative descriptive study, conducted in a public state university, with 24 students. The information was collected through interviews and it generated three categories agreeing with the stages to form a scientific concept, entitled: The initial plurality of the integrality in health concept senses; From generalizations of subjective impressions to concreate attributes; The potential concept or pseudo-concept. The analysis revealed a dialectic process between thoughts and speech. The integrality in health concept evolved from the words “everything” and “whole”, to an association with the Unified Health System principle, to the team work as guide for health practices and organization of services. It is concluded that the formation theory of concepts in the historical-cultural approach, allowed to identify advances and gaps in learning when building knowledge of students.

  17. Form and Function of Carrying Tools in Traditional and Contemporary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriana Werdhaningsih

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Javanese Traditional Carrying Tools are categorized into two kinds based used of materials: anyaman made of woven bamboo or rattan and the other was made of cloth. The Traditional Javanese Carrying Tools that were made of bamboo/ rattan is actually a kind of container with different shapes. The types of goods that were brought was related to the shapes of the containers, demonstrate the type of interactions between the carrier and the goods. The Traditional Carrying Tools made of cloth have the flexibility in terms of being the containers of the carried goods. Selendang is used to carry goods, including the bamboo/ rattan containers and to carry babies. It can be used rumpled and straightened depends on the technical needs of carrying tools preferred by the user. In contemporary culture, the form and design of carrying tools more less construct by fashion and trends besides those practical used. Some product are being 'classic', some other are being 'fad'. Both products, traditional and contemporary have their own style, uniqueness, and own context. Analyzing both in design point of view is important as evaluation process, to finding new problems that will be starting point to create new products. Indonesia is well known for its abundant richness in traditions, which include the culture, the art, and the traditional products. Such treasure of traditions can inspire the development and invention of various kinds of artwork and current products.

  18. Political elite of modern Russia: crisis of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail A. Burda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Author analyzes the practice of functioning of political elite of modern Russia, the phenomenon of high rating of one of its actors and the crisis of alternative political leaders. The article pays special attention to the existing, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the breadth of presidential powers. Separately discusses the features of current and in General closed for the controlled companies to the private process of formation of the Russian political elite. According to the author, this process takes the form of selection of candidates by a narrow circle of senior officials for subjective reasons, in connection with which the political elite even more segregated from the controlled companies and rising to a new, unattainable level of elitism. Referring to the existing practice of the presidential elections in Russia in the early 90-ies of XX century to the present focuses on the stagnation of the political opposition, lack of political competition among major political parties and their low electoral support in view of the existing political absenteeism. In the article the author considers the historical context of the formation of elite groups and privileged minorities, and draws attention to features of "technocratic parliamentarism", which is inherent in States with a parliamentary form of government and does not implement at present in Russia, with its prevailing system of governance by public authorities. In conclusion, the special attention of author is turned on the existing in society political absenteeism, latent protest potential and, as a consequence, the request for the renewal of political elites, particularly in the framework of the upcoming presidential elections of the Russian Federation in 2018, the participation of new candidates. According to the author of the inventory of such social demand companies will allow to stop the risks enhance the destructive part of economic and regional political

  19. Are entrepreneurial strategies culturally biased? : The role of culture as an inter-subjective perception-forming construct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Martin R.; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have asserted that national culture has an influence on strategic decisions during new venture creation processes. One of the more promising frameworks describing these processes is that of Sarasvathy, known as the Effectuation framework. Within this framework, the role of national culture

  20. Vaccination in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.

  1. Mykhailo Drahomanov and Western Ukrainian intellectual elite: on the issue of cultural cooperation in historiography (the middle of the 20th - the early 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorstkina O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the scientists’ contribution during the period of 1940s-2010s to the investigation of the issue of cultural connections between the famous Ukrainian scholar and thinker Mykhailo Drahomanov and intellectuals of Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia. The achievements of Ukrainian authors - historians, philologists, folklorists, - including the diaspora ones, as well as the papers of European researchers are analyzed. It is concluded that the issue has been covered mainly in a context of the M. Drahomanov’s activities or of the scientific and literary activities of certain intellectuals, cooperating with M. Drahomanov (those were, first of all, I. Franko and M. Pavlyk

  2. Rhinitis in Elite and Non-Elite Field Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Surda, P; Rossiter, M; Little, S

    2017-01-01

    Rhinitis has been demonstrated to impose a significant disease burden upon the general population. We sought to determine the prevalence of rhinitis in athletes; to investigate its relationship with co-existing allergic symptoms; and to quantify the impact of rhinitis on quality of life in the athlete.3 subgroups were studied: elite field hockey players (FHP); non-elite FHP; and a sedentary control group.Participants were asked to complete a rhinitis self-report questionnaire; the "Allergic Questionnaire for Athletes" (AQUA), and quality of life Sinonasal Outcome Test - 22 (SNOT-22).142 participants completed the study (52 elite FHP; 40 non-elite FHP; 50 controls). There was a significantly higher prevalence of rhinitis in the elite and non-elite FHP groups than the sedentary control group (52% and 43% vs. 22%, prhinitis. Quality of life scores were significantly worse in athletes with rhinitis than those without rhinitis (prhinitis. Elite FHP were most likely to report rhinitis, but the least likely to be using regular treatment. Quality of life was negatively affected, confirming the importance of nasal health to athlete welfare. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-03-23

    To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. Assessment of the instrument's conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee's assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes - Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494- 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved to be a reliable, safe and innovative method. Traduzir

  4. Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

  5. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Career Maturity Inventory: A Korean Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Na Mi

    2016-01-01

    As counselors become aware of the importance of providing culturally sensitive counseling, they can use evaluation and assessment to support client career development (Swanson & Fouad, 2014). For culturally sensitive career assessment, counselors should understand cultural factors, including the values and level of acculturation that may…

  6. Acidovorax lacteus sp. nov., isolated from a culture of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium (Microcystis sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Seong-Jun; Cui, Yingshun; Ko, So-Ra; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Srivastava, Ankita; Oh, Hee-Mock; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2017-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, designated strain M36 T , was isolated from a culture of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis sp., collected from a eutrophic lake in Korea. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate was found to grow aerobically at 15-42 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0% NaCl) on R2A medium. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain M36 T is closely related to Acidovorax anthurii DSM 16745 T (98.1%), Acidovorax konjaci DSM 7481 T (97.7%) and Acidovorax avenae DSM 7227 T (97.0%) and also formed a clear phylogenetic lineage with other Acidovorax species. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain M36 T and the closely related species of the genus Acidovorax was <30%. The major fatty acid components identified included summed feature 3 (C 16:1 ω7c and/or C 16:1 ω6c), C 16:0 and summed feature 8 (C 18:0 ω7c and/or C 18:0 ω6c). The DNA G+C content of strain M36 T was determined to be 66.8 mol%. Based on above polyphasic evidence, strain M36 T is concluded to represent a new species of genus Acidovorax, for which the name Acidovorax lacteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M36 T (=KCTC 52220 T  = JCM 31890 T ).

  7. Changes in pyridine metabolism profile during growth of trigonelline-forming Lotus japonicus cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Matsui, Ayu; Sakuta, Masaaki; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the profile of pyridine metabolism during growth of cells were investigated using trigonelline-forming suspension-cultured cells of Lotus japonicus. Activity of the de novo and salvage pathways of NAD biosynthesis was estimated from the in situ metabolism of [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide. Maximum activity of the de novo pathway for NAD synthesis was found in the exponential growth phase, whereas activity of the salvage pathway was increased in the lag phase of cell growth. Expression profiles of some genes related to pyridine metabolism were examined using the expression sequence tags obtained from the L. japonicus database. Transcript levels of NaPRT and NIC, encoding salvage enzymes, were enhanced in the lag phase of cell growth, whereas the maximum expression of NADS was found in the exponential growth phase. Correspondingly, the activities of the salvage enzymes, nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.11) and nicotinamidase (EC 3.5.1.19), increased one day after transfer of the stationary phase cells to the fresh medium. The greatest in situ trigonelline synthesis, both from [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide, was found in the stationary phase of cell growth. The role of trigonelline in leguminous plants is discussed.

  8. The Tea Culture and Its Forms Across the Czech Tea Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröderová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture across tea rooms. I have described the specifics of the tea rooms and of the tea culture. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what is the process of the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi-structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all complemented by a parti...

  9. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the driving anger scale (DAS): long form and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Jessye Almeida; Santos, George Oliveira; Machado, Eduardo de Carvalho; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Driving anger has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years because it may induce individuals to drive aggressively or adopt risk behaviors. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was designed to evaluate the propensity of drivers to become angry or aggressive while driving. This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the short form and the long form of the DAS. Translation and adaptation were made in four steps: two translations and two back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; the development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health and driving behaviors; a subsequent experimental application; and, finally, an investigation of operational equivalence. Final Brazilian versions of the short form and of the long form of the DAS were made and are presented. This important instrument, which assesses driving anger and aggressive behaviors, is now available to evaluate the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, which facilitates research in this field.

  10. Splintering of tourism market: new appearing forms of cultural tourism as a consequence of changes in everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelincić, Daniela Angelina

    2009-03-01

    Within the concept of cultural tourism, this article defines relatively new concepts of creative and hobby tourism, which are detected as recent niche markets. Cultural tourism is a narrow specialized market, while creative and hobby tourism relate to even more specialized segments. Even these specialized forms of tourism have their market whose growth is very probable taking into account changes in everyday work as well as changes in the values of human activity in general. These changes reflect also the sector of tourism, which is obvious in the ever growing splintering of tourism market as well as of tourism forms. The article reviews theoretical concepts of cultural, creative and hobby tourism as to prepare the basis for applied tourist programmes. It looks into the history of cultural tourism as to see what changes occurred and brought it to life. Changes that have taken place in everyday lives of people and the impact of everyday free time activities on tourism are also analysed. Further splintering of the cultural tourism sector is noticed and cultural tourism sub-forms are detected by analysing some of the leading home style and creativity magazines. The article also proposes possible application of push/pull factors to creative/hobby tourism.

  11. Tropa: debate de elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hamilton

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, o ator Paulo Hamilton, que interpreta o soldado Paulo no filme Tropa de elite, defende o trabalho de José Padilha das acusações de comprometimento com um discurso ideológico fascista. Sua estratégia consiste em desvincular o ponto de vista sob o qual o filme é narrado – aquele do Capitão Nascimento – daquele que a obra como um todo pretenderia comunicar. Mais ainda, argumenta ele, regimes totalitários procuram combater posturas de questionamento. A polêmica que Tropa fomentou seria um indício adicional contra a sua associação ao fascismo.

  12. Chemical form of metals in traditional medicines underlines potential toxicity in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liang, Shi-Xia; Shi, Jin-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2011-04-12

    Mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) are frequently found in traditional medicines as sulfides, such as cinnabar (HgS) and realgar (As(4)S(4)). There is a general perception that any medicinal use of such metal-containing remedies is unacceptable. An opposing opinion is that different chemical forms of arsenic and mercury have different toxic potentials. To clarify this question, cinnabar, realgar, and cinnabar- and realgar-containing traditional medicine An-Gong-Niu-HuangWan (AGNH), were compared to well-known mercurials (HgS, HgCl(2) and MeHg) and arsenicals (As(2)S(2), As(2)O(3), NaAsO(2), and Na(2)HAsO(4)) for their cytotoxicity in human and rodent cell lines. Cultured cells derived from target organs such as brain (HAPI) and liver (Hep3B, HepG2 and TRL1215) were treated with chemicals for 48 h and cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay. MeHg was most toxic with LC(50) of 4-20μM, followed by NaAsO(2) (LC(50), 25-250 μM) and HgCl(2) (LC(50,) 50-100 μM), Na(2)HAsO(4)(LC(50), 60-400μM), As(2)O(3)(LC(50), 30-900 μM), and As(2)S(2) (LC(50), 100-500 μM). In comparison, the LC(50) of realgar ranged from 250 to1500 μM; whereas cinnabar or HgS were approximately 20,000 μM and the toxicity of AGNH was in the range of 1500-8000 μM. Approximately 5000-fold differences exist between MeHg and HgS, and over 10-fold differences exist between NaAsO(2) and As(4)S(4). Chemical forms of metals are important factor in determining their toxicity in traditional medicines, both cinnabar and realgar are much less toxic than well-known mercurial and arsenicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social biases modulate the loss of redundant forms in the cultural evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth; Fedzechkina, Maryia

    2018-02-01

    According to the competitive exclusion principle (Gause, 1934), competition for the same niche must eventually lead one competitor to extinction or the occupation of a new niche. This principle applies in both biology and the cultural evolution of language, where different words and structures compete for the same function or meaning (Aronoff, 2016). Across languages, for example, word order trades off with case marking as a means of indicating who did what to whom in a sentence. Previous experimental work has shed light on how such trade-offs come about as languages adapt to human biases through learning and production, with biases becoming amplified through iterated learning over generations. At the same time, a large body of work has documented the impact of social biases on language change. However, little work has investigated how social biases interact with learning and production biases. In particular, the social dimension of language may provide alternative niches for otherwise redundant forms, preventing or slowing their extinction. We tested this hypothesis in an iterated-learning experiment in which participants were exposed to a language with two dialects, both of which had fixed word order, but differed in whether they employed case markers. In one condition, we biased participants socially towards speakers of the dialect that employed case; in other conditions we provided no bias, or biased participants for or against the dialect without case. As expected under our hypothesis, the use of case markers declined over time in all conditions, but the social bias in favor of case-dialect speakers slowed the decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Theory and practice as cultural forms and the research design on The open school program in the Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Haastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Carr (1986) I wish to present an understanding of theory and practice as cultural forms (Knudsen 2012). In this perspective theory and practice are viewed as knowledge forms in cultural forms. We found that this perspective supports how theory and practice can relate in multiple ways...... of teaching, supervising, mentoring and studying. We hereby took on the challenge of suggesting a ‘theory and practice didactics’ by turning to creativity research and social learning theory in order to transgress the observed routinized theory and practice relations embedded in the topos practices (Haastrup......Title Theory and practice in the workshop – towards a theory and practice didactics The knowledge forms of theory and practice has been historically viewed as means and measures for knowing and doing with a primary focus on how to bridge the gap between them. On the basis of qualitative fieldwork...

  15. CATEGORICAL IMAGE COMPONENTS IN THE FORMING SYSTEM OF A MARKETING TECHNIQUES MANAGER’S IMAGE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna Cherednyakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding of the image culture formation of managers of marketing techniques, as a representative of the social and communication interaction of public structures, categorical apparatus of image culture with an emphasis on the etymology of the image, as an integral component of image culture was analyzed. Categorical components of the image are presented from the standpoint of image culture, as personal new formation, an integral part of the professional activity of the marketing techniques manager: object-communicative categorical component, subject-activity categorical component of image, personality-oriented categorical component, value-acmeological categorical component of image.The aim is to identify and justify the image categorical components as a component of image culture of the marketing techniques manager.Method and methodology of work – a general scientific research approach reflecting scientific apparatus of research.Results. Categorical components of the image, as an image culture component of manager of marketing techniques were defined.Practical implication of the results. The theoretical part of «Imageology» course, special course «Image culture of manager of marketing techniques», the theoretical and methodological study and the formation of image culture.

  16. Ludic Ontology: Play's Relationship to Language, Cultural Forms, and Transformative Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S?????hields, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The author defines play as something beyond culture and its quotidian practices, discussing play as an embodied, affective experience that cannot be fully conveyed using conventional language. She looks at notions of play in the political philosophy and cultural criticism of the late-modern thinkers of late-capitalist society and notes that,…

  17. "They have to toe the line": A Foucauldian analysis of the socialisation of former elite athletes into academy coaching roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackett, Alexander David; Evans, Adam Brian; Piggott, David

    2018-01-01

    The pathway between elite athlete and high-performance coach is common within English men’s rugby union and association football. To help develop as coaches, many elite athletes gain coaching experiences within male high-performance youth academies. The purpose of this article sought to gain...... an insight into the socialisation processes of current and former elite athletes within association football and rugby union amongst the socio-cultural context of England, and to identify why Academy Directors seemingly preferred to recruit current and former elite athletes as academy coaches. Semi...

  18. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Giddings, A.M.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with 2-200

  19. Biilliards, rhythms, collectives - Billiards at a Danish activity center as a culturally specific form of active ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2014-01-01

    Through an ethnographic study of older men playing billiards at an activity centre and a document study of how the concept of activity has changed during the last 60 years, this article argues that active ageing policies overlook that activities are culturally significant forms of practise situat...

  20. Problems of forming informative competence of future teachers of physical culture in the context of informatization of education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo V.G.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In theory, forming of informative competence for the future teachers of physical education in the process of education is grounded. It is exposed, that forming of informative competence of future teacher of physical culture is one of major constituents of alteration of the system of physical education. It is shown that for the successful decision of problems of forming of informative competence of future teacher of physical culture expediently complex to conduct research on forming of computer literacy, informative culture in the field of knowledge "Physical education, sport and health of a man". It is well-proven that introduction of front-rank technologies in the process of preparation of future teachers will allow to prepare the socially developed personality, competent teacher, specialist of the industry. Forming for the students of informative competence will help them to understand the economic, legal and social aspects of the use of information, observe ethics and legal norms during realization of access and use of information.

  1. Management Studies Educational Knowledge: Technical, Elite or Political?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the technical, elite and political interpretations of the purpose of management, to identify demands for particular forms of educational knowledge in the management studies curriculum. The varied character of this knowledge is discussed using Bernsteinian concepts of verticality, grammaticality, classification and framing, and…

  2. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-03-27

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction.

  3. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction. PMID:21320903

  4. Folk national culture as a means of forming norms of communication in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernushevich V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best carriers of playing culture are children, who possess and enjoy it. Destroyed social kids’ structures, territorial kids’ associations (family, yard, village, street communities of children interrupted generally the process of culture transmission, reproduction and passing of communication tradition. And there is a need in social-state “revivification” (recovering folk games list and its’ players, enough for folk games reproduction process. Folk game includes particular properties of relations on the levels of physical and emotional, vocal interaction, imagery-symbolic filling, special features of clothes (all aspects of communication that constitute features of national culture of the nation and make from the nation the community of people very special and different from other communities and nations. Studying of correctional possibilities of folk games within the frames of playing agendas showed that their psychological and emotional resources provide the conditions for adoption by children the norms of communication.

  5. Criteria, indicators and levels of formed professional functional competences of future teachers of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsutina N.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the structural components of the functional competence of professional teachers of physical education: motivational, cognitive and action-practical. We used the following methods of scientific knowledge, as the analysis of psychological, educational and methodological literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, ordering Criteria and levels of occupational functional competence of future teachers of physical education. It is determined that the high level of professional formation of the functional competence of future teachers of physical culture is characterized by the motivation to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, fundamental knowledge required to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, a high level of general physical fitness, pronounced specific motor abilities and skills.

  6. Forming a health culture of future teachers in Polish educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. IERMAKOVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the experience of the structure and system of training of future teachers in Polish schools. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Used data from the survey of students of Polish universities. Also were used survey results through polish service ANKIETKA. For comparison, a questionnaire survey 35 students of the Faculty of Physical Education (future teachers of physical training and 30 students - the future teachers of elementary school of Ukrainian university. Results: the study of Polish teachers consider health culture of a person as the ability to assess individual and community health needs using in everyday life hygiene and health regulations. There have been some differences among Ukrainian and Polish students in their health and health culture. Among the respondents, Polish students - the future teachers of physical culture, is dominated motives such as the improvement of the physical condition, strengthen self-esteem, as well as improved health. Polish students from other disciplines believe that the most important motive for the adoption of physical activity is a concern for the physical well-being and mental health. The majority of Ukrainian students (future teachers of physical culture believe an important part of building health culture of their direct participation in various sports clubs, as well as the ability to organize physical culture, sports and educational work with students outside the classroom. Ukrainian students (other specialty noted the need to improve health, enhance knowledge in specific subjects humanities and promoting healthy lifestyles. Conclusions: It is recommended to use the experience of preparing students of Polish schools in modern Ukrainian higher education.

  7. Translation of novels by Georges Simenon as a form of dialogue between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyadsky V.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available this article examines the literary translation as a normative value system of contacting cultures, reveals its intercultural and communicative functions. The role and place of literary translation as one of the most important tools for building relationships in the international community is defined. This problem is solved by the example of the translation of novels by the French writer J. Simenon in the Russian language. The author of the article analyzes the errors made in the translation and reveales their negative role in the dialogue of cultures.

  8. Schooling in the Kovno Ghetto: Cultural Reproduction as a Form of Defiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten Frasier, Amanda Marie

    2015-01-01

    When Soviet forces entered the Kovno Ghetto (Lithuania) on 1 August 1944 they found a scene of mass destruction. What happened at Kovno was a reflection of the extent of the Final Solution, where the goal was to extinguish not only the Jews, but their entire culture. While the Final Solution was instituted throughout Europe, this paper will focus…

  9. Management of Cultural Differences under Various Forms of China-UK Higher Education Strategic Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Roberts, Joanne; Yan, Yanni; Tan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    International strategic alliances are notorious for their high failure rate. Increased inter-partner conflict resulting from ineffective cross-cultural management is perceived to be one of the key reasons for unsatisfactory alliance performance. Driven by globalization, universities are extending into foreign markets through the establishment of…

  10. Training of administrative elite in the formation of a new democratic governance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Васильович Олійник

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key condition to ensure state and public structures in terms of the systemic crisis of Ukrainian society is the formation of new administrative elite with high levels of administrative culture and spiritual and moral features. Proving the theoretical principles of a democratic model of administrative elite in the context of the transformation processes in Ukraine, the author chooses the philosophical and pedagogical ideas of Academician I. Ziaziun about improvement of Human Resource Management as a basis

  11. Menakar moralitas elit politik melalui kontrak politik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiwan Nasiwan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the General Election to choose the legislative members, that is held on April 5, 2005 and President General Election, that is held on June 5 and September 20, 2004, there was a political phenomenon, which then popularly said "a political contract. " The political contract was initiated by some elements of 'the civil society', which were the important components of the political power of pro-reform community. Looking at the cultural side, the existence of the political contract in the development of Indonesian politics implied that there was a change in cognitive, affective and evaluation  orientation of some of Indonesian people in their attitudes and political habits to be more rational.  The emergence of the more-rational political orientation was also pushed by the previous political experience of ''being betrayed by the political elite ', just like in 1999 General Election at the reform era. The chance also rose after the changes in the system of General Election that introduced the district and proportional system, and the direct president election that rose up the important of people's vote and aspiration. The changes had pushed the political elites to approach the people, fit themselves with the people's rhythm and dynamism, including the aspiration for political transparency and political accountability by willing to sign the political contract.

  12. Short communication: A nanoemulsified form of oil blends positively affects the fatty acid proportion in ruminal batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, M; Cieslak, A; Pers-Kamczyc, E; Szczechowiak, J; Kowalczyk, D; Szumacher-Strabel, M

    2016-01-01

    Two consecutive rumen batch cultures were used to study the effect of nanoemulsified oils as a new type of supplement, on the in vitro fatty acid proportion and vaccenic acid formation. Three levels (3, 5, and 7%) of 2 different oil blends [soybean:fish oil (SF) or rapeseed-fish oil (RF)] were used. Both oil blends were used either in the raw form (SF or RF, respectively) or in the nanoemulsified form (NSF or NRF, respectively). The diets were the control (0%), which consisted of a dry total mixed ration without any supplements, the control plus 3, 5, or 7% of the SF or RF oil blend in appropriate form (raw or nanoemulsified). For each treatment, 6 incubation vessels were used. Each batch culture was incubated for 24h and conducted twice in 2 consecutive days. All supplements were calculated as a percentage of the substrate dry matter (400mg). Nanoemulsified supplements were recalculated to make sure the oil amount was equal to the raw oil supplementation levels. The results from both experiments indicated that the proportions of vaccenic acid and cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 increased when a raw oil blend was supplemented; on the other hand, no influence of nanoemulsified form of oil blend was observed on the proportion cis-9,trans-11 C18:2. Generally, supplementation with the nanoemulsified oil blends had less effect on biohydrogenation intermediates than the raw form of oil blends. However, the nanoemulsified form had a greater effect on the increase of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Nanoemulsified oil blends had a positive effect on decreasing the transformation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in the biohydrogenation environment. Supplements of nanoemulsified oil blends tended to be more effective than supplements of raw oils in preserving a greater proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation culture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Discrimination of Four Marine Biofilm-Forming Bacteria by LC-MS Metabolomics and Influence of Culture Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Laurie; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Greff, Stéphane; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P; Martin, Jean-Charles; Culioli, Gérald

    2017-05-05

    Most marine bacteria can form biofilms, and they are the main components of biofilms observed on marine surfaces. Biofilms constitute a widespread life strategy, as growing in such structures offers many important biological benefits. The molecular compounds expressed in biofilms and, more generally, the metabolomes of marine bacteria remain poorly studied. In this context, a nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics approach of marine biofilm-forming bacterial strains was developed. Four marine bacteria, Persicivirga (Nonlabens) mediterranea TC4 and TC7, Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica TC8, and Shewanella sp. TC11, were used as model organisms. The main objective was to search for some strain-specific bacterial metabolites and to determine how culture parameters (culture medium, growth phase, and mode of culture) may affect the cellular metabolism of each strain and thus the global interstrain metabolic discrimination. LC-MS profiling and statistical partial least-squares discriminant analyses showed that the four strains could be differentiated at the species level whatever the medium, the growth phase, or the mode of culture (planktonic vs biofilm). A MS/MS molecular network was subsequently built and allowed the identification of putative bacterial biomarkers. TC8 was discriminated by a series of ornithine lipids, while the P. mediterranea strains produced hydroxylated ornithine and glycine lipids. Among the P. mediterranea strains, TC7 extracts were distinguished by the occurrence of diamine derivatives, such as putrescine amides.

  14. Brazilian Portuguese translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility assessment of the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Debora Rodrigues; Oliveira, Isabelle Stefan de Faria; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva; Oliveira Junior, Wilson Elias de; Comes, Giovana Tuccille; Cassettari, Vanessa Mello Granado; Self, Mariella Marie; Lourenção, Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda

    2018-03-15

    To translate and culturally adapt the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children into Brazilian Portuguese, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the translated version. The stage of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to an internationally accepted methodology, including the translation, back-translation, and pretest application of the translated version to a sample of 74 children to evaluate the degree of understanding. The reproducibility of the translated scale was assessed by applying the final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children to a sample of 64 children and 25 healthcare professionals, who were asked to correlate a randomly selected description from the translated scale with the corresponding representative illustration of the stool type. The final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children were evidently reproducible, since almost complete agreement (k>0,8) was obtained among the translated descriptions and illustrations of the stool types, both among the children and the group of specialists. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children was shown to be reliable in providing very similar results for the same respondents at different times and for different examiners. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children is reproducible; it can be applied in clinical practice and in scientific research in Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... attitudes. In our first study, we show that criticism of polarization leads partisans to more positively evaluate the argument offered by their non-preferred party, increases support for bi-partisanship, but ultimately does not change the extent to which partisans follow their party’s policy endorsements...

  16. The New Elite Prefers Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, the quality of construction has been constantly declining in light of the ideology of fast updating of the whole sphere of consumption. As a result, the houses built in the 1950s remain elite, despite their respectable age. Bulgakov House (the object of the issue is built in the historical center of Moscow. The high quality of its design and construction and careful and attentive treatment of the historic environment make this house an example of true elitism.

  17. [Formal requirements and a cultural approach to the control of slow-release dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciranni Signoretti, E

    1989-06-01

    Problems related with controlled release dosage forms are reported. The need for a standard criteria regarding both nomenclature and dissolution test is pointed out. The purpose is to permit a suitable control of the controlled release characteristics.

  18. Psychometric Evaluation and Cultural Correlates of the Mate Retention Inventory–Short Form (MRI-SF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Mate Retention Inventory–Short Form (MRI-SF in Iran. We also investigated sex differences in the use of mate retention tactics and investigated the relationships between mate retention behaviors and a number of related cultural constructs. Participants (N = 308 ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. All participants were in a committed romantic relationship, with mean relationship length of 63.5 months (SD = 73.8. Participants completed the Persian translation of the MRI-SF and measures of religiosity, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. Cultural measures specific to Iran were also included, such as Mahr (for married individuals, self-perceived Qeiratiness (for men, and self-perceived jealousy (for women. Mahr is a mandatory amount of money or possessions paid or promised to be paid by the groom to the bride at the time of the marriage contract. Qeirati is a male-specific adjective in Persian meaning protective against unwanted attention toward a man’s romantic partner. Female jealousy is usually regarded the counterpart of male Qeiratiness in Iranian culture. The 19 mate retention tactics formed a two-component structure, consistent with previous research. Results demonstrate adequate internal consistency of 2-item assessments of mate retention tactics. Observed sex differences accorded with previous mate retention research and are discussed in reference to evolutionary perspectives on human mating. Several significant associations emerged between mate retention tactics and Iranian culture-specific variables and are discussed from a cross-cultural perspective.

  19. Elite dan Birokrasi Pemerintahan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Indrayono Mahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new Order era, the government had notoriously created a very centralistic and mechanistic bureaucracy consisting of counterfeit autonomy from central down to the local bureaucracy. On the other side, Indonesian culture with its paternalistic pattern has been a fertile domain for primordialism in the bureaucracy. This condition are conducive for a systematic patron-client relationship between elites and political power which applies in every stage of governmental hierarchy down to the local areas. By all means, what exist in rural-local government is no less than a representative of what happens in central government. Even after the New Order regime stepped down, the local-rural government have to dance between the central government and the local community. It appears that it would be difficult to eliminate the influence of New Order paradigm as it had been socialized and implemented for 32 years.

  20. Performance Analysis in Elite Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Bertus Gatze

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation concerns the development of techniques for analyzing and comparing performances of elite sportsmen. When performances are delivered under varying circumstances, or are influenced by other factors than the athletes' abilities, a fair comparison, for instance

  1. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  2. 'Bourdieu', medical elites and 'social class': a qualitative study of 'desert island' doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-07-01

    Sociologists of professions draw on Weberian theories of closure. However they have tended to ignore Bourdieu's work, which rejects Weberian notions of class and status groups as distinct ideal types and sees these concepts as inextricably linked. Bourdieu emphasises the importance of a class-based habitus which generates orientations, inclinations and dispositions that organise practices and the perception of practice. For Bourdieu, because individuals perceive one another primarily through the status that attaches to their practices (through a symbolic veil of honour) they fail to perceive the real basis of these practices: the forms of capital that underlie the different habitus and enable their realisation. This article draws on interviews with 17 elite doctors appearing on a national (UK) radio show during which they choose eight discs to take to a desert island. According to Bourdieu, 'nothing more clearly affirms one's "class", nothing more infallibly classifies, than one's taste in music'. An analysis of the doctors' musical tastes and their mode of acquisition (largely, for these elites, via their family and education at independent schools), as well as other insights into their cultural capital reveals the importance of linking class and status when exploring professional status and prestige. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Method of forming psychomotor skills during the process of physical culture in general school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyushenko O.F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the concept of "psychomotor skills" as a component of preparedness for managing voluntary movements is considered. In experiment took part 690 pupils among them were 362 pupils of middle school age and 328 senior pupils. It is proved that the essence of the problem of formation of psychomotor abilities is to increase the influence of psychological factors on the efficiency of motor activity of schoolchildren. Systematized, and developed new test psychomotor task and special games for the formation of students' readiness for playing time, power and spatial characteristics of movements. Shown that this is significantly update and enrich the methodological arsenal of physical culture and greatly improved psychomotor qualities students of secondary schools.

  4. Nenets Folklore in Russian: The Movement of Culture in Forms and Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lukin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this methodological article the question of authenticity of folklore material is discussed. The article deals mainly with the research history of Nenets folklore studies and examines critically two of its paradigms, namely the so-called Finno-Ugric paradigm and the Soviet studies. It is argued that in these paradigms there existed biases that prevented the students to study certain kind of folklore material. The biases were related to the language and the form of the material: due to these biases folklore performed not in Nenets and not in forms defined traditional were left outside collections and research. Furthermore, it is shown that Russian speech and narratives embedded in speech are part of Nenets everyday communication and thus also material worth studying and collecting. Instead of the criticised paradigms the Nenets discourse is examined within the notions of communication centered studies that have gained attention since the 1980s.

  5. Nenets Folklore in Russian: The Movement of Culture in Forms and Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lukin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this methodological article the question of authenticity of folklore material is discussed. The article deals mainly with the research history of Nenets folklore studies and examines critically two of its paradigms, namely the so-called Finno-Ugric paradigm and the Soviet studies. It is argued that in these paradigms there existed biases that prevented the students to study certain kind of folklore material. The biases were related to the language and the form of the material: due to these biases folklore performed not in Nenets and not in forms defined traditional were left outside collections and research. Furthermore, it is shown that Russian speech and narratives embedded in speech are part of Nenets everyday communication and thus also material worth studying and collecting. Instead of the criticised paradigms the Nenets discourse is examined within the notions of communication centered studies that have gained attention since the 1980s.

  6. Challenging cultural identities : Between new forms of tourism and old European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, Wester

    2016-01-01

    New forms of tourism are on the rise where the incentive to travel is not primarily induced by a country’s heritage, but by mediatized narratives, characters and locations starring in products such as movies, comics and literature. This so-called contents tourism is considered promising by some, but the question is: who benefits? Europe is often understood as the old continent, a place with a rich history. Modern products capitalize on this sense of oldness and tell new narratives, providing ...

  7. MUSIC EDUCATION AND TASTE FORMING OF CLASSICAL MUSIC STYLE: CASE STUDY IN CULTURAL INSTITUTIONKARTA PUSTAKA YOGYAKARTA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inggit Sitowati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Karta Pustaka is one of the cultural institutions in Yogyakarta, which has a classical music concert program. The purpose of this study is to describe the history of Karta Pustaka and organizing classical music concerts, the concert format, and its role in supporting classical music education in Yogyakarta. The method used in this study is qualitative research with historical and musicological approach.The data are collected by using interviews, documents and observations. Data were analyzed using qualitative descriptions technicians. The results showed that Karta Pustaka as cultural institution has become a classical musicmedia which has a supporting role in classical music education in Yogyakarta. The classical music concert program and classical music workshop held by Karta Pustaka information and knowledge for the students and people of musical art in Yogyakarta. In addition Karta Pustaka also acts as a forming media and the development of consumer’s classical music tastes and styles in Yogyakarta.

  8. The philosophical and educational potential ecopsychology as means of forming ecological culture of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kisyel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current ecological crisis is largely caused by the dominance of anthropocentric environmental awareness. To overcome it and move humanity to a model of sustainable social and environmental development required the establishment of environmental consciousness ecocentric type, which is the aim of environmental education, namely, the formation of personality type ecocentric environmental awareness. The purpose of the article is to study the philosophical and educational potential environmental psychology as a means of transformation of personal values and attitudes toward nature. Analysis of the concepts of subjective attitude to nature, subjective perception of the natural world, environmental knowledge, empaurment-method pedagogy. Education for Sustainable Development aims to develop such knowledge, skills and values that will enable people to make individual and collective decisions of local and global nature to improve the quality of life without endangering future generations. The basic methodological principle of environmental psyhopedahohiky is in strict accordance with the environmental education teaching psychological process of environmental awareness. Interaction with nature is a great psychological and pedagogical potential that should be used in the environmental education that will allow him to become a factor in the overall development and personality development. So effectively targeted formation ekospozhyvchoyi culture of all populations requires training of qualified specialists in the field of eco-educational activities and environmental education and its philosophical and educational foundation.

  9. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Kumar, Ashish; Naik, Surendra Kumar; Sahu, Tarini

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...

  10. The Jack Wills crowd: towards a sociology of an elite subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony; Smith, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    British sociologists have long been interested in youth sub-cultures. However British sociologists have tended to focus on working class subcultures and avoided engagement with exclusive sub-cultures of elite social groups. This article seeks to attend to this gap by examining the subculture of a British elite: ex-public school students at select universities in the UK in the twenty-first century. This group consists of a relatively small group of young adults, aged between 18 and 23, who attended public schools, especially one of the nine Clarendon schools (Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylor's, Shrewsbury, Rugby, Harrow and Charterhouse), and were students at a selective group of British universities, primarily Oxford and Cambridge, Durham, Bristol, Exeter, Bath, Manchester, St Andrews and Edinburgh. The article examines the way in which this group has reconfigured and re-constituted itself in the face of globalizing challenges. Specifically, it examines the way in which participation of ex-public school students in events run by and under the patronage of the high street retailing company, Jack Wills, has played a galvanising role for this group in the last decade. The Jack Wills crowd is an example of how some young adults form exclusive social networks and reproduce prevailing forms of privilege. The social networks built around the Jack Wills subculture is likely to provide them with advantages in the job market through a prodigious network of connections and patrons. The Jack Wills subculture potentially contributions to the socio-economic reproduction of the higher professional middle classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  11. Forming of valeological and recreational students' culture (Analysis of literature sources and doctor and pedagogical oversight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytzev V.P.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article are expounded basic principles on forming of health of students in the context of valeological and active rest measures. Dany of determination of healthy appearance lives and active rest, directed on renewal, strengthening and maintainance of health. Many program developments are presented on making healthy of man with that a student could to make the own adequate program of making healthy. Concept methodology of active rest for the use of literary sources is expounded and in practical vital functions. Scientists, teachers and doctors of Ukraine and Russia, which worked and work on the problem of health of man and active rest measures, are transferred. An author is offer the general own program of making healthy of student, including eight sections, and also second program of making healthy of student, consisting of nine sections, which having a psychotherapy orientation

  12. The Spiritual Form of Ancient Art and Culture - Bharatanatyam (Visual Art Depicted Using Unique Techniques on Scratchboard (Fine Art Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpitha Parthasarathy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The most ancient form of dance that is prevailing todays is a form of classical Indian dance, Bharatanatyam. In Sanskrit (and Devanagri, bharatanatyam means "Indian dance", is believed to have divine origin and is of the most ancient form of classical dance. Bharatanatyam is a two thousand-year-old dance form, originally practiced in the temples of ancient India. The art today remains purely devotional even today and this performing art is yet to gain awareness and interest in the western world. This dance form has various implications in improving the higher order thinking in children and provides health benefits in adults apart from cultural preservation. The current study uses scratchboard as a medium to display the artistic movements and emotions. Scratchboard, a fine art is one means by which the visual art is expressed in this current study using sharp tools, namely X-acto 11 scalpel and tattoo needles. This unique medium made up of a masonite hardboard coated with soft clay and Indian ink has been used to not only show the details of the ancient dance form and expression but also to comprehend and transcribe both visual art and fine art. It is for the first time that scratchboard medium has been the innovatively used to show various textures of flower, glistening gold jewels, hand woven silk and the divine expression in the same art ‘devotion’. The current study was carried out in-order to perpetuate, conserve and disseminate these classic forms of visual art and fine art.

  13. Quantitative culture of Chlamydia trachomatis: relationship of inclusion-forming units produced in culture to clinical manifestations and acute inflammation in urogenital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, W M; Suchland, R J; Whittington, W L; Stamm, W E

    2001-11-15

    The relationship of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion-forming units in quantitative culture to clinical manifestations and inflammation in urogenital disease was assessed in 1179 patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. In women, greater inclusion-forming unit counts were associated with cervical mucopus (3000 vs. 450 ifu), amount and character of cervical discharge, > or =30 polymorphonuclear cells (PMNL) per high-power field (hpf) on Gram stain (2050 vs. 320 ifu), and diagnoses of mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC; 2550 vs. 300 ifu) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; 3000 vs. 578 ifu). In men, greater inclusion-forming unit counts were associated with urethral discharge (85 vs. 44 ifu), amount and character of discharge, and > or =10 PMNL/hpf (95 vs. 50 ifu). These associations persisted on multivariate analysis. Thus, chlamydial replication is associated with MPC and PID in women, urethritis in men, and inflammation in both. Since infections with high inclusion counts may be the most transmissible, identification and treatment of patients with these chlamydia-associated syndromes is important in control programs.

  14. Human neural stem cell-derived cultures in three-dimensional substrates form spontaneously functional neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Imogen; Silveirinha, Vasco; Stein, Jason L; de la Torre-Ubieta, Luis; Farrimond, Jonathan A; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2017-04-01

    Differentiated human neural stem cells were cultured in an inert three-dimensional (3D) scaffold and, unlike two-dimensional (2D) but otherwise comparable monolayer cultures, formed spontaneously active, functional neuronal networks that responded reproducibly and predictably to conventional pharmacological treatments to reveal functional, glutamatergic synapses. Immunocytochemical and electron microscopy analysis revealed a neuronal and glial population, where markers of neuronal maturity were observed in the former. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed substantial differences in gene expression conferred by culturing in a 3D vs a 2D environment. Notable and numerous differences were seen in genes coding for neuronal function, the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. In addition to producing functional networks, differentiated human neural stem cells grown in inert scaffolds offer several significant advantages over conventional 2D monolayers. These advantages include cost savings and improved physiological relevance, which make them better suited for use in the pharmacological and toxicological assays required for development of stem cell-based treatments and the reduction of animal use in medical research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Criopreservação de formas de cultura do Trypanosoma cruzi Cryopreservation of Trypanosoma cruzi culture form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria C. Galvão

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Formas de cultura de diferentes cepas do T.cruzi foram submetidas a vários processos de criopreservação. As percentagens de recuperação, avaliadas pela motilidade dos parasitas, foram consideradas como adequadas com algumas das técnicas empregadas, variando entre 60 a 80%. A estabilidade das características biológicas do material criopreservado foi investigada através do estudo das curvas de crescimento e diferenciação em meio acelular, infectividade para celulas de cultura de tecido ("Vero", diferenciação intracelular em cultura de tecido assim como infectividade e curso da infecção em animais de laboratório. De um modo geral essas características nao foram significativamente alteradas no material congelado e estocado por diferentes períodos de tempo.A systematic study of the cryopreservation of T. cruzi culture forms was per formed using different parasite strains and freezing methods. The recovery rates with some of the methods as evaluated by motility of the thawed parasites were fairly high (60-80%. The following aspects have been used to investigate the stability of the parasites' biological characteristics atter cryopreservation: growth and differentiation in acelular medium, infectivity to tissue culture "Vero" cells, intracellular differentiation and infectivity to animals. Those characteristics had not been significantly changed by the cryopreservation procedures.

  16. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Rani Gilhare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Result: Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. Conclusion: FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.

  17. Pluripotent stem cells isolated from umbilical cord form embryonic like bodies in a mesenchymal layer culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagias, Nikos; Kouzi-Koliakos, Kokkona; Karagiannis, Vasileios; Tsikouras, P; Koliakos, George G

    2015-03-01

    Recently the matrix of umbilical cord began to use as an alternative source of stem cells additionally to the blood of umbilical cord. Umbilical cord has been used mainly for mesenchymal stem cell banking. The immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with their ability to avoid rejection make them an attractive biological material for transplantations. In this study the isolation of small in size pluripotent stem cells from umbilical cord expressing early transcription factors with characteristics that resemble to embryonic stem cells is investigated. Pluripotent stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cords, by a new strategy method based on unique characteristics such as the small size and the positivity on early transcription factors OCT and Nanog. An enriched population of CXCR4(+) OCT(+) Nanog(+) CD45(-) small stem cells from the cord was isolated. This fraction was able to create alkaline phosphatase positive like spheres forms in a mesenchymal layer with multilineage differentiation capacity. Our results were assessed by RT PCR and electophoresis for the pluripotent genes. These data suggest that umbilical cord provides an attractive source not only of mesenchymal stem cells but moreover of pluripotent stem cells. The method described herein should be applied in the field of stem cell banking in addition to the classical umbilical cord harvesting method. Isolation of a population of cells with pluripotent characteristics from umbilical cord. Adoption of a second centrifugation step for the pluripotent stem isolation. Increasing the value of the cord and explaining the pluripotency. This work will enhance the value of umbilical cord harvesting.

  18. [Heart screening of elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Rasmusen, Hanne; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2010-11-29

    Sudden cardiac death in competing athletes is usually caused by unsuspected heart disease, and pre-participation screening may reduce the incidence of this tragic event. Although the cost-effectiveness of screening programs is unclear, international sports associations are currently implementing mandatory screening of elite athletes. During the first year of screening in the top Danish soccer league, all athletes were found to be eligible for continued participation in the game, suggesting that concern about false positive screening results may be exaggerated.

  19. The effect of parental genotype on initiation of embryogenic callus from elite maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, D T; Smith, O S

    1985-08-01

    Embryogenic callus consisting of both Type 1, firm, compact, translucent, relatively slow growing callus and Type 2, highly friable, rapidly growing callus with well-formed somatic embryos, were observed in elite maize germplasm, notably B73 and hybrids with B73. Parental genotype is very important in the ability to identify and isolate embryogenic callus after 14 and 28 days in culture. A partial diallel analysis revealed that a large proportion of the genotypic variation was of the additive type although heterosis did positively increase culture response in most cases. A significant negative maternal effect for culture response was noted for inbred B73 from Reid-type germplasm while four lines sampled from Lancaster germplasm showed similar response whether used as male or female. Although significant media differences were observed in some genotypes, culture media did not preclude observation of Type 1 or Type 2 embryogenic cultures in this study after 14 and 28 days. Plants could be regenerated from all genotypes in this study after 14-days of culture, but not all genotypes were capable of sustained subculture and plant regeneration. Plant regeneration from Type 2 cultures of B73 and B73 hybrids has been obtained up to a year after initiation.

  20. Structural relationships among the multiple forms of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II from cultured parsley cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, G.; Bogorad, L.; Kidd, G.H.; Richter, G.

    1978-01-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (or B) was purified from cultured parsley cells, and its molecular structure was examined in detail. Upon centrifugation through glycerol gradients, RNA polymerase II sediments as a single band with an apparent sedimentation constant of 15S. No contamination with RNA polymerases I or III could be detected when the activity of purified RNA polymerase II was assayed in the presence of high concentrations of α-amanitin. Analysis of purified RNA polymerase II be nondenaturing and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that this enzyme exists in multiple forms. They were designated II(O), II(A), and II(B). It is suggested that each form has a subunit of Mr = 140000 as well as smaller polypeptides in common. They differ, however, in the molecular weights of their largest subunits which is 220000 in form II(O), 200000 in form II(A), and 180000 in form II(B). These large subunits were labelled with 125 I, digested with trypsin, and tryptic digests were compared by two-dimensional analysis on thin-layer plates (Elder et al. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 6510-6515). Fingerprints of tryptic digests from the polypeptides with Mr = 220000, Mr = 200000, and Mr = 180000 were similar. It is, therefore, suggested that these subunits are stucturally related. A tryptic digest was also produced from the subunit with Mr = 140000. Its fingerprint was found to yield a considerably different distribution of peptides as compared to those from the three large subunits. (orig.) [de

  1. Salmonella L-forms: formation in human bile in vitro and isolation culture from patients' gallbladder samples by a non-high osmotic isolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D N; Wu, W J; Wang, T; Pan, Y Z; Tang, K L; She, X L; Ding, W J; Wang, H

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial L-forms have always been considered as osmotic-pressure-sensitive cell-wall-deficient bacteria and isolation culture of L-forms must use media with high osmotic pressure. However, isolation culture of stable L-forms formed in humans and animals is very difficult because they have adapted to the physiological osmotic pressure condition of the host. We use a non-high osmotic isolation technique to isolate stable L-forms of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A from bile-inducer cultures in vitro and from patients' gallbladder specimens. Multiplex PCR assay for Salmonella-specific genes and nucleotide sequencing are used to identify the Salmonella L-forms in stable L-form isolates. Using this method, we confirmed that Salmonella Paratyphi A and Salmonella Typhi cannot be isolated from bile-inducer cultures cultured for 6 h or 48 h, but the L-forms can be isolated from 1 h to 45 days. In the 524 gallbladder samples, the positive rate for bacterial forms was 19.7% and the positive rate for Salmonella spp. was 0.6% by routine bacteriological methods. The positive rate for bacterial L-forms was 75.4% using non-high osmotic isolation culture. In the L-form isolates, the positive rate of Salmonella invA gene was 3.1%. In these invA-positive L-form isolates, four were positive for the invA and flic-d genes of Salmonella Typhi, and ten were positive for the invA and flic-a genes of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Position of a Teacher as a Factor of Forming Students' Socio-Cultural Identities (On the Example of the Russian Civil Identity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakurova, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents experience of structuring and description of teachers' position in the process of forming socio-cultural identity of the person, detailed in regard to the process of formation of one of the subtypes of socio-cultural identity--Russian civil identity. We identified and described real subjective, nominally subjective and…

  3. About forming of personality physical culture of students in the process of physical education (in aspect of presence of knowledges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belykh S.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of athletic competence of students are considered. Its influence is rotined on forming and opening out of athletic activity. A questionnaire is conducted 650 students. It is set that existent knowledges of students are not sufficient foundation for an origin, opening out and perfection of athletic activity. It is set that in the structure of knowledges prevail taking about harm of the use of alcohol, smoking. It is set that the way of life corresponds the criteria of presence of valuable athletic activity just 7,54% polled students of the first and fourth courses. The insufficient level of knowledges on concrete practical questions in area of physical culture and healthy method of life is marked. The necessity of involving of students is marked for the process of active athletic activity, necessary for a maintainance and strengthening of the health.

  4. Validation of ground-and-formed beef jerky processes using commercial lactic acid bacteria starter cultures as pathogen surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Alena G; Ingham, Steven C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2009-06-01

    Beef jerky has been linked to multiple outbreaks of salmonellosis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection over the past 40 years. With increasing government scrutiny of jerky-making process lethality, a simple method by which processors can easily validate the lethality of their ground-and-formed beef jerky process against Salmonella' and E. coli O157:H7 is greatly needed. Previous research with whole-muscle beef jerky indicated that commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may be more heat resistant than Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, suggesting the potential use of LAB as pathogen surrogates. Of six commercial LAB-containing cultures evaluated for heat resistance in ground-and-formed beef jerky, Saga 200 (Pediococcus spp.) and Biosource (Pediococcus acidilactici) were identified as consistently more heat resistant than Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. Six representative ground-and-formed beef jerky commercial processes, differing widely in lethality, were used to identify an appropriate level of LAB reduction that would consistently indicate a process sufficiently lethal (> or = 5.0-log reduction) for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. Both Saga 200 and Biosource consistently predicted adequate process lethality with a criterion of > or = 5.0-1og reduction of LAB. When either LAB decreased by > or = 5.0 log CFU, processes were sufficiently lethal against Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in 100% of samples (n=39 and 40, respectively). Use of LAB as pathogen surrogates for ground-and-formed beef jerky process validation was fieldtested by three small meat processors, who found this technique easy to use for process validation.

  5. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, E.S.; Lee, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Healy, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.healy@imperial.ac.uk

    2007-11-15

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries.

  6. Elite Education Abroad and Social Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu; Foged, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We study how social origin affects the likelihood of obtaining university education, with focus on foreign elite and non-elite education. Having highly educated parents increases the likelihood of obtaining university education both at home and abroad. Our survey data on Danes who have emigrated ...

  7. Elite Education Abroad and Social Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu; Foged, Mette

    international elite education have considerable cosmopolitan capital and a mindset for operating abroad. Father’s education plays a bigger role for men while mother’s education plays a bigger role for women, especially among women going for elite ducation. When we asked respondents why they studied abroad...

  8. Determinants of labour migration of elite sport coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Johannes; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Previous research examining labour migration in sport focused on athletes in professional team sports. The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the migration probability of elite sport coaches in Germany (i.e. national coaches, state coaches, and coaches at Olympic training bases). From a theoretical perspective, labour migration of athletes is affected by economic, social, political, competitive, geographic and cultural factors. This study examines whether these factors can be applied to coaches. Primary data were collected using an online survey of elite sport coaches in Germany. Applying a conjoint design, respondents were presented with 10 migration scenarios leading to a sample size of n = 1860 for the empirical analysis. In the scenarios, the coaching position openings abroad differed in terms of income level, contract length, weekly workload, responsibility for personnel, reputation of coaching job, career perspectives, sporting performance of athletes, distance from Germany, and predominant job language. Coaches were asked for their migration probability contingent on the specific scenario. On average, migration probability was 24.2%. The results of regression analysis showed that higher income, contracts of longer duration, responsibility for personnel and speaking the respective language significantly increased the migration probability, while distances of nine flight hours and more, lower reputation and career perspectives reduced it. The findings have implications for policy-makers: they indicate in what areas the situation of coaches needs improvement to increase the likelihood of retaining elite sport coaches in the German sport system.

  9. Elites, Varieties of Capitalism and the Crisis of Neo-Liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The paper argues that the form, structure and ideologies of elites are embedded in particular forms of capitalism. Whilst elites in these different societies are engaged in a common task of ensuring that their position is sustained and protected in the light of economic and political uncertainties......, the way in which they are able to do this is shaped by the particular forms of legitimation, coordination and cohesion that are embedded in particular institutional trajectories, path dependencies and complementarities. However, the paper emphasizes that these institutional structures are dependent...

  10. Nouvelles formes de communication - nouvelles formes de communauté : (les téléphones cellulaires et les cultures contemporaines des jeunes en Bulgarie)

    OpenAIRE

    Neykova, Niya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the practices of mobile phone use among young Bulgarians (the generation born after the fall of communism in the country), by using the « soft » interdisciplinary approaches of Cultural Studies. These are practices which are bases not only for restructuring of micro cultures, but also for the appearance of new ones. We assume that mobile phones are changing the traditional conditions and ways of expressing identity, of preserving the integrity of a group o...

  11. Specific features of elite bodybuilders’ training process in competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Tihorsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To substantiate methodic of training process construction for elite bodybuilders in competition period with usage of different training methods. Material: elite bodybuilders - members of combined team of Ukraine (n=16 participated in the research. Results: we presented comparative characteristic of the most often used bodybuilding training methodic. Besides, optimal training methodic in competition period was worked out and substantiated. Such methodic permits to improve body proportions at the account of fat layer reduction. By the data of Harvard step-test the sportsmen improved organism’s functional potentials by 6%. Conclusions: the offered methodic noticeably reduces probability of functional unfavorable states (over-training, overloading, traumas. The methodic permits to achieve the required sport form without over-tension adaptation-compensatory mechanisms and acquire maximal muscular relief; improve proportions with minimal losses of muscles’ volume.

  12. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  13. Oligomeric forms of the metastasis-related Mts1 (S100A4) protein stimulate neuronal differentiation in cultures of rat hippocampal neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitskaya, V; Grigorian, M; Kriajevska, M

    2000-01-01

    protein family. The oligomeric but not the dimeric form of Mts1 strongly induces differentiation of cultured hippocampal neurons. A mutant with a single Y75F amino acid substitution, which stabilizes the dimeric form of Mts1, is unable to promote neurite extension. Disulfide bonds do not play an essential...

  14. Avoiding "culture rejection" in healthcare mergers and acquisitions: how New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services minimized the culture risk when forming Unison Health and Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Among the requirements for a successful merger or acquisition are strategic rationale, rigorous due diligence, the right price and revenue and cost synergies. However, bridging the culture gap between organizations is frequently overlooked. The leaders of New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services explicitly considered culture in their merger to form Unison Health and Community Services, and they used employee engagement surveys to assess culture in their merger planning and post-merger integration. How Unison Health leaders avoided the risk of culture rejection to achieve a successful merger, and the lessons learned from their experience, is the focus of this article.

  15. Overtraining and elite young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsley, Richard; Matos, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    In comparison to adults, our knowledge of the overtraining syndrome in elite young athletes is lacking. The evidence indicates an incidence rate of ∼20-30%, with a relatively higher occurrence seen in individual sport athletes, females and those competing at the highest representative levels. The most commonly reported symptoms are similar to those observed in over trained adult athletes: increased perception of effort during exercise, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, muscle soreness, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, mood disturbances, shortness of temper, decreased interest in training and competition, decreased self-confidence, inability to concentrate. The association between training load and overtraining is unclear, and underlines the importance of taking a holistic approach when trying to treat or prevent overtraining in the young athlete so that both training and non-training stressors are considered. Of particular relevance to the issue of overtraining in the elite young athlete are the development of a unidimensional identity, the lack of autonomy, disempowerment, perfectionist traits, conditional love, and unrealistic expectations. Overtraining syndrome is a complex phenomenon with unique and multiple antecedents for each individual; therefore, an open-minded and comprehensive perspective is needed to successfully treat/prevent this in the young athlete. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Auditing Chinese Higher Education? The Perspectives of Returnee Scholars in an Elite University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon fieldwork conducted in an elite Chinese university and English language literature of audit culture in higher education against the backdrop of Chinese higher education in transition, this paper has discovered that Chinese higher education is undergoing an auditing process. However, this Chinese audit regime is not only guarded by a…

  17. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  18. Elite Delights: The Structure of Art Gallery Networks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Roueff, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have expressed renewed interest in the visual arts, which can be seen as one of the main providers of upper-class symbolic goods and status signals for cultural elites. India has not yet been included in that body of work. Although important insights do exist on India, a systematic empirical inquiry has yet to be made. The present article offers a step in that direction, through the statistical analysis of 101 Indian galleries and the 4,249 artists they present in...

  19. Propagation of elite rescue dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficiency of two oocyte activation culture media to produce cloned dogs from an elite rescue dog and to analyze their behavioral tendencies. In somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure, fused couplets were activated by calcium ionophore treatment for 4 min, cultured in two media: modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) with 1.9 mmol/L 6-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (SOF-DMAP) or porcine zygote medium (PZM-5) with 1.9 mmol/L DMAP (PZM-DMAP) for 4 h, and then were transferred into recipients. After embryo transfer, pregnancy was detected in one out of three surrogate mothers that received cloned embryos from the PZM-DMAP group (33.3%), and one pregnancy (25%) was detected in four surrogate mothers receiving cloned embryos from the SOF-DMAP group. Each pregnant dog gave birth to one healthy cloned puppy by cesarean section. We conducted the puppy aptitude test with two cloned puppies; the two cloned puppies were classified as the same type, accepting humans and leaders easily. The present study indicated that the type of medium used in 6-DMAP culture did not increase in cloning efficiency and dogs cloned using donor cells derived from one elite dog have similar behavioral tendencies. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Elite y naturaleza. ¿Naturaleza de elite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Luz Jaramillo Giraldo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo da cuenta de las actitudes y representaciones de una colectividad particular con respecto a la naturaleza, su origen y consecuencias sobre el paisaje, la tierra, la estructura agraria, en la primera mitad del siglo XX –partiendo del XIX–. Ideas y representaciones de la elite que se encarga de “dirigir” el destino del país y que repercuten en todos los estratos, creando no sólo políticas y técnicas; también actitudes profundas y sus efectos visibles en los paisajes reales y en las mediaciones complejas de las representaciones fantásticas que los conforman.

  1. The Helicobacter pylori L-form: formation and isolation in the human bile cultures in vitro and in the gallbladders of patients with biliary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan N; Ding, Wen J; Pan, Yao Z; Tang, Ke L; Wang, Tao; She, Xiao L; Wang, He

    2015-04-01

    The Helicobacter pylori is considered the important causative agent causing biliary diseases, but the H. pylori can be isolated from very few gallbladder specimens with diseases. We studied the formation of H. pylori L-forms in bile in vitro and isolated the H. pylori L-forms from gallbladder of patients with biliary diseases. We inoculated the H. pylori into the human bile to induce the L-form in vitro. The gallbladder specimens were collected from patients with biliary diseases to isolate the bacterial L-forms by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the H. pylori L-forms in the L-form isolates were identified by the gene assay for the H. pylori-specific genes 16S rRNA and UreA. The H. Pylori cannot be isolated from the bile-induced cultures, but the H. pylori L-form can be isolated from the H. pylori-negative bile-induced cultures. The L-form isolates of bile-induced cultures showed a positive reaction of the H. pylori-specific genes by PCR, and the coincidence ratio of the nucleotide sequences between the L-forms and the H. pylori is 99%. The isolation rate of bacteria L-form is 93.2% in the gallbladder specimens with bacteria-negative isolation culture by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the positive rate of the H. pylori-specific genes in the L-form isolates is 7.1% in the bacterial L-form-positive isolation cultures by the PCR. H. pylori can be rapidly induced into the L-form in the human bile; the L-form, as the latent bacteria, can live in the host gallbladder for a long times, and they made the host became a latent carrier of the H. pylori L-form. The H. pylori L-form can be isolated by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the variant can be identified by the gene assay for the H. pylori-specific genes 16S rRNA and reA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  4. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF...

  5. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  6. The Bristol Stool Form Scale: its translation to Portuguese, cultural adaptation and validation Traducción, adaptación cultural y validación de la "Bristol Stool Form Scale" Tradução, adaptação cultural e validação da Bristol Stool Form Scale para a população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Martinez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bristol Stool Form Scale is used for describing feces. The objective of this research was its translation, cultural adaptation and validation for Brazil. The methodology was translation, back-translation and discussion. Validation involved 85 nurses, 80 doctors, and 80 patients, who correlated images of seven types of feces with the descriptions. Results: there was a difference in sex distribution, with males predominating among the doctors and females among nurses and patients. In relation to concordance between definitions and pictures, the highest percentage was in type 5 in all three groups and the lowest was in types 6 and 7 for the doctors, in type 3 for the nurses, and type 6 for the patients. The general Kappa index was 0.826. Conclusion: the scale demonstrated high reliability for all the groups studied.La "Bristol Stool Form Scale" es usada para describir las heces. Objetivo: traducción, adaptación cultural y la validación para ser utilizada en Brasil. Metodología: Fue realizada la traducción, la traducción inversa y la discusión final. Para validar, se incluyeron 85 enfermeros y 80 médicos y pacientes que correlacionaron diseños de siete tipos de heces con descripciones. Resultados - Hubo diferencia en cuanto a la distribución del sexo con predominio masculino entre los médicos y femenino para los enfermeros y pacientes. Con respecto a la concordancia entre los conceptos y las imágenes, la mayor concordancia fue del tipo 5 en cuanto que el de menor correspondencia para los médicos fueron los tipos 6 y 7, para los enfermeros el 3 y el 6 para los pacientes. El índice de Kappa general fue de 0,826. Conclusión: Los valores obtenidos demuestran la alta confiabilidad de este cuestionario con respecto a los grupos estudiados.A Escala de Bristol para Consistência de Fezes é usada na descrição de fezes. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a tradução, adaptação cultural e validação para o Brasil, dessa escala. Como

  7. Twitter as a Public Space, or How We’re Re-Forming the New Spaces for Cultural Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cavallin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the cultural journalism has fomented and promoted the diverse expressions of the arts, the literature and the culture, which are a product of the human activity developed throughout the time. As Ivan Tubau indicates, the cultural journalism is the way to know and spread the cultural products of a society, by the use of the massive mass media. These Media have been radically transformed in the last few years, and they have even substituted the spaces of the city destined to the meeting and the culture. For this reason, we propose a reflection about the future of the cultural journalism in a society interconnected across the Internet but, at the same time, multiple and fragmentary.

  8. Is Competitive Elite Sport Really Morally Corrupt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingthorsson Rögnvaldur D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that competitive elite sport both a reduces the humanity of athletes by turning them into beings whose sole value is determined in relation to others, and b is motivated by a celebration of the genetically superior and humiliation of the weak. This paper argues that while a is a morally reproachable attitude to competition, it is not what competitive elite sport revolves around, and that b simply is not the essence of competitive elite sport. Competitive elite sport is an exploration of the physical and mental demands of sport. Finally, the paper explores a number of consequences of the different views of sport with respect to the problem of intersexual women.

  9. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  10. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  11. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer), Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George

    2009-04-17

    Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17-39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16-46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18-39). Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29-2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29-2.38). Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition.

  12. Re-Forming the Boundaries: A Trans-Cultural Comparison of Positive Experiences among Adolescent Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Zipora

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cross-cultural study of positive experiences among males and females from Israeli-Arab, Israeli-Jewish, and American samples (N=1094), which revealed that differences between the sexes were in the same direction across the three cultures. The one exception is the life aspiration of Israeli boys, markedly more self-transcending than…

  13. Doing the Kids a Favour: Selecting a Cultural Process Topic in Form 7 Geography that Students Can Work With.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Suggests some approaches to meeting the requirements for study of "cultural process" in geography in New Zealand. Provides some guidelines for defining a cultural process and discusses possible teaching units. Outlines a conceptual and pedagogical map to follow in developing these units using transportation development as an example.…

  14. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  15. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  16. CONFIDENCE, COGNITIVE AND SOMATIC ANXIETY AMONG ELITE AND NON-ELITE FUTSAL PLAYERS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SITUATIONAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare confidence, cognitive and somatic anxiety among elite and non-elite futsal players and its relationship with situational factors. Material: 130 non-elite and 70 elite male futsal players participated in the study. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and situational factors Inventory were applied. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and product moment correlation. Results: Results showed there was significant difference between competitive state anxiety subscales (cognitive anxiety somatic anxiety & self-confidence and situational factors among elite and non-elite futsal players but there was no significant correlations between situational factors subscales among elite and non-elite futsal players. Conclusion: Competitive state anxiety is part of sport competition and it seems elite athletes can manage and interpret anxiety well with respect to their experiences and psychological intervention and then consider anxiety and situational variables as facilitative factors for his or her competition.

  17. Optimization of the culturing conditions of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells under xeno-free conditions applying a transcriptomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zoller, Stefan; Riegel, Mariluce; Chen, Shuhua; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Zisch, Andreas H.

    Establishment of fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell culture conditions is essential for transplantation therapies. Blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications. ECFCs were isolated from term umbilical cord blood units and

  18. Directional anxiety responses in elite and sub-elite young athletes: intensity of anxiety symptoms matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Pperformance data showed no consistent congruence with athletes' anxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Forming insights: assessment of the occupational therapy practice in a cultural context from experience with indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Corrêa de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a reflection process on the issue of occupational therapy and culture through analysis of practical experiences of a extension project. It aimed to increase knowledge and reflections of occupational therapy and its technical actions in cultural contexts from the perspective of ethnicity issues. It is a documental and qualitative research was aiming to report the experience of students and an occupational therapist, obtained through their written reports between 2012 and 2014. Data were analyzed using the categorizations proposed by Bardin. The categories of analysis found are related to technical activities in occupational therapy, namely: cultural and ethnic action. The results showed that, in the experiences with the Guarani community, there are already significant and consolidated actions of occupational therapy in cultural contexts. The technical actions already performed confirm the relevance of the occupational therapist role in the cultural context and in the ethnicity context. These practices are, in turn, relevant for the production of knowledge, the theoretical and methodological scope and professional training in social and cultural contexts of occupational therapy. It is emphasized that technical procedures coherent with the ethnicity issues in a joint relationship, articulated by cultural mediation, can strengthen human doings and identity claims.

  20. Determinants of the effectiveness of fast break actions in elite and sub-elite Italian men’s basketball games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Conte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1st-division (elite and fifteen 3rd-division (sub-elite Italian men’s championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases, typology (primary and secondary break and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05. Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.

  1. Elites, intelectuales y tecnocracia Calidoscopio contemporaneo y fenomeno latinoamericano actual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Estrada Alvarez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper to provides a state of art discussion of general elite theory by developing a taxonomy of the academic literature on this topic, based upon theoretical and historical criteria, and by discussing recent analytical tendencies in Latin America concerning the problem of intellectuals and technocrats. This field of study offers alternative research tools and important analytical keys for understanding current transformations in the exercise of political power, its legitimizing tools and the consequences of today’s capitalist model for distinct forms of social regulation.

  2. Critical Aspects of Cultural Diversity in Music Education: Examining the Established Practices and Cultural Forms in Minority Language Schools in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Westvall, Maria; Heimonen, Marja

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the role of general music education within the framework of cultural diversity. The empirical part of the article focuses on teachers in Swedish-speaking minority schools in Finland and their perceptions of the relationship between music and multicultural perspectives. The results showed that in some instances it took some…

  3. motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BT Crewther

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T and/or cortisol (C concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12 and non-elites (n = 12 completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF, after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05. No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033, but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  4. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C H Huijgen

    Full Text Available Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9 and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2 performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span, inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task, cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test, and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test. "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05. In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  5. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  6. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  7. The Spiritual Form of Ancient Art and Culture - Bharatanatyam (Visual Art) Depicted Using Unique Techniques on Scratchboard (Fine Art) Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Arpitha Parthasarathy

    2017-01-01

    The most ancient form of dance that is prevailing todays is a form of classical Indian dance, Bharatanatyam. In Sanskrit (and Devanagri), bharatanatyam means "Indian dance", is believed to have divine origin and is of the most ancient form of classical dance. Bharatanatyam is a two thousand-year-old dance form, originally practiced in the temples of ancient India. The art today remains purely devotional even today and this performing art is yet to gain awareness and interest in the western wo...

  8. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, Sara Amalie; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained...

  9. The Exporting and Franchising of Elite English Private Schools: The Emerging "Second Wave"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence, predominantly in Thailand and mainland China, of a form of educational institution that has had little scholarly attention or generic identification. This paper shows how the ad hoc and opportunistic franchising of elite English private schools, beginning with the hyper-capitalist exportation of the Dulwich…

  10. Injuries in elite male kitesurfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Andreu-Cabrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new extreme sport, kitesurf hasn’t received the kind of scientific scrutiny found with other more traditional sports. Currently, the pattern and rate of kiteboarding injuries are largely unclear. The objective was to identify common injury patterns as well as potential areas in which prevention measures might be instituted. A descriptive epidemiological study was designed and a retrospective questionnaire was performed on 38 elite kitesurfers taking part in the World Cup Fuerteventura 2008. The ankle is the part of the body most affected by injury p<0.01, whilst the Course Race category accounted for 68.4% of injuries, compared with 31.6% in the Freestyle category. Said injuries occurred more frequently when training (76.3%; p<0.01 than during competitions and acute injuries were the most common. These results show the need to establish new prevention methodologies, above all for the legs and specifically for the ankle area and in the Course Race category, as well as the use of foot protections

  11. Bagaimanakah Persepsi Keterpercayaan Masyarakat terhadap Elit Politik?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handrix Chris Haryanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify Jakarta residents’ perceptions on the trustworthiness of political elites. The study used qualitative content analysis method involving as many as 461 persons as subjects. These political elites referred to the members of the House of Representatives, members of the People’s Consultative Council, the president and the members of his governmental cabinet, political parties, people or groups involved in politics and those participating in managing the state. The top ten factors able to degrade people’s trust in political elites were identical with the subjects’ perception about lie (29.28%, corruption (14.75%, selfishness (8.24%, incompetence (6.07%, scandals (5.64%, irresponsibility (1.95%, abuse of power (1.52%, laziness (1.52%, lack of transparency (1,30%, and lack of firmness (0.22%. The description about political elites worth trusting concerned about their honesty (39.70%, accountability (12.80%, integrity (1280%, caring (8.89%, morality (6.29%, firmness (4.34%, competence (3.69%, transparency (1.74%, and wisdom (1.74%. The study concluded that the trustworthiness of political elites refers to their dispositions that are considered to have good motives and go with any prevailing norms.

  12. Issue evolution and partisan polarization in a European multiparty system: Elite and mass repositioning in Denmark 1968–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Issue evolution is a well-established theoretical perspective in the analysis of long-term party competition and partisanship in the US. However, this perspective has rarely been used to analyze political elite effects on partisan polarization in European multiparty systems. Consequently, I apply...... the issue evolution perspective to polarization in a European multiparty system. I find an emergence of cultural issues in Denmark, where mass level polarization on cultural issues followed elite level polarization. Unlike two-party systems, niche parties drive issue evolution on the elite level, which...... is then followed by niche partisan polarization and, finally, mainstream party adaption. The findings illustrate the mechanisms of issue evolution in a European-style multiparty system and the role of niche parties....

  13. The Negation of a Negation Fixed in a Form: Luigi Nono and the Italian Counter-culture 1964–1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Murphy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available My goal in what follows is to trace the role of avant-garde music in the rise and development of the Italian counter-culture from the early 1960s until its destruction at the end of the 1970s. Instead of approaching this issue along quantitative, sociological lines, I will focus on one figure whose simultaneous engagement with musical innovation and sociopolitical revolution was exemplary in its intent (though exceptional in its extent: the avant-garde composer Luigi Nono, whose career parallels the rise of the Italian counter-culture during the 1960s and early 1970s. I will also briefly examine how the forcible destruction of the Italian counter-culture in 1979 is reflected in the last phase of Nono’s musical career.

  14. Does Elite Sport Degrade Sleep Quality? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Luke; Morgan, Kevin; Gilchrist, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology. Methods Studies...

  15. Learning Form and Function by Dance-Dramatizing Cultural Legends to Drum Rhythms Wearing Student-Made Animal Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Phyllis; Rule, Audrey C.; Kirkland Holmes, Gloria; Logan, Stephanie R.; Alert, Andrea L.; Mason, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy in science, art, dance, and music; attitudes concerning contributions of people of various ethnic/cultural groups; and science learning of students involved in an after-school arts-integrated science enrichment project. Students dramatized three traditional animal legends from African, Native American, and…

  16. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  17. Comparative characteristics of elite New Zealand and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. A comparative study of elite New Zealand and South African u/16 rugby players with special reference to game-specific skills, physical abilities and anthropometric data. Design and settings. A battery of tests was used to obtain information concerning a group of elite New Zealand players (N=24) and two elite ...

  18. Fitness profile of elite junior South African badminton players | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the fitness profile of the elite junior badminton players in South Africa through the measurement and description of their body composition, aerobic power, muscular characteristics, speed, flexibility and agility. Eight elite male and seven elite female badminton players between the ...

  19. Global Elite as Transnational Capitalist Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kantor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the burgeoning field of multidisciplinary globalization studies, this article evaluates how IR grand theories can conceptualize the phenomenon of global elite. It compares and synthesizes (neoliberalism, constructivism, feminism and neo-Marxism. Liberal approaches use the analytical tool of transnational actors or transnational networks. In constructivist’s perspective, part of global elite falls into the category of epistemic community. Feminists offer the term Davos Men. Neo-Marxist conceptualization revolves around the notion of transnational capitalist class. The paper concludes that neo-Marxist IR theory best accounts for the global elite and therefore, the debates on the transnational capitalist class are thoroughly and critically reviewed.

  20. Elites econômicas e neoliberalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Augusto Comin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of the neoliberal framework adopted by most nations in the last decades have been scrutinized from several different angles. In particular, the social impacts of the economic reforms over, for instance, employment, poverty, income inequality, social protests, welfare policies and consumption have garnered a lot of attention from social scientists. Less looked at have been the transformations within the economic elites - their modes of reproduction, political preferences, and connections with other alien or international elites. Given the heavy economic and political weight carried by those elites, the study of such transformations is a key dimension for the understanding of all the other dimensions. This article and the set of works that make up this dossier intends to be a contribution to this debate

  1. National Register of Historic Places multiple property documentation form -- Historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural properties of the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site encompasses an area of 560 square miles on the Columbia River in southeastern Washington. Since 1943, the Hanford Site has existed as a protected area for activities primarily related to the production of radioactive materials for national defense uses. For cultural resources on the Hanford Site, establishment of the nuclear reservation as a high security area, with public access restricted, has resulted in a well-protected status, although no deliberate resource protection measures were in effect to mitigate effects of facilities construction and associated activities. Thus, the Hanford Site contains an extensive record of aboriginal archaeological sites and Native American cultural properties, along with pre-Hanford Euro-American sites (primarily archaeological in nature with the removal of most pre-1943 structures), and a considerable number of Manhattan Project/Cold War era buildings and structures. The recent mission change from production to clean up and disposal of DOE lands created a critical need for development and implementation of new and different cultural resource management strategies. DOE-RL has undertaken a preservation planning effort for the Hanford Site. The intent of this Plan is to enable DOE-RL to organize data and develop goals, objectives, and priorities for the identification, evaluation, registration, protection, preservation, and enhancement of the Site`s historical and cultural properties. Decisions made about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most aptly made when relationships between individual properties and other similar properties are considered. The historic context and the multiple property documentation (NTD) process provides DOE-RL the organizational framework for these decisions. Once significant patterns are identified, contexts developed, and expected properties are defined, the NTD process provides the foundation for future

  2. Literary Form and Cultural Norm - Preliminary Investigations for a Study of Reader Experience of a Fietitious Character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Niels Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Reader response, receptionsforskning, Cecil Bødtger, litterær form, kulturelle normer, novelle, short story, litterær analyse, tolkning......Reader response, receptionsforskning, Cecil Bødtger, litterær form, kulturelle normer, novelle, short story, litterær analyse, tolkning...

  3. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glycoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    of the extracellular profile of the multiple forms of GA by degradation of GAI to GAII, whereas no proteolytic processing of the GA profile was observed in the defined medium. In vitro experiments confirmed that the pH-induced modifications of the GA multiple-form profile were caused by proteolytic and not spontaneous...

  4. Nutritional practices of elite athletes. Practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, C D; Bortz, S S; Nelson, M E

    1993-12-01

    The nutritional intake of elite athletes is a critical determinant of their athletic performance and ability to compete both physically and mentally. However, their demanding training and travel schedules in addition to a possible lack of nutritional knowledge may prohibit them from maintaining an optimal dietary intake. Sound scientific data about the nutritional habits of elite athletes are limited and, therefore, it is not clear as to whether elite athletes are following nutritional recommendations and maintaining nutritionally sound diets. This review takes a comprehensive look at 22 recent dietary intake studies, including 50 groups of elite athletes. The time period for food record collection ranged from 3 to 7 days except for 2 studies which collected records for 21 and 22 days. Energy intakes of > 50 kcal/kg/day for male athletes who train for > 90 min/day and 45 to 50 kcal/kg/day for female athletes training for > 90 min/day are recommended. Bodyweight should be monitored frequently as a check on calorie intake. With a sufficient calorie intake (1.2 to 2.0 kg/kg/day) protein supplementation is not necessary. Ingested carbohydrate stored as glycogen serves as the primary fuel for muscle performance. Athletes in training should consume 70% of total calories as carbohydrate. Athletes on low energy diets (competition periods. Athletes with low calorie intakes should consume foods with high contents of iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc and vitamin B12. Athletes with high calorie intakes should consume foods that are naturally high in or fortified with B-group vitamins. Fluid, electrolyte and energy supplementation is desirable to support circulatory, metabolic and thermoregulatory functions. There is no special food that will help elite athletes perform better; the most important aspect of the diet of elite athletes is that it follows the basic guidelines for healthy eating.

  5. Forming of professional competence of future teachers of physical culture in the process of study of "Developmental Physiology" the methods of the controlled from distance education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchuk E.V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of creation of informative educational environment is considered on the basis of the controlled from distance departmental teaching. One of progressive forms of preparation of future teachers of physical culture is rotined. It is marked that traditional and innovative methods of teaching must be in permanent intercommunication and constantly to complement or partly replace each other if necessary. Going is developed near interactive influence and teaching quality management in an educational process. Directions of forming the professional competence of future teachers of physical culture are rotined. Possibility of creation of the comfortable for students combined educational environment is well-proven. The necessity of perfection of the controlled from distance departmental teaching, creations of the new controlled from distance courses and electronic interactive textbooks, is set. The methods of the use of modern information, of communication technologies and presentation of educational information are recommended.

  6. Development of Elite Programmes at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove

    2008-01-01

    Europe and  the United States on higher educations  tailored  to challenge  the most  talented and motivated students. Further details are provided on  the current situation  in Denmark, where the government has decided  to support  the development of highly specialised elite programmes at  the  master.......  More  importantly,  up  to  84%  of  the  elite  students  are  potentially  interested  in pursuing a career in academia....

  7. Whither Elite Cohesion in Mexico: A Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Generacicnes: Los Protagonistas de Ia Reforma y la Revoluci(n Mexicana, Secretaria de Educacion Pblica, Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educat ivo, Mexico City...t-, ~ ir;opy 000 WHITHER ELITE COHESION IN MEXICO : A COMMENT David Ronfeldt November 1988 DTIC ELECTEI Novo 6 la ... . ... ,D The RAND...Monica, CA 90406 21:8 WHITHER ELITE COHESION IN MEXICO : A COMMENT Pavii Ronfeldt Por dec:ies . .I(,xi -as had a ,henomena!!y cohr sive ruling e I ite non

  8. Maintenance and methods of forming theoretical knowledge and methodical and practical abilities in area of physical culture for students, future specialists on social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyfa A.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The value of theoretical knowledge, methodical, practical studies, skills in forming physical activity of students is rotined. The level of mastering of components of physical activity is closely associate with the basic blocks of professional preparation of students and their future professional activity. Theoretical knowledge on discipline the «Physical culture» assist the certain affecting depth and breadth of mastering of knowledge of professional preparation.

  9. Determinants of the effectiveness of fast break actions in elite and sub-elite Italian men's basketball games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, D; Favero, T G; Niederhausen, M; Capranica, L; Tessitore, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB) actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1 st -division (elite) and fifteen 3 rd -division (sub-elite) Italian men's championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014). A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful) was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases), typology (primary and secondary break) and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority) were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (pbreak in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.

  10. Music Education and Taste Forming of Classical Music Style: Case Study in Cultural Institutionkarta Pustaka YOGYAKARTA Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sitowati, Inggit

    2014-01-01

    Karta Pustaka is one of the cultural institutions in Yogyakarta, which has a classical music concert program. The purpose of this study is to describe the history of Karta Pustaka and organizing classical music concerts, the concert format, and its role in supporting classical music education in Yogyakarta. The method used in this study is qualitative research with historical and musicological approach.The data are collected by using interviews, documents and observations. Data were analyzed ...

  11. Elites in Switzerland: the rise and fall of a model of elite coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bühlmann

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this article is to understand the recent transformations of Swiss elites. Based on a database of political, economic and administrative elites covering the whole twentieth century, we investigate the social background, education and coordination mechanisms of Swiss elites. We find that for a long time, they maintained their power through a combination of a socially narrow recruitment and a coordination model including the army as meeting place, a corporatist organisation of the economy and multipositionality between political and economic fields. As a result of the increasing internationalisation of managers of Swiss firms, this model of elite coordination has eroded since the 1990s and led to a (relatively unpredictable transition phase.

  12. Shoulder pain in elite swimmers: primarily due to swim-volume-induced supraspinatus tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Mya Lay; Walton, Judie; Linklater, James; Appleyard, Richard; Kirkbride, Brent; Kuah, Donald; Murrell, George A C

    2010-02-01

    Shoulder pain in elite swimmers is common, and its pathogenesis is uncertain. HYPOTHESIS/STUDY DESIGN: The authors used a cross-sectional study design to test Jobe's hypothesis that repetitive forceful swimming leads to shoulder laxity, which in turn leads to impingement pain. Eighty young elite swimmers (13-25 years of age) completed questionnaires on their swimming training, pain and shoulder function. They were given a standardised clinical shoulder examination, and tested for glenohumeral joint laxity using a non-invasive electronic laxometer. 52/80 swimmers also attended for shoulder MRI. 73/80 (91%) swimmers reported shoulder pain. Most (84%) had a positive impingement sign, and 69% of those examined with MRI had supraspinatus tendinopathy. The impingement sign and MRI-determined supraspinatus tendinopathy correlated strongly (r(s)=0.49, ptendinopathy (r(s)=0.37, ptendinopathy (r(s)=0.14, p=0.32). The number of hours swum/week (r(s)=0.39, ptendinopathy. Swimming stroke preference did not. These data indicate: (1) supraspinatus tendinopathy is the major cause of shoulder pain in elite swimmers; (2) this tendinopathy is induced by large amounts of swimming training; and (3) shoulder laxity per se has only a minimal association with shoulder impingement in elite swimmers. These findings are consistent with animal and tissue culture findings which support an alternate hypothesis: the intensity and duration of load to tendon fibres and cells cause tendinopathy, impingement and shoulder pain.

  13. Elite Bilingualism? Language Use among Multilingual Teenagers of Swedish Background in European Schools and International Schools in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenvald, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the language use and language attitudes as reported by a number of multilingual teenagers with a Swedish background in European Schools and international schools in Europe. Special attention is given to the concepts of Third Culture Kids and elite bilingualism in relation to teenagers' multilingualism. This study is based on…

  14. Climate change and cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Cultures and climate are changing. These changes interact with local knowledge and practice. Research has focused on technical questions, such as how small farmers and livestock keepers understand seasonal forecasts, veterinary problems or market conditions. However, there is a more holistic way of engaging local knowledge. Rural people utilise external technical ideas and tools, even complex ones, that complement their own concepts and experience of change. However, there are obstacles to overcome in generating such hybrid local knowledge. Firstly, there is a long history of domination of rural people by urban elites, including the assumed superiority of urban or high culture versus rural, vernacular or low culture. A second obstacle comes from the frequent use of science as justification to force rural people to do what governments want. Experience of exclusion and displacement has left a residue of bitterness and suspicion among many rural people. A third obstacle involves misuse of one-size-fits-all methods. No single, homogeneous knowledge exists in a locality. Rather there are women's forms of knowledge and the knowledge of men and elders and the knowledge of young people and children, which are differentiated also by occupation and by ethnicity. In the face of such cultural diversity an incompetent use of standardised participatory methods yields poor results and may alienate residents.

  15. Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Bendiksen, Mads; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO(2)max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2...

  16. Final height in elite male artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Koukkou, Eftychia; Leglise, Michel; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    Elite male artistic gymnasts (AG) are exposed to high levels of physical and psychological stress during adolescence and experience a significant late maturation in both linear growth and pubertal development. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of intensive physical training on the adult final height in elite male AG. This study is unique in character, as all variables were measured on the field of competition. The study was prospective and longitudinal; however, the current analysis of data is cross-sectional. Data from 86 elite male AG were obtained during the gymnastics competitions of European and World Championships. Clinical evaluation included height and weight measurements, as well as assessment of pubic hair and genital development according to Tanner's stages of pubertal development. The laboratory investigation included determination of skeletal maturation. All athletes completed a questionnaire that included questions on personal (onset and intensity of training, number of competitions per year) and family data (paternal and maternal heights). Male AG were below the 50th percentile for both final height and weight. Elite male AG had final height standard deviation score (SDS) lower than their genetic predisposition. Final height SDS was correlated positively with target height SDS (r = 0.430, p research project, the International Federation of Gymnastics has increased the age limit for participants in international gymnastics competitions by 1 year.

  17. Biomechanical, anthropometrical and physical profile of elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature indicates that deficiencies of certain parameters such as biomechanics, anthropometry, physical and motor abilities, may influence a netball players susceptibility to injury, as well as the players physical performance during a game. The primary aim of this study was to determine the physical profile of elite netball ...

  18. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  19. What Is an Elite Boarding School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    This article brings attention to the rarefied world of elite boarding schools. Despite their reputation for excellence, these unique educational institutions remain largely outside the gaze of educational researchers and the scope of public debates about education. One reason for this absence is a lack of knowledge about what exactly defines an…

  20. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  1. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  2. Structure and development of somatic embryos formed in Arabidopsis thaliana pt mutant callus cultures derived from seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recklinghausen, von I.R.; Iwanowska, A.; Kieft, H.; Mordhorst, A.P.; Schel, J.H.N.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant primordia timing (pt) were germinated in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid- containing liquid medium. The seedlings formed somatic embryos and nonembryogenic and embryogenic callus in vitro in a time period of approximately two to three weeks. Embryogenesis and

  3. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Are cerebral prostanoids of astroglial origin? Studies on the prostanoid forming system in developing rat brain and primary cultures of rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Keller, M; Hertting, G

    1987-02-24

    Prostanoid forming capacity in vitro and convulsion-induced prostanoid formation in vivo were studied in the developing rat brain. For comparison, prostanoid synthesis in homogenates of primary astrocyte cultures of different ages was also examined. There was no significant prostanoid production in homogenates from primary astrocyte cultures prepared one week after cultivation. Two-week-old astrocyte cultures possessed a prostanoid synthesizing system of high specific activity. The relative proportions of the products were similar to those obtained in brain homogenates of adult rats, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) being the major product. Prostanoid forming capacity of brain homogenates was low at birth, increased during development and nearly reached adult values by day 21. Generalized convulsions could be evoked by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) irrespective of age, but convulsion-induced prostanoid formation characteristic of adult rodents did not take place before the third week of postnatal life. The close similarities between the characteristic features of prostanoid synthesis in both brain and astroglial homogenates, together with the coincidence during brain development of the expression of cerebral prostanoid synthesis with the appearance of mature astrocytes suggest that astrocytes are an important source of brain prostanoids.

  5. Comparison of various methods of detection of different forms of dengue virus type 2 RNA in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.S.; Lin, Y.L.; Chen, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, the sensitivity of various methods of detection of dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2) sense, antisense, replicative intermediate (RI) and replicative form (RF) RNAs in infected mosquito Aedes pseudoscutellaris AP-61 and mammalian baby hamster kidney BHK-21 cells is compared. LiCl precipitation was used for separation of viral RF RNA from RI RNA. Our results show that reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by Southern blot analysis and slot blot hybridisation of LiCl-fractionated RNA were the most sensitive methods of detection of viral RNA and determination of its single-stranded form. Northern blot analysis was the least sensitive method of detection of any form of viral RNA. U sing slot blot hybridisation of LiCl-precipitated RNA, viral RI RNA containing de novo synthesised negative strand viral RNA was first detected 30 min after virus inoculation in both cell lines. This is the earliest time of detection of DEN viral RNA synthesis in host cells so far reported. However, RF RNA could not be detected until 24 hrs post infection (p.i.) in AP-61 and 2 days p.i. in BHK-21 cells, respectively. The sequential order of individual forms of viral RNA detected in the infected cells was RI, RF and genomic RNAs. Viral RNA was detected in AP-61 cells always earlier than in BHK-21 cells. Moreover, the level of viral RNA in AP-61 cells was higher than that in BHK-21 cells, suggesting that the virus replicated more actively in AP-61 cells. In conclusion, the LiCl separation of viral RNA followed by slot blot hybridisation was found to be the most sensitive and reliable method of detection of DEN virus RI, RF and genomic RNAs in the infected cells. Moreover, this method can be applied to determine the replication status of any single-stranded RNA virus in the host. (authors)

  6. About forming of personality physical culture of students in the process of physical education (in aspect of presence of abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that practice of teaching of discipline «Physical education» does not provide forming of volume of abilities, sufficient for the origin of athletic activity. Prevail ability to pick up a place, sporting form, inventory depending on the type of physical exercises and ability on the observance of rules of the personal hygiene. In the questionnaire questioning 650 students (324 youths and 326 girls of the first and fourth courses took part. All of students visited employments on physical education at school and institute of higher. It is marked that the important task of amateurish athletic education is forming for the students of the personal experience of independent athletic, health and рекреационных employments. It is underlined that sense of amateurish athletic education of students consists in achievement by a man unity of mental and activity processes. Such processes are needed for an estimation and understanding of the state of the health, programming and residence of healthy way of life.

  7. A new experimental culture medium for cultivation of Leishmania amazonensis: its efficacy for the continuous in vitro growth and differentiation of infective promastigote forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; da Silva, Bianca Alcântara; dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Dutra, Patrícia Maria Lourenço; Rosa, Maria do Socorro Santos

    2010-04-01

    Parasites from the genus Leishmania cause a variety of disease states in humans and other mammals in tropical and subtropical regions, which include cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. The elaboration of a culture medium for the in vitro cultivation of Leishmania spp., which promotes the growth and differentiation of the parasites, is an important tool for diagnosis, biochemical, biological and immunological studies in the genus. Herein, we have reported the development of a rapid, inexpensive and reliable monophasic culture medium. The novel medium, designated PBHIL, promoted an excellent parasite growth, generating high quantities of promastigotes with long-term viability, and was able to induce cellular differentiation of L. amazonensis promastigotes to the amastigote-like forms (93%). Additionally, we reported the influence of this novel medium on the biochemical characteristics of L. amazonensis and on the interaction of this parasite parasites with mammalian macrophages.

  8. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, S A; Nordsborg, N B; Ritz, C; Berget, J; Kristensen, A H; Mørkeberg, J

    2017-08-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men and in younger (15-34 years) compared with older (35-49 years) subjects, but it was less prevalent in intermittent compared with endurance and power/strength sports. Additionally, fitness customers who tested positive for doping also reported using more NS than subjects testing negative, indicating an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. About forming of personality physical culture of students in the process of physical education (in aspect of athletic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Belykh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available . It is shown that practice of teaching of discipline «Physical education» in an insufficient degree provides the origin of athletic activity of students. In all 650 students took part in a questionnaire (324 boys and 326 girls of the first and fourth courses. It is set that students do not have sufficient and necessary knowledge and abilities. It is marked that students give preference to not facilities of physical culture, accessible and popular in the environment of young people «facilities-scraies». It is set that only 7,54% students can fully complete confidence to characterize the phenomenon of athletic activity. It is marked that by most popularity about 55 % students use medicine, alcohol, smoking, restorative preparations. The high level of knowledge of students is marked about the influence of smoking, alcohol, drugs on the organism of a man. It is set that less than 45 % students for the improvement of the psychophysical state are utillized by various athletic-health-improvement facilities and methods (physical exercises, trainers, self-massage, sauna, walks, diet.

  10. APPRECIATION AND CREATION IN CERAMIC ART LEARNING AS A FORM OF CULTURAL PRESERVATION FOR STUDENTS OF TK PANDEYAN 2 SUKOHARJO IN SURAKARTA RESIDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Wahyuningsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to describe the process of ceramic art learning process and to determine the impact of ceramic art learning for students of TK Pandeyan 2 Kindegarten of Sukoharjo by appreciating their creations. This method also intended to introduce and preserve ceramic culture for early age students. The method used is qualitative data analysis, in the form of data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The result shows that the ceramic art learning in TK Pandeyan 2 Kindegarten of Sukoharjo has positive effects as the teaching and learning process can be used as a medium for teachers and parents to understand children’s characters and personalities better.

  11. A comparison of the activity demands of elite and sub-elite Australian men's basketball competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron; Dascombe, Ben; Reaburn, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the differences in the activity demands of sub-elite and elite Australian men's basketball competition. Ten elite (age 28.3 ± 4.9 years, mass 97.0 ± 13.9 kg, height 197.4 ± 8.3 cm) and 12 sub-elite (age 26.1 ± 5.3 years, mass 85.9 ± 13.2 kg, height 191.4 ± 7.6 cm) Australian basketball players participated in the study. Player activity was analysed using video-based time-motion analysis across multiple in-season matches. Customized analytical software was used to calculate player activity into frequencies, mean and total durations (s), and mean and total distances (m) for standing/walking, jogging, running, sprinting, low shuffling, high shuffling, and dribbling movements. Only movement frequency was calculated for jumping and upper body activity. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that elite players performed significantly more total movement changes (P fitness, as well as playing structure between playing standards.

  12. Echocardiography to measure fitness of elite runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz Arrese, Alejandro; Serrano Ostáriz, Enrique; González Carretero, Mariano; Lacambra Blasco, Isaac

    2005-05-01

    We evaluated the echocardiograms of 134 male and 54 female elite runners who competed over different distances to observe cardiac enlargement and differences among athletes engaged in different types of training, and to relate the echographic dimension with running performance. In male runners, left ventricular (LV) internal diameter at end diastole (LVIDd), LV mass, and left atrial diameter were increased by the length of distance ( P eccentric hypertrophy and that it is necessary to establish a new upper limit of abnormal cavity dilatation as indexed LVIDd. The normal systolic function and the relationship between LVIDd and performance indicate that LV enlargement in elite runners is a physiologic adaptation and that echocardiographic assessment can be used to determine the fitness of runners.

  13. Arm coordination in elite backstroke swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic M; Carter, Melwyn

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we assessed arm coordination in the backstroke over increasing speeds by adapting the index of coordination originally used in the front crawl. Fourteen elite male backstroke swimmers swam four trials of 25 m at the speeds corresponding to the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The six phases of the arm stroke were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate the index of coordination, which corresponded to the time between the propulsive phases of the two arms. With increases in speed, the elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of their arm pull, and their index of coordination, and decreased the distance per stroke (P backstroke coordination, particularly in the hand's lag time at the thigh.

  14. Changing the Corporate Elite? Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Oxelheim, Lars; Randøy, Trond

    the social identity and critical mass theory to further show how these responses may vary with the current composition of the board. Viewing the board as a locus for the maintenance of the positive distinctiveness of the established corporate elite, we conjecture that new female appointments will not only...... new women to their boards. To address this issue we – in this study – introduce the cognitive and affective processes related to directors’ identification with the traditional corporate elite as an explanation for the slow organizational response to pressure for gender diversity on boards. We bridge......Scholars have previously investigated country and organizational-level factors associated with the incidence of female directors on boards. These studies, however, cannot explain why, in countries with strong gender equality and pressure for female directorships, firms are still hesitant to promote...

  15. Physical demands in elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    total distance per match (4693±333 m, group means±SD) compared to male players (MP, n=83, 3945±538 m) when playing full time (pVO2--max) than MP (70.9 % of VO2--max, p...AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine differences in the physical demands imposed on male vs. female adult elite team handball players during match--play. METHODS: Male and female elite team handball players were monitored over a six and five season time span, respectively. Each player...... was evaluated during match--play by use of video recording and subsequent computerized locomotive and technical match analysis. Furthermore, physiological measurements during match--play, physical testing and anthropometric measurements were performed. RESULTS: Female players (FP, n=82) covered a longer mean...

  16. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    1979-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene were activated by both cultured human bronchus and human colon as measured by binding to cellular DNA and protein. The binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA was dose dependent, and the level of binding was higher in cultured human bronchus than it was in the colon. When...... compared to aflatoxin B1, the binding level of benzo(a)pyrene to both bronchial and colonic DNA was generally higher. The major adducts formed in both tissues by the interaction of aflatoxin B1 and DNA were chromatographically identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (Structure 1...... in these two peaks, and the ratio of radioactivity between the peaks was nearly 1. In colonic DNA, the ratio between Structures 1 and 11 was approximately 2. These observations add aflatoxin B1 to the list of chemical procarcinogens metabolized by cultured human tissues and in which the carcinogen-DNA adducts...

  17. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    is essential when treating elite athletes. This article is aimed at physicians who diagnose and treat athletes with respiratory symptoms. It focuses on the pathogenesis of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes and how the diagnosis can be made. Furthermore, treatment of elite......Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective...... measurements, such as the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test or exercise test. When considering that not all respiratory symptoms are due to asthma, other diagnoses should be considered. Certain regulations apply to elite athletes who require asthma medication for asthma. Knowledge of these regulations...

  18. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective...... measurements, such as the eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test or exercise test. When considering that not all respiratory symptoms are due to asthma, other diagnoses should be considered. Certain regulations apply to elite athletes who require asthma medication for asthma. Knowledge of these regulations...... is essential when treating elite athletes. This article is aimed at physicians who diagnose and treat athletes with respiratory symptoms. It focuses on the pathogenesis of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes and how the diagnosis can be made. Furthermore, treatment of elite...

  19. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitch Lomax Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Abstract: The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. Keywords: exercise, aquatic athletes, bronchoconstriction

  20. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  1. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains form Biofilm on Abiotic Surfaces Regardless of Their Adherence Pattern on Cultured Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert F. Culler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of biofilm formation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Ninety-one aEPEC strains, isolated from feces of children with diarrhea, were analyzed by the crystal violet (CV assay on an abiotic surface after 24 h of incubation. aEPEC strains representing each HEp-2 cell type of adherence were analyzed after 24 h and 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation at 37°C on abiotic and cell surfaces by CFU/cm2 counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces occurred in 55 (60.4% of the aEPEC strains. There was no significant difference in biofilm biomass formation on an abiotic versus prefixed cell surface. The biofilms could be visualized by CLSM at various developmental stages. aEPEC strains are able to form biofilm on an abiotic surface with no association with their adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells with the exception of the strains expressing UND (undetermined adherence. This study revealed the capacity of adhesion and biofilm formation by aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces, possibly playing a role in pathogenesis, mainly in cases of persistent diarrhea.

  2. The role of personality in the transmission of cultural forms an example of the bearer of regional traditions in central Moravia (the ethnographic area of Haná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Válka Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethnographic area of Haná in Central Moravia (Czech Republic has been among distinctive ethnographic regions since the 16th century. Even though traditional regional forms had gradually disappeared as a consequence of the modernization of village life, these returned alongside new functions in terms of national consciousness from the late 19th century. It was the intelligentsia, mainly teachers, priests, physicians and artists, who contributed to the spread of these forms. The personalities´ activities did not stop even in the 20th century. The teacher Marie Pachtová (born 1932 is an example of one such person (in study by Miroslav Válka. She not only led a children´s folklore ensemble, moderated programmes aimed at presentation of folklore, and worked as a lector, but she also tries to involve older folk traditions of Haná in the present cultural calendar of the town where she lives. Among other things, she was instrumental in the preservation of the production of Easter eggs from Haná which are decorated with stuck-on straw. She paid similar attention to the ceremonial pastries. With the focus of this example, it is possible to prove the transformations of regional culture´s expression into the contemporary social life as well as the mechanism of the creation of a new tradition.

  3. Pain questionnaire development focusing on cross-cultural equivalence to the original questionnaire: the Japanese version of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Hosoi, Masako; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Daiki; Tanaka, Masanori; Tamura, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Yasunori; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu

    2012-04-01

    The present study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-J) that focuses on cross-culturally equivalence to the original English version and to test its reliability and validity. Cross-sectional design. In study 1, SF-MPQ was translated and adapted into Japanese. It included construction of response scales equivalent to the original using a variation of the Thurstone method of equal-appearing intervals. A total of 147 undergraduate students and 44 pain patients participated in the development of the Japanese response scales. To measure the equivalence of pain descriptors, 62 pain patients in four diagnostic groups were asked to choose pain descriptors that described their pain. In study 2, chronic pain patients (N=126) completed the SF-MPQ-J, the Long-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire Japanese version (LF-MPQ-J), and the 11-point numerical rating scale of pain intensity. Correlation analysis examined the construct validity of the SF-MPQ-J. The results from study 1 were used to develop SF-MPQ-J, which is linguistically equivalent to the original questionnaire. Response scales from SF-MPQ-J represented the original scale values. All pain descriptors, except one, were used by >33% in at least one of the four diagnostic groups. Study 2 exhibited adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability, with the construct validity of SF-MPQ-J comparable to the original. These findings suggested that SF-MPQ-J is reliable, valid, and cross-culturally equivalent to the original questionnaire. Researchers might consider using this scale in multicenter, multi-ethnical trials or cross-cultural studies that include Japanese-speaking patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Culture matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment.

  5. A Comparison of the Developmental Experiences of Elite and Sub-Elite Swimmers: Similar Developmental Histories Can Lead to Differences in Performance Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Edmonds, William A.; Castillo, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    The current study fills a void in the literature that investigates the factors required for elite athlete development. Previous studies have (a) illustrated psychological and physiological differences between elites and non-elites; "or" (b) described the psychological and physiological developmental experiences of elite performers. The…

  6. Dinamika islam dan Politik Elit - Elit Muhammadiyah Periode 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Al-Hamdi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research studied on political elite in Muhammadiyah as moderate representatives in post-New Order in response of the dynamics Islam and politics. There are three issues as basic analyzes, i.e. the emergence of Islamic political parties, the desire of returning the Jakarta Charter as the state principle as well as phenomenon of terrorism which is always attached a term of “jihad” in Islamic tradition. Meanwhile, to conduct data and information, the research uses a qualitative approach as methodology as well as documentation and interviews as a technique of collecting data. The collected data then is analyzed and interpreted descriptively to get a proper conclusion. The result of the research shows that there are four variants in political elite in Muhammadiyah, i.e. transformative-idealistic, moderateidealistic, realistic-critical, and accommodative-pragmatic. The variations are deeply influenced by two factors, i.e. sociological elite background and organizational.

  7. Fashion, Media and the Elite: Ethnography of the Exploitation of the Slovenian Transitional Media Promenade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Kotnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to represent a particular social practice, which has, due to its currency and ubiquity in the media as of late, gained a surprisingly naturalized legitimacy within the Slovenian mediascape. After Slovenia gained its independence in 1991, two parallel processes could be observed. On the one hand, the state itself was searching for a new identity which it could project both inward and outward, it was looking for a way to communicate the national tale of itself through numerous ruling discourses of politics, economy, tourism, sports and culture. On the other hand, the transitional ruling class and the emergent social force of postsocialist rich, chosen and owners needed new elements in the process of social differentiation. Fashion became one of the reinvented refuges or simply “discoveries” of the new Slovenian political, economic and media elite, which used the media to establish a visual order of transitional social differentiation. At the core of fashion as a mode of social distinction is a ceremonialized and spectacularized display of cultural differences within a society. Elites have been caught in the social obligation of constant invention of novelty, in order to create the necessary social difference from the non-elite or the masses. Namely, difference itself has no wider social value if there is no one to notice or desire it. This article methodologically authenticates the conclusions through the analysis of specific media perceptions and an ethnography conducted among actors on these levels: producers of fashion as social distinction (the elite vs reproducers of fashion as social distinction (the media vs consumers of fashion as social distinction (the audience.

  8. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite, sub-elite and amateur Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Ned; Hopper, Diana; Finucane, Mark; Grisbrook, Tiffany L

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that obtaining an adduction-to-abduction strength ratio of 90-100%, and an adduction strength equal to that of the uninjured side, are suitable clinical milestones for return to sport following groin injury. Little is known about hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in Australian footballers. This study aimed to compare isometric hip adduction and abduction strength profiles between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs in elite, sub-elite and amateur Australian footballers. Cross sectional study 36 elite, 19 sub-elite and 18 amateur Australian footballers, with a mean age of 24, 19 and 23 years respectively, were included. Maximal hip isometric adduction and abduction strength were measured using a hand held dynamometer with external belt fixation. There were no significant differences in isometric hip adduction (p=0.262) or abduction (p=0.934) strength, or the adduction-to-abduction ratio (p=0.163), between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs, regardless of playing level. Elite players had significantly greater isometric hip adduction and abduction strength than both sub-elite (mean difference; adduction=46.01N, pamateur players (mean difference; adduction=78.72N, p<0.001, abduction=59.11N, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the adduction-to-abduction ratio between the playing levels (p=0.165). No significant differences were found between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs across the playing levels for isometric hip adduction, abduction or the adduction-to-abduction ratio. This may have implications for developing groin injury prediction and return to sport criteria in Australian footballers. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and differential expression of three GnRH forms during reproductive development in cultured turbot Schophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Xu, Shihong; Feng, Chengcheng; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Yongshuang; Song, Zongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Turbots (Schophthalmus maximus), one of the most important economic marine flatfish species, fail to undergo final spawning and spermiation naturally under artificial farming conditions. In vertebrates, reproduction is regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis (BPG-axis), and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of its key components. Therefore, to better understand the physiology of reproduction in the turbot, three of the genes encoding GnRH subtypes—sbGnRH, cGnRH-II and sGnRH—were cloned and sequenced by isolating the cDNA sequences. The localizations and patterns of expression of their mRNAs were also evaluated during seasonal gonadal development. All three mRNAs were expressed abundantly in the brain; sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs were also detected in the gonads and pituitary gland, and sbGnRH expression was much higher than that of sGnRH, indicating the critical role of sbGnRH in regulating the BPG-axis. Moreover, the brain expression patterns of sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs showed an increased trend during gonadal development, peaking in mature stages. This indicated the direct regulation of gonadal development by the GnRH system. In addition, cGnRH-II mRNA expression showed no significant variations, suggesting that cGnRH-II is not critically involved in the control of reproduction. Further, the mRNA abundances of the three GnRH forms in the breeding season were significantly higher than those in immature and post-breeding stages in all analyzed brain areas. Therefore, we propose that sbGnRH is the most important hormone for the regulation of reproduction in turbot via the BPG-axis. These results will help in better understanding the reproductive endocrine mechanisms of turbots and lay the groundwork for additional studies aimed at comparing the reproductive physiology of wild individuals with those raised under artificial conditions.

  10. SOCIOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF THE SENIOR OF THE UNIVERSITY (ELITE) GYMNASIUM IN TYUMEN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Gennady F. Shafranov-Kutsev; Galina Z. Efimova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show and analyze the situation and aspects of work with gifted children and teenagers that are aimed at preservation of a gene pool of the country; and revealed to be the most important condition of formation of the future highly professional elite in Russia. The most efficient forms of establishing such activities are emphasized; the basic psychological and pedagogical methods of this activity are shown. The most important qualities of schoolaged children that are ...

  11. Parental Influences on Elite Aesthetic Athletes’ Body Image Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Rita; Narciso, Isabel; Alarcão, Madalena

    2013-01-01

    Although different forms of parental influences on adolescents’ body image and eating disturbances have been studied, this relationship is nearly uninvestigated within the population of aesthetic athletes, a risk group for the development of eating disorders. The present study examined the role of specific family variables on the body image dissatisfaction (BID) and disordered eating (DE) of elite aesthetic athletes (n = 85) and controls (n = 142). Adolescents (M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.22) com...

  12. Interleukin-1beta-induced release of matrix proteins into culture media causes inhibition of mineralization of nodules formed by periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H H; Lin, W L; Cho, M I

    1999-05-01

    The mechanism by which interleukin-1beta (IL-1) inhibits the formation of mineralized tissue nodules by periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro was investigated through the processes of morphological analysis, immunoprecipitation, and Northern blot analysis. PDL cells were obtained from a 2-day-old coagulum in tooth socket and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bone serum (FBS) and antibiotics. Confluent cells were grown for up to 3 weeks in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), beta-glycerophosphate (GP), and dexamethasone (Dex), or IL-1. PDL cells cultured in the presence of GP and AA did not differentiate, but those treated with Dex, GP, and AA (Dex group) underwent differentiation, showing four stages (confluent, multilayer, nodule, and mineralization) of disparate morphological characteristics. In contrast, the cells treated with IL-1, Dex, GP, and AA (IL-1 group) did form multilayers but failed to form mineralized nodules. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the Dex-induced mineralized nodules contain multilayers of fibroblastic cells, numerous collagen fibrils, and dense globular as well as fused electron dense patches that are associated with numerous apatite crystals. The nodule-like structures in the IL-1 group were also comprised of multilayered fibroblastic cells, but they contained only a small number of collagen fibrils, and no dense globular or fused patches. Von Kossa staining confirmed the presence of numerous mineralized nodules in the Dex group and their scarceness in the IL-1 group. Northern blot analysis of IL-1-treated cells, however, revealed the presence of mRNAs for type I collagen (Col I), secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), osteopontin (OPN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OC), whose expression patterns and levels were comparable to those of the Dex group. Immunoprecipitation analysis of OPN and BSP in the cell/matrix layers and the culture

  13. Performing high-level sport is strongly associated with urinary incontinence in elite athletes: a comparative study of 372 elite female athletes and 372 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Alice; Natal Jorge, Renato; Bø, Kari

    2017-06-22

    To evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female elite athletes compared with controls and to investigate potential risk factors for UI among elite athletes. This cross-sectional study included 372 elite athletes (athletes group, AG) and 372 age-matched controls (control group, CG). The median age was low (19 years) and the vast majority were nulliparous. Potential risk factors, including clinical, demographic and sports practice characteristics, were collected by using a questionnaire. The International Consultation on Urinary Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form was applied to estimate the prevalence of UI. OR with 95% CIs were used to estimate the association with UI. The final model was adjusted for constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infection. The prevalence of UI was 29.6% and 13.4% in AG and CG, respectively (psport (adjusted (adj) OR=3.31; 95% CI 2.20 to 4.97), family history of UI (adj OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.29), history of urinary infection (adj OR=1.53; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.23) and constipation (adj OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.98) were associated with UI. The prevalence of UI among Portuguese female elite athletes is high and the odds of UI were three times higher than in controls. Also, constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infections were significantly associated with UI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Profile injuries and musculoskeletal abnormalities of elite wushu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Changizi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the profile of sports injuries and postural abnormalities of elite wushu athletes. Participants were recruited purposefully (n = 51, age 16.3 (4.9 years, height 165.4 (13.9 cm and weight 52.6 (14.7 kg and informed consent participated in the study. Injury report form (including type, anatomic site, etiology and mechanism of injury was used to record the damage. Posture was assesses using Grid Chart, flexible ruler, calipers and mirror box were performed. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods, chi-square was used. 166 injuries and 167 postural abnormalities were recorded. Injury type, anatomical location, and mechanism of injury and abnormalities in elite status was significantly different (P>0.05. 6.85 injuries per 1000 hours exposure and the risk of 8.91 injuries per 1000 athlete exposures was estimated. The most common types of injury were contusion (36.7%, hematoma (20.5% and abrasions (13.3% respectively. Based on the anatomic site of injury, lower extremities (47.6%, head and face (25.9%, upper extremities (13.9% and trunk (12.7% were injured mostly respectively. Opponent's Blow down technique (24.7%, previous injury (16.3%, lack of physical fitness (12.7% and fatigue (12% were in top priority. Receiving kicks (21%, Receiving punches (13.8% and throwing technique by opponent (12% were the most common mechanisms of injury. Flat foot (29.3%, uneven shoulders (25.7% and scoliosis (16.2% were the most common postural abnormalities.

  15. Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    At the Olympic level, differences in performance are typically less than 0.5%. This helps explain why many contemporary elite endurance athletes in summer and winter sport incorporate some form of altitude/hypoxic training within their year-round training plan, believing that it will provide the "competitive edge" to succeed at the Olympic level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical application of altitude/hypoxic training as used by elite athletes. Within the general framework of the paper, both anecdotal and scientific evidence will be presented relative to the efficacy of several contemporary altitude/hypoxic training models and devices currently used by Olympic-level athletes for the purpose of legally enhancing performance. These include the three primary altitude/hypoxic training models: 1) live high+train high (LH+TH), 2) live high+train low (LH+TL), and 3) live low+train high (LL+TH). The LH+TL model will be examined in detail and will include its various modifications: natural/terrestrial altitude, simulated altitude via nitrogen dilution or oxygen filtration, and hypobaric normoxia via supplemental oxygen. A somewhat opposite approach to LH+TL is the altitude/hypoxic training strategy of LL+TH, and data regarding its efficacy will be presented. Recently, several of these altitude/hypoxic training strategies and devices underwent critical review by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the purpose of potentially banning them as illegal performance-enhancing substances/methods. This paper will conclude with an update on the most recent statement from WADA regarding the use of simulated altitude devices.

  16. The in vitro and in vivo capacity of culture-expanded human cells from several sources encapsulated in alginate to form cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Pleumeekers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage has limited self-regenerative capacity. Tissue engineering can offer promising solutions for reconstruction of missing or damaged cartilage. A major challenge herein is to define an appropriate cell source that is capable of generating a stable and functional matrix. This study evaluated the performance of culture-expanded human chondrocytes from ear (EC, nose (NC and articular joint (AC, as well as bone-marrow-derived and adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. All cells (≥ 3 donors per source were culture-expanded, encapsulated in alginate and cultured for 5 weeks. Subsequently, constructs were implanted subcutaneously for 8 additional weeks. Before and after implantation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG and collagen content were measured using biochemical assays. Mechanical properties were determined using stress-strain-indentation tests. Hypertrophic differentiation was evaluated with qRT-PCR and subsequent endochondral ossification with histology. ACs had higher chondrogenic potential in vitro than the other cell sources, as assessed by gene expression and GAG content (p < 0.001. However, after implantation, ACs did not further increase their matrix. In contrast, ECs and NCs continued producing matrix in vivo leading to higher GAG content (p < 0.001 and elastic modulus. For NC-constructs, matrix-deposition was associated with the elastic modulus (R2 = 0.477, p = 0.039. Although all cells – except ACs – expressed markers for hypertrophic differentiation in vitro, there was no bone formed in vivo. Our work shows that cartilage formation and functionality depends on the cell source used. ACs possess the highest chondrogenic capacity in vitro, while ECs and NCs are most potent in vivo, making them attractive cell sources for cartilage repair.

  17. [Medicinal roles tea--a non-essential beverage--played in forming the Japanese culture during the Japanese middle ages (12th-16th AD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The term "culture" generally refers to practices and customs including clothes, food and housing as well as various arts, ethics, religions, politics and economies that support them, with the more refined formats such as tea ceremony or flower arrangement being more dependent on the maturity of the society at the time. Among these, tea may be especially noteworthy as it has been widely used as a favored beverage in various scenes in daily life, playing an important role in the development of Japanese society. As a medicinal agent, tea has psychotropic functions that activate senses, thoughts or association of ideas, and remove or alleviate drowsiness and fatigue. While alcohol, coffee or narcotics also have mind-altering effects, tea has been more widely accepted, possibly because of its milder effect and its adaptability to cultivation in different climate zones, leaving broad and deep impressions in the forming of the culture. In the fifth century, the rulers in Japan started opening state-run ranches throughout the country to raise horses and cattle, which drove population growth, spurred a commodity economy and gave rise to an associated birth of logistics providers. The ranch administrators, however, gradually built up political and economic power over the years to become samurai, who would eventually come to rule the country. In the Japanese Middle Ages, many merchants who had accumulated wealth in trades, finance, sake breweries or leather industries enjoyed gatherings with tea, which became the very popular tea ceremony. From these occasions, many of the now so-called classic arts with top-class artists were born. The popularity of the tea ceremony eventually produced SADO, the way of tea. Tea thus provided a cradle for many cultural elements as social barriers were often disregarded at such gatherings so that many artists and men of stature were able to emerge regardless of their backgrounds.

  18. Forms of physical culture and sports activities of general education schools pupils at the age of 15–17 years in their spare time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Mandyuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the forms of physical culture and sports activities in the general structure of spare time for pupils of general education schools aged 15–17 years. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of scientific literature; methods of theoretical level of research (analysis and synthesis sociological survey. The study was attended by students of 10–11 grades of general education schools. Lviv, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk and the city of Khmelnitsky. The total number of interviewed students was 907 people. Results: most common types of activities are identified, to which students of general education schools aged 15–17 are involved in their spare time. Factors that determine the choice of activity by students in their spare time are established. Conclusion: most popular types of physical culture and sports activities in their spare time among students aged 15–17 years is active rest and physical training and sports. The main factors influencing the choice of activities in their spare time among students aged 15–17 years, have their own tastes and preferences, a healthy lifestyle and school.

  19. Een ongekende elite : De opkomst van een gekleurde elite in koloniaal Suriname 1800-1863

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslo, Ellen Brigitte Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    During the slavery period in the nineteenth century in Paramaribo there was a colored elite. Their social economic status was better than generally assumed. To a great extent this was due to the many craftsmen such as carpenters, tailors and midwives. Most of them learned these skills during their

  20. US elite power and the rise of ‘statist’ Chinese elites in global markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, Naná; van Apeldoorn, Bastiaan

    The rise of Chinese ‘state capitalism’ such as expressed by the global expansion of Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has been met with substantial suspicion on the part of the Western corporate and political establishment—including among Washington’s policy-making elite. The underpinning claim

  1. Comparison of the effects of the synthetic pyrethroid Metofluthrin and phenobarbital on CYP2B form induction and replicative DNA synthesis in cultured rat and human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yukihiro; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Yamada, Tomoya; Deguchi, Yoshihito; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Nishioka, Kazuhiko; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Kawamura, Satoshi; Isobe, Naohiko; Lake, Brian G.; Okuno, Yasuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    High doses of Metofluthrin (MTF) have been shown to produce liver tumours in rats by a mode of action (MOA) involving activation of the constitutive androstane receptor leading to liver hypertrophy, induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms and increased cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MTF with those of the known rodent liver tumour promoter phenobarbital (PB) on the induction CYP2B forms and replicative DNA synthesis in cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Treatment with 50 μM MTF and 50 μM PB for 72 h increased CYP2B1 mRNA levels in male Wistar rat hepatocytes and CYP2B6 mRNA levels in human hepatocytes. Replicative DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine over the last 24 h of a 48 h treatment period. Treatment with 10-1000 μM MTF and 100-500 μM PB resulted in significant increases in replicative DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes. While replicative DNA synthesis was increased in human hepatocytes treated with 5-50 ng/ml epidermal growth factor or 5-100 ng/ml hepatocyte growth factor, treatment with MTF and PB had no effect. These results demonstrate that while both MTF and PB induce CYP2B forms in both species, MTF and PB only induced replicative DNA synthesis in rat and not in human hepatocytes. These results provide further evidence that the MOA for MTF-induced rat liver tumour formation is similar to that of PB and some other non-genotoxic CYP2B form inducers and that the key event of increased cell proliferation would not occur in human liver

  2. Konflik Elit Lokal dalam Pemilihan Kepala Daerah Maluku Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi J. Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research explains on local elite conflict that happened in the election of regional leader of North Maluku 2007-2008. This research uses inductive approach with literature and in-depth interview. The area of this research is Ternate City. The result of this research shows that local elite contention happened in some areas confronting them, either in small arenas or big arenas. The source of this conflict was taken from province of North Maluku 1999 formation, behind of Abdul Gaffur and Thaib Armayin’s elite local emulation and regional leader election of North Maluku 2001-2002. Otherwise, configuration of local elite existing in North Maluku is divided into three big parts. They were traditional elite, new elite, and local elite. The Election of regional leader of North Maluku 2001- 2002 could be said as an arena contention of elite local of North Maluku which happened in big scale, in this arena Abdul Gaffur who won the previous election, finally had to fail tragically and was removed by Thaib Armayin

  3. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, G. L. J.; van der Sluis, A.; Brink, M. S.; Visscher, C.; Frencken, W. G. P.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19

  4. Elite coaches' perceptions of the characteristics of decision-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at discovering what elite coaches perceive to be the critical characteristics of decision-making that distinguish expert players from novices in basketball. A qualitative method of inquiry (the long interview) was followed. The data were gathered during interviews with five elite coaches. A framework to ...

  5. The Elite and Political Process in Nigeria | Banjo | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's crisis-ridden political history shows how it survived multiple military dictatorships, and had only three short-lived civilian-led political dispensations until the Fourth Republic. The article considers the concept of African elite and progresses to unravel the Nigerian elite and its role in the scuttling of the First and ...

  6. No serological evidence for rickettsial diseases among Danish elite orienteerers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, Peter; Dyhr, Thomas; Rolain, Jean Marc

    2006-01-01

    A series of sudden unexpected cardiac deaths among Swedish elite orienteerers in the 1980s have resulted from the combination of infectious diseases and physical exercise. Studies in the late 1990s have pointed to Chlamydia and Barontella, which both had a high seroprevalence among Swedish elite ...

  7. Strength and energetics of elite rugby union players | Lombard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comprehensive assessments of the various physical and physiological demands of a rugby union match, can contribute towards scientific based conditioning to enhance performance. The study compared physical and physiological differences between elite and non-elite South African Rugby Union players. A comparison ...

  8. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  9. Autonomy, Eating Disorders and Elite Gymnastics: Ethical and Conceptual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Tan, Jacinta

    2017-01-01

    Participation in elite sport, and in particular those sports with special demands in terms of weight and shape, is associated with a higher risk for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa [Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Torstveit, M. K. (2010). Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high intensity sports. "Scandinavian Journal of…

  10. A Lover to Be Ashamed of: Romania in the Eyes of the Italian Political Elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Braghiroli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Two criminal events committed in 2007 by Romanian nationals in Italy triggered tensioned relationships between the two countries. The contemporary use of populist rhetoric in the Italian political debate contrasts sharply with the pre-2007 supportive discourses towards the Romanian accession to the EU. Such positive attitudes of the elite were driven by political reasons, mutual economic benefits, and cultural ties. This article argues that elite discourses adapted to the negative attitudes continuously displayed by the Italian public. By combining process-tracing and descriptive statistics, our study illustrates how the Italian public was highly reluctant about the EU membership of Romanians before 2007. As a result, the shift of attitudes at elite level seems driven by opportunistic reasons. While still praising Romania’s membership as an economic asset and an opportunity for the Italian business, when it comes to immigration, most Italian politicians follow and actively fuel people’s fears rather than contrasting and publicly condemning discrimination and xenophobia.

  11. The Second to Fourth Digit Ratio in Elite and Non-Elite Greco-Roman Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A low second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D has been reported to correlate with high performance and athletic potential of an individual in sport. It has been suggested that 2D:4D is a relatively weak predictor of strength and a stronger predictor of efficiency in aerobic exercise. Comparing extreme groups on a continuum of sports performance requiring high power (physical strength output would be helpful to resolve this issue. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite Greco-Roman wrestlers (n = 10 taking part in Olympic fitness camps in 2013 with the 2D:4D ratio of non-elite collegiate wrestlers (n = 20, and age-matched sedentary males (n = 40. The 2D:4D ratios of elite wrestlers were lower compared to non-elite athletes (p < 0.01, right hand d = 1.70, left hand d = 1.67 and the control group (p < 0.0001, right hand d = 3.16, left hand d = 2.00. No significant differences were noted among the groups for right - left 2D:4D. We concluded that 2D:4D may discriminate between non-elite and world-class wrestlers. We also suggest that a low 2D:4D ratio could be linked to performance potential in wrestlers. As such, 2D:4D may provide additional information, which is valuable in determining the potential athleticism of an individual, when it is used in conjunction with other measures.

  12. CAFFEINE INTAKE ENHANCES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN SUB-ELITE BUT NOT IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Smolka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution is to evaluate the influence of caffeine (CAF ingestion on maximal power output (MPO during endurance performance. Two groups of men – 10 sub-elite cyclists and 8 elite cyclists completed a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Over the course of three days participants completed three identical experimental tests (60min cycling time trial on 70 % VO2max followed by test to exhaustion. Three experimental meals - a combination of 500ml water, a gel supplement and a specific dose of CAF: a placebo (PLA, no caffeine, CAF2 (2 mg / kg body weight (BW and CAF7 (7 mg / kg BW were administered 45min prior to the start of the experimental tests. Subjective RPE values were determined using the Borg 20-category scale. The results show significant differences between MPOPLA and MPOCAF7 and between MPOCAF2 and MPOCAF7 with p = 0.018 and p = 0.019, respectively, in the sub-elite cyclists group only. The mean MPO during experimental test in sub-elite cyclists, but not in elite cyclists, was significantly enhanced following caffeine ingestion (p = 0.05. These findings indicate that caffeine intake at recommended levels is not associated with improved performance in a professional level cyclist. The results of the comparison of the experimental situations using the Borg scale are not persuasive. We found a significant difference (0.008356 between the PLA and CAF2 experimental measurements (p < 0.05. The level of substantive significance was assessed using Cohen’s coefficient effect and only a small “size of effect” (0.19 was found. It is therefore not possible to determine whether the Borg scale might be used to define the effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance, due to the multifactorial effects of caffeine.

  13. Development of Elite Programmes at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove

    2008-01-01

    The Commission of European Communities concluded  in a  report  from 2005  that “knowledge, research,  skills and education will be  the currency of success  in  the  face of globalization” and that  there should be support for excellence  in European universities. This paper gives examples from.......  More  importantly,  up  to  84%  of  the  elite  students  are  potentially  interested  in pursuing a career in academia....

  14. Mental toughness in elite football officiating

    OpenAIRE

    Slack, Liam A.

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this Ph.D. thesis was to identify factors underpinning football\\ud officiating excellence. As a result, this thesis provided an in-depth study into\\ud understanding Mental Toughness (MT) and its development within elite football\\ud referees. A secondary purpose was to use the findings of the series of studies contained\\ud herein, to bridge the gap between theory and applied practice by providing\\ud recommendations for football officiating National Governing Bodies (NGBs...

  15. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    . Elite athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma seem to have less airway reactivity and fewer sputum eosinophils than non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma, but more studies are needed to further investigate if and how the asthma phenotype of elite athletes differs from that of classical asthma....

  16. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture based proteomics reveals differences in protein abundances between spiral and coccoid forms of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan A; Pernitzsch, Sandy R; Haange, Sven-Bastiaan; Uetz, Peter; von Bergen, Martin; Sharma, Cynthia M; Kalkhof, Stefan

    2015-08-03

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a ε-proteobacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half of the world's population. Persistent infections have been associated with several gastric diseases. Mainly rod- or spiral shaped but also coccoid H. pylori forms have been isolated from mucus layer biopsies of patients. It is still being debated whether the coccoid form can be transformed back into the spiral form or whether this morphology is a result of bacterial cell death or persistence. We established stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for quantitative proteomics of H. pylori and applied it to investigate differences between the spiral and the coccoid morphology. We detected 72% and were able to relatively quantify 47% of the H. pylori proteome. Proteins involved in cell division and transcriptional and translational processes showed a lower abundance in coccoid cells. Additionally, proteins related to host colonization, including CagA, the arginase RocF, and the TNF-α inducing protein were down-regulated. The fact that outer membrane proteins were observed at higher abundances might represent a mechanism for immune evasion but also preserves adherence to host cells. The established protocol for relative protein quantification of H. pylori samples offers new possibilities for research on H. pylori. Our study shows that SILAC can be employed to study protein abundance changes in H. pylori. We have chosen to establish SILAC for H. pylori because it facilitates fractionation on both, protein and peptide level and thus enables deep proteome coverage. Furthermore, SILAC allows robust and highly accurate protein quantification. The manuscript includes a detailed description of the applied method, suggestions for further improvement as well as a practical application. The investigation of differences between the coccoid and infectious spiral morphology of H. pylori with SILAC revealed the regulation of proteins that are involved in host

  17. Improving leaping ability in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M R; Tremain, L; Christiansen, J; Beitzel, J

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the leaping ability of athletes in rhythmic gymnastics, a high leap demanding sport, using a controlled course of jump training. Six elite athletes underwent a course of leap training including pool training and Pilates' Method of Body Conditioning using spring controlled resistance to muscular exertion. Baseline data was obtained on a force plate that measured reaction time, leap height, and explosive power on each athlete before initiating training. After 1 month of training, leap height improved 16.2%, ground reaction time improved 50%, and explosive power improved 220%. With continued maintenance training, no decrease in effect was noted; however, no significant improvement occurred after the first month of training. At 1 yr with discontinuation of the leaping protocol but continued training within the sport, the initial gains were likewise maintained. No injuries occurred during participation in the leaping protocol. Elite rhythmic gymnasts can safely improve their leaping ability significantly through an intense course of jump training. Continued training with the leaping protocol does not appear to further enhance the benefit; however, the gains appear to be maintained at 4 months and 1 yr post training with or without additional training with the leaping protocol.

  18. Career drop outs of young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fišer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the study was to examine the characteristics of sports career drop outs of young elite sportswomen and their adaptation to the post-sport life. The sample included 20 ex-young elite sportswomen, who had brought their successful sport careers to an end before the age of 19. We used a modified interview about sports career termination (Cecić Erpič, 1998 for the investigation of the characteristics of their sports careers. To examine the caracteristics of sport careers we used frequency analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the participants mostly stated more than one reason for the termination of their career. The most common reasons for career termination were: lack of motivation, bad relations with trainers or co-competitors and dedication to school or education. After the end of a sports career most of the young sportswomen stayed actively in touch with sport, either as trainers, judges, or they remained engaged in sports for recreation.

  19. Elite Sport, Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     aim of this book is toillustrate how the issue of doping has evolved beyond the world of elite sport into an arena of public health.  In so doing, the book drawsupon multi-disciplinary perspectives from applied and professionalethics, biomedical science, history, philosophy, policy studies, andsociology.  The essays, written by a group of leading international......The issue of doping in sport was once of interest only to aficionados of elite sports.  Nowadays, it is a matter of intense public scrutiny thatspans the worlds of health, medicine, sports, politics, technology, andbeyond.  In keeping with this territorial expansion, the...... experts, is theproduct of a colloquium of the International Network of HumanisticDoping Research held at Aarhus University in Denmark.  Their scoperanges from conceptual analysis, case studies to policy critique.  Eachof these disciplinary perspectives, it is argued, is necessary to understand the problem of doping “in...

  20. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Oral health and elite sport performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  2. Elites, Organized Crime, Violence, and the Erosion of the State in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Honduras elites and organized crime. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Guatemala elites and organized crime. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Colombia elites and organized crime. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Elites and organized crime : introduction, methodology, and conceptual framework. Téléchargez le PDF ...

  3. The impact of class absenteeism on undergraduates’ academic performance: evidence from an elite Economics school in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    The empirical literature focusing mainly on the USA suggests that class absenteeism undermines students’ academic performance and that an enforced mandatory attendance policy may be beneficial. Based on a different cultural and economic context, and using data on 146 second-year management students enrolled in a Macroeconomics course at an elite economics school in Portugal, it is shown that even when controlling for potential endogenous factors associated to attendance and academic performan...

  4. Comparability of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric short form symptom measures across culture: examination between Chinese and American children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Yuan, Changrong; Wang, Jichuan; Brown, Jeanne Geiger; Zhou, Fen; Zhao, Xiufang; Shen, Min; Hinds, Pamela S

    2016-10-01

    Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric forms measure symptoms and function of pediatric patients experiencing chronic disease by using the same measures. Comparability is one of the most important purposes of the PROMIS initiative. This study aimed to test the factorial structures of four symptom measures (i.e., Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Pain Interference) in the original English and the Chinese versions and examine the measurement invariance of the measures across two cultures. Four PROMIS Pediatric measures were used to assess symptoms, respectively, in Chinese (n = 232) and American (n = 200) children and adolescents (8-17 years old) in treatment for cancer or in survivorship. The categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) model was used to examine factorial structures, and multigroup CCFA was applied to test measurement invariance of these measures between the Chinese and American samples. The CCFA models of the four PROMIS Pediatric symptom measures fit the data well for both the Chinese and American children and adolescents. Minor partial measurement invariance was identified. Factor means and factor variances of the four PROMIS measures were not significantly different between the two populations. Our results provide evidence that the four PROMIS Pediatric symptom measures have valid factorial structures and a statistical property of measurement invariance across American and Chinese children and adolescents with cancer. This means that the items of these measures were interpreted in a conceptually similar manner by two groups. They could be readily used for meaningful cross-cultural comparisons involving pediatric oncology patients in these two countries.

  5. Formas de cultura de Trypanosoma rotatorium Mayer, 1843: isolado da rã Leptodactylus ocellatus do Brasil Culture forms of T. rotatorum Mayer, 1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neize M. Pereira

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram o comportamento "in vitro" do Trypanosoma encontrado nas rãs brasileiras, visando critérios adicionais na caracterização específica deste grupo. Utilizaram diferentes meios de cultura (NNN, Novy e Mac Neal, SNB 9 de Diamond 1954, Boné & Steinert, 1956 Boné & Parent 1963 e Halevy & Gisry 1964 no isolamento do Trypanosoma rotatorium encontrado com certa freqüência na rã Leptodactylus com larga distribuição na região Neotropical. Observamso que o comportamento do T. rotatorium das rãs desta região em meios de cultura mostra características bem diferentes daquelas observadas com tripanosomas de outras regiões, quer seja pela dificuldade de manutenção em subcultura, quer pelas formas de divisão desenvolvidas. Empregamos os mesmos meios de cultura utilizados nos isolamentos dos tripanosomas de rã da Europa e como pode ser visto no Quadro I os resultados obtidos com material da região Neotropical são concordantes, surgerindo, pelo menos uma variação dentro da espécie.Different culture media were employed to isolate T. rotatorium, a common parasite in the blood of brazilian frog Leptodactylus ocellatus. Although we have isolated the parasite in three different media (SNB-9, Boné Parent and Boné Steinert media, subcultures were not obtained. Theses facts confirm the results also pointed out by Machado 1911 with T. rotatorium from hosts collected in the same region. In accordance with the factes observed in the litterature (see table I in this work our results suggest an important difference between the T. rotatorium of neotropical region and that of the other regions, which are easily cultivated in subcultures. The culture forms present some differential aspects in T. rotatorium mainly by production of "Somatelas".

  6. The asàrotos òikos Mosaic as an Elite Status Symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Fathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is article focuses on the asarotos oikos theme in roman mosaics, and aims at exploring the social signi cance these depictions have held during the late Imperial age, and their relation to the proceedings of the banquet. is study suggests that disguised symbolism and erudite references rest behind the representation of these seemingly daily objects, which could only be fully understood by members of the Roman cultural elite, who possessed the proper education for the task. e mosaic served as a starting point for the elitist practice of an erudite discourse and as a reminder of the brevity of life.

  7. CULTURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP STRATEGIES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article initially deals with the concepts of entrepreneurship, cultural entrepreneurship and its importance in the field of culture. Then, identifying the factors of cultural entrepreneurshipstrategies, it offers some models for assessing cultural entrepreneurship strategies and benchmarking it. Afterwards, it tries to reform and standardize the presented model through questioning experts and elite of the profession. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the mean ranks of the implementation factors of the entrepreneurship strategy which is detailed through the work.

  8. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...... of distinction? Cultural capital in a contemporary Danish context appears to be less related to traditional highbrow cultural consumption than in Bourdieu's studies in France some decades ago. Third, is there a rise in the omnivorousness and tolerant taste within the cultural elite? This study answers negatively...

  9. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  10. Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moradi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respectively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequency of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01. Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inoculations. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investigations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection.

  11. Island of the Sun: Elite and Non-Elite Observations of the June Solstice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Bauer, Brian S.

    In Inca times (AD 1400-1532), two small islands in Lake Titicaca had temples dedicated to the sun and the moon. Colonial documents indicate that the islands were the focus of large-scale pilgrimages. Recent archaeoastronomical work suggests that rituals, attended by both elites and commoners, were held on the Island of the Sun to observe the setting sun on the June solstice.

  12. Effective Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor treatment to dissociate human iPS cells for suspension culture to form embryoid body-like cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Ayumi; Yazaki, Koyuki; Aoyagi, Mami; Ohnuki, Yoshitsugu; Kurosawa, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Treatment conditions using Y-27632 in the preparation of cell suspension of dissociated human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were investigated in the context of embryoid body (EB)-like cell aggregates. The effectiveness of a pretreatment with Y-27632 before cell dissociation and that of a Y-27632 treatment during cell dissociation were investigated from the viewpoint of simplicity and robustness. The duration of Y-27632 treatment in the preparation process affected the circularity and agglomeration of dissociated hiPSCs. A single application of pretreatment failed to prevent the onset of blebbing. However, a pretreatment promoted the agglomeration of dissociated hiPSCs when combined with the addition of Y-27632 to cell suspension. Our results indicate that pretreatment enhances the agglomeration potential of dissociated hiPSCs. When cell dissociation was performed in the presence of Y-27632, dissociated hiPSCs possessed the highest circularity and significant agglomerating property. It was shown that treatment with Y-27632 during cell dissociation is a simple and robust method to prepare dissociated hiPSCs for suspension culture to form EB-like cell aggregates. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rethinking Folk Culture in Twentieth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Changes in blood values in elite cyclist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J S; Belhage, B; Damsgaard, R

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, a couple of professional cycling teams initiated their own testing programs. The objective of this study is to describe fluctuations in commonly measured blood parameters among top-level riders. From December 12th 2006 to November 30th 2007, a total of 374 blood samples and 287 urine...... samples were obtained from 28 elite, male cyclists. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and % reticulocytes. Seventy-six percent of all samples were collected out-of-competition (OOC). From December 2006 to September 2007, the average Hct and [Hb] decreased by 4....../dL) compared to OOC (43.2 % and 15.0 g/dL) and pre-competition (43.5 % and 14.9 g/dL). Our results suggest that when interpreting blood sample results in an anti-doping context, the sample timing (OOC, pre- or in-competition) and time of year should be kept in mind....

  15. Protestant Clergy and the Culture Wats: An Empirical Test of Hunter's Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Lucke, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    This study instead focuses on culture wars among religious elites-clergy-and tests three aspects of the culture wars thesis: (1) whether cultural wars exist at all among religious elites, (2) whether clergy attitudes are polarized on these issues, and (3) whether religious authority or religious affiliation is more salient in creating culture wars cleavages. Using data from a large random sample of Protestant clergy, we find a substantial amount of engagement in culture wars by all types of Protestant clergy. The amount of polarization is more attributable to views of religious authority (i.e., biblical inerrancy) than to religious tradition. Moreover, polarization among clergy is somewhat more evident on culture wars issues than on other social and political issues. These findings are generally supportive of the culture wars thesis and should help return examinations of culture wars back to where they were originally theorized to be waged: among elites.

  16. Low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M R

    1999-11-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport that blends the athleticism of a gymnast with the grace of a ballerina. The sport demands both the coordination of handling various apparatus and the flexibility to attain positions not seen in any other sport. To attain perfection and reproducibility of their routines, the athletes must practice and repeat the basic elements of their routines thousands of times. In so doing, the athlete places herself at risk of a myriad of overuse injuries, the most common being low back pain. To document the presence and severity of low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts, a prospective study of seven national team members was undertaken that documented injuries and complaints with daily medical reports over a 7-wk period. These findings were correlated with a retrospective review of 11 elite level gymnasts followed over a 10-month period whose complaints ultimately required evaluation by a physician. Eighty-six percent of the gymnasts in the prospective study complained of back pain at some point over the course of the study. The only injury recorded that required a time loss from sport was a low back injury. The most common complaint requiring a physician's evaluation was low back pain with the diagnoses varying from muscle strains to bony stress reaction or complete fracture of the pars inter-articularis (spondylolysis). No athlete had a spondylolisthesis or ruptured disk. Two had mild scolioses which did not appear to be associated with their low back pain. It would appear that rhythmic gymnasts are at relative increased risk of suffering low back complaints secondary to their sport.

  17. Postactivation potentiation in elite young soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titton, Adriano; Franchini, Emerson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 16 different combinations to cause the postactivation potentiation (PAP) in elite young soccer players. Squat exercise in 4 different intensities (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) was performed and its effects were evaluated in the performance of countermovement jump (CMJ), after 4 different recovery times (1, 3, 5, and 10 min). For this purpose, 25 young soccer players, underwent five experimental sessions. At the first session the control to determine 1RM in half-squat was carried out. The following four experimental sessions were comprised of four intensity combinations with four different recovery intervals in order to perform the CMJ test later, randomly determined and with 30-min interval between each combination. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measurements, followed by Bonferroni test, using 5% significance level (P<0.05). The different intensities investigated did not provide significant increases in CMJ height, but significant differences were noted in recovery time, where, at CMJ maximum height, 1-min interval was better than after 3 min (P<0.05), 5, and 10 min (P<0.001). On the average jump performances, 1-min interval resulted in better results (P<0.001) compared to other intervals. The 10-min recovery resulted in poorer performances compared to the other intervals (P<0.001). Our results indicate that regardless the intensity used in the half-squat exercise with elite young soccer players, the 1-min recovery time was more appropriate to promote an increase in vertical jump. PMID:28503527

  18. Reliability of performance of elite Olympic weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael R; Kane, Melissa K

    2004-08-01

    There are no published data on the reliability of competitive strength performance, even though it has a pronounced effect on athletes' medal prospects and the ability of coaches and athletes to identify factors that affect competitive performance. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the reliability of elite olympic weightlifters over a series of international weightlifting meets. We obtained official results of international competitions over an 18-month period from 1999 until the 2000 Olympic Games at the International Weightlifting Federation website. The measure of reliability was the typical within-athlete variation, derived as the coefficient of variation (CV) by 2-way analysis of variance of log-transformed weights lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and total. The results of this analysis were (a) within-athlete variations were as follows: snatch, 2.7% (95% likely range, 2.4-3.2%); clean and jerk, 2.3% (1.7-3.6%); total weight lifted, 2.5% (2.2-2.9%); (b) men and women: the variation was higher for the women compared with the men in both snatch (ratio of CV, 1.4) and clean and jerk (ratio of CV, 1.5), and for the total weight lifted (ratio of CV, 1.3); and (c) the top 5 athletes were almost always more reliable than the bottom-half athletes. Recent work has shown that the smallest worthwhile performance is about half the within-athlete variation, so coaches and sport scientists should focus on enhancements of as little as 1.2% in total weight lifted for elite olympic weightlifters.

  19. Muscle function in elite master weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen J; Young, Archie; Macaluso, Andrea; Devito, Giuseppe; Nimmo, Myra A; Cobbold, Matthew; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2002-07-01

    To determine whether explosive power and isometric strength of the lower-limb muscles in elite master Olympic weightlifters declines at a similar rate to nontrained healthy controls with increasing age. 54 elite level masters weightlifters (aged 40-87), who were competitors at the World Masters Weightlifting Championships (1999), were compared with a similar number of aged-matched, healthy untrained individuals. Isometric knee extensor strength and lower-limb explosive power were tested. Extent of antagonist co-contraction during isometric knee extension was determined by EMG and power loading characteristics by using a variable inertial system. Muscle volume was estimated using anthropometry. On average, the weightlifters were able to generate 32% more peak power (P weightlifters and controls (1.2 and 1.3% of a 45-yr-old's value per year), as did strength, but at a lower rate (0.6 and 0.5% per year). The inertial load at which the weightlifters achieved their maximal peak power output was greater (P weightlifters (P weightlifters to reach their maximal peak power was on average 13% shorter (P weightlifters and healthy controls. In spite of inertial load optimization, muscle power declined in both groups at approximately twice the rate of isometric strength. Although similar rates of decline were observed, the absolute differences between the weightlifters and controls were such that an 85-yr-old weightlifter was as powerful as a 65-yr-old control subject. This would therefore represent an apparent age advantage of approximately 20 yr for the weightlifters.

  20. Competition Nutrition Practices of Elite Ultramarathon Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent

    2016-02-01

    Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59.5 ± 1.7 kg; 16.7 ± 2.5 hr 100-mi. best times) agreed to complete a competition- specific nutrition intake questionnaire for 100-mi. races. Verbal and visual instructions were used to instruct the athletes on portion sizes and confirm dietary intake. Throughout 2014, the athletes competed in 16 ultramarathons with a total of 8 wins, including the prestigious Western States Endurance Run 100-miler (14.9 hr). The average prerace breakfast contained 70 ± 16 g CHO, 29 ± 20 g protein, and 21 ± 8 g fat. Athletes consumed an average of 1,162 ± 250 g of CHO (71 ± 20g/hr), with minor fat and protein intakes, resulting in caloric intakes totaling 5,530 ± 1,673 kcals (333 ± 105 kcals/hr) with 93% of calories coming from commercial products. Athletes also reported consuming 912 ± 322 mg of caffeine and 6.9 ± 2.4 g of sodium. Despite having limited professional nutritional input into their fueling approaches, all athletes practiced fueling strategies that maximize CHO intake and are congruent with contemporary evidence-based recommendations.

  1. Eating disorders in elite floorball : - A qualitative study of elite floorball coaches’ experience of eating disorders and what support they feel they need to help the players

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Linn

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundFloorball is Sweden's third largest sport and in elite floorball eating disorders have increasingly been noted. This may partly depend on the attitudes and demands of coaches. Studies indicate that elite coaches lack the knowledge to manage an eating disorder. ObjectiveTo explore elite floorball coaches experience of eating disorders and what support they feel they need to help the players. MethodSemi-structured interviews were conducted with five elite floorball coaches. The recrui...

  2. Physiological capacity and physical testing in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, K; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the physical demands placed on male elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Methods: Male elite TH field players were evaluated during match-play over a six season time span using physiological measurements and by subseque...... physical testing. Results: Mean heart rate and relative workload during match-play (n=41) were 163±5 beats·min-1 (group means±SD) and 70.9±6.0 % of VO2-max, respectively. Relative workload was lower (p......Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the physical demands placed on male elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Methods: Male elite TH field players were evaluated during match-play over a six season time span using physiological measurements and by subsequent...

  3. Airway, responsiveness and inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Lund, T.K.; Barnes, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Whereas increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation are well documented in adult elite athletes, it remains uncertain whether the same airway changes are present in adolescents involved in elite sport. Objective: To investigate airway responsiveness and airway...... inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on adolescent elite swimmers (n = 33) and 2 control groups: unselected adolescents (n = 35) and adolescents with asthma (n = 212). The following tests were performed: questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), spirometry...... at airway responsiveness as a continuous variable, the swimmers were more responsive to EVH than unselected subjects, but less responsive to metbacholine compared with subjects with asthma. We found no differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms between the swimmers and the unselected adolescents...

  4. Strength and power characteristics of elite South African beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the strength and power characteristics of 13 elite South African male beach volleyball players. The results indicate that elite beach volleyball players have a mean stature of 185.28 cm (";7.2), mean mass of 82.01 kg (";9.7) and percentage body fat of 13.12% (";2.4). Mean isokinetic peak torque values ...

  5. Automatic Detection of Tackles in Elite Level Rugby Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Daniel; Coughlan, Garrett; Green, Brian; Caulfield, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Elite rugby union teams currently employ technology in order to monitor and evaluate the physical demands of training and games on their players. Tackling has been shown to be the most common cause of injury in rugby union (Fuller et al. (2007a), Garraway et al. (1999)). However, current player monitoring technology does not effectively evaluate player tackling measurements. Sensing devices, currently being used by elite rugby union teams, contain a GPS receiver and a 3-axis accelerometer....

  6. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Filipino version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form (KDQOL-SF version 1.3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataclan, Rommel P; Dial, Ma Antonietta D

    2009-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease is the 10th leading cause of death among Filipinos. Those with chronic kidney disease are exposed to stressors which effect their daily lives. Therefore, assessment of health-related quality of life is important in these patients. The objective of the present study was to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) into Filipino and measure its validity and reliability. Translation and cultural adaptation began with two translations into Filipino, with reconciliation of the forward translators. Pretesting with 10 renal patients, review by experts (nephrologist, translator and dialysis nurse) and back-translation was also done. The final questionnaire was administered to 80 patients with chronic renal disease undergoing haemodialysis for at least 3 months, who could understand Filipino, and were without life-threatening or terminal conditions at the time of the test. A convenience sample of 30 patients from the group had a repeat test 10-14 days after to determine test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency reliability was measured by determining the Cronbach's alpha value. Validity was measured using Pearson's correlation between the overall health rating scale and the items from the questionnaire. All of the items showed good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.40), ranging from 0.58 (social interaction) to 0.98 (role--emotional). Internal consistency reliability values were acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.60 (cognitive function) to 0.80 (physical functioning and role--physical). Regarding construct validity, overall health rating in kidney disease-targeted scales was significantly correlated with symptoms/problems, effects of kidney disease and burden of kidney disease. All items in the SF 36 scales had significant correlation with overall health rating (P Filipino version

  7. Pregnancy in Spanish elite sportswomen: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy and motherhood have been historically considered as reasons why elite sportswomen may end their sport careers. During pregnancy, the safety of both mother and baby has been identified as a key reason for ceasing sport participation. Recent "official" statistics on how many elite athletes are mothers suggest that pregnancy, motherhood, and sport could be no longer mutually exclusive. The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the lived pregnancy of Spanish elite sportswomen. Spanish elite sportswomen (n = 20) aged between 18 and 65 years that had been pregnant during their sporting professional career and after the end of their pregnancy had taken up again their professional sporting career for at least one year were included. Data were collected from May 2010 to April 2012 using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (1) choosing the right moment; (2) fears and doubts; and (3) justifying physical exercise. By giving voice to these elite Spanish sportswomen, their pregnancy experiences are made visible, which might help to gain a better understanding into their expectations and develop policies and practices focused on elite sportswomen during and after pregnancy.

  8. The psychology of elite cycling: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, David J; Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian

    2018-01-18

    This systematic review sought to synthesise what is currently known about the psychology of elite cycling. Nine electronic databases were searched in March 2017 for studies reporting an empirical test of any psychological construct in an elite cycling sample. Fourteen studies (total n = 427) met inclusion criteria. Eight studies were coded as having high risk of bias. Themes extracted included mood, anxiety, self-confidence, pain, and cognitive function. Few studies had similar objectives meaning that in many instances findings could not be synthesised in a meaningful way. Nevertheless, there was some cross-study evidence that elite cyclists have more positive mood states (relative to normative scores), pre-race anxiety impairs performance (among male cyclists), and associative strategies are perceived as helpful for pain management. Among single studies coded as having low risk of bias, evidence suggests that implicit beliefs affect decision making performance, elite cyclists are less susceptible to mental fatigue (than non-elite cyclists), and better leadership skills relates to greater social labouring. Limitations include non-standardisation of measures, lack of follow-up data, small sample sizes, and overall poor research quality. The findings of this systematic review might be used to inform research and theory development on the psychology of elite endurance cycling.

  9. Technical characteristics of elite junior men and women race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, B; Bissas, A; Drake, A

    2014-12-01

    Successful coaching in race walking requires a thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles underlying this unique form of gait. The purpose of this study was to analyze elite male and female junior race walkers and identify key kinematic variables. Twenty junior men and 20 junior women were videoed as they competed over 10 km in the 8th European Cup Race Walking. Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained using motion analysis software (SIMI, Munich). Step length and cadence were correlated with speed in both sexes, and greater step lengths were the kinematic reason for junior men's faster walking speeds. While cadence did not differ between junior men and junior women, there was a difference in proportion of step time spent in contact. There were some differences between genders for upper body joint angles (e.g., elbow) but there were few differences within lower limb joint angles. Although some technical aspects (e.g., pelvic and shoulder girdle rotation) appeared undeveloped, it was noteworthy that most athletes achieved full knee extension at initial contact in accordance with the rules. However, in many athletes flight times were evident that might present problems during the transition to the higher standards of senior competition. There was a large range of ability among both sexes and coaches are advised to ensure that technical development continues during the transition to senior competition.

  10. "Nova" elite no Brasil? Sindicalistas e ex-sindicalistas no mercado financeiro A "new" elite in Brazil? Unionists and former unionists at the financial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chaves Jardim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta sobre a possível formação de uma "nova" elite no Brasil, oriunda do meio sindical e que atualmente está presente no mercado financeiro. Tem como metodologia a realização de entrevistas com sindicalistas, ex-sindicalistas e dirigentes de fundos de pensão, bem como o resgate da história de vida de determinados atores sociais considerados peças-chave na temática dos fundos de pensão. Sugere-se que tem ocorrido uma reconversão de determinados sindicalistas, os quais passam a dialogar com o mercado financeiro na temática de fundos de pensão. Como consequência, evidenciam-se diversas tensões e disputas entre os sindicalistas que se interessam por fundos de pensão (vanguarda financeira e os sindicalistas que negam a nova estratégia sindical (sindicalistas tradicionais.The paper approaches about a possible formation of a "new" elite in Brazil. This elite has been formed by the union, which is currently linked to the financial market. The methodology adopted were interviews with trade unionists, former trade unionists and pension funds leaders and the recovery of the life history of certain social actors considered key figures in the Brazilian pension funds. It is suggested that there has been a conversion of certain trade unionists, because they are talking with the financial market about the pension funds themes. As a result, one evidences different tensions and disputes between trade unionists, who are interested in a pension fund (leading financial and trade unionists, who reject the new union strategy (traditional unionists.

  11. A sociological analysis of labour unions and labour union elites in Developing countries: Turkish labour union elites

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    This study will concern itself with Turkish labour unions and social portrait of contemporary Turkish labour union elites: firstly, brief information on theoretical and historical background of labour (trade) unions is given, then major findings about contemporary Turkish labour union elites are presented. Multiple methodological approaches were used to define the research subject, to outline the research universe. Extensive field researches comprise the major data sources of the study. V...

  12. LA ELITE NOBILIARIA Y LA ELITE ILUSTRADA FRENTE A LA INDEPENDENCIA DEL PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlett O’Phelan Godoy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo quisiera poder hacer una distinción entre la elite nobiliaria, por un lado, y la elite ilustrada, por otro, y la actuación política de estos dos grupos, ambos criollos pero con características propias, frente al proceso de independencia. Denomino elite nobiliaria a los aristócratas criollos, fundamentalmente nacidos en Lima, quienes en un primer momento apostaron por la independencia, a la cual veían como una posibilidad de mantener vigentes sus bases de poder y su estilo de vida si se les ofrecía, por ejemplo, aplicar como régimen de gobierno una monarquía constitucional. Pero hubo otro grupo de criollos, provenientes sobre todo de los sectores medios altos, conformado por abogados, médicos, clérigos, militares, algunos de los cuáles procedían del interior del virreinato, quienes optaron por un sistema de gobierno alternativo, de una naturaleza diferente a la monarquía, como de hecho lo era el establecimiento de la república. Don José de San Martín, quien llegó al Perú en 1820 a la cabeza del ejércitolibertador, dio la oportunidad a estos dos grupos de confrontarse verbalmente y por escrito, ganando en el consenso de la población el segundo grupo, es decir, el que puso susexpectativas en un gobierno republicano.

  13. Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl

    2002-01-01

    Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…

  14. PEACE IN THE MIDST OF VIOLENCE: ANALYZING THE ROLE OF ELITES IN PRESERVING PEACE AND HARMONY IN MANADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rivai Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to look at the existing inter-religious peace and harmony in Manado. The focus is an attempt to compare between Manado and Ambon which are similar in terms of demographic composition, historical background, political and cultural values but at the same time both are different; the former was in conflict, while the latter was an area of peace during the conflict escalation that engulfed some parts of East Indonesia. This study also tries to look at the strategy of Christian and Muslim communities in both cities in dealing with social tensions. In addition, this article specifically tries to explain factors that contribute to the presence of peace in Manado and its absence in Ambon. Subsequently, attention is also paid to the impact and mechanisms used by the elite in maintaining peace in Manado. This study uncovers some interesting findings. First, there are five elements that support the existence of peace in Manado: education, cultural values (local wisdom, economic situations, spiritual understanding, and the role of the elite. Second, inter-religious peace and harmony can exist in Manado, because of the synergy and cooperation of these three levels of leadership. Third, although the theory of Lederach seems to suggest that top-level leaders are the most dominant element of the elite, it is found that the role of grassroots leaders including leaders of congregations (imam, ustadz, clergymen, and priests is more vital as their more directly involved in the daily activities of the society. Fourth, the mechanisms of these elites seem to be various in every stage of leadership.

  15. Does Elite Sport Degrade Sleep Quality? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Luke; Morgan, Kevin; Gilchrist, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology. Studies relating to sleep involving participants described on a pre-defined continuum of 'eliteness' were located through a systematic search of four research databases: SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar, up to April 2016. Once extracted, studies were categorised as (1) those mainly describing sleep structure/patterns, (2) those mainly describing sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology and (3) those exploring associations between aspects of elite sport and sleep outcomes. The search returned 1676 records. Following screening against set criteria, a total of 37 studies were identified. The quality of evidence reviewed was generally low. Pooled sleep quality data revealed high levels of sleep complaints in elite athletes. Three risk factors for sleep disturbance were broadly identified: (1) training, (2) travel and (3) competition. While acknowledging the limited number of high-quality evidence reviewed, athletes show a high overall prevalence of insomnia symptoms characterised by longer sleep latencies, greater sleep fragmentation, non-restorative sleep, and excessive daytime fatigue. These symptoms show marked inter-sport differences. Two underlying mechanisms are implicated in the mediation of sport-related insomnia symptoms: pre-sleep cognitive arousal and sleep restriction.

  16. Media portrayal of elite athletes with disability - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla; Shields, Nora

    2017-11-10

    The media plays an important role in shaping society's beliefs about disability and sport. The aim of this systematic review is to identify how elite athletes with disability are portrayed in the media. Six electronic databases were searched from 2001 to March 2017 for quantitative or qualitative content analysis of media coverage of elite athletes with disability: SportsDiscus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline 1996-, Embase, and Proquest. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent assessors. Seventeen moderate quality articles were included. Six themes emerged from the data such as frequency of articles and photos about elite athletes with disability; athlete gender; athlete nationality; disability; athleticism; and Olympic Games versus Paralympic Games. Our results show that elite athletes with disability are less visible in the media than their nondisabled counterparts; female athletes received less coverage than male; the media favored domestic athletes and certain types of disability; and, although there was a focus on athleticism, this was underpinned by a "supercrip" narrative and a medicalised description of disability. Although there has been a positive shift in the narrative around elite athletes with disability in media, relative absence and differing portrayal is present. Considering the power of media shaping society's perceptions of disability, further investigation is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Media has a role in how elite athletes with disability are portrayed and consequently perceived by the public. Elite athletes with disability rarely feature in media. Images of disability are minimized, and certain types of disabilities are favored. An athletic narrative is emerging; however, a medicalised description of athletes remains, shifting the focus from athleticism. "Supercrip" and "Superhuman" terms are commonly used, but may negatively impact the broader disability community.

  17. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  19. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  20. Early selection of elite plants in Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COINTRY ENRIQUE LUIS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an efficient selection criterion the variability in three asparagus populations was evaluated defining the most important yield components and analysing its evolution along three growing seasons. The yield components, coefficient of variation (CV and the proportion of plants contributing to 80% of the total yield were estimated. The elite plants were selected by mean of total yield and clusters techniques. Multiple regression showed that spear number (SN and spear weight (SW were the most important yield components. In every population, total yield (TY and SN showed the highest values of CV, independently of sex. 69% of the plants contributed to the 80% of the total yield in the first year while in the second and third year the contribution was 57%. At the end of the third year, 17 plants were selected by the average of the total yield and 43 by clusters. It is suggested to select for SW in the first year, reducing in 68% the experimental material. In the second year, the selection for SN would reduce to 5% the plants to evaluate for total yield in the third year. In this way the selected plants are the same but the number of plants to evaluate is dramatically reduced along the years, therefore facilitating the breeders work.

  1. Anthropometric characteristics evolution in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Baldari, Carlo; Battaglia, Claudia; Guidetti, Laura; Piazza, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this research were to assess anthropometric characteristics of high-level senior and junior rhythmic gymnasts; and was to investigate the changes of anthropometric characteristics over a 4 years period, in different senior and junior groups of the same technical level. Twenty anthropometric variables of 63 participants were collected and body composition and sitting-height-to-stature-ratio measures were calculated. The two-way (gymnast category and time) ANOVA of the anthropometric characteristics showed significant main effect of time period for biacromial and bicristal diameters indicating that the majority of variables had similar values in 2002 and 2006. A significant main effect of category (junior or senior) was present in most the analyzed variables with higher values in senior gymnasts than juniors. The significant category by time interaction for height, weight, limbs' length, and fat-free mass, indicated that some differences between junior and senior gymnasts increased over the 4 yr time period. The training hours per week were significantly higher in seniors, but did not differ over the 4 yr period. The study shows that the criteria, followed for the recruitment of elite gymnasts, in the two different periods considered (2002 and 2006) were almost the same. Moreover, higher differences between seniors and juniors of FFM values in 2006 indicated the more intensive training of the second period for seniors.

  2. Injuries prevalence in elite male artistic gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista Albuquerque GOULART

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the injuries prevalence in men elite artistic gymnasts. Twenty Brazilian senior gymnasts, aged 23.1 ± 6.5 years, 13.9 ± 5.0 years of practice and 36.5 ± 4.7 hours per week training, participated in this study. The athletes answered a morbidity questionnaire, formulated according to studies from the literature, for information on the injuries’ characteristics and circumstances. Information about the injury circumstances (gymnastic apparatus, overload training and physical exercises, the anatomic site injured, the affect biological tissue and the return to training after injury treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies. The training overload, and floor, pommel horse and vault were the events that presented higher injuries frequency. In relation to anatomic site, ankle, hands/fingers and shoulder were the most cited regions. The ligament, bone and articular capsule were the most affected biological tissues. In relation to gymnasts’ return to their sports activities, 56% of them reported a better condition at return, 33% reported to have returned at the same fitness level and 10% indicated that they were in a worse condition when they returned to the sports activities. The men’s artistic gymnastics injuries are related to the mechanical demands of this sport. The analysis of risk factors helps in understanding the injuries mechanisms in gymnastics, and provides relevant information that can assist in effective prevention strategies.

  3. Anthropometric profile of elite Chilean Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sport is one of the most popular social events worldwide. It becomes interesting to characterize its practitioners, even more in some poorly studied groups such as Paralympic athletes. The main objective of this study is to determine the anthropometric profile of Chilean Elite Paralympic Athletes (CEPA through body composition and somatotype. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 subjects (93% of the classified to the Para-Panamerican Games Toronto 2015, who practiced table tennis (n=6, football 5 (n=11, swimming (n=8, rugby (n=7, powerlifting (n=6 and wheelchair tennis (n=3. The body composition and somatotype were assessed through the protocol described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Results: The CEPA reach an average for that classifies somatotype mostly as meso-endomorphic (5.3 - 7.8 - 0.5, a BMI of 27.4 kg/m2, and body composition for fat mass reaches 29.8% in women and 25.7% in men, while muscle mass gain 42.6% (women and 44.5% (men. Conclusions: The CEPA have a somatotype profile that classifies mostly as meso-endomorphic, body composition has a predominance muscle mass and high fat mass, although is similar to other Paralympics athletes.

  4. The social and cultural background of initial forms of the English comedy and the development thereof before the age of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the great age of English drama, the Age of Shakespeare, today famed chiefly for its tragedy, also reached a high level of success in the field of comedy. It has left us hundreds and hundreds of comedies, many of which are still at least readable, and some of which have lasting value. Most often studied, however, are its chief representatives and their work. Shakespeare himself can never really receive all the attention he deserves, with as thorough as possible surveys of his comedies, while central to every serious study should also be the work of Ben Jonson, as the most important and historically influential author of comedy in this age. If we want to study any literary phenomenon, we must first know what it is in itself, what historical development it has undergone (for all literary kinds have been formed through human history, and what has been its social and cultural background. The intention here is therefore to begin with a general view of this kind of drama, and to offer an account of its origins, its history in England before Shakespeare, and its social and cultural background in Shakespeare's and Jonson's times, i.e. approximately between the years 1580 and 1625. Such a survey of its social circumstances, of its chief authors and works can help draw some general conclusions as to its place in history, its nature and literary value. For the very start, a definition of comedy is not easy to give, as the literary theoreticians have not been much concerned with comedy, and because the existing definitions are usually one-sided, based on some limited field of experience, never taking into account the whole of comedy in its historical development in various countries. If we start from the lowest common denominator, we can say that comedy is a play that provokes laughter; and laughter is a phenomenon not yet satisfactorily accounted for either by psychology or literary theory. The definition that would cover most

  5. The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the trend of structural changes in the political elite of the Republic of Lithuania in the post-Soviet period through analyzing the role of the so-called “moral politicians” — intellectuals, artists, and cultural figures, who played a decisive role in the period of the communist system disintegration and further development of the country's policy. The role of the political elite, which is understood according to R. Putnam and J. Higley's definition, is considered in the conditions of political instability and uncertainty typical of transformation processes. In this context, the role of key actors is interpreted on the basis of the methodological structure of the so-called Stanford model developed by G. Almond and P. Bourdieu's theory of capital. This article reconstructs the course of political changes in the Republic of Lithuania at the initial stage of its independence, in the framework of which the key role was played by «moral politicians», most of whom subsequently retired from politics. Focusing on the situation in Lithuania, this research sets out to show the continuous dependence of today's policies of the Baltic States on the key choices made by the authorities at the turn of 1980s—1990s. Today, Russian political science lacks concrete regional studies into the issues of changes of elites in the context of research on the processes of postcommunist transformations. This work addresses the scientific interpretation of the content of mechanisms of «new» political elite development in postcommunist societies under the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors in the course of transformation. The stabilisation of elite formation processes in Lithuania, the assessment of patterns and trends, the identification of power centres and the character of intra-elite interaction, and a profound understanding of the functioning of Lithuanian political system in general will allow Russia to formulate a more

  6. Postural stability decreases in elite young soccer players after a competitive soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Fontes, Ivo; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players.......To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players....

  7. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVeck, Brad L; Hughes, D Alex; Fowler, James H; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G

    2014-12-30

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard "ultimatum game" that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states.

  8. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  9. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  10. Biomechanical factors influencing the performance of elite Alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-04-01

    Alpine ski racing is a popular international winter sport that is complex and challenging from physical, technical, and tactical perspectives. Despite the vast amount of scientific literature focusing on this sport, including topical reviews on physiology, ski-snow friction, and injuries, no review has yet addressed the biomechanics of elite alpine ski racers and which factors influence performance. In World Cup events, winning margins are often mere fractions of a second and biomechanics may well be a determining factor in podium place finishes. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify the biomechanical factors that influence the performance of elite alpine ski racers, with an emphasis on slalom, giant slalom, super-G, and downhill events. Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and key words, with an additional manual search of reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Articles were included if they addressed human biomechanics, elite alpine skiing, and performance. Only original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and in the English language were reviewed. Articles that focused on skiing disciplines other than the four of primary interest were excluded (e.g., mogul, ski-cross and freestyle skiing). The articles subsequently included for review were quality assessed using a modified version of a validated quality assessment checklist. Data on the study population, design, location, and findings relating biomechanics to performance in alpine ski racers were extracted from each article using a standard data extraction form. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria, were reviewed, and scored an average of 69 ± 13% (range 40-89%) upon quality assessment. Five of the studies focused on giant slalom, four on slalom, and three on downhill disciplines, although these latter three articles were also relevant to super-G events

  11. Domestic Elite Perceptions of British Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Xenakis, Sappho

    2008-01-01

    Crime as a Cultural Problem. The Relevance of Perceptions of Corruption to Crime Prevention. A Comparative Cultural Study in the EU-Accession States Bulgaria and Romania, the EU-Candidate States Turkey and Croatia and the EU-States Germany, Greece and United Kingdom

  12. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  13. Sleep-hygiene Education improves Sleep Indices in Elite Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    O?DONNELL, SHANNON; DRILLER, MATTHEW W.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of sleep in providing psychophysiological recovery in elite athletes is often overlooked. In other populations (eg shift workers and adolescent students), sleep hygiene education may serve to acutely improve sleep indices. However, this is yet to be examined in an elite athlete setting. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a sleep hygiene education session on sleep indices in elite athletes. The study involved 26 elite female netball athletes pe...

  14. Mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Norsk, Peter; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes.......Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes....

  15. Konflik Elit Dalam Pemilihan Walikota dan Wakil Walikota di Gorontalo Tahun 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfin Nehrun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to analyze the causes of elite conflict and the process of elite conflict in the election of Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Gorontalo 2013. The research method was a qualitative method with in-depth interview techniques and documentation. Data and interviews results were processed with qualitative analysis. The Results of research and discussion indicated that there was a conflict of elites in the elections of Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Gorontalo in 2013, which were caused by political elite feud accured prior to and during the election. The conflict before elections happened between Rusli Habibie, the Chairman of DPD Golkar Gorontalo nd Adhan Dambea. Adhan Dambea was fired from his membership of Golkar Party because he was considered of structurally rebellious against the party’s and decision. Elite conflict during the elections happened between party elite and elite candidate and elite organizers. The conflict caused all the elections phases did not run normally. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penyebab terjadinya konflik elit dan proses terjadinya konflik elit dalam pemilihan Walikota dan Wakil Walikota Gorontalo Tahun 2013. Metode penelitian menggunakan wawancara mendalam dan dokumentasi. Data diolah dan dianalisis dengan analisis kualitatif.Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwatelah terjadi konflik elit dalam pemilihan Walikota dan Wakil Walikota Gorontalo tahun 2013 yang  disebabkan oleh adanya perseteruan elit politik yang terjadi sebelum Pilkada dan saat Pilkada. Konflik sebelum Pilkada terjadi antara Ketua DPD Partai Golkar Provinsi Gorontalo Rusli Habibie dengan Adhan Dambea selaku Ketua Dewan Pertimbangan Partai Golkar Kota Gorontalo. Adhan Dambea dipecat dari keanggotaan Partai Golkar karena dianggap melakukan pembangkangan secara struktural atas keputusan partai. Sementarakonflik elit saat Pilkada berlangsungterjadi antara elit partai dengan elit calon, calon dengan calon, serta elit calon dengan

  16. Morfhological assesment in elite argentineans male gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Berral de la Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on anthropometric variables of male gymnasts. Kineanthropometry investigates human body shape, composition and proportionality, related to function. It is a useful tool in sport medicine, as it allows for the understanding of morphological characteristics of subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric profi le of elite male gymnasts – members of the national Argentinean team. The sample included 25 gymnasts, older than 18 years and divided into two categories – junior and senior. They were measured in 43 anthropometric variables: body mass, stature, sitting height, arm span, lengths, breadths, girths and skinfolds. The procedures followed the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry guidelines. Based on the measures, Heath and Carter’s somatotype, Kerr´s mass-fractioning-method of body composition and proportionality applying Ross’ Phantom-strategy were computed. Body structure of Argentinean gymnasts was composed by 54 % of muscle mass and 17.5 % of fat mass. The results showed that Argentinean gymnasts have similar biotype characteristics to other international elite gymnasts. However, they tend to be smaller, heavier and with wider girths of chest, waist, thigh and calf. Therefore it is supposed that these gymnasts are in biomechanical disadvantage, which in turn interferes with performance in competitive events. RESUMO Atualmente existe uma informação limitada sobre as características antropométricas dos ginastas masculinos. A Cineantropometría que estuda a forma, composiçao corporal e a proporcionalidade do corpo humano em relação a sua função é uma ferramenta idonea para ser utilizada em medicina do esporte, permitindo conhecer as características morfológicas dos sujeitos. Este estudo tem como propósito descrever as variáveis antropométricas dos ginastas masculinos da seleção nacional da Argentina. A amostra foi de 25 ginastas masculinos

  17. The influence of Christian conversion in Mapuche traditional medicine in Temuco, Chile: toward a cultural syncretism or a form of ideological assimilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    2013-12-01

    The Mapuche communities living in the urban areas of Chile have undergone radical cultural changes due to Christian conversion. This article analyzes the influence of these changes on the Mapuche ideas and practices of the traditional healers (machi) and patients in Temuco (IX Region), Chile, and the changes and adaptations in the perceptions of healing practices and rituals by the patients. The paper shows how, despite some evident challenges, the encounter with the religion of Christianity can create a process of cultural and spiritual syncretism and push traditional medicine toward an increased specialization in the therapeutic practices.

  18. Incidence and prevalence of elite male cricket injuries using updated consensus definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard, Alex Kountouris, Kevin Sims National Cricket Centre, Cricket Australia, Brisbane, Australia Background: T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over cricket has emerged in the last decade as the most popular form of cricket (in terms of spectator attendances. International consensus cricket definitions, first published in 2005, were updated in 2016 to better reflect the rise to prominence of T20 cricket.  Methods: Injury incidence and prevalence rates were calculated using the new international methods and units for elite senior male Australian cricketers over the past decade (season 2006–2007 to season 2015–2016 inclusive.  Results: Over the past 10 seasons, average match injury incidence, for match time-loss injuries, was 155 injuries/1,000 days of play, with the highest daily rates in 50-over cricket, followed by 20-over cricket and First-Class matches. Annual injury incidence was 64 injuries/100 players per season, and average annual injury prevalence was 12.5% (although fast bowlers averaged 20.6%, much higher than other positions. The most common injury was the hamstring strain (seasonal incidence 8.7 injuries/100 players per season. The most prevalent injury was lumbar stress fractures (1.9% of players unavailable at all times owing to these injuries, which represents 15% of all missed playing time.  Discussion: The hamstring strain has emerged from being one of the many common injuries in elite cricket a decade ago to being clearly the most common injury in the sport at the elite level. This is presumably in association with increased T20 cricket. Lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers are still the most prevalent injury in the sport of cricket at the elite level, although these injuries are more associated with high workloads arising from the longer forms of the game. Domestic and international matches have very similar match injury incidence rates across the formats, but injury prevalence is higher in international players as

  19. Anthropometric and Cardiovascular Variables of Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10 in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11 and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10 between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH, weight (BW, body mass index (BMI, and % body fat (% BF. The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and maximum heart rate (HRmax were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02. Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02 and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00, and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01, BMI (p = .01 and the % BF (p = .00. These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.

  20. The crucifixion of the national elite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the reaching of three decades of 'SANU Memorandum' affair (1986., was the occasion to actualize and re-examine the role of the Serbian intelligentsia in political processes, in the early 2017 one more significant date happened - eight decades of appearance of Serbian Political Club (1937. As still today, one unofficial and incomplete document by a group of Serbian academics, on the eve of the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, by which SANU intended to draw the attention of the Yugoslav and Serbian public to the crisis of the common state - is presented as scandalous and conspiratorial project. In the same way is evaluated the reaction of leading Serbian intellectuals on the eve of the dissolution of Kingdom of Yugoslavia - after the assassination of King Aleksandar, the rise of ustashe, the creation of the Croatian 'Banovina' and the fear sparked by the outbreak of World War II. How has the intellectual elite of the Serbian people, from the beginning of the 20th century to the present, found itself facing the double the charges for - on one hand - insufficient participation in political life, little or no announcements or critical reasoning, that its members are instead of general and national issues, concerned with particular interests, that they have become non-national, even anti-nationally oriented, while on the other hand - political, media, religious and scientific authorities of the immediate environment accuse them for full management of the political processes, that they shape ideologies, define guidelines and dictate instructions of. 'Greater Serbia' policy?.

  1. Mechanisms of head injuries in elite football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T E; Arnason, A; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe, using video analysis, the mechanisms of head injuries and of incidents with a high risk of head injury in elite football. Videotapes and injury information were collected prospectively for 313 of the 409 matches played in the Norwegian (2000 season) and Icelandic (1999 and 2000 season) professional leagues. Video recordings of incidents where a player appeared to be hit in the head and the match was consequently interrupted by the referee were analysed and cross referenced with reports of acute time loss injuries from the team medical staff. The video analysis revealed 192 incidents (18.8 per 1000 player hours). Of the 297 acute injuries reported, 17 (6%) were head injuries, which corresponds to an incidence of 1.7 per 1000 player hours (concussion incidence 0.5 per 1000 player hours). The most common playing action was a heading duel with 112 cases (58%). The body part that hit the injured player's head was the elbow/arm/hand in 79 cases (41%), the head in 62 cases (32%), and the foot in 25 cases (13%). In 67 of the elbow/arm/hand impacts, the upper arm of the player causing the incident was at or above shoulder level, and the arm use was considered to be active in 61 incidents (77%) and intentional in 16 incidents (20%). This study suggests that video analysis provides detailed information about the mechanisms for head injuries in football. The most frequent injury mechanism was elbow to head contact, followed by head to head contact in heading duels. In the majority of the elbow to head incidents, the elbow was used actively at or above shoulder level, and stricter rule enforcement or even changes in the laws of the game concerning elbow use should perhaps be considered, in order to reduce the risk of head injury.

  2. Acute hormonal responses in elite junior weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, W J; Fry, A C; Warren, B J; Stone, M H; Fleck, S J; Kearney, J T; Conroy, B P; Maresh, C M; Weseman, C A; Triplett, N T

    1992-02-01

    To date, no published studies have demonstrated resistance exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone in adolescent males. Furthermore, few data are available on the effects of training experience and lifting performance on acute hormonal responses to weightlifting in young males. Twenty-eight junior elite male Olympic-style weightlifters (17.3 +/- 1.4 yrs) volunteered for the study. An acute weightlifting exercise protocol using moderate to high intensity loads and low volume, characteristic of many weightlifting training sessions, was examined. The exercise protocol was directed toward the training associated with the snatch lift weightlifting exercise. Blood samples were obtained from a superficial arm vein at 7 a.m. (for baseline measurements), and again at pre-exercise, 5 min post-, and 15 min post-exercise time points for determination of serum testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, plasma beta-endorphin, and whole blood lactate. The exercise protocol elicited significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increases in each of the hormones and whole blood lactate compared to pre-exercise measures. While not being significantly older, subsequent analysis revealed that subjects with greater than 2 years training experience exhibited significant exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise (16.2 +/- 6.2 to 21.4 +/- 7.9 nmol.l-1), while those with less than or equal to 2 years training showed no significant serum testosterone differences. None of the other hormones or whole blood lactate appear to be influenced by training experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Reproducibility of pacing profiles in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorski, Sabrina; Faude, Oliver; Caviezel, Seraina; Meyer, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the reproducibility of pacing in elite swimmers during competitions and to compare heats and finals within 1 event. Finals and heats of 158 male swimmers (age 22.8 ± 2.9 y) from 29 nations were analyzed in 2 competitions (downloaded from swimrankings.net). Of these, 134 were listed in the world's top 50 in 2010; the remaining 24 were finalists of the Pan Pacific Games or European Championships. The level of both competitions for the analysis had to be at least national championships (7.7 ± 5.4 wk apart). Standard error of measurement expressed as percentage of the subject's mean score (CV) with 90% confidence limits (CL) for each 50-m split time and for total times were calculated. In addition, mixed general modeling was used to determine standard deviations between and within swimmers. CV for total time in finals ranged between 0.8% and 1.3% (CL 0.6-2.2%). Regarding split times, 200-m freestyle showed a consistent pacing over all split times (CV 0.9-1.6%). During butterfly, backstroke, and 400-m freestyle, CVs were low in the first 3 and 7 sections, respectively (CV 0.9-1.7%), with greater variability in the last section (1.9-2.2%). In breaststroke, values were higher in all sections (CV 1.2-2.3%). Within-subject SDs for changes between laps were between 0.9% and 2.6% in all finals. Split-time variability for finals and heats ranged between 0.9% and 2.5% (CL 0.3-4.9%). Pacing profiles are consistent between different competitions. Variability of pacing seems to be a result of the within-subject variation rather than a result of different competitions.

  4. The Burden of Responsibility: Elite Students' Understandings of Civic Participation in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Elder statesman Lee Kuan Yew maintains that a society ruled by elites is necessary to provide for high growth and social progress. Elitism conjures a class divide; an ongoing concern is a disconnection between elite and the citizens it has to represent. In the tradition of political socialization, and using the case study approach, this article…

  5. Staying Ahead of the Game: The Globalising Practices of Elite Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    How are elite schools caught up in the changing processes of globalisation? Is globalisation a new phenomenon for them? This paper focuses on the globalising practices that selected elite schools adopt. It also explores how globalisation is impacting on the social purposes of elite schools, which conventionally have been to serve privileged social…

  6. Access through the Ages at an Elite Boarding School: A Case Study of Phillips Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This study is about access for low-income students at an elite boarding school. As "feeder schools" to elite colleges and universities, elite boarding schools play a significant role in determining which students will be in the upper class in America; however, little is known about the history of low-income students at these schools. The…

  7. Sprinters in the Course of a Marathon: Withdrawal from Elite Competitive Sport in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain, using a multi-case study approach, why some young elite athletes, who have shown extraordinary talent in childhood, leave competitive sport in adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five young elite athletes who decided to withdraw from elite sport. Interview data were analyzed using the…

  8. High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Svenningsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is common in elite athletes, but our knowledge of asthma in elite canoe and kayak athletes is limited. The aim of the present prospective cross-sectional study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of asthma, including asthma-like symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reactivity...... to mannitol in Danish elite canoe and kayak athletes...

  9. Does elite swimming accelerate lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and increase low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkvardsen, Steffen; Magnussen, Erland; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim was to elucidate elite swimming's possible influence on lumbar disc degeneration (DD) and low back pain (LBP). METHODS: Lumbar spine MRI was performed on a group of elite swimmers and compared to a matched Finnish population-based no-sport group. RESULTS: One hundred elite swimmers...

  10. Reach for the Stars: A Constellational Approach to Ethnographies of Elite Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a method for examining elite schools in a global setting by appropriating Theodor Adorno's constellational approach. I contend that arranging ideas and themes in a non-deterministic fashion can illuminate the social reality of elite schools. Drawing on my own fieldwork at an elite school in Argentina, I suggest that local and…

  11. Elite athletes experiences with risk related to cardiac screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Schmidt; Thing, Lone Friis

    Society of Cardiology as well as major sports federations such as the International Olympic Committee, however, these recommendations seem to be based on an inadequate empirical foundation, just as the costs of performing cardiac screening on a larger scale seem out of proportion. Additionally, the field...... perspective on risk (Foucault 1988). For most elite athletes participation in cardiac screening is done out of a wish to obtain an acquittal from risks. Symptomatic of the risk society cardiac screening can from an athlete perspective at the same time be seen as an attempt to gain control over......Elite Athletes experiences with risks related to Cardiac Screening Jonas Schmidt Christensen1, Lone Friis Thing1 1University of Copenhagen - Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Cardiac screening of elite athletes are recommended by both the American Heart Association & the European...

  12. Africa's Elites Ways of Commodifying Politics to Valorise Economic Rent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...... on this dlemma in order to address how rent-seeking cleansing can be attempted to align the elites as part of the solution rather than the problem of African economic and political development.......This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...

  13. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  14. Memorar la cultura: Modos de mantener y formar las identidades mayas modernas Memorialize Culture: Ways to Mantain and Form Modern Mayan Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Kupprat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Memoria ha sido una palabra clave en el proceso de paz en Guatemala durante los últimos quince años. De acuerdo con teorías de la memoria colectiva, ésta forma la identidad de grupos y es sustancial para la construcción y el mantenimiento de la cultura. Al contrastar el movimiento maya con estrategias locales para la conmemoración de las violaciones de los derechos humanos durante el conflicto armado, este artículo conecta el concepto de etnicidad a nivel interregional con la identidad étnica local. Por lo tanto, se propone una división entre los marcadores étnicos sincrónicos y los asincrónicos de la etnicidad maya: el primero se asocia con elementos culturales locales y el segundo con procesos de revitalización. Finalmente, se plantea que los rasgos estructurales, como la memoria cultural, deben ser considerados marcadores étnicos en ambos niveles: el local y el interregional.Memory has been a keyword for the peace process in Guatemala in the last fifteen years. According to theories on collective memory it shapes group identities and is crucial for the construction and maintenance of culture. Contrasting maya cultural activism and local commemorative strategies dealing with human rights violations during the civil war, this paper aims to connect ethnicity on an inter-regional and ethnic identity on a local level. Therefore a division will be made between synchronous and asynchronous ethnic markers of pan-maya identity, associating the former with cultural elements on a local level and the latter with revitalization processes. Finally it is proposed that structural features such as cultural memory should be considered crucial ethnic markers on both levels: the local and the inter-regional.

  15. Caffeinated Energy Drinks Improve High-Speed Running in Elite Field Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance of elite field hockey players during a game. On 2 days separated by a week, 13 elite field hockey players (age and body mass = 23.2 ± 3.9 years and 76.1 ± 6.1 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants played a simulated field hockey game (2 × 25 min). Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the game were assessed using GPS devices. The total number of accelerations and decelerations was determined by accelerometry. Compared with the placebo drink, the caffeinated energy drink did not modify the total distance covered during the game (6,035 ± 451 m and 6,055 ± 499 m, respectively; p = .87), average heart rate (155 ± 13 beats per min and 158 ± 18 beats per min, respectively; p = .46), or the number of accelerations and decelerations (697 ± 285 and 618 ± 221, respectively; p = .15). However, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the distance covered at moderate-intensity running (793 ± 135 and 712 ± 116, respectively; p = .03) and increased the distance covered at high-intensity running (303 ± 67 m and 358 ± 117 m; p = .05) and sprinting (85 ± 41 m and 117 ± 55 m, respectively; p = .02). Elite field hockey players can benefit from ingesting caffeinated energy drinks because they increase the running distance covered at high-intensity running and sprinting. Increased running distance at high speed might represent a meaningful advantage for field hockey performance.

  16. Neuromuscular Responses of Elite Skaters During Different Roller Figure Skating Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja Patrícia Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the neuromuscular activity of elite athletes who performed various roller figure skating jumps, to determine whether the muscle activation is greater during jumps with more rotations and in which phase the muscles are more active. This study also aimed to analyze if there is any difference in the muscle activity pattern between female and male skaters. Four elite skaters were evaluated, and each participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric data were collected, and the consent forms were signed. For the second session, neuromuscular data were collected during jumps, which were performed with skates at a rink. The following four roller figure skating jumps were evaluated: single Axel, double Axel, double Mapes and triple Mapes. The neuromuscular activity of the following seven muscles was obtained with an electromyograph which was fixed to the waist of each skater with a strap: biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus. The signal was transmitted wirelessly to a laptop. During the roller figure skating jumps, the lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus, showed more activation during the jumps with more rotations, and the activation mainly occurred during the propulsion and flight phases. Female skaters demonstrated higher muscle activities in tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during the landing phase of the triple Mapes, when compared to their male counterparts. The results obtained in this study should be considered when planning training programs with specific exercises that closely resemble the roller figure skating jumps. This may be important for the success of elite skaters in competitions.

  17. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glucoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    of the extracellular profile of the multiple forms of GA by degradation of GAI to GAII, whereas no proteolytic processing of the GA profile was observed in the defined medium. In vitro experiments confirmed that the pH-induced modifications of the GA multiple-form profile were caused by proteolytic and not spontaneous...

  18. A very economical Elite - The case of the Danish CEO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Ellersgaard, Christoph; Larsen, Anton Grau

    to a position within the upper echelons of management in Britain, France, Germany and Denmark. Strong preparatory schools appear to be the most important institutions mediating the reproduction of the economic elite in the UK. Elite universities perform the same role in France. In Germany the class specific...... habitus is the core principle of admission according to Michael Hartmann. Adding to the German case, even less formal educational qualifications are possessed by Danish CEO’s where the time spend in the economic field appears to be a necessary part of the managers’ qualifications. A certain trajectory...

  19. Does elite sport develop mass sport? : a Norwegian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Skille, Eivind Å.; Hanstad, Dag Vidar

    2010-01-01

    The original publication is available at: http://www.sportstudies.org/content/vol_1_2010/051-068_vol_1_2010_hanstad-skille.pdf The notion that elite sport generates mass sport,seems to be a social fact among many and influential members of the society. The issue is, however, under-researched, and the little research which actually exists does not confirm a causal link. In this article, we take as a point of departure the case of Norwegian biathlon, and its development, both as elite sp...

  20. Low seroprevalence of bartonella species in danish elite orienteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, Peter; Dyhr, Thomas; Rolain, Jean Marc

    2004-01-01

    participants were tested for antibodies against B. henselae, B. quintana and B. elizabethae using immunofluorescent antibody tests. Surprisingly, Bartonella antibodies were only detected in sera from 5 persons: B. henselae from 1 elite orienteer, 1 handball player and 1 blood donor. B. elizabethae antibodies...... were detected in 1 handball player and 1 basketball player. We found no association between elite orienteers and the prevalence of Bartonella antibody positivity. This is in contrast to the Swedish study, and might be explained by the use of different serological methods in the 2 studies; to determine...

  1. Haematological status in elite long-distance runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Kanstrup, I L; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    In 10 female and eight male Danish elite middle- and long-distance runners, haematological status, including blood volume, was examined. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum (s)-ferritin concentrations were all within the normal range. In both men and women, blood volume, plasma volume and erythroc......In 10 female and eight male Danish elite middle- and long-distance runners, haematological status, including blood volume, was examined. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum (s)-ferritin concentrations were all within the normal range. In both men and women, blood volume, plasma volume...

  2. JUSTIFICANDO NOBREZAS: Velhas e novas elites coloniais 1750-1807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald RAMINELLI

    Full Text Available RESUMO Entre 1750 e 1807, 259 súditos ultramarinos da monarquia portuguesa recorreram à justificação de nobreza para receber brasões de armas. Ao analisar o acervo, o artigo empregou o método quantitativo para traçar o perfil social sobretudo das elites luso-brasileiras e assim constatou que os oficiais das tropas auxiliares e das ordenanças era a categoria social mais predominante. O estudo ainda detectou que as antigas elites eram pouco representativas na Bahia e Rio de Janeiro e muito presentes em Pernambuco e Maranhão.

  3. Getting to Denmark' : the Role of Elites for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Peter Sandholt; Lampe, Markus; Sharp, Paul; Skovsgaard, Christian Volmar

    2018-01-01

    We explore the role of elites for development and in particular for the spread of cooperative creameries in Denmark in the 1880s, which was a major factor behind that country's rapid economic catch-up. We demonstrate empirically that the location of early proto-modern dairies, so-called hollænderier, introduced onto traditional landed estates as part of the Holstein System of agriculture by landowning elites from the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein in the eighteenth century, can explain the...

  4. An Enhanced Differential Evolution with Elite Chaotic Local Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaolu; Huang, Haixia; Deng, Changshou; Yue, Xuezhi; Wu, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for real-world engineering problems. However, its search ability should be further enhanced to obtain better solutions when DE is applied to solve complex optimization problems. This paper presents an enhanced differential evolution with elite chaotic local search (DEECL). In DEECL, it utilizes a chaotic search strategy based on the heuristic information from the elite individuals to promote the exploitation power. Moreover, DEECL employs a simple and effective parameter adaptation mechanism to enhance the robustness. Experiments are conducted on a set of classical test functions. The experimental results show that DEECL is very competitive on the majority of the test functions.

  5. Political elites and China's search of modernity in twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemus Delgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between the foundation, consolidation and reinvention of the political elite in the People's Republic of China and the search to modernization from an historical perspective. To do this, this article proposes that modernity is a political project that has been an important ideological justification. This justification allowed that Chinese Communist Party took the political power. Also, the project of modernization has favored the reinvention of the political elite. The contribution of this paper is to present this process and the particular characteristics of Chinese history. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the search to modernization has been a constitutive element with deep historical roots.

  6. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack Majgaard

    2010-01-01

    Krustrup, P, Zebis, M, Jensen, JM, and Mohr, M. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res 24(2): 437-441, 2010-The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier...... League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood...

  7. Culture-lovers and Culture-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the

  8. Isolation of recombinant proteins from culture broth by co-precipitation with an amino acid carrier to form stable dry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Barry D; Deere, Joseph; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Ingram, Andrew; van der Walle, Christopher F

    2010-08-01

    Protein-coated microcrystals can be generated by co-precipitation of protein and a water-soluble crystalline carrier by addition to excess water miscible organic solvent. We have investigated this novel process for its utility in the concentration and partial purification of a recombinant protein exported into the culture broth during expression by Pichia pastoris. Co-precipitation with a L-glutamine carrier selectively isolated the protein content of the culture broth, with a minimal number of steps, and simultaneously removed contaminants including a novel yeast metabolite. This pigment co-elutes during aqueous chromatography but its elucidation as a benzoylated glycosamine suggested a simple route of removal by partition during the co-precipitation process. Scale-up of the process was readily achieved through in-line mixing and subsequent reconstitution of the dried protein-coated microcrystals yielded natively folded, bioactive protein. Additional washing of the crystals with saturated L-glutamine facilitated further purification of the recombinant protein immobilized on the L-glutamine carrier. Thus, we present a novel method for the harvesting of recombinant protein from culture broth as a dry powder, which may be of general applicability to bioprocessing. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A cross-national analysis of mental toughness and hardiness in elite university rugby league teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The relation between nationality and selected indicators of psychological performance in rugby league football was examined. Mental toughness was assessed using the alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI-A) and hardiness using the Personal Views Survey III-R (PVS III-R). Participants (N = 49, M age = 21.7 yr., SD = 2.3) were male elite-level university rugby league footballers representing Australia and Great Britain. Participants completed the questionnaires in training camp in Sydney, Australia, one week prior to the commencement of an international tournament there in 2006. Multivariate analyses revealed that the Australian Universities players had significantly higher mean scores on Positive Cognition, Visualization, Total Mental Toughness, and Challenge than their opponents from Great Britain. The Australian Universities players were also the tournament winners. The findings concur with previous research indicating superior mental toughness and hardiness are related to successful sport performance. Practical implications focus on the potentiality of ameliorative cultural environments.

  10. Farmer participatory evaluation of eight elite clones of cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight elite clones of cocoyam were evaluated for high yield, tolerance to major diseases and pests and culinary properties. Phenotypic attributes evaluated at peak vegetative phase 24 weeks after planting (24 WAP) were plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. At harvest, 12 months after planting (12 MAP), variables ...

  11. Influences on the socialisation of South African elite athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the different phases of being socialised into the formation of an athletic identity, socialisation agents (including the 'self\\') make significant contributions. A self-constructed questionnaire was completed by 123 South African elite athletes who competed in the 8th All Africa Games in Abuja (2003). They represented 17 ...

  12. Perspective of coaches on LTAD of elite judo athletes: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plans for Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) can only have effect by way of optimal management of resources. The Sports Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success (SPLISS) provides a theoretical model for policy factors that account for the functioning of elite sport systems and ultimately the ...

  13. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (prhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion.

  14. Psychopathology in elite rhythmic gymnasts and anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkowski, Nora; Korte, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet

    2008-03-01

    This study investigates current psychopathology and psychological distress in elite rhythmic gymnasts. Due to a strong emphasis on leanness in aesthetic sports and the controversial findings in literature regarding the role of anorexia nervosa (AN) in such sports, we compared elite rhythmic gymnasts (n=51) to inpatients with AN (n=55) as a disease control group and to high school students (n=53) as a "normal" control group. We assessed psychopathology using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). Moreover, body height, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and the presence of amenorrhea were assessed. Regarding physical aspects, the rhythmic gymnasts showed an intermediate position between the two other groups. In terms of psychopathology, significant differences were found between the gymnasts and the AN patients, while no differences were detected between the gymnasts and the "normal" control group. Depression discriminated best between the three groups. Elite rhythmic gymnasts may show a lean, almost anorexic-like physique. Nevertheless, no psychological distress comparable to that of AN patients was found. Therefore, even though analogies to AN might seem obvious in elite rhythmic gymnasts, this study is putting emphasis on the importance of a careful consideration of psychological distress and psychopathology.

  15. The corporate elite community structure of global capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, E.M.; Takes, F.W.

    2016-01-01

    A key debate on the merits and consequences of globalisation asks to what extent we have moved to a multipolar global political economy. Here we investigate this issue through the properties and topologies of corporate elite networks and ask: what is the community structure of the global corporate

  16. Facipulation and Elite Formation: Community Resource Management in Southwestern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Baruah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their stated commitment to democratic processes, the Government of Ghana and international authorities presume the accountability and ability of NGOs to represent local interests in forest resource management. This article scrutinises elite formation and elite capture through the case of a Community Resource Management Area (CREMA in western Ghana. NGOs and the forestry department promotes commercial tree planting on farmlands at this CREMA site. This article shows how institutional mandates, technical and managerial priorities are used by higher-level authorities to rationalise the omission of accountability and representation in CREMA activities. Disregard for democratic processes thus centralise decision making and render political processes apolitical at the cost of effective local participation and control over forest resources. Also, the legal and administrative framework of the CREMA tended to empower the traditional elites. In addition, the recognition of a local NGO by state authorities to oversee natural resource management infringed upon the CREMA's mandate and encouraged the formation of new elites. Further, the higher-level authorities' promotion of tree-tenure privatisation reduced public engagement by enclosing and thus discounting the public forest domain. The combination of these factors compromise the accountability and equitable sharing of benefits in CREMAs. Nevertheless, the CREMAs have been endorsed by the government as an innovative institutional structure for implementing REDD+ projects in Ghana.

  17. Working for the future : elite women's strategies in Brazzaville

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paravano, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the strategies applied by elite women in Brazzaville, Congo, to achieve lifelong financial security and independence for themselves and their children. Amongst these strategies are a woman's position in the household and women's ways of identifying themselves socially. Women's

  18. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  19. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  20. Results of voluntary cardiovascular examination of elite athletes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tischer, Susanne Glasius; Mattsson, N; Storgaard, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular status of elite athletes in Denmark, the extent of abnormal cardiac findings--both training related and pathologic--and how participating in cardiac examination was perceived by the athletes. A standardized protocol of questionnaires, physical examination, resting...

  1. Monitoring load, recovery and performance in young elite soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    Brink, MS, Nederhof, E, Visscher, C, Schmikli, SL, and Lemmink, KAPM. Monitoring load, recovery, and performance in young elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 24(3): 597603, 2010-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between training load, recovery, and monthly field test

  2. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  3. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  4. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ Ramos-Campo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n=15 players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n=14. Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60º • s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P≤0.05. However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° • s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games.

  5. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...... important to BMD than testosterone levels. Prospective investigations are needed to elucidate potential causal relationships....

  6. The potential role of myostatin and neurotransmission genes in elite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-12

    Aug 12, 2015 ... Introduction. Elite athletes are those who have represented their sport at a major competition: this includes participation at national, continental, and world championship events, as well as other competitions where the ... emotional management of psychological insights. In this work we assessed the ...

  7. Evaluation of susceptibility of some elite cowpea cultivars to attack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen elite cowpea cultivars were evaluated for their susceptibility to attack and damage by the most destructive storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), based on the number of eggs laid, total developmental time, percentage adult emergence, seed weight loss, and growth index. Significantly, more eggs were laid on ...

  8. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite II synthetic hexaploid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of Elite-II synthetic hexaploid (SH) wheat by genome DNA fingerprinting as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Ten decamer RAPD primers (OPG-1, OPG-2, OPG-3, OPG-4, OPG-5, OPA-3, OPA-4, OPA-5, OPA-8, and OPA-15) ...

  9. Incidence and nature of epidemiological injuries to elite South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The study investigated the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by elite cricketers during a season and the possible risk factors associated with these injuries. Methods. Fourteen physiotherapists and three doctors recorded 163 injuries sustained by 88 cricketers. Results. Bowling accounted for 40.5% of the ...

  10. Morphological characters and ascorbic acid content of an elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture stress can be deleterious to physicochemical properties of crop species to a varying degree. The influence of moisture stress on the ascorbic acid content in the leaf and morphological characters of an elite genotype of Corchorus olitorius were tested in a glasshouse experiment. The experiment was arranged in a ...

  11. Diversity and Senior Leadership at Elite Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Abiola, Ufuoma; Travers, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the lack of diversity at the 8 Ivy League institutions using a Critical Race Theory lens. It includes a comprehensive literature review of the scholarship related to diversity in academe, but especially within the areas of elite institutions and administration. The article also provides data pertaining to the senior…

  12. Profile of the female athlete triad among elite Kenyan endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... female athlete triad (FAT or TRIAD). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the profile of the TRIAD among elite Kenyan female athletes and among non-athletes. There were 39 participants (athletes: 25, non-athletes:14) who provided the data for this study. Exercise energy expenditure (EEE) was deducted ...

  13. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. DINESH

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite. Pakistani guava cultivars for efficient clonal plant multiplication. Muhammad Usman*, Madiha Butt and Bilquees Fatima. Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Accepted 30 April, 2012.

  14. Widening Participation in Medical Education: Challenging Elitism and Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Kathy; Roberts, Trudie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine issues relating to the enduring nature of elitism and exclusion in medical education by exploring the changes in social and policy influences on the admission and inclusion of women and disabled people to undergraduate medical courses and the medical profession. The widening participation imperative in the United Kingdom…

  15. Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G; Maneval, M

    1998-12-01

    Chelladurai and Saleh's Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 52 elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches. Analyses indicated that subjects scored high in positive feedback, training and instruction, and social support, moderate in democratic behavior, and low in autocratic behavior. These results seem to support the validity of using the scale to compare coaching behavior.

  16. Elite Child-Athletes: How Much Does Victory Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1987-01-01

    A discussion covers the problems of elite child athletes, including pressure to live up to high expectations, financial incentives, overcompetition, burnout, reflex sympathetic dystrophy (escalation of minor physical ailments into serious injuries), conditional love, and performing under pressure from parents and coaches. (CB)

  17. Response of some elite cocoyam varieties to cocoyam rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment on the response of some elite cocoyam varieties to cocoyam rapid multiplication technology was carried out in 2012 and 2013 at the Research field of the National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike. Treatment comprised M1, M2 (microcormels from colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp respectively); ...

  18. Accelerated in vitro propagation of elite oil palm genotypes ( Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accelerated in vitro propagation of elite oil palm genotypes (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by substituting cytokinin with putrescine. Thais Roseli Corrêa, Sérgio Yoshimitsu Motoike, Ana Paula de Souza Andrade, Sara Morra Coser, Vanessa Queiroz, Manuela Maria Cavalcante Granja, Débora Durso Neves Caetano, Cristian ...

  19. Elitism and healthcare: a study of healthcare behaviour of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the study provides an empirical analysis of overseas medical treatment by nigerian elites. it examined the relationship between the seeking of health care ... study, three hypotheses were formulated. the ex-post facto research design was adopted while purposive and stratified sampling procedures were variously applied at ...

  20. Isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength profiles of elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football players are at risk of lower limb injuries, specifically hamstring muscle strains and ACL injuries due to muscle imbalances. This was a descriptive study assessing the isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and endurance in 28 elite, male, South African football players. Muscle strength was tested at 60 ...

  1. The potential role of myostatin and neurotransmission genes in elite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As for neurotransmission, 5HTT, DAT and MAOA genes have been considered as directly involved in the management of aggressiveness and anxiety. Genotypes and allelic frequencies of 5HTTLPR, MAOA-u VNTR, DAT VNTR and MSTN K153R were determined in 50 elite athletes and compared with 100 control athletes.

  2. Festival of Resistance Against Elite Impunity in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capture of the state is perceived by the elite as the sine qua non for political and economic survival. These are major ingredients and triggers for violent conflicts. Defining Art. 'Art' as used here refers to what Chaffee (1993) characterizes as all types of performances, products or events involving creativity, expression and.

  3. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite II synthetic hexaploid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite II synthetic hexaploid wheat screened against Barley yellow dwarf virus. Huma Saffdar1 ... The history of cultiva- ted wheat and human .... and viewed under the UV light chamber using the computer pro- gram UVIPhotoMW.

  4. Self-Actualization of Elite Blind Athletes: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study used the Personal Orientation Inventory to compare self-actualization of 52 elite blind athletes with sighted athletes. Self-actualization profiles of blind athletes were lower for measures of existentiality and self-acceptance but otherwise identical to those of sighted athletes. Both sighted and blind athletes scored below test-manual…

  5. Haematological status in elite long-distance runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Kanstrup, I L; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    In 10 female and eight male Danish elite middle- and long-distance runners, haematological status, including blood volume, was examined. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum (s)-ferritin concentrations were all within the normal range. In both men and women, blood volume, plasma volume and erythroc...

  6. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in former elite athletes: a systematic overview of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Inklaar, Han; Backx, Frank; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the recent scientific literature to explore the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in former elite athletes from team and individual sports. A systematic review of observational studies was conducted. Based on three categories of keywords (and synonyms), a sensitive search strategy was built in order to search MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus from 2000 to 2014. The data from included studies presenting a prevalence rate of OA as an outcome measure were extracted using a standardised extraction form, and their methodological quality was described. Fifteen studies were identified through our search strategy, studies being rather heterogeneous with regard to their study population and to the definition and assessment of OA. Hip OA ranged from 2 to 60%, and knee OA from 16 to 95%. Prevalence rates of general, lower limbs or hip/knee OA ranged from 1 to 59%. Prevalence of neck, back, shoulder and ankle OA was reported only in single studies (16, 18, 33 and 3%, respectively). This study showed that prevalence of OA, especially in their lower limbs, seems to be high among former elite athletes from team and individual sports compared to the general population and other occupational sectors.

  7. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  8. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Samani, Hooman; Saadatian, Elham; Pang, Natalie; Polydorou, Doros; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Nakatsu, Ryohei; Koh, Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  9. Cracking the code for maintaining quality training in Olympic distance triathlon: lessons learnt from a squad of elite Scandinavian athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hansen, Tobias; Holm Beck, Anders; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Objective High-quality training is a key determinant of performance in the Olympic distance triathlon and is potentially influenced by a unique array of context-specific biopsychosocial factors. Our objective was to explore and describe these factors among squad members of a university-based, elite Olympic distance triathlete developmental programme. Method A qualitative investigation using a visual communication tool-assisted focus group and longitudinal semistructured individual interviews was conducted. Responses were solicited from the University of Southern Denmark’s elite triathlon team (n=8), and inductive coding from the focus group formed the basis of questions for the two rounds of individual interviews 11 months apart. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and then analysed thematically. Results Seventeen context-relevant factors were identified and 10 themes emerged, these being ‘the cold weather ritual’, ‘digestive system conditioning’, ‘the curse of the night owl’, ‘the strings attached to sponsorship’, ‘my coach—my rock’, ‘mood maintenance’, ‘the asynchronous training rhythm’, ‘psychological slavery’, ‘the legacy of the asphalt tattoo’ and ‘the tension of family and friends’. Conclusions By reflecting on their personal training vortex, elite triathletes were able to provide context-relevant insights into the maintenance of training quality over the course of a competitive season. Further research is required to elucidate whether and how biopsycholosocial factors can be modified to optimise the achievement of training goals. PMID:29071114

  10. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in Tunisian elite athletes is underdiagnosed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallaoui R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ridha Sallaoui1–3, Ines Zendah2, Habib Ghedira2, Mohcine Belhaouz3, Mourad Ghrairi3, Mohamed Amri31Issep Sfax, Unité de Recherche “Les déterminants psychoculturels et biologiques de l'accès à la haute performance sportive,” Sfax; 2Department of Lung Function Testing, Abderrahmen Mami Pneumo-Allergology Hospital, Department III, Tunis, Tunisia; 3Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Nutrition, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, El Manar 1060 Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: Many studies have shown an increased risk of developing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among the athletic population, particularly at the elite level. Subjective methods for assessing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction such as surveys and questionnaires have been used but have resulted in an underestimation of the prevalence of airway dysfunction when compared with objective measurements. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among Tunisian elite athletes obtained using an objective method with that using a subjective method, and to discuss the possible causes and implications of the observed discrepancy. As the objective method we used spirometry before and after exercise and for the subjective approach we used a medical history questionnaire. All of the recruited 107 elite athletes responded to the questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and medical history and underwent a resting spirometry testing before and after exercise. Post-exercise spirometry revealed the presence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in 14 (13% of the elite athletes, while only 1.8% reported having previously been diagnosed with asthma. In conclusion, our findings indicate that medical history-based diagnoses of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction lead to underestimations of true sufferers.Keywords: exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, elite athletes, self-reported asthma

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (pdancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; pdancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  12. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, N-nitrosomethylamine, and N-nitrosopyrrolidine and identification of the major carcinogen-DNA adducts formed in cultured human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Curtis C.; Autrup, Herman; Stoner, Gary D.

    1979-01-01

    The wide variation in the world-wide incidence of esophageal carcinoma suggests that environmental agents including chemicals cause this cancer. Since the interaction between chemical procarcinogens and human esophagus has not been studied previously, we examined the metabolic fate of benzo......(a)pyrene (BP), N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN), and A/-nitrosopyrrolidine in cultured nontumorous esophagus from two patients with and six patients without esophageal carcinoma. Esophageal explants were cultured in a chemically defined medium for 7 days prior to adding [3H]BP (1.5 JUM),[14C]DMN (100 /IM), or [14C......]Nnitrosopyrrolidine (100 /¿M)for 24 hr. Radioactivity was found bound to both mucosal protein (BP, DMN, and A/-nitrosopyrrolidine) and DMA (BP and DMN). The major carcinogen-DNA adducts were: (a) with BP, N2-[10/?-(7/?,8a,9a-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrenyl)]deoxyguanosine; and (fa) with DMN, 7-methylguanine...

  13. Long distance relationships : the secret for fuel cell success? fuel cell developers and integrators form trans-oceanic partnerships to crash through cultural barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The varieties of viable fuel cell applications and widely varying regional market conditions have created global partnerships among entities with complementary attributes. Although it may appear that domestic liaisons among culturally similar players spawned from industry clusters should provide the clearest route to success in this industry, it is the intercontinental groupings which are demonstrating the most potential. This paper discussed the global fuel cell challenge and the vertical integration of multi-national partnerships. The paper also discussed the current global stationary market in perspective. Fuel cells require unique maintenance, support, and refueling including operator instruction and a new supply infrastructure. The paper addressed the fact that fuel cells represent a disruptive technology. A telecom backup status report was also presented. Other topics that were discussed included developing markets as well as specific examples of global organizations such as Canadian Ballard and Danish Dantherm Power and their fuel cell application solutions. It was concluded that after an inconsistent history, fuel cells have finally achieved viability in the real world. However, there is significant cultural resistance to their implementation in the United States. 4 figs

  14. Brazilian responses to violence and new forms of mediation: the case of the Grupo Cultural AfroReggae and the experience of the project "Youth and the Police"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ramos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some aspects of the Brazilian response to urban violence, focusing both official public safety policies and actions of the civil society. The text identifies the lack of a national public safety policy, indicates successful governmental experiences carried out in some states and municipalities, and concentrates on the actions of the police. Analyzing the responses of the civil society, the paper is emphasizing the campaign for disarming the population and the role played by the media. It shows the appearance of groups of young people living in the favelas, organized in turn of cultural experiences that, in multiple aspects, are characterized as "new mediators" in society. These groups thematize violence and try to build new stereotypes dissociating them from the image of criminality. The article describes in particular the cases of the Grupo Cultural AfroReggae, of Rio de Janeiro, and the pilot experience carried out in collaboration with the Minas Gerais Military Police, called "Youth and the Police". The AfroReggae group is a typical example of such a "new mediator", and the initiative of carrying out a work in cooperation with the police opens new perspectives for the traditionally scarce participation of civil organizations engaged in public safety in cooperative projects with the police.

  15. Rapid micropropagation of three elite Sugarcane (Saccharum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Efficient and cost- effective micropropagation of two early maturing varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Indian Sugar, 50: 611-618. Baksha R, Alam R, Karim M.Z, Paul,b SK, Hossain MA, Miah MAS,. Rahman ABMM (2002). In vitro shoot tip culture of sugarcane. (Saccharum officinarum) variety LSD28.

  16. Personality and Occupational Stress in Elite Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Linda H.; Kella, John J.

    Performing Arts Psychology has recently emerged as a unique subspecialty comparable to that of Sports Psychology. Attention has been focused on problems common to all performers (e.g., performance anxiety); however, the various stresses within each art form often remain hidden from view. To assess the psychological aspects of different art forms,…

  17. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  18. The 15-M movement in its cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moreno-Caballud

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exploration of the wide cultural context of the “indignados” or 15-M movement in the Spanish state. It starts by proposing that 15-M is one of the symptoms of a widespread erosion of the hegemonic “Culture of the transition”, which established a series of tacit agreements around the necessity of a vertical and expert society, based in the political parties system and financial capitalism. This erosion has been fostered by the emergence of the new digital technologies of communication, which have allowed the propagation of horizontal and empowering practices of cooperation. Instead of reproducing a public sphere traditionally ruled by the opinions of individual “experts”, people are using Internet for the creation of “knowledge communities” in which no one knows everything, but everyone shares what they know. Through this sharing cultures sometimes emerge projects in which communities are able of managing their resources in a sustainable way, by creating “commons”. 15-M showed its special sensibility towards forms of quotidian cooperation and common creation by trying to collectively manage the sustainability of common life in squares and camps. The movement should actually be understood, like the rest of the international “squares” movements that emerged in 2011, as a way of resisting the attempts of neoliberal elites at privatizing common wealth on a global scale.

  19. Elite Capture and Corruption in two Villages in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anton

    This paper examines leadership, elite capture and corruption in two villages in Sumatra. It compares implementation and outcomes of several conservation and development projects in the context of democratization and decentralization reforms introduced in Indonesia since 1998. In examining aspects of elite control and elite capture, this paper focuses on the activities of local elites, particularly village officials, who use their positions to monopolize planning and management of projects that were explicitly intended to incorporate participatory and accountability features. While elites' use of authority and influence to benefit personally from their roles clearly reflects elite capture, there are nonetheless members of elite groups in these case studies who use their control of projects to broad community benefit. In both villages there is considerable friction between villagers and elites as well as among members of the local elite themselves over control of local resources. Differences in the structure of these cross-cutting internal relationships and of ties between local authorities and outside government and non-government agents largely explain the differences in degree of elite capture and its outcomes in the two cases.

  20. Knowing what to do and doing it : Differences in self-assessed tactical skills of regional, sub-elite, and elite youth field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Kannekens, Rianne; Lyons, Jim; Tromp, Yvonne; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether youth athletes with an oaverageo (regional), ohigho (sub-elite), and overy higho (elite) level of performance differ with respect to their self-assessed tactical skills, 191 youth field hockey players (mean age 15.5 years, s=1.6) completed the Tactical Skills Inventory for

  1. Elites universitarias y cambio climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Parker Gumucio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Las medidas para enfrentar el Cambio Climático en el planeta involucran un conjunto de factores entre los cuales la existencia de estructuras y organizaciones que catalicen e impulsen una acción transformadora. La generación de capacidades locales implica la consciencia de la ciudadanía y de las elites acordes con las acciones institucionales de respuesta en los distintos niveles. Basado en una investigación empírica se analizan las orientaciones de las elites estudiantiles universitarias en Chile. Se analizan las percepciones acerca del cambio climático, sobre las medidas de adaptación y /o mitigación y también la visión acerca de las energías renovables no convencionales uno de los principales factores que pueden incidir en la reducción de las emisiones de gas de efecto invernadero.As medidas para enfrentar as mudanças climáticas no planeta envolvem um conjunto de fatores, entre os quais a existência de estruturas e organizações que catalizem e impulsionem uma ação transformadora. A capacitação local envolve a consciência dos cidadãos e das elites, em consonância com as ações de resposta institucional em vários níveis. Com base em um estudo empírico, foram analisadas as orientações das elites estudantis universitárias no Chile. Analisamos as percepções sobre mudanças climáticas, adaptação e/ou mitigação, e também a visão sobre energias renováveis não convencionais, um dos principais fatores que podem reduzir as emissões de gases de efeito estufa.Measures to address climate change on the planet involve a number of factors including the existence of structures and organizations to catalyze and encourage transformative actions. Local capacity building involves the consciousness of citizens and elites in line with the institutional actions to respond at various levels. Based on empirical research the orientations of the elite university students in Chile are analyzed. We focus on the perceptions of

  2. Radiographic knee osteoarthritis in ex-elite table tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Reza; Johnson, Gillian M; Alizadeh, Mohammad H; Meghdadi, Nazanin

    2012-02-06

    Table tennis involves adoption of the semi-flexed knee and asymmetrical torsional trunk movements creating rotational torques on the knee joint which may predispose players to osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study aims to compare radiographic signs of knee OA and associated functional levels in ex-elite male table tennis players and control subjects. Study participants were 22 ex-elite male table tennis players (mean age 56.64 ± 5.17 years) with 10 years of involvement at the professional level and 22 non-athletic males (mean age 55.63 ± 4.08 years) recruited from the general population. A set of three radiographs taken from each knee were evaluated by an experienced radiologist using the Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale (0-4) to determine radiographic levels of OA severity. The intercondylar distance was taken as a measure of lower limb angulation. Participants also completed the pain, stiffness, and physical function categories of the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) 3.1 questionnaire. The results showed 78.3% of the ex-elite table tennis players and 36.3% of controls had varying signs of radiographic knee OA with a significant difference in the prevalence levels of definite radiographic OA (KL scale > 2) found between the two groups (P ≤ 0.001). Based on the WOMAC scores, 68.2% of the ex-elite table tennis players reported symptoms of knee pain compared with 27.3% of the controls (p = 0.02) though no significant differences were identified in the mean physical function or stiffness scores between the two groups. In terms of knee alignment, 73.7% of the ex-elite athletes and 32% of the control group had signs of altered lower limb alignment (genu varum) (p = 0.01). Statistical differences were found in subjects categorized as having radiographic signs of OA and altered lower limb alignment (p = 0.03). Ex-elite table tennis players were found to have increased levels of radiological signs of OA in the knee joint though

  3. Validation of a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities in 6 to 8 year old Zimbabwean school children: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandawasvika Gwendoline Q

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cognitive impairment among school children from developing communities is under reported due to lack of culturally appropriate screening tools. The objective of this study was to validate a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children Abilities (MSCA in school children aged 6–8 years from varied backgrounds. Methods One hundred and one children aged 6–8 years attending mainstream classes were enrolled cross-sectionally from three schools: one rural and two urban. Two assessments were conducted on each child and the Short form MSCA was compared to an independent assessment by the educational psychologist. Results When comparing the results of the MSCA to local standard at -2SD, -1.5 SD and -1SD the sensitivity rates ranged from 17 to 50% with lower sensitivity at -2SD cut-off point. Specificity rates had less variation ranging from 95% to 100%. The number of children identified with cognitive impairment using -2SD, -1.5SD and -1SD below the mean for MSCA as a cut-off point were 3(3%, 7(7% and 13(13% respectively while the psychologist identified 18 (18%. The overall mean score on MSCA was 103 (SD 15. The rural children tended to score significantly lower marks compared to their peers from urban areas, mean (SD 98(15 and 107(15 respectively, p=0.006. There was no difference in the mean (SD scores between boys and girls, 103(17 and 103(15 respectively, p=0.995. Conclusion The culturally modified short form MSCA showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Prevalence of cognitive impairment among 6 to 8 year children was 3%. This figure is high when compared to developed communities.

  4. Organizational Culture, Values, and Routines in Iranian Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Zavareh, Davoud Khorasani; Masiello, Italo

    2009-01-01

    In Iran, restructuring of medical education and the health care delivery system in 1985 resulted in a rapid shift from elite to mass education, ultimately leading to an increase in the number of medical schools, faculties, and programs and as well as some complications. This study aimed to investigate views on academic culture, values, and…

  5. A National Sports Institute as a Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica; Price, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the learning culture for elite athletes who resided at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) from the perspective of the athletes themselves. As a government entity, the AIS is highly regulated by policies and strategies concerning allocation of funding, facilities, services, and…

  6. Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. CD133-enriched Xeno-Free human embryonic-derived neural stem cells expand rapidly in culture and do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Haus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Common methods for the generation of human embryonic-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs result in cells with potentially compromised safety profiles due to maintenance of cells in conditions containing non-human proteins (e.g. in bovine serum or on mouse fibroblast feeders. Additionally, sufficient expansion of resulting hNSCs for scaling out or up in a clinically relevant time frame has proven to be difficult. Here, we report a strategy that produces hNSCs in completely “Xeno-Free” culture conditions. Furthermore, we have enriched the hNSCs for the cell surface marker CD133 via magnetic sorting, which has led to an increase in the expansion rate and neuronal fate specification of the hNSCs in vitro. Critically, we have also confirmed neural lineage specificity upon sorted hNSC transplantation into the immunodeficient NOD-scid mouse brain. The future use or adaptation of these protocols has the potential to better facilitate the advancement of pre-clinical strategies from the bench to the bedside.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation of the international consultation incontinence questionnaire male lower urinary tract symptoms-long form (ICIQ-MLUTS-LF) in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Mazdak, Hamid

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate male lower urinary tract symptoms long form (MLUTS-LF) questionnaire and determine its psychometric properties in Persian speaking subjects. Assessment instrument is essential for research, making diagnosis, and for evaluating the treatment outcomes in subjects with lower urinary tract disorders of either gender. Long form of MLUTS questionnaire is a robust self-report questionnaire that investigates the major aspects of lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life. After getting permission from the International Consultation International Questionnaire website, the forward and backward translation MLUTS carried out by researcher team and assess content/face/construct validity, reliability in sample of MLUTS Iranian patients and, quality rating and pilot testing. The irritating and obstructing lower urinary disorders were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe in the study sample. Twenty two subjects were suffering from urinary incontinence and most of the participants had benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.819. Correlations between the MLUTS and International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was 0.753. The MLUTS Questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content validity, and construct validity, as measured by correlation with scores on the IPSS. The Iranian version of the MLUTS questionnaire is a valid and robust instrument that can be used in clinical settings and in research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  10. SOCIOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF THE SENIOR OF THE UNIVERSITY (ELITE GYMNASIUM IN TYUMEN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady F. Shafranov-Kutsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show and analyze the situation and aspects of work with gifted children and teenagers that are aimed at preservation of a gene pool of the country; and revealed to be the most important condition of formation of the future highly professional elite in Russia. The most efficient forms of establishing such activities are emphasized; the basic psychological and pedagogical methods of this activity are shown. The most important qualities of schoolaged children that are notable for not ordinary mental abilities are noted in the present study. Methods and techniques. The article presents the results of the empirical sociological survey of senior schoolchildren and the results of the sample survey of senior students undertaken in five regions of the Ural Federal District. The software package for statistical analysis (SPSS was used for data evaluation. Scientific novelty. Federal and regional infrastructure oriented to work with gifted children is considered in the study; the ways of efficiency assessment are investigated. The concept «elite school (high-class» is refined. The sociological portrait of the senior pupil trained in specially created establishment of the elite general education is presented. Results. The authors pay special attention to the analysis of the focused work with gifted children and teenagers in the Tyumen region. A special focus is laid on the Academic Gymnasium of Tyumen State University that was included in the list of top 25 secondary schools of Russia. Spiritually-moral values and social-professional choices of senior students both of an elite gymnasium and ordinary secondary schools are revealed and compared in the course of sociological research. It is found out that gymnasium schoolchildren are remarkable for their social optimistic approach to their life, they are more pragmatic in the issues of their future professional preferences, and moreover, they are active in their choices and

  11. Translation, cultural adaptation assessment, and both validity and reliability testing of the kidney disease quality of life - short form version 1.3 for use with Iranian patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir; Yekaninejad, Mirsaeed; Mølsted, Stig

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aims of the study were to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) questionnaire into Iranian (Farsi), and to then assess it in terms of validity and reliability on Iranian patients. METHODS: The questionnaire was first translated into Farsi...... by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities had been reconciled, the final Iranian questionnaire was tested. An initial test-retest reliability evaluation was performed over a 10 day period on a sample of 20 patients recruited from...... a larger group (212 patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis). Afterwards, reliability was estimated by internal consistency, and validity was assessed using known group comparisons and constructs for the patient group as a whole. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire...

  12. Effects on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc of adding the two inorganic forms of selenium to solution cultures of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longchamp, M; Angeli, N; Castrec-Rouelle, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of selenate or selenite to common fertilizers for crop production could be an effective way of producing selenium-rich food and feed. However, this would be feasible only if the increase in plant selenium (Se) content did not negatively influence the uptake of other essential elements. We therefore need to understand the interactions between Se and other major and trace elements during uptake by the plant. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of inorganic forms of Se on the accumulation of selected macronutrients (Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu). Those essential elements are involved in the oxidative balance of cells. Zea mays seedlings were grown hydroponically in growth chambers in nutrient solutions to which we added 10, 50 or 1000 μg.L(-1) of selenate and/or selenite. Cation accumulation was significantly affected by the addition of 50 μg.L(-1) or 1000 μg.L(-1) Se, but not by the presence of 10 μg.L(-1) of Se in the nutrient solution. The highest concentration (1000 μg.L(-1)) of Se in the nutrient solution affected the accumulation of essential cations in Zea mays: selenate tended to increase the accumulation of Mg, Zn and Mn, whereas a selenate/selenite mixture tended to decrease the accumulation of Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn. Only Fe accumulation was unaffected by Se whatever its form or concentration. Selenium may also affect the distribution of cations on Zea mays. For example, levels of Mg and Zn translocation to the shoots were lower in the presence of selenite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and chemical forms of copper in the root cells of castor seedlings and their tolerance to copper phytotoxicity in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hongqin; Du, Jiangkun

    2015-05-01

    The subcellular localization and chemical forms of copper in castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings grown in hydroponic nutrient solution were identified by chemical extraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wild castor seeds were harvested from an abandoned copper mine in Tonglu Mountain, Daye City of Hubei Province, China. The results revealed that (1) the seedlings grew naturally in MS liquid medium with 40.00 mg kg(-1) CuSO4, in which the seedling growth rate and biomass index were 0.14 and 1.23, respectively, which were the highest values among all the treatments. The copper content in castor seedlings increased along with elevated CuSO4 concentration in the medium, reaching a maximum value of 16 570.12 mg kg(-1)(DW) when exposed to 60.00 mg L(-1) CuSO4, where 91.31% of the copper was accumulated in roots. (2) The copper existed in various chemical forms in the roots of the castor seedlings. Copper of 67.66% was extracted from the components of cell walls, such as exchangeable acidic polar compounds, cellulose and lignin, protein and pectin, and less concentrated in cell cytoplasm and nuclei. (3) Furthermore, the root cell walls were thickened when the castor seedlings exposed to CuSO4, with a large amount of high-density electron bodies, attached to the thickened cell walls. In the cell walls, most copper was bound to the carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups of acidic polar compounds, cellulose, hemicellulose, and polysaccharides. The conclusion showed that castor exhibited a strong tolerance to copper, the copper were accumulated mainly in the root cell, the root cell walls of castor were the major location of patience and detoxification in copper stress.

  14. The evolved athlete a guide for elite sport enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Gojkovic, Zoran; Greenberg, Ronald; Greenberg, Helen; Jovanovic, Bojan; Lukman, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    This handbook provides insights into becoming a better and more evolved athlete. It offers aspiring athletes, regardless of skill level, a better understanding of their bodies and how to unlock the unlimited potential of muscles without injury. It focuses on the “superhero” muscle: the iliopsoas, and also sheds light on Diamond-Corporation’s new technology and elite athleticism, and how these can contribute to a healthier life. Lastly, the authors explore the mindset of success and provide exercises for remaining calm under pressure. This stand-alone book is the sequel to Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis and Enhancing Performance and Reducing Stress in Sport (2014, Springer). This book is written by scientists, whose expertise collectively spans the fields of biomechanics, clinical surgery, current and former elite athleticism, engineering and naturopath doctoral work. Together, they aim to inspire and educate athletes on how to improve their sports performance by using new technologies, world class bio...

  15. Physiological capacity and physical testing in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, K.; Aagaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    and by subsequent physical testing. RESULTS: Mean heart rate and relative workload during match-play (N.=41) were 163 ± 5 beats·min⁻¹ (group means±SD) and 70.9 ± 6.0% of VO(2-max), respectively. Relative workload was lower (P... and high demands on the anaerobic energy systems during certain periods of the match. Indications of temporary fatigue and a subsequent decline in performance were observed, since the relative workload decreased both in the first and in the second half of the match. Physiological profiles and physical test......AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the physical demands placed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position. METHODS: Male elite team handball field players were evaluated during match-play over a six season time span using physiological measurements...

  16. Reliable and sensitive physical testing of elite trapeze sailors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Jonathan; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    It was investigated, if a newly developed discipline specific test for elite-level trapeze sailors is reli-able and sensitive. Furthermore, the physical demands of trapeze sailing were examined. In part 1, nine national team athletes were accustomed to a simulated sailing test, which subsequently...... as peak values were 83.5 ± 11.4% and 89.9 ± 1.7% of max, respectively. In conclusion, the present test is reliable and sensitive, thus providing a sailing specific alternative to traditional physical testing of elite trapeze sailors. Additionally, on-water rac-ing requires moderate aerobic energy...... was completed on four occasions to determine test reliability and sensitivity to manipulations in body-weight. Rope-pulling mean power output (MPO), oxygen consumption (VO2 ), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate values were acquired in all trials. In part 2, six sailors completed on-water racing with concurrent...

  17. Investigating Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence in elite athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ina; van der Worp, Henk; Hensing, Sjoerd; Zwerver, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Although injury surveillance in athletics is routinely conducted, discipline-specific Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore discipline-specific tendinopathy prevalence and identify whether injury-specific risk factors differed in athletes. Elite athletes were recruited and provided information on their sport training including Achilles and patellar tendon pain history. In order to ascertain whether between-discipline differences existed, data were categorized into discipline groups. Middle-distance athletes reported the highest prevalence of Achilles tendinopathy and the combined athletes reported the highest patellar tendinopathy prevalence. Greater calf stiffness was reported in athletes who experienced Achilles tendinopathy compared to those who did not. A substantial portion of athletes believed their performance decreased as a result of their tendon pain. In order to develop discipline-specific evidence-based injury prevention programmes, further discipline-specific research is required to quantify the mechanism for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy development in elite athletics.

  18. An Enhanced Differential Evolution with Elite Chaotic Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for real-world engineering problems. However, its search ability should be further enhanced to obtain better solutions when DE is applied to solve complex optimization problems. This paper presents an enhanced differential evolution with elite chaotic local search (DEECL. In DEECL, it utilizes a chaotic search strategy based on the heuristic information from the elite individuals to promote the exploitation power. Moreover, DEECL employs a simple and effective parameter adaptation mechanism to enhance the robustness. Experiments are conducted on a set of classical test functions. The experimental results show that DEECL is very competitive on the majority of the test functions.

  19. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT......), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...... a significant correlation between L2-L4 BMD and TT (r(s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more important...

  20. Physical-Preparation Recommendations for Elite Rugby Sevens Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jake; Howells, Dan; Robineau, Julien; Couderc, Anthony; Natera, Alex; Lumley, Nick; Gabbett, Tim J; Winkelman, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Rugby sevens, a sport new to the Olympics, features high-intensity intermittent running and contact efforts more than short match durations, normally 6 times across 2 to 3 d in a tournament format. Elite rugby sevens seasons often include over a dozen competitive tournaments over less than 9 months, demanding deliberate and careful training-stress balance and workload management alongside development of the necessary physical qualities required for competition. Focus on running and repeated power skills, strength, and match-specific conditioning capacities is advised. Partial taper approaches in combination with high-speed running (>5 m/s from GPS measures) before and between tournaments in succession may reduce injury rates and enhance performance. In a sport with substantial long-haul intercontinental travel and repetitive chronic load demands, management of logistics including nutrition and recovery is inclusive of the formula for success in the physical preparation of elite rugby sevens athletes.

  1. Elite Struggle and Stability of the Political Regime in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сабрина Павловна Базылева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The death of the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, an official announcement which appeared in the second half of the day September 2 - involuntarily forced to wonder about his successor and most importantly, about the continuity of the course. Externally, in the country there is peace and order. Islam Karimov has built a stable system, authoritarian regime. This stability is due to the pragmatism of the Uzbek members of the junta. A special role in the economy and politics of Uzbekistan plays a clan system which has evolved over the last 100-120 years according to the territorial principle and immigrants, which today represent the political elite of the country. The article examines Elite struggle and the stability of the political regime in Uzbekistan available today.

  2. No superior adaptations to carbohydrate periodization in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Thams, Line; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular...... endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing...... content (18 ± 5%), CS activity (11 ± 5%) and pACC (38 ± 19%) (Pendurance training had no superior effects on performance and muscle...

  3. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  4. Effects of goal setting on fear of failure in young elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard; Melzer, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    recommendations was used as intervention. The goal-setting group (n = 33) attended 12 weekly, one-hour goal-setting sessions, while the control group (n = 16) did not. A Danish version of the short form of the Achievement Motives Scale-Sport was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and showed good fit......This study reports the effects of a goal-setting intervention on fear of failure in young elite athletes. Using the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation as a theoretical vantage point, a goal-setting intervention using mastery-approach goals and existing goalsetting....... It was used to measure fear of failure at baseline, at the end of intervention and at follow-up, 12 weeks after intervention had ended. Results showed that in the goal-setting group, fear of failure decreased significantly from baseline to end of intervention, but increased again from end of intervention...

  5. The Clash of Cultures in Academe: The University and the Education Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, Milton

    1985-01-01

    The unfavorable position of the education faculty in academe is attributable to a clash between the dominant culture of the university (to reproduce elite leadership) and the partially alien culture of the education faculty (to reproduce society as a whole). The author presents suggestions to improve this situation. (MT)

  6. [Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosić, Ilija; Malićević, Sead; Medić, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B viral infection can create serious health problems, such as acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Athletes have bigger risk of hepatitis B infection due to frequent injuries with bleeding, their style of living (promiscuity), close contact with teammates, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine among elite athletes, compared to corresponding control group of male subjects front general non-athlete population, and to test out reaction in relation to age. There were 21 elite football players and 30 control non-athlete males. After written consent, they all received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (Euvax B, Sanofi Pasteur) during 6 months. Eight weeks later, their immune response (as anti-HBs antibody titre in serum) was assessed and statistical significance of the findings was tested. The level of immune response was also evaluated in different age clusters within test groups. None of the footballers was without response to the vaccine. One of the subjects from the control group did not develop it. The group of athletes was with better mean values of antibody titre (1626621 mIU/ml vs. 1568455 mIU/ml), but without statistical significance (t = 0.375: p > 0.05), and with a greater deal of subjects who developed very good immune response (titre over 2000 mIU/ml). Younger football players had better immune reaction than older (age 18-24, 1795560 mIU/ml, vs. age 25-29 years, 1597470 mIU/ml vs. age 30 and more, 1360904 mIU/ml), but without statistical importance (H = 1.593; p > 0.05). Our study has shown that elite athletes respond very well to hepatitis B vaccination and have good immune response. Vaccination against hepatitis B of elite athletes is very important, because viral infection can seriously affect their health and stop their careers.

  7. Analysis of fatigue development during elite male handball matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Póvoas, Susana C A; Ascensão, António A M R; Magalhães, José

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the physiological demands and fatigue development during elite male handball matches. Our hypothesis was that players perform multiple high-intensity activities during periods of the game and develop temporary and end-match neuromuscular fatigue. Time-motion analyse...... lactate during the match was 3.6±2.1 (1.3-8.6) mM. Plasma FFA, glycerol, glucose and uric acid increased (p...

  8. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Halson, Shona L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, chang...

  9. King James II Stuart, Irish Elites and Patriot Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Kirill Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied episode of the “Glorious revolution” of 1688-1689, the political fight on Green Island. On the basis of historical sources, the author shows the main directions of Irish policy of last catholic king James II, who tried to fight for his lost British throne, because the majority of population of this catholic country remained loyal to his patron. The author pays special attention to investigating the policy of different ethnic groups represented in Patriot Parliament by their elites. There were two elite groups who supported king James II and tried to influence him: “Old English” aristocracy and “Old Irish” nobility. King’s own elite group also consisted of “New English” and “New Scots”, but during the “Glorious revolution” the majority of them supported the counterpart of king James II – William Orange. Basing the study on historical sources the author proves that eventually king James II had two groups of supporters: “Old English” and “native Irish”. The article is concerned with non-investigated problem of negotiations between king James II and Irish elites and analyses the demands of the last. The author proves that acts and decisions of patriot parliament were the Irish population’s answers to the program and suggestions of king James II and that the main concessions were given to “Old English” aristocracy. The demands of “Old Irish” in agrarian issue were mainly ignored. The Patriot Parliament based the foundations of Jacobite political regime in Ireland during the restoration rebellion of 1689-1691.

  10. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  11. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims: We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods: Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic ...

  12. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Barbero-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET, until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR, VO2, post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b and running speeds (km • h -2 . During the treadmill test, VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1, 12.5±1.77 km • h -2 , 197±8 beats • min-1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km • h -2 , 199±8 beats • min-1 and 2.5±2.2 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p<0.0001 with VO2max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players.

  13. Exercise physiology and nutritional perspectives of elite soccer refereeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, K; Bizzini, M; Gatterer, H

    2018-03-01

    Referees are an integral part of soccer, and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players, most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity, and training load. Thus, referees' caloric needs and recommended daily carbohydrate intake may generally be lower compared to active soccer players, with higher intakes limited to periods of increased training load and match days or for referees engaged in physical demanding occupations. With respect to fluid intake, pre-match and in-match hydration strategies generally valid in sports are recommended also for referees to avoid cognitive and physical performance loss, especially when officiating in extreme climates and altitude. In contrast to elite soccer, professional assistance concerning nutrition and training is rarely available for national elite referees of most countries. Therefore, special attention on education about adequate nutrition and fluid intake, about the dietary prevention of deficiencies (iron in female referees, vitamin D irrespective of sex and age), and basic precautions for travels abroad is warranted. In conclusion, the simple adoption of nutritional considerations from active soccer for referees may not be appropriate. Recommendations should respect gender differences, population-specific physical characteristics, and demands just as well as individual characteristics and special needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Development and Validation of the Elite Athlete Commitment Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadas, Sílvio

    2013-01-01

    Research has led to the development of a recent measure of sport commitment entitled the Elite Athlete Commitment Scale (EACS). This tool is based on three factors (school/employment dedication, social isolation and life discipline) and it was designed to assess to what extent athletes are willing to give up certain activities in order to increase their involvement in sport. In an initial study, a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that these factors reflect the three different facets of ...

  15. La elite económica Argentina, 1810-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Hora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los principales rasgos del sector más poderoso de la elite económica argentina del período 1810-1914. El trabajo discute las principales interpretaciones sobre las características y naturaleza de este grupo, pone de relieve algunas de limitaciones de los enfoques más habituales sobre el tema, y sugiere de qué manera conceptualizarlo de forma productiva. Aunque el objeto de este trabajo es la elite económica, todo análisis de este actor supone a la vez una manera de concebir las características del sistema de poder y del entorno económico en el que se desenvuelve la acción de los hombres de fortuna. Por este motivo, este trabajo formula algunas consideraciones generales sobre las características del Estado (argentino y el capitalismo (pampeano, con el fin de precisar mejor qué tipo de elite económica dominó la producción rural y la economía argentina en el período de crecimiento exportador que se extendió desde la Independencia hasta la Primera Guerra Mundial. El trabajo toma distancia de los estudios que enfatizan la importancia de la dimensión política para explicar el proceso de constitución y reproducción de esta elite económica, enfatizando en cambio los determinantes económicos de este proceso. El ensayo no aporta nueva evidencia empírica, sino una reflexión a partir de la literatura existente.

  16. The performance effect of centralizing a nation's elite swim program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sian V; Vandenbogaerde, Tom J; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-03-01

    Many national sporting organizations recruit talented athletes to well-resourced centralized training squads to improve their performance. To develop a method to monitor performance progression of swimming squads and to use this method to assess the progression of New Zealand's centralized elite swimming squad. Best annual long-course competition times of all New Zealand swimmers with at least 3 y of performances in an event between 2002 and 2013 were downloaded from takeyourmarks.com (~281,000 times from ~8500 swimmers). A mixed linear model accounting for event, age, club, year, and elite-squad membership produced estimates of mean annual performance for 175 swim clubs and mean estimates of the deviation of swimmers' performances from their individual quadratic trajectories after they joined the elite squad. Effects were evaluated using magnitude-based inferences, with a smallest important improvement in swim time of -0.24%. Before 2009, effects of elite-squad membership were mostly unclear and trivial to small in magnitude. Thereafter, both sexes showed clear additional performance enhancements, increasing from large in 2009 (males -1.4%±0.8%, females -1.5%±0.8%; mean±90% confidence limits) to extremely large in 2013 (males -6.8%±1.7%, females -9.8%±2.9%). Some clubs also showed clear performance trends during the 11-y period. Our method of quantifying deviations from individual trends in competition performance with a mixed model showed that Swimming New Zealand's centralization strategy took several years to produce substantial performance effects. The method may also be useful for evaluating performance-enhancement strategies introduced at national or club level in other sports.

  17. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (SFHA) is common among female athletes, especially in weight-sensitive sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between SFHA and neuromuscular performance in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Sixteen eumenorrheic (EUM......) and 14 SFHA athletes from national teams and competitive clubs participated. Methods included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA);; resting metabolic rate and work efficiency; exercise capacity; knee muscular strength (KMS) and knee muscular endurance (KME); reaction time (RT); blood...

  18. Desempenho agronômico de clones elite de batata Agronomic performance of elite potato clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani O da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o desempenho de oito clones elite de batata quanto ao ciclo vegetativo, caracteres de produção e peso específico em comparação com as cultivares mais utilizadas no país. O experimento foi realizado no campo experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas (RS. Foram avaliados oito clones elite desenvolvidos pelo Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Batata da Embrapa juntamente com duas cultivares comerciais, no cultivo de outono de 2011. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de uma linha com 20 plantas. Aos 95 dias após o plantio determinou-se o ciclo vegetativo dos genótipos e aos 110 dias foram realizadas a colheita e avaliações dos componentes de produção e peso específico. Após a verificação da normalidade de distribuição dos erros, os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de agrupamento de médias por Scott & Knott. Os clones CL02-05, CL69-05, CL27-05 e 2197-15 apresentaram maiores número de tubérculos comerciais, percentagem de tubérculos comerciais e massa média de tubérculos que as cultivares testemunhas. O clone CL02-05 revelou, além disso, o maior potencial de produção de tubérculos comerciais dentre os quatro clones. Os clones CL69-05 e 2197-15 apresentaram peso específico e ciclo vegetativo semelhantes à Asterix e também maior potencial produtivo.The aim of this work was to verify the growth cycle, yield components and specific gravity of advanced potato clones as compared to the main varieties grown in Brazil. The experiment was carried on at the Embrapa Clima Temperado experimental field, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Eight advanced potato clones developed by the Embrapa Potato Breeding Program, and two commercial cultivars were evaluated in the autumn season of 2011. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used, the plots being constituted by a

  19. Peculiarities of the formation and functioning of regional political elite in contemporary Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Rybalka

    2015-06-01

    Regional political elite in Ukraine is constantly under pressure of the all­ukrainian political process­level. This complicates the transformation of regional and local elites to real decision makers for the organization of the relevant areas development. A significant problem for domestic regional elites, in the author’s opinion, is the leaching of personnel recruiting local and regional leaders to fill positions at the capital level.

  20. Osteoarthritis and other long-term health conditions in former elite cricketers.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, ME; Davies, MAM; Leyland, KM; Delmestri, A; Porter, A; Ratcliffe, J; Peirce, N; Newton, JL; Arden, NK

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to describe the prevalence and risk of chronic conditions in former elite cricketers compared to a normal population, and describe wellbeing in former elite cricketers. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Former elite cricketers, recruited from the Professional Cricketers’ Association, completed a self-report cross-sectional questionnaire. The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) served as the normal population. The prevalence of self-report...

  1. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kai Chen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic experience of 9.8 years. At the time of the survey, 74.8% had sporting injuries and were being treated with Chinese and/or Western medicine. Among injured athletes, 14.5% chose Western treatment, 8.1% chose Chinese medicine, and 75.4% received combined treatment. There were various reasons for choosing the management model. Most athletes had ordinary self-recognition of sports injury prevention. Their qualified ability for sports injury prevention was 70%. This ability was significantly correlated with age, education, and sports experience. Within Taiwan's current medical and social environment, elite athletes prefer a combination of Eastern and Western treatments for sports injuries. Each of the medical approaches are widely accepted by elite athletes and their coaches. Doctors trained in Western medicine should learn these alternative treatment methods and apply them effectively in athletes, so that a better medical network can be established.

  2. Predicting basal metabolic rates in Malaysian adult elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Poh, Bee Koon; Nik Shanita, Safii; Izham, Mohd Mohamad; Chan, Kai Quin; Tai, Meng De; Ng, Wei Wei; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of elite athletes and develop a gender specific predictive equation to estimate their energy requirements. 92 men and 33 women (aged 18-31 years) from 15 sports, who had been training six hours daily for at least one year, were included in the study. Body composition was measured using the bioimpedance technique, and BMR by indirect calorimetry. The differences between measured and estimated BMR using various predictive equations were calculated. The novel equation derived from stepwise multiple regression was evaluated using Bland and Altman analysis. The predictive equations of Cunningham and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University either over- or underestimated the measured BMR by up to ± 6%, while the equations of Ismail et al, developed from the local non-athletic population, underestimated the measured BMR by 14%. The novel predictive equation for the BMR of athletes was BMR (kcal/day) = 669 + 13 (weight in kg) + 192 (gender: 1 for men and 0 for women) (R2 0.548; standard error of estimates 163 kcal). Predicted BMRs of elite athletes by this equation were within 1.2% ± 9.5% of the measured BMR values. The novel predictive equation presented in this study can be used to calculate BMR for adult Malaysian elite athletes. Further studies may be required to validate its predictive capabilities for other sports, nationalities and age groups.

  3. Physiological capacity and physical testing in male elite team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsik, L B; Madsen, K; Aagaard, P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the physical demands placed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Male elite team handball field players were evaluated during match-play over a six season time span using physiological measurements and by subsequent physical testing. Mean heart rate and relative workload during match-play (N.=41) were 163 ± 5 beats·min⁻¹ (group means±SD) and 70.9 ± 6.0% of VO(2-max), respectively. Relative workload was lower (Pjumping height in "Jump and Reach" testing was 0.71 ± 0.08 m (range: 0.61-0.86 m). Maximal ball throwing speed was observed using the set shot with 3-step run-up (92.8 ± 5.3 km·h⁻¹, range: 75.8-108.2 km·h⁻¹). Modern male elite team handball imposes moderate-to-high demands on the aerobic energy system and high demands on the anaerobic energy systems during certain periods of the match. Indications of temporary fatigue and a subsequent decline in performance were observed, since the relative workload decreased both in the first and in the second half of the match. Physiological profiles and physical test results differed between playing positions, with wing players covering a greater total distance in the Yo-Yo test and showing superior jumping performance and repeated sprint running capacity than backcourt players and pivots.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, J L; Hartmann, K; Strupler, M; Perret, C

    2016-11-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes over the whole year and to detect differences between winter and summer months, and between indoor and outdoor athletes. This study was conducted in Switzerland. A total of 164 blood samples from 72 Swiss elite wheelchair athletes (mean±s.d.: age 32±13 years) were analyzed for total serum 25[OH]D. All participants were members of the national team in their discipline. The following disciplines have been included: rugby, athletics, cycling, tennis, ski alpine, curling and basketball. According to general guidelines, insufficient vitamin D status was defined between 50 and 75 nmol l -1 , deficiency below 50 nmol l -1 and severe deficiency below 27.5 nmol l -1 . In all, 73.2% of all samples showed an insufficiency/deficiency in vitamin D status. Total serum 25[OH]D was significantly higher during summer compared with winter months (69.5±21.4 nmol l -1 vs 51.5±21.9 nmol l -1 ; Pathletes. Conclusively, we recommend supplementation with vitamin D-especially during winter-to prevent a deficiency and an impairment of performance.

  5. Left ventricular systolic performance is improved in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Stefano; Di Pietro, Riccardo; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Pisicchio, Cataldo; di Giacinto, Barbara; Guerra, Emanuele; Culasso, Franco; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    We sought to investigate the systolic time interval (STI) and efficiency of left ventricular (LV) contraction comparatively in elite athletes and healthy sedentary controls by means of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). Four hundred and twenty-nine elite athletes, involved in skill (n = 41), power (n = 63), mixed (n = 167), and endurance (n = 158) disciplines and 98 sedentary controls, matched for age, underwent 3DE. By off-line analysis, we measured the absolute and relative (normalized by the R-R interval) timing of LV systolic emptying (STI and STI%) and the systolic flow velocity (SFV = stroke volume/STI). Both STI and STI% were shorter in athletes, regardless of the sport discipline, compared with controls (respectively, 324 ± 36 vs. 345 ± 33 ms, P athletes showed a significant reduction (by 50.4 ms; 95% confidence interval, from 57.7 to 43.1) in STI compared with untrained subjects. Finally, higher SFV were identified in skill (256 ± 60 mL/s; P athletes compared with controls (204 ± 50 mL/s). Elite athletes show a significant shortening of the systolic time duration in comparison with sedentary controls, in association with a significant increase in LV emptying velocity. This pattern characterizes the physiological LV adaptation of the athletes and may potentially be useful in differential diagnosis of the 'athlete heart'.

  6. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Kleiner, Jens; Mester, Joachim; Schanzer, Wilhelm

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes.

  7. Injuries and preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, S R; Augustsson, J; Thomeé, R; Svantesson, U

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of injury and the extent of preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball players. Injuries to players in the elite male and female Swedish division, during the 2002-2003 season, were registered by using a questionnaire. Of the 158 volleyball players (70% response rate), a total of 82 players (52%) reported 121 injuries, during a total exposure time of 24 632 h, representing an overall incidence of 0.77 injuries per player. The majority of the injuries were located in the ankle (23%), followed by the knee (18%) and the back (15%). Most injuries (62%) were classified as being of minor severity. Most injuries occurred during training (47%), and 41% of the injuries had a gradual onset. Fifty-four percent of the injuries that could be related to a specific court situation occurred during blocking, and 30% during spiking. Most players (96%) participated in injury prevention training of some kind, generally performed without supervision (58%). Although most players took part in some kind of preventive action, one out of two players incurred an injury during the season, which indicates that the risk of suffering an injury in elite volleyball is relatively high.

  8. The coaching preferences of elite athletes competing at Universiade '83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C

    1984-12-01

    The study investigated the coaching preferences of 95 male and 65 female elite athletes competing at Universiade '83 (Edmonton, Canada). Preferred coaching behaviour (PCB) was measured using a version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). Preference scores were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, nationality, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that males prefer significantly more Autocratic behaviour than females (p = .039). Also, athletes in team sports prefer significantly more Training behaviour (p = .001), Autocratic behaviour (p less than .001), and Rewarding behaviour (p = .017), and significantly less Democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and Social Support behaviour (p = .002) than athletes in individual sports. No significant differences in PCB attributable to the age or nationally of the athlete were found. In addition, data collected in a previous study (Terry and Howe, 1984), which examined the PCB of 'club' athletes, was included to facilitate a comparison of club v elite athletes. A MANOVA showed that elite athletes prefer significantly more Democratic behaviour (p = .01) and Social Support behaviour (p = .001), and significantly less Rewarding behaviour (p = .01) than athletes at a 'club' level. Although differences between subject groups were found, it can be concluded that athletes generally tend to favour coaches who "often" display Training behaviour and Rewarding behaviour, "occasionally" display Democratic behaviour and Social Support behaviour, and "seldom" display Autocratic behaviour.

  9. Acoustic Analysis and Electroglottography in Elite Vocal Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Sierra-Ramirez, Jose A; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Chavarria-Villafuerte, Karen; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic analysis of voice (AAV) and electroglottography (EGG) have been used for assessing vocal quality in patients with voice disorders. The effectiveness of these procedures for detecting mild disturbances in vocal quality in elite vocal performers has been controversial. To compare acoustic parameters obtained by AAV and EGG before and after vocal training to determine the effectiveness of these procedures for detecting vocal improvements in elite vocal performers. Thirty-three elite vocal performers were studied. The study group included 14 males and 19 females, ages 18-40 years, without a history of voice disorders. Acoustic parameters were obtained through AAV and EGG before and after vocal training using the Linklater method. Nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) were found between values of fundamental frequency (F 0 ), shimmer, and jitter obtained by both procedures before vocal training. Mean F 0 was similar after vocal training. Jitter percentage as measured by AAV showed nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) before and after vocal training. Shimmer percentage as measured by AAV demonstrated a significant reduction (P performers undergoing vocal training. EGG demonstrated better efficacy for detecting improvements and provided additional parameters as compared to AAV. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Critical Study of Selected Political Elites' Discourse in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Behnam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how political elites can contribute to power enactment through using language. It started with a theoretical overview of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, and then presented a corpus consisting of speeches of eight political elites, namely, Malcolm X, Noam Chomsky, Martin Luther King, Josef Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, Winston Churchill, J.F. Kennedy and Adolph Hitler. This study analyzed speeches in terms of figures of' speech, and interpreted them from the point of view of CDA using the framework introduced by Fairclough (1989 as a three-dimensional approach to the study of discourse (Description, Interpretation, Explanation and van Dijk (2004 as the theory of critical context analysis.. Speech figures are classified in this study into six main categories as Comparison, Grammar, Meaning, Parenthesis, Repetition and Rhetoric. The result of analyses reveals that while there are differences in the type and degree of speech figures employed by our selected individual political elites, there is one striking pattern which is common among all speeches: the frequent use of figures of Grammar, Repetition and Rhetoric

  11. Preliminary assessment of AFLP fingerprinting of Rubus glaucus Benth. elite genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Delgado Diana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. is a promissory fruit crop for Colombia with potential to become an international commodity due to its high nutritional and nutraceutical value. Farmer genotypes from the national R. glaucus collection were selected from eight outstanding accessions according to their nutritional and agronomic value, for distribution among local producers. The goal of this work is to evaluate the genomic fingerprint by AFLP analysis of these elite genotypes using three primer combinations. From 179 total amplified loci produced by the three combinations, 20% resulted polymorphic. The EAGG/MCTT combination was the most informative with a 32% polymorphism and greater discrimination power. The genotypes tested showed a high average similarity (96% and the accessions San Antonio and ILS-1863 formed independent groups with good statistical support in the clustering analysis. The remaining accessions did not form discrete groups with good support (<50%, probably due to genetic homogeneity among them and/or low resolving power of markers. This study is one of the first attempts to generate a genomic fingerprint of these farmer elite genotypes for protection, seed certification and future support to breeding programs.

     

  12. You need to be flexible! Reflections on the provision of a mindfulness program in an elite sport school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Kristel; Larsen, Carsten Hvid

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches have received considerable attention in sport and performance context and have proved to be effective not only in performance but also important for athletes’ mental health. This article provides an overview of a mindfulness based intervention program...... in an Estonian elite sport school. Firstly, the authors aimed at creating an understanding and possible benefits of mental skills training and mindfulness. Secondly, to develop self-awareness skills, commitment skills and self-control through goal setting towards values-driven behaviors. Thirdly, to introduce...... mindfulness skills in the form of attentional training as well as supporting their awareness, openness and committed action skills in school and sport....

  13. The World Anti-Doping Code: can you have asthma and still be an elite athlete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Fitch

    2016-06-01

    The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code has not prevented asthmatic individuals from becoming elite athletes. This review examines those sections of the Code that are relevant to respiratory physicians who manage elite and sub-elite athletes with asthma. The restrictions that the Code places or may place on the prescription of drugs to prevent and treat asthma in athletes are discussed. In addition, the means by which respiratory physicians are able to treat their elite asthmatic athlete patients with drugs that are prohibited in sport are outlined, along with some of the pitfalls in such management and how best to prevent or minimise them.

  14. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Japanese version of Revised Conflict Tactics Scales Short Form among Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-11-01

    The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales Short Form (CTS2SF) is an instrument used to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization over the past 12 months. The CTS2SF was translated into Japanese, and the reliability (internal consistency and 4-week test-retest reliability) and the concurrent and factor-based validity were examined using two waves of Internet surveys over an interval of 4 weeks. Participants of the survey were 393 Japanese men and women who were registrants of an Internet survey company. Cronbach's α was greater than 0.5 for most scales, while it was low (α = 0.18) for sexual coercion by partner. The test-retest reliability of the binary variable for the presence or absence of IPV was high (Yule's Q, 0.79-1.00), and moderate between the scores (Spearman's rank correlation, 0.38:0.70). Concordance with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, Violence Against Women Screen, and Kessler 6 generally indicated good concurrent validity. The results of the exploratory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure of the Japanese version of the CTS2SF. Although the internal consistency reliability was limited for some sub-scales, its moderate internal consistency and test-retest reliability and good factor-based validity highlighted the benefit of using the Japanese version of the CTS2SF in a large-scale community survey where a shorter scale is required to assess IPV. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade J. Chalker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler’s and batter’s mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries.

  16. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  17. For an interactive reading of the territory and the city spaces, relationships, urban morphology, cultural patterns and forms of economic and political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serena Sanseviero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In  this paper we emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to support the urban and territorial research;  it can contribute to the knowledge of the area and city with the aim of direct transformations and future development. Therefore, we need to acquire sophisticated tools and talk simpler language and insightful in order to respond to the social demand for local knowledge. We have to study a new paradigm to understand social phenomena; the old perspectives of urban sociology, but also planning and analysis of territorial systems, is today replaced by an integrated view in which we do not evaluate and not only analyze the more specific objects of the individual disciplines but a number of variables and components in synergy.   Per una lettura interattiva del territorio e della città: spazi, relazioni, morfologia urbana, modelli culturali e forme di potere economico e politico In questo lavoro si sottolinea la necessità di un approccio multidisciplinare integrato in grado di supportare la ricerca in campo urbano e territoriale e che possa concorrere alla conoscenza del territorio e della città per orientarne trasformazioni e sviluppo  futuro. Si palesa attraverso le molteplici riflessioni la necessità di dover acquisire strumenti sofisticati e parlare, sia pure ciascuno per le proprie competenze, linguaggi più semplici e penetranti al fine di poter rispondere alla domanda sociale di conoscenza del territorio. La verifica quindi di un nuovo paradigma conoscitivo ed interpretativo dei fenomeni sociali si pone con forza, dacché alle vecchie prospettive della sociologia urbana, ma anche dell'urbanistica e dell'analisi dei sistemi territoriali, si va oggi sostituendo una visione integrata, nella quale non si valutano e non si analizzano più soltanto gli oggetti più specifici delle singole discipline ma una serie di variabili e componenti in sinergia. Parole Chiave: Città; territorio; rappresentazione e modelli; relazioni

  18. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  19. A longitudinal analysis of salivary testosterone concentrations and competitiveness in elite and non-elite women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J

    2018-05-01

    There is evidence linking women's testosterone (T) to competitive behaviours in sport and exercise. To advance this work, we examined the longitudinal relationships between salivary T (sal-T) and competitiveness in athletic women who differ in training status. Elite (n = 9) and non-elite (n = 21) women athletes were monitored on days 6-8 (follicular phase), 13-15 (ovulatory phase) and 20-22 (Luteal phase) of a menstrual cycle with two repeats. Salivary T levels were assessed before breakfast, followed by two questions (each rated on a 1-7 scale) on competitive desire and training motivation. Using a linear mixed model, we evaluated the menstrual phase and training status effects on each variable, before assessing the within-subject effects of sal-T on competitiveness. Salivary T concentrations were higher at ovulation (effect size [ES] difference = 0.2-1.4), relative to the follicular and luteal phases, with a more marked response among elite women (p < .01). The competitiveness ratings showed similar menstrual-phase variation (ES difference = 0.6-1.0 at ovulation). A positive effect of sal-T on competitiveness emerged in both groups (p < .001), but with different slope patterns (p < .015). Specifically, the elite sal-T relationships with desire to compete (standardized β = 1.147, SE = 0.132) and training motivation (β = 1.195, SE = 0.124) were stronger compared with non-elite women (β = 0.631, SE = 0.114; β = 0.778, SE = 0.114), respectively. Morning sal-T concentrations, competitive desire and training motivation all peaked around ovulation in women athletes. Notably, sal-T availability and its relationship with competitiveness was stronger among high-performing athletes. Our findings confirm menstrual fluctuations in T and competitiveness among naturally-cycling women, with population context as a moderating factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring the quality of end-of-life care: Development, testing, and cultural validation of the Danish version of Views of Informal Carers' Evaluation of Services-Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lone; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Groenvold, Mogens

    2018-04-01

    The perspectives of patients and relatives are important in the improvement of the quality of health care. However, the quality of end-of-life care has not been systematically evaluated in Scandinavia. To develop or adapt and subsequently validate a questionnaire assessing the quality of end-of-life care in Denmark. The questionnaire was intended for bereaved relatives in order to assess the quality of care in the last 3 months of the patient's life and the circumstances surrounding death. Based on the literature and interviews with 15 bereaved relatives and 17 healthcare professionals, relevant topics to include in a questionnaire were identified. The topics were prioritized by 100 bereaved relatives and subsequently compared to existing questionnaires. The chosen questionnaire was tested by cognitive interviews with 36 bereaved relatives. Most of the important topics were covered by the Views of Informal Carers' Evaluation of Services-Short Form, but not all Danish settings (e.g. home care by a palliative team) were covered. These settings were added to the Views of Informal Carers' Evaluation of Services-Short Form, and a few adaptations were made before a Danish version of the Views of Informal Carers' Evaluation of Services-Short Form was tested by cognitive interviews. This cultural validation showed that the slightly adapted Danish version was perceived as relevant, understandable, and acceptable. Furthermore, the cognitive interviews gave insight in the comprehension and interpretation of Views of Informal Carers' Evaluation of Services-Short Form items. With a few adaptations, the British Views of Informal Carers' Evaluation of Services-Short Form was relevant in a Danish setting.