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Sample records for formed ti-6al-4v butt

  1. Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding for Sandwich Structure of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo HAN; Kaifeng ZHANG; Guofeng WANG; Xiaojun ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) is a well-established process for the manufacture of components almost exclusively from Ti-6Al-4V sheet material. The sandwich structure of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. The effects of the microstructure on the SPF/DB process were discussed. The microstructure at the interfaces and the distribution of thickness were researched.

  2. The measurement of friction for superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V

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    Kelly, R.B.; Leen, S.B.; Pashby, I.R.; Kennedy, A.R. [School of M3EM, Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    An experimental test for measuring the friction between Ti-6Al-4V sheet material and S310 stainless steel tool material at 900 C is presented. The test is intended for application to Ti-6Al-4V superplastic forming for the manufacture of aeroengine components. The work is motivated by the need for accurate, representative data for process modelling, where accurate simulation is critical to formed component dimensions. The results show a time dependency of friction. The effects of boron nitride density, applied normal load and die surface roughness are investigated. (orig.)

  3. Material flow analysis in dissimilar friction stir welding of AA2024 and Ti6Al4V butt joints

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    BuffaGianluca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex material flow occurring during the weld of dissimilar AA2024 to Ti6Al4V butt and lap joints was highlighted through a dedicated numerical model able to take into account the effects of the different materials as well as the phase transformation of the used titanium alloy.

  4. Microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of laser rapidly formed Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Lei; CHEN Jing; LIN Xin; LU Xiao-wei; WANG Wei; HUANG Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    Several tensile samples were prepared using laser rapid forming (LRF) with Ti-6Al-4V alloy as powder material, and the samples were annealed. The microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of laser formed Ti-6Al-4V alloy through annealing treatment were investigated. The short-term and long-term tensile tests at 350 ℃ were performed. The results show that the microstructure of LRF samples consists of the large columnar prior β grains which grow epitaxially from the substrate along the deposition direction. There are Widmanst-tten α laths in prior β grains, but α laths in annealed microstructure are coarser, and their aspect ratio is lower than that in as-deposited microstructure. In addition, the prior β grain boundary is also coarsened and broken off through the annealing treatment. The high temperature mechanical properties of the annealed LRF samples exceed those of casting alloy significantly, especially the stress-rupture lifetime reaches 661.7 h even while the test stress increases from initial value of 490 MPa to the final stress of 800 MPa gradually.

  5. Morphological and Chemical Relationships in Nanotubes Formed by Anodizing of Ti6al4v Alloy

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    Kaczmarek- Pawelska A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical formation of oxide nanotubes on the Ti6Al4V alloy has been so far difficult due to easy dissolution of vanadium reach β-phase of the two phase material. Due to the topographical heterogeneity of the anodic layer in nano and microscale at anodizing of the Ti6Al4V alloy we focused to establish the relationships between nanotube diameters on both phases of the alloy and fluorides concentration in electrolyte. We studied the effect of fluoride concentration (0.5-0.7 wt.% in 99% ethylene glycol on morphological parameters of nanotube layer on the Ti6Al4V alloy anodized at 20V for 20 min. Nanotubes with diameter ~40-50 nm ±5nm on the entire Ti6Al4V alloy surface in electrolyte containing 0.6% wt. NH4F were obtained. Microscale roughness studies revealed that nanotubular layer on α-phase is thicker than on β-phase. The annealing of nanotube layers at 600°C for 2h in air, nitrogen and argon, typically performed to improve their electrical properties, influenced chemical composition and morphology of nanotubes on the Ti6Al4V alloy. The vanadium oxides (VO2, V2O3, V2O5 were present in surface nanotube layer covering both phases of the alloy and the shape of nanotubes was preserved after annealing in nitrogen.

  6. Hydroxyapatite precipitation on nanotubular films formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical applications

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    Jo, Chae-Ik; Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State, University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-31

    In this study, hydroxyapatite precipitation on nanotubular film-formed Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical applications has been investigated using a variety of techniques. To prepare the substrate samples for hydroxyapatite (HA) deposition, the starting Ti-6Al-4V alloy was polished and heat-treated for 12 h at 1050 °C in an Ar atmosphere, followed by water-quenching at 0 °C. Nanotube formation on the titanium alloy was performed using anodization with a DC power supply at 30 V for 1 h in 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.8 wt.% NaF at 25 °C. Subsequent HA precipitation treatment was carried out by cyclic voltammetry over a potential range of −1.5 V to 0 V using a scanning rate of 100 mV/s in 0.03 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} ∙ 4 H{sub 2}O + 0.018 M NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at 80° ± 1 °C. Four different numbers of cycles were employed: 10, 20, 30, and 50. Surface morphology and structure were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The heat-treated Ti–6Al–4V alloy has a needle-like duplex microstructure containing the martensitic α′ phase and β phase. Plate-like precipitates were formed on bulk Ti–6Al–4V alloy, and the size of these precipitates increased with the number of deposition cycles. The HA precipitates on the nanotube surface showed a mixture of plate-like and flower-like particles with more deposition cycles. The deposited HA phase in the coated layer had an amorphous structure, with particle composition in good agreement with Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) precipitation on nanotubular films formed on Ti–6Al–4V alloy was investigated using a variety of experimental methods. • HA precipitation treatment was carried out using a cyclic voltammetry method after nanotube formation on Ti–6Al–4V alloy. • Plate-like precipitates were formed on the bulk (not anodized) alloy, and the

  7. Numerical Simulation and Superplastic Forming of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for a Dental Prosthesis

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    Li, Xiaomei; Soo, Steven

    2011-04-01

    This article investigates superplastic forming (SPF) technique in conjunction with finite element (FE) simulation applied to dental repair. The superplasticity of Ti-6Al-4V alloys has been studied using a uniquely designed five-hole test with the aim of obtaining the modeled grain size and the flow stress parameters. The data from the five-hole test are subsequently put into the FE program for the simulation of a partial upper denture dental prosthesis (PUD4). The FE simulation of the PUD4 is carried out to set up appropriate input parameters for pressing due to the SPF process being fully automatic controlled. A variety of strain rates ranging from 2.4 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-3 s-1 are selected for the characterization of superplastic properties of the alloy. The Superflag FE program is used to generate an appropriate pressure-time profile and provide information on thickness, grain size, and grain growth rate distribution. Both membrane elements and solid elements have been adopted in the simulation and the results from both types of elements are compared. An evaluation of predicted parameters for the SPF of the prosthesis is presented.

  8. Cell interaction with modified nanotubes formed on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

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    Moravec, Hynek; Vandrovcova, Marta; Chotova, Katerina; Fojt, Jaroslav; Pruchova, Eva; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2016-08-01

    Nanotubes with diameters ranging from 40 to 60nm were prepared by electrochemical oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in electrolyte containing ammonium sulphate and ammonium fluoride. The nanotubes were further modified with calcium and phosphate ions or were heat treated. Polished Ti-6Al-4V alloy served as a reference sample. The spreading of human osteoblast-like cells was similar on all nanotube samples but lower than on polished samples. The number of initially adhered cells was higher on non-modified nanotubes, but the final cell number was the highest on Ca-enriched nanotubes and the lowest on heat-treated nanotubes. However, these differences were relatively small and less pronounced than the differences in the concentration of specific molecular markers of cell adhesion and differentiation, estimated by their intensity of immunofluorescence staining. The concentration of vinculin, i.e. a protein of focal adhesion plaques, was the lowest on nanotubes modified with calcium. Collagen I, an early marker of osteogenic cell differentiation, was also the lowest on samples modified with calcium and was highest on polished samples. Alkaline phosphatase, a middle marker of osteogenic differentiation, was observed in lowest concentration on nanotubes modified with phosphorus and the highest on heat-treated samples. Osteocalcin concentrations, a late marker of osteogenic cell differentiation, were similar on all tested samples, although they tended to be the highest on heat-treated samples. Thus, osteogenic differentiation can be modulated by various additional treatments of nanotube coatings on Ti-6Al-4V implants.

  9. Heat-treated microstructure and mechanical properties of laser solid forming Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuangyin; LIN Xin; CHEN Jing; HUANG Weidong

    2009-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the microstmcture and mechanical properties of laser solid forming (LSF) Ti-6Al-4V alloy were investigated. The influences of the temperature and time of solution treatment and aging treatment were analyzed. The results show that the microstructure of LSFed samples consists of Widmanstatten α laths and a little acicular in columnar prior β grains with an average grain width of 300 which grow epitaxially from the substmte along the deposition direction (Z). Solution treatment had an important effect on the width, aspect ratio, and volume fraction of primary and secondary α laths, and aging treatment mainly affects the aspect ratio and volume fraction of pri-mary α laths and the width and volume fraction of secondary α laths. Globular α phase was first observed in LSFed samples when the sam-ples were heat treated with solution treatment (950℃, 8 h/air cooling (AC)) or with solution treatment (950℃, 1 h/AC) and aging treatment (550℃, above 8 h/AC), respectively. The coarsening and globularization mechanisms of α phase in LSFed Ti-6Al-4V alloy during heat treatment were presented. To obtain good integrated mechanical properties for LSFed Ti-6Al-4V alloys, an optimized heat treatment regimen was suggested.

  10. Sputter deposition of pure titanium onto complete denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming. Chososei keiseishita Ti-6Al-4V gishi zenbusho eno sputter jochaku ni yoru jun Ti no hifuku

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    Kato, M.; Sonoda, T. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility of TiNi shape memory alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy of functional Ti base alloys which are paid attention as the dental materials or implant materials, the sputter deposition coating using bio-inactive Ti metal was studied. DC source was superior to RF source in characteristics of sputtered film and the rate of deposition. The wiping with gauze impregnated by acetone followed by the ultrasonic cleaning was more effective for the precleaning of the substrate. The sputtered Ti film thickness was nearly proportional to electric power and showed the orientation which depended highly on the heating temperature of the substrate. The complete surface of denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming was well coated with pure Ti and the prospect of biocompatibility of this Ti alloy could be obtained. But the film deposited by the heating condition showed the different characteristics of film compared with that formed under the cooling condition, and it is necessary that the effect of this on the biocompatibility must be investigated. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Superplastic forming of Ti6Al4V alloy using ZrO_2-TiO_2 ceramic die with adjustable linear thermal expansion coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shao-song; ZHANG Kai-feng

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, the relation between the coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) and the volume fraction of TiO_2 was investigated, and also the influence of relative density of ceramic on the CTE was studied. The results show that the volume fraction, of TiO_2 and the relative density both make influence on the CTE of ZrO_2-TiO_2 ceramic. According to the results, the ZrO_2-TiO_2(volume fraction of TiO_2 is 27%) ceramic die with the similar CTE (8.92×10~(-6)℃~(-1)) to Ti6Al4V was fabricated. Secondly, to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece superplastically formed, the Ti6Al4V impression experiment was performed. The result shows that the dimensional inaccuracy of workpieee is 0.003. Thirdly, in order to evaluate the practicability, the experiment of superplastic forming Ti6Al4V using ZrO_2-TiO_2 cylinder ceramic die was carried out. The Ti6Al4V cylinder shows good shape retention and surface quality, and high dimensional accuracy. The ceramic dies seem to be adequate for superplastic forming the high accuracy Ti6Al4V,and the trials have confirmed the potential of the ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic die.

  12. Effect of superplastic forming exposure on fatigue crack propagation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daeho; Kwon, Yongnam; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Sangshik

    2016-09-01

    The effect of superplastic forming (SPF) exposure on the ɛ (strain)-N (number of cycles to failure) fatigue and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy was examined at 298 and 473 K. To simulate the thermal exposure during superplastic forming process, the mill-annealed Ti64 alloy sheet was heated in the vacuum chamber with the pre-determined temperature profile. Notable microstructural change during the SPF exposure included the shape of transformed β phase from fine and round particles in the as-received specimen to coarse angular particles in the as-exposed specimen. The effective grain size tended to increase with the exposure, enhancing the slip reversibility and the resistance to FCP. However, the crack hindering effect by fine, particle-like β phase became weak with the exposure, offseting the beneficial effect associated with the increment of effective grain size. The effect of SPF exposure on ɛ-N fatigue and FCP behavior of mill-annealed Ti64 alloy was therefore marginal, excluding the effect of α-case (the oxygen-enriched phase) on the surface.

  13. A Novel Investigation of the Formation of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes on Thermally Formed Oxide of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arman; Hamlekhan, Azhang; Patel, Sweetu; Royhman, Dmitry; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Takoudis, Christos

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes (TNTs) are anodized on Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti-V) surfaces with native TiO2 (amorphous TiO2); subsequent heat treatment of anodized surfaces has been observed to enhance cellular response. As-is bulk Ti-V, however, is often subjected to heat treatment, such as thermal oxidation (TO), to improve its mechanical properties. Thermal oxidation treatment of Ti-V at temperatures greater than 200°C and 400°C initiates the formation of anatase and rutile TiO2, respectively, which can affect TNT formation. This study aims at understanding the TNT formation mechanism on Ti-V surfaces with TO-formed TiO2 compared with that on as-is Ti-V surfaces with native oxide. Thermal oxidation-formed TiO2 can affect TNT formation and surface wettability because TO-formed TiO2 is expected to be part of the TNT structure. Surface characterization was carried out with field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements, and white light interferometry. The TNTs were formed on control and 300°C and 600°C TO-treated Ti-V samples, and significant differences in TNT lengths and surface morphology were observed. No difference in elemental composition was found. Thermal oxidation and TO/anodization treatments produced hydrophilic surfaces, while hydrophobic behavior was observed over time (aging) for all samples. Reduced hydrophobic behavior was observed for TO/anodized samples when compared with control, control/anodized, and TO-treated samples. A method for improved surface wettability and TNT morphology is therefore discussed for possible applications in effective osseointegration of dental and orthopedic implants.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Octahedral Porous Material Unit Formed by Selective Laser Melting

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    Jianfeng Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ti-6Al-4V octahedral porous material unit is designed to calculate its load. In this paper, ANSYS is adopted for the load simulation of the unit. And a simplified model of dimensional theoretical calculation is established, by which the analytical equation of the fracture load is obtained and the calculation of the load of Ti-6Al-4V is completed. Moreover, selective laser melting is adopted in processing the Ti-6Al-4V porous material unit. The experimental value of fracture load of this material is obtained through compression experiment. The results show that the simulation curves approximate the variation tendency of the elastic deformation of the compression curves; the curves of theoretical calculation approximate the general variation tendency; and the experimental value of fracture load is very close to the theoretical value. Therefore, the theoretical prediction accuracy of fracture load is high, which lays the foundation for the mechanical properties of the octahedral porous material.

  15. Effect of Nd:YAG laser beam welding on weld morphology and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashaev, Nikolai; Ventzke, Volker; Fomichev, Vadim; Fomin, Fedor; Riekehr, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    A Nd:YAG single-sided laser beam welding process study for Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints was performed to investigate joining techniques with regard to the process-weld morphology relationship. An alloy compatible filler wire was used to avoid underfills and undercuts. The quality of the butt joints and T-joints was characterized in terms of weld morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties. Joints with regular shapes, without visible cracks, pores, and geometrical defects were achieved. Tensile tests revealed high joint integrity in terms of strength and ductility for both the butt joint and T-joint geometries. Both the butt joints and T-joints showed base material levels of strength. The mechanical performance of T-joints was also investigated using pull-out tests. The performance of the T-joints in such tests was sensitive to the shape and morphology of the welds. Fracture always occurred in the weld without any plastic deformation in the base material outside the weld.

  16. Parametric optimization of selective laser melting for forming Ti6Al4V samples by Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Wang, Di

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a selective laser melting experiment was carried out with Ti6Al4V alloy powders. To produce samples with maximum density, selective laser melting parameters of laser power, scanning speed, powder thickness, hatching space and scanning strategy were carefully selected. As a statistical design of experimental technique, the Taguchi method was used to optimize the selected parameters. The results were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios by design-expert software for the optimal parameters, and a regression model was established. The regression equation revealed a linear relationship among the density, laser power, scanning speed, powder thickness and scanning strategy. From the experiments, sample with density higher than 95% was obtained. The microstructure of obtained sample was mainly composed of acicular martensite, α phase and β phase. The micro-hardness was 492 HV0.2.

  17. Pre-fatigue influence on quasi-static tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V in thin-sheet form

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    De Baere I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of engineering structures to loads is most often assessed without taking possible damage of the used material(s into account. However, it has already been proved that a preceding cyclic loading and the alteration of the microstructure it causes, can have a significant influence on the mechanical properties of steel grades and aluminium alloys , and hence on the behaviour of structural elements made of it. Ti-6Al4V, the most widely used titanium alloy, is often one of the materials chosen for cyclic loading applications where other solicitations are present too. Therefore, the influence of pre-fatigue on the quasi-static mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in thin-sheet form is investigated. Tensile experiments are performed on samples subjected to different damage levels. The material does not show a clear dependence of its tensile properties with previous loading cycles, although the overall effect can be important for particular geometries.

  18. Forming of Hollow Shaft Forging From Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Means of Rotary Compression

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    Tomczak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of theoretical-experimental works concerning forming of hollow shafts forgings from titanium alloys, which are applied in aviation industry. At the first stage of conducted analysis, the forging forming process was modeled by means of finite element method. Calculations were made using software Simufact Forming. On the basis of performed simulations optimal parameters of rotary compression process were determined. Next, experimental tests of forging forming in laboratory conditions were made. For the research needs, a forging aggregate, designed by the Authors, was used. Conducted research works confirmed the possibility of metal forming (by means of rotary compression of hollow shafts from hard workable titanium alloys. Numerous advantages of rotary compression process, make it attractive both for low series production (aircraft industry and for mass production (automotive industry.

  19. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells

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    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties. PMID:26648719

  20. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties.

  1. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Filova E; Fojt J; Kryslova M; Moravec H; Joska L; Bacakova L

    2015-01-01

    Elena Filova,1 Jaroslav Fojt,2 Marketa Kryslova,1 Hynek Moravec,2 Ludek Joska,2 Lucie Bacakova1 1Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 2Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control s...

  2. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells

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    Filova E

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Elena Filova,1 Jaroslav Fojt,2 Marketa Kryslova,1 Hynek Moravec,2 Ludek Joska,2 Lucie Bacakova1 1Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 2Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties. Keywords: nanostructure, titanium nanotubes, cell adhesion, Saos-2 cells, osteogenic differentiation

  3. Microstructure and Wear Properties of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V Parts: A Comparison Study against As-Cast Form

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    Wei Quan Toh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64 parts of varying thicknesses were additively manufactured (AM by the powder-bed-based electron beam melting (EBM technique. Microstructure and wear properties of these EBM-built Ti-6Al-4V parts have been investigated in comparison with conventionally cast Ti64 samples. Sliding wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc micro-tribometer under ambient conditions. Experimental results reveal that EBM-built Ti64 samples exhibited higher microhardness and an overall larger coefficient of friction as compared to the as-cast counterpart. Of interest is that the corresponding specific wear volumes were lower for EBM-built Ti64 samples, while the as-cast Ti64 showed the poorest wear resistance despite its lower coefficient of friction. Wear mechanisms were provided in terms of quantitative microstructural characterization and detailed analysis on coefficient of friction (COF curves.

  4. An Evaluation of a Borided Layer Formed on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Means of SMAT and Low-Temperature Boriding

    OpenAIRE

    Quantong Yao; Jian Sun; Yuzhu Fu; Weiping Tong; Hui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a nanocrystalline surface layer without impurities was fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The grain size in the nanocrystalline layer is about 10 nm and grain morphology displays a random crystallographic orientation distribution. Subsequently, the low-temperature boriding behaviors (at 600 °C) of the SMAT sample, including the phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness, and brittleness, were investigated in compariso...

  5. Free-Form-Fabricated Commercially Pure Ti and Ti6Al4V Porous Scaffolds Support the Growth of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesodermal Progenitors

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    G. M. de Peppo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially-pure titanium (cp-Ti and the titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V are widely used as reconstructive implants for skeletal engineering applications, due to their good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and ability to integrate with the surrounding bone. Electron beam melting technology (EBM allows the fabrication of customized implants with tailored mechanical properties and high potential in the clinical practice. In order to augment the interaction with the biological tissue, stem cells have recently been combined with metallic scaffolds for skeletal engineering applications. We previously demonstrated that human embryonic stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitors (hES-MPs hold a great potential to provide a homogeneous and unlimited supply of cells for bone engineering applications. This study demonstrates the effect of EBM-fabricated cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V porous scaffolds on hES-MPs behavior, in terms of cell attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation. Displaying different chemical composition but similar surface properties, EBM-fabricated cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V scaffolds supported cell attachment and growth, and did not seem to alter the expression of genes involved in osteogenic differentiation and affect the alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, interfacing hES-MPs to EBM-fabricated scaffolds may represent an interesting strategy for design of third-generation biomaterials, with the potential to promote implant integration in clinical conditions characterized by poor bone quality.

  6. Free-form-fabricated commercially pure Ti and Ti6Al4V porous scaffolds support the growth of human embryonic stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Peppo, G M; Palmquist, A; Borchardt, P; Lennerås, M; Hyllner, J; Snis, A; Lausmaa, J; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C

    2012-01-01

    Commercially-pure titanium (cp-Ti) and the titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) are widely used as reconstructive implants for skeletal engineering applications, due to their good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and ability to integrate with the surrounding bone. Electron beam melting technology (EBM) allows the fabrication of customized implants with tailored mechanical properties and high potential in the clinical practice. In order to augment the interaction with the biological tissue, stem cells have recently been combined with metallic scaffolds for skeletal engineering applications. We previously demonstrated that human embryonic stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitors (hES-MPs) hold a great potential to provide a homogeneous and unlimited supply of cells for bone engineering applications. This study demonstrates the effect of EBM-fabricated cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V porous scaffolds on hES-MPs behavior, in terms of cell attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation. Displaying different chemical composition but similar surface properties, EBM-fabricated cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V scaffolds supported cell attachment and growth, and did not seem to alter the expression of genes involved in osteogenic differentiation and affect the alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, interfacing hES-MPs to EBM-fabricated scaffolds may represent an interesting strategy for design of third-generation biomaterials, with the potential to promote implant integration in clinical conditions characterized by poor bone quality.

  7. Self-organized nanotubular oxide layers on Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V formed by anodization in NH4F solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macak, Jan M; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Taveira, Luciano; Ghicov, Andrei; Schmuki, Patrik

    2005-12-15

    The present work reports the fabrication of self-organized porous oxide-nanotube layers on the biomedical titanium alloys Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V by a simple electrochemical treatment. These two-phase alloys were anodized in 1M (NH(4))(2)SO(4) electrolytes containing 0.5 wt % of NH(4)F. The results show that under specific anodization conditions self-organized porous oxide structures can be grown on the alloy surface. SEM images revealed that the porous layers consist of arrays of single nanotubes with a diameter of 100 nm and a spacing of 150 nm. For the V-containing alloy enhanced etching of the beta phase is observed, leading to selective dissolution and an inhomogeneous pore formation. For the Nb-containing alloy an almost ideal coverage of both phases is obtained. According to XPS measurements the tubes are a mixed oxide with an almost stoichiometric oxide composition, and can be grown to thicknesses of several hundreds of nanometers. These findings represent a simple surface treatment for Ti alloys that has high potential for biomedical applications.

  8. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei, E-mail: wangjw@ustb.edu.cn; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-11-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide–sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (I{sub corr}) and higher corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) than those of the substrate.

  9. In-vivo degradation mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V hip joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In-vivo exposed Ti-6Al-4V implants were investigated to determine the degradation mechanism occurring during the articulating movements of the hip joint in the human body. Failed implants were compared to Ti-6Al-4V samples, which were tested in the laboratory for their tribocorrosion performance....... was concluded to be of combined mechanical and chemical nature. Wear debris is formed and accumulated in large flakes (>100μm). Upon further sliding the flakes are pressed into the surface and ultimately crushed into small, brittle particulate debris (...

  10. Influence of Surface Pre-treatments on Laser Welding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Amaya-Vázquez, M. R.; González-Rovira, L.; Botana-Galvin, M.; Botana, F. J.

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, Ti6Al4V samples have been welded under conduction regime by means of a high power diode laser. The main objective of the work has been to determine the actual influence of the surface pre-treatments on the laser welding process. Thus, six different pre-treatments were applied to Ti6Al4V samples before performing bead-on-plate and butt welding treatments. The depth, width, microstructure, and microhardness of the different weld zones were deeply analyzed. Grinding, sandblasting, and chemical cleaning pre-treatments lead to welds with the highest depth values, presenting high joint strengths. Treatments based on the application of dark coatings generate welds with lower penetration and worse mechanical properties, specially the graphite-based coating.

  11. Spall fracture in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. R.; Fensin, S. J.; Dippo, O.; Beal, R. A.; Livescu, V.; Martinez, D. T.; Trujillo, C. P.; Florando, J. N.; Kumar, M.; Gray, G. T.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study on the spall strength of additive manufactured (AM) Ti-6Al-4V. Samples were obtained from two pieces of selective laser melted (SLM, a powder bed fusion technique) Ti-6Al-4V such that the response to dynamic tensile loading could be investigated as a function of the orientation between the build layers and the loading direction. A sample of wrought bar-stock Ti-6Al-4V was also tested to act as a baseline representing the traditionally manufactured material response. A single-stage light gas-gun was used to launch a thin flyer plate into the samples, generating a region of intense tensile stress on a plane normal to the impact direction. The rear free surface velocity time history of each sample was recorded with laser-based velocimetry to allow the spall strength to be calculated. The samples were also soft recovered to enable post-mortem characterization of the spall damage evolution. Results showed that when the tensile load was applied normal to the interfaces between the build layers caused by the SLM fabrication process the spall strength was drastically reduced, dropping to 60% of that of the wrought material. However, when loaded parallel to the AM build layer interfaces the spall strength was found to remain at 95% of the wrought control, suggesting that when loading normal to the AM layer interfaces, void nucleation is facilitated more readily due to weaknesses along these boundaries. Quasi-static testing of the same sample orientations revealed a much lower degree of anisotropy, demonstrating the importance of rate-dependent studies for damage evolution in AM materials.

  12. Combination of laser keyhole and conduction welding: Dissimilar laser welding of niobium and Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamany, M. J.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Poursalehi, R.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2016-04-01

    Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of pure niobium plate to titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V sheet in butt joint is studied regarding the laser/metal interaction modes. To obtain the optimized process parameters in dissimilar welding of Ti-6Al-4V/Nb, the melting ratio of laser beam energy for each weld counterpart is evaluated experimentally. Different laser welding modes of keyhole and conduction are predicted regarding the absorbed energy from the similar laser pulses on each weld counterpart. Laser keyhole and conduction welding were observed simultaneously through direct visualization of laser interaction with dissimilar metals using High Speed Imaging (HSI) system.

  13. Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanophase Ti6Al4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI WeiPing; HAN Pei; ZHAO OhangLi; JIANG Yao; ZHANG XiaoNong

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare a novel nanostructured surface of Ti6Al4V alloy by the severe plastic deformation (SPD) and the chemical treatment process and to evaluate the adhesion of osteoblast on the nanophase titanium alloy. In the in vitro study, the primary cultured osteoblasts of neonatal rat calvaria were cultured on the nanophase and the as-received smooth Ti6Al4V substrates. Then osteoblasts adhesion behaviors on different substrates were observed by the fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and RT-PCR analysis. The results of our research showed increased osteoblast adhesion on the nanophase titanium alloy compared with the as-received case. On the nanophase substrate, the presence of extensive filopodia, strong cellular adhesion and early cellular confluency could be observed. In addition, the expression of the adhesion-related integrin β1 mRNA was also higher on the nanophase substrate. It suggested that the nano technology could be further considered for orthopedic implant applications.

  14. Water droplet erosion mechanisms of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar Zahmatkesh, Niloofar

    Water impingement erosion of materials can be a life-limiting phenomenon for the components in many erosive environments. For example, aircraft body exposed to rain, steam turbine blade, and recently in gas turbine coupled with inlet fogging system. The last is the focus of this study. Inlet fogging system is the most common method used to augment gas turbine output during hot days; high ambient temperature causes strong deterioration of the engine performance. Micro-scaled droplets introduced into the inlet airflow allow the cooling of entering air as well as intercooling the compressor (overspray) and thus optimizes the output power. However, erosion damage of the compressor blades in overspray stage is one of the major concerns associated with the inlet fogging system. The main objective of this research work (CRIAQ MANU419 project) is to understand the erosion induced by water droplets on Titanium alloy to eventually optimize the erosion resistance of the Ti-based compressor blade. Therefore, characterization of the water droplet erosion damage on Ti-6Al-4V receives the major importance. The influence of base material microstructure and impact parameters were considered in erosion evaluation in present study. This work covers the characterization of the erosion damage on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in two parts: - The water droplet erosion damage through a novel experimental approach. The collected data were processed both qualitatively and quantitatively for multi-aspects damage study. - The influence of impact velocity on erosion in an attempt to represent the in-service conditions.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of direct metal laser sintered TI-6AL-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Thorsten Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a selective laser melting (SLM manufacturing process that can produce near net shape parts from metallic powders. A range of materials are suitable for SLM; they include various metals such as titanium, steel, aluminium, and cobalt-chrome alloys. This paper forms part of a research drive that aims to evaluate the material performance of the SLM-manufactured metals. It presents DMLS-produced Ti-6Al-4V, a titanium alloy often used in biomedical and aerospace applications. This paper also studies the effect of several heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V processed by SLM. It reports the achievable mechanical properties of the alloy, including quasi-static, crack growth behaviour, density and porosity distribution, and post-processing using various heat-treatment conditions.

  16. Reducing Wear of Steel Rolling Against Ti6Al4V Operating in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    This work was motivated by a qualification test of a mechanism for a space telescope. During the test undesired wear debris was formed. In this project alterative materials and coatings were tested with intent to reduce wear and debris when steel has a misaligned rolling contact against Ti6Al4V. Testing was done using a vacuum roller rig mimicking the mechanism's contact conditions. Ten configurations were tested. Most configurations resulted in significant debris. A sputtered 1-micrometer-thick nan-ocomposite molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) film provided the best wear protection. The best configuration made use of the MoS2 coating on both materials, and in preparing for sputtering the anodized Ti6Al4V working surface was smoothed using an ultrasonic process.

  17. Preliminary study on the corrosion resistance, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of selective-laser-melted Ti6Al4V-xCu alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sai; Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Liu, Lingling; He, Mengjiao; Zhao, Chaoqian; Gan, Yiliang; Lin, Junjie; Luo, Jiasi; Xu, Xiongcheng; Lin, Jinxin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a series of Cu-bearing Ti6Al4V-xCu (x=0, 2, 4, 6wt%) alloys (shorten by Ti6Al4V, 2C, 4C, and 6C, respectively.) with antibacterial function were successfully fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) technology with mixed spherical powders of Cu and Ti6Al4V for the first time. In order to systematically investigate the effects of Cu content on the microstructure, phase constitution, corrosion resistance, antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity of SLMed Ti6Al4V-xCu alloys, experiments including XRD, SEM-EDS, electrochemical measurements, antibacterial tests and cytotoxicity tests were conducted with comparison to SLMed Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti6Al4V). Microstructural observations revealed that Cu had completely fused into the Ti6Al4V alloy, and presented in the form of Ti2Cu phase at ambient temperature. With Cu content increase, the density of the alloy gradually decreased, and micropores were obviously found in the alloy. Electrochemical measurements showed that corrosion resistance of Cu-bearing alloys were stronger than Cu-free alloy. Antibacterial tests demonstrated that 4C and 6C alloys presented strong and stable antibacterial property against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) compared to the Ti6Al4V and 2C alloy. In addition, similar to the Ti6Al4V alloy, the Cu-bearing alloys also exerted good cytocompatibility to the Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs) from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Based on those results, the preliminary study verified that it was feasible to fabricated antibacterial Ti6Al4V-xCu alloys direct by SLM processing mixed commercial Ti6Al4V and Cu powder.

  18. Effect of tungsten additions on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Heeman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Cook Hall, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States); Abkowitz, Susan M. [Dynamet Technology Inc., Eight A Street, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States); Abkowitz, Stanley [Dynamet Technology Inc., Eight A Street, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States); Dunand, David C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Cook Hall, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)]. E-mail: dunand@northwestern.edu

    2005-04-15

    The alloy Ti-6Al-4V was modified by addition of 10 wt.% tungsten through powder metallurgy. Depending on the initial W powder size, different materials were formed after powder densification: (i) 'alloys' for fine (0.7 and 2 {mu}m) W powders which were almost completely dissolved in the Ti-6Al-4V matrix; (ii) 'alloyed composites' for intermediate (12 and <45 {mu}m) W powders which were partially dissolved; (iii) and 'composites' for coarse (<250 {mu}m) W powders which were nearly un-dissolved. In all cases, tungsten strengthens Ti-6Al-4V, but much more so when dissolved in the matrix than as a second phase. Ductility was not affected by W additions for the fully-dissolved alloys, but was reduced in the case of composites with W particles, which exhibited fracture or pull-out from the matrix. Flaw sensitivity was apparent from strain hardening being much lower in tension than in compression, and from a much reduced ductility exhibited by one specimen with residual porosity.

  19. Dry Friction Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy under High Sliding Velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Tribological behaviours of Ti-6Al-4V alloy pins sliding against GCr1 5 steel discs over a range of contact pressures (0.33-1.33 MPa) and sliding velocities (30-70 m/s) were investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer under tnlubricated conditions. The wear mechanisms and the wear transition were analyzed based on examinations of worn surfaces using SEM, EDS and XRD. When the velocity increases, the friction coefficient and the wear rate of the Ti-6A1-4V alloy show typical transition features, namely, the critical values of sliding velocities for 0.33 and 0.67 MPa are 60 and 40 m/s, respectively. The experimental results reveal that thetribological behaviours of Ti-6Al-4V alloys are controlled by the thermal-mechanical effects, which connects with the friction heat and hard particles of the pairs. A tribolayer containing mainly Ti oxides and V oxides is formed on the worn surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  20. Heat treatment of TI-6AL-4V produced by lasercusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available LaserCUSING® is a selective laser melting (SLM process that is capable of manufacturing parts by melting powder with heat input from a laser beam. LaserCUSING demonstrates potential for producing the intricate geometries specifically required for biomedical implants and aerospace applications. One main limitation to this form of rapid prototyping is the lack of published studies on the material performance of the resulting material. Studies of the material’s performance are often complicated by dependence on several factors, including starting powder properties, laser parameters, and post-processing heat treatments. This study aims to investigate the mechanical properties of LaserCUSING-produced Ti-6Al-4V and its performance relative to the conventional wrought counterpart. A combination of conventional and LaserCUSING-tailored heat treatments is performed. The resulting microstructures are studied and linked to the properties obtained from hardness tests. The findings highlight that LaserCused Ti-6Al-4V is competitive with traditional materials, provided that optimal parameters are chosen and parts are subject to tailored post-processing. In the as-built condition, LaserCused Ti-6Al-4V displays superior strength and hardness as a result of a martensitic microstructure, and a poorer performance in ductility. However, the material performance can be improved using tailored heat treatments. Careful consideration must be given to suitable post-processing before application in critical components in the aerospace or biomedical industry can occur

  1. Characterization of laser deposited Ti6Al4V/TiC composite powders on a Ti6Al4V substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the material characterization of Ti6Al4V/TiC composite produced by laser metal deposition. The Ti6Al4V/TiC composites were deposited with a composition ratio of 50 wt.% Ti64l4V and 50 wt.% TiC. The depositions were achieved...

  2. Notch Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baragetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map the corrosion fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue initiation and failure mechanisms. The study included the effect of the stress concentration factor at very high Kt values and the role of different inert or corrosive environments. This alloy is widely used in naval-structures and aero-engine communities and the outcomes of the work will have direct relevance to industrial service operations. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1; 2 × 105 cycles; f = 10 Hz were carried out on smooth and high notched (Ktmax = 18.65 flat specimens in laboratory air, paraffin oil, laboratory air + beeswax coating, recirculated 3.5% NaCl solution. The step loading procedure was used to perform the fatigue tests and the surface replica method and crack propagation gages were used to check crack nucleation and propagation until failure. Log-Log plots of σmax vs. Kt showed a bilinear behavior and enabled the demonstration of the presence of a threshold stress intensity factor (Kt = 8–9, after which the environment has no effect on the fatigue damage for all the tested environments.

  3. Notch Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragetti, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The aim of this paper is to map the corrosion fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue initiation and failure mechanisms. The study included the effect of the stress concentration factor at very high Kt values and the role of different inert or corrosive environments. This alloy is widely used in naval-structures and aero-engine communities and the outcomes of the work will have direct relevance to industrial service operations. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1; 2 × 10⁵ cycles; f = 10 Hz) were carried out on smooth and high notched (Ktmax = 18.65) flat specimens in laboratory air, paraffin oil, laboratory air + beeswax coating, recirculated 3.5% NaCl solution. The step loading procedure was used to perform the fatigue tests and the surface replica method and crack propagation gages were used to check crack nucleation and propagation until failure. Log-Log plots of σmaxvs.Kt showed a bilinear behavior and enabled the demonstration of the presence of a threshold stress intensity factor (Kt = 8-9), after which the environment has no effect on the fatigue damage for all the tested environments.

  4. Mechanical evaluation of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) structures with electron beam melting (EBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Jayanthi; Starly, Binil; Raman, Shivakumar; Christensen, Andy

    2010-04-01

    Patient specific porous implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to their better performance over their generic counterparts. The recent introduction of electron beam melting (EBM) for the processing of titanium has led to a one step fabrication of porous custom titanium implants with controlled porosity to meet the requirements of the anatomy and functions at the region of implantation. This paper discusses an image based micro-structural analysis and the mechanical characterization of porous Ti6Al4V structures fabricated using the EBM rapid manufacturing process. SEM studies have indicated the complete melting of the powder material with no evidence of poor inter-layer bonding. Micro-CT scan analysis of the samples indicate well formed titanium struts and fully interconnected pores with porosities varying from 49.75%-70.32%. Compression tests of the samples showed effective stiffness values ranging from 0.57(+/-0.05)-2.92(+/-0.17)GPa and compressive strength values of 7.28(+/-0.93)-163.02(+/-11.98)MPa. For nearly the same porosity values of 49.75% and 50.75%, with a variation in only the strut thickness in the sample sets, the compressive stiffness and strength decreased significantly from 2.92 GPa to 0.57 GPa (80.5% reduction) and 163.02 MPa to 7.28 MPa (93.54 % reduction) respectively. The grain density of the fabricated Ti6Al4V structures was found to be 4.423 g/cm(3) equivalent to that of dense Ti6Al4V parts fabricated using conventional methods. In conclusion, from a mechanical strength viewpoint, we have found that the porous structures produced by the electron beam melting process present a promising rapid manufacturing process for the direct fabrication of customized titanium implants for enabling personalized medicine. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorption of human fibrinogen and albumin onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic Ti6Al4V powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jesús; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; Bruque, José M.; González-Martín, M. Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces has been widely studied because of its importance in various biotechnological, medical and technical applications, such as medical implants or biosensors. One of the main problems is the adsorption-induced conformational changes because they often modify the biological activity of the proteins, which is believed to be a key factor on the subsequent cellular adhesion. The aim of this work is the study of the adsorption of human fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA) onto Ti6Al4V particles, commercially available on different size, that are used to elaborate scaffolds to provide structural support to cell proliferation, promoting tissue development and bone regeneration among others. The study was done through the analysis of the adsorption isotherms and the electrical characterization of surfaces after adsorption in terms of the zeta potential (ζ). From this analysis it seems that Fg adsorbs preferentially vertically oriented (end-on) and HSA moves sequentially over the surface of the Ti6Al4V particles through dimmer formation, allowing adsorption progress over this initial bilayer. The zeta potential values of both proteins remain constant when the monolayer is formed. The study also extends the analysis of both adsorption behaviour and ζ potential characterization factors to the influence of the substrate hydrophobicity as this property can be modified for the Ti6Al4V by irradiating it with ultraviolet light (UV-C) without changes on its chemical composition [1,2]. Differences at low protein concentrations were found for both isotherms and zeta-potential values.

  6. Adsorption of human fibrinogen and albumin onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic Ti6Al4V powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jesús; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; Bruque, José M.; González-Martín, M. Luisa, E-mail: mlglez@unex.es

    2016-07-15

    Adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces has been widely studied because of its importance in various biotechnological, medical and technical applications, such as medical implants or biosensors. One of the main problems is the adsorption-induced conformational changes because they often modify the biological activity of the proteins, which is believed to be a key factor on the subsequent cellular adhesion. The aim of this work is the study of the adsorption of human fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA) onto Ti6Al4V particles, commercially available on different size, that are used to elaborate scaffolds to provide structural support to cell proliferation, promoting tissue development and bone regeneration among others. The study was done through the analysis of the adsorption isotherms and the electrical characterization of surfaces after adsorption in terms of the zeta potential (ζ). From this analysis it seems that Fg adsorbs preferentially vertically oriented (end-on) and HSA moves sequentially over the surface of the Ti6Al4V particles through dimmer formation, allowing adsorption progress over this initial bilayer. The zeta potential values of both proteins remain constant when the monolayer is formed. The study also extends the analysis of both adsorption behaviour and ζ potential characterization factors to the influence of the substrate hydrophobicity as this property can be modified for the Ti6Al4V by irradiating it with ultraviolet light (UV-C) without changes on its chemical composition [1,2]. Differences at low protein concentrations were found for both isotherms and zeta-potential values.

  7. on Ti6AL4V for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pavón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La fijación al tejido receptor de implantes para el reemplazo de hueso puede ser mejorada si poseen una superficie bioactiva con la capacidad de precipitar hidroxiapatita in vivo. Las aleaciones de titanio, a pesar de sus buenas propiedades mecánicas y comportamiento no-tóxico, no son bioactivas y, por tanto, no se enlazan directamente al hueso. Una de las maneras de modificar una superficie metálica bioinerte es recubriéndola con material bioactivo. En este trabajo se presenta la evaluación del comportamiento a fatiga mediante indentación hertziana (esférica de un recubrimiento de vidrio sobre Ti6Al4V. Este recubrimiento pertenece al sistema SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5 y, a pesar de que puede usarse para protección contra la corrosión, ha sido específicamente diseñado para ser utilizado como capa interna de un recubrimiento bicapa bioactivo con una capa externa de bajo contenido en SiO2 para garantizar la bioactividad. Los ensayos hertzianos monotónicos permitieron obtener una secuencia de daños comenzando con tres eventos de daño tipo frágil (agrietamiento tipo anillo, cono y radial seguidos por la delaminación del recubrimiento asociada a la deformación plástica del substrato. El primer daño frágil, el agrietamiento tipo anillo, fue usado como criterio para la evaluación del agrietamiento por corrosión bajo tensión y por carga cíclica, en aire y agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron la sensibilidad del recubrimiento a la degradación bajo ambos tipos de carga, estática y cíclica, siendo esta degradación considerablemente mayor en agua destilada debido a la susceptibilidad del vidrio a la corrosión. La delaminación fue también sensible a la carga cíclica hertziana presentando dos mecanismos diferentes dependiendo de la máxima carga aplicada.

  8. Swift heavy ion irradiation damage in Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V-1B: Study of the microstructure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amroussia, Aida; Avilov, Mikhail; Boehlert, Carl J.; Durantel, Florent; Grygiel, Clara; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Pellemoine, Frederique

    2015-12-01

    The α + β alloy Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) and the boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V-1B (wt.%), due to their low activation, corrosion resistance, good mechanical properties, and their commercial availability, were chosen as candidate materials for the beam dump for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIBs) at Michigan State University: a new generation accelerator with high power heavy ion beams. Through this study our goal is to establish the first irradiation data of the recently developed Ti-6Al-4V-1B (wt.%) alloy and investigate the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V due to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation damage. The results of hardness measurements showed that the studied Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) and Ti-6Al-4V-1B (wt.%) alloy, under the specified irradiation conditions, exhibited a high irradiation resistance. In fact, only a slight hardening was observed (∼13%) in the tested samples and no changes in the microstructure were observed. Temperature, dose and electronic excitation effects were also discussed.

  9. Prediction of residual stresses in electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lianyong; Ge, Keke; Jing, Hongyang; Zhao, Lei; Lv, Xiaoqing [Tianjin Univ. (China); Han, Yongdian [Tianjin Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Joining Technology

    2017-05-01

    A thermo-metallurgical procedure based on the SYSWELD code was developed to predict welding temperature field, microstructure and residual stress in butt-welded Ti-6Al-4V plate taking into account phase transformation. The formation of martensite was confirmed by the CCT diagram and microstructure in the weld joint, which significantly affects the magnitude of residual stress. The hole drilling procedure was utilized to measure the values of residual stress at the top surface of the specimen, which are in well agreement with the numerical results. Both simulated and test results show that the magnitude and distribution of residual stress on the surface of the plate present a large gradient feature from the weld joint to the base metal. Moreover, the distribution law of residual stresses in the plate thickness was further analyzed for better understanding of its generation and evolution.

  10. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Treated by Plasma Zr-alloying and Plasma Nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; LIU Xiaoping; LIU Xiaozhen; MENG Tianxu; GUO Qi; WANG Zhenxia; LIN Naimin

    2016-01-01

    A duplex treatment of plasma Zr-alloying and plasma nitriding was used to improve the tribological properties of Ti-6Al-4V. The microstructure of the Zr-N composite (alloyed) layer formed on Ti-6Al-4V and its hardness, friction and wear properties were investigated by using OM, SEM, GDOES, EDS, microhardness tester as well as ball-on-disk tribometer. The results of microstructural analysis show that the alloyed layer is compact and uniform and is mainly composed of ZrN, TiN0.3 and AlN. A very tiny adhesive and slight oxidation wear is the primary wear mechanism for the modiifed Ti-6Al-4V. The tribological property is improved signiifcantly after the duplex treatment. The good combination of antifriction and wear resistance for modiifed Ti-6Al-4V is mainly attributed to the higher surface hardness of metal nitrides formed on the surface and enhanced supporting of the Zr-diffusing layer.

  11. Enhanced wear and fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy modified by plasma carburizing/CrN coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y G; Wey, M Y; Hong, S I

    2007-05-01

    In this study, a newly developed duplex coating method incorporating plasma carburization and CrN coating was applied to Ti-6Al-4V and its effects on the wear resistance and fatigue life were investigated. The carburized layer with approximately150 microm in depth and CrN coating film with 7.5 microm in thickness were formed after duplex coating. Hard carbide particles such as TiC And V(4)C(3) were formed in the carburized layer. XRD diffraction pattern analysis revealed that CrN film had predominant [111] and [200] textures. The hardness (Hv) was significantly improved up to about 1,960 after duplex coating while the hardness value of original Ti-6Al-4V was 402. The threshold load for the modification and/or failure of CrN coating was measured to be 32 N using the acoustic emission technique. The wear resistance and fatigue life of duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V improved significantly compared to those of un-treated specimen. The enhanced wear resistance can be attributed to the excellent adhesion and improved hardness of CrN coating film for the duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V. The initiation of fatigue cracks is likely to be retarded by the presence of hard and strong layers on the surface, resulting in the enhanced fatigue life.

  12. Charpy impact test of Ti-6Al-4V joints diffusion welded at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.M.G. de; Urena, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain); Carrion, J.G. [National Inst. of Aeroespatial Technologies, Madrid (Spain). Materials and Structures Div.

    1996-08-15

    The Diffusion Welding (DW) of two or more sheets of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is particularly interesting for aerospace parts manufacturing. In some cases, DW can be carried out together with Superplastic Forming (SPF), because they can share a single facility and the same processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure, time, surface condition and vacuum. The overall manufacturing process is known as SPF/DW, by which it is possible to obtain honeycomb structures in a range of designs. Temperature requirements for industrial SPF of Ti-6Al-4V are very restrictive and a temperature of 1,023 K is needed. However, temperature is not so critical for DW, and the bond can be produced at lower temperatures, when other DW parameters, mainly pressure and time, are changed in a suitable way. The DW parameters for this research were chosen in order to produce DW joints below 1,023 K. The differences between DW at SPF temperatures and other lower temperatures would thus be revealed. Mechanical tests were used as a tool to check DW joints obtained at the temperatures used in the research (1,123 K and 1,023 K), and were complemented with metallographic studies. The results obtained form shear and peel tests have been already discussed. In the present work the results of impact energy tests are also presented.

  13. Compound Ceramic Coatings Grown by Micro-plasma Oxidation on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Wei; YAO Zhong-ping; JIANG Zhao-hua

    2006-01-01

    Compound ceramics coatings on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy were prepared by the direct current micro-plasma oxidation (MPO) in NaAlO2 solution. The composition and morphology of the coatings were studied with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer technique was used to analyze the solution features of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the process of preparation. The results reveal that Al2TiO5 forms in the coatings at the initial stages of MPO reaction, and its content changes rapidly with the reaction continuing: after 20 min, the ceramics coatings are composed of α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 and Al2TiO5, but after 40 min, its main composition is of α-Al2O3. The content of Ti in the solution will increase when the MPO time extends, and as will Al in the anode area until, after 30 min, it reaches the maximum and keeps constant from then on. Both substrata of Ti and Al in the electrolyte join the MPO reaction at the initial stage, where the formation of Al2TiO5 happens; but as the MPO reaction prolongs, more and more Al in the electrolyte will take part in the reaction, leading to the appearance of a large amount of Al2O3.

  14. Modeling of Processing-Induced Pore Morphology in an Additively-Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizviul Kabir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A selective laser melting (SLM-based, additively-manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy is prone to the accumulation of undesirable defects during layer-by-layer material build-up. Defects in the form of complex-shaped pores are one of the critical issues that need to be considered during the processing of this alloy. Depending on the process parameters, pores with concave or convex boundaries may occur. To exploit the full potential of additively-manufactured Ti-6Al-4V, the interdependency between the process parameters, pore morphology, and resultant mechanical properties, needs to be understood. By incorporating morphological details into numerical models for micromechanical analyses, an in-depth understanding of how these pores interact with the Ti-6Al-4V microstructure can be gained. However, available models for pore analysis lack a realistic description of both the Ti-6Al-4V grain microstructure, and the pore geometry. To overcome this, we propose a comprehensive approach for modeling and discretizing pores with complex geometry, situated in a polycrystalline microstructure. In this approach, the polycrystalline microstructure is modeled by means of Voronoi tessellations, and the complex pore geometry is approximated by strategically combining overlapping spheres of varied sizes. The proposed approach provides an elegant way to model the microstructure of SLM-processed Ti-6Al-4V containing pores or crack-like voids, and makes it possible to investigate the relationship between process parameters, pore morphology, and resultant mechanical properties in a finite-element-based simulation framework.

  15. Creep behavior of plasma carburized Ti-6Al-4V alloy; Comportamento em fluencia da liga Ti-6Al-4V carbonetada por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Veronica Mara Cortez Alves de; Barboza, Miguel Justino Ribeiro; Silva, Mariane Capellari Leite da; Pinto, Catia Gisele; Suzuki, Paulo Atsushi [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Reis, Danieli Aparecida Pereira; Piorino Neto, Francisco [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Machado, Joao Paulo B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma carburizing on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy submitted to creep tests. The results showed that the alloy Ti-6Al-4V had a hardness of 334 ± 18 HV. After treatment thermochemical by plasma, was observed the formation of a layer of average thickness of 1,5 μm and hardness of 809 ± 79 HV due to the presence of TiC phase identified by X-ray diffraction. The treatment increased the values of average roughness of 1,28 to 2,02 μm. The creep properties of carburized specimens were improved in comparison with those of the uncarburized Ti-6Al-4V alloy. (author)

  16. Preliminary fabrication and characterization of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V customized dental implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mohammad, Ashfaq; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Kotha, Sunil Babu; Celur, Sree Lalita; Hashem, Mohamed I; Vallittu, Pekka K; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2017-05-01

    The current study was aimed to fabricate customized root form dental implant using additive manufacturing technique for the replacement of missing teeth. The root form dental implant was designed using Geomagic™ and Magics™, the designed implant was directly manufactured by layering technique using ARCAM A2™ electron beam melting system by employing medical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder. Furthermore, the fabricated implant was characterized in terms of certain clinically important parameters such as surface microstructure, surface topography, chemical purity and internal porosity. Results confirmed that, fabrication of customized dental implants using additive rapid manufacturing technology offers an attractive method to produce extremely pure form of customized titanium dental implants, the rough and porous surface texture obtained is expected to provide better initial implant stabilization and superior osseointegration.

  17. Microstructure and inclusion of Ti-6Al-4V fabricated by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianli; Hu, Ningmin; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Ranran; Feng, Qingling

    2016-09-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) was used in fabricating the dense part from pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4V powder. The microstructural evolution and inclusion formation of as-fabricated part were characterized in depth. The microstructure was characterized by features of columnar prior β grains and acicular martensite α'. High density defects such as dislocations and twins can be produced in SLM process. Investigations on the inclusions find out that hard alpha inclusion, amorphous CaO and microcrystalline Al2O3 are three main inclusions formed in SLM. The inclusions formed at some specific sites on melt pool surface. The microstructural evolution and inclusion formation of as-fabricated material are closely related to the SLM process.

  18. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Welding of Mill-Annealed Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4300 MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING FRICTION STIR WELDING OF MILL-ANNEALED Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint) A.L. Pilchak...DURING FRICTION STIR WELDING OF MILL-ANNEALED Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Transactions A. Document contains color. 14. ABSTRACT In this study, mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V plates were successfully friction stir welded over a

  19. The Transverse Rupture Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Pang-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the transverse rupture strength and apparent hardness of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloys manufactured in the vertical (V and horizontal (H directions. The microstructure and the distribution of alloy elements were examined by optical microscope and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. The results show that the columnar α′ grains are formed along the building direction, and the elemental distributions of Ti, Al, and V are homogeneous in the alloy. The building direction does not sufficiently affect the density and apparent hardness. However, the transverse rupture strengths (TRS are obviously dominated by the building directions investigated in this study. The TRS of an H specimen is significantly superior to that of a V specimen by 48%. This phenomenon can be mainly attributed to the presence of disc-shaped pores.

  20. Cyclic oxidation behavior of plasma surface chromising coating on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Dongbo, E-mail: weidb1982@163.com [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Zhang Pingze; Yao Zhengjun; Zhou Jintang; Wei Xiangfei; Zhou Peng [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A chromising coating in gradient distribution was obtained on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cyclic oxidation behavior of chromising coating was studied at 650-850 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ti-Cr mutual diffusion layer changed into the Ti(Cr, Al){sub 2} laves phase layer, which prevented the inward diffusion of oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multi-layers structure of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed during oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti, Al diffused toward the oxide-gas interface, Cr diffused predominantly outward. - Abstract: The cyclic oxidation behavior of plasma surface chromising coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was researched in air at 650 Degree-Sign C, 750 Degree-Sign C and 850 Degree-Sign C. A NiCrAlY coating was prepared by multi-arc ion plating as a comparison. The surface morphologies, microstructures and phases of both coatings before and after oxidation were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The results show that the chromising coating consisted of an outer layer of loose Cr deposition, an intermediate layer of compact Cr deposition and an inner Ti-Cr mutual diffusion layer. The multilayer oxide scales formed in the oxidation process, which has the better cyclic oxidation resistance compared with NiCrAlY thermal barrier coating. However, the brittleness of Ti(Cr, Al){sub 2} laves phase resulted in spallation of oxide scales at 750 Degree-Sign C and 850 Degree-Sign C.

  1. Dry sliding wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 杨德庄; 武万良; 杨士勤

    2002-01-01

    The dry sliding wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy sliding against GCr15 steel under different velocities(between 0.2 and 1.2 m/s)and applied loads(from 30 to 90 N)were tested using a pin-on-disk tester in air. The wear occurred on both surfaces of the tested couplings. The wear rate of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy ranged from 23.0 to 123.8 mg/km. The wear of Ti-6Al-4V samples was in severe wear. The wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V samples increased with the increasing of load and shows a minimum on the curves of wear rate versus sliding velocity. SEM morphologies of worn surfaces and debris were observed. Phases in the debris were analyzed by means of XRD spectra.

  2. Dry sliding wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air and vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 杨德庄; 何世禹; 武万良

    2003-01-01

    Differences in wear rate, morphology of the worn surface and debris, and the microstructure in subsurface of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy after wear in air and vacuum were compared. The wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air is higher than that in vacuum in all the ranges of sliding velocities and applied loads. The wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air is controlled by a combination of abrasion, oxidation and delamination with micro-cracks remaining in subsurface. Under the vacuum condition, the surface layer of Ti-6Al-4V alloy experiences a severe plastic deformation on a great scale, which results in an ultra-fine microstructure.

  3. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance.

  4. Laser remelting of Ti6AL4V using high power diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Vázquez, M. R.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Boukha, Z.; El Amrani, K.; Botana, F. J.

    2012-04-01

    Titanium alloys present excellent mechanical and corrosion properties, being widely employed in different industries such as medical, aerospace, automotive, petrochemical, nuclear and power generation, etc. Ti6Al4V is the α-β alloy most employed in industry. The modification of its properties can be achieved with convectional heat treatments and/or with laser processing. Laser remelting (LR) is a technology applied to Ti6Al4V by other authors with excimer and Nd-Yag laser with pure argon shielding gas to prevent risk of oxidation. In the present contribution, laser remelting has been applied for the first time to Ti6Al4V with a high power diode laser (with pure argon as shielding gas). Results showed that remelted samples (with medium energy densities) have higher microhardness and better corrosion resistance than Ti6Al4V base metal.

  5. High strain rate and quasi-static tensile behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V after cyclic damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verleysen P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is common that energy absorbing structural elements are subjected to a number of loading cycles before a crash event. Several studies have shown that previous fatigue can significantly influence the tensile properties of some materials, and hence the behaviour of structural elements made of them. However, when the capacity of absorbing energy of engineering materials is determined, fresh material without any fatigue damage is most often used. This study investigates the effect of fatigue damage on the dynamic tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V in thin-sheet form. Results are completed with tests at quasi-static strain rates and observations of the fracture surfaces, and compared with results obtained from other alloys and steel grades. The experiments show that the dynamic properties of Ti-6Al-4V are not affected by a number of fatigue loading cycles high enough to significantly reduce the energy absorbing capabilities of EDM machined samples.

  6. In situ observation of texture and microstructure evolution during rolling and globularization of Ti-6Al-4V

    KAUST Repository

    Warwick, Jonnathan L W

    2013-03-01

    The evolution of texture in β-annealed Ti-6Al-4V during α-β rolling and so-called recrystallization annealing has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and ex situ characterization. During rolling, the initial α (0 0 0 2) texture softens and the colony α becomes kinked. During globularization, the texture strengthens as highly strained (and hence misoriented) areas of the laths disappear and this strengthening continues once coarsening of the primary α becomes dominant. At shorter heat treatment times the αs laths that form on cooling do so with a range of variant-related orientations to the β, but at longer annealing times this αs takes on the orientation of the surrounding αp. The implications for the mechanical performance of macrozone-containing bimodal Ti-6Al-4V material are discussed. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High strain rate and quasi-static tensile behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V after cyclic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán López, J.; Verleysen, P.; Degrieck, J.

    2012-08-01

    It is common that energy absorbing structural elements are subjected to a number of loading cycles before a crash event. Several studies have shown that previous fatigue can significantly influence the tensile properties of some materials, and hence the behaviour of structural elements made of them. However, when the capacity of absorbing energy of engineering materials is determined, fresh material without any fatigue damage is most often used. This study investigates the effect of fatigue damage on the dynamic tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V in thin-sheet form. Results are completed with tests at quasi-static strain rates and observations of the fracture surfaces, and compared with results obtained from other alloys and steel grades. The experiments show that the dynamic properties of Ti-6Al-4V are not affected by a number of fatigue loading cycles high enough to significantly reduce the energy absorbing capabilities of EDM machined samples.

  8. Microstructure and formation mechanism of titanium matrix composites coating on Ti-6Al-4V by laser cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Lifang; ZHANG Yongzhong; SHI Likai

    2007-01-01

    Laser cladding experiments were done on a 5-kW continuous wave CO2 laser to synthesize TiC and TiB reinforced titanium matrix composite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a mixture of Ti and B4C precursor powder. The thermodynamics of the reactions were calculated and analyzed. The microstructure and phase evolution of TiB and TiC composites were investigated. The results showed that the chemical reaction between Ti and B4C would release much heat, and these compounds, TiC, TiB, and small amount of TiB2, can be formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy if the supplied energy is sufficient to excite the reaction among the initial products. A good metallurgical bond between the coating and the substrate can be achieved. The microhardness of coating was irregular and the maximum value was approximately HV600.

  9. [Evaluation of biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, B J; Yan, R Z; Wang, C; Luo, C C; Hu, M

    2016-11-09

    Objective: To investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting(EBM). Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSC) co-cultured with Ti-6Al-4V specimens fabricated with EBM was prepared as experimental group and the regular cells culture was employed as control. The biocompatibility was detected using CCK-8 and cytoskeleton staining. The osteogenic differentiation ability was assessed using mineralization nodule formation. A 24 mm defect was created on the right mandibular body in 12 beagles. The mandibular defects were repaired with Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds mesh fabricated by EBM. General observation, CT and histology examination was carried out to evaluated the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds in vivo. Results: CCK-8 result showed the A values of the two groups had no significant difference(P >0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Cytoskeletal staining showed that cells were fully stretched out and grew well on T-i6Al-4V specimen. The actin fibers were arranged in parallel and stained uniformly with fluorescent. After osteogenic culture, the quantity of the nodule formation of the experimental group and control group were 5.7±0.7 and 5.1 ± 0.6, respectively(P>0.05). All animals had tolerated the surgery and healed well. CT examination showed that Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds mesh had good retention with surrounding bone and the continuity of mandible was restored. Histological examination showed that no inflammation reaction or toxity was caused in the soft tissue surrounding the scaffolds and in the liver and kidney after implantation. Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds had good retention with surrounding bone. Conclusions: Ti-6Al-4V fabricated with electron beam melting has good biocompatibility.

  10. Effect of cutting parameters on workpiece and tool properties during drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Yahya Hisman; Yildiz, Hakan [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oezek, Cebeli [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of machining is to provide the dimensional preciseness together with surface and geometric quality of the workpiece to be manufactured within the desired limits. Today, it is quite hard to drill widely utilized Ti-6Al-4 V alloys owing to their superior features. Therefore, in this study, the effects of temperature, chip formation, thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears on the drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V were investigated under dry cutting conditions with different cutting speeds and feed rates by using tungsten carbide (WC) and high speed steel (HSS) drills. Moreover, the mathematical modeling of thrust force, surface roughness, burr height and tool wear were formed using Matlab. It was found that the feed rate, cutting speed and type of drill have a major effect on the thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears. Optimum results in the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy drilling process were obtained using the WC drill.

  11. Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Growth on Functionalized Surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-Zr-Nb Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypchuk, Ie V; Petranovskaya, A L; Gorbyk, P P; Korduban, A M; Markovsky, P E; Ivasishin, O M

    2015-12-01

    A biomimetic approach for coating titanium-containing alloys with hydroxyapatite (HA) is reported in the article. Two types of Ti-containing alloys were chosen as an object for coating: Ti-6Al-4V (recommended for orthopedic application) and a novel highly biocompatible Ti-Zr-Nb alloy, with good mechanical compatibility due to a modulus that is more close to that of human bones (E ≈ 50 GPa instead of 110 GPa in Ti-6Al-4V). Coating process was carried out in a 10×-concentrated simulated body fluid (SBF)-synthetic analog of human body plasma. The effect of oxidized and carboxylated alloy surface on formation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite has been studied. By XRD, we found influence of thermal conditions on HA crystal formation and size. SEM images and Fourier transform infrared confirmed that hydroxyapatite with different morphology, crystallinity, and Ca/P ratio formed on metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that in the Ti-6AL-4V sample the observed Ca/P ratio reach 0.97, whereas in the Ti-Zr-Nb sample the observed Ca/P ratio reach 1.15.

  12. Compositionally graded Ti6Al4V + TiC made by direct laser fabrication using powder and wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. [IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mei, J. [IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Wu Xinhua [IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: X.Wu.1@bham.ac.uk

    2007-07-01

    Ti6Al4V reinforced with TiC has been fabricated as compositionally graded material by direct laser fabrication using TiC powder and Ti6Al4V wire which were fed simultaneously into the laser focal point. The microstructure along the length of the sample has been characterised using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the composition along the length changes as expected from the imposed changes in feed rate when allowance is made for the different capture efficiency for the powder and the wire. Some unmelted TiC has been observed in regions where the TiC fraction was high, but along most of the length of the samples TiC was completely melted and formed primary TiC, eutectic TiC and secondary TiC. Some preliminary tribological properties of the compositionally graded material were obtained using a sliding wear test which showed that the tribological properties of Ti6Al4V are improved by the reinforced TiC particles with the optimum frictional behaviour being found with approximately 24 vol% of TiC.

  13. EVIDENCE OF THE SEMI-SOLID FORMATION IN THE MEDICAL GRADE TI6AL4V ALLOY USING INDUCTION HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One alternative for processing cost reduction with simultaneous improvement of the mechanical properties of the Medical Ti6Al4V alloy is to get its semi-solid feedstock with a non-dendritic microstructure for further processing. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the possibility of obtaining a semi-solid Ti6Al4V alloy by heating it up from the room temperature to the range temperature between the lines solidus and liquidus, using induction heating. The Ti6Al4V billets underwent heat treatment and quenching for semi-solid formation using a designed device and specific time pulsed profile. The billet temperature reached 1630 oC, and after the cooling rate of 54 oC/s, some samples formed a globular phase characteristic of the semi-solid alloy. This study shows that it is possible to get a semi-solid microstructure of this alloy starting from its solid state.

  14. Tribological Properties of Mo-N Hard Coatings on Ti6Al4V by Double Glow Discharge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyan LI; Bin TANG; Junde PAN; Daoxin LIU; Zhong XU

    2003-01-01

    Mo-N hard coatings on Ti6Al4V were formed using double glow discharge technique. The fundamental coating properties,such as the phase, hardness and elastic modulus were investigated. The tribological performances of the coatings in dry wear condition were studied by means of ball-on-disc wear machine. The experimental results showed that the thickness of the Mo-N hard coating was about 10 μm. The coating was single fcc γ-Mo2N phase with (200) preferred orientation. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the coating was 13.80 GPa and 261.65 GPa respectively. The surface treatment enhanced the hardness and elastic modulus of the surface of Ti6Al4V base greatly. With GCr15 slider ball, the friction coefficient of the Mo-N hard coatingwas in the range of 0.56~0.65 at the steady state. Though the coating did not show friction reducing effect, it improved the wear resistance of Ti6Al4V greatly.

  15. Laser Coating Of Zirconium And ZrO2 Composites On Ti6Al4V For Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baloyi, Nkele

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coating is a technology for improving the surface properties of components. Laser coating produces uniform composition with thickened layers that display a good metallurgical bond to the base material. These coatings are dense and crack-free, and have non-porous microstructures. The advantages of the process are that the components surface will have high resistance to wear and corrosion, even at elevated temperatures. In this work, Ti6Al4V base material was coated with zirconium and zirconia composite material to improve the base materials resistance to corrosion and wear. Zirconium powder mixed with binder (PVA and cold glue was melted to produce a thin layer, which was then bonded to the Ti6Al4V by irradiation with a fibre laser, thus forming a zirconium + zirconia composite due to an in-situ reaction in the liquid state. The presence of binder in the Zr powder indicated a change in the microstructural behaviour, as the results showed a gradual increase in the hardness of the coated Ti6Al4V from top to bottom. It was also found that Zr + PVA binder coating was uniformly deposited, and had a less dendritic structure compared with Zr without binder or Zr with cold glue.

  16. Friction Stir-Welded Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V: Microstructure, Mechanical and Fracture Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. G.; Edwards, P.; Cantrell, A. M.; Gangwar, K.; Ramulu, M.

    2015-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been refined to create butt welds from two sheets of Ti-6Al-4V alloy to have an ultra-fine grain size. Weld specimen testing was completed for three different FSW process conditions: As welded, stress relieved, stress relieved and machined, and for the un-welded base material. The investigation includes macrostructure, microstructure, microhardness, tensile property testing, notched bar impact testing, and fracture toughness evaluations. All experiments were conducted in accordance with industry standard testing specifications. The microstructure in the weld nugget was found to consist of refined and distorted grains of alpha in a matrix of transformed beta containing acicular alpha. The enhanced fracture toughness of the welds is a result of increased hardness, which is attributed to an increase in alpha phase, increase in transformed beta in acicular alpha, and grain refinement during the weld process. The noted general trend in mechanical properties from as welded, to stress relieved, to stress relieved and machined conditions exhibited a decrease in ultimate tensile strength, and yield strength with a small increase in ductility and a significant increase in fracture toughness.

  17. Preparation, corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of the superhydrophobic TiO2 coatings on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Liu, Z. H.; Deng, L.; Sun, B.; Liu, S. D.; Wang, L.; Liu, H. Y.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique and subsequent superhydrophobic treatment were applied to fabricate the superhydrophobic TiO2 coatings on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The surface morphology, surface roughness, water contact angle, corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of the MAO and superhydrophobic samples were investigated. The results showed that the single anatase TiO2 coating was formed on the surface Ti-6Al-4V alloy with rough and porous micrometer-scale structure. The low surface energy film was grafted on the surface of the TiO2 coating by self-assembling reaction during the hydrophobic treatment process, which resulted in the formation of superhydrophobic surfaces with the water contact angle of 153.39°. It was found that the corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic samples increased by one order of magnitude compared to those of the uncoated Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The hemolysis ratio and platelets adhesion characteristics of the Ti-6Al-4V alloys were also improved greatly through the MAO treatment and subsequent superhydrophobic treatment. Especially, no platelet could be observed on the surface of the superhydrophobic samples. Therefore, the superhydrophobic TiO2 coatings of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with higher hemocompatibility would show great promise in their potential blood-contacting applications.

  18. Development of porous Ti6Al4V/chitosan sponge composite scaffold for orthopedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Miao [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Li, Xiang, E-mail: Xiangliwj@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite scaffold consisting of porous Ti6Al4V part filled with chitosan sponge was fabricated using a combination of electron beam melting and freeze-drying. The mechanical properties of porous Ti6Al4V part were examined via compressive test. The ultimate compressive strength was 85.35 ± 8.68 MPa and the compressive modulus was 2.26 ± 0.42 GPa. The microstructure of composite scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The chitosan sponge filled in Ti6Al4V part exhibited highly porous and well-interconnected micro-pore architecture. The osteoblastic cells were seeded on scaffolds to test their seeding efficiency and biocompatibility. Significantly higher cell seeding efficiency was found on composite scaffold. The biological response of osteoblasts on composite scaffolds was superior in terms of improved cell attachment, higher proliferation, and well-spread morphology in relation to porous Ti6Al4V part. These results suggest that the Ti6Al4V/chitosan composite scaffold is potentially useful as a biomedical scaffold for orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A novel composite scaffold with sufficient mechanical properties and favorable cell affinity environment was developed. • Significantly higher cell seeding efficiency was found on composite scaffold. • The osteoblasts on composite scaffolds showed well-spread morphology, improved cell attachment and higher proliferation.

  19. Functionally graded Co-Cr-Mo coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi Krishna, B; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2008-05-01

    Functionally graded, hard and wear-resistant Co-Cr-Mo alloy was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a metallurgically sound interface using Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENS). The addition of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy onto the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy significantly increased the surface hardness without any intermetallic phases in the transition region. A 100% Co-Cr-Mo transition from Ti-6Al-4V was difficult to produce due to cracking. However, using optimized LENS processing parameters, crack-free coatings containing up to 86% Co-Cr-Mo were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with excellent reproducibility. Human osteoblast cells were cultured to test in vitro biocompatibility of the coatings. Based on in vitro biocompatibility, increasing the Co-Cr-Mo concentration in the coating reduced the live cell numbers after 14 days of culture on the coating compared with base Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, coated samples always showed better bone cell proliferation than 100% Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Producing near net shape components with graded compositions using LENS could potentially be a viable route for manufacturing unitized structures for metal-on-metal prosthetic devices to minimize the wear-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening that are significant problems in current implant design.

  20. Deposition of dual-layer coating on Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Din, Sajad; Shah, M. A.; Sheikh, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Dual-layer diamond coatings were deposited on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) using a hot filament chemical vapour deposition technique with the anticipation of studying the structural and morphology properties of the alloy. The coated diamond films were characterized using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD studies reveal that the deposited films are highly crystalline in nature, whereas morphological studies show that the films have a cauliflower structure. XRD analysis was used to calculate the structural parameters of the Ti6Al4V and CVD-coated Ti6Al4V. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the nature and magnitude of the residual stress of the coatings.

  1. Three-dimensional characterization of pores in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Baldissera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct three-dimensional characterization of opaque materials through serial sectioning makes possible to visualize and better quantify a material microstructure, using classical metallographic techniques coupled with computer-aided reconstruction. Titanium alloys are used as biomaterials for bone implants because of its excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion resistance. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy (in wt. (% with porous microstructure permits the ingrowths of new-bone tissues improving the fixation bone/implant. This is important to understand connectivity, morphology and spatial distribution of pores in microstructure. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy compacts were produced by powder metallurgy and sintered at three distinct temperatures (1250, 1400 and 1500 °C to obtain distinct microstructures in terms of residual porosity. The visualization of the reconstructed 3D microstructure provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the porosity of Ti6Al4V alloy (volume fraction and pore morphology.

  2. Microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of electron-beam melted Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinyuk, A.N.; Trigub, N.P.; Zamkov, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovsky, P.E.; Teliovich, R.V.; Semiatin, S.L

    2003-04-15

    The chemical homogeneity, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V ingots synthesized via electron-beam melting were established. Despite large aluminum losses during melting, very uniform compositions well within the specification for the alloy were obtained in both 200- and 400-mm diameter ingots. The local conditions of melting and solidification produced essentially texture-free as-cast material with a largely equiaxed beta grain structure. Following hot working via rolling at various temperatures, a wide range of microstructures and textures similar to those found in conventionally-processed Ti-6Al-4V was obtained. The resulting mechanical properties were comparable to or better than those found in Ti-6Al-4V synthesized via vacuum arc remelting.

  3. RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTS AND STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTIVE LASER MELTED TI-6AL-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM of Ti-6Al-4V has significant potential in the aerospace and biotechnology industries. SLM employs a focused laser beam to melt successive layers of metallic powder into complex components. This process can result in the generation of high thermally-induced residual stresses. These residual stresses, together with micro-flaws/ pores from the inherent fabrication process, may lead to premature fatigue crack initiation and propagation at relatively low cyclic stresses. The hole-drilling strain gauge method was used to evaluate residual stresses within SLM Ti-6Al-4V specimens, with the intention of understanding the associated mechanisms for the successful application of SLM Ti-6Al-4V in industry.

  4. Use of nitrogen gas in high-speed milling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Ying-lin; DONG Hui-yue; LIU Gang; ZHANG Ming

    2009-01-01

    To inhibit chips burning in the high-speed cutting of Ti-6Al-4V, nitrogen gas with 0.7 MPa pressure was ejected at the milling zone. The high speed flowing of nitrogen gas speeds up the chips leaving, and prevents the chips from burning at the same time. By this method the cutting force is reduced. Especially, the temperature increment of the finished surface is smaller than 5 ℃. This prevents the increase of hardness, improves the roughness of the finished surface, and reduces the tools wear. Comparing and analyzing the morphology and color of chips, which are obtained from the high-speed machining of Ti-6Al-4V with and without nitrogen gas ejection, show the action mechanism of nitrogen gas during the high-speed machining of titanium alloy, and it is concluded that nitrogen gas can be used to realize the proper high-speed milling of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy.

  5. Structural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of spark plasma sintering parameters on the structural, mechanical and tribological characteristics of the Ti6Al4V alloy, which is used as implant material in biomedical engineering, was investigated. The experimental data confirm that full density and attractive mechanical properties can be obtained using the spark plasma sintering method. Tribological tests, performed in dry conditions, allowed the authors to indicate the most suitable sintering parameters. The material characterized by the highest wear resistance was selected for further tribological testing in articulation with UHMWPE in simulated body fluids. Although the weight of the polymeric material articulating against the sintered Ti6Al4V was slightly higher compared to the UHMWPE articulating against the reference material (Ti6Al4V rod, the friction coefficient was lower.

  6. Direct Laser Cladding of Cobalt on Ti-6Al-4V with a Compositionally Graded Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct laser cladding of cobalt on Ti-6Al-4V with and without a graded interface has been attempted using a continuous wave CO2 laser. Graded interface is developed by depositing a thin copper layer on Ti-6Al-4V substrate prior to multiple laser cladding of cobalt on it. Presence of copper interlayer was found to suppress the formation of brittle intermetallics of Ti and Co. The effect of process parameters on the microstructures, compositions, and phases of the interface was studied in details. Finally, the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the interface processed under optimum process parameters are reported.

  7. Residual stress in TI6AL4V objects produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zyl, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct Metal Laser Sintering produces 3D objects using a layer-by- layer method in which powder is deposited in thin layers. Laser beam scans over the powder fusing powder particles as well as the previous layer. High-concentration of laser energy input leads to high thermal gradients which induce residual stress within the as- built parts. Ti6Al4V (ELI samples have been manufactured by EOSINT M280 system at prescribed by EOS process-parameters. Residual stresses were measured by XRD method. Microstructure, values and directions of principal stresses inTi6Al4V DMLS samples were analysed.

  8. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin A. Buckholtz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aerosol spray deposition techniques, stable, all-trans SAMs of octacosanoic (28 carbons and triacontanoic (30 carbons acids were formed on the alloy. Films were similarly formed on titanium and aluminum oxide. The surface of vanadium oxide exhibited limited reactivity. MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that formed films were monolayers, without multilayers or aggregates present. Water contact angles are indicative of the presence of hydrophobic methyl groups at the interface. This stable carboxylic acid SAM formation could be a useful alternative to phosphonic acid SAMs for corrosion and other applications.

  9. Investigation and Optimization of Disk-Laser Welding of 1 mm Thick Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V joints are employed in nuclear engineering, civil industry, military, and space vehicles. Laser beam welding has been proven to be promising, thanks to increased penetration depth and reduction of possible defects of the welding bead; moreover, a smaller grain size in the fusion zone is better in comparison to either TIG or plasma arc welding, thus providing an increase in tensile strength of any welded structures. In this frame, the regression models for a number of crucial responses are discussed in this paper. The study has been conducted on 1 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V plates in square butt welding configuration; a disk-laser source has been used. A three-level Box-Behnken experimental design is considered. An optimum condition is then suggested via numerical optimization with the response surface method using desirability functions with proper weights and importance of constraints. Eventually, Vickers microhardness testing has been conducted to discuss structural changes in fusion and heat affected zone due to welding thermal cycles.

  10. Experimental investigation of abrasive electrodischarge grinding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Święcik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work is focused on determination of effects of grinding conditions on effectiveness of abrasive electrodischarge grinding (AEDG process applied for removal of machining allowance and forming of surface geometrical texture (SGT. These results were compared with one obtained for conventional grinding.Design/methodology/approach: The experimental investigations of deep-seated surface grinding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy using CBN grinding wheel with metal bond were the ground for this elaboration. The effectiveness of AEDG process was assessed based on specific tangential grinding force and energy of spark electric discharge and machining results were estimated on geometrical structure parameters.Findings: The effectiveness of machining allowance removal depended on conditions of AEDG process. Significant differences in SGT formed by AEDG process and conventional grinding were revealed.Practical implications: Abrasive electrodischarge grinding is useful to be particularly suitable for efficient and effective grinding of very hard structural materials such as high-alloy steel, sintered carbides, metal-based composite materials etc.Originality/value: AEDG experiments were carried out using the typical surface finishing grinder and especially adapted generator of spark discharge pulses. The majority of such experiments in the world were performed with the electrodischarge machine tool equipped with extra grinding wheel mounted on the grinding pin and functioning as one of the electrodes put into operation via pneumatic drive.

  11. Surface Characteristics and Electrochemical Impedance Investigation of Spark-Anodized Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garsivaz jazi, M. R.; Golozar, M. A.; Raeissi, K.; Fazel, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the surface characteristic of oxide films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy formed by an anodic oxidation treatment in H2SO4/H3PO4 electrolyte at potentials higher than the breakdown voltage was evaluated. Morphology of the surface layers was studied by scanning electron microscope. The results indicated that the diameter of pores and porosity of oxide layer increase by increasing the anodizing voltage. The thickness measurement of the oxide layers showed a linear increase of thickness with increasing the anodizing voltage. The EDS analysis of oxide films formed in H2SO4/H3PO4 at potentials higher than breakdown voltage demonstrated precipitation of sulfur and phosphor elements from electrolyte into the oxide layer. X-ray diffraction was employed to exhibit the effect of anodizing voltage on the oxide layer structure. Roughness measurements of oxide layer showed that in spark anodizing, the Ra and Rz parameters would increase by increasing the anodizing voltage. The structure and Corrosion properties of oxide layers were studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution. The obtained EIS spectra and their interpretation in terms of an equivalent circuit with the circuit elements indicated that the detailed impedance behavior is affected by three regions of the interface: the space charge region, the inner compact layer, and outer porous layer.

  12. Microwave-assisted fabrication of strontium doped apatite coating on Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Kong, Shiqin [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Pan, Yan; Zhang, Zhiguo [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Deng, Linhong, E-mail: dlh@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Strontium has been shown to be a beneficial dopant to calcium phosphates when incorporated at nontoxic level. In the present work we studied the possibility of solution derived doping strontium into calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V based implants by a recently reported microwave-assisted method. By using this method strontium doped calcium phosphate nuclei were deposited to pretreated titanium alloy surface dot by dot to compose a crack-free coating layer. The presence of strontium in solution led to reduced roughness of the coating and finer nucleus size formed. In vitro study found that proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells seeded on the coating were influenced by strontium content in coatings, showing an increasing followed by a decreasing behavior with increasing substitution of calcium by strontium. It is suggested that this new microwave-assisted strontium doped calcium phosphate coatings may have great potential in implant modification. - Highlights: • Strontium doped calcium phosphate coating is deposited with microwave irradiation. • Increase of strontium reduces coating roughness and results in finer nucleus size. • Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts depend on doped strontium content.

  13. Biocompatibility and compressive properties of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds having Mg element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Seyed Mohammad; Arabi, Hossein; Mirdamadi, Shamsodin; Mirsalehi, Seyed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Porous scaffolds of Ti-6Al-4V were produced by mixing of this alloy with different amount of magnesium (Mg) powders. The mixtures were compacted in steel die by applying uniaxial pressure of 500 MPa before sintering the compacts in sealed quartz tubes at 900 °C for 2 h. Employing Archimedes׳ principle and Image Tool software, the total and open volume percentages of porosities within the scaffolds were found to be in the range of 47-64% and 41-47%, respectively. XRD results of titanium before and after sintering showed that no contamination, neither oxides nor nitrides formed during processes. Compressive properties of the scaffolds were studied using an Instron machine. The observed compressive strength and Young׳s module of the scaffolds were in the range of 72-132 MPa, and 37-47 GPa, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation rate of MG-63 on porous samples were investigated. The results showed that proliferation rate increased with increasing Mg content. However no clear differences were observed between samples regarding cell attachment, so that bridges were observed in all cell gaps within the scaffolds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microstructural Evolution in Friction Stir Welding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubisoff, H.; Querin, J.; Magee, D.; Schneider, J.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a thermo-mechanical process that utilizes a nonconsumable rotating pin tool to consolidate a weld joint. In the conventional FSW process, the pin tool is responsible for generating both the heat required to soften the material and the forces necessary to deform and combine the weld seam. As such, the geometry of the pin tool is important to the quality of the weld and the process parameters required to produce the weld. Because the geometry of the pin tool is limitless, a reduced set of pin tools was formed to systematically study their effect on the weldment with respect to mechanical properties and resultant microstructure. In this study 0deg, 15deg, 30deg, 45deg, and 60deg tapered, microwave sintered, tungsten carbide (WC) pin tools were used to FSW Ti-6Al-4V. Transverse sections of the weld were used to test for mechanical properties and to document the microstructure using optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was also used to characterize the microstructure in the welds. FSW results for the 45deg and 60deg pin tools are reported in this paper.

  15. Dynamic globularization of a-phase in Ti6Al4V alloy during hot compression

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available of transformation of ß into a or vice-versa and the presence of different phases in the compressed Ti6Al4V sample. Globular alpha phase was revealed in the isothermally compressed sample in addition to martensitic and lamellar a/ß structures. The transition...

  16. Mechanical properties of mill-annealed Ti6Al4V investment cast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy, produced by investment casting using yttria stabilized zirconia, was machined and then mill-annealed in vacuum furnace. The ultimate strength, yield strength and percentage elongation were largely improved compared to the same alloy...

  17. Microstructure characterization of laser melt injected WC particles in Ti-6Al-4V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeling, JA; Ocelik, [No Value; De Hosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA

    2001-01-01

    The Laser Melt Injection (LMI) process is explored to create a protective Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) layer consisting of 80 mum sized WC particles embedded in the top layer of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In particular the influences of the main process parameters on the laser track dimensions and

  18. SiCp/Ti6Al4V functionally graded materials produced by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Ocelik, V.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2002-01-01

    With a well-controlled laser melt injection (LMI) process, for the first time the feasibility is demonstrated to produce SiC particles (SiCp) reinforced Ti6Al4V functionally graded materials (FGMs). SiCp are injected just behind the laser beam into the extended part of the laser melt pool that is fo

  19. Laser-assisted coating of TI6AL4V substrate with Zinc

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, NM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available in them displaying excellent metallurgical bonding properties and have minimal dilution with the base material. Ti6Al4V has received tremendous attention in the biomedical application following stainless steel and cobalt based alloy, but it appears...

  20. Chemically milled alpha-case layer from Ti-6Al-4V alloy investment cast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The as cast Ti6Al4V, obtained after investment casting with yttria stabilized zirconia face-coat, was chemically milled using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. This process removed completely the alpha-case layer. Lower hardness...

  1. Metallurgical evaluation of laser additive manufactured Ti6Al4V components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V laser manufactured samples were analysed using optical and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray micro-analyser. The presence of a, a(sub2), ß, a', and a'' phases were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The angle...

  2. Flow behavior and plasticity of Ti-6Al-4V under different electrically assisted treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianhao; Peng, Linfa; Yi, Peiyun; Lai, Xinmin

    2016-12-01

    Both electrically assisted tension (EAT) and electrically assisted pre-treatment tension (EAPT) were conducted to compare different effects on improving deformation resistance and ductility of Ti-6Al-4V. It is found EAPT obviously enhanced the ductility of Ti-6Al-4V compared with that obtained in EAT. In order to decouple the thermal effect from electro-plastic effect, thermally assisted tension (TAT) as well as thermally assisted pre-treatment tension (TAPT) were also conducted. The result indicates deformation mechanism of alpha phase with h.c.p crystal structure in Ti-6Al-4V was insensitive to electric current when current duty is less than 20%. However, the elevated temperature alone is insufficient to account for additional stress drop in the initial yielding stress observed in EAT and EAPT when current duty is higher than 20%. According to XRD investigation on specimens treated in original state, TAPT and EAPT, it is found electric current accelerates the annihilation of alpha phase and formation of beta phase in Ti-6Al-4V more effectively than the rising temperature does and such microstructure evolution also throws light on the improvement of flow stress and ductility observed in EAPT both experimentally and theoretically.

  3. Relationships among the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Fatigue Behavior in Thin Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of Ti6Al4V are complex and strongly affect its mechanical properties and fatigue behavior. This paper investigates the role of microstructure on mechanical and fatigue properties of thin-section Ti6Al4V sheets, with the aim of reviewing the effects of microstructure on fatigue properties where suboptimal microstructures might result following heat treatment of assemblies that may not be suited to further annealing, for example, following laser welding. Samples of Ti6Al4V sheet were subjected to a range of heat treatments, including annealing and water quenching from temperatures ranging from 650°C to 1050°C. Micrographs of these samples were inspected for microstructure, and hardness, 0.2% proof stress, elongation, and fracture strength were measured and attributed back to microstructure. Fractography was used to support the findings from microstructure and mechanical analyses. The strength ranking from high to low for the microstructures of thin Ti6Al4V sheets observed in this study is as follows: acicular α′ martensite, Widmanstätten, bimodal, and equiaxed microstructure. The fatigue strength ranking from high to low is as follows: equiaxed, bimodal, Widmanstätten, and acicular α′ martensite microstructure.

  4. Biological performance of uncoated and octacalcium phosphate-coated Ti6Al4V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; Li, JiaPing; Valk, van der Chantal M.; Meijer, Gert; Layrolle, Pierre; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Groot, de Klaas

    2006-01-01

    The in vivo behavior of a porous Ti6Al4V material that was produced by a positive replica technique, with and without an octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating, has been studied both in the back muscle and femur of goats. Macro- and microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic, known to be both

  5. Correlation of microstructure and fatigue crack growth resistance in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masete, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the microstructure on fatigue crack growth resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated. Various microstructures were produced by solution treatment above the beta transus temperature followed by cooling at different rates...

  6. Laser processed TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bhat, Abhimanyu; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this first generation investigation is to evaluate fabrication, in vitro cytotoxicity, cell-material interactions and tribological performance of TiN particle reinforced Ti6Al4V composite coatings for potential wear resistant load bearing implant applications. The microstructural analysis of the composites was performed using scanning electron microscope and phase analysis was done with X-ray diffraction. In vitro cell-material interactions, using human fetal osteoblast cell line, have been assessed on these composite coatings and compared with Ti6Al4V alloy control samples. The tribological performance of the coatings were evaluated, in simulated body fluids, up to 1000 m sliding distance under 10 N normal load. The results show that the composite coatings contain distinct TiN particles embedded in α+β phase matrix. The average top surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy increased from 394±8 HV to 1138±61 HV with 40 wt% TiN reinforcement. Among the composite coatings, the coatings reinforced with 40 wt% TiN exhibited the highest wear resistance of 3.74×10(-6) mm(3)/Nm, which is lower than the wear rate, 1.04×10(-5) mm(3)/Nm, of laser processed CoCrMo alloy tested under identical experimental conditions. In vitro biocompatibility study showed that these composite coatings were non-toxic and provides superior cell-material interactions compared to Ti6Al4V control, as a result of their high surface energy. In summary, excellent in vitro wear resistance and biocompatibility of present laser processed TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings clearly show their potential as wear resistant contact surfaces for load bearing implant applications.

  7. Controllable two-scale network architecture and enhanced mechanical properties of (Ti5Si3+TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Huang, L. J.; Duan, T. B.; Wei, S. L.; Kaveendran, B.; Geng, L.

    2016-09-01

    Novel Ti6Al4V alloy matrix composites with a controllable two-scale network architecture were successfully fabricated by reaction hot pressing (RHP). TiB whiskers (TiBw) were in-situ synthesized around the Ti6Al4V matrix particles, and formed the first-scale network structure (FSNS). Ti5Si3 needles (Ti5Si3) precipitated in the β phase around the equiaxed α phase, and formed the secondary-scale network structure (SSNS). This resulted in increased deformation compatibility accompanied with enhanced mechanical properties. Apart from the reinforcement distribution and the volume fraction, the ratio between Ti5Si3 and TiBw fraction were controlled. The prepared (Ti5Si3 + TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites showed higher tensile strength and ductility than the composites with a one-scale microstructure, and superior wear resistance over the Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding wear conditions at room temperature.

  8. Preparation of conversion coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride through chemical modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; He, Jian; Yang, Xu

    2016-05-01

    Conversion coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was prepared through chemical modification in phytic acid and ammonium fluoride mixed solution. The influences of pH, time and the composition of solution on the microstructure of alloy surface were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure. The chemical composition of alloy surface before and after modification was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that a conversion coating could be formed on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride, the growth and microstructure of the conversion coatings were critically dependent on the pH, time and concentration of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride. In 100 mg/ml phytic acid containing 125 mg/ml ammonium fluoride solution with a pH of 6, a compact conversion coating with the thickness of about 4.7 μm formed after 30 min immersion on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. The preliminary evaluation of bioactivity of conversion coating was performed by in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that this chemical modification method is a promising surface modification technique for Ti-6Al-4V alloy inplants.

  9. Improving the osteointegration of Ti6Al4V by zeolite MFI coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong [Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Jiao, Yilai [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China); Li, Xiaokang [Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Guo, Zheng, E-mail: guozheng@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Osteointegration is crucial for success in orthopedic implantation. In recent decades, there have been numerous studies aiming to modify titanium alloys, which are the most widely used materials in orthopedics. Zeolites are solid aluminosilicates whose application in the biomedical field has recently been explored. To this end, MFI zeolites have been developed as titanium alloy coatings and tested in vitro. Nevertheless, the effect of the MFI coating of biomaterials in vivo has not yet been addressed. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effects of MFI-coated Ti6Al4V implants in vitro and in vivo. After surface modification, the surface was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). No difference was observed regarding the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti6Al4V (Ti) and MFI-coated Ti6Al4V (M−Ti) (p > 0.05). However, the attachment of MC3T3-E1 cells was found to be better in the M−Ti group. Additionally, ALP staining and activity assays and quantitative real-time RT-PCR indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells grown on the M−Ti displayed high levels of osteogenic differentiation markers. Moreover, Van-Gieson staining of histological sections demonstrated that the MFI coating on Ti6Al4V scaffolds significantly enhanced osteointegration and promoted bone regeneration after implantation in rabbit femoral condylar defects at 4 and 12 weeks. Therefore, this study provides a method for modifying Ti6Al4V to achieve improved osteointegration and osteogenesis. - Highlights: • Osteointegration is a crucial factor for orthopedic implants. • We coated MFI zeolite on Ti6Al4V substrates and investigated the effects in vitro and in vivo. • The MFI coating displayed good biocompatibility and promoted osteogenic differentiation in vitro. • The MFI coating promoted osteointegration and osteogenesis peri-implant in vivo.

  10. [Comparison of surface characteristics and cytocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated with select laser melting and electron beam melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B J; Wang, H; Yan, R Z; Wang, C; Li, R X; Hu, M

    2016-12-09

    Objective: To evaluate the surface characteristics and cytocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated using select laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) technique. Methods: Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens were fabricated with SLM and EBM. A wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used as a control. Its properties were evaluated using component analysis, contact angle test, surface roughness, surface topography, cell ultrastructure, cell attachment and proliferation observation, metal ion precipitation examination. Results: The roughness of SLM and EBM specimens was suitable for cell attachment but not the best. The character of SLM and EBM specimens was hydrophobic (>65°). The surface topography of EBM and SLM specimens were similar, but were not the best type for cell attachment. The components of Ti-alloy oxide film were detected in all the specimens. The content of Ti, Al, V ions of EBM, SLM and wrought specimens were very low and did not affect the cell attachment and proliferation. The ultrastructure of cell was normal, and the cytomembrane was intact. The number of cells was similar to each other among the three kinds of specimens and increased obviously with the culture time. Conclusions: The results of the study suggested that EBM and SLM Ti-6Al-4V specimens possessed good surface characteristics. However, the surface modification are needed further.

  11. Influence of Sc on high temperature strengthening behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum arc melting technique was used to prepare Ti-6Al-4V alloy containing Sc (0.3% and 0.5%, mass fraction). The ingots were melted twice by vacuum self-consumable electrode arc furnace. Forging of ingots was started in β-phase region and finished in high (α+β)-phase region. Annealing after forging was performed in low (α+β)-phase region for 30 min. Isothermal high temperature compression tests were conducted using thermal simulation machine under Ar atmosphere at 850 ℃ and 1 000 ℃, and the strain rate were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 s-1. Optical microscope(OM), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectrum(EDS) and transmission electron microscope(TEM) were used to study the microstructure evolution during high temperature deformation. The results show that, the peak stress value of alloys increases with increasing Sc content after deformation at 850 ℃,however, there is no obvious strengthening of Sc when the alloys are deformed at 1 000 ℃. Sc exists as Sc2O3 forms by internal oxidation during forging procedure, only minor Sc solutes in matrix. At 850 ℃, the interaction between dislocation and participated particles and twinning mechanism controls the deformation procedure accompanied recrystallization. At 1 000 ℃, the deformation of alloys containing Sc is mainly controlled by twinning, while the deformation of alloy without Sc is not only controlled by twinning,but also the interaction between dislocation and precipitated particles inside the twinning lamellar.

  12. Surface carburizing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, A. F.; Abboud, J. H.; Benyounis, K. Y.

    2010-03-01

    Surface carburizing of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy using laser melting has been investigated experimentally, with the aim of increasing surface hardness and hence improving related properties such as wear and erosion resistance. The surface of the material was coated with graphite prior to laser irradiation. Carburizing was achieved by a laser alloying mechanism, which includes melting the substrate and dissolution of the graphite in the liquid state. Two different types of lasers were used: (i) a continuous wave CO 2 (CW CO 2) laser with a maximum power of 3 kW, and (ii) a pulsating Nd-YAG laser with a maximum power per pulse of 100 W. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, EDS-analysis, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to analyze the microstructure and identify phases of the carburized layers. The results show that the carburized layers produced by CW CO 2 and Nd-YAG lasers are macroscopically homogeneous and have gradient features. The microstructures consisted of TiC crystals in the matrix of α'-Ti. The TiC crystals are either in the form of particles or dendrites. The depths to which these layers extend ranged from about 0.2-0.5 mm, depending on the treatment parameters. The volume fraction of the dendrites was found to decrease with increasing laser power or increasing traverse speed. Microhardness has been found to be directly related to the volume fraction and the size of the TiC phase. It increased to a value ranging from 500 to 800 Hv as compared to 350 Hv for the as-received substrate.

  13. Wear of Steel and Ti6Al4V Rollers in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Shareef, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by results of a qualification test of a mechanism to be used for the James Webb Space Telescope. Post-test inspections of the qualification test article revealed some loose wear debris and wear of the steel rollers and the mating Ti6Al4V surfaces. An engineering assessment of the design and observations from the tested qualification unit suggested that roller misalignment was a controlling factor. The wear phenomena were investigated using dedicated laboratory experiments. Tests were done using a vacuum roller rig for a range of roller misalignment angles. The wear in these tests was mainly adhesive wear. The measured wear rates were highly correlated to the misalignment angle. For all tests with some roller misalignment, the steel rollers lost mass while the titanium rollers gained mass indicating strong adhesion of the steel with the titanium alloy. Inspection of the rollers revealed that the adhesive wear was a two-way process as titanium alloy was found on the steel rollers and vice versa. The qualification test unit made use of 440F steel rollers in the annealed condition. Both annealed 440F steel rollers and hardened 440C rollers were tested in the vacuum roller rig to investigate possibility to reduce wear rates and the risk of loose debris formation. The 440F and 440C rollers had differing wear behaviors with significantly lesser wear rates for the 440C. For the test condition of zero roller misalignment, the adhesive wear rates were very low, but still some loose debris was formed

  14. In vivo performance of selective electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponader, Sabine; von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Widenmayer, Martin; Lutz, Rainer; Heinl, Peter; Körner, Carolin; Singer, Robert F; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich W; Schlegel, Karl A

    2010-01-01

    Highly porous titanium structures are widely used for maxillofacial and orthopedic surgery because of their excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and their facilitation of bone ingrowth. In contrast to common methods, the generation of porous titaniumproducts by selective electron beam melting (SEBM), an additive manufacturing technology, overcomes difficulties concerning the extreme chemical affinity of liquid titanium to atmospheric gases which consequently leads to strongly reduced ductility of the metal. The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of a smooth compact and a porous Ti-6Al-4V structure directly produced by the SEBM process as scaffolds for bone formation. SEBM-processed titanium implants were placed into defects in the frontal skull of 15 domestic pigs. To evaluate the direct contact between bone and implant surfaces and to assess the ingrowth of osseous tissue into the porous structure, microradiographs and histomorphometric analyses were performed 14, 30, and 60 days after surgery. Bone ingrowth increased significantly during the period of this study. After 14 days the most outer regions of the implants were already filled with newly formed bone tissue (around 14%). After 30 days the bone volume inside the implants reached almost 30% and after 60 days abundant bone formation inside the implants attained 46%. During the study only scarce bone-implant contact was found around all implants, which did not exceed 9% around compact specimens and 6% around porous specimens after 60 days. This work demonstrates that highly porous titanium implants with excellent interconnectivity manufactured using the SEBM method are suitable scaffolds for bone ingrowth. This technique is a good candidate for orthopedic and maxillofacial applications.

  15. A Comparison Between Mechanical And Electrochemical Tests on Ti6Al4V Welded By LBW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serroni, G.; Bitondo, C.; Astarita, A.; Scala, A.; Gloria, A.; Prisco, U.; Squillace, A.; Bellucci, F.

    2011-05-01

    Titanium and its alloys are nowadays widely used in many sectors: in the medical field (orthopedic and dental ones), in the architectural field, in the chemical plants field and in aeronautic. In this last field it is more and more used both for its contribution to make lightweight and time durable structures and for its compatibility with new materials, first of all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP). To this aim, lots of researches are now focusing on new and emerging technologies capable to make titanium objects and, at the same time, reducing the scrap, since titanium alloys for aeronautic application are very expensive. This paper examines Grade 5 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V) welded by Laser Beam (LBW) in butt-joint configuration. The source was Nd:YAG laser, moreover two inert gases were used, in order to provide a shield both on the top and on the bottom of the weld bead. The joints were studied by varying two process parameters: welding speed and power of the laser beam. It was not possible to realize a full experimental plan, due to technological limits in making titanium laser beam welds. The joints were tested to measure their mechanical properties and the corrosion resistance. The process parameters do not significantly affect the maximum static strength of the joints. Microscopic analysis showed that welds made with high power and low welding speed have a uniform weld bead, and no macroscopic defect occurs. Fatigue test results, instead, show a marked influence of the morphology of the weld bead: the occurrence of some defects, such as the undercut, both on the top and on the bottom of the weld bead, dramatically reduced fatigue resistance of the joints. Corrosion resistance was studied using the electrochemical micro cell technique, which allows to distinguish electrochemical properties of each zone of the weld bead, even when, as in this case, they are very narrow. By a general point of view, it has been demonstrated that the joints showing the best

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Yang, Huihui; Yu, Hanchen; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2017-07-01

    The microstructures, potentiodynamic curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are characterized for Ti-6Al-4V samples produced by selective laser melting (SLM), SLM followed by heat treatment (HT), wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), and traditional rolling to investigate their corrosion behaviors. Results show that the processing technology acts a significant role in controlling the microstructures, which in turn directly determine their corrosion resistance. The order of corrosion resistance of these samples is SLM < WAAM < rolling < SLM+HT. Among these microstructural factors for influencing corrosion resistance, type of constituent phase is the main one, followed by grain size, and the last is morphology. Finally, the application potentials of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy are verified in the aspect of corrosion resistance.

  17. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V surfaces texturized by laser engraving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Amador, A.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar Rivero, P.; Peña Ballesteros, D. Y.; Estupiñán Duran, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    The cell adhesion of the implant is determinate by the chemical composition, topography, wettability, surface energy and biocompatibility of the biomaterial. In this work the interaction between human osteosarcoma HOS cells and textured Ti6Al4V surfaces were evaluated. Ti6Al4V surfaces were textured using a CO2 laser in order to obtain circular spots on the surfaces. Test surfaces were uncoated (C1) used as a control surface, and surfaces with points obtained by laser engraving, with 1mm spacing (C2) and 0.5mm (C3). The HOS cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. No cells toxicity after one month incubation time occurred. The increased cell adhesion and cell spreading was observed after 1, 3 and 5 days without significant differences between the sample surfaces (C2 and C3) and control (uncoated) at the end of the experiment.

  18. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Tribopairs: Effect of Thermal Oxidation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Massimo; Boccarusso, Luca; Velotti, Carla; Astarita, Antonello; Squillace, Antonino; Carrino, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the study of the influence of the thermal oxidation (TO) treatment on the tribological properties of Ti-6Al-4V tribopairs. A detailed experimental campaign, including tribological tests, microgeometrical measurements, microhardness tests and phase composition analyses, was carried out on both treated and untreated components. The tribological behavior was studied through the pin-on-disk tests in four different contact conditions: treated disk coupled with untreated pin, untreated disk coupled with treated pin, both treated and both untreated. The effectiveness of the treatment in enhancing the tribological properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheets was found. In particular, the thermal oxidation treatment, promoting hardness enhancement and the formation of a superficial rutile layer, changed the wear mechanism of the titanium alloy, passing from adhesive wear type, for the untreated case, to abrasive wear, in the treated one.

  19. Ti-6Al-4V ELI宽幅板坯锻造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 李巍; 李渭清; 段晓辉; 刘继雄; 庞洪

    2015-01-01

    为了研制出Ti-6AL-4V ELI钛合金4500m深潜器用宽幅厚板,采用80/100MN吨快锻机锻造,并通过合理的锻造工艺和变形参数,在国内首次成功研制出230×1,750×4,000mm的Ti-6Al-4V ELI钛合金宽幅板坯。板坯的显微组织、力学性能、探伤水平等各项指标均满足设计要求。

  20. Quasi-static Torsional Deformation Behavior of Porous Ti6Al4V alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Martinez, Shantel; Rogoza, Ben Tunberg; Livingston, Chase; Venkateswaran, Deepak; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-07-20

    Laser processed Ti6Al4V alloy samples with total porosities of 0%, 10% and 20% have been subjected to torsional loading to determine mechanical properties and to understand the deformation behavior. The torsional yield strength and modulus of porous Ti alloy samples was found to be in the range of 185-332 MPa and 5.7-11 GPa, respectively. With an increase in the porosity both the strength and the modulus decreased, and at 20% porosity the torsional modulus of Ti6Al4V alloy was found to be very close to that of human cortical bone. Further, the experiments revealed clear strain hardening and ductile deformation in all the samples, which suggests that the inherent brittleness associated solid-state sintered porous materials can be completely eliminated via laser processing for load bearing metal implant applications.

  1. Microstructure and erosive wear behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloy treated by plasma Ni alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. X.; Wu, H. R.; Shan, X. L.; Lin, N. M.; He, Z. Y.; Liu, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Ni modified layers were prepared on the surface of Ti6Al4V substrate by the plasma surface alloying technique. The surface and cross-section morphology, element concentration and phase composition were investigated by thermal field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The cross-section nano-scale hardness of the Ni modified layer was measured by nanoindenter. The results showed that the Ni modified layers exhibited triple-layer structure and continuous gradient distribution of the concentration. From the surface to the matrix, they were 2 μm Ni deposition layer, 8 μm Ni-rich alloying layer including the phases of Ni3Ti, NiTi, Ti2Ni, AlNi3 and 24 μm Ni-poor alloying layer forming the solid solution of nickel. With increasing of the thickness of the Ni modified layer, the microhardness increased first, reached the climax, then gradient decreased. The erosion tests were performed on the surfaces of the untreated and treated Ti6Al4V samples using MSE (Micro-slurry-jet Erosion) method. The experiment results showed that the wear rate of every layer showed different values, and the Ni-rich alloying layer was the lowest. The strengthening mechanism of the Ni modified layer showed micro-cutting wearing.

  2. Effect of Bonding Temperature on the Joining of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Cu Coatings and Sn Interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHazaa, Abdulaziz N.; AlGharbi, Sultan H.; Nishikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V samples were bonded together using Cu coatings and Sn interlayers. The bonding of titanium samples was successful at various temperatures (700-950 °C) which are below the β-transus temperature of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. An applied uniaxial pressure of 1 MPa and a short bonding time of 15 min were selected as bonding parameters. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy showed that the dissolution of Ti in the joint region increases with the increase in bonding temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis of the fractured surfaces revealed that Sn5Ti6, Sn3Ti5 and SnTi3 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were formed and dominated the joint structure. The shear strengths of the bonds increase with the increase in bonding temperature and reaches a maximum of 478 MPa for bond made at 950 °C. The microhardness analysis of the fractured surfaces compared to the base alloy confirmed the presence of the IMCs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the presence of Ti at the top surface of the fractured bonds made at 700 °C which confirmed a successful joint evolution even at the lowest bonding temperature used. Atomic force microscopy observations for bonds made at 700 and 950 °C coincide with the XRD and XPS analysis and were able to reveal the remaining Cu particles on the substrates.

  3. In vitro biomimetic deposition of apatite on alkaline and heat treated Ti6Al4V alloy surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Fatehi; F Moztarzadeh; M Solati-Hashjin; M Tahriri; M Rezvannia; R Ravarian

    2008-04-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates, having the ability of biomimetic calcium phosphate-based materials, especially hydroxyapatite deposition in a simulated body fluid (SBF) means of chemical treatment (alkaline treatment) and subsequent heat treatment, was studied. The effects of alkaline treatment time, concentration and heat treatment temperature on the formation of calcium phosphate (carbonate–hydroxyapatite) on Ti6Al4V surface were examined. For this purpose, the metallic substrates were treated in 0, 5 and 10 M NaOH solutions at a temperature of 60 or 80°C for 1 and 3 days. Subsequently the substrate was heat-treated at 500, 600 and 700°C for 1 h for consolidation of the sodium titanate hydrogel layer. Finally, they were soaked in SBF for 1 and 3 days. The substrate surfaces were characterized by the techniques commonly used for bulk material such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thin film X-ray diffraction (TF–XRD). With regard to the SEM and TF–XRD results, the optimum process consists of 3 days soaking in 5 M NaOH in 80°C and subsequent heat treatment at 600°C for 1h. It is worth mentioning that the results showed that the apatite formed within 3 days on the specimen surfaces, however, there was no sign of apatite formation in the control samples (without alkaline and heat treatment) which was treated for up to 3 days immersion in SBF.

  4. Interface microstructure of the brazed zirconia and Ti-6Al-4V using Ti-based amorphous filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline ZrO2−3mol.%Y2O3 was brazed to Ti-6Al-4V using a Ti47Zr28Cu14Ni11 (at.% amorphous ribbon at 1123 K in a high vacuum. The microstructure of the interface and evolution mechanism of the joint was investigated. The experimental result showed that the typical interfacial microstructures of the joints consisted of ZrO2/TiO+TiO2+Cu2Ti4O+Ni2Ti4O/α-Ti+(Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni eutectic/(Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni/acicular Widmanstäten structure/Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The microstructure of the brazed joint was related to the solution and chemical reaction among atoms during brazing. According to the mechanical property tests the joint brazed at 1123 K for 30 min obtained the maximum shear strength 63 MPa. Both the white block intermetallic compound (Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni and the coarse α-Ti+(Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni eutectic structure should be avoided forming in the brazed joint.

  5. Development of a versatile procedure for the biofunctionalization of Ti-6Al-4V implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezvanian, Parsa; Arroyo-Hernández, María [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ramos, Milagros [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Daza, Rafael; Elices, Manuel; Guinea, Gustavo V. [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Rigueiro, José, E-mail: jperez@mater.upm.es [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Surface of Ti-6Al-4V was functionalized by Activated Vapor Silanization (AVS). • AVS is proven to be a reliable procedure for functionalizing Ti-6Al-4V samples. • The functional layer was characterized by AFM and fluorescence microscopy. • The cytocompatibility of the functionalized samples was assessed by cell cultures. • The stability of the functional layer under physiological conditions was confirmed. - Abstract: Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are among the most-commonly used metallic materials for implantation in the human body for the purpose of replacing hard tissue. Although Ti and its alloys are widely used for such an aim, in implants of a long duration they exhibit some shortcomings due to the loosening of the very implant. This phenomenon is highly dependent on the interaction between the organic tissues and the surface of the implant. In this study, the authors introduce a surface treatment technique for functionalization of the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with amino groups that could help to control this interaction. The functionalized layer was deposited by activated vapor silanization (AVS), which has been proven as a reliable and robust technique with other materials. The resulting biofunctional layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, with the optimal conditions for the deposition of a homogeneous film with a high density of amino groups being determined. Additionally, the non-toxic nature and stability of the biofunctional layer were confirmed by cell culturing. The results show the formation of a homogeneous biofunctional amine layer on Ti-6Al-4V alloy that may be used as a platform for the subsequent covalent immobilization of proteins or other biomolecules.

  6. Radiographic inspection of porosity in Ti-6Al-4V laser-welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Costa Nuñez-Pantoja

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Widely used in dentistry, Ti-6Al-4V alloy is difficult to cast and solder, as it frequently exhibits pores inside the structure. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint openings and diameters of laser-welded joints executed in Ti-6Al-4V structures on the presence of pores as checked by radiographic procedures. Sixty dumbbell rods with central diameters of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.5 mm were created from Ti-6Al-4V-wrought bars. Specimens were sectioned and welded using two joint openings (0.0 and 0.6 mm. The combination of variables created six groups (n = 10. Laser welding was executed using 360V/8ms (1.5 and 2.0 mm and 380V/9ms (3.5 mm, with the focus and frequency set to zero. The joints were finished, polished and submitted to radiographic examination. The radiographs were visually examined for the presence of pores in the joints, qualitatively. The percentage of radiographic presence of pores was calculated without counting pores per joint. Data were analyzed using a chi-square test (α = 0.05. For the 1.5-mm specimens, the incidence of pore presence was significantly higher (p = 0.0001 when using 0.6-mm joint openings (40% compared to 0.0-mm openings (0%. For the 2.0-mm specimens, there was no significant difference between groups (p = 0.2008. However, for the 3.5-mm specimens, the incidence of pore presence was lower (p = 0.0061 for 0.6-mm openings (50% compared to 0.0-mm openings (70%. Therefore, laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V structures with thin diameters provides the best condition for the juxtaposition of the parts.

  7. Controlled silanization-amination reactions on the Ti6Al4V surface for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cano, Abraham; Cintas, Pedro; Fernández-Calderón, María-Coronada; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel-Ángel; Crespo, Lara; Saldaña, Laura; Vilaboa, Nuria; González-Martín, María-Luisa; Babiano, Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Formation of thin films on titanium alloys incorporating bioactive small molecules or macromolecules is a route to improve their biocompatibility. Aminoalkylsilanes are commonly employed as interface reagents that combine good adhesion properties with an amino tail group susceptible of further functionalization. This article introduces a reproducible methodology to obtain a cross-linked polymer-type brush structure of covalently-bonded aminoalkylsiloxane chains on Ti6Al4V. The experimental protocol can be fine-tuned to provide a high density of surface-coated amino groups (threshold value: 2.1±0.1×10(-8) mol cm(-2)) as proven by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses. Using a model reaction involving the condensation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) on Ti6Al4V alloy, we herein show the effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and solvent humidity on the composition and structure of the film. The stability of the resulting coating under physiological-like conditions as well as the possibility of surface re-silanization has also been evaluated. To verify if detrimental effects on the biological performance of the Ti6Al4V alloy were induced by this coverage, human primary osteoblasts behavior, Staphylococci adhesion and biofilm formation have been tested and compared to the Ti6Al4V oxidized surface. Reaction with trans-cinnamaldehyde has used in order to determine useful amino groups at aminosilanized surface, XPS and UV analyses of imino derivatives generated reveal that almost a 50% of these groups are actually available at the siloxane chains.

  8. Effect of Triple Annealing Treatment on Stress Relaxation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LIU; Jingchuan ZHU; Zhongda YIN; Mingwei LI

    2004-01-01

    The effect of triple annealing on stress relaxation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy as well as the microstructure after stress relaxation were studied. The results showed that triple annealing treatment enhanced the resistance of stress relaxation performance, and when the temperature was rising, this effect became notable. The stress relaxation deformation mechanism is of dislocation creep at 400℃ and recovery creep at 600℃.

  9. Low friction and wear resistant coating systems on Ti6Al4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Wendler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of an original multiplex hybrid treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy: diffusion hardening+intermediate hard gradient TiCxNy layer with use of continuous CAE+top low friction and wear resistant hard amorphous a-C layer with use of pulsed CAE method.Design/methodology/approach: Ti6Al4V substrates were diffusion hardened with interstitial O or N atoms with use of glow discharge plasma in the atmosphere Ar+O2 or Ar+N2. Next they were deposited with a hard gradient TiCxNy layer and with a hard amorphous a-C coating as the top one. The morphology, microstructure, chemical and phase composition, chemical bonds, microhardness and tribological properties during dry friction of the alloy after multiplex treatment have been investigated with use of SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, Vickers diamond indenter and ball-on-plate test.Findings: An important increase of hardness of the near surface zone of the Ti6Al4V alloy has been achieved (from ~350VHN to ~1000 VHN, good adhesion between the gradient TiCxNy coating and the Ti6Al4V substrate as well as an important decrease of dry friction coefficient (down to ~0.15 and a substantial increase of the resistance to wear (up to two orders of magnitude in comparison with non treated Ti alloy.Research limitations/implications: The research will be continued on greater number of specimens and against other counterbodies.Practical implications: It looks like that the Ti alloys can be used as mobile parts of machines due to high resistance to wear and low friction.Originality/value: A novel original multiplex hybrid treatment of Ti alloys has been developed at the Lodz University of Technology.

  10. Tribocorrosion Study of Ordinary and Laser-Melted Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo P. Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are used in biomedical implants, as well as in other applications, due to the excellent combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. However, the tribocorrosion resistance of titanium alloy is normally not satisfactory. Therefore, surface modification is a way to improve this specific performance. In the present paper, laser surface-modified samples were tested in corrosion and pin-on-disk tribocorrosion testing in 0.90% NaCl under an average Hertzian pressure of 410 MPa against an alumina sphere. Laser-modified samples of Ti6Al4V were compared with ordinary Ti6Al4V alloy. Electrochemical impedance showed higher modulus for laser-treated samples than for ordinary Ti6Al4V ones. Moreover, atomic force microscopy revealed that laser-treated surfaces presented less wear than ordinary alloy for the initial exposure. For a further exposure to wear, i.e., when the wear depth is beyond the initial laser-affected layer, both materials showed similar corrosion behavior. Microstructure analysis and finite element method simulations revealed that the different behavior between the initial and the extensive rubbing was related to a fine martensite-rich external layer developed on the irradiated surface of the fusion zone.

  11. ANN-based wear performance prediction for plasma nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Karadeniz, Sueleyman; Durmus, Izmir; Durmus, Huelya

    2012-07-01

    Surface modification of a Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was made by the plasma nitriding process. Plasma nitriding was performed in a constant gas mixture of 20% H{sub 2} -80% N{sub 2} at temperatures between 700 and 1000 C and process times between 2 and 15 h. Samples nitrided at different treatment times and temperatures were subjected to the dry sliding wear test using the pin-on-disc set up under 80N normal load with rotational speed of counter face disc of 0.8 m/s at room conditions. An artificial neural network (ANN) model of was developed for prediction of wear performance of the plasma nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy. The inputs of the ANN model were processing times and temperatures, diffusion layer thickness, Ti{sub 2}N thickness, TiN thickness and hardness. The output of the ANN model was wear loss. The model is based on the multilayer backpropagation neural technique. The ANN was trained with a comprehensive dataset collected from experimental conditions and results of authors. The model can be used for the prediction of wear properties of Ti6Al4V alloys nitrided at different parameters. The ANN model demonstrated the best statistical performance with the experimental results.

  12. Specific heat treatment of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianli; Liu, Xujie; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Ranran; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2015-12-01

    The ductility of as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V falls far short of the requirements for biomedical titanium alloy implants and the heat treatment remains the only applicable option for improvement of their mechanical properties. In the present study, the decomposition of as-fabricated martensite was investigated to provide a general understanding on the kinetics of its phase transformation. The decomposition of asfabricated martensite was found to be slower than that of water-quenched martensite. It indicates that specific heat treatment strategy is needed to be explored for as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V. Three strategies of heat treatment were proposed based on different phase transformation mechanisms and classified as subtransus treatment, supersolvus treatment and mixed treatment. These specific heat treatments were conducted on selective laser melted samples to investigate the evolutions of microstructure and mechanical properties. The subtransus treatment leaded to a basket-weave structure without changing the morphology of columnar prior β grains. The supersolvus treatment resulted in a lamellar structure and equiaxed β grains. The mixed treatment yielded a microstructure that combines both features of the subtransus treatment and supersolvus treatment. The subtransus treatment is found to be the best choice among these three strategies for as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V to be used as biomedical implants.

  13. Helical Milling of CFRP/Ti-6Al-4V Stacks with Varying Machining Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Gaiyun; Li Hao; Jiang Yuedong; Qin Xuda; Zhang Xinpei; Guan Yi

    2015-01-01

    The hole-making process in stack materials consisting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) and Ti-6Al-4V remains a critical challenge. In this paper, an experimental study on the helical milling of CFRP/Ti-6Al-4V stacks was conducted by using two different machining strategies. Helical milling strategyⅠmachines both materials with identical machining parameters, while machining strategyⅡuses two sets of machining parameters to machine each material. Helical milling performance was evaluated by the following indicators: tool life, cutting forces, hole quality(including diameter deviation, roundness, roughness, and hole edge quality). The results demonstrate that heli-cal milling strategyⅡoutperformed strategyⅠ, leading to longer tool life(up to 48 holes), smaller cutting forces and better hole quality with higher geometric accuracy and smoother surface finish(Ra≤0.58μm for Ti-6Al-4V and Ra≤0.81μm for CFRP), eliminating the need for reaming or de-burring.

  14. Effect of HAp and β-TCP incorporation on the tribological response of Ti6Al4V biocomposites for implant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, T A; Costa, M M; Miranda, G; Silva, F S; Abreu, C S; Gomes, J R

    2017-05-08

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in many engineering areas due to their properties. Despite having a high implant-tissue osseointegration time, Ti6Al4V has been extensively used in prosthesis and articular implants. To promote a faster bone ingrowth and consequently reduce the implant fixation time, the addition of a bioactive phase to form a biocomposite seems to be an excellent solution. Because of their bioactivity and similarity in composition with the human bone, HAp and β-TCP are two of the most widely used calcium phosphates in biomedical applications. To guarantee a strong adhesion of the previous bioactive materials in the implants surface, samples of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al4V+HAp (10 vol %) and Ti6Al4V+β-TCP (10 vol %) TCP were processed by the hot pressing technique. Tribological tests against Al2 O3, lubricated in PBS at 37°C were carried out on a ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding geometry. Loads in the range of 3 N to 30 N were applied and their effect on the friction behavior and wear resistance of the tested materials was evaluated. Values of the coefficient of friction as well as the wear rate tend to increase with the addition of a bioactive phase to the Ti alloy. Micrographs of the worn surfaces showed that abrasion and plastic deformation are the prevailing wear mechanisms in the studied tribosystems. For biocomposites, particularly in the case of Ti6Al4V+HAp, pull-out of bioactive particle clusters has a determinant role on the tribological response, increasing both the friction coefficient and the specific wear rate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Thick Ti-6Al-4V Coating Deposited on Ti-6Al-4V Substrate via High-Pressure Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N. W.; Tan, A. W. Y.; Sun, W.; Liu, E.

    2017-08-01

    Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) coating with a thickness of about 9 mm was deposited on commercial Ti64 substrate via a high-pressure cold spray process. The microstructure, hardness, and wear and corrosion resistance of the Ti64 coating were systematically investigated. The hardness of the Ti64 coating was higher than that of the Ti64 substrate due to the cold-worked microstructure of the coating. The tribological results showed that there was no significant difference in the surface wear rates of the Ti64 coating measured on its different layers while the surface wear resistance of the Ti64 coating was lower than its cross-sectional wear resistance. The corrosion results showed that the Ti64 coating did not effectively prevent its underlying Ti64 substrate from corrosion due to the occurrence of pores in the coating microstructure. It could be concluded that the hardness and wear resistance of the Ti64 coating were comparable to those of the commercial Ti64 substrate.

  16. Temperature elevated N ion implantation of Ti6Al4V alloys using the plasma source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Specimens of Ti6Al4V alloy were implanted with nitrogen ions of 4× 1018 cm-2 at temperatures from 100 to 600℃. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), microhardness measurements and pin-on-disk wear testing, Scanning Electron Mi croscopy (SEM), and Glancing angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were utilized to evaluate the surface property improvements. The thickness of implanted layers increased by about an order of magnitude when the temperature was elevated from 100 to 600℃. Higher surface hardness and wear resistance were also obtained in the high tempera ture implantation. The XRD image showed the presence of nitrides of titanium at the implanted surface.

  17. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Ti-6Al-4V to Multi-mbar Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, S G; Tegner, B E; Cynn, H; Evans, W J; Proctor, J; McMahon, M I; Ackland, G J

    2012-03-14

    We report results from an experimental and theoretical study of the ternary alloy Ti-6Al-4V to 221 GPa. We observe a phase transition to the hexagonal {omega}-phase at approximately 30 GPa, and then a further transition to the cubic {beta}-phase starting at 94-99 GPa. We do not observe the orthorhombic {gamma} and {delta} phases reported previously in pure Ti. Computational studies show that this sequence is possible only if there is significant local atomic ordering during the compression process, yet insufficient atomic diffusion to reach the phase separated thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  18. An Assessment of Subsurface Residual Stress Analysis in SLM Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mishurova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode. High tensile strain gradients were found at the frontal surface for samples in an as-built condition. The geometry of the samples promotes increasing strains towards the pillar of the bridges. We observed that the higher the laser energy density during fabrication, the lower the lattice strains. A relief of lattice strains takes place after heat treatment.

  19. Fatigue strength of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerov, M. V.; Vladislavskaya, E. Yu.; Terent'ev, V. F.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Antonova, O. S.

    2016-10-01

    The fatigue properties and the fracture mechanisms of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) from a powder of an CL41TiELI titanium alloy have been studied. Cylindrical blanks were grown at angles of 90° and 45° to a platform. The best fatigue strength is observed in the samples the blanks of which were grown at an angle of 45°. It is found that the structure of the SLM material can contain portions with unmelted powder particles, which are the places of initiation of fatigue cracks.

  20. Low Temperature Superplasticity of Ti-6Al-4V Processed by Warm Multidirectional Forging (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    using a JEOL JEM-2100FX transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a Quanta 600 field-emission-gun scanning-electron microscope (SEM). Results and...factor of three compared to the initial condition (Fig. 2b). A backscattered electron ( BSE ) image revealed the distribution of the  phase in the...a) BSE image of Ti-6Al-4V after annealing at Т=550С for 0.5 hour and (b) grain size as a function of soak time at 550C. Superplastic Behavior

  1. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  2. Structure of Ti-6Al-4V nanostructured titanium alloy joint obtained by resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenov, V. A., E-mail: klimenov@tpu.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kurgan, K. A., E-mail: kirill-k2.777@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Chumaevskii, A. V., E-mail: tch7av@gmail.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gnyusov, S. F., E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The structure of weld joints of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in the initial ultrafine-grained state, obtained by resistance spot welding, is studied using the optical and scanning electron microscopy method and the X-ray structure analysis. The carried out studies show the relationship of the metal structure in the weld zone with main joint zones. The structure in the core zone and the heat affected zone is represented by finely dispersed grains of needle-shaped martensite, differently oriented in these zones. The change in the microhardness in the longitudinal section of the weld joint clearly correlates with structural changes during welding.

  3. Dynamic tensile behavior of electron beam additive manufactured Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, O.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Allison, P.G., E-mail: pallison@eng.ua.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Whittington, W.R.; Francis, D.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 35759 (United States); Rivera, O.G.; Chou, K.; Gong, X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Butler, T.M. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Burroughs, J.F. [Geotechnical & Structures Laboratory, US Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2015-08-12

    High rate and quasi-static tensile experiments examined strain rate dependence on flow stress and strain hardening of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V. Variations on strain-hardening coefficient indicate that the rate of thermal softening is greater than strain hardening during plastic deformation. Strain rate sensitivity calculations within the plastic strain regime suggest changes in deformation mechanisms. Fractography revealed cup-and-cone fracture for quasi-static samples and shear mechanisms for high rate samples. As-deposited microstructure consisted of bimodal α+β with the presence of secondary martensitic phase.

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of Ti-6Al-4V to 220 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, S.G.; Tegner, B.E.; Cynn, H.; Evans, W.J.; Proctor, J.E.; McMahon, M.I.; Ackland, G.J. (Edinburgh); (LLNL); (ICL)

    2012-07-25

    We report results from an experimental and theoretical study of the ternary alloy Ti-6Al-4V to 221 GPa. We observe a phase transition to the hexagonal {omega} phase at approximately 30 GPa, and then a further transition to the cubic {beta} phase starting at 94-99 GPa. We do not observe the orthorhombic {gamma} and {delta} phases reported previously in pure Ti. Computational studies show that this sequence is possible only if there is significant local atomic ordering during the compression process, yet insufficient atomic diffusion to reach the phase-separated thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  5. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Marcus A.; List, Martina S.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Hopkins, John W.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesively bonded structures are potentially lighter in weight than mechanically fastened ones, but existing surface treatments are often considered unreliable. Two main problems in achieving reproducible and durable adhesive bonds are surface contamination and variability in standard surface preparation techniques. In this work three surface pretreatments were compared: laser etching with and without grit blasting and conventional Pasa-Jell treatment. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry, optical microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Laser -etching was found to produce clean surfaces with precisely controlled surface topographies and PETI-5 lap shear strengths and durabilities were equivalent to those produced with Pasa-Jell.

  6. Plasma Nitriding of CP Titanium Grade-2 and Ti-6Al-4V Grade-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, J. R.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.; Senthil Kumar, J.; Thomas, Subin; Raju Vithaiyathil, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Titanium metal is considered to be asset material due to its high tribological properties. Since these tribological properties like hardness, roughness, wear resistance etc. are influenced by the surface properties of the material, so obviously any changes in the surface of the material has direct impact on the tribological properties too. Nitriding is a heat-treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case hardened surface. The main objective is that to implement the plasma nitriding process to both CP Titanium grade-2 and Ti-6Al-4V grade-5 and to observe the improvements in the tribological properties with respect to the parent materials.

  7. Modification of surface morphology of Ti6Al4V alloy manufactured by Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganovská, Dagmar; Ižariková, Gabriela; Guzanová, Anna; Brezinová, Janette; Koncz, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of relation between roughness parameters of Ti6Al4V alloy produced by DMLS and modified by abrasive blasting. There were two types of blasting abrasives that were used - white corundum and Zirblast at three levels of air pressure. The effect of pressure on the value of individual roughness parameters and an influence of blasting media on the parameters for samples blasted by white corundum and Zirblast were evaluated by ANOVA. Based on the measured values, the correlation matrix was set and the standard of correlation statistic importance between the monitored parameters was determined from it. The correlation coefficient was also set.

  8. Influence of Electrolytes on the Microstructure of Microarc Oxidation Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dense ceramic oxide coatings of about 50 μm may be prepared on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface by alternating-currentmicroarc oxidation in aluminate and silicate solutions, respectively. Their phase constituent and microstructure werecharacterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that theelectrolytic ions have incorporated into the interior of the coatings. The coating formed in aluminate solution iscomposed of the rutile TiO2 and TiAl2O5 phases rather than the rutile, anatase and amorphous SiO2 phases for thecoating formed in silicate solution. However, TiAl2O5 content in the outer layer of the two coatings is much higherthan in the inner layer. It is suggested that all these oxides may result from a rapid solidification of the moltencoating in the microarc discharge zone.

  9. Microstructure and Cavitation Erosion Properties of Ceramic Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Pack Carburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Cui, Zhenduo; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Shengli; Yang, Xianjin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was processed by pack carburizing to improve the cavitation erosion behavior. X-ray diffraction and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that a uniform and crack-free ceramic coating formed on the surface of the treated samples. The coating layer comprised primary TiC and less oxide. Cavitation erosion experiment results indicated that the treated samples have the factor of 3.44 to 6.68 increase in cavitation erosion resistance ( R e) as compared with the as-received sample. The ceramic coatings with high hardness and good metallurgical bonding were responsible for the enhanced cavitation erosion properties. When the coatings were treated at condition of high temperature and/or long time, the R e was enervated due to the thin oxide film formed at the outermost surface. Cavitation erosion mechanism for the coatings was characterized as brittle mode by SEM observation of the worn surfaces.

  10. A Design of Experiments Approach Defining the Relationships Between Processing and Microstructure for Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terryl A.; Bey, Kim S.; Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the relative significance of input parameters on Ti- 6Al-4V deposits produced by an electron beam free form fabrication process under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. Five input parameters where chosen (beam voltage, beam current, translation speed, wire feed rate, and beam focus), and a design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to develop a set of 16 experiments to evaluate the relative importance of these parameters on the resulting deposits. Both single-bead and multi-bead stacks were fabricated using 16 combinations, and the resulting heights and widths of the stack deposits were measured. The resulting microstructures were also characterized to determine the impact of these parameters on the size of the melt pool and heat affected zone. The relative importance of each input parameter on the height and width of the multi-bead stacks will be discussed. .

  11. Evaluation of Microstructure and Wear Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Plasma Carbonized at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; WEI Qiulan; XING Yazhe; JIANG Chaoping; LI Xinghang; ZHAO Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) alloys were plasma carbonized at different temperatures (900, 950, and 1 000ć) for duration of 3 h. Graphite rod was employed as carbon supplier to avoid the hydrogen brittleness which is ubiquitous in traditional gas carbonizing process. Two distinguished structures including a thin compound layer (carbides layer) and a thick layer with the mixed microstructure of TiC and theα-Ti in carburing layer were formed during carburizing. Furthermore, it was found that the microstructure and the properties of TC4 alloy were signifi cantly related to the carbonizing temperature. The specimen plasma carbonized at 950ć obtained maximum value both in the hardness and wear resistance.

  12. Diffusion Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V and Stainless Steel 316L Using AgCuZn Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soltani Tashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, vacuum brazing was applied to join Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel using AgCuZn filler metal. The bonds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical strengths of the joints were evaluated by the shear test and microhardness. It has been shown that shear strength decreased with increasing the brazing temperature and time. The wettability of the filler alloy was increased by enhancing the wetting test temperature. By increasing the brazing temperature various intermetallic compounds were formed in the bond area. These intermetallic compounds were mainly a combination of CuTi and Fe-Cu-Ti. The shear test results verified the influence of the bonding temperature on the strength of the joints based on the formation of different intermetallics in the bond zone. The fracture analysis also revealed different fracture footpath and morphology for different brazing temperatures.

  13. Microtexture Analysis and Modeling of Ambient Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Damages in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jalaj; Singh, A. K.; Raman, S. Ganesh Sundara; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-02-01

    In the present investigation, microtexture analysis using electron back-scattered diffraction technique has been performed to study fatigue- and creep-fatigue damages and associated deformation structures in Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Special emphasis has been given to low-angle grain boundary configuration and its possible application as a damage indicator. Damage is mostly present in the form of voids as investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Stored deformation energies have been evaluated for the strain-controlled fatigue-, the stress-controlled fatigue-, and the creep-fatigue-tested samples. Stored deformation energies have also been analyzed vis-à-vis total damage energies to quantify the contribution of damages to various samples. A relation between the stored deformation energy and the applied strain amplitude has been proposed in this study.

  14. Casting defects of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in vertical centrifugal casting processes with graphite molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Limin; Xu, Daming; Li, Min; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2012-02-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental investigation are utilized to analyze the casting defects of Ti-6Al-4V alloy formed under different vertical centrifugal casting conditions in graphite molds. Mold rotating rates of 0, 110 and 210 rpm are considered in experimental process. Results show that centrifugal forces have significant effects on the quantity of both macropores and microdefects (micropores, microcracks and inclusions). The relative amount of all macro- and micro-scopic casting defects decreases from 62.4 % to 24.8 % with the increasing of the centrifugal force, and the macropore quantity in stepped casting decreases exponentially with the increase of the gravitation coefficient. The relative proportions of both micropores and microcracks decrease with the mold-rotating rate increase, but the relative proportion of inclusions increases significantly. Besides this, the mold-filling sequence is proved to be an important factor in casting quality control.

  15. Influence of Material Microstructures in Micromilling of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Gelfi, Marcello; Pola, Annalisa; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the most recent decades the introduction of unconventional machining processes allowed the development of micromachining techniques. In this work, the influence of material microstructures on the micromilling process was investigated. Ti6Al4V alloy was selected as workpiece material since it is a very common material for micro applications and because its duplex microstructure can be easily changed by proper thermal treatments. Four different microstructures (namely bimodal, fully equiaxed, fully lamellar and mill annealed) were obtained through recrystallization annealing treatments carried out at different times and temperatures. The mechanical properties of the samples were assessed by microhardness measurements. Nano-indentations were also performed on single grains to understand how the different hardness of phases and structures present in the Ti6Al4V alloy can affect the micromilling process. Microchannels using two flute flat end mills with a diameter equal to 200 µm were realized on the treated samples. Two different feed-per-tooth values were used during the tests. Cutting force, channel shape and burr dimension were investigated. Morphological and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were performed on tools by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM): in this way the phenomena mainly influencing the tool status were also identified. Lower cutting forces and reduced tool wear were observed when working fully lamellar microstructures compared to the other ones. PMID:28788331

  16. Process Parameter Optimization for Wobbling Laser Spot Welding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Farahani, F.; Lungershausen, J.; Wasmer, K.

    Laser beam welding (LBW) coupled with "wobble effect" (fast oscillation of the laser beam) is very promising for high precision micro-joining industry. For this process, similarly to the conventional LBW, the laser welding process parameters play a very significant role in determining the quality of a weld joint. Consequently, four process parameters (laser power, wobble frequency, number of rotations within a single laser pulse and focused position) and 5 responses (penetration, width, heat affected zone (HAZ), area of the fusion zone, area of HAZ and hardness) were investigated for spot welding of Ti6Al4V alloy (grade 5) using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. This paper presents experimental results showing the effects of variating the considered most important process parameters on the spot weld quality of Ti6Al4V alloy. Semi-empirical mathematical models were developed to correlate laser welding parameters to each of the measured weld responses. Adequacies of the models were then examined by various methods such as ANOVA. These models not only allows a better understanding of the wobble laser welding process and predict the process performance but also determines optimal process parameters. Therefore, optimal combination of process parameters was determined considering certain quality criteria set.

  17. OVERVIEW OF WORK PIECE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR MACHINING OF Ti6Al4V#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.T. Conradie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ti6Al4V is one of the most widely used titanium alloys in aerospace applications, but its machining remains a challenge. Comprehensive research has been done in the past, mainly investigating tool failure of various materials. Less research has been done to investigate the thermal effect of machining on work piece quality, including fatigue performance. Temperature measurement is considered to be a key enabling technology. This study presents an overview of current temperature measurement techniques for machined and tool surfaces. Two categories of methods were investigated: slower contact, and faster optical methods. Optical fibre two colour pyrometry experiments are reported that demonstrate the technique’s adequate response time. The infrared camera temperature measurement experiments synchronised temperature measurement with visual observation, aimed at mechanism analysis. The results corresponded with the literature.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ti6Al4V is een van die mees gewilde lugvaart allooie, maar sy masjinering is ’n uitdaging. Bestaande navorsing dek beitelslytasie omvattend. Die termiese effek van masjinering op werkstuk integriteit, insluitend vermoeiingleeftyd, het egter veel minder dekking geniet. Temperatuurmeting wat in hierdie studie ondersoek word, word as ’n sleuteltegnologie beskou. Twee kategorië metodes is ondersoek, nl stadige kontakmetodes en optiese metodes met vinnige respons, wat die meting van oorgangsverskynsels moontlik maak. Eksperimentele werk wat beide optiese vesel tweekleurpirometrie en termiese kamera tegnieke insluit bewys die tegnieke as geskik vir die benodigde navorsing.

  18. Microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of laser surface melted Ti6Al4V alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Soderlind, Julie; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) of Ti6Al4V alloy was carried out with an aim to improve properties such as microstructure and wear for implant applications. The alloy substrate was melted at 250W and 400W at a scan velocity of 5mm/s, with input energy of 42J/mm(2) and 68J/mm(2), respectively. The results showed that equiaxed α+β microstructure of the substrate changes to mixture of acicular α in β matrix after LSM due to high cooling rates in the range of 2.25×10(-3)K/s and 1.41×10(-3)K/s during LSM. Increasing the energy input increased the thickness of remelted region from 779 to 802µm and 1173 to 1199µm. Similarly, as a result of slow cooling rates under present experimental conditions, the grain size of the alloy increased from 4.8μm to 154-199μm. However, the hardness of the Ti6Al4V alloy increased due to LSM melting and resulted in lowest in vitro wear rate of 3.38×10(-4)mm(3)/Nm compared to untreated substrate with a wear rate of 6.82×10(-4)mm(3)/Nm.

  19. Laser surface preparation for adhesive improvement of Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumena, C.; Cherif, M.; Taleb Ali, M.; Jumel, J.; Kling, R.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium alloys are generally noticed for their high specific strength and their good corrosion resistance. They are widely used in light-weight structures especially in the aerospace industry. Surface preparation of Ti6Al4V for bonding improvement is conventionally performed by chemical, electrochemical pre-treatments (chromic acid anodizing, phosphate-fluoride, sol-gel,…) and/or sandblasting in order to modify the morphology and the chemistry of the surface. However, these processes produce a large volume of hazardous chemical or abrasive waste. They require high technical efforts and are therefore economically and environmentally inefficient. Laser processes could lead to a good alternative solution in terms of eco-compatibility, repeatability and ease of manufacturing. In this paper, we report on the latest developments of the collaboration between ALPhANOV and I2M institute on the laser surface preparation for adhesive bonding improvement of Ti6Al4V. We focus our investigations on the effect of pulsed laser irradiation (fluence, scan speed and lateral overlap) with a visible (515 nm) nanosecond "rod-type fibre" laser on the surface morphology and its bonding behaviour (cohesive or adhesive failure). The penetration of the adhesive in the roughness induced by laser irradiation was characterized. For this study, the surfaces were inspected by different means as optical microscopy, 3D profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adhesion performance of the laser treated surface was evaluated by means of DCB tests.

  20. Bioceramic dip-coating on Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Bunyamin; Hanyaloglu, C

    2008-05-01

    The focus of the present study is based on more economical and rapid bioceramic coating on the most common implant substrates such as Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS used often in orthopedics. For ceramic dip coating of implant substrates, Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, P2O5, Na2CO3 and KH2PO4 are used to provide the gel. Ceramic films on sandblasted substrates have been deposited by using a newly manufactured dip-coating apparatus. Sample characterization is evaluated by SEM and XRD analysis. A smooth and homogeneous coating films have been obtained and average of 20 MPa bonding strength has been achieved for both Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS alloys after sintering at 750 degrees C under flowing argon. The level of importance of the process parameters on coating was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The current process appears to be cheap, easy, and flexible to shape variations and high production rates for orthopedic applications.

  1. Fabrication Of Scaffolds From Ti6Al4V Powders Using The Computer Aided Laser Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research, the results of which are presented in the paper, is to fabricate, by Selective Laser Melting (SLM, a metallic scaffold with Ti6Al4V powder based on a virtual model corresponding to the actual loss of a patient’s craniofacial bone. A plaster cast was made for a patient with a palate recess, and the cast was then scanned with a 3D scanner to create a virtual 3D model of a palate recess, according to which a 3D model of a solid implant was created using specialist software. The virtual 3D solid implant model was converted into a 3D porous implant model after designing an individual shape of the unit cell conditioning the size and three-dimensional shape of the scaffold pores by multiplication of unit cells. The data concerning a virtual 3D porous implant model was transferred into a selective laser melting (SLM device and a metallic scaffold was produced from Ti6Al4V powder with this machine, which was subjected to surface treatment by chemical etching. An object with certain initially adopted assumptions, i.e. shape and geometric dimensions, was finally achieved, which perfectly matches the patient bone recesses. The scaffold created was subjected to micro-and spectroscopic examinations.

  2. Tribological behavior of Ti6Al4V cellular structures produced by Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu, F; Sampaio, M; Carvalho, O; Pinto, E; Alves, N; Gomes, J R; Silva, F S; Miranda, G

    2017-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies enable the fabrication of innovative structures with complex geometries not easily manufactured by traditional processes. Regarding metallic cellular structures with tailored/customized mechanical and wear performance aiming to biomedical applications, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a remarkable solution for their production. Focusing on prosthesis and implants, in addition to a suitable Young's modulus it is important to assess the friction response and wear resistance of these cellular structures in a natural environment. In this sense, five cellular Ti6Al4V structures with different open-cell sizes (100-500µm) were designed and produced by SLM. These structures were tribologicaly tested against alumina using a reciprocating sliding ball-on-plate tribometer. Samples were submerged in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) fluid at 37°C, in order to mimic in some extent the human body environment. The results showed that friction and wear performance of Ti6Al4V cellular structures is influenced by the structure open-cell size. The higher wear resistance was obtained for structures with 100µm designed open-cell size due to the higher apparent area of contact to support tribological loading.

  3. Multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboyejo, W.O.; Mercer, C.; Allameh, S.; Nemetski, B. [Princeton Materials Inst., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Marcantonio, N. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering; Ricci, J.L. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Orthodontics

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces that are used in biomedical implants. The hierarchies of substructural and microstructural features associated with laser micro-texturing, mechanical polishing and surface blasting with alumina pellets are elucidated via atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The nano-scale roughness profiles for the different surface textures are characterized via AFM. Sub-micron precipitates and dislocation substructures associated with wrought processing and laser processing are revealed by TEM. OM and SEM micro- and mesoscale images of the groove structures and then described before discussing the implications of the result for the optimization of laser processing schemes. The implications of the results are examined for the fabrication of micro-textured surfaces that will facilitate the self organization of proteins, and the attachment of mammalian cells to the Ti-6Al-4V surfaces in biomedical implants. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of shot peening on the fatigue strength of anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Midori Yoshikawa Pitanga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly design requirements for modern engineering applications resulted in the development of new materials with improved mechanical properties. Low density, combined with excellent weight/strength ratio as well as corrosion resistance, make the titanium attractive for application in landing gears. Fatigue control is a fundamental parameter to be considered in the development of mechanical components. The aim of this research is to analyze the fatigue behavior of anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the influence of shot peening pre treatment on the experimental data. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1 were performed, and a significant reduction in the fatigue strength of anodized Ti-6Al-4V was observed. The shot peening superficial treatment, which objective is to create a compressive residual stress field in the surface layers, showed efficiency to increase the fatigue life of anodized material. Experimental data were represented by S-N curves. Scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM was used to observe crack origin sites.

  5. Fatigue performance of medical Ti6Al4V alloy after mechanical surface treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available Mechanical surface treatments have a long history in traditional engineering disciplines, such as the automotive or aerospace industries. Today, they are widely applied to metal components to increase the mechanical performance of these. However, their application in the medical field is rather rare. The present study aims to compare the potential of relevant mechanical surface treatments on the high cycle fatigue (R = 0.1 for a maximum of 10 million cycles performance of a Ti6Al4V standard alloy for orthopedic, spinal, dental and trauma surgical implants: shot peening, deep rolling, ultrasonic shot peening and laser shock peening. Hour-glass shaped Ti6Al4V specimens were treated and analyzed with regard to the material's microstructure, microhardness, residual stress depth profiles and the mechanical behavior during fatigue testing. All treatments introduced substantial compressive residual stresses and exhibited considerable potential for increasing fatigue performance from 10% to 17.2% after laser shock peening compared to non-treated samples. It is assumed that final mechanical surface treatments may also increase fretting wear resistance in the modular connection of total hip and knee replacements.

  6. Feasibility study of the production of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2015-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are characterized by an exceptional combination of properties like high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility which makes them suitable materials for biomedical prosthesis and devices. The wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy is generally favored in comparison to other metallic biomaterials due to its relatively low elastic modulus and it has been long used to obtain products for biomedical applications. In this work an alternative route to fabricate biomedical implants made out of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. Specifically, the feasibility of the conventional powder metallurgy route of cold uniaxial pressing and sintering is addressed by considering two types of powders (i.e. blended elemental and prealloyed). The characterization of physical properties, chemical analysis, mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis is carried out in-depth and the properties are correlated among them. On the base of the results found, the produced alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications as well as cheaper surgical devices and tools.

  7. Fatigue performance of medical Ti6Al4V alloy after mechanical surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Gibmeier, Jens; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical surface treatments have a long history in traditional engineering disciplines, such as the automotive or aerospace industries. Today, they are widely applied to metal components to increase the mechanical performance of these. However, their application in the medical field is rather rare. The present study aims to compare the potential of relevant mechanical surface treatments on the high cycle fatigue (R = 0.1 for a maximum of 10 million cycles) performance of a Ti6Al4V standard alloy for orthopedic, spinal, dental and trauma surgical implants: shot peening, deep rolling, ultrasonic shot peening and laser shock peening. Hour-glass shaped Ti6Al4V specimens were treated and analyzed with regard to the material's microstructure, microhardness, residual stress depth profiles and the mechanical behavior during fatigue testing. All treatments introduced substantial compressive residual stresses and exhibited considerable potential for increasing fatigue performance from 10% to 17.2% after laser shock peening compared to non-treated samples. It is assumed that final mechanical surface treatments may also increase fretting wear resistance in the modular connection of total hip and knee replacements.

  8. Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM of Micro-porous Ti-6Al-4V Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bandyopadhyay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many applications porous metal structures are necessary for proper and optimal function. Yet these structures can be difficult to build. It is especially difficult if the pore size desired is very fine or on the micro scale. For this reason, additive manufacturing processes have been looked at to build these structures. In this study LENS processing was experimented with to see if it could be a viable process to create micro-porous interconnected structures. Using Ti6Al4V and only changing processing parameters, porous structures were created having porosity ranging from 21.5% to 15.4%. The microstructure proved to be that of traditional laser processed Ti6Al4V parts. Compression test of the samples showed that the ultimate compressive strength varied from 645-556MPa. Overall LENS proved to be a viable method to make unique micro-porous interconnected structures that could be easily added to any build without having to change the design.

  9. Development of a versatile procedure for the biofunctionalization of Ti-6Al-4V implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanian, Parsa; Arroyo-Hernández, María; Ramos, Milagros; Daza, Rafael; Elices, Manuel; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2016-11-01

    Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are among the most-commonly used metallic materials for implantation in the human body for the purpose of replacing hard tissue. Although Ti and its alloys are widely used for such an aim, in implants of a long duration they exhibit some shortcomings due to the loosening of the very implant. This phenomenon is highly dependent on the interaction between the organic tissues and the surface of the implant. In this study, the authors introduce a surface treatment technique for functionalization of the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with amino groups that could help to control this interaction. The functionalized layer was deposited by activated vapor silanization (AVS), which has been proven as a reliable and robust technique with other materials. The resulting biofunctional layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, with the optimal conditions for the deposition of a homogeneous film with a high density of amino groups being determined. Additionally, the non-toxic nature and stability of the biofunctional layer were confirmed by cell culturing. The results show the formation of a homogeneous biofunctional amine layer on Ti-6Al-4V alloy that may be used as a platform for the subsequent covalent immobilization of proteins or other biomolecules.

  10. Laser melting of plasma nitrided Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Sami, M.; Shuja, S.Z.; Aleem, A. [KFUPM, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Nickel, J.; Coban, A. [Energy Research Lab., Research Inst., KFUPM, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-11-30

    A laser surface modification technique can be used as a part of a dublex treatment process to improve the surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The present study is conducted to investigate the surface properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy due to laser melting prior to a plasma nitriding process. Consequently, nitriding is carried out to obtain the depth of the nitride zone of 30 {mu}m. A CO{sub 2} laser with 1.6 kW output power was used to melt the nitride layers. The wear properties of the plasma nitrided and nitrided/melted surfaces were investigated using pin-on-disc equipment while the friction coefficient was determined using a ball-on-disc machine. The nitride depth profile was measured using a nuclear analyses reaction and elemental distribution in the melted zones was investigated using {mu}-PIXE. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy were carried out to analyze the microstructures developed before and after the laser melting process. In addition, heating and cooling rates were predicted through the electron-kinetic theory approach. (orig.)

  11. Growth of TiO{sub 2}-based nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matykina, E.; Conde, A.; Damborenea, J. de [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Marero, D. Martin y [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fundacion Parque Cientifico de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Arenas, M.A., E-mail: geles@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > Anodization of Ti6Al4V alloys using electrolytes based on NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and NH{sub 4}F. > Nanostructure of films depends on electrolyte composition, pH and fluoride activity. > High ratio aspect nanotubes with F content as controlled drug delivery systems. - Abstract: The possibility of tailoring titania nanotube films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated using electrolytes based on NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with the addition of different concentrations of NH{sub 4}F. Several morphologies from high aspect ratio nanotubes to barrier layers are achieved by the control of the electrolyte composition, regarding its pH and fluoride concentrations. The morphology and composition of the anodic layers were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The formation efficiency and the fluoride ions content in the nanotubes depend on the F concentration in the electrolyte. The higher concentration of fluoride ions in the electrolyte promotes an increase of the F incorporated in the nanotubes, about 12 at.% but, reduces the nanotube formation efficiency. However, no significant presence of phosphorus was detected into the films by means of the above-mentioned analytical techniques.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in Different Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slafa I. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by using galvanostatic measurements at room temperature in different media which includ sodium chloride (food salt, sodium tartrate (presence in jellies, margarine, and sausage casings,etc., sodium oxalate (presence in fruits, vegetables,etc., acetic acid (presence in vinegar, phosphoric acid (presence in drink, sodium carbonate (presence in 7up drink,etc., and sodium hydroxide in order to compare. Corrosion parameters were interpreted in these media which involve corrosion potential( Ecorr and corrosion current density (icorr, since the results of (Ecorr indicate that Oxalate ions are more corrosive than other materials while the results of (icorr indicate that NaCl is more corrosive than other materials. Cathodic and Anodic Tafel slopes that were used to calculate the polarization resistance (Rp to know which materials effect on Ti-6Al-4V alloy uses in dental materials and the results of (Rp were: Na2CO3 >Oxalate >H3PO4 >CH3COOH >NaOH >Tartrate >NaCl. The change in free energy (∆G and rate of corrosion in (mpy were calculated, and the results of rate indicate that increasing in the following sequences: NaCl>Tartrate >NaOH >Oxalate> CH3COOH> H3PO4> Na2CO3.

  13. RESEARCH ON LASER DIRECT DEPOSITION PROCESS OF Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Y. Gao; Y.Z. Zhang; L.K. Shi; B.L. Du; M.Z. Xi; H.Z. Ji

    2007-01-01

    Laser direct deposition (LDD) of metallic components is an advanced technology of combining CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing), high power laser, and rapid prototyping. This technology uses laser beam to melt the powders fed coaxially into the molten pool by the laser beam to fabricate fully dense metallic components. The present article mainly studies the LDD of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which can be used to fabricate aircraft components. The mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fabricated by LDD, are obtained using the tension test, and the oxygen content of used powders and deposited specimens are measured. In the present article, it can be seen that the mechanical properties obtained using this method are higher than the ones obtained by casting, and equal to those got by wrought anneal. One aircraft pan has been made using the LDD process. Because of this aircraft part, with sophisticated shape, the effect of the laser scanning track on the internal soundness of the deposited part was discussed.

  14. The Effect of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasresfahani, Ali Reza; Soltanipur, Abdol Reza; Farmanesh, Khosro; Ghasemi, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Fusion welding can deteriorate corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, the use of friction stir welding leads to a more appropriate corrosion resistance. In this study, the corrosion resistance of welded zones of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using friction stir welding technique is evaluated. For these purposes, the study of structural characteristics using SEM and FESEM equipped with EDS micro-analyses was conducted. Micro-hardness test was also employed to estimate the hardness of welded zones. Corrosion behavior was investigated by a potentiostat instrument. SEM micrographs, EDS and XRD analyses confirmed non-uniformity of chemical composition within the welded zones. The results reveal that the stir zone contains typical alpha and prior beta phases. Nevertheless, thermomechanical zone included equiaxed and bimodal lamellae structure. Furthermore, the presence of different types of phases and microstructure in the thermomechanical zone led to reduced corrosion resistance. The corresponding values of corrosion current density in the stir zone, thermomechanical zone and base metal were 0.048, 0.55 and 0.032 µA, respectively. Corresponding corrosion potential for these zones was estimated as -207, -110 and -157 mV. Evidently, the results show that corrosion resistance of thermomechanical zone is less than that of the stir zone and both zones have lower value than the base metal.

  15. Phase Separation in Ti-6Al-4V Alloys with Boron Additions for Biomedical Applications: Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Investigation of Microgalvanic Couples and Corrosion Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. H.; Robles, K.; Livingston, K.; Johns, S.; Ravi, V. A.; Graugnard, E.; Hurley, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of boron additions on the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V for potential use in biomedical implants and devices, cast samples of Ti-6Al-4V were alloyed with 0.01% to 1.09% boron by weight and subjected to hot isostatic pressing. Subsequent analysis via scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed the presence of both alpha ( α) and beta ( β) phase titanium, enriched in aluminum and vanadium, respectively. At all concentrations, boron additions affected the grain structure and were dispersed throughout both phases, but above the solubility limit, needle-like TiB structures also formed. The TiB needles and β phase exhibited similar surface potentials, whereas that of the α phase was found to be significantly lower. Nevertheless, when subjected to high applied electrochemical potentials in saline solutions, corrosion initiation was observed exclusively within the more noble β phase.

  16. Free Radical Production in Immune Cell Systems Induced by Ti, Ti6Al4V and SS Assessed by Chemiluminescence Probe Pholasin Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. P. Cachinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative burst of human blood cells in the presence of different metal materials was investigated using chemiluminescence assay. Commercial pure titanium (Ti, titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V, and stainless steel 316L (SS in particulate form with <20 μm in size were used. The effect of particulate materials opsonisation on the upregulation of the respiratory burst production by blood cells was also assessed. The largest chemiluminescence response was achieved after simultaneous injection of the stimulants fMLP+PMA. Moreover, Ti and SS induced a greater inflammatory reaction compared to Ti6Al4V, since the respiratory burst mounted was higher for both materials after opsonisation treatment. These results suggest that in vitro chemiluminescence response and respiratory burst measurements proved to be composition and treatment dependent.

  17. A comparative study on biodegradation and mechanical properties of pressureless infiltrated Ti/Ti6Al4V-Mg composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Ziya; Bütev, Ezgi; Karakaş, M Serdar

    2016-10-01

    The mechanical response and biodegradation behavior of pressureless Mg-infiltrated Ti-Mg and Ti6Al4V-Mg composites were investigated by compression and simulated body fluid immersion tests, respectively. Prior porous preforms were surrounded uniformly with magnesium as a result of infiltration and the resultant composites were free of secondary phases and intermetallics. Although the composites' compressive strengths were superior compared to bone, both displayed elastic moduli similar to that of cortical bone and had higher ductility with respect to their starting porous forms. However, Ti-Mg composites were unable to preserve their mechanical stabilities during in-vitro tests such that they fractured in multiple locations within 15 days of immersion. The pressure generated by H2 due to rapid corrosion of magnesium caused failure of the Ti-Mg composites through sintering necks. On the other hand, the galvanic effect seen in Ti6Al4V-Mg was less severe compared to that of Ti-Mg. The degradation rate of magnesium in Ti6Al4V-Mg was slower, and the composites were observed to be mechanically stable and preserved their integrities over the entire 25-day immersion test. Both composites showed bioinert and biodegradable characteristics during immersion tests and magnesium preferentially corroded leaving porosity behind while Ti/Ti6Al4V remained as a permanent scaffold. The porosity created by degradation of magnesium was refilled by new globular agglomerates. Mg(OH)2 and CaHPO4 phases were encountered during immersion tests while MgCl2 was detected during only the first 5 days. Both composites were classified as bioactive since the precipitation of CaHPO4 phase is known to be precursor of hydroxyapatite formation, an essential requirement for an artificial material to bond to living bone.

  18. Surface characterization and preparation of Ta coating on Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmyu@imr.ac.cn; Tan, Lili; Yang, Huazhe; Yang, Ke

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Ta coating was made on both plate and porous Ti alloy. • The quality of coating depends on H{sub 2} gas flow and T{sub s}. • The corrosion resistance is improved by Ta coating. - Abstract: In this study, high quality Ta coating was made on both plate and porous Ti6Al4V alloy substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) in order to further improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti alloys for medical application. XRD analyses showed that the coatings were mainly composed of Ta with the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) of 1000 °C, 950 °C and 900 °C. The morphology, microstructure and elements composition were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the coating surface became much more smooth and uniform at low H{sub 2} gas flow rate of 120 mL/min, and the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness was decreased with the increase of T{sub s}. The wettability of Ta coating was investigated by measuring contact angel of water and α-bromonaphthalene (α-BrNp). The Ta coating with T{sub s} of 950 °C showed the lowest of γ{sub s}, γ{sub s}{sup d} and γ{sub s}{sup d}/γ{sub s}{sup p}, indicating a better hemocompatibility of the Ta coating than that of substrate. The corrosion behavior of the coating was studied by electrochemical test in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37 °C. The Ta coating exhibited higher corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) and lower corrosion current density (i{sub corr}), indicating an improved corrosion resistance compared with the Ti6Al4V substrate. Ta coating was fabricated not only on the plate substrate, but also on a porous Ti6Al4V substrate. The above results made it possible to develop a novel class of Ta-coated Ti alloy implants with wide clinical applications.

  19. A review article: The mechanical properties and the microstructural behaviour of laser metal deposited Ti-6Al-4V and TiC composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Mutiu F.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Grade 5 has been regarded as the most useful alloy for the aerospace applications, due to their light weight properties. Today, laser technology is an energetic process in which the beam ejected can travel a longer distance and spot on the focused surface. The combination of metallic powder and laser beam has been used concurrently to form a solid figure. However, this combination has generated a permanently solidified metallurgical bonding between the laser-deposited metallic powders. Several research works have been conducted to improve the mechanical properties of the primary alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. This article conversely highlights the series of work that have been conducted on improving the mechanical properties and microstructures of the primary alloy with the addition of titanium carbide (TiC). The Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been widely selected in most critical part of a component. Their reinforcement with TiC composite particle has been achieved successfully through the optimal usage of laser technology. The characteristics of the reinforced component have vehemently improved the mechanical properties such as the tensile strength, wear resistance, fracture toughness and hardness; as well as the morphologies and phases of the microstructures.

  20. Dynamic response and residual stress fields of Ti6Al4V alloy under shock wave induced by laser shock peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Li, Liuhe; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Lixin; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng; Li, Bo; Guo, Chao; Liu, Lei; Che, Zhigang; Li, Weidong; Sun, Jianfei; Qiao, Hongchao

    2017-09-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP), an innovative surface treatment technique, generates compressive residual stress on the surface of metallic components to improve their fatigue performance, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. To illustrate the dynamic response during LSP and residual stress fields after LSP, this study conducted FEM simulations of LSP in a Ti6Al4V alloy. Results showed that when power density was 7 GW cm-2, a plastic deformation occurred at 10 ns during LSP and increased until the shock pressure decayed below the dynamic yield strength of Ti6Al4V after 60 ns. A maximum tensile region appeared beneath the surface at around 240 ns, forming a compressive-tensile-compressive stress sandwich structure with a thickness of 98, 1020 and 606 μm for each layer. After the model became stabilized, the value of the surface residual compressive stress was 564 MPa at the laser spot center. Higher value of residual stress across the surface and thicker compressive residual stress layers were achieved by increasing laser power density, impact times and spot sizes during LSP. A ‘Residual stress hole’ occurred with a high laser power density of 9 GW cm-2 when laser pulse duration was 10 ns, or with a long laser pulse duration of 20 ns when laser power density was 7 GW cm-2 for Ti6Al4V. This phenomenon occurred because of the permanent reverse plastic deformation generated at laser spot center.

  1. Effects of Fabrication Parameters on Interface of Zirconia and Ti-6Al-4V Joints Using Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 Amorphous Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhua; Hu, Jiandong; Shen, Ping; Guo, Zuoxing; Liu, Huijie

    2013-09-01

    ZrO2 was brazed to Ti-6Al-4V using a Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 (at.%) amorphous filler in a high vacuum at 1173-1273 K. The influences of brazing temperature, holding time, and cooling rate on the microstructure and shear strength of the joints were investigated. The interfacial microstructures can be characterized as ZrO2/ZrO2- x + TiO/(Zr,Ti)2(Cu,Ni)/(Zr,Ti)2(Cu,Ni,Al)/acicular Widmanstäten structure/Ti-6Al-4V. With the increase in the brazing temperature, both the thickness of the ZrO2- x + TiO layer and the content of the (Zr,Ti)2(Cu,Ni) phase decreased. However, the acicular Widmanstäten structure gradually increased. With the increase in the holding time, the (Zr,Ti)2(Cu,Ni) phase decreased, and the thickness of the (Zr,Ti)2(Cu,Ni) + (Zr,Ti)2(Cu,Ni,Al) layer decreased. In addition, cracks formed adjacent to the ZrO2 side under rapid cooling. The microstructures produced under various fabrication parameters directly influence the shear strength of the joints. When ZrO2 and Ti-6Al-4V couples were brazed at 1173 K for 10 min and then cooled at a rate of 5 K/min, the maximum shear strength of 95 MPa was obtained.

  2. Corrosion resistance characteristics of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy scaffold that is fabricated by electron beam melting and selective laser melting for implantation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingjing; Wang, Hong; Qiao, Ning; Wang, Chao; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated with electron beam melting and selective laser melting for implantation in vivo. Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens were fabricated with electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM). A wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used as a control. Surface morphology observation, component analysis, corrosion resistance experimental results, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, crevice corrosion resistance experimental results, immersion test and metal ions precipitation analysis were processed, respectively. The thermal stability of EBM specimen was the worst, based on the result of open circuit potential (OCP) result. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the corrosion resistance of the SLM specimen was the best under the low electric potential. The result of potentiodynamic polarization suggested that the corrosion resistance of the SLM specimen was the best under the low electric potential (1.5V).The crevice corrosion resistance of the EBM specimen was the best. The corrosion resistance of SLM specimen was the best, based on the result of immersion test. The content of Ti, Al and V ions of EBM, SLM and wrought specimens was very low. In general, the scaffolds that were fabricated with EBM and SLM had good corrosion resistance, and were suitable for implantation in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an innovative method to predict and to characterize the performances of Ti-6Al-4V LBW joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberini, Mariacira; Esposito, Sara; Reshad, Kambitz; Previtali, Barbara; Viola, Marco; Squillace, Antonino

    2016-10-01

    Every manufacturing process leaves on the surface of the piece a typical "technology signature". In particular, the laser welding leaves a feature at the edge of the weld bead called "undercut". In this work an experimental campaign has been conducted on Ti6Al4V butt joints. In particular a Central Composite Design (CCD) with the central point repeated three times has been investigated. In the CCD there are two factors (power and speed of the fiber laser) and five levels for each factor. This paper deals with the investigation about the correlation between the severity of the undercut and the process parameters of the laser welding. In particular, through the confocal microscopy, the original geometry of the joint was accurately acquired and rebuilt in order to make a FEM model and simulate the mechanical behavior using Ansys14.5. Moreover, response surfaces and level curves were carried out to understand and predict the depth and the width of the undercut starting from the power and the speed of the laser. At last a mathematic and geometry regression was performed in order to find a unique conical curve that interpolates all the different undercuts and that varies its parameters according to the process parameters. It is established that the process with higher speed minimizes and optimizes the undercut in the joints.

  4. Influence of Temperature on Nitrogen Ion Implantation of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve increased layer thickness, and wearing resistance, enhanced ion implantation with nitrogen has been carried out at temperatures of 100, 200, 400, and 600℃ with a dose of 4× 1018 ions. cm-2. Using the Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSⅡ) device, specimens of Ti6Al4V alloy were implanted at elevated temperatures, using the ion flux as the heating source. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), micro-hardness measurements and pin-on-disk wearing tester were utilized to evaluate the surface property improvements. The thickness of the implanted layer increased by about an order of magnitude when the temperature was elevated from 100 to 600℃. Higher surface hardness and wearing resistance was also obtained in implantation under higher temperature. XRD image showed the presence of titanium nitrides on the implanted surface.

  5. Robotic Nd:YAG Fiber Laser Welding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Köse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates were joined using a robotic fiber laser welding method. The laser welding process was carried out at two different welding speeds. Effects of different heat input conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of robotic fiber laser welded joints were investigated. Some grain coarsening was observed in the microstructure of weld metal in samples joined using high heat input, compared to those using low heat input, and volume rates of primary α structures increased in the weld metal. The microstructure of weld metal in samples joined using low heat input was made of basket-weave or acicular α' grains and primary β grains in grain boundaries. Tensile and yield strength of samples joined using low heat input were higher than for those joined using high heat input, but their ductility was lower.

  6. Crystal plasticity modeling of β phase deformation in Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John A.; Barton, Nathan R.; Florando, Jeff; Mulay, Rupalee; Kumar, Mukul

    2017-10-01

    Ti-6Al-4V is an alloy of titanium that dominates titanium usage in applications ranging from mass-produced consumer goods to high-end aerospace parts. The material’s structure on a microscale is known to affect its mechanical properties but these effects are not fully understood. Specifically, this work will address the effects of low volume fraction intergranular β phase on Ti-6Al-4V’s mechanical response during the transition from elastic to plastic deformation. A crystal plasticity-based finite element model is used to fully resolve the deformation of the β phase for the first time. This high fidelity model captures mechanisms difficult to access via experiments or lower fidelity models. The results are used to assess lower fidelity modeling assumptions and identify phenomena that have ramifications for failure of the material.

  7. Manufacturing and Characterization of Ti6Al4V Lattice Components Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina L. Campanelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the fabrication of Selective Laser Melting (SLM titanium alloy Ti6Al4V micro-lattice structures for the production of lightweight components. Specifically, the pillar textile unit cell is used as base lattice structure and alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing vertical bars are also considered. Detailed characterizations of dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, and micro-hardness are performed. In addition, compression tests are carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical strength and the energy absorbed per unit mass of the lattice truss specimens made by SLM. The built structures have a relative density ranging between 0.2234 and 0.5822. An optimization procedure is implemented via the method of Taguchi to identify the optimal geometric configuration which maximizes peak strength and energy absorbed per unit mass.

  8. Grain Refinement of Freeform Fabricated Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Beam/Arc Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Scott; Liu, Stephen; Domack, Marcia S.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Grain refinement can significantly improve the mechanical properties of freeform-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, promoting increased strength and enhanced isotropy compared with coarser grained material. Large beta-grains can lead to a segregated microstructure, in regard to both alpha-phase morphology and alpha-lath orientation. Beam modulation, which has been used in conventional fusion welding to promote grain refinement, is explored in this study for use in additive manufacturing processes including electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) deposition to alter solidification behavior and produce a refined microstructure. The dynamic molten pool size induced by beam modulation causes rapid heat flow variance and results in a more competitive grain growth environment, reducing grain size. Consequently, improved isotropy and strength can be achieved with relatively small adjustments to deposition parameters.

  9. Process modeling for electron beam welding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Meijuan; Liu Jinhe

    2009-01-01

    Using ANSYS software, a finite element model for electron beam welding of 14.5 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate is developed by a sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical analysis method. For the purpose of model validation, welding trial is carried out. Meanwhile, fusion zone dimensions and residual stresses are measured. The fusion-boundary profile is reproduced accurately by using a conical volume heat source model. The predicted residual stresses are in reasonable agreement with the results determined by the hole-drilling method. Through the analysis of predicted residual stresses, it is found that the normal residual stress in the interior of plate can not be negligible and the maximum value of three dimensional residual tensile stresses arises at 10.15 mm depth in the weld zone.

  10. Sub-surface and surface analysis of high speed machined Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, J.D. Puerta [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Tidu, A., E-mail: tidu@enim.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Bolle, B. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Chevrier, P. [Laboratoire de Mecanique Biomecanique, Polymere Structures (LaBPS), EA 4632 Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Fundenberger, J.-J. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Universite Paul Verlaine de Metz (UPVM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France)

    2010-04-25

    To understand the effects of cutting the surface integrity is an important goal to control the quality of a work piece. The current paper summarizes an extensive experimental study of the surface integrity and the sub-surface microstructure during high speed machining in orthogonal cutting condition. This study includes measurements of residual stresses and crystallographic texture in addition to electron microscopy observations. Our observations and conclusions are primarily focused on the effect of cutting speed considering a set of constant machining parameters on the microstructure evolution of the sub-surface of the material. The results allow a better understanding of the cutting process in high speed machining of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

  11. Compression-compression fatigue of selective electron beam melted cellular titanium (Ti-6Al-4V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabe, Nikolas W; Heinl, Peter; Flinn, Brian; Körner, Carolin; Bordia, Rajendra K

    2011-11-01

    Regular 3D periodic porous Ti-6Al-4V structures intended to reduce the effects of stress shielding in load-bearing bone replacement implants (e.g., hip stems) were fabricated over a range of relative densities (0.17-0.40) and pore sizes (approximately 500-1500 μm) using selective electron beam melting (EBM). Compression-compression fatigue testing (15 Hz, R = 0.1) resulted in normalized fatigue strengths at 10(6) cycles ranging from 0.15 to 0.25, which is lower than the expected value of 0.4 for solid material of the same acicular α microstructure. The three possible reasons for this reduced fatigue lifetime are stress concentrations from closed porosity observed within struts, stress concentrations from observed strut surface features (sintered particles and texture lines), and microstructure (either acicular α or martensite) with less than optimal high-cycle fatigue resistance. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Corrosion of Ti6Al4V pins produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Damborenea, J. J.; Arenas, M. A.; Larosa, Maria Aparecida; Jardini, André Luiz; de Carvalho Zavaglia, Cecília Amélia; Conde, A.

    2017-01-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technique allows the manufacturing a wide variety of medical devices for any type of prosthetic surgery (HIP, dental, cranial, maxillofacial) as well as for internal fixation devices (K-Wires or Steinmann Pins). There are a large number of research studies on DMLS, including microstructural characterization, mechanical properties and those based on production quality assurance but the influence of porosity in the corrosion behavior of these materials not been sufficiently considered. In the present paper, surgical pins of Ti6Al4V have been produced by DMLS. After testing in a phosphate buffered saline solution, the surface of the titanium alloy appeared locally covered by a voluminous white oxide. This unexpected behavior was presumably due to the existence of internal defects in the pins as result of the manufacturing process. The importance of these defects-that might act as crevice nucleation sites- has been revealed by electrochemical techniques and confirmed by computed tomography.

  13. Microstructure Evolution in Cut Metal Chips of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior beta grains and equiaxed primary alpha located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary alpha grains and beta lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the beta transus temperature.

  14. Microstructures and hardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy staging castings under centrifugal field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yan-wei; LI Bang-sheng; LIU Ai-hui; NAN Hai; GUO Jing-jie; FU Heng-zhi

    2008-01-01

    By means of induction melting technology, Ti-6Al-4V alloy staging casting was made with the same rotation velocity and centrifugal radius. The effects of casting modulus on the grain size, the thickness of lamellar α+β phase, and the Vickers hardness, as well as the relationships between Vickers hardness, grain size and thickness of lamellar α+β phase were investigated. The results show that the greater the modulus, the larger the grain size and the thickness of lamellar α+β phase, and the less the Vickers hardness. The relationship between Vickers hardness and grain size meets the Hall-Petch equation: Hv=353.45+74.17. The relationship between the Vickers hardness and the thickness of lamellar α+β phase is expressed as Hv=2.45d2α+β-35.96dα+β+476.84.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Using a Pulsed Laser Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Abdalla R.; Reutzel, Edward W.

    2015-06-01

    Microstructural development in directed-energy additive manufacturing of metal components is a complex process that produces parts with materials whose microstructure and properties are influenced by multiple heating and cooling cycles. Much work has been undertaken to correlate microstructural development with processing conditions, such as laser power and processing speed. Here, the microstructure and indentation hardness of a Ti-6Al-4V component processed with a pulsing laser beam and a continuous wave (CW) laser beam are investigated. It is found that the pulsed-beam build showed no statistically significant variation in lath width or indentation hardness with build height while the build deposited with the CW beam showed a statistically significant decrease in hardness and an increase in lath width near the middle of the build. The reduction in variability with beam pulsing is attributed to rapid cooling rates within the melt pool, a greater degree of melt pool stirring, and reduced aging during part build-up.

  16. Effect of microstructure and cutting speed on machining behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telrandhe, Sagar V.; Mishra, Sushil; Saxena, Ashish K. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2017-05-15

    Machining of aerospace and biomedical grade titanium alloys has always been a challenge because of their low conductivity and elastic modulus. Different machining methods and parameters have been adopted for high precision machining of titanium alloys. Machining of titanium alloys can be improved by microstructure optimization. The present study focuses on the effect of microstructure on ma- chinability of Ti6Al4V alloys at different cutting speeds. Samples were subjected to different annealing conditions resulting in different grain sizes and local micro-strains (misorientation). Cutting forces were significantly reduced after annealing; consequently, sub-surface residual stresses were reduced. Deformation twinning was also observed on samples annealed at a higher temperature due to larger grain size. Initial strain free grains and deformation twinning during machining reduces the cutting force at higher cutting speed.

  17. Equalization of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy welded joint by scanning electron beam welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The equalization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded joint with base metal on corrosion resistance, strength and ductility was studied. The solidification microstructure is transformed from 650 μm columnar grains to 100 μm equiaxed grains by scanning electron beam welding. The anodic polarization curve of 150 μm equiaxed grains coincides with that of base metal. Equal corrosion resistance between weld metal and base metal was ob tained. Uniform microstructure and solutedistribution are the basis of equalization. Corrosion rate of weld with 150 μm equiaxed grains is the lowest, 2.45 times lower than that of 650 μm columnar grains. Weld strength is 98% as much as that of base metal, yield-strength ratio is 99.5%, which is 3.6% higher than that of base metal.

  18. Electrochemical analysis of the UV treated bactericidal Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A. [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M., E-mail: amparogm@unex.es [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; González-Martín, M. Luisa [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Galván, Juan C. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    This research investigates in detail the bactericidal effect exhibited by the surface of the biomaterial Ti6Al4V after being subjected to UV-C light. It has been recently hypothesized that small surface currents, occurring as a consequence of the electron–hole pair recombination taking place after the excitation process, are behind the bactericidal properties displayed by this UV-treated material. To corroborate this hypothesis we have used different electrochemical techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization plots and Mott–Schottky plots. EIS and Mott–Schottky plots have shown that UV-C treatment causes an initial increase on the surface electrical conduction of this material. In addition, EIS and polarization plots demonstrated that higher corrosion currents occur at the UV treated than at the non-irradiated samples. Despite this increase in the corrosion currents, EIS has also shown that such currents are not likely to affect the good stability of this material oxide film since the irradiated samples completely recovered the control values after being stored in dark conditions for a period not longer than 24 h. These results agree with the already-published in vitro transitory behavior of the bactericidal effect, which was shown to be present at initial times after the biomaterial implantation, a crucial moment to avoid a large number of biomaterial associated infections. Highlights: ► Bactericidal response of UV-treated Ti6Al4V is explained through electrochemistry. ► There is an increase in the superficial electrical conduction after UV-treatment. ► Higher corrosion currents for UV-treated against non-UV-treated samples are shown. ► EIS shows the recuperation on irradiated samples in agreement with microbial tests.

  19. Improved thrombogenicity on oxygen etched Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Nicholas A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Smith, Barbara S. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Williams, John D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Popat, Ketul C., E-mail: ketul.popat@colostate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Thrombus formation on blood contacting biomaterials continues to be a key factor in initiating a critical mode of failure in implantable devices, requiring immediate attention. In the interest of evaluating a solution for one of the most widely used biomaterials, titanium and its alloys, this study focuses on the use of a novel surface oxidation treatment to improve the blood compatibility. This study examines the possibility of using oblique angle ion etching to produce a high quality oxide layer that enhances blood compatibility on medical grade titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of these oxygen-rich surfaces confirmed the presence of TiO{sub 2} peaks and also indicated increased surface oxidation as well as a reduction in surface defects. After 2 h of contact with whole human plasma, the oxygen etched substrates demonstrated a reduction in both platelet adhesion and activation as compared to bare titanium substrates. The whole blood clotting behavior was evaluated for up to 45 min, showing a significant decrease in clot formation on oxygen etched substrates. Finally, a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) total protein assay and XPS were used to evaluate the degree of key blood serum protein (fibrinogen, albumin, immunoglobulin G) adsorption on the substrates. The results showed similar protein levels for both the oxygen etched and control substrates. These results indicate that oblique angle oxygen etching may be a promising method to increase the thrombogenicity of Ti6Al4V. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oblique angle oxygen ion etching creates a high quality, uniform oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates showed fewer adhered platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Platelet activation was reduced by the improved oxide surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen etched substrates exhibited increased whole blood clotting times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Although clotting reductions were

  20. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser drilling of aerospace materials (Ti-6Al-4V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, N. D.; Marimuthu, S.; Yahya, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the influence of Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. Ti-6Al-4V of 1 mm and 3 mm thickness were used as the workpiece substrate. The principal findings are mainly based on minimising the taper angle in laser drilled holes, reducing the heat affected zone and reducing the production of spatter. Identification of key process variables associated with laser drilling process is accomplished by trial experimentation. Using the identified key process variables, further experiments were then performed with the assistance of statistical design of experiment (DOE) to find the interaction and individual effects of various laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. The lowest taper angle of 1.8 degrees was achieved with use of nitrogen as the assist gas. Furthermore, from the laser process observations, it was found that laser power significantly affects the quality of the laser drilled hole. Increase in laser power would increase the hole size and result in more spatter on the entry hole surfaces. The nozzle focus position substantially influenced the laser drilled hole size. The amount of spatter deposits increased with decrease in the nozzle offset. Increase in laser frequency significantly increased the exit diameter, which resulted in smaller taper angle. Number of pulse required to drill through a workpiece depends on the material properties and physical properties of the material. For 1mm Ti-6Al-4V, a minimum of two pulses was required to successfully removed the material during drilling and a minimum of 4 pulses was required to drill through the same material with 3mm thickness.

  1. Internal strain evolution during heating of Ti-6Al-4V/SCS-6 composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, H.; Rangaswamy, P.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    1999-12-31

    The characteristics of the residual stresses and their effects on the properties in continuous SiC fiber reinforced Ti-6Al-4V matrix composites (TMCs) have been extensively studied. However, to date, few experimental studies (e.g. Ti-14Al-21Nb/SCS-6) have characterized the thermal residual strain in TMCs at elevated temperatures. Therefore, the authors investigated the evolution of the thermal residual strain during heating of Ti-6Al-4V/35vol% SiC composite. In this study the authors used in situ high temperature neutron diffraction to measure strains: (1) in the matrix ({alpha} and {beta} phases) and in the fiber, (2) for several lattice reflections in each phase and (3) from both axial and the transverse directions. One distinguishing feature is the wide temperature range (from room temperature up to 1,170K) over which the study was performed. Although the proposed application temperature is typically less than 800K, TMCs are subject to higher temperatures during fabrication and may experience high temperature excursions while in service. Therefore, the authors extended the study to the high temperature regime where the matrix starts to undergo a phase transformation between {alpha}{minus} and {beta}{minus}Ti. Measurements from this regime (800{approximately}1,170K) provide insights on; (1) the inelastic relaxation of the residual strains through matrix yielding and creep, (2) the effect of the phase transformation on the residual strains and (3) the effect of the presence of SiC on the matrix phase evolution.

  2. Surface structure and properties of Ti6Al4V alloy laser melted at cryogenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zielińskia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research work has been to determine whether surface melting of the Ti6Al4V bioalloy with thehigh power laser, when immersed in liquid nitrogen, would result in an appearance of hard and thick surfacelayer, containing new structural constituents.Design/methodology/approach: The laser melting of the Ti6Al4V alloy has been made by the CO2 laser atdifferent laser beam energy and scan rate. The specimens have been immersed in liquid nitrogen bath duringlaser treatment. The Vickers microhardness of cross-sections of the surface layer has been measured, and themicroscopic examinations have been performed with the SEM.Findings: The laser melting at cryogenic conditions has resulted in creation of the modified surface layer, upto 1.5 mm thick with HAZ, of properties and structures different from those of the base metal. The layer hasbeen well adjacent to base metal, its microhardness being significantly higher. The numerous zones have beenobserved within the surface layer, with nitrogen-containing martensite and titanium nitride structures. Thenegative effect has been an initiation of surface cracks. The laser beam energy has influenced the presence ofdifferent zones, their thickness, and number of cracks.Research limitations/implications: So far research has shown that proposed technique can create thick andhard surface layer, containing new structural important components. The new research is necessary in order toestablish the laser treatment parameters which permit to avoid cracking and determine the phase constituentsand crystallinity within the surface layer.Practical implications: The elaborated technique may be useful in order to improve the surface properties ofthe Ti alloys for biomedical applications.Originality/value: The paper shows original in the world-scale results of laser treatment of the Ti bioalloy atcryogenic conditions.

  3. Fatigue of Ti6Al4V Structural Health Monitoring Systems Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strantza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM is an additive manufacturing (AM process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM are capable candidates for applications in aerospace and industrial fields due to their fracture resistance, fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, structural health monitoring (SHM system technologies are promising and requested from the industry. SHM systems can monitor the integrity of a structure and during the last decades the research has primarily been influenced by bionic engineering. In that aspect a new philosophy for SHM has been developed: the so-called effective structural health monitoring (eSHM system. The current system uses the design freedom provided by AM. The working principle of the system is based on crack detection by means of a network of capillaries that are integrated in a structure. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the functionality of Ti6Al4V produced by the SLM process in the novel SHM system and to confirm that the eSHM system can successfully detect cracks in SLM components. In this study four-point bending fatigue tests on Ti6Al4V SLM specimens with an integrated SHM system were conducted. Fractographic analysis was performed after the final failure, while finite element simulations were used in order to determine the stress distribution in the capillary region and on the component. It was proven that the SHM system does not influence the crack initiation behavior during fatigue. The results highlight the effectiveness of the eSHM on SLM components, which can potentially be used by industrial and aerospace applications.

  4. Characterization of cellular solids in Ti6Al4V for orthopaedic implant applications: Trabecular titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E; Fusi, S; Pressacco, M; Paussa, L; Fedrizzi, L

    2010-07-01

    EBM (Electron Beam Melting) technology can be used successfully to obtain cellular solids in metallic biomaterials that can greatly increase osseointegration in arthroprothesis and at the same time maintain good mechanical properties. The investigated structures, called Trabecular Titanium, usually cannot be obtained by traditional machining. Two samples: (A) with a smaller single cell area and, (B) with a bigger single cell area, were produced and studied in this project. They have been completely characterized and compared with the results in similar literature pertinent to Ti6Al4V EBM structures. Relative density was evaluated using different methods, the mean diameter of the open porosities was calculated by Scanning Electron Microscope images; the composition was evaluated using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy; the microstructure (alpha-beta) was investigated using chemical etching and, the mechanical proprieties were investigated using UMTS. The mean porosity values resulted comparable with spongy bone (63% for A and 72% for B). The mean diameter of the single porosity (650 mum for A and 1400 mum for B) resulted compatible with the osseointegration data from the literature, in particular for sample A. The Vickers micro-hardness tests and the chemical etching demonstrated that the structure is fine, uniform and well distributed. The mechanical test proved that sample (A) was more resistant than sample (B), but sample (B) showed an elastic modulus almost equal to the value of spongy bone. The results of this study suggest that the two Ti6Al4V cellular solids can be used in biomedical applications to promote osseointegration demonstrating that they maybe successfully used in prosthetic implants. Additional implant results will be published in the near future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In-situ formation of laser Ti6Al4V–TiB composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popoola, API

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy has been widely used for medical implants due to good mechanical properties. For permanent implant applications Ti6Al4V alloy has shown to have low corrosion and wear resistance. Based on these the development of in-situ Ti6Al4V...

  6. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan, E-mail: Jayasheelan.Vaithilingam@nottingham.ac.uk [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Prina, Elisabetta [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Goodridge, Ruth D.; Hague, Richard J.M. [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Steve [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rose, Felicity R.A.J. [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Christie, Steven D.R. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM–AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6 ± 3.7 μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of selective laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V parts was compared with conventionally forged Ti6Al4V parts. • The surface elemental compositions of the SLM as-fabricated surfaces were significantly different to the forged surface. • Surface oxide-layer of the SLM as-fabricated was thicker than the polished SLM surfaces and the forged Ti6Al4V surfaces.

  7. 表面改性提高与Ti6A14V对磨材料UHMWPE摩擦学性能%Improvement in the Tribological Properties of UHMWPE Sliding against Ti6Al4V by Surface Modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雯; 董汉山

    2005-01-01

    Surface engineering has been emerging as one of the most promising technologies to improve the tribological properties of biomaterials with a view to extending the life span of medical implants. For example, some novel surface engineering techniques including ion implantation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and thermal oxidation (TO) treatment of titanium alloy have been developed. However, the full potential of improving the wear resistance of orthopaedic implants based on the UHMWPE/ Ti6Al4V system will not be realized until the tribological performance of this surface engineered tribo-system is fully characterized and the acting wear mechanisms are well understood. In this paper, a pin-on-disc tribometer was employed to evaluate the tribological response of the following three tribo-systems: (1) untreated UHMWPE/untreated Ti6Al4V, (2) untreated UHMWPE/TO-treated Ti6Al4V and (3) ion implanted UHMWPE/TO treated Ti6Al4V under water lubricated conditions. Experimental results show that the tribological properties of UHMWPE can be significantly increased by surface engineering its surface and/or the counterface. This can be attributed to the hardened surface of UHMWPE via molecular structure modification induced by ion bean bombardment coupled with the surface oxide layer on Ti6Al4V formed during TO treatment, which has favorable tribological compatibility with UHMWPE.

  8. Effect of Build Orientation of Electron Beam Melting on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, J.; Rochman, A.; Cassar, G.

    2017-02-01

    Build orientation influences thermal activity during the EBM process, thus affecting the resultant bulk material properties of the part being produced. This work focuses on EBM build orientation with respect to the X, Y and Z axes and its effect on microstructure and mechanical performance of Ti-6Al-4V parts. A series of EBM Ti-6Al-4V specimens were fabricated using an Arcam S12 setup in different build orientations: XY, ZX, ZY, XY 30° and XY 60° inclination to the start plate. Using conventionally wrought Ti-6Al-4V as a benchmark, EBM specimens were tensile and impact tested. Furthermore, microhardness measurements, optical and electron microscopy were used for characterization. Horizontally oriented EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts develop finer lamellar microstructures as a result of higher cooling rates, however exhibiting comparable strength and rather lower ductility and toughness when compared to vertically oriented parts. Solidification defects, resulting from inconsistencies in melting due to high cooling rates but also related to specimen geometry, have countered the influence of a finer microstructure. This study has also shown that EBM parts develop columnar prior-β grains which follow build direction. Benchmark wrought Ti-6Al-4V specimens show higher tensile properties while offering increased resistance to crack nucleation due to their homogeneous equiaxed microstructure.

  9. Grinding behavior and surface appearance of (TiCp+TiBw)/Ti-6Al-4V titanium matrix composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Wenfeng; Zhao Biao; Xu Jiuhua; Yang Changyong; Fu Yucan; Su Honghua

    2014-01-01

    (TiCp+TiBw)/Ti-6Al-4V titanium matrix composites (PTMCs) have broad application prospects in the aviation and nuclear field. However, it is a typical difficult-to-cut material due to high hardness of the reinforcements, high strength and low thermal conductivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy matrix. Grinding experiments with vitrified CBN wheels were conducted to analyze comparatively the grinding performance of PTMCs and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Grinding force and force ratios, specific grinding energy, grinding temperature, surface roughness, ground surface appearance were dis-cussed. The results show that the normal grinding force and the force ratios of PTMCs are much larger than that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Low depth of cut and high workpiece speed are generally ben-eficial to achieve the precision ground surface for PTMCs. The hard reinforcements of PTMCs are mainly removed in the ductile mode during grinding. However, the removal phenomenon of the reinforcements due to brittle fracture still exists, which contributes to the lower specific grinding energy and grinding temperature of PTMCs than Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  10. Layer Additive Production or Manufacturing of Thick Sections of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Gulizia, S.; Fraser, D.; Oh, C. H.; Lu, S. L.; Qian, M.

    2017-07-01

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is an established layer additive manufacturing or production process for small-to-medium-sized components of Ti-6Al-4V. Current literature data on SEBM of Ti-6Al-4V are, however, based principally on thin-section (<1″; mostly <0.5″) samples or components. In this research, 34-mm-thick (1.34″) Ti-6Al-4V block samples were produced through use of default Arcam SEBM parameters and characterized versus section thickness. High densities (99.4-99.8%) were achieved across different thick sections, but markedly inhomogeneous microstructures also developed. Nonetheless, the tensile properties measured from 27 different thickness-width positions all clearly satisfied the minimum requirements for mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. SEBM produced highly dense thick sections of Ti-6Al-4V with good tensile properties. Large lack-of-fusion defects (80-250 µm) were found to be mainly responsible for variations in tensile properties.

  11. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  12. Nanotopography and Surface Stress Analysis of Ti6Al4V Bioimplant: An Alternative Design for Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sweetu; Solitro, Giovanni Francesco; Sukotjo, Cortino; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T.; Amirouche, Farid; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical stability of biomedical Ti6Al4V rods with vertically aligned nanotubes structure formed on their surface has yet to be fully tested during insertion into the bone. The surface of rods impacted during insertion into a bone makes shear contact with bone, generating an interfacial stress. This stress plays an important role in osseointegration and may contribute to loosening between the bone and the implant during surgery. In the current study, the mechanical stability of various Ti6Al4V surfaces, including machined (M), rough (R), machined-anodized (MA), and rough-anodized (RA) surfaces, were tested and fully analyzed during insertion and pullout test into a simulant bone with densities 15 and 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf). Our initial results from the field emission scanning electron microscopy images taken before and after insertion reveal that titania nanotubes remained stable and maintained their structural integrity during the insertion and pullout Instron test. Furthermore, from the interfacial stress calculation during the insertion, it was observed that compared with nonanodized rods, a higher force was required to insert the anodized rods. The interfacial stress generated during the insertion of anodized rods was 1.03 ± 0.11 MPa for MA and 1.10 ± 0.36 MPa for RA, which is significantly higher ( p anodized rod insertion (i.e., MA = 1.3 ± 0.04 Nm and RA = 1.23 ± 0.24 Nm) was not significantly different than nonanodized rod insertion (i.e., M = 0.9 ± 0.05 Nm and R = 1.04 ± 0.04 Nm) into 15 pcf simulant bone. The high stress during insertion of anodized rods suggests that the nanotubes on the surface can cause gripping and high friction on the radial side, resisting the counter motion of the bone. The latter may play a beneficial role in preventing micromotion between the bone and implant and therefore reducing the chance of fretting/fatigue corrosion.

  13. Topographic and Electrochemical Ti6Al4V Alloy Surface Characterization in Dry and Wet Reciprocating Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Doni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This present paper shows the behavior of functional integrity of the state Ti6Al4V alloy under reciprocating sliding wear conditions in acomparative way for two different counter materials, steel and ceramicballs in dry and corrosive environment (3.5% NaCl. The surface integrity analysis of the dry reciprocating wear tests was based on the evolution of The roughness parameters with the applied load. In the case of reciprocating wear tests in corrosive environment the surface integrity analysis was based on electrochemical parameters. Comparative analysis of the evolution of the roughness parameters with the applied load shows a higher stability of the Ti6Al4V/Al2O3 contact pair, while from the point of view of the electrochemical parameters the Tribological properties are worse than Ti6Al4V/steel ball contact pair.

  14. Biological functionality and mechanistic contribution of extracellular matrix-ornamented three dimensional Ti-6Al-4V mesh scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Nune, K C; Misra, R D K

    2016-11-01

    The 3D printed metallic implants are considered bioinert in nature because of the absence of bioactive molecules. Thus, surface modification of bioinert materials is expected to favorably promote osteoblast functions and differentiation. In this context, the objective of this study is to fundamentally elucidate the effect of cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) ornamented 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds on biological functions, involving cell adhesion, proliferation, and synthesis of vinculin and actin proteins. To mimic the natural ECM environment, the mineralized ECM of osteoblasts was deposited on the Ti-6Al-4V porous scaffolds, fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) method. The process comprised of osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and freeze-thaw cycles to obtain decellularized extra cellular matrix (dECM), in vitro. The dECM provided a natural environment to restore the natural cell functionality of osteoblasts that were cultured on dECM ornamented Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds. In comparison to the bare Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds, a higher cell functionality such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and growth including cell-cell and cell-material interaction were observed on dECM ornamented Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds, which were characterized by using markers for focal adhesion and cytoskeleton such as vinculin and actin. Moreover, electron microscopy also indicated higher cell-material interaction and enhanced proliferation of cells on dECM ornamented Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds, supported by MTT assay. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2751-2763, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Explosive welding of Ti--6Al--4V to mild-steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inal, O.T.; Szecket, A.; Vigueras, D.J.; Pak, H.

    1985-11-01

    Ti--6Al--4V sheets were explosively welded to mild steel base plates with an attachment zone that approximates a straight, waveless interface devoid of vorticity and thus the attendant formation of the Fe--Ti intermetallics. The welded interface is seen to be harder than either of the bi-alloys joined and the attachment strength, measured in terms of shear stress required for fracture of the weld zone, is seen to be stronger than the weaker of the materials (mild steel) joined. Stress relief treatments given at 525 /sup 0/C is seen to induce ductility to the brittle interface without the introduction of recrystallization and/or the formation of Fe--Ti intermetallics at the weld zone. Approximate energy calculations indicate that explosively induced welds that comprise a nearly straight interface make efficient use of the detonation introduced energy, and thus the plastic straining of the alloys adjacent to the weld are minimal as confirmed by the microhardness and tensile test data obtained on the as-welded and stress relieved samples.

  16. Effect of beam oscillation on fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V electron beam weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, N. Kishore [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Raman, S. Ganesh Sundara [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India)], E-mail: ganesh@iitm.ac.in; Murthy, C. V. Srinivasa [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    2007-12-15

    The present study deals with the effect of beam oscillation technique using elliptical waveform on fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V electron beam weldments. Autogenous full penetration bead-on-plate electron beam welds were made with and without beam oscillation. Some welds were subjected to post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at two different temperatures (700 and 900 deg. C). Room temperature hardness, tensile properties and fatigue life of the weldments in the as-welded and PWHT conditions were studied and correlated with the microstructure. The beam oscillated weldments exhibited lower strength (hardness) compared to those made without beam oscillation. This was attributed to wider diffusional {alpha} plates in the beam oscillated welds due to lower cooling rates. The beam oscillated weldments exhibited inferior fatigue lives compared with unoscillated weldments owing to the presence of wider {alpha} platelets in the former. As the width of {alpha} platelets in the weldments subjected to PWHT at 700 deg. C was smaller than that in the weldments subjected to PWHT at 900 deg. C, they exhibited longer fatigue lives.

  17. MODELING OF 'BANDING' MICROSTRUCTURE FORMATION IN CENTRIFUGALLY SOLIDIFIED Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations of the 'banding' microstructure formation during solidifica-tion of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the centrifugal casting are conducted using a multi-scale model, which combines the finite difference method (FDM) at the macroscale with a cellular automaton (CA) model at the microscale. The macro model is used to simu-late the fluid flow and heat transfer throughout the casting. The micro model is used to predict the nucleation and growth of microstructures. With the proposed model,numerical simulations are performed to study the influences of the nucleation density,mould rotation speed, and casting size upon the 'banding' microstructure formation. It is noted that changing the nucleation density has a minor effect on the microstructure formation. The rotation speed promotes the formation of 'banding' microstructure,which is more noticeable for larger size castings. The major mechanism responsi-ble for this 'banding' phenomenon is the spatial variation in cooling rates created by centrifugal force.

  18. Deformation Behavior and Microstructure of Ti6Al4V Manufactured by SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakhmalev, P.; Fredriksson, G.; Yadroitsava, I.; Kazantseva, N.; Plessis, A. du; Yadroitsev, I.

    Mechanical properties, porosity, and microstructure of Ti6Al4V (ELI) material produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) under controlled oxygen content were analyzed. Fully martensitic α'structure with high dislocation density and stacking faults was observed in both as-built and stress relieved samples by means of XRD and TEM. Tensile {101 ̅2} twinning was identified by TEM and electron diffraction. Accommodation of thermal stresses during manufacturing was suggested as a possible reason for twinning. Computed tomography of pores was carried out. Pores in the specimens were evenly distributed and mostly had an elongated shape. Defect analysis by micro CT scans in pre-strained samples confirmed that the pore coalescence was the main crack formation mechanism in the final fracture with typical cup-and-cone fracture morphology. Additionally, typical dimples and quasi-cleavage were revealed. Mechanical properties of the samples after stress relieving heat treatment at 650°C for 3 h are complied with the international standard for Ti alloys for biomedical applications.

  19. Wetting behaviour of laser synthetic surface microtextures on Ti-6Al-4V for bioapplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahotre, Narendra B; Paital, Sameer R; Samant, Anoop N; Daniel, Claus

    2010-04-28

    Wettability at the surface of an implant material plays a key role in its success as it modulates the protein adsorption and thereby influences cell attachment and tissue integration at the interface. Hence, surface engineering of implantable materials to enhance wettability to physiological fluid under in vivo conditions is an area of active research. In light of this, in the present work, laser-based optical interference and direct melting techniques were used to develop synthetic microtextures on Ti-6Al-4V alloys, and their effects on wettability were studied systematically. Improved wettability to simulated body fluid and distilled water was observed for Ca-P coatings obtained by direct melting technique. This superior wettability was attributed to both the appropriate surface chemistry and the three-dimensional surface features obtained using this technique. To assert a better control on surface texture and wettability, a three-dimensional thermal model based on COMSOL's multiphysics was employed to predict the features obtained by laser melting technique. The effect of physical texture and wetting on biocompatibility of laser-processed Ca-P coatings was evaluated in the preliminary efforts on culturing of mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells.

  20. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej OSSOWSKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge nitriding is being used increasingly more often for modifying the properties of titanium and its alloys with the aim to increase their frictional wear resistance, fatigue strength, and, in the case of medical applications, to eliminate the metallosis effect. Unlike PVD methods, ion nitriding ensures the formation of diffusive layers with very good adhesion to the substrate, but which still have some disadvanteges such as the “edge effect” or “hollow cathode effect” which hinders treatment of complex workpieces. The paper compares nitrided layers produced on Ti6Al4V alloy using two different types of nitriding processes. The first process is conventional dc plasma nitriding (DCPN where the samples were placed at the cathode potential, while the second one is a new method of cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN process, where the substrate is insulated from the cathode and anode. The experiments have shown that the treatment conducted in a cathodic cage can be alternative for conventional ion nitriding, especially when used for small parts with complicated shapes used in the space or medical industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7343

  1. Aspects of high-cycle fatigue performance in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, B.L.; Campbell, J.P.; Roder, O.; Thompson, A.W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    Determination of critical levels of microstructural damage that can lead to fatigue crack propagation under high-cycle fatigue loading conditions is a major concern for the aircraft industry regarding structural integrity of turbine engine components. The cyclic frequencies characteristic of service loading spectra are extremely high and appear to require a damage-tolerant design approach. One idea for such an approach is to attempt to define a practical, appropriate crack-propagation threshold, {Delta}K{sub TH}. The present study identifies a practical lower-bound large-crack threshold under high-cycle fatigue conditions in a Ti-6 Al-4V blade alloy (with {approximately}60% primary {alpha} in a matrix of lamellar {alpha}+{beta}). The authors suggest that lower-bound thresholds can be determined by modifying standard large-crack propagation tests to simulate small-crack behavior. Modification techniques include high load-ratio testing under both constant-R and constant-K{sub max} conditions, performed at cyclic loading frequencies up to 1 kHz and R ratios up to 0.95. The results of these tests are compared to the near-threshold behavior of naturally-initiated small cracks, and to the crack initiation and early growth behavior of small cracks emanating from sites of simulated foreign object damage.

  2. An integrated experimental and computational approach to laser surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahotre, Sanket N.; Vora, Hitesh D.; Pavani, K.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2013-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been commonly used in many biological and industrial applications owing to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, they have been specifically inadequate for biomedical implants due to their inferior tribological properties (low wear resistance, higher coefficient of friction, and lower hardness). As a remedy, the process of laser nitriding has emerged from the past few decades as a unique method for tailoring the surface microstructures and/or composition of titanium for enhanced tribological characteristics of titanium and its alloys. In the present study, a multiphysics computational model was developed to predict the nitrogen diffusion length into the Ti-6Al-4V alloy under various laser processing conditions (laser power and scanning speed). XRD, SEM and EDS analyses were also conducted for phase identification, microstructural investigation, and estimating the nitrogen concentration, respectively. Both computational and experimental results indicated that the depth of nitrogen diffusion increased with decrease in scanning speed, and subsequent increase in laser interaction time and increase in input laser energy density.

  3. Ordered nano-scale dimple pattern formation on a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the many applications of nanostructured surfaces – including in biomaterials – there is a strong interest in cost- and time-efficient methods for their fabrication. Previously, our group established a simple electrochemical method generating nanoscale patterns on large areas of a number of different metal surfaces. They consist of dimples that are around 6-10 nm deep and hexagonally closed packed with a tunable periodicity of around 50 nm. Ordering requires careful tuning of the surface chemistry, which makes the translation of these findings to multi-component alloys non-obvious. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that such a pattern can also be achieved on the surface of an alloy, namely Ti-6Al-4V. This alloy is of particular interest for biomedical implants. While dimple formation on the main component metals titanium and aluminum has previously been reported (albeit under conditions that differ from each other, we now also report dimple formation on pure vanadium surfaces to occur under very different conditions. Dimple formation occurs preferentially on the (dominant α-phase grains of the alloy. The size of dimples of the alloy material is subject to the electropolishing potential, electrolyte concentration and surface chemical composition, which gives us the opportunity to control the surface features. Since a main application of this alloy are biomedical implants, this level of control will be an important tool for accommodating cell growth.

  4. Influence of Bio-Lubricants on the Tribological Properties of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Luo; Li Yang; Maocai Tian

    2013-01-01

    Titanium alloy is one of the best materials for biomedical applications due to its superior biocompatibility,outstanding corrosion resistance,and low elastic modulus.However,the friction and wear behaviors of titanium alloys were sensitive to the environment including lubrication.In order to clarify the wear mechanism of titanium alloy under different lubrications including deionized water,physiological saline and bovine serum,the friction and wear tests were performed between Ti6A14V plates and Si3N4 ball on a universal multi-functional tester.The friction and the wear rate of titanium alloy were measured under dry friction and three different lubrication conditions.The worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy.The results revealed that under the dry friction,the wear resistance of titanium alloy was the worst since the wear mechanism was mainly the combination of abrasive wear and oxidation wear.It was also found that Ti6Al4V alloy had low friction coefficient and wear rate under three lubrication conditions,and its wear mechanism was adhesive wear.

  5. Thermally oxidized titania nanotubes enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, John; Hamlekhan, Azhang; Butt, Arman; Patel, Sweetu; Royhman, Dmitry; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Sukotjo, Cortino; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T

    2016-02-01

    The negative impact of in vivo corrosion of metallic biomedical implants remains a complex problem in the medical field. We aimed to determine the effects of electrochemical anodization (60V, 2h) and thermal oxidation (600°C) on the corrosive behavior of Ti-6Al-4V, with serum proteins, at physiological temperature. Anodization produced a mixture of anatase and amorphous TiO2 nanopores and nanotubes, while the annealing process yielded an anatase/rutile mixture of TiO2 nanopores and nanotubes. The surface area was analyzed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and was estimated to be 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of polished control samples. Corrosion resistance was evaluated on the parameters of open circuit potential, corrosion potential, corrosion current density, passivation current density, polarization resistance and equivalent circuit modeling. Samples both anodized and thermally oxidized exhibited shifts of open circuit potential and corrosion potential in the noble direction, indicating a more stable nanoporous/nanotube layer, as well as lower corrosion current densities and passivation current densities than the smooth control. They also showed increased polarization resistance and diffusion limited charge transfer within the bulk oxide layer. The treatment groups studied can be ordered from greatest corrosion resistance to least as Anodized+Thermally Oxidized > Anodized > Smooth > Thermally Oxidized for the conditions investigated. This study concludes that anodized surface has a potential to prevent long term implant failure due to corrosion in a complex in-vivo environment.

  6. Surface roughness of Ti6Al4V after heat treatment evaluated by artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malataya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies; Erdem, Mehmet; Bozkir, Oguz [Inonu Univ., Malataya (Turkey); Ozay, Cetin [Univ. of Firat Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Tech. Education

    2016-05-01

    The study examines how, using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V are changed as a result of heat treatment and the effect they have on machinability. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations were performed to determine various characteristics and additionally related microhardness and conductivity measurements were conducted. L{sub 18} Taquchi test design was performed with three levels and six different parameters to determine the effect of such alterations on its machinability using WEDM and post-processing surface roughness (Ra) values were determined. Micro-changes were ensured successfully by using heat treatments. Results obtained with the optimization technique of artificial neural network (ANN) presented minimum surface roughness. Values obtained by using response surface method along with this equation were completely comparable with those achieved in the experiments. The best surface roughness value was obtained from sample D which had a tempered martensite structure.

  7. Modelling and simulation of effect of ultrasonic vibrations on machining of Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandip; Joshi, Shashikant; Tewari, Asim; Joshi, Suhas S

    2014-02-01

    The titanium alloys cause high machining heat generation and consequent rapid wear of cutting tool edges during machining. The ultrasonic assisted turning (UAT) has been found to be very effective in machining of various materials; especially in the machining of "difficult-to-cut" material like Ti6Al4V. The present work is a comprehensive study involving 2D FE transient simulation of UAT in DEFORM framework and their experimental characterization. The simulation shows that UAT reduces the stress level on cutting tool during machining as compared to that of in continuous turning (CT) barring the penetration stage, wherein both tools are subjected to identical stress levels. There is a 40-45% reduction in cutting forces and about 48% reduction in cutting temperature in UAT over that of in CT. However, the reduction magnitude reduces with an increase in the cutting speed. The experimental analysis of UAT process shows that the surface roughness in UAT is lower than in CT, and the UATed surfaces have matte finish as against the glossy finish on the CTed surfaces. Microstructural observations of the chips and machined surfaces in both processes reveal that the intensity of thermal softening and shear band formation is reduced in UAT over that of in CT.

  8. Multiresponse optimization of cryogenic drilling on Ti-6Al-4V alloy using topsis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, L. Shakeel; Kumar, M. Pradeep [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-04-15

    Multiresponse optimization of process parameters in drilling is focused in this article using the TOPSIS technique to obtain minimum cutting temperature (T), thrust force (Ft), torque (Mt) and surface roughness (Ra), Circularity (Cir), Cylindricity (Cyl). The experiments were performed on Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in different cooling environments: Wet cooling and cryogenic cooling conditions. Liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2} ) as a coolant is used in cryogenic machining. The control factors selected were machining environments, cutting speed (Vc) and feed rate (f). Eighteen experiments were conducted in wet and cryogenic LN2 conditions based on L{sub 1}8 orthogonal array, respectively. The optimization results indicate drilling at V{sub c} = 40 m/min and f = 0.02 mm/rev which is of the lowest value in cryogenic LN{sub 2} condition. A better performance is achieved too. The optimum multiresponses show that TOPSIS method is the most effective performance in the drilling process.

  9. Laser Micro Bending Process of Ti6Al4V Square Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser micro bending process of Ti6Al4V square bar are carried out using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element analytical model (FEM. The transient temperature fields, displacement fields, stress fields and strain fields are obtained and analyzed. The results show that the bending angel during laser micro bending process is in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effects of process parameters on temperature and deformation are also investigated here. During the bending process the temperature increases with the increase of the laser power and the irradiation time. Radiation of the laser beam yields to a rapid temperature increase at the irradiated surface, which leads to the high temperature gradients between the irradiated surface and the unirradiated surface, which suggest that the mechanism of laser micro bending is the temperature gradient mechanism. The z displacement of forward direction and reverse direction increase when the laser power and irradiation time increase. Laser micro bending process can obtain the larger bending angles reverse to laser beam using higher laser power and shorter irradiation time.

  10. Sol-gel derived bioactive hydroxyapatite/titania composite films on Ti6Al4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Su; Guoqing Zhang; Xudong Yu; Chengtao Wang

    2006-01-01

    The composite films consisting of the titania gel impregnated with hydroxyapatite (HAP) submicron particles were prepared on commercial Ti6Al4V plates processed by a sol-gel route. HAP powders were synthesized based on wet chemical precipitation method with Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 as starting reagents. After being calcined at 900℃, HAP powders were ultrasonically scattered in ethanol to produce HAP sol. The titania sol was prepared using titanium (Ⅳ) isopropoxide {Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4} as precursor. Both the titania sol and the HAP/titania mixture were sequentially spin-coated on the substrates and calcined at various temperatures.The characteristics and mechanical adhesion of the composite films were investigated. The results show that the as-prepared films are dense, homogeneous, well-crystallized, and there is a good interfacial adhesion between the film and the substrate. The in vitro bioactivities of these films were discussed based on the analysis of the variations of Ca and P concentrations in the simulated body fluid and their surface morphologies against immersion time.

  11. Texture Evolution During Laser Direct Metal Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Niyanth; Chaudhary, Anil; Nandwana, Peeyush; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-03-01

    Titanium alloys are used in a wide variety of high-performance applications and hence the processing of titanium and the resulting microstructures after additive manufacturing has received significant attention. During additive manufacturing, the processing route involves the transition from a liquid to solid state. The addition of successive layers results in a complex microstructure due to solid-state transformations. The current study focuses on understanding the phase transformations and relate them to the transformation texture in Ti-6Al-4V to identify conditions leading to a strong alpha transformation texture. The as-deposited builds were characterized using optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed columnar prior β grains with a martensitic structure after the deposition of a single layer. On subsequent depositions, the martensitic microstructure decomposed to a colony and basketweave microstructure with a stronger transformation texture. The alpha texture with a colony and basketweave microstructure showed a stronger transformation texture as a result of variant selection. Thus, by controlling the cooling rate of the build from the β transus, it is possible to control the alpha transformation texture.

  12. Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wevers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties.

  13. Optimization of welding parameters of Ti6Al4V alloy using electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Havlík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys and their weld joints find wide application, in particular in the aircraft, automotive and chemical industries, because of their outstanding specific strength and corrosion resistance. The high reactivity of these alloys and the strong degradation effect of elements contained in the atmosphere (H, N and O make it necessary for these alloys to be welded in protective atmospheres or in vacuum. From this viewpoint, Electron Beam Welding is an advantageous welding technology, especially in large series production. In the literature, there is sufficient information about the effect of the basic welding parameters, namely accelerating voltage, current and welding speed, on the properties of welded joints. In the paper, the effects of the spot diameter and beam focusing on the penetration depth and the weld shape in the Ti6Al4V alloy are studied. The results obtained are complemented by an analysis of the microstructure and microhardness measurements across the welds.

  14. Properties of unirradiated and irradiated Ti-6Al-4V alloy for ITER flexible connectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodchenkov, B.S., E-mail: rodchen@nikiet.ru [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE), P.O. Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Evseev, M.V. [Institute of Reactor Materials, Zarechnyi, Sverdlovsk Region 624051 (Russian Federation); Strebkov, Yu.S. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE), P.O. Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Sinelnikov, L.P.; Shushlebin, V.V. [Institute of Reactor Materials, Zarechnyi, Sverdlovsk Region 624051 (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-01

    The high strength ({alpha} + {beta}) Ti-6Al-4V alloy was selected as the material for flexible attachments of the shield blanket modules in the ITER reactor. The different technologies used for manufacturing this alloy are: forging, stamping or pressing. The microstructures resulting from these processing methods can vary significantly and as a consequence the properties, including irradiation behavior, also vary. There are limited data available on the irradiation behavior of these materials. Specimens cut in the longitudinal and transversal directions of forged and stamped material were studied, with some of the specimens hydrogen charged to {approx}400 ppm H{sub 2}. In the unirradiated condition the forged alloy had slightly more ductility than the stamped alloy. The strength properties of both were practically the same. Neutron irradiation of these materials in the IVV-2M reactor reached doses of {approx}0.2 and 0.3 dpa at temperatures 240-260 deg. C. Irradiation resulted in substantial hardening and significant decrease of the fracture toughness of specimens from both materials.

  15. Powder Removal from Ti-6Al-4V Cellular Structures Fabricated via Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasib, Hazman; Harrysson, Ola L. A.; West, Harvey A.

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal fabrication systems like electron beam melting (EBM) and direct metal laser sintering (also called selective laser melting) are gaining popularity. One reason is the design and fabrication freedom that these technologies offer over traditional processes. One specific feature that is of interest is mesh or lattice structures that can be produced using these powder-bed systems. One issue with the EBM process is that the powder trapped within the structure during the fabrication process is sintered and can be hard to remove as the mesh density increases. This is usually not an issue for the laser-based systems since most of them work at a low temperature and the sintering of the powder is less of an issue. Within the scope of this project, a chemical etching process was evaluated for sintered powder removal using three different cellular structures with varying mesh densities. All meshes were fabricated via EBM using Ti6Al4V powder. The results are promising, but the larger the structures, the more difficult it is to completely remove the sintered powder without affecting the integrity of the mesh structure.

  16. Validatin of miniaturised tensile testing on DMLS TI6AL4V (ELI specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zyl, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a relatively new technology that is developing rapidly. Since DMLS material is created by melting/solidifying tracks and layers from powder, even building geometry can influence the mechanical properties. To certify a material, the testing specimens must be designed and manufactured according to the appropriate standards. Miniaturised tensile DMLS samples could be a good alternative for express quality control, and could reduce the cost of DMLS-specific testing. In this study, as-built and stress-relieved miniaturised tensile DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI specimens with different surface qualities were investigated. The fracture surfaces and mechanical properties of the mini-tensile specimens were analysed and compared with standard full-sized specimens also manufactured by DMLS. The obtained data showed the applicability of mini-tensile tests for the express analysis of DMLS objects if a correction factor is applied for the calculation of the load-bearing cross-section of the specimen.

  17. Crack mode and life of Ti-6Al-4V under multiaxial low cycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamoto Itoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies multiaxial low cycle fatigue crack mode and failure life of Ti-6Al-4V. Stress controlled fatigue tests were carried out using a hollow cylinder specimen under multiaxial loadings of λ=0, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 of which stress ratio R=0 at room temperature. λ is a principal stress ratio and is defined as λ=II/I, where I and II are principal stresses of which absolute values take the largest and middle ones, respectively. Here, the test at λ=0 is a uniaxial loading test and that at λ=1 an equi-biaxial loading test. A testing machine employed is a newly developed multiaxial fatigue testing machine which can apply push-pull and reversed torsion loadings with inner pressure onto the hollow cylinder specimen. Based on the obtained results, this study discusses evaluation of the biaxial low cycle fatigue life and crack mode. Failure life is reduced with increasing λ induced by cyclic ratcheting. The crack mode is affected by the surface condition of cut-machining and the failure life depends on the crack mode in the multiaxial loading largely.

  18. Laser gas-assisted processing of carbon coated and TiC embedded Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S.; Aleem, B. J. Abdul; Karatas, C.

    2010-11-01

    Laser gas-assisted treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface is carried out. The alloy surface is initially coated by a carbon layer, in which the TiC particles are embedded prior to laser processing of the surface. The carbon coating with the presence of TiC particles on the workpiece surface is expected to result in carbonitride compound in the surface vicinity after the laser treatment process. Optical and scanning electron microscopes are used to examine the morphological and the metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer. The residual stress formed in the surface region after the laser treatment process is critical for the practical applications of the resulting surface. Therefore, the residual stress formed in the laser treated region is predicted from the analytically equation. The X-ray diffraction technique is incorporated to obtain the residual stress formed in the surface region. It is found that the residual stress predicted agrees with the X-ray diffraction data. The dense structures consisting of TiCxN1-x, TiNx, Ti2N, and TiC compounds are formed in the surface region of the treated layer. This, in turn, significantly increases the microhardness at the surface.

  19. Laser gas-assisted processing of carbon coated and TiC embedded Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa [Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, S.; Aleem, B.J. Abdul [Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia); Karatas, C. [Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University (Turkey)

    2010-11-01

    Laser gas-assisted treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface is carried out. The alloy surface is initially coated by a carbon layer, in which the TiC particles are embedded prior to laser processing of the surface. The carbon coating with the presence of TiC particles on the workpiece surface is expected to result in carbonitride compound in the surface vicinity after the laser treatment process. Optical and scanning electron microscopes are used to examine the morphological and the metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer. The residual stress formed in the surface region after the laser treatment process is critical for the practical applications of the resulting surface. Therefore, the residual stress formed in the laser treated region is predicted from the analytically equation. The X-ray diffraction technique is incorporated to obtain the residual stress formed in the surface region. It is found that the residual stress predicted agrees with the X-ray diffraction data. The dense structures consisting of TiC{sub x}N{sub 1-x}, TiN{sub x}, Ti{sub 2}N, and TiC compounds are formed in the surface region of the treated layer. This, in turn, significantly increases the microhardness at the surface.

  20. Strain-based fatigue data for Ti-6Al-4V ELI under fully-reversed and mean strain loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Patricio E; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the experimental data supporting the study to obtain the mean strain/stress effects on the fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4V ELI. A series of strain-controlled fatigue experiments on Ti-6Al-4V ELI were performed at four strain ratios (-1, -0.5, 0, and 0.5). Two types of data are included for each specimen. These are the hysteresis stress-strain responses for the cycle in a log10 increment, and the maximum and minimum stress-strain responses for each cycle. Fatigue lives are also reported for all the experiments.

  1. Effect of HIPping (Hot Isostatic Pressing) on electron beam melting Ti6Al4V parts after machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolimont, Adrien; Michotte, Sebastien; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Ducobu, François; de Formanoir, Charlotte; Godet, Stéphane; Filippi, Enrico

    2016-10-01

    The fast growing of Additive Manufacturing (AM) leads us to study the functionality of parts built by these processes. Recently, the Electron Beam Melting process and the Direct Melting Laser Sintering process are used to produce parts in the biomedical and aeronautical fields. The Ti6Al4V is largely used in these fields. This paper present an experimental study of machining Ti6Al4V alloy produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM) before and after HIPping (Hot Isostatic Pressing). The results shows that the hipping has no significant influence on specific cutting pressure.

  2. Measurement of Electrical Conductivity of Porous Titanium and Ti6Al4V Prepared by the Powder Metallurgy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ke; LI Cheng-Feng; ZHU Zhen-Gang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Porous titanium and Ti6Al4V are produced by the powder metallurgy method. Dependence of the electrical conductivity on the porosity and pore size is investigated and the experimental results are correlative and compared with several earlier models. A newly modified Mori-Tanaka relationship based on the effective field method is proposed, which is successfully applied to describe the dependence of the electrical conductivity of porous titanium and Ti6Al4V on the porosity. The pore size has a minor effect on the electrical conductivity of both samples.

  3. Composition and Structure of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Plasma-based Ion Implanted with Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The composition and structure of Ti-6Al-4V alloy plasma-based ion implanted with nitrogen was investigated.The nitrogen depth distribution shows more antiballistic with distribution peak heightened with increased implantation time(dose),and more like a parabola at the low implantation pulse voltage.When implantation pulse voltage is increased,the implantation depth increased with the nitrogen distribution peak being deepened,widened and lowered somewhat.TiN,TiN+Ti2N,or Ti2N second phases were formed in the implanted layer.The relative percentage of nitrogen content in the form of TiN increases when going deeper into the implanted(TiN formed) layer.The increase of implantation pulse width and/or time is favourable for the formation of TiN rather than Ti2N.It is unfavourable for formation of any nitrides when implantation pulse voltage is decreased to 30kV or less.Tiny crystalline particles (made mainly of Ti2N and a smaller percentage of TiO2 phases) of regular shapes such as triangle and tetragon,etc.(about 20 nm) are found distrbuted dispersively in the near surface region of samples implanted at the high implantation pulse voltage (75kV).

  4. Influence of pulsation in thermo-mechanical analysis on laser micro-welding of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, M.; Bag, S.

    2017-05-01

    The pulse parameters of laser heat source have a definite effect on the weld joint structure. However, the complexity in parameter selection increases many folds with reduction in geometric dimensions of the specimen. Hence, an attempt has been made to investigate the laser microwelding of 500 μm thick Ti6Al4V alloy in butt joint configuration using pulse Nd:YAG laser. The influence of laser scanning speed and pulse energy is analyzed to produce a defect-free joint. High peak power is actually dampen by pulsation of laser cratered to use in microwelding process. The feasible range of process parameters like laser scanning speed of 3-7 mm/s and peak power of 1-5 kW produces high quality weld joint using other favorable conditions that mainly diminishes the formation of oxides in welding of titanium alloy. A sophisticated numerical model is always beneficial to capture the thermo-mechanical behavior under differential influence of process parameters. A 3D finite element based sequentially coupled thermo-mechanical model is developed by considering the pulse mode of heat flux. There is considerably variation in temperature profile using actual pulse mode of heat flux as compared to average laser power. Typical hourglass heat source for over penetrated weld is developed for the simulation of microwelding process. Large-displacement theory is considered to predict the weld-induced distortion for laser microwelding process. The computed results are well agreed with experimentally measured values and show the robustness of the present numerical model used for micro scale welding process.

  5. Brasagem da zircônia metalizada com titânio à liga Ti-6Al-4V Brazing of metalized zirconia with titanium to Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pimenta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zircônia tetragonal estabilizada com ítria foi mecanicamente metalizada com titânio e a condição de molhamento avaliada com as ligas convencionais Ag-28Cu e Au-18Ni. Estas dissolveram o revestimento de titânio para uma completa distribuição deste metal ativo na superfície cerâmica, gerando uma liga ativa in situ e possibilitando adequadas ligações químicas ao metal base na temperatura de união. Os melhores resultados de molhamento foram selecionados para brasagem indireta em forno de alto-vácuo nas juntas ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V. Testes de detecção de vazamento de gás hélio foram realizados na interface de união das juntas; amostras removidas na seção transversal de juntas estanques foram examinadas por técnicas de análise microestrutural. Formou-se uma camada escura adjacente à cerâmica metalizada, responsável pelo molhamento ocasionado pela liga Ag-28Cu. Entretanto, o uso da liga Au-18Ni resultou em precipitação de intermetálicos e microtrincamento interfacial. Perfis de microdureza através da interface resultante até onde a zircônia mostrou típico escurecimento não indicaram alternância significativa entre medições consecutivas; os resultados dos ensaios de resistência mecânica à flexão-3p foram considerados satisfatórios.Yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal was mechanically metallized with titanium and the wetting behavior on the ceramic surface was analyzed using the conventional fillers Ag-28Cu and Au-18Ni. These alloys had dissolved the active metal coating, which acts to zirconia reduction on its surface and promoting suitable chemical bonding to the metallic member. Better wetting results were selected for indirect brazing in a high-vacuum furnace for ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V simple butt joints. Helium gas leak detection was made at the joints interface; samples were removed from the tight joints cross-section and examined by microstructural analysis techniques and EDX analysis. There was formation of a dark

  6. Improved Osteoblast and Chondrocyte Adhesion and Viability by Surface-Modified Ti6Al4V Alloy with Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes Using a Super-Oxidative Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Beltrán-Partida; Aldo Moreno-Ulloa; Benjamín Valdez-Salas; Cristina Velasquillo; Monica Carrillo; Alan Escamilla; Ernesto Valdez; Francisco Villarreal

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are amongst the most commonly-used biomaterials in orthopedic and dental applications. The Ti-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is widely used as a biomaterial for these applications by virtue of its favorable properties, such as high tensile strength, good biocompatibility and excellent corrosion resistance. TiO2 nanotube (NTs) layers formed by anodization on Ti6Al4V alloy have been shown to improve osteoblast adhesion and function when compared to non-anodized m...

  7. Modification Of The Structure And Properties Of The Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V In Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimas J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the time when Per-Ingvar Brånemark discovered oseointegration properties of titanium in 1952 a large-scale studies on the issue of usability this metal in surgery were started. Thanks to the parallel research conducted on independent centers managed to get a number of metal alloys which were implanted into the human body in the form of implants. Among the alloys produced appeared alloy of aluminum and vanadium Ti6Al4V. The mechanical properties, high biocompatibility, low density and for this relatively low-cost, caused that the alloy began to be used as a material for biomedical applications. In the present article analyzed the possibility of modifying the properties of the alloy, by choosing another method of producing – method of injection casting with suction. A comparative analysis of the input material - the alloy commercially produced in the form of a rod of the same material melted by injection under vacuum and in air were carried out. The studies results indicate that using method of injection casting with suction to produce the final item influence on significant improvement in mechanical properties as a result of fragmentation of the grains at the element surface. The mechanical properties play a key role in a tissue-implant-bone system.

  8. Effect of surface chemistry on the rate of osseointegration of sintered porous-surfaced Ti-6Al-4V implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taché, Alex; Gan, Lu; Deporter, Douglas; Pilliar, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of adding a thin sol-gel-formed calcium phosphate (CaP) coating to sintered porous-surfaced titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) implants on rates of initial bone ingrowth was investigated. Control implants (as manufactured) and similar implants with sol-gel CaP coatings were randomly placed in distal femoral rabbit condyles (1 implant/leg). After healing for 6, 9, 12, and 16 days, 8 of 10 rabbits in each time group were assessed for maximum implant pullout force (N) and interface stiffness (N/mm). Selected extracted implants also were examined by secondary electron imaging to characterize affected surfaces. The implants of the remaining 2 rabbits in each group were examined by backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSEM). Significantly greater pullout forces and interface stiffness were found for CaP-coated implants at 6 and 9 days. At 6 days, BSEM revealed bone ingrowth on CaP-coated implants but not on control implants. Secondary electron imaging and BSEM observations also suggested greater bone ingrowth with CaP-coated porous implants at 9, 12, and 16 days. Sol-gel-formed CaP surface films significantly enhance rates of bone ingrowth into sintered porous-surfaced implants. This surface treatment may have a number of clinical benefits, including shortening the period prior to functional loading of such implants and improving treatment outcomes in situations of poor bone quality and/or quantity. (More than 50 references).

  9. Compression deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with cellular structures fabricated by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X Y; Li, S J; Murr, L E; Zhang, Z B; Hao, Y L; Yang, R; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2012-12-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy with two kinds of open cellular structures of stochastic foam and reticulated mesh was fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) using electron beam melting (EBM), and microstructure and mechanical properties of these samples with high porosity in the range of 62%∼92% were investigated. Optical observations found that the cell struts and ligaments consist of primary α' martensite. These cellular structures have comparable compressive strength (4∼113 MPa) and elastic modulus (0.2∼6.3 GPa) to those of trabecular and cortical bone. The regular mesh structures exhibit higher specific strength than other reported metallic foams under the condition of identical specific stiffness. During the compression, these EBM samples have a brittle response and undergo catastrophic failure after forming crush band at their peak loading. These bands have identical angle of ∼45° with compression axis for the regular reticulated meshes and such failure phenomenon was explained by considering the cell structure. Relative strength and density follow a linear relation as described by the well-known Gibson-Ashby model but its exponential factor is ∼2.2, which is relative higher than the idea value of 1.5 derived from the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tribological characterization of zirconia coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V components for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, M; Lopomo, N; Marchiori, G; Gambardella, A; Boi, M; Bianchi, M; Visani, A; Pavan, P; Russo, A; Marcacci, M

    2016-05-01

    One of the most important issues leading to the failure of total joint arthroplasty is related to the wear of the plastic components, which are generally made of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Therefore, the reduction of joint wear represents one of the main challenges the research in orthopedics is called to address nowadays. Surface treatments and coatings have been recognized as innovative methods to improve tribological properties, also in the orthopedic field. This work investigated the possibility to realize hard ceramic coatings on the metal component of a prosthesis, by means of Pulsed Plasma Deposition, in order to reduce friction and wear in the standard coupling against UHMWPE. Ti6Al4V substrates were coated with a 2 μm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer. The mechanical properties of the YSZ coatings were assessed by nanoindentation tests performed on flat Ti6Al4V substrates. Tribological performance was evaluated using a ball-on-disk tribometer in dry and lubricated (i.e. with fetal bovine serum) highly-stressing conditions, up to an overall distance of 10 km. Tribology was characterized in terms of coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of the UHMWPE disk. After testing, specimens were analyzed through optical microscopy and SEM images, in order to check the wear degradation mechanisms. Progressive loading scratch tests were also performed in dry and wet conditions to determine the effects of the environment on the adhesion of the coating. Our results supported the beneficial effect of YSZ coating on metal components. In particular, the proposed solution significantly reduced UHMWPE wear rate and friction. At 10 km of sliding distance, a wear rate reduction of about 18% in dry configuration and of 4% in presence of serum, was obtained by the coated group compared to the uncoated group. As far as friction in dry condition is concerned, the coating allowed to maintain low CoF values until the end of the tests, with an

  11. Porous Ti6Al4V scaffold directly fabricating by rapid prototyping: preparation and in vitro experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jia Ping; Wijn, de Joost R.; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Groot, de Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) fiber deposition (3DF), a rapid prototyping technology, was successfully directly applied to produce novel 3D porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with fully interconnected porous networks and highly controllable porosity and pore size. A key feature of this technology is the 3D computer-

  12. Biocompatibility and Corrosion Protection Behaviour of Hydroxyapatite Sol-Gel-Derived Coatings on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. El Hadad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare hydroxyapatite coatings (HAp by a sol-gel method on Ti6Al4V alloy and to study the bioactivity, biocompatibility and corrosion protection behaviour of these coatings in presence of simulated body fluids (SBFs. Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA and X-ray Diffraction (XRD have been applied to obtain information about the phase transformations, mass loss, identification of the phases developed, crystallite size and degree of crystallinity of the obtained HAp powders. Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR has been utilized for studying the functional groups of the prepared structures. The surface morphology of the resulting HAp coatings was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The bioactivity was evaluated by soaking the HAp-coatings/Ti6Al4V system in Kokubo’s Simulated Body Fluid (SBF applying Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP spectrometry. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and Alamar blue cell viability assays were used to study the biocompatibility. Finally, the corrosion behaviour of HAp-coatings/Ti6Al4V system was researched by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. The obtained results showed that the prepared powders were nanocrystalline HAp with little deviations from that present in the human bone. All the prepared HAp coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V showed well-behaved biocompatibility, good bioactivity and corrosion protection properties.

  13. X-ray measurement of residual stresses in laser surface melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, J.M.; van Brussel, B.A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Reed, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the residual stresses in laser surface melted Ti-6Al-4V, determined using X-ray diffraction methods. The principal result is that there is an increase in the transverse residual stress with each successive, overlapping laser track. The result can be used to explain the ob

  14. Particle variations and effect on the microstructure and microhardness of Ti6al4V hybrid metal matrix system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akinlabi, ET

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacture of hybrid Ti6Al4 V alloy systems for application specifically in hot parts of turbine engines has been a challenge in recent years. This is due to the need to increase efficiency and reduce combustion rate and emission. In this work...

  15. Dynamic behaviour of TM380 mild steel and Ti6Al4V alloy subjected to blast loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shoke, Lerato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with characterisation of blast loading to a mild steel plate (SUPRAFORM TM380) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Circular plates 3 mm thick with diameter 306 mm were impulsively loaded by a 20 g PE4 cylindrical charge at a standoff...

  16. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Prina, Elisabetta; Goodridge, Ruth D; Hague, Richard J M; Edmondson, Steve; Rose, Felicity R A J; Christie, Steven D R

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM-AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6±3.7μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour.

  17. Effect of powder density variation on premixed Ti-6Al-4V and Cu composites during laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of powder density variation on the premixed Ti-6Al-4V/Cu and Ti-6A-4V/2Cu Composites. Two sets of experiment were conducted in this study. Five deposits each were made for the two premixed composites. Laser powers were...

  18. Rolling of Plates and Sheets from As-Cast Ti-6Al-4V-0.1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raghavan; Bennett, Mats D.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu; Miracle, Daniel B.; Yu, Kuang-O. (Oscar); Sun, Fusheng

    2009-06-01

    Trace boron addition (~0.1 wt.%) to conventional titanium alloys reduces the as-cast prior-beta grain size by an order of magnitude to about 200 μm, a grain size typically observed after ingot breakdown. In this study, the feasibility of producing plate and sheet by hot rolling of as-cast Ti-6Al-4V-0.1B (wt.%) was evaluated. Starting from an initial thickness of 25 mm, as-cast Ti-6Al-4V-0.1B was successfully rolled to 2 mm sheet in a multistep rolling process. As-cast Ti-6Al-4V (without boron addition) rolled under similar conditions exhibited severe cracking. Tensile properties of the sheets and plates made from the boron-containing alloy met or exceeded AMS 4911 specifications for Ti-6Al-4V plates and sheets produced by conventional processing route. The process of making plate and sheet stock from cast titanium alloy ingots, without recourse to expensive ingot breakdown, can significantly reduce the number of expensive and time-consuming processing steps for making titanium alloy components, thereby enhancing the affordability and expanding the range of titanium applications.

  19. CREEP BEHAVIOR OF TI-6AL-4V WITH MARTENSITIC AND EQUIAXED STRUCTURES AT 600°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aparecida Narciso da Silva Briguent

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V presents important properties as high specific strength, corrosion and creep resistance and metallurgical stability and it has been used in aerospace and aeronautical industries in some applications that requires high temperatures resistance. For these reasons is important understand Ti-6Al-4V deformation at high temperatures. A method of increasing the resistance of a material is heat treatments which can modify its microstructure. Aiming the improvement of Ti-6Al-4V creep resistance it was performed a specific heat treatment in this alloy to obtain a martensitic microstructure. The material was heat-treated at 1,050°C for 30 minutes and cooled in water until room temperature. The aim of this work is to evaluate Ti-6Al-4V creep behavior with equiaxed and martensitic microstructure at 600°C and stress conditions of 125 MPa, 250 MPa e 319 MPa at constant load. The alloy with martensitic structure showed higher creep resistance with a longer time in creep and lower steady-state creep rate.

  20. Effect of CVD-Diamond on the Tribological and Mechanical Performance of Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Din

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-crystalline diamond and microcrystalline diamond films have been separately deposited on chemically treated titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V substrates from methane/hydrogen (CH4/H2 gas mixture, using hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. The coatings have architecture of Ti6Al4V/NCD and Ti6Al4V/MCD. The as grown nano-crystalline diamond and microcrystalline diamond films were characterized using high resolution scanning electron microscope and Raman’s spectroscopy. The residual stresses along the surface of nano-crystalline diamond coatings and micro-crystalline diamond coatings are compressive in nature as shown by the Raman spectroscopy. Nanoindentation tests were also conducted using Berkovich nanoindenter for the purpose of measurement of hardness and elastic modulus values. The indentation depth for microcrystalline diamond coating was 65 nm, whereas for nanocrystalline diamond coating, it was 72 nm. Microcrystalline diamond and nanocrystalline diamond coatings have yielded the super-hardness of ~55 G Pa and ~38 G Pa respectively. The average coefficient of friction of microcrystalline diamond and nanocrystalline diamond coatings decrease from 0.305-0.27 to 0.068-0.053, respectively, when the load is increased from 1 N to 10 N. However, for conventional Ti6Al4V substrate the average coefficient of friction changes from 0.625 to 0.38 under the same input conditions.

  1. Mechanical and chemical analyses across dental porcelain fused to CP titanium or Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Júlio C M; Henriques, Bruno; Ariza, Edith; Martinelli, Antonio E; Nascimento, Rubens M; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of mechanical properties and chemical variation across veneering dental porcelain fused to different titanium-based substrates. Test samples were synthesized by fusing dental feldspar-based porcelain onto commercially pure titanium grade II or Ti6Al4V alloy. Samples were cross-sectioned at angles of 10 and 90° to the interface plane. Afterwards, nanoindentation tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) system were carried out across interfaces extending from the metal towards the porcelain area. Elemental diffusion profiles across the porcelain-to-metal interfaces were also obtained by EDS analysis. The mismatch in mechanical properties found in porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V interfaces was lower than that of porcelain-to-CP titanium. Cracking was noticed at low-thickness veneering dental porcelain regions after the nanoindentation tests of samples cross-sectioned at low angles to the interface plane. A wide reaction zone between titanium and porcelain as well as higher incidence of defects was noticed at the porcelain-to-CP titanium interfaces. This study confirmed Ti6Al4V as an improved alternative to CP-titanium as it showed to establish a better interface with the veneering dental porcelain considering the slight chemical interaction and the lower mechanical properties mismatch. The elastic modulus of porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V samples showed to be less sensitive to porcelain thickness variations.

  2. Properties of a porous Ti-6Al-4V implant with a low stiffness for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Wang, C-T; Zhang, W-G; Li, Y-C

    2009-02-01

    Porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy was fabricated using the electron beam melting (EBM) process. The phases of the as-received powder and fabricated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The XRD peaks of both diffraction patterns agree well, which indicated that the EBM process has not changed the composition of Ti-6Al-4V. The fabricated samples exhibited a Vickers microhardness value of around 428 HV. The compression and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the porous Ti-6Al-4V implant with a porosity of around 60 per cent. The compressive yield strength, Young's modulus, and ultimate compressive strength were 194.6 MPa, 4.25 GPa, and 222.6 MPa respectively. The bending stiffness and bending strength were 3.7 GPa and 126.3 MPa respectively. These results demonstrated that the porous Ti-6Al-4V implant with a low stiffness and high porosity could be a promising biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  3. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4V Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, H. K.; Karthik, N. V.; Gong, Haijun; Starr, Thomas L.; Stucker, Brent E.

    2013-12-01

    This work compares two metal additive manufacturing processes, selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), based on microstructural and mechanical property evaluation of Ti6Al4V parts produced by these two processes. Tensile and fatigue bars conforming to ASTM standards were fabricated using Ti6Al4V ELI grade material. Microstructural evolution was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Tensile and fatigue tests were carried out to understand mechanical properties and to correlate them with the corresponding microstructure. The results show differences in microstructural evolution between SLM and EBM processed Ti6Al4V and their influence on mechanical properties. The microstructure of SLM processed parts were composed of an α' martensitic phase, whereas the EBM processed parts contain primarily α and a small amount of β phase. Consequently, there are differences in tensile and fatigue properties between SLM- and EBM-produced Ti6Al4V parts. The differences are related to the cooling rates experienced as a consequence of the processing conditions associated with SLM and EBM processes.

  4. Exploration of microstructure and wear behaviour of laser metal deposited Ti6Al 4V/Cu composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the explorations conducted on the evolving microstructures and the dry sliding wear of the laser deposited Ti6Al 4V/Cu composites. The laser powers between 1300 W and 1600 W; scanning speeds between 0.30 and 0.72 m/min were...

  5. Effect of ageing treatment on the microstructure and hardness of the Ti6Al 4V Alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masete, S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ageing temperature, time and cooling medium on the microstructure and hardness of a solution treated Ti6Al 4V alloy were investigated. The furnace cooling after ageing for 0.5 hours gave a homogenous structure with higher hardness...

  6. Thermoelectric assessment of laser peening induced effects on a metallic biomaterial Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, H.; Barriuso, S.; Porro, J. A.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Ocaña, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    Laser peening has recently emerged as a useful technique to overcome detrimental effects associated to another wellknown surface modification processes such as shot peening or grit blasting used in the biomedical field. It is worth to notice that besides the primary residual stress effect, thermally induced effects might also cause subtle surface and subsurface microstructural changes that might influence corrosion resistance. Moreover, since maximum loads use to occur at the surface, they could also play a critical role in the fatigue strength. In this work, plates of Ti-6Al-4V alloy of 7 mm in thickness were modified by laser peening without using a sacrificial outer layer. Irradiation by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (9.4 ns pulse length) working in fundamental harmonic at 2.8 J/pulse and with water as confining medium was used. Laser pulses with a 1.5 mm diameter at an equivalent overlapping density (EOD) of 5000 cm-2 were applied. Attempts to analyze the global induced effects after laser peening were addressed by using the contacting and non-contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) techniques. It was demonstrated that the thermoelectric method is entirely insensitive to surface topography while it is uniquely sensitive to subtle variations in thermoelectric properties, which are associated with the different material effects induced by different surface modification treatments. These results indicate that the stress-dependence of the thermoelectric power in metals produces sufficient contrast to detect and quantitatively characterize regions under compressive residual stress based on their thermoelectric power contrast with respect to the surrounding intact material. However, further research is needed to better separate residual stress effects from secondary material effects, especially in the case of low-conductivity engineering materials like titanium alloys.

  7. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra P Ross, Thomas J WebsterSchool of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone–implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study

  8. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexandra P; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone-implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study provides a viable method to anodize an already color coded, anodized titanium alloy to potentially increase bone growth for numerous implant applications.

  9. Quantitative calculation of local shear deformation in adiabatic shear band for Ti-6Al-4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    JOHNSON-COOK(J-C) model was used to calculate flow shear stress-shear strain curve for Ti-6Al-4V in dynamic torsion test. The predicted curve was compared with experimental result. Gradient-dependent plasticity(GDP) was introduced into J-C model and GDP was involved in the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve, respectively, to calculate the distribution of local total shear deformation(LTSD) in adiabatic shear band(ASB). The predicted LTSDs at different flow shear stresses were compared with experimental measurements. J-C model can well predict the flow shear stress-shear strain curve in strain-hardening stage and in strain-softening stage where flow shear stress slowly decreases. Beyond the occurrence of ASB, with a decrease of flow shear stress, the increase of local plastic shear deformation in ASB is faster than the decrease of elastic shear deformation, leading to more and more apparent shear localization. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated LTSDs in ASB are lower than experimental results. At earlier stage of ASB, though J-C model overestimates the flow shear stress at the same shear strain, the model can reasonably assess the LTSDs in ASB. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated local plastic shear strains in ASB agree with experimental results except for the vicinity of shear fracture surface. In the strain-softening stage where flow shear stress sharply decreases, J-C model cannot be used. When flow shear stress decreases to a certain value, shear fracture takes place so that GDP cannot be used.

  10. Performance of High Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase building rate and save cost, the selective laser melting (SLM of Ti6Al4V with a high layer thickness (200 μm and low cost coarse powders (53 μm–106 μm at a laser power of 400 W is investigated in this preliminary study. A relatively large laser beam with a diameter of 200 μm is utilized to produce a stable melt pool at high layer thickness, and the appropriate scanning track, which has a smooth surface with a shallow contact angle, can be obtained at the scanning speeds from 40 mm/s to 80 mm/s. By adjusting the hatch spacings, the density of multi-layer samples can be up to 99.99%, which is much higher than that achieved in previous studies about high layer thickness selective laser melting. Meanwhile, the building rate can be up to 7.2 mm3/s, which is about 2 times–9 times that of the commercial equipment. Besides, two kinds of defects are observed: the large un-melted defects and the small spherical micropores. The formation of the un-melted defects is mainly attributed to the inappropriate overlap rates and the unstable scanning tracks, which can be eliminated by adjusting the processing parameters. Nevertheless, the micropores cannot be completely eliminated. It is worth noting that the high layer thickness plays a key role on surface roughness rather than tensile properties during the SLM process. Although a sample with a relatively coarse surface is generated, the average values of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation are 1050 MPa, 1140 MPa, and 7.03%, respectively, which are not obviously different than those with the thin layer thickness used in previous research; this is due to the similar metallurgical bonding and microstructure.

  11. Thermal Stability of Residual Stresses in Ti-6Al-4V components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, A.; Angerer, P.; Oberwinkler, B.

    2016-03-01

    The need for light weight design while maintaining a high safety is essential for many components, especially in the aircraft industry. Therefore, it's important to consider every aspect to reduce weight, improve fatigue life and maintain safety of crucial components. Residual stresses are a major factor which can positively influence components and fulfil all three requirements. However, due to the inconstancy of the behaviour of residual stresses during the life time of a component, residual stresses are often neglected. If the behaviour of residual stresses could be described reliably over the entire life time of a component, residual stresses could be taken into account and components could be optimized even further. Mechanical and thermal loads are the main reason for relaxation of residual stresses. This work covers the thermal stability of residual stresses in Ti-6Al-4V components. Therefore, exposure tests at raised temperatures were performed on specimens with different surface conditions. Residual stresses were measured by x-ray diffraction before and after testing. Creep tests were also carried out to describe the creep behaviour and thereby the ability for residual stress relaxation. A correlation between the creep rate and amount of relaxed stress was found. The creep behaviour of the material was described by using a combination of the Norton Power law and the Arrhenius equation. The Zener-Wert-Avrami model was used to describe the residual stress relaxation. With these models a satisfying correlation between measured and calculated data was found. Hence, the relaxation of residual stresses due to thermal load was described reliably.

  12. Ti-6Al-4V triply periodic minimal surface structures for bone implants fabricated via selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunze; Hao, Liang; Hussein, Ahmed; Young, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) structures have already been shown to be a versatile source of biomorphic scaffold designs. Therefore, in this work, Ti-6Al-4V Gyroid and Diamond TPMS lattices having an interconnected high porosity of 80-95% and pore sizes in the range of 560-1600 μm and 480-1450 μm respectively were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) for bone implants. The manufacturability, microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices were evaluated. Comparison between 3D micro-CT reconstructed models and original CAD models of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices shows excellent reproduction of the designs. The as-built Ti-6Al-4V struts exhibit the microstructure of columnar grains filled with very fine and orthogonally oriented α' martensitic laths with the width of 100-300 nm and have the microhardness of 4.01 ± 0.34 GPa. After heat treatment at 680°C for 4h, the α' martensite was converted to a mixture of α and β, in which the α phase being the dominant fraction is present as fine laths with the width of 500-800 nm and separated by a small amount of narrow, interphase regions of dark β phase. Also, the microhardness is decreased to 3.71 ± 0.35 GPa due to the coarsening of the microstructure. The 80-95% porosity TPMS lattices exhibit a comparable porosity with trabecular bone, and the modulus is in the range of 0.12-1.25 GPa and thus can be adjusted to the modulus of trabecular bone. At the same range of porosity of 5-10%, the moduli of cortical bone and of the Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices are in a similar range. Therefore, the modulus and porosity of Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices can be tailored to the levels of human bones and thus reduce or avoid "stress shielding" and increase longevity of implants. Due to the biomorphic designs, and high interconnected porosity and stiffness comparable to human bones, SLM-made Ti-6Al-4V TPMS lattices can be a promising material for load bearing bone implants.

  13. Characterisation of a duplex TiO2/CaP coating on Ti6Al4V for hard tissue replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Boon Sing; Annergren, Ingegerd; Soutar, Andrew M; Khor, K A; Jarfors, Anders E W

    2005-04-01

    An initial TiO(2) coating was applied on Ti6Al4V by electrochemical anodisation in two dissimilar electrolytes. The secondary calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was subsequently applied by immersing the substrates in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with three times concentration (SBFx3), mimicking biomineralisation of biological bone. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarisation assessments in SBF revealed that the anodic TiO(2) layer is compact, exhibiting up to four-folds improvement in in vitro corrosion resistance over unanodised Ti6Al4V. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the anodic Ti oxide is thicker than air-formed ones with a mixture of TiO(2-x) compound between the TiO(2)/Ti interfaces. The morphology of the dense CaP film formed, when observed using scanning electron microscopy, is made up of linked globules 0.1-0.5microm in diameter without observable delamination. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total internal reflection analysis revealed that this film is an amorphous/poorly crystallised calcium-deficient-carbonated CaP system. The calculated Ca:P ratios of all samples (1.14-1.28) are lower than stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (1.67). These results show that a duplex coating consisting of (1) a compact TiO(2) with enhanced in vitro corrosion resistance and (2) bone-like apatite coating can be applied on Ti6Al4V by anodisation and subsequent immersion in SBF.

  14. Electrochemical behaviour of laser-clad Ti6Al4V with CP Ti in 0.1 M oxalic acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obadele, Babatunde Abiodun, E-mail: obadele4@gmail.com [Institute for NanoEngineering Research, Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Olubambi, Peter A. [Institute for NanoEngineering Research, Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Andrews, Anthony [Institute for NanoEngineering Research, Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Pityana, Sisa [Institute for NanoEngineering Research, Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); National Laser Center, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa); Mathew, Mathew T. [Institute for NanoEngineering Research, Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of Ti6Al4V alloy and laser-clad commercially pure (CP) Ti coating was investigated. The microstructure, phases and properties of the clad layers were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Electrochemical measurement techniques including open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarisation were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of Ti6Al4V alloy in 0.1 M oxalic acid solution and the results compared to the behaviour of laser-clad CP Ti at varying laser scan speed. Results showed that laser-clad CP Ti at scan speed of 0.4 m/min formed a good cladding layer without defects such as cracks and pores. The phase present in the cladding layer was mostly α′-Ti. The microstructures of the clad layer were needle like acicular/widmanstätten α. An improvement in the microhardness values was also recorded. Although the corrosion potentials of the laser-clad samples were less noble than Ti6Al4V alloy, the polarisation measurement showed that the anodic current density was lower and also increases with increasing laser scanning speed. - Highlights: • The microstructure and corrosion behaviour of laser-clad CP Ti was investigated. • Laser-clad CP Ti 0.4 m/min scan speed gave a good coating without cracks and pores. • The phase present in the clad layer was mostly α′-Ti. • An improvement in the microhardness values was also recorded. • Anodic current density for coatings increases with increasing laser scan speed.

  15. A Study of Electrochemical Machining of Ti-6Al-4V in NaNO3 solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hansong; Gao, Chuanping; Wang, Guoqian; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is used in many industries including aviation, automobile manufacturing, and medical equipment, because of its low density, extraordinary corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining method that allows applications to all kinds of metallic materials in regardless of their mechanical properties. It is widely applied to the machining of Ti-6Al-4V components, which usually takes place in a multicomponent electrolyte solution. In this study, a 10% NaNO3 solution was used to make multiple holes in Ti-6Al-4V sheets by through-mask electrochemical machining (TMECM). The polarization curve and current efficiency curve of this alloy were measured to understand the electrical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in a 10% NaNO3 solution. The measurements show that in a 10% NaNO3 solution, when the current density was above 6.56 A·cm−2, the current efficiency exceeded 100%. According to polarization curve and current efficiency curve, an orthogonal TMECM experiment was conducted on Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results suggest that with appropriate process parameters, high-quality holes can be obtained in a 10% NaNO3 solution. Using the optimized process parameters, an array of micro-holes with an aperture of 2.52 mm to 2.57 mm and maximum roundness of 9 μm were produced using TMECM. PMID:27734951

  16. A Study of Electrochemical Machining of Ti-6Al-4V in NaNO3 solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hansong; Gao, Chuanping; Wang, Guoqian; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2016-10-13

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is used in many industries including aviation, automobile manufacturing, and medical equipment, because of its low density, extraordinary corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining method that allows applications to all kinds of metallic materials in regardless of their mechanical properties. It is widely applied to the machining of Ti-6Al-4V components, which usually takes place in a multicomponent electrolyte solution. In this study, a 10% NaNO3 solution was used to make multiple holes in Ti-6Al-4V sheets by through-mask electrochemical machining (TMECM). The polarization curve and current efficiency curve of this alloy were measured to understand the electrical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in a 10% NaNO3 solution. The measurements show that in a 10% NaNO3 solution, when the current density was above 6.56 A·cm(-2), the current efficiency exceeded 100%. According to polarization curve and current efficiency curve, an orthogonal TMECM experiment was conducted on Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results suggest that with appropriate process parameters, high-quality holes can be obtained in a 10% NaNO3 solution. Using the optimized process parameters, an array of micro-holes with an aperture of 2.52 mm to 2.57 mm and maximum roundness of 9 μm were produced using TMECM.

  17. Mechanical and chemical analyses across dental porcelain fused to CP titanium or Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Júlio C.M., E-mail: jsouza@dem.uminho.pt [Centre of Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade do Minho, P-4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); PPGO, CCS, Dept. of Dentistry (ODT), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Henriques, Bruno [Centre of Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade do Minho, P-4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Dept. Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Ariza, Edith [Centre of Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade do Minho, P-4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Martinelli, Antonio E.; Nascimento, Rubens M. [Dept. Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Silva, Filipe S. [Centre of Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade do Minho, P-4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Rocha, Luís A. [Centre of Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade do Minho, P-4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Dept. of Physics, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), 17033-360, Bauru SP (Brazil); Celis, Jean-Pierre [Dept. MTM, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of mechanical properties and chemical variation across veneering dental porcelain fused to different titanium-based substrates. Test samples were synthesized by fusing dental feldspar-based porcelain onto commercially pure titanium grade II or Ti6Al4V alloy. Samples were cross-sectioned at angles of 10 and 90° to the interface plane. Afterwards, nanoindentation tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) system were carried out across interfaces extending from the metal towards the porcelain area. Elemental diffusion profiles across the porcelain-to-metal interfaces were also obtained by EDS analysis. The mismatch in mechanical properties found in porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V interfaces was lower than that of porcelain-to-CP titanium. Cracking was noticed at low-thickness veneering dental porcelain regions after the nanoindentation tests of samples cross-sectioned at low angles to the interface plane. A wide reaction zone between titanium and porcelain as well as higher incidence of defects was noticed at the porcelain-to-CP titanium interfaces. This study confirmed Ti6Al4V as an improved alternative to CP-titanium as it showed to establish a better interface with the veneering dental porcelain considering the slight chemical interaction and the lower mechanical properties mismatch. The elastic modulus of porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V samples showed to be less sensitive to porcelain thickness variations. - Highlights: • This study reveals mechanical and chemical behaviors across porcelain/titanium interfaces. • Cracks were noticed after nanoindentation on thin porcelain layers. • Ti6Al4V/porcelain showed a better mechanical behavior than that at CP-Ti/porcelain.

  18. Influence of the processing route of porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces on shear bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptan, Fatih; Alves, Alexandra C; Henriques, Bruno; Souza, Júlio C M; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Ariza, Edith

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at evaluating the two-fold effect of initial surface conditions and dental porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy joining processing route on the shear bond strength. Porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V samples were processed by conventional furnace firing (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and hot pressing. Prior to the processing, Ti-6Al-4V cylinders were prepared by three different surface treatments: polishing, alumina or silica blasting. Within the firing process, polished and alumina blasted samples were subjected to two different cooling rates: air cooling and a slower cooling rate (65°C/min). Metal/porcelain bond strength was evaluated by shear bond test. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's test (pporcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy interfaces ranged from 27.1±8.9MPa for porcelain fused to polished samples up to 134.0±43.4MPa for porcelain fused to alumina blasted samples. According to the statistical analysis, no significant difference were found on the shear bond strength values for different cooling rates. Processing method was statistically significant only for the polished samples, and airborne particle abrasion was statistically significant only for the fired samples. The type of the blasting material did not cause a statistically significant difference on the shear bond strength values. Shear bond strength of dental porcelain to Ti-6Al-4V alloys can be significantly improved from controlled conditions of surface treatments and processing methods.

  19. A Study of Electrochemical Machining of Ti-6Al-4V in NaNO3 solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hansong; Gao, Chuanping; Wang, Guoqian; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2016-10-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is used in many industries including aviation, automobile manufacturing, and medical equipment, because of its low density, extraordinary corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining method that allows applications to all kinds of metallic materials in regardless of their mechanical properties. It is widely applied to the machining of Ti-6Al-4V components, which usually takes place in a multicomponent electrolyte solution. In this study, a 10% NaNO3 solution was used to make multiple holes in Ti-6Al-4V sheets by through-mask electrochemical machining (TMECM). The polarization curve and current efficiency curve of this alloy were measured to understand the electrical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in a 10% NaNO3 solution. The measurements show that in a 10% NaNO3 solution, when the current density was above 6.56 A·cm-2, the current efficiency exceeded 100%. According to polarization curve and current efficiency curve, an orthogonal TMECM experiment was conducted on Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results suggest that with appropriate process parameters, high-quality holes can be obtained in a 10% NaNO3 solution. Using the optimized process parameters, an array of micro-holes with an aperture of 2.52 mm to 2.57 mm and maximum roundness of 9 μm were produced using TMECM.

  20. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical property of Ti6Al4V/A6061 dissimilar joint by direct laser brazing without filler metal and groove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Zhihua, E-mail: zhsong@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka, Ibaraki 567-0047 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Nakata, Kazuhiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka, Ibaraki 567-0047 (Japan); Wu, Aiping [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Liao, Jinsun [Kurimoto Ltd., Osaka 559-0021 (Japan)

    2013-01-10

    Laser brazing of Ti6Al4V and A6061-T6 alloys with 2 mm thickness was conducted by focusing laser beam on aluminum alloy side, and the effect of laser offset distance on microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar butt joint was investigated. Laser offset has a great influence on the thickness of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and the mechanical property of joint. The thickness of interfacial IMC layer is less than 500 nm, and the average tensile strength of the joint reaches 64% of aluminum base material strength, when suitable welding conditions are used. The interfacial IMC is TiAl{sub 3}. The formation of interfacial IMC layer and its effect on mechanical property of the joint are discussed in the present study.

  1. In vitro and in vivo performance of bioactive Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA implants fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Man Tik; Tang, Chak Yin, E-mail: mfcytang@polyu.edu.hk; Chen, Ling; Wong, Chi Tak; Tsui, Chi Pong

    2014-09-01

    Failure of the bone–implant interface in a joint prosthesis is a main cause of implant loosening. The introduction of a bioactive substance, hydroxyapatite (HA), to a metallic bone–implant may enhance its fixation on human bone by encouraging direct bone bonding. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites with a reproducible porous structure (porosity of 27% and pore size of 6–89 μm) were successfully fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique. This method allows the biocomposites to be fabricated in a short period of time under ambient conditions. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites exhibited a compressive strength of 93 MPa, compressive modulus of 2.9 GPa and microhardness of 556 HV which are close to those of the human cortical bone. The in vitro preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite showed that the composite surface could provide a biocompatible environment for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation without any cytotoxic effects. This is among the first attempts to study the in vivo performance of load-bearing Ti6Al4V/TiC and Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites in a live rabbit. The results indicated that the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite had a better bone–implant interface compared with the Ti6Al4V/TiC implant. Based on the microstructural features, the mechanical properties, and the in vitro and in vivo test results from this study, the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites have the potential to be employed in load-bearing orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V/TiC and Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites were fabricated by microwave sintering. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA exhibited mechanical properties close to human cortical bone. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA could provide a biocompatible environment for bone cell growth. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA showed a better bone–implant interface than Ti6Al4V/TiC. • Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA could be used for bone replacement under load-bearing conditions.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V/Cu-10Sn bronze diffusion-bonded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO He; CAO Jian; FENG Ji-cai

    2009-01-01

    The microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V/Cu-10Sn bronze diffusion-bonded joint were studied via scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry(EDS). Diffusion bonding of Ti6Al4V to Cu-10Sn bronze was investigated at different holding time. Four obvious interracial layers were observed in the joint. It is revealed that the bonding joint has high shear strength up to 102 MPa bonded at 830 ℃, bonding pressure 10 MPa and bonding time 15 min. Shear test results show that the fracture takes place between the reaction layer and the Cu-10Sn bronze substrate, and the shear strength is strongly related to the formation of Cu-Ti-Sn intermetallic compounds.

  3. Assessment of the fiber matrix interface bond strength in SiC/Ti-6Al-4V composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrier, S.G.; Krishnamurthy, S. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States). Air Force Res. Lab.]|[UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, OH (United States); Rangaswamy, P.; Bourke, M.A.M. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States). Air Force Res. Lab.]|[LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1999-01-31

    The mechanical properties of composites are significantly influenced by the properties of the fiber/matrix interface. From a fundamental as well as an interface development standpoint it is necessary to determine the bond strength of interface. The calculated value of the interface bond strength is extremely sensitive to the value of the compressive radial residual stress at the interface since this residual stress has to be overcome before interface separation can occur. In this study, neutron diffraction was employed to measure radial residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V composites. A combination of stress measurements, finite element analyses and transverse tension tests was employed to systematically evaluate the interface bond strength. The fiber vertical stroke matrix interface bond strength for SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V composites was determined to be about 140 MPa. (orig.) 36 refs.

  4. Experimental study of direct laser deposition of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 by using pulsed parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kamran; Izhar Ul Haq; Shah, Shaukat Ali; Khan, Farid Ullah; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD) has developed from a prototyping to a single metal manufacturing tool. Its potential for creating multimaterial and functionally graded structures is now beginning to be explored. This work is a first part of a study in which a single layer of Inconel 718 is deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Single layer tracks were built at a range of powder mass flow rates using a coaxial nozzle and 1.5 kW diode laser operating in both continuous and pulsed beam modes. This part of the study focused on the experimental findings during the deposition of Inconel 718 powder on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for characterization and phase identification. Residual stress measurement had been carried out to ascertain the effects of laser pulse parameters on the crack development during the deposition process.

  5. Recyclability Study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V Powders for Use in Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Lowe, Larry E.; Kirka, Michael M.; Medina, Francisco; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-02-01

    Powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that result in cost savings. However, currently there are no standards to determine the factors that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel 718 powders are chemically stable over a large number of cycles and their reuse time is limited by physical characteristics of powders such as flowability. Ti-6Al-4V, on the other hand, finds its reuse time governed by the oxygen pick up that occurs during and in between build cycles. The detailed results have been presented.

  6. Investigation of the HA film deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V alloy prepared via additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeneva, M.; Chudinova, E.; Syrtanov, M.; Koptioug, A.; Surmenev, R.

    2015-11-01

    This study is focused on the use of radio frequency magnetron sputtering to modify the surface of porous Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology. The hydroxyapatite (HA) coated porous Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle and hysteresis, and surface free energy. Thin nanocrystalline HA film was deposited while its structure with diamond-shaped cells remained unchanged. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed an effect of the deposited HA films, namely an increased water contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. The increase of the contact angle of the coating-substrate system compared to the uncoated substrate was attributed to the multiscale structure of the resulted surfaces.

  7. Surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by EDM with Cu-SiC composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Feng, L.; Bai, X.; Li, Z. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely used in many industries due to its outstanding properties. However, it has poor machinability using conventional mechanical cutting process. Electrical discharge machining is an alternative competitive process to machine titanium alloy by electrical erosion. This article studies the machining characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with Cu-SiC composite electrode. Surface topography, subsurface microstructure, energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis, and micro-hardness have been analyzed. The machined surfaces show irregular compound structures, droplets of debris, shallow craters, and micro-pores. The surfaces processed by Cu-SiC electrode have fewer number of microcracks compared with that by Cu electrode. Continuous and uniform hardened layer can be achieved by Cu-SiC electrode. The hardened layer has significantly higher hardness than the bulk material because the new phases of TiC and TiSi2 were created on the surface.

  8. Laser fabrication of Ti6Al4V/TiC composites using simultaneous powder and wire feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. [IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: F.wang@bham.ac.uk; Mei, J. [IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Jiang, H. [IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Wu, X. [IRC in Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Composites of Ti-6Al-4V containing different volume fractions of TiC were manufactured using direct laser fabrication. Ti-6Al-4V wire and TiC powder were fed into the laser with the rate of powder feed being changed so that samples containing different volume fractions of TiC could be manufactured. Optical microscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterise the microstructure of these samples. The room temperature tensile properties were measured also on some selected compositions together with their Young's moduli. In addition the change in wear resistance was studied as a function of TiC volume fraction using a standard wear test. These observations are discussed in terms of the advantages and difficulties of using simultaneous wire and powder feed systems and in terms of the value of this approach in obtaining data over a wide range of compositions for such a composite.

  9. Fatigue endurance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with electro-eroded surface for improved bone in-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeček, Miloš; Nový, František; Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Wagner, Lothar

    2011-04-01

    Ti-6Al-4V hour-glass shaped rotating beam specimens with duplex microstructure were processed by electric discharge machining (EDM). A comparatively high peak current of 29A was utilized in order to increase surface roughness for improved osteointegration. High cycle fatigue (HCF) tests were performed in rotating beam loading (R=-1) on these EDM specimens and results were compared with electrolytically polished specimens serving as reference. As expected, the HCF performance of EDM specimens was inferior to the electrolytically polished specimens. A detailed study of fatigue crack nucleation and microcrack growth was carried out on failed specimens by SEM. The poor HCF strength of EDM specimens is explained by early crack nucleation due to the high notch sensitivity of Ti-6Al-4V. In addition, process-induced residual tensile stresses and microstructural effects may also account for the drastic loss in HCF performance relative to the electropolished baseline.

  10. Strain rate dependent behaviors of a hot isotropically processed Ti-6Al-4V: Mechanisms and material model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaohan; Ren, Mingfa; Bu, Fanzi; Chen, Guoqing; Li, Gang [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Li, Tong [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was adopted to study the dynamic response of a specifically designed Hot isotropically processed (HIP) Casting Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The strain-stress curves were obtained in a range of strain rate (10{sup -3}⁓2.6x10{sup 3}/s) to study the constitutive relationships and the Johnson-Cook model is developed to describe this dynamic constitutive law. It can be found that the static microstructure of this specific HIP casting Ti-6Al-4V is lamellar structure. When the loading increases (strain rate higher than 10{sup 3}/s), this lamellar structure changes to basket weave structure, which further changes the mechanical strength and plasticity.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V produced by rapid-layer manufacturing, for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L E; Quinones, S A; Gaytan, S M; Lopez, M I; Rodela, A; Martinez, E Y; Hernandez, D H; Martinez, E; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical behavior of simple product geometries produced by layered manufacturing using the electron beam melting (EBM) process and the selective laser melting (SLM) process are compared with those characteristic of conventional wrought and cast products of Ti-6Al-4V. Microstructures are characterized utilizing optical metallography (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and included alpha (hcp), beta (bcc) and alpha(') (hcp) martensite phase regimes which give rise to hardness variations ranging from HRC 37 to 57 and tensile strengths ranging from 0.9 to 1.45 GPa. The advantages and disadvantages of layered manufacturing utilizing initial powders in custom building of biomedical components by EBM and SLM in contrast to conventional manufacturing from Ti-6Al-4V wrought bar stock are discussed.

  12. Effects of topographical surface modifications of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V titanium on human fetal osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponader, Sabine; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Heinl, Peter; Wilmowsky, Cornelius V; Rottmair, Andreas; Körner, Carolin; Singer, Robert F; Holst, Stefan; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2008-03-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of different Ti-6Al-4V surfaces produced by the electron beam melting (EBM) process as matrices for attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19). Human osteoblasts were cultured in vitro on smooth and rough-textured Ti-6Al-4V alloy disks. By means of cell number and vitality and SEM micrographs cell attachment and proliferation were observed. The differentiation rate was examined by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis for the gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (Coll-I), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC). After 3 days of incubation there was a significant higher vitality (p /= 56.9 microm) reduced proliferation of hFOB cells. Surface characteristics of titanium can easily be changed by EBM in order to further improve proliferation. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experimental Study of Direct Laser Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 by Using Pulsed Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD has developed from a prototyping to a single metal manufacturing tool. Its potential for creating multimaterial and functionally graded structures is now beginning to be explored. This work is a first part of a study in which a single layer of Inconel 718 is deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Single layer tracks were built at a range of powder mass flow rates using a coaxial nozzle and 1.5 kW diode laser operating in both continuous and pulsed beam modes. This part of the study focused on the experimental findings during the deposition of Inconel 718 powder on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for characterization and phase identification. Residual stress measurement had been carried out to ascertain the effects of laser pulse parameters on the crack development during the deposition process.

  14. Effect of power density and pulse repetition on laser shock peening of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.R.; Shepard, M.J.; Prevey, P.S. III; Clauer, A.H.

    2000-02-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) was applied to Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) simulated airfoil specimens using a Nd:Glass laser. Laser shock peening processing parameters examined in the present study included power density (5.5, 7, and 9 GW/cm{sup 2}) and number of laser pulses per spot (one and three pulses/spot). The LSP's Ti-6Al-4V samples were examined using x-ray diffraction techniques to determine the residual stress distribution and percent cold work as a function of depth. It was found that the residual stress state and percent of cold work were relatively independent of LSP power density. However, the number of laser pulses per spot had a significant effect on both residual stress and percent of cold work for a given power density level. In addition, there was a strong correlation between the magnitude of residual compressive stresses generated and the percent cold work measured.

  15. Parametric optimisation and microstructural analysis on high power Yb-fibre laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J.; Chen, L.; Davies, C. M.; Dear, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    In this work thin sheets of Ti-6Al-4V were full penetration welded using a 5 kW fibre laser in order to evaluate the effectiveness of high power fibre laser as a welding processing tool for welding Ti-6Al-4V with the requirements of the aircraft industry and to determine the effect of welding parameters including laser power, welding speed and beam focal position on the weld microstructure, bead profile and weld quality. It involved establishing an understanding of the influence of welding parameters on microstructural change, welding defects, and the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM) of fibre laser welded joints. The optimum range of welding parameters which produced welds without cracking and porosity were identified. The influence of the welding parameters on the weld joint heterogeneity was characterised by conducting detailed microstructural analysis.

  16. Biocorrosion studies of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle-coated Ti-6Al-4V implant in simulated biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, Nikita; McEwen, Gerald D.; Karpagavalli, Ramji; Zhou Anhong, E-mail: Anhong.Zhou@usu.ed [Utah State University, Biological Engineering Program (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The corrosion behaviors of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles coated bioimplant Ti-6Al-4V exposed to three different simulated biofluids (SBF), namely, (1) NaCl solution, (2) Hank's solution, and (3) Cigada solution, were studied by using micro-Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The different electrochemical impedance spectroscopy models were applied to fit the data obtained from the implants before and after the coating of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (50-100 nm). It was found that the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle coatings increased the thickness of the pre-existing oxide layer on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, serving to improve the bioimplant corrosion resistance.

  17. Protective Sliding Carbon-Based Nanolayers Prepared by Argon or Nitrogen Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlcak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and the surface properties of samples coated by carbon-based nanolayer were investigated in an effort to increase the surface hardness and reduce the coefficient of friction of the Ti6Al4V alloy. Protective carbon-based nanolayers were fabricated by argon or nitrogen ion-beam assisted deposition at ion energy of 700 eV on Ti6Al4V substrates. The Raman spectra indicated that nanolayers had a diamond-like carbon character with sp2 rich bonds. The TiC and TiN compounds formed in the surface area were detected by X-ray diffraction. Nanoscratch tests showed increased adhesion of a carbon-based nanolayer deposited with ion assistance in comparison with a carbon nanolayer deposited without ion assistance. The results showed that argon ion assistance leads to greater nanohardness than a sample coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with nitrogen ion assistance. A more than twofold increase in nanohardness and a more than fivefold decrease in the coefficient of friction were obtained for samples coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with ion assistance, in comparison with the reference sample.

  18. A new theoretical model for high power laser clad TiC/NiCrBSiC composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yiwen; Sun, Ronglu; Lei, Jianbo; Tang, Ying; Niu, Wei

    2010-09-01

    A new three-dimensional model was proposed to simulate the high power laser clad TiC/NiCrBSiC composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloys using commercial finite element analysis software. Powders of TiC, NiCrBSiC alloy and cuboid of Ti6Al4V alloys were taken as sample materials. The dilution rate, the melt pool, and the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the substrate under different incident laser power were obtained from the calculation and compared with the microstructure of the coatings. The simulated results show that a good quality laser clad TiC/NiCrBSiC composite coating with low dilution rate and excellent metallurgical bond can be prepared under the processing parameters as follows: scanning velocity 5 mm/s, laser beam diameter 4.5 mm and incident laser power 2500 W. There exhibits an excellent agreement between the simulated results and experimental data. It indicates that the new model is helpful to optimize the processing parameters to form a good quality coating.

  19. The effect of large-area pulsed electron beam melting on the corrosion and microstructure of a Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C.; Murray, J. W.; Nie, M.; Cook, R. B.; Clare, A. T.

    2014-08-01

    The use of titanium alloys in biomedical applications continues to increase due to the excellent stiffness to weight ratio and high corrosion resistance. In order to improve the surface wettability and corrosion properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the surface treatment method, large area electron beam melting technique was investigated. Polished samples were subject to pulsed treatments of 1, 15 and 25 at 1.38 J/cm2 beam energy. Surface roughness and contact wetting angles were reduced as a result of the treatment. Microstructural analysis of the surface by XRD and FIB-TEM revealed a martensitic alpha prime phase formed as a result of the high cooling rates induced by the treatment. The presence of this homogenous martensite layer was shown to facilitate a compact passive oxide layer formation during corrosion, thus improving corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude compared to an untreated sample. Large area electron beam melting of Ti-6Al-4V induced a number of changes to the near surface microstructure of the samples, all of which could be used to tailor mechanical and corrosion properties to that of a desired application, without compromising the bulk material properties. These are explored in detail in this work.

  20. In vitro assessment of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on TiO₂ nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jorge, Concepción; Conde, Ana; Arenas, Maria A; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Matykina, Endhze; de Damborenea, Juan J; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Esteban, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp. adhesion to modified surfaces of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23 that meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulfuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form nanoporous (NP) and nanotubular (NT) oxide layers with pore diameter of 20 and 100 nm, respectively. The amount of fluorine incorporated in the oxide films from the electrolyte was 6 and 4 wt %, respectively. Bacterial adherence was studied using laboratory strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Lower adherence of laboratory strains was demonstrated on fluoride nanostructured surfaces in comparison with the fluoride-free surfaces. Significant differences between clinical strains and laboratory strains were also found (p titanium oxide surfaces, suggesting a potential applicability of this surface, with a confirmed added value of decreasing clinical staphylococci adherence, for medical prosthetic devices.

  1. Laser deposited coatings of Co-Cr-Mo onto Ti-6Al-4V and SS316L substrates for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J Michael; Jones, Nolan; Jin, Li; Shin, Yung C

    2013-10-01

    Functionally gradient bio-coating material was built by laser deposition. Co-Cr-Mo material was deposited on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate transitioning from 0% to 100%. Control over the cooling rate is shown to be a key to reduce the effects of thermal expansion differences of the materials. The microstructures and composition of the functionally gradient material (FGM) were characterized using an optical microscope, SEM, EDS, and XRD. EDS results showed a gradual transition to 50% Co-Cr-Mo and ∼100% Co-Cr-Mo on the top layer. XRD analysis showed the absence of a brittle intermetallic phase that forms between Titanium and Cobalt. As the amount of Co-Cr-Mo increased, the microhardness of the FGM samples significantly increased. A comparison was made between Co-Cr-Mo deposited on SS316L substrates as well as Ti-6Al-4V. The bonding strength of the coatings on both substrates was tested and found to meet the ASTM standard requirement. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  2. Investigation of nano-structured Zirconium oxide film on Ti6Al4V substrate to improve tribological properties prepared by PIII&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sehrish; Ahmad, R.; Ayub, R.; Ikhlaq, Uzma; Jin, Weihong; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-02-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is the most attractive and efficient technique used in the medical field to tailor materials for biomedical applications. In the present study zirconium oxide nano-structured thin films were deposited on surface of Ti6Al4V alloy for bias voltages of 15, 20 and 25 kV. The chemical composition, surface roughness and thickness of deposited films were characterized by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and ellipsometry respectively. The XPS results confirm the formation of a dense zirconium oxide film of the treated specimens. AFM results exhibit a smooth film with maximum roughness of about 8.4 nm is formed. The thickness of the film is increased with the increase in bias voltages and is maximum at 25 kV. The effect of bias voltages on wear characteristics was further investigated by pin-on-disk test. It is observed that the friction coefficient is reduced, whereas wear resistance is enhanced and it is found to be maximum at 25 kV compared to the other bias voltages. Nanohardness is improved up to twice compared to untreated specimen at the maximum bias voltage. Therefore, it is concluded that deposition of zirconium oxide using the PIII&D is produced a dense layer on the substrate surface, which can be used as a promising candidate for the improved tribological properties of Ti6Al4V.

  3. Effect of pickling solution on the surface morphology of Ti6Al4V alloy investment cast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy interacted with yttria fully stabilized zirconia face-coat to generate the alpha-case layer during the investment casting. The alpha-case mainly contained Al2O3, TiO2, TiO0.48, VO2, ZrO2 and Ti2ZrAl as revealed by the Energy dispersive...

  4. Electrochemical investigation of chromium oxide-coated Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloy substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Zeng, Haitong; Lawrynowicz, Daniel; Zhang, Zongtao; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2011-08-01

    Hard coatings for articulating surfaces of total joint replacements may improve the overall wear resistance. However, any coating approach must take account of changes in corrosion behavior. This preliminary assessment analyzes the corrosion kinetics, impedance and mechanical-electrochemical stability of 100 μm thick plasma sprayed chromium oxide (Cr₂O₃) coatings on bearing surfaces in comparison to the native alloy oxide films on Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-6V. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and mechanical abrasion under potentiostatic conditions were performed on coated and substrate surfaces in physiological saline. SEM analysis characterized the coating morphology. The results showed that the corrosion current density values of chromium oxide coatings (0.4-1.2 μA/cm²) were of the same order of magnitude as Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mechanical abrasion did not increase corrosion rates of chromium oxide coatings but did for uncoated Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V. The impedance response of chromium oxide coatings was very different than Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V native oxides characterized by a defected coating model. More of a frequency-independent purely resistive response was seen in mid-frequency range for the coatings (CPE(coat) : 40-280 nF/cm² (rad/s)(1-α) , α: 0.67-0.83) whereas a more capacitive character is seen for Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V (CPE(ox) around 20 μF/cm² (rad/s)(1-α) , α around 0.9). Pores, interparticle gaps and incomplete fusion typical for thermal spray coatings were present in these oxides which could have influenced corrosion resistance. The coating microstructure could have allowed some fluid penetration. Overall, these coatings appear to have suitable corrosion properties for wear surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang, E-mail: xiangliwj@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Lin [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Yu, Xiaoming [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Feng, Yafei [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Chengtao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Ke [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Su, Daniel [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of α and β phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12 weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. - Highlights: • Ta film was coated on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition. • Tantalum coating allowed for higher levels of cell adhesion and proliferation. • Better new bone formation occurred inside the tantalum-coated scaffolds. • Clinical image data was integrated with EBM to fabricate customized scaffold.

  6. Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Xiaoming; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Chengtao; Yang, Ke; Su, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of α and β phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data.

  7. Effect of heat treatment parameters on the microstructure and microhardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ayad Omran; Amrin, Astuty; Muhammad, Sallehuddin; Hanim, M. A. Azmah

    2017-07-01

    Ti-6Al-4V is a dual-phase (α+β) Ti-alloy which possesses potential series and complex microstructures. The coexistence of β-phase alongside α-phase in Ti-6Al-4V alloy enhances the heat treatment process. Precise adjustments of heat treatment parameters can lead to diversity of microstructures that can be transformed from equiaxed to fully lamellar to bi-modal. These microstructures have a critical impact on the mechanical properties. This work investigates the effect of altering the heat treatment parameters on both the microstructure and microhardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy to elucidate alloy's behaviour on the basis of microstructure - properties relations. Recrystallization annealing, solution treatment followed by aging, and β-annealing were performed on several samples to obtain various microstructures. The as-received sample exhibited fine equiaxed structure with a grain size of 1.78 µm. Recrystallization annealing of the fine equiaxed structure yielded considerable grain growth, resulting 7.29 µm larger globular grains. The bi-modal microstructure was obtained from the equiaxed structure through solution treatment followed by aging. The application of β-annealing treatment resulted in a lamellar microstructure. The microhardness readings were affected by variations in the heat treatment procedures. The highest and lowest hardness were 386.1Hv and 302.2 Hv for the lamellar and the equiaxed microstructures, respectively. The improvement in the microhardness was 27.8%. In comparison, the bi-modal microstructure demonstrated a balanced hardness.

  8. Developing LBM Process Parameters for Ti-6Al-4V Thin Wall Structures and Determining the Corresponding Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Schaub, Adam; Karg, Michael; Lechner, Michael; Merklein, Marion; Schmidt, Michael

    The Laser Beam Melting (LBM) process technology within the family of Additive Manufacturing technology is characterized by its ability to fabricate fully dense 3D structures directly from micro-sized metal powder. With the current state of the art, Ti-6Al-4V has been processed using LBM machine systems constituting a laser with a beam diameter of about 100 μm. In order to fabricate structures with smaller wall thicknesses, processing of Ti-6Al-4V is attempted on the LBM machine system, Realizer SLM 50 consisting of a laser with a beam diameter 10 μm. The proposed paper presents the development of process parameters for fabricating fully dense Ti-6Al-4V 3D structures using the LBM machine system, Realizer SLM 50. Further experiments are carried out to determine the wall thickness and mechanical properties achievable using the selected process parameters. Analysis and scientific arguments are presented to explain the influence of building direction and heat treatment on mechanical properties.

  9. Surface modification of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy with Ag nanoparticles: wettability and surface morphology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Sharonova, A.; Loza, K.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the use of electrophoretic deposition to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology is reported. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had a spherical shape with a diameter of the metallic core of 100±20 nm and ζ -potential -15 mV. The AgNPs- coated Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical composition and surface morphology, water contact angle, hysteresis, and surface free energy. The results of SEM microphotography analysis showed that the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed over the surface. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed the effect of the deposited AgNPs layer, namely an increased water contact angle and decreased contact angle hysteresis. However, the average water contact angle was 125° for PVP-stabilized-AgNPs-coated surface, whereas ethylene glycol gave the average contact angle of 17°. A higher surface energy is observed for AgNPs-coated Ti6Al4V surface (70.17 mN/m) compared with the uncoated surface (49.07 mN/m).

  10. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Life of Ti-6Al-4V Treated by Vibratory Stress Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Jun Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibratory stress relief (VSR is a highly efficient and low-energy consumption method to relieve and homogenize residual stresses in materials. Thus, the effect of VSR on the fatigue life should be determined. Standard fatigue specimens are fabricated to investigate the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy treated by VSR. The dynamic stresses generated under different VSR amplitudes are measured, and then the relationship between the dynamic stress and vibration amplitude is obtained. Different specimen groups are subjected to VSRs with different amplitudes and annealing treatment with typical process parameters. Residual stresses are measured to evaluate the stress relieving effects. Finally, the fatigue behavior under different states is determined by uniaxial tension–compression fatigue experiments. Results show that VSR and annealing treatment have negative effects on the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V. The fatigue life is decreased with the increase in VSR amplitude. When the VSR amplitude is less than 0.1 mm, the decrease in fatigue limit is less than 2%. Compared with specimens without VSR or annealing treatment, the fatigue limit of the specimens treated by VSR with 0.2 mm amplitude and annealing treatment decreases by 10.60% and 8.52%, respectively. Although the stress relieving effect is better, high amplitude VSR will lead to the decrease of Ti-6Al-4V fatigue life due to the defects generated during vibration. Low amplitude VSR can effectively relieve the stress with little decrease in fatigue life.

  11. A New Approach for Manufacturing a High Porosity Ti-6Al-4V Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montasser DEWIDAR; H.Fouad MOHAMED; Jae-Kyoo LIM

    2008-01-01

    Titanivm and its alloys are currently considered as one of the most important metallic materials used in the biomedical applications,due to their excellent mechanical properties and superior biocompatibility.In the present study,a new effective method for fabricating high porosity titanium alloy scaffolds was developed.Porous Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds are successfully fabricated with porosities ranging from 30% to 70% using space-holder and powder sintering technique.Based on its acceptable properties,spherical carbamide particles with different diameters (0.56,0.8,and 1 mm) were used as the space-holder material in the present investigation.The Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds porosity is characterized by using scanning electron microscopy.The results show that the scaffolds spherical-shaped pores are depending on the shape,size and distribution of the space-holder particles.This investigation shows that the present new manufacturing technique is promising to fabricate a controlled high porosity and high purity Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds for hard tissue replacement.

  12. Manufacturing Ultrafine-Grained Ti-6Al-4V Bulk Rod Using Multi-Pass Caliber-Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine-grained (UFG Ti-6Al-4V alloy has attracted attention from the various industries due to its good mechanical properties. Although severe plastic deformation (SPD processes can produce such a material, its dimension is generally limited to laboratory scale. The present work utilized the multi-pass caliber-rolling process to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V bulk rod with the equiaxed UFG microstructure. The manufactured alloy mainly consisted of alpha phase and showed the fiber texture with the basal planes parallel to the rolling direction. This rod was large enough to be used in the industry and exhibited comparable tensile properties at room temperature in comparison to SPD-processed Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The material also showed good formability at elevated temperature due to the occurrence of superplasticity. Internal-variable analysis was carried out to measure the contribution of deformation mechanisms at elevated temperatures in the manufactured alloy. This revealed the increasing contribution of phase/grain-boundary sliding at 1073 K, which explained the observed superplasticity.

  13. Tribology and hydrophobicity of a biocompatible GPTMS/PFPE coating on Ti6Al4V surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Bharat; Sinha, Sujeet K

    2012-11-01

    Tribological properties of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) coated 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPTMS) SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) onto Ti6Al4V alloy substrate were studied using ball-on-disk experiments. GPTMS SAMs deposition onto a Ti6Al4V alloy surface was carried out using solution phase method. Ultra-thin layer of PFPE was dip-coated onto SAMs modified specimens. Tribological tests were carried out at 0.2 N normal load and rotational speed of 200 rpm using track radius of 2 mm. Wear track and counterface surface conditions were investigated using optical microscopy. PFPE modified specimens were baked at 150 °C for 1h to investigate the effect of thermal treatment on tribological properties. Surface characterization tests such as contact angle measurement, AFM morphology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out for differently modified specimens. PFPE overcoat meets the requirements of cytotoxicity test using the ISO 10993-5 elution method. PFPE top layer lowered the coefficient of friction and increased wear durability for different specimens (with and without GPTMS intermediate layer). PFPE overcoat onto GPTMS showed significant increase in the wear resistance compared with overcoat onto bare Ti6Al4V specimens. The observed improvement in the tribological properties can be attributed to the change in the interaction of PFPE molecules with the substrate surface due to the GPTMS intermediate layer.

  14. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of Ti-6Al-4V Considering the Effects of Fracture Toughness and Crack Closure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junhong; YANG Shuo; LIN Jiewei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue fracture is one of the main failure modes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fracture toughness and crack closure have strong effects on the fatigue crack growth(FCG) rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The FCG rate of Ti-6Al-4V is investigated by using experimental and analytical methods. The effects of stress ratio, crack closure and fracture toughness on the FCG rate are studied and discussed. A modified prediction model of the FCG rate is proposed, and the relationship between the fracture toughness and the stress intensity factor(SIF) range is redefined by introducing a correcting coefficient. Notched plate fatigue tests (including the fracture toughness test and the FCG rate test) are conducted to investigate the influence of affecting factors on the FCG rate. Comparisons between the predicted results of the proposed model, the Paris model, the Walker model, the Sadananda model, and the experimental data show that the proposed model gives the best agreement with the test data particularly in the near–threshold region and the Paris region, and the corresponding calculated fatigue life is also accurate in the same regions. By considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure, the novel FCG rate prediction model not only improves the estimating accuracy, but also extends the adaptability of the FCG rate prediction model in engineering.

  15. Fatigue crack growth rate of Ti-6Al-4V considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Yang, Shuo; Lin, Jiewei

    2015-03-01

    Fatigue fracture is one of the main failure modes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fracture toughness and crack closure have strong effects on the fatigue crack growth(FCG) rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The FCG rate of Ti-6Al-4V is investigated by using experimental and analytical methods. The effects of stress ratio, crack closure and fracture toughness on the FCG rate are studied and discussed. A modified prediction model of the FCG rate is proposed, and the relationship between the fracture toughness and the stress intensity factor(SIF) range is redefined by introducing a correcting coefficient. Notched plate fatigue tests (including the fracture toughness test and the FCG rate test) are conducted to investigate the influence of affecting factors on the FCG rate. Comparisons between the predicted results of the proposed model, the Paris model, the Walker model, the Sadananda model, and the experimental data show that the proposed model gives the best agreement with the test data particularly in the near-threshold region and the Paris region, and the corresponding calculated fatigue life is also accurate in the same regions. By considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure, the novel FCG rate prediction model not only improves the estimating accuracy, but also extends the adaptability of the FCG rate prediction model in engineering.

  16. Microhardness and wear behaviour of surface modified Ti6Al4V/Zr-TiC metal matrix composite for advanced material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popoola, API

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was made using a Rofin Sinar 4 kW Nd: YAG laser. A laser multi-track 50% overlapping process was employed to produce Zr and Zr-TiC metal matrix composite (MMC) coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate...

  17. Influence of thermal oxidation duration on the microstructure and fretting wear behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Zhenhua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Liu, Yuhong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Weiqiang, E-mail: weiqliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Thermal oxidation under water oxidizing atmosphere was performed on Ti6Al4V alloy under different durations from 2 h to 8 h. Surface characterizations were performed using X-ray diffractometery (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation and nano scratch testing. Fretting wear behaviors of untreated and oxidized samples were also examined. The formed oxide coating mainly included rutile TiO{sub 2} as well as a little alumina. The weight gain with respect to the oxidation duration obeyed the linear oxidation kinetics law. The growth of oxide grains was in inadequate growth state of incomplete scale coverage from 2nd to 4th hour duration, in normal growth state from 4th to 6th hour duration while in excessive growth state of oxide particle agglomeration and surface roughening from 6th to 8th (or more than 8th) hour duration. The coating thickness increased from 5 μm to 12 μm as oxidation duration increased from 2 h to 8 h. The increase in duration also increased surface roughness and nano hardness as well as adhesion strength of the film/substrate for oxidized samples. The nano hardness value was 10.06 ± 2.15 GPa and the critical load of failure during nano scratch testing was 554.3 ± 6.44 mN for 4 h treated sample. The untreated and oxidized samples showed a same fretting running status and fretting regime with a displacement amplitude of 200 μm while revealing different fretting failure mechanisms. It was mainly abrasive and adhesive wear under ploughing force for untreated sample, while a mix of 3-body abrasion by rolling oxide particles and severe plastic deformation under high contact stress between two ceramic materials for the oxidized samples. The oxide coating was not worn out and improved the fretting wear resistance of titanium alloy. - Highlights: • A thickness of 5–12 μm rutile TiO{sub 2} coating formed under different oxidation durations. • Weight gain with respect to oxidation duration obeyed linear

  18. Influence of material models on theoretical forming limit diagram prediction for Ti-6Al-4V alloy under warm condition%材料模型对高温Ti-6Al-4V合金理论成形极限图预测的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin KOTKUNDE; Sashank SRINIVASAN; Geetha KRISHNA; Amit Kumar GUPTA; Swadesh Kumar SINGH

    2016-01-01

    成形极限图是一种用来描述使板材不发生局部颈缩所需最大主应变的重要图形。它是一种预测板材变形过程中变形极限的方便、有效的工具。本研究中,在400°C和不同样品宽度的条件,通过Nakazima实验得到了Ti−6Al−4V合金的成形极限图。此外,为了使用成形极限图对材料参数进行理论预测,提出了不同的各向异性屈服准则(Barlat 1989, Barlat 1996, Hill 1993)和不同的硬化模型(Hollomon幂定律、Johnson−Cook(JC)模型、改进的Zerilli−Armstrong (m-ZA)和Arrhenius (m-Arr)模型)。结合所提出的屈服准则和本构模型,通过Marciniak和Kuczynski (M−K)理论确定了Ti−6Al−4V合金的成形极限图。结果表明:屈服模型对材料成形极限图的影响大于本构模型的影响。然而,材料的厚度缺陷系数(f0)与其硬化模型密切相关。Hill(1993)屈服准则最适合于成形极限图右边区域的预测,而Barlat(1989)屈服准最适合于成形极限图左边区域的预测。由于所得到的混合理论成形极限图兼具Barlat(1989)和Hill(1993)屈服模型和m-Arr硬化模型的优点,因此,它与实验得到的成形极限图吻合很好。%Forming limit diagram (FLD) is an important performance index to describe the maximum limit of principal strains that can be sustained by sheet metals till to the onset of localized necking. It offers a convenient and useful tool to predict the forming limit in the sheet metal forming processes. In the present study, FLD has been determined experimentally for Ti−6Al−4V alloy at 400 °C by conducting a Nakazima test with specimens of different widths. Additionally, for theoretical FLD prediction, various anisotropic yield criteria (Barlat 1989, Barlat 1996, Hill 1993) and different hardening models viz., Hollomon power law (HPL), Johnson−Cook (JC), modified Zerilli–Armstrong (m-ZA), modified Arrhenius (m-Arr) models have been developed. Theoretical

  19. Effects of Duplex Nitriding and TiN Coating Treatment on Wear Resistance, Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W. H.; Su, Y. L.; Hsieh, Y. T.

    2017-08-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy substrates were nitrided at 900 °C. TiN coatings were then deposited on the nitrided substrates using a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of the TiN-N-Ti6Al4V substrates were evaluated and compared with those of an untreated Ti6Al4V sample, a nitrided Ti6Al4V sample and a TiN-coated Ti6Al4V sample, respectively. The tribological properties of the various samples were investigated by means of reciprocating sliding wear tests performed in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution against 316L, Si3N4 and Ti6Al4V balls, respectively. In addition, the corrosion resistance was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests. Finally, the biocompatibility of the samples was investigated by observing the attachment and growth of purified mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cells (Raw 264.7) on the sample surface after culturing periods of 24, 72 and 120 h, respectively. Overall, the results showed that the duplex nitriding/TiN coating treatment significantly improved the tribological, anti-corrosion and biocompatibility properties of the original Ti6Al4V alloy.

  20. Effect of cryogenic treatment on wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kaixuan; Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    The effect of cryogenic treatment on wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical applications was experimentally investigated in this paper. Cryogenic treatments with the same soaking time of 24h at different temperatures of -80°C, -140°C and -196°C were conducted and the treatments at the same temperature of -196°C were then further given different soaking time of 3h, 48h and 72h to be investigated. After cryogenic treatment, the Vickers hardness of specimens was measured. Wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was measured by pin-on-disk wear test under dry sliding condition. The results demonstrated that the Vickers hardness increased slightly with the reduction of temperature while it increased obviously with the elongation of soaking time at -196°C. The friction coefficients of specimens cryo-treated at -196°C were lower than those of untreated and of cryo-treated at -80°C and -140°C. And the longer the soaking time is during the cryogenic treatment, the higher the friction coefficient reduction can be achieved. The obvious reduction of mass loss can be obtained at -196°C with 72h soaking. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect the microstructure and worn surface of specimens. By cryogenic treatment, the plowing in the worn surface was smoothed and shallowed, and the degree of plastic deformation in the subsurface was decreased. There was no obvious phase transformation which can be detected in the microstructure after cryogenic treatment. However, the tendency of refinement in grain size can be detected by XRD which improved the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Optimization of Electrode Material for EDM Die-sinking of Titanium Alloy Grade 5 - Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeth Suresh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloy grade 5, Ti6Al4V, is extensively gaining importance in the industrial environment, specifically in aerospace, medical and automotive domains, mainly due to its exceptional blend of mechanical properties like high hardness which is further heat treatable, high strength-to-weight ratio which makes it light, high corrosion and temperature resistance etc. However, the same properties undervalue Ti6Al4V as a conventionally difficult-to-machine material. Rapid tool wear, excessive heat generation, dimensional instability and loss of surface integrity are the issues that plague the conventional machining of Ti6Al4V.  In view of these facts, non-traditional machining processes like electron discharge machining (EDM - die sinking and wire cut prove to be a substitute for the conventional machining. In this study, an experimental optimization of EDM die-sinking electrode materials among copper, brass and graphite, is carried out. Experimental design is created using a statistical tool and actual machining is carried out to record the surface roughness, variations on the surface hardness and dimensional stability. Quality evaluation and statistical analysis substantiates graphite electrodes to produce better surface finish-Ra 2.05microns with minimal dimensional variation-less than 10%-when operated at minimum spark gaps. It is inferred that graphite electrodes exhibit higher resistivity towards current than its counterparts thus passing minimum spark energy preventing excessive self-wear and a dimensionally accurate workpiece. The depth of machining highly impacts the variations on the surface hardness post machining.

  2. Effects of combined plasma chromizing and shot peening on the fatigue properties of a Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shouming; Liu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Du, Dongxing

    2015-10-01

    A plasma chromizing treatment was conducted on Ti6Al4V samples by employing the recently developed double glow plasma surface alloying technology. The Cr-alloyed layer consisted of four sub-layers, namely the Cr deposition, Cr2Ti, CrTi4, and Cr-Ti solid-solution layers. The local hardness and moduli were determined via nanoindentation. In addition, the fatigue properties of the samples were evaluated by using a rotating-bending fatigue machine under a given load. The results showed that the hardness or elastic moduli of the adjacent sub-layers differed significantly and the fatigue properties of the Ti6Al4V alloy deteriorated with the plasma chromizing treatment. This deterioration stemmed mainly from cracks initiated at the interfaces between the sub-layers and the microstructural changes of the substrate; these changes were induced by the high temperature used in the plasma chromizing process. However, the fatigue life of the plasma-chromized samples was increased by a shot peening post-treatment. The fatigue life of the samples resulting from this combination of treatments was slightly higher than that of the single-shot-peened Ti6Al4V substrate. In fact, the sample retaining only the Cr-Ti solid-solution layer (that is, the first three sub-layers were removed), when shot-peened, exhibited the highest fatigue life among all the tested samples; this was attributed to that sample having the highest residual compressive stress, the significant work hardening, and the good hardness to toughness balance.

  3. A study on the mechanical characteristics of the EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V LCP plates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yun-Ji; Liu, Run; Shu, He-Xi; Gong, Jin-Peng; Yang, Yong; Sun, Qi; Wu, Xing; Cai, Ming

    2014-11-05

    The electron beam melting (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V material technology has been developed over a short time period. It was introduced through a research to develop Ti-6Al-4V implants for patients, but EBM printed locking compression plates have not been used for clinical implants. The main purpose of this study is to find whether the EBM Ti-6Al-4V plate suit for clinical implants. First, we scanned an AO-locking compression plate (LCP) and printed LCP samples using EBM. Next, we evaluated the EBM plate surface roughness through optical microscopy as well as the LCP and EBM plates' mechanical characteristics using the ASTM standard, which is commonly used to test the mechanical properties of bone plates subject to bending. Each sample was examined using a single-cycle four-point bending test and hardness testing to acquire data on bending stiffness, bending strength, bending structural stiffness, and hardness. The results show significant differences in bending stiffness, bending strength, bending structural stiffness, and hardness between the samples using EBM and the original LCP plates. The EBM-printed samples' surface roughness was 0.49 ± 0.02 μm. The mean hardness of the LCP sample was 266.67 HV10 ± 5.8, and the EBM-printed sample mean hardness was 341.1 HV10 ± 1.93. The EBM samples' bending stiffness was 87.67%, which is greater than using the LCP plates'; and the bending strength was 190.7% greater, the bending structural stiffness was 73.2% greater, and the hardness was 27.9% greater. The results show that the EBM plates' general mechanical strength was significantly greater than the LCP plates. An EBM plate is advantageous for clinical implants because it can be customized with great potential for improvement.

  4. Corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V and ASTM F75 alloys processed by electron beam melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Almanza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electron beam melting (EBM is a useful technique for fabricating alloys that are difficult to machine and require expensive tools as well as the presence of inert atmosphere for further treatments. Under vacuum, EBM provides a controlled environment, reducing the drawbacks of the alloys of their processing in a conventional manner and thereby improving their microstructure, which can enhance corrosion resistance. In the present work, the corrosion resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V and ASTM F75 alloys was evaluated by using the Tafel extrapolation technique with scan rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.166 mV/s. The corrosion specimens were submerged in a Hank solution to simulate the corporal fluid. The specimens were characterized before and after the corrosion tests by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as a chemical microanalysis by EDS. The microstructural characterization before the corrosion tests revealed a dual phase (α + β microstructure and α′ martensite in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. For the ASTM F75 (Co-base alloy, carbides were observed on the grain boundaries. Corrosion resistance increased in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, from 0.50 to 0.14 mpy, possibly due to the formation of a TiO2 passive layer. For the case of the ASTM F75 alloy, the corrosion rate decreased from 0.21 to 0.14 milli-inches/year (mpy due to the formation of Cr layer. The corrosion results were observed to be very similar for the EBM fabricated alloys in comparison with more commercially fabricated alloys.

  5. Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting with a bioactive compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Kilsby, Samuel [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Goodridge, Ruth D., E-mail: Ruth.Goodridge@nottingham.ac.uk [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Christie, Steven D.R. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Steve [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hague, Richard J.M. [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of an implant with a biomolecule is used to improve its biocompatibility and to reduce post-implant complications. In this study, a novel approach has been used to functionalise phosphonic acid monolayers with a drug. Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) were functionalised with Paracetamol (a pharmaceutically relevant biomolecule) using phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The attachment, stability of the monolayers on the SLM fabricated surface and functionalisation of SAMs with Paracetamol were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface wettability measurements. The obtained results confirmed that SAMs were stable on the Ti6Al4V surface for over four weeks and then began to desorb from the surface. The reaction used to functionalise the phosphonic acid monolayers with Paracetamol was noted to be successful. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to immobilise drugs/proteins to SAM coated surfaces and improve their biocompatibility and reduce post-implant complications. - Graphical abstract: A significant change in the contact angle confirming the immobilisation of Paracetamol. (a) Before self-assembled monolayer (SAM) attachment, (b) after SAM attachment and (c) after the immobilisation of Paracetamol to the SAMs. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V parts were fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM). • Monolayers used to modify the SLM surface were stable for over 28 days (in-vitro). • Surface roughness did not have a significant impact on the monolayer stability. • Paracetamol was successfully immobilised to the adsorbed monolayers. • Caution required before selecting Paracetamol as a model drug.

  6. Effects of cutting parameters on tool insert wear in end milling of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Jing; Wu, Baohai; Zhang, Dinghua

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloy is a kind of typical hard-to-cut material due to its low thermal conductivity and high strength at elevated temperatures, this contributes to the fast tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys. The influence of cutting conditions on tool wear has been focused on the turning process, and their influence on tool wear in milling process as well as the influence of tool wear on cutting force coefficients has not been investigated comprehensively. To fully understand the tool wear behavior in milling process with inserts, the influence of cutting parameters on tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys Ti6Al4V by using indexable cutters is investigated. The tool wear rate and trends under different feed per tooth, cutting speed, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut are analyzed. The results show that the feed rate per tooth and the radial depth of cut have a large influence on tool wear in milling Ti6Al4V with coated insert. To reduce tool wear, cutting parameters for coated inserts under experimental cutting conditions are set as: feed rate per tooth less than 0.07 mm, radial depth of cut less than 1.0 mm, and cutting speed sets between 60 and 150 m/min. Investigation on the relationship between tool wear and cutting force coefficients shows that tangential edge constant increases with tool wear and cutter edge chipping can lead to a great variety of tangential cutting force coefficient. The proposed research provides the basic data for evaluating the machinability of milling Ti6Al4V alloy with coated inserts, and the recommend cutting parameters can be immediately applied in practical production.

  7. Observation of Etch-Pits and LAGB Configurations During Ambient Creep of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jalaj; Singh, A. K.; Raman, S. Ganesh Sundara; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    The present work describes the microstructural features of alloy Ti-6Al-4V during constant stress creep at ambient temperature. Samples tested at 800 and 900 MPa stress levels exhibit the presence of etch-pits and/or voids. The ambient creep strain increases with an increase in applied stress due to higher strain rate sensitivity at higher stresses. A high density of low-angle grain boundaries is noticed in and around etch-pits in the creep-tested specimens due to occurrence of slip. The inverse pole figure obtained by EBSD indicates prismatic texture as the main deformation component in the creep-tested specimens.

  8. The Possibility Of Use Of Laser-Modified Ti6Al4V Alloy In Friction Pairs In Endoprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkowska B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show results of laser treatment at cryogenic conditions of the Ti6Al4V alloy used for orthopedic applications. That modification process ought to bring beneficial changes of microstructure and residual stresses in the surface layer. The paper presents the abrasive wear of the base and laser remelted material in association with ceramics Al2O3. Despite the surface cracking after laser treatment the tribological properties in simulated body fluid have been substantially improved.

  9. Superficies nanoestructuradas de la aleación Ti6Al4V : influencia del tiempo de electropulido

    OpenAIRE

    Pigatto, Caroline; Antonini,Leonardo Marasca; Schneider, Eduardo Luís; Malfatti, Célia De Fraga

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la influencia de los parámetros operacionales del proceso de electropulido de aleaciones de titanio, involucrando la obtención de superficies nanoestructuradas. Se sabe que los parámetros del proceso de electropulido ejercen una importante influencia sobre la formación de materiales nanoestructuradas, promoviendo la obtención de propiedades bien específicas. En este trabajo se realizó el electropulido de la aleación Ti6Al4V lijadas mecánicamente, varia...

  10. Surface Oxidation and Fast 18O Implant Diffusion in Nanostructured Layers of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Duvanov; A.G. Balogh

    2015-01-01

    A formation of the near surface barrier composite oxide film and two-stage 18O implant diffusion in modified layers of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were observed in the present work. Fast and super fast regimes occur during second stage of the diffusion. Sample modification was performed using ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) atmosphere. Parameters of ion implantation are the following: 18O+ ion energy of 30 keV; fluence of 3 × 1017 ion/cm2; RT. Post-implantatio...

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys for Biomaterial Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Viswanathan S.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Choe, Han Cheol [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jin Woo [Shingyeong University, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ti-13Nb-13Zr (TNZ) alloy has attracted considerable research attention in the last decade as a suitable substitute for the commercially used Ti-6Al-4V (TAV) alloy for orthopedic and dental implant applications. Hence, in the present work, a comparative evaluation has been performed on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of TNZ and TAV alloys in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution. The result of the study showed that both the alloys had similar electrochemical behavior. The corrosion resistance of TAV alloy is found to be marginally superior to that of TNZ alloy.

  12. Effect of micro-particles on cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in sulfuric acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Long, Y; Liang, P; Chen, D R

    2017-05-01

    The influences of micro-particles on ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in 0.1M H2SO4 solution were investigated using mass loss weight, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer. Mass loss results revealed that the cavitation erosion damage obviously decreased with increasing particle size and mass concentration. Open circuit potential recorded during cavitation erosion shifted to positive direction with the decreased mass loss. Meanwhile, the mass loss sharply decreased with applying a positive potential during the entire ultrasonic cavitation erosion, and the relationship between the open circuit potential and the cavitation erosion resistance was discussed.

  13. Preparation of Ti6Al4V/BG/HA graded coating by electrophoresis deposition in absolute alcohol medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A codeposition of bioglass (BG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) on the substrate Ti6Al4V is realized in a nonaqueous solution system by inducing crystallization of HA on surface of the BG grain and electrophoresis deposition (EPD), and then a bioactive graded ceramic coating was obtained after sintering of the coating. This technique is a new method for making bioactive graded coating. The adhesive strength between the coating and the substrate reaches 18?MPa, and the better electrophoresis depositing parameters and optimal sintering procedure are obtained.

  14. Effect of heat treatment conditions on the dynamic strength and failure behavior of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, L.; Sommer, K.; Halle, T.; Hockauf, M.; Meyer, L. W.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of heat treatment conditions on high rate mechanical properties of the (α +β) titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V was investigated. Dependent on the solution annealing temperature, cooling rate and further annealing the strength and failure properties can be varied in a wide range. Microstructures obtained by annealing below the β-transus followed by furnace cooling show balanced properties of high strength, deformability, and therefore the highest energy consumption under dynamic compressive loading, but the lowest hardness values. Instrumented impact tests on Charpy U-notch specimens reveal evidence for a less brittle behaviour combined with the highest absorbed energy for furnace cooled conditions, only.

  15. Microstructure and wear property of the Ti5Si3/TiC reinforced Co-based coatings fabricated by laser cladding on Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Fei; Yu, Huijun; Liu, Jianli; Chen, Chuanzhong; Dai, Jingjie; Zhao, Zhihuan

    2017-07-01

    Ti5Si3/TiC reinforced Co-based composite coatings were fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy by laser cladding with Co42 and SiC mixture. Microstructure and wear property of the cladding coatings with different content of SiC were investigated. During the cladding process, the original SiC dissolved and reacted with Ti forming Ti5Si3 and TiC. The complex in situ formed phases were found beneficial to the improvement of the coating property. Results indicated that the microhardness of the composite coatings was enhanced to over 3 times the substrate. The wear resistance of the coatings also showed distinct improvement (18.4-57.4 times). More SiC gave rise to better wear resistance within certain limits. However, too much SiC (20 wt%) was not good for the further improvement of the wear property.

  16. Investigation of the microstructure and surface morphology of a Ti6Al4V plate fabricated by vacuum selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Masuno, Shinichiro; Abe, Nobuyuki [Osaka University, Joining and Welding Research Institute, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Yamashita, Yorihiro [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Yamashita, Kensuke; Tanigawa, Daichi [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    As an additive manufacturing technology, the selective laser melting (SLM) process is useful to directly form complicated shapes. The SLM process in a vacuum has been used to fabricate three-dimensional Ti6Al4V (Ti64) plates because this method can control the phase transformation. To investigate the laser melting and solidification dynamics, the formation of a Ti64 plate by SLM in a vacuum was captured by a high-speed video camera. Due to the effects of temperature and scanning speed on the phase transformation, the crystal orientation was evaluated with X-ray diffraction. A phase transformation of the crystal orientation occurred as the baseplate temperature was heated up from 50 to 150 C. (orig.)

  17. Residual Stress, Defects and Grain Morphology of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Produced by Ultrasonic Impact Treatment Assisted Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale selective laser melting (SLM additive manufacturing technology, three main problems severely restrict its development and application, namely the residual stress, defects, and columnar grains with anisotropy. To overcome these problems, a new method is proposed by combining SLM with ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT technique. This study explores the feasibility of UIT assisted SLM, as well as the effect of UIT on the residual stress, defects and β grains of Ti-6Al-4V alloy sample. The results indicate that after the application of UIT during SLM, residual stress can be largely reduced and defects can be hammered flat and even eliminated. Meanwhile, the epitaxial growth of columnar grains is prevented, and fine equiaxed grains are formed due to plastic deformation and recrystallization.

  18. Investigation of the microstructure and surface morphology of a Ti6Al4V plate fabricated by vacuum selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Masuno, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Yorihiro; Yamashita, Kensuke; Tanigawa, Daichi; Abe, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    As an additive manufacturing technology, the selective laser melting (SLM) process is useful to directly form complicated shapes. The SLM process in a vacuum has been used to fabricate three-dimensional Ti6Al4V (Ti64) plates because this method can control the phase transformation. To investigate the laser melting and solidification dynamics, the formation of a Ti64 plate by SLM in a vacuum was captured by a high-speed video camera. Due to the effects of temperature and scanning speed on the phase transformation, the crystal orientation was evaluated with X-ray diffraction. A phase transformation of the crystal orientation occurred as the baseplate temperature was heated up from 50 to 150 °C.

  19. Hardness evaluation, stoichiometry and grain size of titanium nitride films obtained with plasma nitriding on Ti-6Al-4V samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Marcos Antonio Zen; Lima, Saulo Cordeiro; Hinrichs, Ruth [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Titanium nitride films were formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V discs by plasma nitriding (glow discharge) in different N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} atmospheres at several substrate temperatures. In this study the influence of the process parameters on dynamic micro-hardness were investigated. Grain sizes of the nitride films, determined with X Ray Diffraction, were related to the nitriding parameters. TiNx stoichiometry was determined with Nuclear Reaction Analysis and showed a correlation to substrate temperature during the nitriding process. Micro-hardness measurements were taken on the nitrided surfaces. Grain sizes increased for a particular gas composition of 60%N{sub 2}+40%H{sub 2} where hardness was lowest. (author)

  20. Evaluación de la oxidación superficial de recubrimientos de Ti6Al4V obtenidos por recubrimiento por láser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been studied the influence of processing parameters on the superficial oxidation and mechanical properties of different coatings of Ti6Al4V. The high chemical reactivity of titanium powder, and the high temperature reached during laser processing, produces a great variety of colors in the oxides formed. This oxidation can have a detrimental effect on the behavior in service so that its evaluation is essential. Although the influence of processing on the color of the oxides formed is clear, there is no simple relationship to explain its mechanical properties. For this reason it has been applied a methodology based on microscopy, microanalysis wavelength spectroscopy (WDS and nanoindentation. The results indicate no significant differences in hardness and elastic modulus between two coatings with different colors of oxidation.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de los parámetros de procesado sobre la oxidación superficial y propiedades mecánicas de diferentes recubrimientos de Ti6Al4V. La gran reactividad química del polvo de titanio junto a la elevada temperatura que se alcanza producen gran variedad de colores en los óxidos formados. Esta oxidación puede tener un efecto perjudicial sobre el comportamiento en servicio, por lo que su evaluación es fundamental. Aunque la influencia del procesado en el color de los óxidos formados es clara, no existe una relación sencilla que explique sus propiedades mecánicas. Por ese motivo se ha seguido una metodología basada en la microscopia, microanálisis por espectroscopia de longitud de onda (WDS y nanoindentación. Los resultados indican que no hay diferencias importantes en la dureza y módulo elástico entre dos recubrimientos que presentan diferentes colores de oxidación.

  1. Reactive resistance welding of Ti6Al4V alloy with the use of Ni(V)/Al multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, Lukasz; Morgiel, Jerzy [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Mars, Krzysztof; Godlewska, Elzbieta [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    The freestanding Ni(V)/Al multilayer foil was applied as a filler material in order to join Ti6Al4V alloy with the use of reactive resistance welding (RRW) technique. Present investigations, performed with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method, allowed to show that an application of high current (I = 400 A for 2 min in vacuum conditions ∝10{sup -1} mbar) transformed the Ni(V)/Al multilayers into fine grain (<300 nm) NiAl phase. It also showed that the RRW process led to the formation of firm connection with nanoporosity limited only to the original contact plane between base material and the foil. Simultaneously, the formation of a narrow strip of crystallites of Ti{sub 3}Al intermetallic phase elongated along the joint line (average size of ∝200 nm) was observed. The base material was separated from the joint area by a layer of up to ∝2 μm thickness of nearly defect free α-Ti and β-Ti grains from a heat affected zone (HAZ). The performed experiment proved that Ni(V)/Al multilayer could serve as a filler material for joining of Ti6Al4V alloys even without additional solder layer. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. A nano-scale mirror-like surface of Ti-6Al-4V attained by chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenliang, Liang; Weili, Liu; Shasha, Li; Hui, Kong; Zefang, Zhang; Zhitang, Song

    2016-05-01

    Metal Ti and its alloys have been widely utilized in the fields of aviation, medical science, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for its excellent specific strength, resistance to corrosion, and biological compatibility. As the application of Ti moves to the micro or nano scale, however, traditional methods of planarization have shown their short slabs. Thus, we introduce the method of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to provide a new way for the nano-scale planarization method of Ti alloys. We obtain a mirror-like surface, whose flatness is of nano-scale, via the CMP method. We test the basic mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) in the CMP process, and optimize the composition of CMP slurry. Furthermore, the possible reactions that may take place in the CMP process have been studied by electrochemical methods combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An equivalent circuit has been built to interpret the dynamic of oxidation. Finally, a model has been established to explain the synergy of chemical and mechanical effects in the CMP of Ti-6Al-4V. Project supported by the National Major Scientific and Technological Special Project during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period of China (Grant No. 2009ZX02030-1), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51205387), the Support by Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai City, China (Grant No. 11nm0500300), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai City, China (Grant No. 14XD1425300).

  3. Influence of slight microstructural gradients on the surface properties of Ti6Al4V irradiated by UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A.M. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Badajoz (Spain); Multigner, M. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Pacha-Olivenza, M.A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Badajoz (Spain); Lieblich, M.; Jimenez, J.A. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, M.L., E-mail: mlglez@unex.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Badajoz (Spain)

    2009-08-30

    Ti6Al4V alloy is one of the most widely used materials for biomedical implants. Among its properties, it is remarkable the photoactivity displayed by its passive layer, which is mainly composed by titanium dioxide. However, variations in the processing conditions may yield to differences in the microstructure which can be reflected on the surface properties of the machined product. From contact angle measurements taken on different zones of samples removed from a commercial bar of Ti6Al4V, it has been shown that the modifications of the surface Gibbs energy suffered by the alloy under UV irradiation have a radial dependence. This behaviour is related to slight microstructural changes of the alloy, particularly with an increase in the volume fraction of the {beta}-phase when moving to the interior of the sample, which alters the composition and/or microstructure of the passive layer along its radius. This study shows that gradients in the microstructure and physical properties are sample size dependent and are likely related to thermal gradients during processing.

  4. Ectopic bone formation by 3D porous calcium phosphate-Ti6Al4V hybrids produced by perfusion electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Kerckhofs, Greet; Roberts, Scott J; Van Bael, Simon; Schepers, Evert; Vleugels, Jozef; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Successful clinical repair of non-healing skeletal defects requires the use of bone substitutes with robust bone inductivity and excellent biomechanical stability. Thus, three-dimensionally functionalised porous calcium phosphate-Ti6Al4V (CaP-Ti) hybrids were produced by perfusion electrodeposition, and the in vitro and in vivo biological performances were evaluated using human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs). By applying various current densities at the optimised deposition conditions, CaP coatings with sub-micrometer to nano-scale porous crystalline structures and different ion dissolution kinetics were deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. These distinctive physicochemical properties caused a significant impact on in vitro proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and matrix mineralisation of hPDCs. This includes a potential role of hPDCs in mediating osteoclastogenesis for the resorption of CaP coatings, as indicated by a significant down-regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene expression and by the histological observation of abundant multi-nucleated giant cells near to the coatings. By subcutaneous implantation, the produced hybrids induced ectopic bone formation, which was highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the CaP coating (including the Ca(2+) dissolution kinetics and coating surface topography), in a cell density-dependent manner. This study provided further insight on stem cell-CaP biomaterial interactions, and the feasibility to produced bone reparative units that are predictively osteoinductive in vivo by perfusion electrodeposition technology.

  5. Influence of oxidative nanopatterning and anodization on the fatigue resistance of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Amirhossein; Weck, Arnaud; Variola, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    With an increasingly aging population, a significant challenge in implantology is the creation of biomaterials that actively promote tissue integration and offer excellent mechanical properties. Engineered surfaces with micro- and nanoscale topographies have shown great potential to control and direct biomaterial-host tissue interactions. Two simple yet efficient chemical treatments, oxidative nanopatterning and anodization, have demonstrated the ability to confer exciting new bioactive capacities to commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, the resulting nanoporous and nanotubular surfaces require careful assessment in regard to potential adverse effects on the fatigue resistance, a factor which may ultimately cause premature failure of biomedical implants. In this work, we have investigated the impact of oxidative nanopatterning and anodization on the fatigue resistance of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V. Quantitative (e.g., S-N curves) and qualitative analyses were carried out to precisely characterize the fatigue response of treated metals and compare it to that of polished controls. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging revealed the effects of cyclic loading on the fracture surface and on the structural integrity of chemically grown nanostructured oxides. Results from this study reinforce the importance of mechanical considerations in the development and optimization of micro- and nanoscale surface treatments for metallic biomedical implants.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of the Ti6Al4V macrostructure obtained by Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, J. C.; Paz, M. D.; Serra, J.; González, P.

    2014-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys (Ti6Al4V) have been widely used in the biomedical field; nevertheless, they should be subject to specific surface treatments, before being implanted, in order to improve bio-integration. Although laser processing is a useful technique for this purpose, different aspects of the basic mechanisms of this process are still in progress, with special emphasis on the modeling structure formation on the irradiated surface. For this research, the finite element method was used to study the generation of a macrostructure on the Ti6Al4V surface using a Nd:YAG laser. The temperature profiles, estimated during the extremely high heating and cooling rates caused by the output power of the laser beam, allowed us to analyze, among other things, the melting depth and the heat affected zone, in order to optimize the process. Moreover, the experimental results (SEM data) were positively compared with the numerical model, and a relationship of the crater profile formation (depth to width ratio) was determined.

  7. Characterising μ-AlTiN coating and assessing its performance during Ti-6Al-4V milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Moreno Téllez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanical properties and performance of μ-AlTiN coating deposited by PVD cathodic arc technique for a specific Al0, 67Ti0, 33N composition deposited on a WC-Co and AISI D2 steel substrate. The structure of the coating was analysed using SEM, EDAX, XRD, AFM and TEM. Nano indentation measurements were used for analysing mechanical properties; the coating’s performance was evaluated during the milling of a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V. The TiN film was initially deposited to improve adhesion between coating and substrate, where columnar grains ranging in size from 200 to 500 nm were observed having NaCl-type struc-ture. μ-AlTiN grain growth was also columnar but had ~50 nm grain size. The μ-AlTiN coated tool life was compared to an uncoated tool to determine the coating’s influence during Ti6Al4V milling. The μ-AlTiN coating improved tool life by 100% compared to that of an uncoated tool due to aluminium oxide and TiC formation on the surface and a decrease in friction coefficient between the chip and the tool.

  8. Surface treatment by electric discharge machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for potential application in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcuba, Petr; Bačáková, Lucie; Stráský, Josef; Bačáková, Markéta; Novotná, Katarína; Janeček, Miloš

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after surface treatment by the electric discharge machining (EDM) process. The EDM process with high peak currents proved to induce surface macro-roughness and to cause chemical changes to the surface. Evaluations were made of the mechanical properties by means of tensile tests, and of surface roughness for different peak currents of the EDM process. The EDM process with peak current of 29 A was found to induce sufficient surface roughness, and to have a low adverse effect on tensile properties. The chemical changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser (EDX). The surface of the benchmark samples was obtained by plasma-spraying a titanium dioxide coating. An investigation of the biocompatibility of the surface-treated Ti-6Al-4V samples in cultures of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells revealed that the samples modified by EDM provided better substrates for the adhesion, growth and viability of MG 63 cells than the TiO2 coated surface. Thus, EDM treatment can be considered as a promising surface modification to orthopaedic implants, in which good integration with the surrounding bone tissue is required.

  9. Effect of Heat Input on the Tensile Damage Evolution in Pulsed Laser Welded Ti6Al4V Titanium Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jianxun

    2016-11-01

    The present paper is focused on studying the effect of heat input on the tensile damage evolution of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of Ti6Al4V alloy under monotonic loading. To analyze the reasons that the tensile fracture site of the pulsed-laser-welded Ti6Al4V sheet joints changes with the heat input under monotonic loading, the microstructure of the sample with different nominal strain values was investigated by in situ observation. Experiment results show that the tensile ductility and fatigue life of welded joints with low heat input are higher than that of welded joints with high heat input. Under tensile loads, the critical engineering strain for crack initiation is much lower in the welded joint with high heat input than in the welded joints with low and medium heat input. And the microstructural damage accumulation is much faster in the fusion zone than in the base metal for the welded joints with high input, whereas the microstructural damage accumulation is much faster in the base metal than in the fusion zone for the welded joints with low input. Consequently, the welded joints fractured in the fusion zone for the welds with high heat input, whereas the welded joints ruptured in the base metal for the welds with low heat input. It is proved that the fine grain microstructure produced by low heat input can improve the critical nominal strain for crack initiation and the resistance ability of microstructural damage.

  10. Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting with a bioactive compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Kilsby, Samuel; Goodridge, Ruth D; Christie, Steven D R; Edmondson, Steve; Hague, Richard J M

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of an implant with a biomolecule is used to improve its biocompatibility and to reduce post-implant complications. In this study, a novel approach has been used to functionalise phosphonic acid monolayers with a drug. Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) were functionalised with Paracetamol (a pharmaceutically relevant biomolecule) using phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The attachment, stability of the monolayers on the SLM fabricated surface and functionalisation of SAMs with Paracetamol were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface wettability measurements. The obtained results confirmed that SAMs were stable on the Ti6Al4V surface for over four weeks and then began to desorb from the surface. The reaction used to functionalise the phosphonic acid monolayers with Paracetamol was noted to be successful. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to immobilise drugs/proteins to SAM coated surfaces and improve their biocompatibility and reduce post-implant complications.

  11. Strain localization during tensile Hopkinson bar testing of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moćko Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the analysis was to determine the strain localization for various specimen shapes (type A and type B according to PN-EN ISO 26203-1 standard and different loading conditions, i.e. quasi- static and dynamic. Commercially pure titanium (Grade 2 and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Grade 5 were selected for the tests. Tensile loadings were applied out using servo-hydraulic testing machine and tensile Hopkinson bar with pre-tension. The results were recorded using ARAMIS system cameras and fast camera Phantom V1210, respectively at quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Further, specimens outline was determined on the basis of video data using TEMA MOTION software. The strain distribution on the specimen surface was estimated using digital image correlation method. The larger radius present in the specimen of type B in comparison to specimen of type A, results in slight increase of the elongation for commercially pure titanium at both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. However this effect disappears for Ti6Al4V alloy. The increase of the elongation corresponds to the stronger necking effect. Material softening due to increase of temperature induced by plastic work was observed at dynamic loading conditions. Moreover lower elongation at fracture point was found at high strain rates for both materials.

  12. Estudio mediante SEM/EDS del taladrado en seco de la aleación Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantero, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on dry drilling of Ti6Al4V. In absence of cutting fluid, high temperatures are reached. Two different cutting conditions are studied in order to analyze the influence of temperature. In first condition, tests with no pause between drilled holes were carried out. In second condition, tests were performed cooling the tool with air between consecutively holes. Tool wear was studied with optical microscope and SEM-EDS techniques. he quality of machined holes was estimated in terms of optical inspection. Significantly differences in tool wear evolution were observed between both cutting conditions analysed.

    En este artículo se estudia el proceso de taladrado sin fluido de corte, de la aleación Ti6Al4V, comparando dos condiciones de mecanizado, con y sin enfriamiento de herramienta y material entre taladros. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la influencia en el desgaste de la herramienta y en la calidad del agujero, del diferente incremento de temperatura originado por trabajar en una u otra condición. Para ello, se realizará análisis SEM/EDS y microscopía óptica de la broca e inspección visual del material.

  13. Fatigue testing of electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gaurav V; Duan, Yuanyuan; Neidigh, John; Koike, Mari; Chahine, Gilbert; Kovacevic, Radovan; Okabe, Toru; Griggs, Jason A

    2013-01-01

    Customized one-component dental implants have been fabricated using Electron Beam Melting(®) (EBM(®)), which is a rapid prototyping and manufacturing technique. The goal of our study was to determine the effect of electron beam orientation on the fatigue resistance of EBM Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy. EBM technique was used to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy blocks, which were cut into rectangular beam specimens with dimensions of 25 × 4 × 3 mm, such that electron beam orientation was either parallel (group A) or perpendicular (group B) to the long axis of the specimens. The specimens were subjected to cyclic fatigue (R = 0.1) in four-point flexure under ambient conditions using various stress amplitudes below the yield stress. The fatigue lifetime data were fit to an inverse power law-Weibull model to predict the peak stress corresponding to failure probabilities of 5 and 63% at 2M cycles (σ(max, 5%) and σ(max, 63%)). Groups A and B did not have significantly different Weibull modulus, m (p > 0.05). The specimens with parallel orientation showed significantly higher σ(max, 63%) (p ≤ 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the σ(max, 5%) (p > 0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the fatigue resistance of the material was greatest when the electron beam orientation was perpendicular to the direction of crack propagation.

  14. The effect of thermal cycling on the shear bond strength of porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendão, Isabel A; Alves, Alexandra C; Galo, Rodrigo; Toptan, Fatih; Silva, Filipe S; Ariza, Edith

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thermal cycling on the shear bond strength of the porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces prepared by two different processing routes and metallic surface conditions. Polished and SiO2 particle abraded Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Triceram bonder porcelain were used to produce the interfaces. Porcelain-to-metal specimens were processed by conventional furnace firing and hot pressing. Thermal cycling was performed in Fusayama's artificial saliva for 5000 cycles between 5 ± 1 and 60 ± 2°C. After thermal cycling, shear bond tests were carried out by using a custom-made stainless steel apparatus. The results were analyzed using t-Student test and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.01). Most of the polished-fired specimens were fractured during thermal cycling; thus, it was not possible to obtain the shear bond strength results for this group. Sandblasted-fired, polished-hot pressed, and sandblasted-hot pressed specimens presented the shear bond strength values of 76.2 ± 15.9, 52.2 ± 23.6, and 59.9 ± 22.0 MPa, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that thermal cycling affected the polished specimens processed by firing, whereas a significant difference was not observed on the other groups.

  15. Influence of cell shape on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V meshes fabricated by electron beam melting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S J; Xu, Q S; Wang, Z; Hou, W T; Hao, Y L; Yang, R; Murr, L E

    2014-10-01

    Ti-6Al-4V reticulated meshes with different elements (cubic, G7 and rhombic dodecahedron) in Materialise software were fabricated by additive manufacturing using the electron beam melting (EBM) method, and the effects of cell shape on the mechanical properties of these samples were studied. The results showed that these cellular structures with porosities of 88-58% had compressive strength and elastic modulus in the range 10-300MPa and 0.5-15GPa, respectively. The compressive strength and deformation behavior of these meshes were determined by the coupling of the buckling and bending deformation of struts. Meshes that were dominated by buckling deformation showed relatively high collapse strength and were prone to exhibit brittle characteristics in their stress-strain curves. For meshes dominated by bending deformation, the elastic deformation corresponded well to the Gibson-Ashby model. By enhancing the effect of bending deformation, the stress-strain curve characteristics can change from brittle to ductile (the smooth plateau area). Therefore, Ti-6Al-4V cellular solids with high strength, low modulus and desirable deformation behavior could be fabricated through the cell shape design using the EBM technique. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LONG-TERM OBSERVATION FOR OSSEOINTEGRATION OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE SOL-GEL COATING ON Ti-6Al-4V IMPLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To observe the long-term impact of calcium phosphate (CaP) sol-gel coating on bone growth around porous-surfaced implant.Methods The porous-surfaced Ti-6Al-4V implants were prepared with the addition of a thin film of CaP sol-gel coating, and implanted into the tibiae of 8 rabbits, each with two implants. Implanted sites were allowed to heal for 2,8, 12, and 24 weeks, after which specimens were obtained for scanning electron microscope analysis using the freezefracture technique.Results The sol-gel coated implants recovered by freeze-fracture technique showed extensive bone growth from the endosteum along the implant surface. The bone was in direct contact with the CaP layer. The cement line-like layer was clearly demonstrated to be an intervening electron dense afibrillar layer between the CaP coat and the overlying newly deposited bone. The stability and osseointegration of the porous-surfaced implants seemed not to be affected by the osteoclastic resorption of CaP layer occurred during 24 weeks of healing.Conclusion Based on the findings in the long-term observation, the addition of a thin layer of CaP promotes an extensive osseointegrated interface between the porous-surfaced Ti-6Al-4V implants and the newly deposited bone.

  17. Review of Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Made by Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Powder Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beese, Allison M.; Carroll, Beth E.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) of metals using powder feedstock can be accomplished via two broadly defined technologies: directed energy deposition (DED) and powder bed fusion (PBF). In these processes, metallic powder is delivered to a location and locally melted with a laser heat source. Upon deposition, the material undergoes a rapid cooling and solidification, and as subsequent layers are added to the component, the material within the component is subjected to rapid thermal cycles. In order to adopt AM for the building of structural components, a thorough understanding of the relationships among the complex thermal cycles seen in AM, the unique heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure, and the mechanical properties must be developed. Researchers have fabricated components by both DED and PBF from the widely used titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and studied the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties. This review article discusses the progress to date on investigating the as-deposited and heat-treated microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V structures made by powder-based laser AM using DED and PBF.

  18. Boron doped diamond thin films on large area Ti6Al4V substrates for electrochemical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra V. Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron doped diamond thin films were grown on titanium alloy substrates (Ti6Al4V with 36 × 35 × 1.3 mm at 873-933 K at 6.5 × 10³ Pa during 8 h by hot filament CVD assisted technique. The boron source was obtained from a H2 line forced to pass through a bubbler containing B2O3 dissolved in methanol (BC = 6000 ppm. The films were grown on both sides of perforated and non-perforated substrates. Emphasis for diamond growing on perforated substrates have been done in order to increase the active surface area and hereafter to promote an easier electrolyte flow for wastewater treatment. The electrode performance was determined by cyclic voltammetry measurements in KCl, KNO3, Na2SO4, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 solutions and the reversibility behavior of the Fe(CN6(3-/4- at the Ti6Al4V/Diamond electrode were studied. Also, Scaning Electron Microcopy and Raman Scattering Spectroscopy were used for morphology and diamond quality evaluation, respectively.

  19. In vitro and in vivo study of additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds for repairing bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoyuan; Wang, Lei; Pan, Wei; Yang, Fei; Jiang, Wenbo; Wu, Xianbo; Kong, Xiangdong; Dai, Kerong; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7. This group also had higher ALP activity at day 7 in osteogenic differentiation experiment. The scaffold with pore size of 300 to 400 μm was implanted into a 30-mm segmental defect of goat metatarsus. In vivo evaluations indicated that the depth of bone ingrowth increased over time and no implant dislocation occurred during the experiment. Based on its better cytocompatibility and favorable bone ingrowth, the present data showed the capability of the additive manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with an intended pore size of 300 to 400 μm for large segmental bone defects. PMID:27667204

  20. Tribological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloys for Total Hip Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Fellah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the friction and wear behavior of high-strength alloys Ti-6Al-7Nb used in femoral stem and compare it with a Ti-6Al-4V alloy cylindrical bar corresponding to ISO 5832-3 part 3/01-07-199 standard. The tribological behavior was investigated by wear tests, using ball-on-disc and pin-on-disc tribometers. These tests consisted of measuring the weight loss and the friction coefficient of samples. The oscillating friction and wear tests have been carried out in ambient with oscillating tribotester in accordance with standards ISO 7148, ASTM G99-95a, and ASTM G133-95 under different conditions of normal loads (3, 6, and 10 N and sliding speeds (1, 15, and 25 mm·s−1. As counter pairs, a 100Cr6 steel ball with 10 mm in diameter was used. Results show that the two alloys had similar friction and wear performance, although their grain structures and compositions are different. Occurrence of large frictional occurred, is probably caused by formation and periodic, localized fracture of a transfer layer. Higher friction with larger fluctuation and higher wear rate was observed at the higher siding speed. The Ti-6Al-4V wear mechanism transforms from ploughing and peeling off wear at low sliding speed to plastic deformation and adhesive wear.

  1. FEM Simulation and Experimental Validation of LBW Under Conduction Regime of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churiaque, C.; Amaya-Vazquez, M. R.; Botana, F. J.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    Laser Beam Welding (LBW) is an advanced process to join materials with a laser beam of high energy density. LBW is especially suitable to join titanium alloys, as it allows high localization and low size of the melting pool, reducing considerably the energy of the process, in comparison with other welding technologies. Among the two widely known welding regimes, conduction and keyhole, the former is claimed to be a viable alternative to keyhole, mainly because it is a very stable process, provides high-quality welds free of defects, and involves lower laser cost. In the present work, a Finite Element Method (FEM) has been developed to simulate the LBW of Ti6Al4V alloy under conduction regime. The "Goldak double ellipsoid model" has been taken for the first time to simulate this LBW conduction process. In order to refine and validate the model, experimental conduction welding tests were performed on Ti6Al4V pieces with a high-power diode laser. Microstructural analyses and hardness measurements were also performed on the laser weld beads to identify the generated phases. Distortion and residual stresses were also obtained from the FEM simulations. An excellent agreement between the simulation and experimental results was found regarding the bead morphology and phase transformations.

  2. Enhanced Erosion Protection of TWAS Coated Ti6Al4V Alloy Using Boride Bond Coat and Subsequent Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.; Arya, Vivek; Pant, B. K.

    2011-08-01

    The material commonly used in low-pressure high-rating super critical/ultra super critical steam turbines as well as guide and moving blades of high speed aero compressors is Ti6Al4V alloy. These blades are severely affected owing to erosion which leads to drop in efficiency and increase in maintenance cost. This article deals with SHS 7170 coating on Ti6Al4V alloy using twin wire arc spraying (TWAS), enhancing its bonding by providing a thin bond coat and then treating with high-power diode laser (HPDL). Significant improvement in erosion resistance of this multilayer coating has been achieved because of the formation of fine-grained micro structure due to rapid heating and cooling rates associated with the laser surface treatment. After laser surface treatment, the fracture toughness of this multilayer has improved manifold. The water droplet and particulate erosion test results along with the damage mechanism are reported and discussed in this article.

  3. Corrosion kinetics and topography analysis of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to different mouthwash solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Barao, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Pires, Maria Flávia Araújo; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the corrosion kinetics and surface topography of Ti-6Al-4V alloy exposed to mouthwash solutions (0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.053% cetylpyridinium chloride and 3% hydrogen peroxide) compared to artificial saliva (pH6.5) (control). Twenty Ti-6Al-4V alloy disks were used and divided into 4 groups (n=5). For the electrochemical assay, standard tests as open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied at baseline, 7 and 14days after immersion in the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and profilometry (average roughness - Ra) were used for surface characterization. Total weight loss of disks was calculated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (α=0.05). Hydrogen peroxide generated the lowest polarization resistance (Rp) values for all periods (Pdental implants. However, hydrogen peroxide is counter-indicated in these situations. Further studies evaluating the dynamics of these solutions (tribocorrosion) and immersing the disks in daily cycles (two or three times a day) to mimic a clinical situation closest to the application of mouthwashes in the oral cavity are warranted to prove our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro biocorrosion of Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy by a mouse macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2004-03-15

    Corrosion of implant alloys releasing metal ions has the potential to cause adverse tissue reactions and implant failure. We hypothesized that macrophage cells and their released reactive chemical species (RCS) affect the alloy's corrosion properties. A custom cell culture corrosion box was used to evaluate how cell culture medium, macrophage cells and RCS altered the Ti-6Al-4V corrosion behaviors in 72 h and how corrosion products affected the cells. There was no difference in the charge transfer in the presence (75.2 +/- 17.7 mC) and absence (62.3 +/- 18.8 mC) of cells. The alloy had the lowest charge transfer (28.2 +/- 4.1 mC) and metal ion release (Ti < 10 ppb, V < 2 ppb) with activated cells (releasing RCS) compared with the other two conditions. This was attributed to an enhancement of the surface oxides by RCS. Metal ion release was very low (Ti < 20 ppb, V < 10 ppb) with nonactivated cells and did not change cell morphology, viability, and NO and ATP release compared with controls. However, IL-1beta released from the activated cells and the proliferation of nonactivated cells were greater on the alloy than the controls. In summary, macrophage cells and RCS reduced the corrosion of Ti-6Al-4V alloys as hypothesized. These data are important in understanding host tissue-material interactions.

  5. Further Investigation Into the Use of Laser Surface Preparation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for Adhesive Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank L.; Crow, Allison; Zetterberg, Anna; Hopkins, John; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Belcher, Tony; Blohowiak, Kay Y.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive bonding offers many advantages over mechanical fastening, but requires robust materials and processing methodologies before it can be incorporated in primary structures for aerospace applications. Surface preparation is widely recognized as one of the key steps to producing robust and predictable bonds. This report documents an ongoing investigation of a surface preparation technique based on Nd:YAG laser ablation as a replacement for the chemical etch and/or abrasive processes currently applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Laser ablation imparts both topographical and chemical changes to a surface that can lead to increased bond durability. A laser based process provides an alternative to chemical-immersion, manual abrasion, and grit blast process steps which are expensive, hazardous, environmentally unfriendly, and less precise. In addition, laser ablation is amenable to process automation, which can improve reproducibility to meet quality standards for surface preparation. An update on work involving adhesive property testing, surface characterization, surface stability, and the effect of laser surface treatment on fatigue behavior is presented. Based on the tests conducted, laser surface treatment is a viable replacement for the immersion chemical surface treatment processes. Testing also showed that the fatigue behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is comparable for surfaces treated with either laser ablation or chemical surface treatment.

  6. In vitro fibroblast and pre-osteoblastic cellular responses on laser surface modified Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikarakara, Evans; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Moore, Eric; Levingstone, Tanya; Grehan, Laura; Higginbotham, Clement; Vázquez, Mercedes; Bagga, Komal; Naher, Sumsun; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-12-29

    The success of any implant, dental or orthopaedic, is driven by the interaction of implant material with the surrounding tissue. In this context, the nature of the implant surface plays a direct role in determining the long term stability as physico-chemical properties of the surface affect cellular attachment, expression of proteins, and finally osseointegration. Thus to enhance the degree of integration of the implant into the host tissue, various surface modification techniques are employed. In this work, laser surface melting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V was carried out using a CO2 laser with an argon gas atmosphere. Investigations were carried out to study the influence of laser surface modification on the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy implant material. Surface roughness, microhardness, and phase development were recorded. Initial knowledge of these effects on biocompatibility was gained from examination of the response of fibroblast cell lines, which was followed by examination of the response of osteoblast cell lines which is relevant to the applications of this material in bone repair. Biocompatibility with these cell lines was analysed via Resazurin cell viability assay, DNA cell attachment assay, and alamarBlue metabolic activity assay. Laser treated surfaces were found to preferentially promote cell attachment, higher levels of proliferation, and enhanced bioactivity when compared to untreated control samples. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of this laser surface melting treatment to significantly improve the biocompatibility of titanium implants in vivo.

  7. Fabrication of nano-structured HA/CNT coatings on Ti6Al4V by electrophoretic deposition for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Kwok, Chi Tat; Cheng, Fai Tsun; Man, Hau Chung

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve the bone bioactivity and osteointegration of metallic implants, hydroxyapatite (HA) is often coated on their surface so that a real bond with the surrounding bone tissue can be formed. In the present study, cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been attempted for depositing nanostructured HA coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V followed by sintering at 800 degrees C. Nano-sized HA powder was used in the EPD process to produce dense coatings. Moreover, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were also used to reinforce the HA coating for enhancing its mechanical strength. The surface morphology, compositions and microstructure of the monolithic coating of HA and nanocomposite coatings of HA with different CNT contents (4 to 25%) on Ti6Al4V were investigated by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Xray diffractometry, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the various coatings in Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C was investigated by means of open-circuit potential measurement and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests. Surface hardness, adhesion strength and bone bioactivity of the coatings were also studied. The HA and HA/CNT coatings had a thickness of about 10 microm, with corrosion resistance higher than that of the substrate and adhesion strength higher than that of plasma sprayed HA coating. The properties of the composite coatings were optimized by varying the CNT contents. The enhanced properties could be attributed to the use of nano-sized HA particles and CNTs. Compared with the monolithic HA coating, the CNT-reinforced HA coating markedly increased the coating hardness without deteriorating the corrosion resistance or adhesion strength.

  8. Improved Osteointegration of Ti-6Al-4V-implants of Different Surface Texture by the Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-3 (BMP-3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Half of altogether 60 cylindrical implant devices mode of titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy( Ti-6Al-4 V) were plasma-sprayed with a hydroxyapatite-coating and the other half had a corundum blasted porous surface. 15 implants of each group of the titanium test implants were coated with 230μgporcine, high-purified BMP- 3-precipitate per implant. In each case a BMP- 3-coated and an uncoated control-device were implanted into the femoral part of the patellofemoral joint of the right and left leg of 30 adult giant rabbits. Histomorphological and histomorphometrical we found in both groups with BMP- 3-coated test devices an improved osteointegration. Statistical evaluation using the t-test for matched samples showed 5 weeks after surgery a significant higher volume of new formed bone of the BMP- 3-coated corundum-blasted or hydroxyapatite-coated Ti-6Al-4 V test devices compared to the non-coated controls of the same type (p < 0.01, t-test for matched samples). In both implatt groups with BMP-coating a synergetic effect was verifiable although the bone ongrowth in the hydroxyapatite coated implants was more extensive than in the corundum blasted implants. Light microscopy demonstrated osteointegration without connective tissue membrane around the surface of the implants. Our results indicate that composite metal implants, as used in endoprosthetics and implantology , are suitable carriers for BMP- 3 and improved fixation of the implants can be achieved. The hydroxyapatite surface is superior to the corundum-blasted surface with regards to the observed parameters because of its pronounced bioactivity and its osteoconductive characteristics.

  9. In vitro and in vivo performance of bioactive Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA implants fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Man Tik; Tang, Chak Yin; Chen, Ling; Wong, Chi Tak; Tsui, Chi Pong

    2014-09-01

    Failure of the bone-implant interface in a joint prosthesis is a main cause of implant loosening. The introduction of a bioactive substance, hydroxyapatite (HA), to a metallic bone-implant may enhance its fixation on human bone by encouraging direct bone bonding. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites with a reproducible porous structure (porosity of 27% and pore size of 6-89 μm) were successfully fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique. This method allows the biocomposites to be fabricated in a short period of time under ambient conditions. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites exhibited a compressive strength of 93 MPa, compressive modulus of 2.9 GPa and microhardness of 556 HV which are close to those of the human cortical bone. The in vitro preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite showed that the composite surface could provide a biocompatible environment for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation without any cytotoxic effects. This is among the first attempts to study the in vivo performance of load-bearing Ti6Al4V/TiC and Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites in a live rabbit. The results indicated that the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite had a better bone-implant interface compared with the Ti6Al4V/TiC implant. Based on the microstructural features, the mechanical properties, and the in vitro and in vivo test results from this study, the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites have the potential to be employed in load-bearing orthopedic applications.

  10. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Flatness of SEBM Ti-6Al-4V Sheet in As-Built and Hot Isostatically Pressed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, J.; Song, C. N.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Elambasseril, J.; Qian, M.

    2017-03-01

    Sheet (0.41-4.80 mm thick) or thin plate structures commonly exist in additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V components for load-bearing applications. A batch of 64 Ti-6Al-4V sheet samples with dimensions of 210/180 mm × 42 mm × 3 mm have been additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting (SEBM). A comprehensive assessment was then made of their density, surface flatness, microstructure, and mechanical properties in both as-built and hot isostatically pressed conditions, including the influence of the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) temperature. In particular, standard long tensile (156 mm long, 2 mm thick) and fatigue (206 mm long, 2 mm thick) test sheet samples were used for assessment. As-built SEBM Ti-6Al-4V sheet samples with machined surfaces fully satisfied the minimum tensile property requirements for mill-annealed TIMETAL Ti-6Al-4V sheet products, whereas HIP-processed samples (2 mm thick) with machined surfaces achieved a high cycle fatigue (HCF) strength of 625 MPa (R = 0.06, 107 cycles), similar to mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V (500-700 MPa). The unflatness was limited to 0.2 mm in both the as-built and HIP-processed conditions. A range of other revealing observations was discussed for the additive manufacturing of the Ti-6Al-4V sheet structures.

  11. Improved Osteoblast and Chondrocyte Adhesion and Viability by Surface-Modified Ti6Al4V Alloy with Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes Using a Super-Oxidative Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Beltrán-Partida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti and its alloys are amongst the most commonly-used biomaterials in orthopedic and dental applications. The Ti-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V is widely used as a biomaterial for these applications by virtue of its favorable properties, such as high tensile strength, good biocompatibility and excellent corrosion resistance. TiO2 nanotube (NTs layers formed by anodization on Ti6Al4V alloy have been shown to improve osteoblast adhesion and function when compared to non-anodized material. In his study, NTs were grown on a Ti6Al4V alloy by anodic oxidation for 5 min using a super-oxidative aqueous solution, and their in vitro biocompatibility was investigated in pig periosteal osteoblasts and cartilage chondrocytes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDX and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to characterize the materials. Cell morphology was analyzed by SEM and AFM. Cell viability was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Cell adhesion was evaluated by nuclei staining and cell number quantification by fluorescence microscopy. The average diameter of the NTs was 80 nm. The results demonstrate improved cell adhesion and viability at Day 1 and Day 3 of cell growth on the nanostructured material as compared to the non-anodized alloy. In conclusion, this study evidences the suitability of NTs grown on Ti6Al4V alloy using a super-oxidative water and a short anodization process to enhance the adhesion and viability of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The results warrant further investigation for its use as medical implant materials.

  12. Immobilisation of an antibacterial drug to Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Kilsby, Samuel [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Goodridge, Ruth D., E-mail: Ruth.Goodridge@nottingham.ac.uk [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Christie, Steven D.R. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Steve [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hague, Richard J.M. [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: The potential integration of selective laser melting (SLM) with surface modification using self-assembled monolayers for biomedical application has been investigated. Ciprofloxacin{sup ®} was functionalised to the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V surface. Sustained release of the drug under in-vitro condition was witnessed. The inhibition zones showed the eluted drug was active against Staphylococcus aureus (a) and Escherichia coli (b) upon its release from the SLM fabricated part. - Highlights: • Parts fabricated using selective laser melting were coated with Ciprofloxacin{sup ®}. • The total amount of drug coated was approximately 1 μg/cm{sup 2}. • The coating was highly stable under oxidative conditions. • In-vitro studies showed a sustained release of the drug for over 42 days. • Ciprofloxacin{sup ®} eluted from the Ti6Al4V surface inhibited bacterial growth. - Abstract: Bacterial infections from biomedical implants and surgical devices are a major problem in orthopaedic, dental and vascular surgery. Although the sources of contaminations that lead to bacterial infections are known, it is not possible to control or avoid such infections completely. In this study, an approach to immobilise Ciprofloxacin{sup ®} (an antibacterial drug) to phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) adsorbed on a selectively laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V structure, has been presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurements confirmed the attachment of SAMs and the drug. Results showed that Ciprofloxacin{sup ®} is highly stable under the oxidative conditions used in this study. In-vitro stability was estimated by immersing the Ciprofloxacin{sup ®} immobilised substrates in 10 mM of Tris–HCl buffer (pH-7.4) for 42 days. The Tris–HCl buffer was analysed using UV–vis spectrophotometry at 7, 14, 28 and 42 day time intervals to determine the release of the immobilised drug. The drug was observed to

  13. Investigation of interfacial reaction product of SiCf/C/Mo/Ti6Al4V composite through Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yanqing; Luo, Xian; Huang, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Interfacial reaction products of heat-treated SiCf/C/Mo/Ti6Al4V are studied. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) mapping indicates two sublayers existence in the interface with Si-rich layer 1 next to SiC fiber and C-rich layer 2 next to matrix. Raman line scanning along interface also shows two sublayers with different reaction products, which is consistent with EDS mapping. Si-rich layer 1 is proved mainly Ti5Si3(Cx). C-rich layer 2 is proved mainly TiCx comparing the spectrum with that of TiCx particles in matrix. Peak shifts are also detected, which is possibly due to residual stress or/and microstructural evolution. Existence of SiC and excess carbon throughout the interface is also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Experimental analysis on semi-finishing machining of Ti6Al4V additively manufactured by direct melting laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Bordin, Alberto; Bruschi, Stefania; Umbrello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques are particularly appealing especially for titanium aerospace and biomedical components because they permit to achieve a strong reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio. However, finishing machining operations are often necessary to reduce the uneven surface roughness and geometrics because of local missing accuracy. This work shows the influence of the cutting parameters, cutting speed and feed rate, on the cutting forces as well as on the thermal field observed in the cutting zone, during a turning operation carried out on bars made of Ti6Al4V obtained by the AM process called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Moreover, the sub-surface microstructure alterations due to the process are also showed and commented.

  15. Microstructure and micro-hardness analyses of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V parts manufactured by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancea Camil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the powder based additive manufacturing technologies and it is, as well, the most rapidly growing technique in Rapid Prototyping. In this paper is presented a microstructure analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (LEO 1525 SEM, of Ti6Al4V parts exposed into a corrosion environment. The corrosion environment was generated using a salt chamber with 5% and 10% NaCl concentration and an ACS-Sunrise climatic chamber. The parts were also subjected to tests in order to determine their micro-hardness, followed by a statistical processing of the obtained data. The parts, having a lattice structure, were built on a Selective Laser Melting machine.

  16. Interpretation of the Friction Coefficient During Reciprocating Sliding of Ti6Al4V Alloy Against Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mitrovic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribological behaviour of Ti6Al4V alloy, during linear reciprocating sliding against alumina, at nanotribometer (ball-on-flat type of contact was investigated. Experiments were carried out for sliding in Ringer's solution, over a range of loads (100 - 1000 mN and speeds (4 - 12 mm/s. Friction behaviour of the contact pairs was investigated by analysis of the dynamic friction coefficient plots and effective root mean square (rms coefficient of friction, COFrms. Presented mathematical envelopes of dynamic coefficient of friction curves and averaged envelope signals provided additional explanation of one calculated COFrms value. Envelopes of dynamic coefficient of friction enabled easier determination of different periods during sliding, which were further related to wear mechanisms.

  17. A study of electrode wear ratio on EDM of Ti-6AL-4V with copper-tungsten electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Nurezayana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study of electrode wear ratio (EWR on the diesinking electrical discharge machining (EDM of Ti-6AL-4V titanium alloy with copper-tungsten (Cu-W electrode has been carried out. Pulse on time (ON, pulse of time (OFF, peak current (V and servo voltage (SV were seen as the machining parameters. The experiments were run according to the design of experiments (DOE, which is two levels of full factorial with added centre points. The experimental results reveal that pulse on time and peak current are statistically significant parameters for affecting EWR with the p-value of 0.0013 and 0.0012 respectively. Moreover, based on ANOVA, we recognized peak current as the most significant parameters which contribute 31.75%, followed by pulse on time, servo voltage and pulse on time which contribute 30.99%, 8.68% and 0.72%, respectively.

  18. Constitutive Model Modification of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V Based on Dislocation Pile-up Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Chuan; Zhou, Tian-Feng; Che, Jiang-Tao; Liang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xi-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Through the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test and the quasi-static tensile test on non-standard specimen of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, the rules of the mechanical property changing with the specimen size under different temperatures are summarized, and the parameters of the classical constitutive Johnson-Cook (JC) model are determined. Based on the dislocation pile-up theory, the classical constitutive JC model is modified by considering the influence of grain size, and the modified JC model is established by adding a functional term Δσ into the classical constitutive model to describe the influence of the grain. The tensile testis analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) simulation. Comparing with the experimental results, the simulation results based on the modified JC model show much better accuracy than that by the classical JC model.

  19. A new behavior model for better understanding of titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V chip formation in orthogonal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, M.; Pottier, T.; Senatore, J.; Mousseigne, M.; Germain, G.; Landon, Y.

    2016-10-01

    The behavior of Ti-6Al-4V has been studied via shear tests, using hat shaped specimen, on a servo-hydraulic Gleeble 3800 testing machine under the strain rate up to 103s-1and temperature up to 900°C. A new thermo-visco-plastic material law is proposed, based on a modified Johnson-Cook formulation. An inverse identification method based on Finite Element (FE) is established and detailed in order to determine the constitutive law's parameters. The new model is implemented in a 3D finite element model to study the chip formation in orthogonal cutting configuration. The numerical simulations were performed on FE software Impetus Afea® able to solve dynamic non-linear problem.

  20. Metallurgical and Corrosion Properties of Explosively Welded Ti6Al4V/Low Carbon Steel Clad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nizamettin Kahraman; Beh(c)et Gülen(c)

    2005-01-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and Iow carbon steel (LCS) were joined by explosive welding method using different ratios of explosive. Some metallurgical properties of joined samples were investigated. Joined samples were examined by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tensile-shearing tests. Bending, tensile, hardness and corrosion behaviour of the samples were investigated. Separation was not occurred on the joining interface after tensile-shearing and bending tests. It is seen that hardness of both plates were increased with increasing explosive.It is found that increasing explosive ratio leads to an increase in corrosion. It is also found that corrosion rate was high at the beginning of the experiment but the rate of the corrosion decreased subsequently during the experiment.

  1. Metallurgical Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Mini-Implants as a Temporary Anchorage Device in Orthodontics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Bravo Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of mini implants as a temporary anchorage device in orthodontics is a new technique that allows the movement of teeth in an efficient and predictable way. Although they have started to be used in Germany, Japan and South Korea, there is still the need to analyze and diffuse the advantages this procedure can offer over the traditional techniques. The objective of this research work was to analyze the integrity of Ti-6Al-4V mini implants temporary employed for 4 months on three patients as an anchorage device. The mini implants were analyzed by means of electron scanning microscopy in order to determine superficial and microstructural changes as well as the interaction with human tissue. Results showed the presence of wear on the thread zone caused during the insertion into the maxilar bone. The adherence of organic tissue was also observed on two mini-implants.

  2. Cellular Ti-6Al-4V structures with interconnected macro porosity for bone implants fabricated by selective electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinl, Peter; Müller, Lenka; Körner, Carolin; Singer, Robert F; Müller, Frank A

    2008-09-01

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) was successfully used to fabricate novel cellular Ti-6Al-4V structures for orthopaedic applications. Micro computer tomography (microCT) analysis demonstrated the capability to fabricate three-dimensional structures with an interconnected porosity and pore sizes suitable for tissue ingrowth and vascularization. Mechanical properties, such as compressive strength and elastic modulus, of the tested structures were similar to those of human bone. Thus, stress-shielding effects after implantation might be avoided due to a reduced stiffness mismatch between implant and bone. A chemical surface modification using HCl and NaOH induced apatite formation during in vitro bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid under dynamic conditions. The modified bioactive surface is expected to enhance the fixation of the implant in the surrounding bone as well as to improve its long-term stability.

  3. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  4. Physical Simulation of Deformation and Microstructure Evolution During Friction Stir Processing of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. S.; Livingston, J.; Lippold, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of using high-strain rate (1.475 to 3.942 s-1) hot-torsion testing with a Gleeble® thermomechanical simulator was demonstrated for simulating microstructures consistent with friction stir processing (FSP) of Ti-6Al-4V. The tests were performed on α/β-processed base material at temperatures both above and below the β-transus. Various phenomena including the refinement of α- and β-grains, deformation-induced heating, and deformation instabilities were observed. These tests reproduced the range of microstructures that are observed under FSP processing conditions. The testing methodology can be used for generating constitutive material property equations relevant to computational FSP/friction stir welding models.

  5. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  6. Tensile properties and microstructure of direct metal laser-sintered TI6AL4V (ELI alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moletsane, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is an additive manufacturing technology used to melt metal powder by high laser power to produce customised parts, light-weight structures, or other complex objects. During DMLS, powder is melted and solidified track-by-track and layer-by-layer; thus, building direction can influence the mechanical properties of DMLS parts. The mechanical properties and microstructure of material produced by DMLS can depend on the powder properties, process parameters, scanning strategy, and building geometry. In this study, the microstructure, tensile properties, and porosity of DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI horizontal samples were analysed. Defect analysis by CT scans in pre-strained samples was used to detect the crack formation mechanism during tensile testing of as-built and heat-treated samples. The mechanical properties of the samples before and after stress relieving are discussed.

  7. Analysis Of Deformation And Microstructural Evolution In The Hot Forging Of The Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuryk M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the three-dimensional strain state for the cogging process of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the finite element method, assuming the rigid-plastic model of the deformed body. It reports the results of simulation studies on the metal flow pattern and thermal phenomena occurring in the hot cogging process conducted on three tool types. The computation results enable the determination of the distribution of effective strain, effective stress, mean stress and temperature within the volume of the blank. This solution has been complemented by adding the model of microstructure evolution during the cogging process. The numerical analysis was made using the DEFORM-3D consisting of a mechanical, a thermal and a microstructural parts. The comparison of the theoretical study and experimental test results indicates a potential for the developed model to be employed for predicting deformations and microstructure parameters.

  8. Dynamic strength and failure behavior of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V for a variation of heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lothar W.; Krüger, Lutz; Sommer, Kristin; Halle, Thorsten; Hockauf, Matthias

    2008-09-01

    In our study, samples of Ti-6Al-4V were subjected to modifications of an aging treatment where temperatures for solution annealing and final aging as well as the cooling rate were varied. The titanium alloy was annealed above and below the β-transus temperature followed by cooling in a vacuum furnace or by water quenching. Additionally, the final annealing temperature was varied. Compression tests under quasistatic and dynamic loading rates were performed to determine the flow stress and strain hardening behavior. Furthermore, instrumented Charpy impact tests on U-notch specimen were performed at room temperature to monitor the load-time response of deformation and fracturing. The obtained high rate mechanical properties are discussed and correlated with the present microstructure. Our results reveal a very strong effect of the microstructure on the material behavior and will assist to choose the appropriate heat treatment technology, especially if impact loaded or safety structures have to be considered.

  9. The influences of precrack orientations in welded joint of Ti-6Al-4V on fatigue crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuedong, E-mail: wxue2004@yeah.net [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Qingyu; Wang Xin; Zhang Zenglei [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Ti-6Al-4V lamella microstructure obtained by {beta} annealing, which had slow fatigue crack propagation rate and high propagation resistance, was used as base metal and welded by tungsten-inert-gas welding (TIG). Three kinds of orientations were designed to study the influences of precrack orientations and locations on fatigue crack growth rate in as-weld welded joints. In comparison, the classical total-life fatigue performances of the joints were also studied. The results showed that, no matter the precrack was initiated in the center of the weld, near the fusion-line or in HAZ, the fatigue crack propagation rates in the initial stage were all slower than that of the base metal. The fatigue crack in the central region of the weld seam propagated by striation mechanism in the initial propagation stage, and the weld metal exhibited lower fatigue crack propagation rate and higher threshold stress intensity than the base metal and the other joint specimens.

  10. Effect of PostNitride Annealing on Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, C.; Mohan, L.

    2016-10-01

    Titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was plasma nitrided using RF plasma with 100% N at 800 °C and annealed at 850 °C in vacuum. XRD and XPS studies show the formation of titanium nitrides after nitriding and redistribution of nitrogen after annealing. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies in Hank's solution show that nitriding decreases the corrosion resistance of the substrate and postnitride annealing improves the corrosion resistance of the nitrided samples. After nitriding, wear rate has decreased by an order of magnitude in reciprocating wear experiments and decreased further in annealed samples in comparison with that of substrate. Thus, postnitride annealing improves both corrosion and wear resistance of the nitrided sample. These improvements are attributed to redistribution of nitrogen and formation of a thin oxide layer on the sample due to annealing.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of 45S5 bioactive ceramic coating on Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado López, M. M.; Espitia Cabrera, M. I.; Faure, J.; Contreras García, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant materials because of their mechanical properties and non-toxic behavior. Unfortunately, they are not bioinert, which means that they can release ions and can only fix the bone by mechanical anchorage, this can lead to the encapsulation of dense fibrous tissue in the body. The bone fixation is required in clinical conditions treated by orthopedic and dental medicine. The proposal is to coat metallic implants with bioactive materials to establish good interfacial bonds between the metal substrate and bone by increasing bioactivity. Bioactive glasses, ceramics specifically 45 S5 Bioglass, have drawn attention as a serious functional biomaterial because osseointegration capacity. The EPD method of bioglass gel precursor was proposed in the present work as a new method to obtain 45S5/Ti6A14V for dental applications. The coatings, were thermally treated at 700 and 800°C and presented the 45 S5 bioglass characteristic phases showing morphology and uniformity with no defects, quantification percentages by EDS of Si, Ca, Na, P and O elements in the coating scratched powders, showed a good proportional relationship demonstrating the obtention of the 45S5 bioglass. The corrosion tests were carried out in Hank's solution. By Tafel extrapolation, Ti6Al4V alloy showed good corrosion resistance in Hank's solution media, by the formation of a passivation layer on the metal surface, however, in the system 45S5/Ti6Al4V there was an increase in the corrosion resistance; icon-, Ecorr and corrosion rate decreased, the mass loss and the rate of release of ions, were lower in this system than in the titanium alloy without coating.

  12. Characterization and mechanical properties investigation of TiN-Ag films onto Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongxing; Liu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Tang, Jingang; Xiang, Dinggen

    2016-03-01

    To investigate their effect on fretting fatigue (FF) resistance of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hard solid lubricating composite films of TiN with varying silver contents (TiN-Ag) were deposited on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy using ion-assisted magnetron sputtering. The surface morphology and structure were analyzed by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness, bonding strength, and toughness of films were tested using a micro-hardness tester, scratch tester, and a repeated press-press test system that was manufactured in-house, respectively. The FF resistance of TiN-Ag composite films was studied using self-developed devices. The results show that the FF resistance of a titanium alloy can be improved by TiN-Ag composite films, which were fabricated using hard TiN coating doped with soft Ag. The FF life of Ag0.5, Ag2, Ag5, Ag10 and Ag20 composite films is 2.41, 3.18, 3.20, 2.94 and 2.87 times as great as that of the titanium alloy, respectively. This is because the composite films have the better toughness, friction lubrication, and high bonding strength. When the atomic fraction of Ag changes from 2% to 5%, the FF resistance of the composite films shows the best performance. This is attributed to the surface integrity of the composite film is sufficiently fine to prevent the initiation and early propagation of FF cracks.

  13. Novel mussel-inspired Ti-6Al-4V surfaces with biocompatibility, blood ultra-drag reduction and superior durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tang, Fei; Wang, Chunze; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-07-01

    In order to develop new Ti-based biomaterials with biocompatibility, blood ultra-drag reduction and superior durability, a novel fabrication combining simple electrochemical and chemical processes was proposed. After being modified by C14H19F13O3Si (FAS), a biocompatible TiO2-SiO2-polydopamine composite surface on Ti-6Al-4V substrate was obtained. The biocompatibility was evaluated using a series of in vitro test, revealing that compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloys, the surfaces exhibited a number of bio-advantages such as anti-platelet aggregation, anti-bovine serum albumin protein adsorption, a lower hemolysis rate (~0.7%) and non-cytotoxicity (the cell viability >88%). The test of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) cultured on the specimens for 48h showed better cell proliferation of the surface. Moreover, we explored the blood dynamic characteristics of titanium alloy substrate biomaterial for the first time, with a focus on the effects of dopamine-reactant concentration on blood flow resistance. The results showed that, compared to titanium alloy material, the TiO2-SiO2 surface modified by 4mg·mL(-1) dopamine solution displayed the optimal blood drag reduction characteristics, reaching a 76% drag reduction. After a 2m (800 meshes, 3500Pa) sandpaper abrasion test, the surface still maintained a superior repellency of blood (contact angles>150°, sliding angles<10°). This practical method may expand the applications of biomedical implantation materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive finite element modeling of Ti-6Al-4V cellular solids fabricated by electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Edel

    Additive manufacturing permits the fabrication of cellular metals which are materials that can be highly customizable and possess multiple and extraordinary properties such as damage tolerance, metamorphic and auxetic behaviors, and high specific stiffness. This makes them the subject of interest for innovative applications. With interest in these materials for energy absorption applications, this work presents the development of nonlinear finite element models in commercial software platforms (MSC Patran/Nastran) that permit the analysis of the deformation mechanisms of these materials under compressive loads. In the development of these models, a detailed multiscale study on the different factors affecting the response of cellular metals was conducted with the objective to understanding the physics with the objective of selecting the most appropriate experiments. In that manner, a series of experiments were conducted on Ti-6Al-4V specimens fabricated by electron beam melting at different manufacturing orientations. Digital image correlation was presented as a vital tool for the measurement of strains in specimens with complex shapes; the experiments contemplated compression and tension tests of Ti-6Al-4V solid components, as well as compression tests on cellular lattices of the same alloy. FEMs were developed from the same CAD file utilized for the fabrication of the lattices; in addition, different meshing approaches and mesh convergence analysis were discussed. The mesh density showed convergence in models with over 70,000 elements, permitting the evaluation of the stress/strain-distribution mechanisms in the lattices. However, because of the considerable variability of the experimental material properties, some numerical results showed significant errors in predicting the compressive force applied to the lattices during the experiments; thus suggesting the need to improve the quality control in the manufacturing process and develop better technologies in

  15. Creep study of mechanisms involved in low-temperature superplasticity of UFG Ti-6Al-4V processed by SPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, Petr, E-mail: pkral@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Dvorak, Jiri [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Blum, Wolfgang [Inst. f. Werkstoffwissenschaften, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kudryavtsev, Egor; Zherebtsov, Sergey; Salishchev, Gennady [Belgorod State University, Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Pobeda Str. 85, 308015 Belgorod (Russian Federation); Kvapilova, Marie; Sklenicka, Vaclav [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-15

    The deformation kinetics of ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V with mean (sub)grain size about 150 nm (produced by isothermal multiaxial forging) and superplastic properties at the relatively low temperature of 873 K was investigated in compression and tension over a large range of strain rates from 10{sup −7} to 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Electron microscopic observations showed that the grains coarsen during deformation towards the quasi-stationary spacing w{sub qs} of strain induced boundaries. In spite of the grain coarsening the grains were generally smaller than w{sub qs} allowing high-angle boundaries to dominate the quasi-stationary strength. Texture measurements indicate that dislocation glide plays a large role in deformation. Glide in this alloy is significantly influenced by solid solution strengthening leading to a stress sensitivity of strain rate of n = 3. The present ultrafine-grained Ti alloy displays a stress sensitivity exponent n = 2 over an extended stress range where its superplastic behavior is optimal. While the deformation kinetics of present ultrafine-grained Ti alloy can be roughly explained by the traditional formula for superplastic flow, the significant discrepancy to the measured values suggests that solid solution strengthening must be taken into account to get a complete insight. - Highlights: • The UFG Ti-6Al-4V alloy behaves superplastically at low temperature of 873 K. • Grain coarsening at low stresses limits superplasticity of UFG Ti alloy. • Solute strengthening plays an important role in low-temperature superplasticity. • Acceleration of creep in UFG Ti alloy is caused by processes related to hab.

  16. Surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy part I: Surface roughness and apparent surface free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingdi; Chibowski, Emil; Szcześ, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are the most often used implants material in dental treatment and orthopedics. Topography and wettability of its surface play important role in film formation, protein adhesion, following osseointegration and even duration of inserted implant. In this paper, we prepared Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples using different smoothing and polishing materials as well the air plasma treatment, on which contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured. Then the apparent surface free energy was calculated using four different approaches (CAH, LWAB, O-W and Neumann's Equation of State). From LWAB approach the components of surface free energy were obtained, which shed more light on the wetting properties of samples surface. The surface roughness of the prepared samples was investigated with the help of optical profilometer and AFM. It was interesting whether the surface roughness affects the apparent surface free energy. It was found that both polar interactions the electron donor parameter of the energy and the work of water adhesion increased with decreasing roughness of the surfaces. Moreover, short time plasma treatment (1min) caused decrease in the surface hydrophilic character, while longer time (10min) treatment caused significant increase in the polar interactions and the work of water adhesion. Although Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been investigated many times, to our knowledge, so far no paper has been published in which surface roughness and changes in the surface free energy of the alloy were compared in the quantitative way in such large extent. This novel approach deliver better knowledge about the surface properties of differently smoothed and polished samples which may be helpful to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. Therefore the results obtained present also potentially practical meaning.

  17. The microstructure and surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy implanted with nitrogen ions at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcak, Petr, E-mail: petr.vlcak@fs.cvut.cz [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Cerny, Frantisek [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Drahokoupil, Jan [Department of Metals, Institute of Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Sepitka, Josef [Department of Mechanics, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Tolde, Zdenek [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • The Ti6Al4V samples were implanted with 90 keV nitrogen ions. • The samples were annealed at 500 °C during the ion implantation process. • An elevated temperature increases the mobility of the atoms and the quantity of TiN. • The hardness showed a significant increase compared to room temperature implantation. - Abstract: The effect of an elevated temperature during nitrogen ion implantation on the microstructure and on the surface hardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was examined. The implantation process was carried out at fluences of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17}, 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 6 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} and at ion energy 90 keV. The implanted samples were annealed at 500 °C during the implantation process. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to obtain a phase characterization and a phase quantification in the implanted sample surface. The surface hardness was investigated by nanoindentation testing, and the nitrogen depth distribution was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Elevated temperature led to increased formation of a TiN compound. It was found that a mixture of TiN and an α-Ti(+N) solid solution had a predominant amount of TiN for samples with fluence of 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} or higher. Elevated temperature during ion implantation caused an increase in surface hardening more towards the depth of the substrate in comparison with room temperature implantation. The hardness showed a remarkably significant increase at a fluence of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} compared to samples implanted at the same fluences and at room temperature. There is a discussion of such mechanisms that explain the observed hardening more towards the depth of the substrate, and the increase in hardness.

  18. Compressive mechanical compatibility of anisotropic porous Ti6Al4V alloys in the range of physiological strain rate for cortical bone implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Li, Jinshan; Kou, Hongchao; Huang, Tingting; Zhou, Lian

    2015-09-01

    Porous titanium and its alloys are believed to be promising materials for bone implant applications, since they can reduce the "stress shielding" effect by tailoring porosity and improve fixation of implant through bone ingrowth. In the present work, porous Ti6Al4V alloys for biomedical application were fabricated by diffusion bonding of alloy meshes. Compressive mechanical behavior and compatibility in the range of physiological strain rate were studied under quasi-static and dynamic conditions. The results show that porous Ti6Al4V alloys possess anisotropic structure with elongated pores in the out-of-plane direction. For porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 60-70 % porosity, more than 40 % pores are in the range of 200-500 μm which is the optimum pore size suited for bone ingrowth. Quasi-static Young's modulus and yield stress of porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 30-70 % relative density are in the range of 6-40 GPa and 100-500 MPa, respectively. Quasi-static compressive properties can be quantitatively tailored by porosity to match those of cortical bone. Strain rate sensitivity of porous Ti6Al4V alloys is related to porosity. Porous Ti6Al4V alloys with porosity higher than 50 % show enhanced strain rate sensitivity, which is originated from that of base materials and micro-inertia effect. Porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 60-70 % porosity show superior compressive mechanical compatibility in the range of physiological strain rate for cortical bone implant applications.

  19. Structural characterization and electrochemical behavior of 45S5 bioglass coating on Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, M.M. Machado, E-mail: machadolopez23@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, C.U. Edificio “U”, C.P. 58000, Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Fauré, J. [Laboratoire Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695) - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clément Ader, Reims, BP 138 Cedex 02, 51685 France (France); Cabrera, M.I. Espitia [Facultad de ingeniería Química, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, C.U. Edificio “D”, C.P. 58000, Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); García, M.E. Contreras, E-mail: eucontre@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, C.U. Edificio “U”, C.P. 58000, Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bioglass 45S5 nanostructured films were obtained by colloidal electrophoretic deposition (CEDP) method, proposed in this work, on Ti6Al4 V substrates. • Ti6Al4 V corrosion resistance in Hank's solution was increased with bioglass 45S5 coating. • Crystalline phases of 45S5 bioglass xerogels were obtained and characterized by XRD. • The model of chemical anchoring between Ti6Al4 V and bioglass 45S5 is proposed. - Abstract: In the present work, 45S5 bioglass coatings were deposited on the Ti6Al4 V alloy substrate through the cathodic colloidal electrophoretic deposition process (CEDP) proposed in this work. The coatings were thermally treated at temperatures of 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C for 2 h, and their structure was characterized by FESEM and DRX. Nanostructure and phase evolution of the coatings and xerogels was followed as a function of temperature. The corrosion resistance of the Ti6Al4 V alloy and the 45S5/Ti6Al4 V coating was studied by means of Tafel extrapolation in Hank's solution, at 37 °C, simulating the conditions inside the mouth. The 45S5 bioglass coatings displayed an amorphous nanostructure at lower temperatures, and partial crystallization at higher temperatures. An increase in the corrosion resistance was observed in the 45S5/Ti6l4 V coating treated at 700 °C because it reduced the i{sub corr}, and there was a change in the E{sub corr} towards more noble values. A model of the chemical anchorage of the 45S5 bioglass coating on Ti6Al4 V was proposed.

  20. Microwave assisted apatite coating deposition on Ti6Al4V implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-10-01

    In this work we report a novel microwave assisted technology to deposit a uniform, ultra-thin apatite coating without any cracks on titanium implants in minutes. This method comprises of conventional biomimetic coating in synergism with microwave irradiation to result in alkaline earth phosphate nucleation. The microwave assisted coating process mainly follows the initial stages of biomimetic coating until the step of the Ca-P nuclei formation. After that, due to microwave irradiation more Ca-P nuclei are formed to cover the whole surface of the implant instead of the growth of deposited Ca-P nuclei to Ca-P globules and coatings. It is interesting to note the doping of Mg(2+) to Ca-P apatite coating can significantly change the properties and performances of as-deposited coatings. The hydrophilicity, physical properties, bioactivity, cell adhesion, and growth capability of as-deposited microwave assisted coatings were investigated. The study shows that this coating technology has great potential in biomedical applications. Additionally, since biomimetic coating can be applied to series of implant materials such as polymer, metals and glass, it is expected this microwave assisted coating technology can also be applied to these materials if they can remains stable at 100 °C, the boiling point of water.

  1. Osteoblast functions in functionally graded Ti-6Al-4 V mesh structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, K C; Kumar, A; Misra, R D K; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Yang, R

    2016-03-01

    We describe here the combined efforts of engineering and biological sciences as a systemic approach to fundamentally elucidate osteoblast functions in functionally graded Ti-6Al-4 V mesh structures in relation to uniform/monolithic mesh arrays. First, the interconnecting porous architecture of functionally graded mesh arrays was conducive to cellular functions including attachment, proliferation, and mineralization. The underlying reason is that the graded fabricated structure with cells seeded from the large pore size side provided a channel for efficient transfer of nutrients to other end of the structure (small pore size), leading to the generation of mineralized extracellular matrix by differentiating pre-osteoblasts. Second, a comparative and parametric study indicated that gradient mesh structure had a pronounced effect on cell adhesion and mineralization, and strongly influenced the proliferation phase. High intensity and near-uniform distribution of proteins (actin and vinculin) on struts of the gradient mesh structure (cells seeded from large pore side) implied signal transduction during cell adhesion and was responsible for superior cellular activity, in comparison to the uniform mesh structure and non-porous titanium alloy. Cells adhered to the mesh struts by forming a sheet, bridging the pores through numerous cytoplasmic extensions, in the case of porous mesh structures. Intercellular interaction in porous structures provided a pathway for cells to communicate and mature to a differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, the capability of cells to migrate through the interconnecting porous architecture on mesh structures led to colonization of the entire structure. Cells were embedded layer-by-layer in the extracellular matrix as the matrix mineralized. The outcomes of the study are expected to address challenges associated with the treatment of segmental bone defects and bone-remodeling through favorable modulation of cellular response. Moreover, the study

  2. Tribological, electrochemical and tribo-electrochemical characterization of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhabosco, T.M., E-mail: tmanhabosco@yahoo.com.b [Physics Departament, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Campus Universitario Morro do Cruzeiro/ICEBS/DEFIS/35400-000, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Tamborim, S.M. [Metallurgy Department, Laboratory of Corrosion Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500/75/232, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, C.B. dos [Fraunhofer-Institut/IPA Institut fuer Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung, Nobelstrasse 12, Sttutgart 70569 (Germany); Mueller, I.L., E-mail: ilmuller@ufrgs.b [Metallurgy Department, Laboratory of Corrosion Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500/75/232, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Tribocorrosion of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid is studied. {yields} The alloy presents great tendency to repassivate when its oxide is damaged by wear. {yields} Nitriding increases Ti6Al4V resistance to wear-corrosion at open circuit potential. {yields} EIS results confirm the improved anticorrosion properties of the nitride layer. {yields} Anodic potentials (+0.4V{sub SCE}) impair tribocorrosion resistance of the alloy. - Abstract: Tribological, electrochemical and tribo-electrochemical behaviour of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and microhardness profile were used to characterize the nitrided Ti6Al4V. The anticorrosive properties of nitrided Ti6Al4V in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS), simulating the body environment, were evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Nitriding increased the alloy resistance to corrosion and to dry wear. Resistance to tribocorrosion in PBS at the open circuit potential (OCP) for the nitrided alloy was also significantly increased compared to the bare alloy; nevertheless at an anodic potential this influence became less important.

  3. Novel Bio-functional Magnesium Coating on Porous Ti6Al4V Orthopaedic Implants: In vitro and In vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokang; Gao, Peng; Wan, Peng; Pei, Yifeng; Shi, Lei; Fan, Bo; Shen, Chao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Ke; Guo, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys with various porous structures are one of the most important metals used in orthopaedic implants due to favourable properties as replacement for hard tissues. However, surface modification is critical to improve the osteointegration of titanium and its alloys. In this study, a bioactive magnesium coating was successfully fabricated on porous Ti6Al4V by means of arc ion plating, which was proved with fine grain size and high film/substrate adhesion. The surface composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Furthermore, the in vitro study of cytotoxicity and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells showed that magnesium coated porous Ti6Al4V had suitable degradation and biocompatibility. Moreover, the in vivo studies including fluorescent labelling, micro-computed tomography analysis scan and Van-Gieson staining of histological sections indicated that magnesium coated porous Ti6Al4V could significantly promote bone regeneration in rabbit femoral condylar defects after implantation for 4 and 8 weeks, and has better osteogenesis and osteointegration than the bare porous Ti6Al4V. Therefore, it is expected that this bioactive magnesium coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with improved osteointegration and osteogenesis functions can be used for orthopedic applications. PMID:28102294

  4. Microscopic, crystallographic and adherence properties of plasma-sprayed calcium phosphate coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekci, Eser

    Recently, plasma-spayed titanium implants have become very popular in the dentistry because of their biocompatibility and ability of providing osseointegration with the surrounding bone. Although there are numerous published studies on these materials, information and standards are still lacking. This study investigated the miscrostructural, crystallographic and adherence properties of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrates. The microstructures of the coatings and the elemental interdiffusion near the coating/substrate interface were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction analyses performed on Ti-6Al-4V coupons prepared with different percent crystallinities have provided structural information such as degree of crystallinity, phases present, average crystallite size, as well as the residual stresses within the coating. For evaluation of the adherence of the coatings to the substrates, experimental rods were subjected to torsion. The fracture surfaces were analyzed using SEM/EDS to develop a new methodology to determine the percent adherence of the coatings. SEM studies indicated that the surface microstructures of commercial dental implants were consistent with the plasma-spraying. In cross-section, coatings exhibited minimal porosity and limited interdiffusion of titanium and calcium at the coating/substrate interface. X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the highest crystallinity coatings consisted of almost entirely HA and an amorphous calcium phosphate phase. As the coating crystallinity decreased, increasing amounts of alpha- and beta-tricalcium phosphate and tetracalcium phosphate were detected. The mean percent crystallinity for the three sets of coatings ranged from 50-60%. The mean HA crystallite size for the three sets of coatings ranged from about 0.02-0.04 mum. Differences in mean interplanar spacings for three selected

  5. 3D printed Ti6Al4V implant surface promotes bone maturation and retains a higher density of less aged osteocytes at the bone-implant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A; Snis, Anders; Matic, Aleksandar; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    For load-bearing orthopaedic applications, metal implants having an interconnected pore structure exhibit the potential to facilitate bone ingrowth and the possibility for reducing the stiffness mismatch between the implant and bone, thus eliminating stress-shielding effects. 3D printed solid and macro-porous Ti6Al4V implants were evaluated after six-months healing in adult sheep femora. The ultrastructural composition of the bone-implant interface was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy, in a correlative manner. The mineral crystallinity and the mineral-to-matrix ratios of the interfacial tissue and the native bone were found to be similar. However, lower Ca/P ratios, lower carbonate content, but higher proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine levels indicated that the interfacial tissue remained less mature. Bone healing was more advanced at the porous implant surface (vs. the solid implant surface) based on the interfacial tissue ν1 CO3(2-)/ν2 PO4(3-) ratio, phenylalanine and tyrosine levels approaching those of the native bone. The mechanosensing infrastructure in bone, the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network, retained ∼40% more canaliculi per osteocyte lacuna, i.e., a 'less aged' morphology at the interface. The osteocyte density per mineralised surface area was ∼36-71% higher at the interface after extended healing periods. In osseointegration research, the success of an implant surface or design is commonly determined by quantifying the amount of new bone, rather than its maturation, composition and structure. This work describes a novel correlative methodology to investigate the ultrastructure and composition of bone formed around and within 3D printed Ti6Al4V implants having an interconnected open-pore structure. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that the molecular composition of the interfacial tissue at different implant surfaces may vary, suggesting differences in the extent to which bone maturation occurs even after long

  6. Effect of replacement of V by Nb and Fe on the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V in simulated physiological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, A.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Basu, B

    2004-11-03

    The electrochemical and corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4Nb, Ti-6Al-4Fe and Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloys has been evaluated in Hank's solution at 37 deg. C. The effect of substituting vanadium in Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been specifically addressed. The corrosion rates were estimated by the Tafel extrapolation method. All the alloys were found to be passivated immediately on immersion. The passivation properties were comparable for the alloys. The estimated corrosion rates of the alloys were also comparable. The microstructures of the alloy have been discussed. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V is not affected significantly on substituting vanadium with niobium and iron.

  7. An insight to the mechanism of weld penetration in dissimilar pulsed laser welding of niobium and Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamany, M. J.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Poursalehi, R.

    2016-05-01

    In laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V to niobium, the interaction of laser with the two metals is such that at the investigated laser conditions there will be conduction mode on the Nb side and keyhole on the Ti side. Thus the weld pool is not developed symmetrically as there will not be sufficient penetration in the higher melting point higher conductivity niobium side. The mechanisms of energy absorption and effective melting in dissimilar laser welding are analyzed. It is shown that more penetration into niobium is obtained when the laser energy is absorbed by Ti-6Al-4V and then the molten Ti-6Al-4V dissolves the niobium metal.

  8. Production of hard hydrophilic Ni-B coatings on hydrophobic Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelbuel, Ferhat; Karabudak, Filiz; Yesildal, Ruhi [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the wetting state of liquid droplets on Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V hierarchical structured hydrophobic surfaces in micro/nanoscale. Electroless Ni-B deposition as a surface coating treatment has recently drawn considerable attention of researchers owing to remarkable advantages when compared with other techniques such as low price, conformal ability to coat substrates, good bath stability and relatively easier plating process control. The Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V substrates were plated by electroless Ni-B plating process. The coated films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness testing and static contact angle measurement. Results obtained from the analyses show that electroless Ni-B deposition may improve the hardness and wettability of the Ni-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces.

  9. Bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy implants treated with ibandronate after the formation of the nanotube TiO2 layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, So-Hee; Lee, Seung-Jae; Park, Il-Song; Lee, Min-Ho; Soh, Yun-Jo; Bae, Tae-Sung; Kim, Hyung-Seop

    2012-11-01

    Nanostructure surface of titanium implants treated with anodic oxidation, heat, and bisphosphonates, has been introduced to improve osseointegration of the implants. However, no information could be found about the efficiency of these approaches on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces. This study examined the drug loading capacity of anodized nanotubular Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces in vitro as well as the bone response to surface immobilized bisphosphonates (BPs) on anodized nanotubular Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface in tibiae of rats. Ti-6Al-4V alloy titanium was divided into two groups: (1) control group (nontreated); (2) test group (anodized, heat-, and bisphosphonate-treated group). In vitro, amount of the drug released from the both groups' specimens was examined; all samples were 1 × 2 cm in size. In vivo, the 10 implants were placed inside of tibias of five rats. After 4 weeks, the bone response of the implants was evaluated using a removal torque test, and measuring bone contact and bone area. In addition, the surfaces of the extracted implants were observed by FE-SEM and EDS. In vitro, the drug loading capacity of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces was enhanced by anodizing surface modification. The values of the removal torque, bone contact, and bone area were significantly higher in the test group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, according to the EDS analysis, the amounts of Ca and P on the surface of the extracted implants were higher in the test group. Within the limits of this experiment, results of this research demonstrated that bisphosphonate-treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy implants with nanotubular surfaces have positive effects in bone-to-implant contact.

  10. Short-term microvascular response of striated muscle to cp-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennekamp, Peter H; Gessmann, Jan; Diedrich, Oliver; Burian, Björn; Wimmer, Markus A; Frauchiger, Vinzenz M; Kraft, Clayton N

    2006-03-01

    Due to excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, titanium-aluminium-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) and titanium-aluminium-niobium (Ti-6Al-7Nb) are extensively used for orthopedic surgery. Concern has been voiced concerning the implications of the constituent vanadium in Ti-6Al-4V on the surrounding environment. Particularly in osteosynthesis where the alloys stand in direct contact to skeletal muscle, undesirable biologic reactions may have severe consequences. In a comparative study, we assessed in vivo nutritive perfusion and leukocytic response of striated muscle to the metals Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, and commercially pure titanium (cpTi), thereby drawing conclusions on their short-term inflammatory potential. In 28 hamsters, utilizing the dorsal skinfold chamber preparation and intravital microscopy, we quantified primary and secondary leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, leukocyte extravasation, microvascular diameter change, and capillary perfusion in collecting and postcapillary venules of skeletal muscle. A manifest discrepancy between the metals concerning impact on local microvascular parameters was not found. All metals induced an only transient and moderate inflammatory response. Only a slight increase in leukocyte recruitment and a more sluggish recuperation of inflammatory parameters in animals treated with Ti-6Al-4V compared to the other two metals suggested a minor, overall not significant discrepancy in biocompatibility. Gross toxicity of bulk Ti-6Al-4V on surrounding tissue could not be found. Conclusively, the commonly used biomaterials Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, and cpTi induce an only transient inflammatory answer of the skeletal muscle microvascular system. Our results indicate that on the microvascular level the tested bulk Ti-alloys and cpTi do not cause adverse biologic reactions in striated muscle.

  11. Microstructural and microtextural analysis of InterPulse GTCAW welds in Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, Rowan K., E-mail: rkl26@cam.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Merson, Eleanor [National Metals Technology Centre, Swinden House, Moorgate Road, Rotherham S60 3AR (United Kingdom); Birmingham, Keith; Harvey, David [VBC Group, Castle Business Park, Pavilion Way, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 5GW (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik, E-mail: mtlrmdb@leeds.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Evaluation of a new low heat input welding technique for titanium alloys. {yields} Demonstration of the potential to tailor weld microstructures and microtextures. {yields} New insight into the mechanisms of microtextural evolution in titanium alloys. {yields} {alpha} Variants sharing a common 112-bar 0 pole are found to cluster into groups. {yields} Direct analysis of the impact of microtexture on mechanical properties. - Abstract: The InterPulse technique is an advanced gas tungsten constricted arc welding (GTCAW) method for controlled heat input welding of titanium alloys. Microstructural and microtextural analysis has been used to show that the technique has the potential to produce high integrity welds in Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V while welding outside of a vacuum chamber and without a trailing gas shield. The arc waveform control provided by the technique is shown to have the potential to tailor weld macrostructures, microstructures and microtextures. At the cooling rates associated with the technique, {alpha}-variants sharing a common (112-bar 0) pole are found to cluster together into groups within prior {beta} grains, leading to large areas where all variants are separated by a misorientation of 60 deg. Characterisation of these microtextures may provide new insight into microtexture-properties relations and the mechanisms of microtextural evolution.

  12. Raman analyses of residual stress in diamond thin films grown on Ti6Al4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Adriana F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress evolution in diamond films grown on Ti6Al4V was investigated in order to develop a comprehensive view of the residual stress formation. Residual stress is composed of intrinsic stress induced during diamond film growth and extrinsic stress caused by the different thermal expansion coefficients between the film and substrate. In the coalescence stage it has been observed that the residual stress is dominated by the microstructure, whereas on continuous films, the thermal stress is more important. In this work diamond thin films with small grain size and good size and good quality were obtained in a surface wave-guide microwave discharge, the Surfatron system, with a negative bias voltage applied between the plasma shell and substrate. For above of -100V applied bias, the ratio of carbon sp³/sp² bond may increase and the nucleation rate increase arising the high value at the -250V applied bias. Stress measurements and sp³ content in the film were studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy. The total residual stress is compressive and varied from -1.52 to -1.48 GPa between 0 and -200 V applied bias, respectively, and above the -200 V, the compressive residual stress increased drastically to -1.80 GPa. The diamond nucleation density was evaluated by top view SEM images.

  13. Structure and tribological performance by nitrogen and oxygen plasma based ion implantation on Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingguo; Sun, Mingren; Ma, Xinxin; Tang, Guangze

    2011-09-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy was implanted with nitrogen-oxygen mixture by using plasma based ion implantation (PBII) at pulsed voltage -10, -30 and -50 kV. The implantation was up to 6 × 1017 ions/cm2 fluence. The changes in chemical composition, structure and hardness of the modified surfaces were studied by XPS and nanoindentation measurements. According to XPS, it was found that the modified layer was predominantly TiO2, but contained small amounts of TiO, Ti2O3, TiN and Al2O3 between the outmost layer and metallic substrate. Surface hardness and wear resistance of the samples increased significantly after PBII treatment, the wear rate of the sample implanted N2-O2 mixture at -50 kV decreased eight times than the untreated one. The sample implanted N2-O2 mixture showed better wear resistance than that of the sample only implanted oxygen at - 50 kV. The wear mechanism of untreated sample was abrasive-dominated and adhesive, and the wear scar of the sample implanted at -50 kV was characterized by abrasive wear-type ploughing.

  14. Effects of Nd:YAG laser pulse frequency on the surface treatment of Ti 6Al 4V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gursel, Ali [International University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-07-01

    The desirable properties of titanium and titanium alloys, including excellent corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio and high operating temperature, have led to their successful application in various fields such as the medical and aerospace industries. Among the reliable treatment techniques, laser welding can provide significant advantages for the titanium alloys because of its precision, rapid processing capability and ability to control the welding parameters and their effects. The morphology and the quality of pulsed seam welds are directly or synergistically influenced by the Nd:YAG laser parameters of pulse shape, energy, duration, travel speed, peak power and frequency of repetition. In this study, a 1.5 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheet surface was treated by SigmaLaser {sup registered} 300 Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The influence of the pulse frequency on seam morphology and surface effects was then investigated. The seam and surface quality were characterized in terms of weld morphology and microhardness. The results showed that, for Nd:YAG laser seams used for surface treatment, pulse repetition was more effective on the cooling rate than had been expected.

  15. Tribocorrosion mechanisms of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys in artificial saliva with different pHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, M. P.; Igual Muñoz, A.; Amigó Borrás, V.

    2013-10-01

    Titanium and its alloys has been widely used for the design of dental implants because of its biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The powder-metallurgy process is a promising alternative to the casting fabrication process of titanium alloys for bone implants design as the porous structure mimics the natural bone structures, allowing the bone to grow into the pores which results in a better fixation of the artificial implant. However, under in vivo conditions the implants are subjected to tribocorrosion phenomenon, which consists in the degradation mechanisms due to the combined effect of wear and corrosion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tribocorrosion behaviour of cast and sintered Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy for dental applications using the cast material as reference. Titanium samples were tested in artificial human saliva solution with three different pHs (3, 6, 9) and in an acidic saliva with 1000 ppm fluorides (AS-3-1000F-) by different electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic curves, potentiostatic tests and tribo-electrochemical tests). Cast and sintered titanium alloys exhibit the same tribocorrosion mechanisms in AS independently of the pH which consists in plastic deformation with passive dissolution, but the addition of fluorides to the acidified solution changes the degradation mechanism towards active dissolution of the titanium alloys.

  16. Effects of Process Parameters on Deformation and Temperature Uniformity of Forged Ti-6Al-4V Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shiyuan; Zhu, Dahu; Hua, Lin; Qian, Dongsheng; Yan, Sijie; Yu, Fengping

    2016-11-01

    This work is motivated by the frequent occurrence of macro- and microdefects within forged Ti-6Al-4V turbine blades due to the severely nonuniform strain and temperature distributions. To overcome the problem of nonuniformity during the blade forging operation, firstly, a 2D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element approach using the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive model is employed to simulate the real movements and processing conditions, and its reliability is verified experimentally. Secondly, two evaluation indexes, standard deviation of equivalent plastic strain and standard deviation of temperature, are proposed to evaluate the uniformity characteristics within the forged blade, and the effects of four process parameters including the forging velocity, friction factor, initial workpiece temperature and dwell time on the uniformity of strain and temperature distributions are carefully studied. Finally, the numerically optimized combination of process parameters is validated by the application in a practical process. The parametric study reveals that a reasonable combination of process parameters considering the flow resistance, flow localization and the effects of deformation and friction heating is crucial for the titanium alloy blade forging with uniformity. This work can provide a significant guidance for the design and optimization of blade forging processes.

  17. Study on Variants of Solution Treatment and Aging Cycle of Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, V. Anil; Chhangani, Sumit

    2016-04-01

    Ti6Al4V with two different chemical compositions, one rich and the other lean in α-stabilizer oxygen were selected to study the effect of quench severity during solution treatment and their aging response. These two coupons were taken from two differently processed wrought products viz. rolled ring and closed die forging. The coupons were then subjected to solution treatment followed by employing different cooling rates to vary the quench severity and different aging treatments by changing the aging temperature and time. The microstructure and mechanical properties thus obtained are correlated with respect to the heat treatment conditions. It is noted that there is a significant increase in strength of the alloy retaining the ductility when it is aged in the aging temperature regime of 550-650 °C and time of 8 h. Role of higher oxygen content is noted, which is more pronounced with higher severity of quench (by water quenching). Specimens representative of different heat treatment conditions were characterized using optical microscope, electron back-scattered diffraction, and electron microscope. The presence of martensitic (α') structure along with uniform distribution of fine primary α, secondary α precipitates and refined β-grains, twins in the microstructure helps in improving the strength of the material. Also, during high temperature aging of 700 °C, which incidentally falls in the range of annealing temperature of the alloy, overaging occurs which is similar to effect of annealing and hence retains the ductility as well.

  18. Effect of Wire-EDM cutting parameters on material removal rate of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, N.; Afendi, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) which is also known as difficult to cut material is used as workpiece. Seven main parameters namely pulse duration (A), pulse interval (B), servo voltage (C), ignition pulse current (D), wire tension (E), wire speed (F) and dielectric pressure (G) have been experimentally studied by using Taguchi method as well as the determination of optimum parameters for material removal rate (MRR). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used for recognizing the level of significant of WEDM cutting parameter for optimizing MRR and the result found that pulse duration and servo voltage give significant effect on MRR. While according to Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio response table for MRR, the parameters combination of A3B3C3D3E1F3G3 give the optimum value for MRR. It is also observed that the predicted results agree with the experimental values within an error of 4.6 %.

  19. A Comparative Study on the Laser Welding of Ti6Al4V Alloy Sheets in Flat and Horizontal Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Chang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has been increasingly utilized to manufacture a variety of components thanks to its high quality and speed. For components with complex shapes, the welding position needs be continuously adjusted during laser welding, which makes it necessary to know the effects of the welding position on the quality of the laser welds. In this paper, the weld quality under two (flat and horizontal welding positions were studied comparatively in the laser welding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, in terms of weld profiles, process porosity, and static tensile strengths. Results show that the flat welding position led to better weld profiles, less process porosity than that of the horizontal welding position, which resulted from the different actions of gravity on the molten weld metals and the different escape routes for pores under different welding positions. Although undercuts showed no association with the fracture positions and tensile strengths of the welds, too much porosity in horizontal laser welds led to significant decreases in the strengths and specific elongations of welds. Higher laser powers and travel speeds were recommended, for both flat and horizontal welding positions, to reduce weld porosity and improve mechanical properties.

  20. Hybrid processing of Ti-6Al-4V using plasma immersion ion implantation combined with plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maria Margareth da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the Ti-6Al-4V alloy has good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to corrosion and also excellent biocompatibility, however with low wear resistance, this work aims to test plasma processes or combination of plasma and ion implantation processes to improve these characteristics. Two types of processing were used: two steps PIII (Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation combined with PN (Plasma Nitriding and single step PIII treatment. According to Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES results, the best solution was obtained by PIII for 150 minutes resulting in ~ 65 nm of nitrogen implanted layer, while the sample treated with PIII (75 minutes and PN (75 minutes reached ~ 35 nm implanted layer. The improvement of surface properties could also be confirmed by the nanoindentation technique, with values of hardness increasing for both processes. AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy characterization showed that the single step PIII process presented greater efficiency than the duplex process (PIII + PN, probably due to the sputtering occurring during the second step (PN removing partially the implanted layer of first step (PIII.

  1. Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesh, Thangavel; Samuel, G. L.

    2016-07-01

    The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson-Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young's modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.

  2. Selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications: Temperature monitoring and microstructural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadroitsev, I., E-mail: ihar.yadroitsau@enise.fr [Université de Lyon, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Krakhmalev, P. [Karlstad University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, SE-651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Yadroitsava, I. [Université de Lyon, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Temperature measurements of molten pool were done using CCD camera. • Temperature of molten pool versus scanning speed and laser power was determined. • Microstructures and microhardness of SLM samples were analyzed. • Influence of heat treatment on microstructure were discussed and presented. -- Abstract: Selective laser melting (SLM) is a kind of additive manufacturing where parts are made directly from 3D CAD data layer-by-layer from powder material. SLM products are used in various industries including aerospace, automotive, electronic, chemical, biomedical and other high-tech areas. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend strongly on the material nature, characteristics of each single track and each single layer, as well as the strength of the connections between them. Studying the temperature distribution during SLM is important because temperature gradient and heat transfer determine the microstructure and finally mechanical properties of the SLM part. In this study a CCD camera was applied for determination of the surface temperature distribution and the molten pool size of Ti6Al4V alloy. The investigation of the microstructure evolution after different heat treatments was carried out to determine the microstructure in terms of applicability for the biomedical industry.

  3. Analysis of filling process of Ti6Al4V alloy melt poured in permanent mold during centrifugal casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ti6Al4V hip joint was foundered and the filling process of the melt poured in permanent mould during the centrifugal casting process was analyzed and the mathematical model of the filling process was established. Furthermore, the mathematical model was validated with a wax-model experiment. Calculating results show that the centrifugal field has an important influence on the filling process and the melt fills the mould with variational cross-sectional area and inclined angle. The cross-sectional area is in inverse proportion to the filling speed and its decreasing speed becomes fast with increasing rotating speed. The tangential value of the melt cross-sectional free-surface inclined angle is in direct proportion to the filling speed and the inclined angle increases with the filling length. Change curves of the cross-sectional inclined angle and area were obtained by the wax-model experiment when the rotating speeds were 60, 90 and 120  r/min respectively, which shows that the mathematical model is consistent with the experimental results.

  4. Analysis of surface roughness and cutting force during turning of Ti6Al4V ELI in dry environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sargade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness and cutting force of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI when turning using PVD TiAlN coated tool in dry environment. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array design of experiment was used for the turning experiment 2 factors and 3 levels. Turning parameters studied were cutting speed (50, 65, 80 m/min, feed rate (0.08, 0.15, 0.2 mm/rev and depth of cut 0.5 mm constant. Linear and second order model of the surface roughness and cutting force has been developed in terms of cutting speed and feed. The results show that the feed rate was the most impact factor controlling the cutting force and surface roughness produced. MINITAB 17software was used to develop a linear and second order model of surface roughness and cutting force. Optimum condition was at 66.97 m/min of cutting speed, 0.08 mm/rev of feed rate. Surface roughness 0.57μm and cutting force 54.02 N were obtained at the optimum condition. A good agreement between the experimental and predicted surface roughness and cutting force were observed.

  5. Surface and interface analysis of HAP/TiO2 composite films on Ti6Al4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bing; ZHANG Weng-guang; YU Xu-dong; WANG Cheng-tao

    2004-01-01

    The composite films constituted of hydroxyapatite (HAP) submicron particles embedded in the gel composed of the titania nanoparticles were prepared on commercial Ti6Al4V plates with titania buffer layer obtained by a spin-coating technique. The films were annealed in air at 450 ℃, 550 ℃ and 650 ℃, respectively. The phase formation, surface morphology, andinterfacial microstructure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction(XRD),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission-scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. The results show that the as-prepared films are all well-crystallized, dense,homogeneous, and there was a close interfacial bond between the film and the substrate. The results of adhesion test indicate that there is a good bonding strength between the film and the substrate. The bone-like apatite formation on the surface of the films after immersion in acellular simulatedbody fluid(SBF) validated their bioactivities.

  6. EFECT OF PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION TREATEMENT IN THE WEAR RESISTANCE OF Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepka, Susana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the evaluation of wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII in different immersion times. The goal of this process was the modification of surface properties of the alloy to obtain better tribology properties. In this process, atoms can be injected on the material´s surface changing the mechanical properties in the region near the surface independently of thermodynamics variables, as solubility and difusivity. The samples were submitted to 120 e 180 minutes of implantation at 250°C in the three samples for each condition. The wear analyses were made by pin-on-disk process, where the lost volumes and wear coefficients were compared in the samples. It was observed the decreasing of attrite coefficient and the lost volume of the material during wear test. The implanted sample by 180 minutes has showed the wear coefficient 35.12% lower in comparison of the sample without treatment, and 11.09% lower in comparison of implanted sample by 120 minutes. It can be observed that the sample implanted by 180 minutes showed lower wear coefficient.

  7. Self-assembled monolayers of alendronate on Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces enhance osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Luis; Gharibi, Borzo; McLister, Robert; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta

    2016-07-01

    Phosphonates have emerged as an alternative for functionalization of titanium surfaces by the formation of homogeneous self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via Ti-O-P linkages. This study presents results from an investigation of the modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by chemisorption of osseoinductive alendronate using a simple, effective and clean methodology. The modified surfaces showed a tailored topography and surface chemistry as determined by SEM microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that an effective mode of bonding is created between the metal oxide surface and the phosphate residue of alendronate, leading to formation of homogenous drug distribution along the surface. In-vitro studies showed that alendronate SAMs induce differentiation of hMSC to a bone cell phenotype and promote bone formation on modified surfaces. Here we show that this novel method for the preparation of functional coatings on titanium-based medical devices provides osseoinductive bioactive molecules to promote enhanced integration at the site of implantation.

  8. Infrared thermography for monitoring heat generation in a linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, L.; Liberini, M.; Campanella, D.; Astarita, A.; Esposito, S.; Boccardi, S.; Meola, C.

    2017-03-01

    The increasing use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes capable to decrease production costs and manufacturing times. In this regard welding and other joining techniques play an important role. Today, solid state friction joining processes, such as friction stir welding, friction spot welding, inertia friction welding, continuous-drive friction welding and linear friction welding (LFW), represent promising methods for part manufacturing. They allow for joining at temperature essentially below the melting point of the base materials being joined, without the addition of filler metal. However, the knowledge of temperature is essential to understand and model the phenomena involved in metal welding. A global measured value represents only a clue of the heat generation during the process; while, a deep understanding of welding thermal aspects requires temperature field measurement. This paper is focused on the use of infrared thermography applied to the linear friction welding process of Ti6Al4V alloy. The attention is concentrated on thermal field that develops on the outer wall of the two parts to be joined (i.e. heat generated in the friction zone), and on the maximum temperature that characterizes the process before and after the flash formation.

  9. Laser fabrication of Ag-HA nanocomposites on Ti6Al4V implant for enhancing bioactivity and antibacterial capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Man, H C

    2017-01-01

    For titanium alloy implants, both surface bioactivity and antibacterial infection are the two critical factors in determining the success of clinical implantation of these metallic implants. In the present work, a novel nanocomposite layer of nano-silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) was prepared on the surface of biomedical Ti6Al4V by laser processing. Analysis using SEM, EDS and XRD shows the formation of an Ag-HA layer of about 200μm fusion bonded to the substrate. Mineralization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite layer favors the deposition of apatite on the surface of the implants. Antibacterial tests confirmed that all Ag-HA nanocomposite layers can kill bacteria while a higher Ag content would lower the cytocompatibility of these coatings. Cell viability decreases when the Ag content reaches 5% in these coatings, due to the larger amount of Ag leached out, as confirmed by ion release evaluation. Our results reveal that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

  10. Characterization of laser peening-induced effects on a biomedical Ti6Al4V alloy by thermoelectric means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Hector; Barriuso, Sandra; Porro, Juan Antonio; González-Carrasco, Jose Luis; Ocaña, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    Laser peening has recently emerged as a useful technique to overcome detrimental effects associated with other well-known surface modification processes such as shot peening or grit blasting used in the biomedical field. It is worthwhile to notice that besides the primary residual stress effect, thermally induced effects might also cause subtle surface and subsurface microstructural changes that might influence corrosion resistance and fatigue strength of structural components. In this work, plates of Ti-6Al-4V alloy of 7 mm in thickness were modified by laser peening without using a sacrificial outer layer. Irradiation by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (9.4-ns pulse length) working at the fundamental 1064-nm wavelength at 2.8 J/pulse and with water as a confining medium was used. Laser pulses with a 1.5-mm diameter at an equivalent overlapping density of 5000 cm-2 were applied. Attempts to analyze the global-induced effects after laser peening were addressed by using the contacting and noncontacting thermoelectric power techniques.

  11. Gene expression of human osteoblasts cells on chemically treated surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V-ELI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D P; Palmieri, A; Carinci, F; Bolfarini, C

    2015-06-01

    Surface modifications of titanium alloys are useful methods to enhance the biological stability of intraosseous implants and to promote a well succeeded osseointegration in the early stages of implantation. This work aims to investigate the influence of chemically modified surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V-ELI (extra-low interstitial) on the gene expression of human osteoblastic (HOb) cells. The surface treatments by acid etching or acid etching plus alkaline treatment were carried out to modify the topography, effective area, contact angle and chemical composition of the samples. The surface morphology was investigated using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Roughness measurements and effective surface area were obtained using the CLSM. Surface composition was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The expression levels of some bone related genes (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, SPP1, RUNX2, and SPARC) were analysed using real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time RT-PCR). The results showed that all the chemical modifications studied in this work influenced the surface morphology, wettability, roughness, effective area and gene expression of human osteoblasts. Acid phosphoric combined to alkaline treatment presented a more accelerated gene expression after 7days while the only phosphoric etching or chloride etching combined to alkaline treatment presented more effective responses after 15days.

  12. Beta to alpha transformation kinetics and microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V alloy during continuous cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kherrouba, Nabil [LGSDS – ENP, Avenue Hassan Badi, 16200, El Harrach (Algeria); Research Center in Industrial Technologies CRTI, P.O. Box 64, Cheraga, 16014 (Algeria); Univ. Bretagne Sud, FRE CNRS 3744, IRDL, Rue de Saint-Maudé, F-56100, Lorient (France); Bouabdallah, Mabrouk [LGSDS – ENP, Avenue Hassan Badi, 16200, El Harrach (Algeria); Badji, Riad, E-mail: riadbadji@gmail.com [Research Center in Industrial Technologies CRTI, P.O. Box 64, Cheraga, 16014 (Algeria); Carron, Denis [Univ. Bretagne Sud, FRE CNRS 3744, IRDL, Rue de Saint-Maudé, F-56100, Lorient (France); Amir, Mounir [Research Center in Industrial Technologies CRTI, P.O. Box 64, Cheraga, 16014 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    In the present paper, an approach based on the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) model has been developed and applied to study the transformation kinetics of the β phase in Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy during cooling. To this purpose, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests have been conducted using a set of cooling rates ranging from 10 to 50 °C/min. This approach allows the kinetics parameters, particularly the activation energy, to be calculated from a single DSC test using a simple linear regression. The microstructural analysis indicates that the microstructure is dominated by the α Widmanstätten morphology (α{sub W}). Microstructural observations along with the calculated values of the Avrami index and of the activation energy suggest that the growth of the α{sub W} platelets obeys a mixed mode combining the vanadium diffusion and a displacive mechanism. - Highlights: • The kinetics of the β → α phase transformation is investigated. • An approach is proposed to adapt the KJMA model for continuous cooling. • The model permits the determination of the kinetics parameters for each cooling rate. • The growth of α{sub W} plates may obey a combined displacive-diffusional growth mode. • The growth involves shear mechanism and partitioning of vanadium between α{sub W} plates.

  13. Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesh, Thangavel; Samuel, G. L.

    2017-02-01

    The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson-Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young's modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.

  14. Effects of Recrystallization on Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cold-Rolled Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haitao; Dong, Peng; Zeng, Shangwu; Wu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The effects of recrystallization during annealing process on microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy plates were investigated. The plates after cold rolling with a thickness reduction of 5, 10, and 15% were annealed under different conditions of 750 °C for 1 h, 800 °C for 1 h, and 800 °C for 1.5 h, respectively. It was found out that the recrystallization temperature decreased with increasing rolling reduction due to higher storage energy, while the extension of annealing time caused grain growth. For the cold-rolled plate with a reduction of 10%, the resulting microstructure showed more equal-axis grains after annealing at 800 °C for 1 h, among different conditions. Moreover, the XRD results showed that the cold-rolled plate composed mainly of {0001} basal texture, {10-11} and {01-12} pyramidal textures, and {01-10} prismatic texture, and that the weak {10-11} texture was transformed to components {01-12} and {01-10} , which were expected to improve formability. Electron back-scattered diffraction results ascertained that two mechanisms, i.e., recrystallization sites of preferred orientations and favorable grain growth both played important roles in static recrystallization.

  15. Short-term creep properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to surface plasma carburizing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Mara Cortez Alves de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the short-time creep behavior of Ti-6Al-4V by plasma carburizing, which was performed at 725 °C for 6 h in a 50% Ar – 45% H2 – 5% CH4 gas mixture. Nano and microhardness testing, optical microscopy, TEM, X-ray diffraction and optical profilometry were used to characterize the samples. Furthermore, short-term creep tests were performed under a constant tensile load in air at 600 °C using a dead-weight-creep-rupture machine. The carburizing treatment resulted in a compound layer measuring approximately 1.7 μm in thickness with a hardness of 815 HV and a composition of TiC0.66. The creep properties of the “Widmanstätten + carburized” specimens were improved relative to those of untreated specimens. TEM and fracture analysis indicated creep deformation process attributed mainly to α phase deformation and fracture by intergranular decohesion.

  16. Effect of Powder Reuse Times on Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. P.; Qian, M.; Liu, N.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, G. Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-03-01

    An advantage of the powder-bed-based metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes is that the powder can be reused. The powder reuse or recycling times directly affect the affordability of the additively manufactured parts, especially for the AM of titanium parts. This study examines the influence of powder reuse times on the characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V powder, including powder composition, particle size distribution (PSD), apparent density, tap density, flowability, and particle morphology. In addition, tensile samples were manufactured and evaluated with respect to powder reuse times and sample locations in the powder bed. The following findings were made from reusing the same batch of powder 21 times for AM by selective electron beam melting: (i) the oxygen (O) content increased progressively with increasing reuse times but both the Al content and the V content remained generally stable (a small decrease only); (ii) the powder became less spherical with increasing reuse times and some particles showed noticeable distortion and rough surfaces after being reused 16 times; (iii) the PSD became narrower and few satellite particles were observed after 11 times of reuse; (iv) reused powder showed improved flowability; and (v) reused powder showed no measurable undesired influence on the AM process and the samples exhibited highly consistent tensile properties, irrespective of their locations in the powder bed. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  17. Local and Global Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Ti6Al4V Parts Built Using Electron Beam Melting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladani, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Laser and electron beam melting are prime technologies in metallic powder bed additive manufacturing in which parts are built layer by layer using high energy source. The technology is at a level where each layer can be as thin as 50 µm. Melting and solidification of each powder layer is typically accompanied by some subsurface melting to assure adherence and fusion of layers. In addition to anisotropic mechanical behavior of material caused by layering phenomenon, it is expected that the local mechanical behavior and microstructure vary throughout each build. In this manuscript, local and global mechanical behavior of Ti6Al4V parts produced using electron beam melting technology is investigated using bulk scale mechanical testing and nanoindentation. Parts fabricated in different build orientation were tested at different strain rates at a large scale. The experiment showed that strength is minimal perpendicular to the build plate. Additionally, material exhibited different local mechanical properties relative to distance from base plate. Investigation of the microstructure indicated very distinguished variations in the grain size and alpha and beta phase formation of material in different locations of part relative to build plate. Strength reduction in perpendicular direction is examined and explained through understanding of the microstructure and plastic deformation mechanism in α phase and prior β grains.

  18. Evolutionary-based Design and Control of Geometry Aims for AMD-manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Mauritz; Baramsky, Nicolaj; Ewald, Ake; Emmelmann, Claus; Schlattmann, Josef

    Additive Metal Deposition (AMD) is an additive manufacturing process building parts based on a nozzle-fed powder by laser assisted solidification. The AMD technology offers unique advantages for the production of near net-shape parts. In contrast to the powder bed-based technologies it provides a high productivity grade. Today AMD lacks reproducible process strategies manufacturing large parts in narrow tolerances. The building height of a single layer and the geometrical shape of a whole part alter progressively with increasing part dimensions - consecutively leading to a higher effort in the manufacturing-process development for such parts. To reduce this effort, in this paper first an iterative identification of optimal process parameters is performed by following an evolutionary algorithm under varied BC. Based on the geometry-related parameter sets, tolerances are defined. The process strategies and tolerances are validated for a prototype application considering the defined quality aims. Finally the results are discussed and summarized in an a-priori process design guideline for AMD Ti6Al4V-parts.

  19. The chip-flow behaviors and formation mechanisms in the orthogonal cutting process of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Chen, Xiangyu; Shuang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    This work involves experimental and analytical investigations of chip flow stability in metal cutting process. First, in cutting experiments of Ti6Al4V alloy, the transformation of chip morphology from continuous to serrated and later to discontinuous was observed as the cutting speed increased. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the shear fracture surface demonstrated shear-localized instability and intergranular failure behaviors. Then we used the improved orthogonal cutting model (OCM) to analyze the plastic flow process of work materials in a plane strain state. A corresponding governing equation system was set up, the dimensionless governing parameters were determined by dimensional analysis, and an instability criterion was established by linear perturbation analysis. Analytical results showed that the plastic instability of chip flow could take place in a continuous chip, which is different from the shear-localized instability in a serrated chip. Finally, in terms of the balance conditions between the kinetic energy and the surface energy, the sawtooth growth behavior in serrated chips and the formation mechanism of discontinuous chips were studied.

  20. Microstructural characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to the duplex SMAT/plasma nitriding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Y; Faure, J; Agoda-Tandjawa, G; Andreazza, C; Potiron, S; Levesque, A; Demangel, C; Retraint, D; Benhayoune, H

    2013-09-01

    In this study, microstructural characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, subjected to the duplex surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)/nitriding treatment, leading to improve its mechanical properties, was carried out through novel and original samples preparation methods. Instead of acid etching which is limited for morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an original ion polishing method was developed. Moreover, for structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), an ion milling method based with the use of two ions guns was also carried out for cross-section preparation. To demonstrate the efficiency of the two developed methods, morphological investigations were done by traditional SEM and field emission gun SEM. This was followed by structural investigations through selected area electron diffraction (SAED) coupled with TEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results demonstrated that ionic polishing allowed to reveal a variation of the microstructure according to the surface treatment that could not be observed by acid etching preparation. TEM associated to SAED and X-ray diffraction provided information regarding the nanostructure compositional changes induced by the duplex SMAT/nitriding process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.