WorldWideScience

Sample records for formed hydro-electric reservoir

  1. Soil erosion and sediment delivery issues in a large hydro-electric power reservoir catchment, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebiyu, Amsalu; Dume, Bayu; Bode, Samuel; Ram, Hari; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation and associated processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are among the developmental challenges in many countries and HEP reservoirs in the Gilgel Gibe catchment, Ethiopia, are under threat from siltation. Soil erosion is one of the biggest global environmental problems resulting in both on-site and offsite effects which have economic implications and an essential actor in assessing ecosystem health and function. Sediment supply in a catchment is heterogeneous in time and space depending on climate, land use and a number of landscape characteristics such as slope, topography, soil type, vegetation and drainage conditions. In the Ethiopian highlands, sediment delivery depends on discharge, the onset of rainfall, land use and land cover, which varies between rainfall seasons. There is also a variation among catchments in suspended sediment concentration due to the variation in the catchments characteristics in Ethiopia. Rainfall-runoff relationship, sediment production and delivery to rivers or dams is variable and poorly understood; due to heterogeneous lithology; various climatic conditions across small spatial scales; land use and land management practices in Ethiopia. Spatial variation in sediment yield in Africa varies to differences in seismic activity, topography, vegetation cover and annual runoff depth. In the Gilgel-Gibe catchment, the annual sediment load of the Gilgel-Gibe River has been estimated to be about 4.5×107 tons taking the contribution of sheet erosion alone. Also, the suspended sediment yield of the tributaries in Gilgel-Gibe catchment has been estimated to be in the range of 0.4-132.1 tons per hectare per year. The soil loss due to landslide alone in the past 20 years in the catchment was about 11 t/ha/yr. Heavy rainfall, bank erosion and river incisions have been indicated as the main triggering factors for landslides and the associated sediment delivery in the Gilgel-Gibe catchment. Approaches for catchment

  2. Performance of Francis Turbine and Hydro Electric Governing

    OpenAIRE

    B.Sandhya Rani

    2017-01-01

    The Main requirement for hydro-electric power plant is the availability of water in huge quantity at sufficient head and this requirement can be met by constructing a dam across a river. A storage reservoir is formed by constructing a dam across Krishna River. Near the bottom of the dam, there is a water intake. Trash Racks of 38meteis long are provided at the water intake to prevent the ingress of floating and other materials to the turbine. A Power tunnel of 720m long and diameter of 50 fee...

  3. Hydro electric power - beneficial to nature or not? A symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    In an assembly of the working party 'Hydroeletric power in Bavaria' and the 'Bavarian acedemy for nature protection and landscape maintenance' in Deggendorf of the 7th and 8th of September 1993, an international symposium was formed to consider the implications of hydro electric power for environmental protection. Also present were representatives from the 'Swiss hydroelectric trade association' and the 'Austrian society for ecology and environmental research'. The present eleventh symposium has continued the public discussion of current aspects of hydroelectric power usage. This meeting was also well received and was able to familiarize the idea of hydro electric power as an environmentally friendly natural energy source. (orig.) [de

  4. Atmospheric emissions : hydro-electricity versus other options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberland, A.; Belanger, C.; Gagnon, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the great environmental advantage offered by hydro-electricity in northern or temperate climates includes reduced atmospheric emissions. While natural gas plants, from an environmental viewpoint, are thought to be the best fossil fuel option, they emit 18 times more greenhouse gases, at least 60 times more sulfur dioxide and hundreds of times more nitrogen oxides than do hydro-electric systems. The relative SO 2 and greenhouse gas emissions from energy systems in Canada were outlined, and their environmental impacts were described. At the same time, mention was made of other environmental pollutants, such as acid rain, photochemical smog, and particulates that continue to have major impacts on the environment, but were displaced as the focus of attention by greenhouse gases. A study was conducted to determine the effects of extreme biomass decomposition and greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs. The study showed that at depths of more than 10 centimeters below water surface, organic matter does not contribute to greenhouse gas production, even at 20 degrees C. It was demonstrated that even when maximum biomass decomposition is assumed, a modern natural gas plant would emit 14 times more green house gases than a hydroelectric plant of comparable capacity. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  5. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-08-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of the town of Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. The top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130 m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained. The HEPP Ombla could result in many large and hard-to-predict negative consequences which are specific for this particular HEPP, for example (1) severe spring discharge change; (2) unpredictable regional groundwater redistribution; (3) threatening of endemic fauna; (4) induced seismicity; (5) induced sinkholes; (6) occurrence of landslides; (7) conflict regarding internationally shared karst aquifers; (8) intensification of karst flash floods; (9) sea water intrusion in coastal karst aquifer; etc.

  6. Hydro-electric power project on the Toulnustouc River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochon, Y.; Morneau, J.; Lefebvre, G.

    2001-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has proposed the development of a hydro-electric power project on the Toulnustouc River, located between Saint-Anne Lake and Manic Reservoir. The work would involve the construction of a power generation plant of 526 MW, construction of a 77 m dam on the Toulnustouc River, 14 km downstream from the existing Lac-Saint-Anne dam, the creation of a new water expanse covering 22 square kilometers, the construction of an embankment, the strengthening of the existing Saint-Anne embankment, digging a 9.8 km gallery, and the construction of a flood spillway. This work would have consequences for three different sectors of the river: between the existing and the proposed dam, between the dam and the projected power plant, and between the power plant and the limit of the influence of the reservoir Manic-2. Hydro-Quebec would like the work to begin in July 2001, with the aim of having the plant in operation in 2005. The overall cost of the project is estimated at 600 million dollars. It is expected that the economic benefits for the region would be in the 211 million dollar range. An environmental assessment of the entire project was performed by Quebec Ministere de l'Environnement. The authors determined that the project was recognized as justified by the Ministere des Ressources Naturelles (Natural Resources Ministry) and concluded that the project was acceptable from an environmental point of view as long as six conditions were met. They touched on the construction of a flood spillway capable of evacuating 19 cubic meters per second at any time during the year, that water be evacuated downstream following a pre-determined debit that varies according to the time of year, monitoring of the brook trout population and its habitat, and environmental monitoring. 46 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs., 1 annex

  7. Report on the renewal of the hydro-electric concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The administrative procedures of the renewable of the hydro-electric concessions in France is a real problem, leading to too long time of the case files examination. This mission aimed to identify the technical and financial criteria on which the decision maker will base his choice to give the concessions renewal. This report exposes the evaluation and the recommendations of the mission. The first part establishes an evaluation of the situation of the hydro-electric concessions and the today renewal procedures. The second part presents a analysis of this situation and the recommendations. The last part brings the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  8. Hydro-electric power - potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on efficiency improvement in electric power production by matching the different characteristics for thermal power and hydropower. The paper introduces secondary hydropower defined as available power stored as hydro-energy in water reservoirs as a key element to achieve this goal. The iron-locked connection between GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and power consumption is discussed. As it also is a general understanding that GDP has to increase to accommodate the world's growing population, the unavoidable conclusion is that more power is to be produced. 3 figs

  9. Hydro-electric power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claughton, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental effects occur at the dam or reservoir site, upstream and downstream of the project area during and after the completion of any hydropower project. The environmental factors also have either positive or negative cost impact on the production of hydropower. Various factors which require careful consideration while undertaking hydropower projects are: land losses, resettlement, flora and fauna, fish and aquatic life, water quality, proliferation of weeds, loss of vegetation, erosion, downstream damage and induced seismicity. After identifying the factors relevant to a hydropower project, the necessary adjustments should be made in the location and design of the project. (M.G.B.)

  10. Community development, micro-hydro electricity and ecology in the South Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce, P. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Waddell, R. [APACE Research Ltd., Perth, WA (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    In a village in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands, the organisation Appropriate Technology for Community and Environment (APACE) worked with villagers to design and install a micro-hydro electricity generating system. This paper discusses the choices faced by developing countries in the introduction of renewable energy sources in an effort to raise their standard of living. Decentralized renewable energy technologies offer developing nations the promise of a way around the capital and recurrent burdens facing their energy development. Hydro-electricity in decentralized form may be the only currently available renewable resource option with a serious prospect of supplying a more equitable distribution of energy supply for global sustainability, at least in terms of electricity as a crucial tool for development. Assistance programs such as the one in the Solomon Islands have had some notable outcomes in that they have shown that the decentralized forms of hydroelectricity systems implemented in demonstration schemes can be successful and can create workable structures that combine the characteristics of cost-effective and sustainable technology transfer with the practical need for integration of such projects within provincial and national planning processes. 2 figs., 10 refs.

  11. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Services Corporation and Bangor Hydro Electric Company (collectively, NEL Parties) filed a petition for... Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on July 11, 2011, pursuant to Rule 207...

  12. The Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board 50. annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the financial statements for The Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (Manitoba Hydro) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2001. Manitoba Hydro was proud to report no electricity rate increase for the period 2000-2001, a feat realized for the fifth consecutive year for most customer groups. Financial and production highlights were first presented, followed by the vision mission and goals of Manitoba Hydro. Manitoba Hydro serves 403 000 customers in the province with electric energy, and 248 000 customers with natural gas service mainly in the south of the province. Electricity export sale agreements are in place with more than 35 utilities and marketers in the United States, Ontario and Saskatchewan. Self-renewing waterpower is used to generate the bulk of the electricity. The transmission and distribution lines stretch over 100 000 kilometres. Manitoba Hydro is the fourth largest energy utility in Canada based on capital assets. A review of the year was presented, as well as a brief historical overview of Manitoba Hydro. The financial review section discussed the management report, the Auditor's report. Included in this section were various statement sheets, namely the consolidated statement of income and retained earnings, consolidated balance sheet, consolidated statement of cash flows, followed by some notes to the consolidated financial statements. Consolidated financial statistics and operating statistics - 10-year overview were presented. A brief presentation of the Board members and senior officers ended this report. tabs. figs

  13. Vulnerability of the hydro-electric power plants to the impacts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability of the hydro-electric power plants to the impacts of climate change in Rwanda: Community baseline. ... The survey also revealed heavy dependency on fuel wood and kerosene for energy and this entail continuous cutting of trees and thus degrading the environment. The mitigation measures being ...

  14. Mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4: Public enterprise (JP) Komunalec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanova, Blagica

    2004-01-01

    The role of the Public enterprises in improving entire living conditions of the citizens, not only by its services towards the citizenship such as: water supplying and public hygiene but the opportunity to produce the electric power by the Mini hydro electric-power stations built on the main city water supply pipes. The paper presents experiences of building the mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4. The successful completion of this project should be a motivation for building more electric power stations because there are great water potential in the Republic of Macedonia i.e. there have been recorded more than a hundred places suitable for construction of power electric stations. This will contribute not only for clean ecological energy but will have a direct influence on the total economic development of the Republic of Macedonia. (Author)

  15. Analysis of Axial Turbine Pico-Hydro Electrical Power Plant in North Sulawesi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangari, F. J.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    This study presents analysis of pico-hydro electrical power plant in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this study is to get a design of axial turbine pico-hydro electrical power plant. The method used the study of literature, survey the construction site of the power plant and the characteristics of the location being a place of study, analysis of hydropower ability and analyzing costs of power plant. The result showed that the design of axial turbine pico-hydro installation is connected to a generator to produce electrical energy maximum can be used for household needs in villages. This analyze will be propose to local government of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

  16. Mission: Partnerships - A Socially Responsible Approach for New Hydro-electric Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojczynski, Ed; Cole, Victoria; Pachal, Shawna; Goulet, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Worldwide there is a desire for clean, secure and renewable energy developed in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. In the Canadian province of Manitoba, where water is an abundant resource, efforts are being undertaken by Manitoba Hydro to achieve this goal through the development of new hydro-electric generating stations in partnership with Aboriginal (indigenous) communities. This paper focuses on the lessons learned by Manitoba Hydro in developing and implementing partnership agreements with northern Aboriginal communities on two new generation projects - the Wuskwatim Generation Project and the Keeyask Generation Project.

  17. The business for power : hydro-electricity in southeastern British Columbia 1897-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouat, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution and development of the hydroelectric power industry in southeastern British Columbia was chronicled by recounting the first hundred years of the West Kootenay Power and Light Electrical Utility. The utility's first generator produced electricity in the summer of 1898 when hydro-electric companies were a new phenomenon. The factors behind the success of the company, the personalities of the promoters and entrepreneurs that launched the company, the complex interplay of unique events and the social and political context that illustrate a fascinating process in which electricity became an integral part of everyday life, are described. Refs., tabs., figs

  18. Power and dignity: the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the James Bay Cree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niezen, R. [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The social impact that large-scale hydro-electric development has on the Cree of James Bay following the construction of the La Grande Complex was discussed. Many environmental changes were brought about by dam construction. The project, which also involved the first settlement (the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement) directed at extinguishing aboriginal title to land and natural resources in Canada, resulted in several relocations of Cree communities. In addition to compensation, the Agreement included a formal procedure for environmental and social impact assessment for development projects. However, there was little commitment, as a matter of corporate or government policy, to monitoring any of the social impacts. This paper is a preliminary response to an appeal for attention to be focused on the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the Cree in James Bay. Data from social service files indicate that the rapid centralization of the James Bay Cree into structured communities led to social instability in the villages, reflected by high frequencies in suicide, neglect of children, vandalism and drug and alcohol abuse. The material presented here is expected to serve as a warning that in further developing the far North of Quebec the pace of social change in Cree society will have to be slowed down to avoid social destruction of the native communities. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Power and dignity: the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the James Bay Cree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niezen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The social impact that large-scale hydro-electric development has on the Cree of James Bay following the construction of the La Grande Complex was discussed. Many environmental changes were brought about by dam construction. The project, which also involved the first settlement (the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement) directed at extinguishing aboriginal title to land and natural resources in Canada, resulted in several relocations of Cree communities. In addition to compensation, the Agreement included a formal procedure for environmental and social impact assessment for development projects. However, there was little commitment, as a matter of corporate or government policy, to monitoring any of the social impacts. This paper is a preliminary response to an appeal for attention to be focused on the social consequences of hydro-electric development for the Cree in James Bay. Data from social service files indicate that the rapid centralization of the James Bay Cree into structured communities led to social instability in the villages, reflected by high frequencies in suicide, neglect of children, vandalism and drug and alcohol abuse. The material presented here is expected to serve as a warning that in further developing the far North of Quebec the pace of social change in Cree society will have to be slowed down to avoid social destruction of the native communities. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Report on the renewal of the hydro-electric concessions; Rapport sur le renouvellement des concessions hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The administrative procedures of the renewable of the hydro-electric concessions in France is a real problem, leading to too long time of the case files examination. This mission aimed to identify the technical and financial criteria on which the decision maker will base his choice to give the concessions renewal. This report exposes the evaluation and the recommendations of the mission. The first part establishes an evaluation of the situation of the hydro-electric concessions and the today renewal procedures. The second part presents a analysis of this situation and the recommendations. The last part brings the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  1. Forming mechanism of the Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Fu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin are important oil and gas exploration targets in the basin, but their dissolution mechanisms are in controversy. In this paper, based on the integrated study of sedimentation, sequence and reservoir, together with microscopic analysis and macroscopic seismic data analysis, the carbonate karst reservoirs in the study area were divided into three types: dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoir, pore-cavity dolomite reservoir and fracture-cavity siliceous reservoir, and their forming mechanisms were discussed respectively. Some findings were obtained. First, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs are distributed in the upper Yingshan Fm and Yijianfang Fm of the Ordovician vertically, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs are mainly developed in the Penglai Fm and lower Yingshan Fm of the Ordovician with great thickness. Second, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs were formed by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary (lowstand tract, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs were formed by deep burial dolomitization controlled by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary, both of which are distributed in the highstand tract below the third-order sequence boundary. Third, siliceous reservoirs are developed under the control of faulting, as a result of reworking of deep hydrothermal fluids along faults to the limestone, and the siliceous reservoirs and their hydrothermal solution fracture-cavity systems are distributed near faults. It is further predicted that, in addition to the three types of reservoir above, platform-margin reef-flat reservoirs are developed in the Ordovician on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin.

  2. Accelerated delivery of hydro electrical projects; Livraison acceleree des projets hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjannet, Hassine; Bechard, Normand

    2010-09-15

    Hydro electrical projects, as other energy projects, must transform in order to adapt to current market demands. This article describes the solutions developed during the construction of the Eastmain-1-A power plant in order to speed up its delivery and to reduce the costs. These solutions include, more comprehensive land investigations, the simplification of excavation contours, the refit or elimination of certain work spaces, the addition of a second access during construction, the simplification of the formworks, the improvement of work zones access and especially the use of prefabricated elements. [French] Les projets hydroelectriques, comme les autres projets energetiques, doivent subir des transformations pour s'adapter aux exigences actuelles du marche. Cet article presente les solutions mises en oeuvre pour la construction de la Centrale de l'Eastmain-1-A en vue d'en accelerer la livraison et d'en reduire le cout. Ces solutions comprennent, entre autres des investigations de terrain plus approfondies, la simplification des contours d'excavations, le reamenagement ou l'elimination de certains locaux, l'addition d'un deuxieme acces pendant la construction, la simplification des coffrages, l'amelioration des acces aux zones de travail et surtout l'utilisation d'elements prefabriques.

  3. Neural network based inspection of voids and karst conduits in hydro-electric power station tunnels using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gokhan; Eren, Levent

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on the fundamental role played by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), alongside advanced processing and presentation methods, during the tunnel boring project at a Dam and Hydro-Electric Power Station. It identifies from collected GPR data such issues as incomplete grouting and the presence of karst conduits and voids and provides full details of the procedures adopted. In particular, the application of collected GPR data to the Neural Network (NN) method is discussed.

  4. Discovery and reservoir-forming geological characteristics of the Shenmu Gas Field in the Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2014, the giant Shenmu Gas Field had been found in the Ordos Basin with an explored gas-bearing area of 4069 km2 and the proved geological gas reserves of 333.4 billion m3. This paper aims to review the exploration history of this field and discusses its reservoir-forming mechanism and geological characteristics, which may guide the further discovery and exploration of such similar gas fields in this basin and other basins. The following research findings were concluded. (1 There are typical tight sand gas reservoirs in this field primarily with the pay zones of the Upper Paleozoic Taiyuan Fm, and secondly with those of the Shanxi and Shihezi Fms. (2 Gas types are dominated by coal gas with an average methane content of 88% and no H2S content. (3 The gas reservoirs were buried 1700–2800 m deep underneath with multiple pressure systems and an average pressure coefficient of 0.87. (4 The reservoir strata are composed of fluvial delta facies sandstones with an average porosity of 7.8% and permeability of 0.63 mD, having high pressure sensibility and a strong water-locking effect because the pore throat radius are mostly less than 1 μm. (5 There are different dynamics at various stages in the gas reservoir-forming process. The abnormal well-developed strata pressure was the main reservoir-forming force at the Early Cretaceous setting stage while the fluid expansibility became the main gas-migrating force at the uplift and denudation stage after the Early Cretaceous period. (6 Gas reservoirs with ultra-low water saturation are mainly controlled by many factors such as changes of high temperature and high pressure fields in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods, the charging of dry gas at the highly-mature stage, and the gas escape and dissipation at the post-reservoir-forming periods. (7 Natural gas migrated and accumulated vertically in a shortcutting path to form gas reservoirs. At such areas near the source rocks

  5. The political economy of Canadian hydro-electricity : between old provincial hydros and neoliberal regional energy regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netherton, A.

    2007-01-01

    In economic terms, hydro-electricity is considered as a quasi-staple, as it prone to the classic staples problem of excess capacity. However, neither water nor hydroelectricity in Canada is produced primarily for export markets. Hydroelectric systems are often thought of as politicized monopolies. This paper discussed changes that have occurred in hydroelectric organizations over time, as they have been governed by a formative mixed regime; postwar provincial hydro systems; a megaprojects regime; and an emerging sustainability regionalization regime. The origins of electricity generation and transmission in Canada were discussed, as well as the ecological footprint of large mega-projects on rivers. The development of provincial hydro monopolies during the mid- to late- twentieth century was also outlined, as well as the sustainability and regionalization regime that developed after 1990. During the mature staples period of the mid-century, rents in hydro-electric organizations were distributed through cheap rates to subsidize and facilitate the development of mass production and mass consumption. However, post-staples consumption has now replaced mass consumption, and demand side management is replacing earlier cheap power policies. Nonetheless, the lack of systematic integration of networks has led to inefficiencies. Provincial grids are now being integrated into interconnected North American regional networks regulated by the United States. It was concluded that the Canadian electricity regime is increasingly influenced by the the supranational role that the United States is playing in structuring markets. 83 refs

  6. Spatial abundance and diversity of bacterioplankton in a typical stream-forming ecosystem, Huangqian Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangshan; Li, Jing; Wang, Ningxin; Gao, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    The specific freshwater environment of reservoirs formed by streams has not been well studied. In this paper, the bacterioplankton community in such a reservoir, the Huangqian Reservoir in eastern China, was described using culture-independent molecular methods. We found that the most dominant bacterioplankton were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, followed by Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Both bacterial abundance and diversity increased along the direction of water flow, and the 16S rRNA gene copy number in the water outlet was nearly an order of magnitude higher than that in the water inlet. Pearson correlation analyses indicated that nitrate had a significantly negative correlation with the bacterial abundance (p bacterioplankton. According to redundancy analysis, nitrate and dissolved oxygen were the major factors influencing the bacterial communities. In addition, we attempted to determine the reasons why such a reservoir could maintain good ecological balance for a period of decades, and we found that the environmental factors and bacterial communities both played critical roles. This research will benefit our understanding of bacterial communities and their surrounding environments in freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Chemical Forms of Heavy Metals in Bottom Sediments of the Mitręga Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Lidia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediments originating from the Mitręga water reservoir were studied. It was assayed, in what chemical forms heavy metals (zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and lead occur in sediments, using the method of sequential extraction BCR. According to the geochemical criteria with respect to the content of Zn, Cu and Ni, the sediments in all measuring points were classified as uncontaminated, however because of the Cd content - as moderately contaminated. The highest Cu and Ni content was found in the sediment collected in the southern part of the reservoir, 15 and 11 mg/kg d.m, respectively. In the case of Zn, Pb and Cd, the sediment collected at the outflow of the Mitręga river was the most contaminated; metal content amounted to 136; 35; 3 mg/kg d.m., respectively. Based on the conducted fractionation of heavy metals, it was found that the potential mobility of metals, hence the possibility of secondary pollution of the reservoir open water, are arranged in the following order: Zn> Cd> Ni> Cu ~ Pb.

  8. Making the connection: The B.C. Hydro electric system and how it is operated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    British Columbia Hydro supplies electric energy to 93% of the province's population through an integrated electric system. Of the electricity supplied, 95% is generated at 29 hydroelectric plants, with the remainder coming from thermal plants burning fossil fuels. BC Hydro's high voltage transmission and distribution network consists of 17,600 km of lines 60 kV and above and 51,400 km of lines below 60 kV. A description of system operations begins with the principles of hydroelectric generation, with a brief note on thermal generation for peaking or short-term energy production. Non-power operations measures designed to minimize environmental impacts and enhance social benefits are also outlined along with electricity trade with other provinces and the USA. Planning of long- and short-term system operations is also reviewed. An analysis of system components is presented for the Peace, Columbia, Lower Mainland/Coastal/Fraser, and Vancouver Island regions. Finally, information is given on the 29 hydroelectric and 3 thermal plants, including drainage basin, reservoir description and map, inflow, capacity, turbine type, storage, operating constraints, and average energy capability. 51 figs

  9. Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain GS3372, an Endospore-Forming Bacterium Isolated in a Deep Geothermal Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Sevasti Filippidou; Marion Jaussi; Thomas Junier; Tina Wunderlin; Nicole Jeanneret; Simona Regenspurg; Po-E Li; Chien-Chi Lo; Shannon Johnson; Kim McMurry; Cheryl D. Gleasner; Momchilo Vuyisich; Patrick S. Chain; Pilar Junier

    2015-01-01

    The genome of strain GS3372 is the first publicly available strain of Aeribacillus pallidus. This endospore-forming thermophilic strain was isolated from a deep geothermal reservoir. The availability of this genome can contribute to the clarification of the taxonomy of the closely related Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, and Aeribacillus genera.

  10. Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain GS3372, an Endospore-Forming Bacterium Isolated in a Deep Geothermal Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Jaussi, Marion; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Jeanneret, Nicole; Regenspurg, Simona; Li, Po-E; Lo, Chien-Chi; Johnson, Shannon; McMurry, Kim; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Chain, Patrick S; Junier, Pilar

    2015-08-27

    The genome of strain GS3372 is the first publicly available strain of Aeribacillus pallidus. This endospore-forming thermophilic strain was isolated from a deep geothermal reservoir. The availability of this genome can contribute to the clarification of the taxonomy of the closely related Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, and Aeribacillus genera. Copyright © 2015 Filippidou et al.

  11. Hydrocarbon origin and reservoir forming model research of Longwangmiao Formation, Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindong Jin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Longwangmiao gas reservoir in Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin. Starting from the tectonic evolution perspective, though comparing biological marker compound and analyzing fluid inclusions, the oil & gas origin and accumulation evolution of Longwangmiao Formation are systematic studied with reference to the burial-thermal evolution of single well geological history in the study area. It is suggested that the oil & gas reservoir is generally characterized by early accumulation, multi-stage filling, late cracking and later adjustment. The oil and gas were mainly sourced from lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation, partly from the Permian source rock. During the geological period, 3 major oil & gas fillings occurred in the Longwangmiao Formation, namely Caledonian-Hercynian filling that was small in scale and produced the first phase of paleo-oil reservoir that soon destroyed by Caledonian movement uplift, large-scale Permian filling that gave rise to the second-phase of paleo-oil reservoir and the Triassic-Jurassic filling that enriched the second phase of paleo-oil reservoir. Finally, the paleo-oil reservoir experienced an in-situ cracking during the cretaceous period that gave rise to a natural gas reservoir and left behind carbonaceous bitumen and oily bitumen in the holes of the Longwangmiao Formation.

  12. High-Functioning Wetland Formed Atop Abandoned Pavement in Eutrophic Reservoir Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, C.; Heffernan, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Water scientists and managers regularly observe how wetlands, whether natural or created, can mitigate the influence of artificial impervious surfaces on water quality. However, we rarely study or mention wetlands accidentally (sensu Palta et al. 2017) formed atop impervious surfaces. This silence occurs even though many urbanites have likely noticed sedges rimming a clogged drainage grate or in the low bits of a poorly graded or aging parking lot, or similar. A more extreme example occurs in the Little River Waterfowl Impoundment vicinity of the Butner-Falls of Neuse Game Land in Durham, North Carolina. There, a macadam road that connected local residents and a store, and served as the primary route through the area, by 1910-1920, was apparently abandoned by 1951. Later, damming nearby downstream Falls Lake Reservoir in 1981, and smaller-scale construction locally, apparently increased water table depth and flow exposure. Yet, the road remains largely intact structurally, though mostly buried and sometimes underwater. In a particularly wet segment of the road, surrounded by and partially holding back standing water even in drought, a substantial, mostly native wetland plant community has formed. This community includes trees such as overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) as large as 15 cm in diameter, shrubs such as (Cephalanthus occidentalus), sedges such as woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus), rushes (multiple Juncus species), grasses such as wood oats (Chasmanthium latifolium), crayfish and fish, and multiple orders of herptiles. The plants grow rooted in fluffy sediment three to rarely more than 20cm deep, over solid pavement. Alongside the old road, the ditches have widened and become shallower and less surficially connected through tree roots and debris dams; they resemble pools. Sediment in these abandoned ditches has accumulated to depths of tens of centimeters, generally reforming a clay-dominated, gleyed soil, in some places buried under more tens of centimeters of very

  13. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  14. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' - Feasibility study; Rehabilitation du Moulin de Bavois. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin de Bavois' located in Bavois on the Talent river, Switzerland. The existing scheme uses a 12 m water fall and its power amounts to about 10 kW. After retrofitting, based on a future new water-use concession, the maximum electric power produced should be 172 kW, generating 531 MWh/y, 65% of which in the wintertime. New weir and penstock are foreseen as is an axial Kaplan turbine and a reliable water cleaning device. The Talent river flows in the woods. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.214 CHF/kWh.

  15. Hydro electric scheme on the Forestay river. Communes of Chexbres and Rivaz. Feasibility study; Turbinage du Forestay. Communes de Chexbres et Rivaz. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme located in Rivaz, Switzerland on the shore of the lake of Geneva. Water of the Forestay river, which crosses a steep wine region, is used in a 89 kW Pelton turbine with a water head of 63 m and a maximum flow rate of 180 litre/s, producing about 350,000 kWh/year for now more than 50 years. After retrofitting the maximum electric power produced should be 707 kW, generating 2,500,000 kWh/y by using a water head of 184 m and a maximum flow rate of 500 litre/s. Part of the new equipment would be mounted underground in order to respect the aesthetics of the beautiful site. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.109 CHF/kWh.

  16. High-Precision Nd Isotopes in Picrites from Hawaii and Iceland - No Evidence for an Early-Formed Enriched Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.; Debaille, V.

    2007-01-01

    New high-precision Nd isotope measurements have shown that the present-day Nd-142/Nd-144 for average chondrites is approximately 20 ppm lower than that for the terrestrial standard and all recent mantle-derived samples measured to date. One explanation for these differences is that an enriched missing reservoir with lower Nd-142/Nd-144 resides in the mantle to balance the bulk Earth to chondritic. Data from Archean Greenland rocks show anomalies in Nd-142/Nd-144 of up to 40 ppm higher than the proposed average for chondrites. This difference between the Archean Greenland rocks and present-day mantle-derived samples has been interpreted to result from remixing of an early-formed enriched reservoir into the convecting mantle during the Archean. If so, the implication from this is that remixing of the enriched reservoir largely shut down some time in the past such that it must at present reside in a region in the mantle that infrequently participates dynamically and leading to volcanism at the surface. Several studies have suggested that the missing reservoir may be present just above the coremantle boundary (CMB). Depending on the size of this reservoir it could potentially make up all of D or exist as distinct domains within it. If such a reservoir does exist, then mantle-derived samples from plume systems that are thought to come from the CMB may be the best opportunity to identify this component using high-precision Nd isotope measurements. To test this, picrites from Hawaii with coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 that has been proposed to be a signature of core-mantle interaction were measured on the JSC Triton for high-precision Nd-142/Nd-144. For comparison, picrites from Hawaii and Iceland that do not show coupled enrichments in Os-186-Os-187 were measured. We have established an external precision for Nd-142/Nd-144 of 3.6 ppm (2 sigma) during the analytical campaign. The Iceland (n=5) and Hawaiian data (n=9) have Nd-142 ranging from -0.01 plus or minus 0

  17. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis 421, was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in the previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results show that B. licheniformis 421 when injected...

  18. ALMA Shows that Gas Reservoirs of Star-forming Disks over the Past 3 Billion Years Are Not Predominantly Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Janowiecki, Steven, E-mail: luca.cortese@uwa.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2017-10-10

    Cold hydrogen gas is the raw fuel for star formation in galaxies, and its partition into atomic and molecular phases is a key quantity for galaxy evolution. In this Letter, we combine Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Arecibo single-dish observations to estimate the molecular-to-atomic hydrogen mass ratio for massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.2 extracted from the HIGHz survey, i.e., some of the most massive gas-rich systems currently known. We show that the balance between atomic and molecular hydrogen in these galaxies is similar to that of local main-sequence disks, implying that atomic hydrogen has been dominating the cold gas mass budget of star-forming galaxies for at least the past three billion years. In addition, despite harboring gas reservoirs that are more typical of objects at the cosmic noon, HIGHz galaxies host regular rotating disks with low gas velocity dispersions suggesting that high total gas fractions do not necessarily drive high turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  19. Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours): Stat'imc Self-Determination in the Face of Large-Scale Hydro-electric Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Sarah Carmen

    In Canada, First Nations asserting authority over their lands are developing diverse strategies to overcome the state''s dogmatic insistence on jurisdictional sovereignty. This movement corresponds to the wider context of the challenges faced by indigenous people to use their own ways of knowing to resist or reformulate legal doctrines and political tenets based on colonial power. Interior Salish Stat'imc people identify themselves through a strong and ongoing social relationship with Sataqwa7, the Fraser River, and the "Valley of Plenty"---now known as the flooded Bridge River Valley---maintained through Stat'imc knowledge and cultural practice and demonstrated by talk of '"the Stat'imc right to fish" and Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours). Stat'imc fishers are prepared to contest and resist any regulatory system that is understood to impact this right to fish while they advocate their own ways of sustainable fishing and water management. Based on ethnographic research in collaboration with Stat'imc people, this thesis explores some of these often successful contestations especially in the context of increasing territorial governance and by example of the rapidly transforming relationship between Stat'imc, BC Hydro and the Province of BC. Interior Salish Stat'imc people are currently navigating through a significant phase of increasing jurisdiction and authority and recognition of (unsettled) territorial property relationships. This very dynamic process is marked by strategic collaborations, compensation for 'infringements' on St'a'imc Title and Rights, and conservation efforts to protect their home. An important example is the changing relationship between Stat'imc people and BC Hydro---a relationship between two groups with radically different cultures and agendas: Stat'imc people in a struggle for self-determination, social justice and cultural survival and BC Hydro, a corporate culture, with the agenda to provide hydro-electric power to BC, maintain

  20. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  1. Influence of environmental factors on mercury release in hydroelectric reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, K.; Therien, N.

    1991-04-01

    Due to increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydro-electric reservoirs after flooding, a study was carried out to evaluate the release and transformation of mercury due to vegetation and soil flooded as a result of reservoir creation. Samples of vegetation and soils were immersed in water and concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury and nutrients were followed. The effects of anoxia, pH and temperature on release and transformation were examined. An existing dynamic model of decomposition of flooded materials in reservoirs was modified to include mercury release and transformation, and was calibrated to the experimental data. Amounts of mercury released by the different substrates was of the same order of magnitude. Tree species contributed to the greatest amounts of methylmercury per unit biomass, but the biomass used for these was twigs and foliage. Soil released significant amounts of mercury, but methylation was very low. The model was able to fit well for all substrates except lichen. The model can be adapted to proposed reservoirs to predict nutrient and mecury release and transformation. 175 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Dolomitization of carbonated reservoirs of platforms. From geologic data to modeling. Example of the great Bahama bank; La dolomitisation des reservoirs carbonates de plate-forme. Des donnees geologiques a la modelisation. Exemple du Grand Banc des Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspard, E.

    2002-09-01

    Dolomitization has long been one of the most studied geological processes because of its economic interest (dolomitic rocks form a significant share of hydrocarbon reservoirs) as well as its academic interest, based on the fact that dolomite scarcely forms in current and recent marine environments whereas seawater is highly over-saturated; and that it is still not possible to synthesize it in laboratory under the same conditions. We used data collected by the University of Miami (Bahamas Drilling Project, ODP Leg 166) to understand the geological context of complete dolomitization of a Messinian 60 m thick reef unit. Classical methods of petrographic analysis of thin sections (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, in situ isotopic analyze using ionic microprobe) showed that the intensity of dolomitization is not controlled by the initial texture of the sediment, that the key parameter for dolomitization is the conservation of the initial mineralogy of magnesian bio-clasts, and that redox conditions, salinity and/or temperature of the precipitation fluid varied significantly during the process. Hydrodynamic modelling showed that during periods of high sea-level, Kohout thermal convection is a viable mechanism for driving marine fluids through the sediments. The key parameter for fluid circulations is the permeability anisotropy on the platform scale. Geochemical modelling showed that seawater is able to induce a complete dolomitization over durations of around one million years. Sensitivity tests showed that the critical parameter (as well as one of the less well-known) to describe diagenetic processes in carbonates is the water/rock reactions kinetics and in particular the precipitation kinetics of carbonate minerals. We finally propose that the dolomitization of the reef unit of the Unda well took place during the high sea-level period which extended over 1,1 My in the early Pliocene, according to the Kohout thermal convection

  3. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' in Cronay, Switzerland - Preliminary project; Rehabilitation du Moulin d'en Bas, commune de Cronay. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' located in Cronay on the Mentue river, Switzerland. Two variants are considered. In the first one the existing scheme uses a 4.72 m water fall and its power amounts to about 25 kW. A 4-blades Kaplan turbine is foreseen to generate 160,000 kWh/y. In the second variant, weir and penstock have to be adapted in order to take advantage of the full 6.74 m water fall indicated in the water-use concession granted in 1952. A new fish pass has to be built as well. The resulting electric power is in this case 80 kW and the power generation by the turbo group 353,000 kWh/y, about 60% of which in the wintertime. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.282 CHF/kWh in the second variant.

  4. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  5. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  6. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  7. SELF-PURIFICATION OF THE DNIPROVS’KE RESERVOIR AS A LEADING FORMING FACTOR FOR THE ECOLOGICALLY SAFE HABITAT OF FISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Dvoretsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the development of the water quality of the Dniprovs’ke reservoir, which is a water of body of complex including fisheries importance and is characterized by an increased anthropogenic pressure as a result of the processes of the toxification and self-purification determined based on toxicity index (Іt. Methodology. We used the methods of bioindication (determination of the number and biomass of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton, biotesting (Іt determinaiton with the aid of Daphnia magna, hydrochemistry (determination of main trophic-saprobiological parameters of water quality as well as the correlation analysis of these parameters. Findings. According to the 2012 data, tropho-saprobiologic, algological, microbiological parameters and toxicity index as an integral parameter were analyzed concerning to water quality. Regularities of dynamics and relationship of the indexes were studied. The environmental assessment of water quality of the most polluted upper part of the Dniprovs’ke reservoirs was carried out for each of the parameters studied: in areas where agro-industrial wastes enter, water is classified as «moderately polluted» – «very dirty». The data testify to strong local water pollution of the reservoir and a good renewable ability of the ecosystem. It was shown that in conditions of human toxification the adequate response concerning water quality gives the toxicity index as an integral indicator of toxification and self-purification processes. The dual role of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton in formation of water quality of the anthropogenically loaded reservoir was revealed: these components are involved in the processes of self-purification or toxification in accordance with periods of microalgae development during the season. This is displayed in corresponding changes of TI and the correlation coefficient. It was found that the self-cleaning of the reservoir is a major

  8. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... driftsstrategier kan erstattes af optimale strategier baseret på den nyeste udvikling indenfor computer-baserede beregninger. Hovedbidraget i afhandlingen er udviklingen af et beregningssystem, hvori en simuleringsmodel er koblet til en model for optimering af nogle udvalgte beslutningsvariable, der i særlig grad...

  9. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs

  11. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs...

  12. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  13. Reservoir-induced seismicity at Castanhao reservoir, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B.; do Nascimento, A.; Ferreira, J.; Bezerra, F.

    2012-04-01

    Our case study - the Castanhão reservoir - is located in NE Brazil on crystalline rock at the Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is a major Proterozoic-Archean terrain formed as a consequence of convergence and collision of the São Luis-West Africa craton and the São Francisco-Congo-Kasai cratons. This reservoir is a 60 m high earth-filled dam, which can store up to 4.5 billion m3 of water. The construction begun in 1990 and finished in October 2003.The first identified reservoir-induced events occurred in 2003, when the water level was still low. The water reached the spillway for the first time in January 2004 and, after that, an increase in seismicity occured. The present study shows the results of a campaign done in the period from November 19th, 2009 to December 31th, 2010 at the Castanhão reservoir. We deployed six three-component digital seismographic station network around one of the areas of the reservoir. We analyzed a total of 77 events which were recorded in at least four stations. To determine hypocenters and time origin, we used HYPO71 program (Lee & Lahr, 1975) assuming a half-space model with following parameters: VP= 5.95 km/s and VP/VS=1.73. We also performed a relocation of these events using HYPODD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000) programme. The input data used we used were catalogue data, with all absolute times. The results from the spatio-temporal suggest that different clusters at different areas and depths are triggered at different times due to a mixture of: i - pore pressure increase due to diffusion and ii - increase of pore pressure due to the reservoir load.

  14. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoirReservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  15. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. The Methane Hydrate Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Liu, X.

    2007-12-01

    We use multi phase flow modeling and field examples (Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon and Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina) to demonstrate that the methane hydrate reservoir system links traditional and non- traditional hydrocarbon system components: free gas flow is a fundamental control on this system. As in a traditional hydrocarbon reservoir, gas migrates into the hydrate reservoir as a separate phase (secondary migration) where it is trapped in a gas column beneath the base of the hydrate layer. With sufficient gas supply, buoyancy forces exceed either the capillary entry pressure of the cap rock or the fracture strength of the cap rock, and gas leaks into the hydrate stability zone, or cap rock. When gas enters the hydrate stability zone and forms hydrate, it becomes a very non traditional reservoir. Free gas forms hydrate, depletes water, and elevates salinity until pore water is too saline for further hydrate formation: salinity and hydrate concentration increase upwards from the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) to the seafloor and the base of the hydrate stability zone has significant topography. Gas chimneys couple the free gas zone to the seafloor through high salinity conduits that are maintained at the three-phase boundary by gas flow. As a result, significant amounts of gaseous methane can bypass the RHSZ, which implies a significantly smaller hydrate reservoir than previously envisioned. Hydrate within gas chimneys lie at the three-phase boundary and thus small increases in temperature or decreases in pressure can immediately transport methane into the ocean. This type of hydrate deposit may be the most economical for producing energy because it has very high methane concentrations (Sh > 70%) located near the seafloor, which lie on the three-phase boundary.

  18. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...

  19. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calls have been made to the government through various media to assist its populace in combating this nagging problem. It was concluded that sediment maximum accumulation is experienced in reservoir during the periods of maximum flow. Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1.

  20. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady

  1. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  3. THE SURDUC RESERVOIR (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.

  4. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  5. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracture propagation in heterogeneous unconventional reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunting; Li, Mingzhong; Hao, Lihua; Hu, Hang

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of the unconventional reservoir fracture network is influenced by many factors. For the natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, the reservoir heterogeneity, construction factors (fracturing fluid flow rate, fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing), horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient are the main factors that affect the fracture propagation. In the study, first, calculate the reservoir physics mechanics parameters that affect the fracture propagation on the base of the logging date from one actual horizontal well. Set the formation parameters according to the calculation that used to simulate the reservoir heterogeneity. Then, using damage mechanics method, the 2D fracture propagation model with seepage-stress-damage coupling of multi-fracture tight sand reservoir was established. Study the influences of different fracturing ways (open whole fracturing and oriented perforation fracturing) and the position of the perforation clusters to the fracture propagation for heterogeneity reservoir. Analyze the effects of flow rate, fracturing fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing, horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient to fracture morphology for the heterogeneity reservoir and contrast with the homogeneous reservoir. The simulation results show that: the fracture morphology is more complexity formed by oriented perforation crack than open whole crack; For natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, as the flow rate or the fracturing fluid viscosity increases within a certain range, the fracture network tends to be more complexity and the effect is more obvious to heterogeneous reservoir than homogeneous reservoir; As the perforation clusters spacing decreases, the interaction of each fracture will increase, it tends to form more complexity fracture network but with short major fracture; If the horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient is large (The stress different coefficient >0

  6. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  7. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  8. optimal selection of hydraulic turbines for small hydro electric power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This minimum flow, also termed the reserved flow (Qr), must remain unused when abstracting water from a river to drive the turbine. Given Qi represent flow values constituting the FDC for the river to be exploited. The actual flows available to the turbine for power generation, termed Qj, is estimated using Equation (1) [8, 9];.

  9. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, hydro electrical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This project describes the Brazilian hydroelectric park citing the historical aspects, methodology of potential evaluation, forecasts of costs for hydroelectric use and the utilization of hydroelectric potential in small and reversible hydroelectric plants situated in all Brazilian regions. The utilization of hydroelectric potential in Amazon region is put in relief. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  10. The impact of climate change on hydro-electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musy, A.; Music, B.; Roy, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hydroelectricity is a clean and renewable energy source for many countries, and is expected to play an important role in future energy supplies. However, the impact of climatic change on hydroelectricity resources is not yet understood. This study provided a critical review of current methods used to determine the potential impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power production. General circulation models (GCMs) are used to predict future climate conditions under various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios. Statistical techniques are then used to down-scale GCM outputs to the appropriate scales needed for hydrological models, which are then used to simulate the effects of climatic change at regional and local scales. Outputs from the models are then used to develop water management models for hydroelectric power production. Observed linear trends in annual precipitation during the twentieth century were provided. The theoretical advantages and disadvantages of various modelling techniques were reviewed. Risk assessment strategies for Hydro-Quebec were also outlined and results of the study will be used to guide research programs for the hydroelectric power industry. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Small-scale hydro-electric scheme in Roches, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    The small hydropower plant (SHPP) project 'PCH Roches' is planned to be built in Roches, a small village located in the Jura region of the canton of Bern. The goal of this undertaking is to reactivate a site with hydro potential of the river Birs on a section that was already well exploited by some ancient SHPP (since 1953 or probably even earlier). Several modifications were performed on this plant over the years; not all contributed positively on its production figures. Following a transfer of the water rights in 1987, claims became loud against the owner to perform maintenance on the river banks and to modify the weir such that a free passage for the fishes will be granted. Those issues contributed to inflate a conflict which ended in the repeal of the water rights and a total plant shut down in 2001. The new project plans to reuse the existing pen stock and to carry out some refurbishing activities to grant security and better performance. The weir and the intake structure are also redesigned such that the water storage can be somewhat raised for normal operation; a weir gate will however allow to better discharge the river in flood situations. A new turbine house will be erected at the current location where the tail water pen stock rejoins the river. Hence, the existing old turbine house will be obsolete and the upper and lower pen stock sections are to be linked with each other. Limited by the existing pen stock size, the new plant is expected to produce some 50 kW power and 362,000 kWh/year. This represents an increase in energy generation of around 200% compared with the ancient SHPP. Gross head is 5.38 m, net head 4.12 m with a turbine flow of at least 1.6 m 3 /s. The expected energy sales price applicable to this project reaches about 0.17 CHF/kWh as per the current tariffs set by the grid owner. This project calls for the building of a state-of-the-art SHPP. It will avoid the total dismantling of the existing works to take place and allow the small village of Roches to pursue producing power based on a renewable resource. (author)

  12. The impact of climate change on hydro-electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musy, A.; Music, B.; Roy, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hydropower is the leading source of electrical production in many countries. It is a clean and renewable source and certainly will continue to play an important role in the future energy supply. However, the effects of climate change on this valuable resource remain questionable. In order to identify the potential initiatives that the hydropower industry may undertake, it is important to determine the current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on hydrological variables at regional and local scales. Usually, the following steps are taken. First, general circulation models (GCMs) are used to simulate future climate under assumed greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Then, different techniques (statistical downscaling/regional climate models) are applied to downscale the GCM outputs to the appropriate scales of hydrological models. Finally, hydrologic models are employed to simulate the effects of climate change at regional and local scales. Outputs from these models serve as inputs to water management models that give more details about hydropower production. In the present study, realized by OURANOS upon the request of CEATI, a critical review of the methods used to determine impact of climate change on water resources and hydropower generation is carried out. The major results from recent studies worldwide are reported and future scientific actions to better understand climate change impacts on the hydrological regime are identified. The study is expected to provide direction for the hydropower industry to mitigate the impacts of climate change. (author)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rudd et al. have suggested that, per unit of electrical energy produced, greenhouse-gas emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada may be comparable to emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. The purpose of this comment is to elaborate these issues further so as to understand the potential contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to the greenhouse effect. More than focusing on the total budget of carbon emissions (be they in the form of CH 4 or be they in the form of CO 2 ), this requires an evaluation of the accumulated greenhouse effect of gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and fossil-fuelled power plants. Two issues will be considered: (a) global warming potential (GWP) for CH 4 ; and (b) how greenhouse-gas emissions from hydroelectric power plants stand against emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants with respect to global warming

  14. Reservoir Routing on Double-Peak Design Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gioia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the routing effect provided by an artificial reservoir to a double-peak flood of a given return period. The present paper introduces a dimensionless form of the reservoir balance equation that describes the hydrologic-hydraulic processes that may occur and allows for the evaluation of the reservoir routing coefficient (RC. Exploiting this equation, an extensive sensitivity analysis based on the use of two simple parametric indices that depend on the storage capacity (SC of the reservoir, the discharge capacity (DC of the spillway (with fixed-crest and the hydrologic behavior of the basin was performed.

  15. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  16. Session: Reservoir Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  17. Chalk reservoirs of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardman, R.F.P.

    1982-01-01

    The amount of clay in the chalk, whether primary or secondary, is the factor of greatest importance in determining whether chalk has the capability of forming a reservoir rock or not. It has been empirically observed that the less the clay content the better the resevoir and as has been remarked earlier, the amount of clay in the Chalk can be closely correlated with sea level. changes. Where other factors are either absent or of only minor importance, the effect of clay is most clearly seen. A good example is well N-2 in Danish waters. It is concluded that in N-2 clay is the dominant control on reservoir quality. (EG)

  18. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    increasing the risk associated with developing effectively these reservoirs. Therefore a analogue-based predictive stratigraphical and sedimentological model can help to steer drilling strategy and reduce uncertainties and associated risks. For this purpose the GRASP joint industry programme was established......Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs...... in Quaternary glaciated areas and their nature and sediment composition is critical to drive a sustainable production strategy and assess their vulnerability. Seismic resolution however, often limits the understanding of channel valleys morphology, 3D geometry and internal reservoir distribution, thus...

  19. Reservoir characteristics and control factors of Carboniferous volcanic gas reservoirs in the Dixi area of Junggar Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Field outcrop observation, drilling core description, thin-section analysis, SEM analysis, and geochemistry, indicate that Dixi area of Carboniferous volcanic rock gas reservoir belongs to the volcanic rock oil reservoir of the authigenic gas reservoir. The source rocks make contact with volcanic rock reservoir directly or by fault, and having the characteristics of near source accumulation. The volcanic rock reservoir rocks mainly consist of acidic rhyolite and dacite, intermediate andesite, basic basalt and volcanic breccia: (1 Acidic rhyolite and dacite reservoirs are developed in the middle-lower part of the structure, have suffered strong denudation effect, and the secondary pores have formed in the weathering and tectonic burial stages, but primary pores are not developed within the early diagenesis stage. Average porosity is only at 8%, and the maximum porosity is at 13.5%, with oil and gas accumulation showing poor performance. (2 Intermediate andesite and basic basalt reservoirs are mainly distributed near the crater, which resembles the size of and suggests a volcanic eruption. Primary pores are formed in the early diagenetic stage, secondary pores developed in weathering and erosion transformation stage, and secondary fractures formed in the tectonic burial stage. The average porosity is at 9.2%, and the maximum porosity is at 21.9%: it is of the high-quality reservoir types in Dixi area. (3 The volcanic breccia reservoir has the same diagenetic features with sedimentary rocks, but also has the same mineral composition with volcanic rock; rigid components can keep the primary porosity without being affected by compaction during the burial process. At the same time, the brittleness of volcanic breccia reservoir makes it easily fracture under the stress; internal fracture was developmental. Volcanic breccia developed in the structural high part and suffered a long-term leaching effect. The original pore-fracture combination also made

  20. Climate Change Impacts to Hydro Power Reservoir Systems in British Columbia, Canada: Modelling, Validation and Projection of Historic and Future Streamflow and Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Schnorbus, M.; Werner, A. T.; Berland, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The British Columbia Hydro Electric Corporation (BC Hydro) has a mandate to provide clean, renewable and reliable sources of hydro-electric power into the future, hence managing those resources in the context of climate change will be an important component of reservoir operational planning in British Columbia. The Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (www.PacificClimate.org) has implemented the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model parameterized at 1/16th degree (~32 km2) to provide BC Hydro with future projections of changes to streamflow and snowpack to the 2050s. The headwaters of the Peace, Columbia, and Campbell River basins were selected for study; the Upper Peace River basin (101,000 km2) is a snowmelt-dominated watershed, and the Upper Columbia River Basin (104,000 km2) has a mixed snowmelt-glacier melt runoff regime, with glacier runoff contributing up to 15 to 20% of late summer discharge. The Upper Campbell River watershed (1,200 km2) has a mixed rainfall and snowmelt (hybrid) hydrologic regime. The model has been calibrated using historical streamflow observations and validated against these observations, as well as automated snow pillow measurements. Future streamflow changes are estimated based on eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the CMIP3 suite, downscaled using the Bias Correction Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, run under three emissions scenarios (A2, A1B and B1; A1B is specifically reported on herein). Climate impacts by the 2050s in the three watersheds illustrate an increase in annual average temperature and precipitation ranging between +2.2°C to +2.8°C and +2% to +10% depending on basin, and an annual change in streamflow of -1% to +12% for the three watersheds. Changes are more profound on the seasonal time-scale and differ across basins. Summer streamflow in the Upper Campbell River watershed is projected to decline by -60%, where as the Upper Peace and Columbia systems are projected to decline by -25% and -22

  1. Saturation distributions in heavy oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Joshua Todd

    Models that describe conventional reservoirs can be used to explore the possibility of heavier-than-water oil. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a common process in reservoirs with extra heavy oils (oil sands). In some cases, oil that is heavier than water is present in these reservoirs. The segregation of oil and water may cause issues for recovery. It is important to understand the initial saturation distribution of oil and water for proper design of injection. It was found through simulation that the heavy oil would pool towards the bottom of a heavy oil reservoir with water remaining on top of the oil. With capillary pressure, the heavy oil and water will form a transition zone. The extent of the transition zone is dependent on the density gradient of the oil, the density difference between the oil and water, and the slope of the capillary pressure saturation profile. This finding influences the positioning of production piping in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) as well as possible geological pooling areas for recovery. The possibility of a water zone between oil zones increases the risk of missing oil in the reservoir when drilling or perforating.

  2. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  3. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  4. Constrained genetic algorithms for optimizing multi-use reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Dai, Shin-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To derive an optimal strategy for reservoir operations to assist the decision-making process, we propose a methodology that incorporates the constrained genetic algorithm (CGA) where the ecological base flow requirements are considered as constraints to water release of reservoir operation when optimizing the 10-day reservoir storage. Furthermore, a number of penalty functions designed for different types of constraints are integrated into reservoir operational objectives to form the fitness function. To validate the applicability of this proposed methodology for reservoir operations, the Shih-Men Reservoir and its downstream water demands are used as a case study. By implementing the proposed CGA in optimizing the operational performance of the Shih-Men Reservoir for the last 20 years, we find this method provides much better performance in terms of a small generalized shortage index (GSI) for human water demands and greater ecological base flows for most of the years than historical operations do. We demonstrate the CGA approach can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water supply capability to both human and ecological base flow requirements and thus optimize reservoir operations for multiple water users. The CGA can be a powerful tool in searching for the optimal strategy for multi-use reservoir operations in water resources management.

  5. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  6. An Integrated Risk Approach for Assessing the Use of Ensemble Streamflow Forecasts in Hydroelectric Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Wigmosta, M.; Barco, J.; Voisin, N.; Bier, A.; Coleman, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an integrated risk approach using ensemble streamflow forecasts for optimizing hydro-electric power generation. Uncertainty in the streamflow forecasts are translated into integrated risk by calculating the deviation of an optimized release schedule that simultaneously maximizes power generation and environmental performance from release schedules that maximize the two objectives individually. The deviations from each target are multiplied by the probability of occurrence and then summed across all probabilities to get the integrated risk. The integrated risk is used to determine which operational scheme exposes the operator to the least amount of risk or conversely, what are the consequences of basing future operations on a particular prediction. Decisions can be made with regards to the tradeoff between power generation, environmental performance, and exposure to risk. The Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization for Power and Environment (HydroSCOPE) model developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to model the flow, temperature, and power generation and is coupled with the DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) optimization package to identify the maximum potential power generation, the maximum environmental performance, and the optimal operational scheme that maximizes both for each instance of the ensemble forecasts. The ensemble forecasts were developed in a collaborative effort between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to develop an Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting System (EHFS) that incorporates advanced ensemble forecasting approaches and algorithms, spatiotemporal datasets, and automated data acquisition and processing. Both the HydroSCOPE model and the EHFS forecast tool are being developed as part of a larger, multi-laboratory water-use optimization project funded through the US Department of Energy. The simulations were based on the

  7. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  8. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  9. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  10. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  11. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  12. Antivortex Device for Multi-Outlet Liquid Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Gary David (Inventor); Addison, Stephen Michael (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A liquid reservoir with a sump includes at least two outlet ports in fluid communication with a fluid conduit. An anti-vortex device includes a first plate extending across the at least two outlet ports and a second plate coupled to the first plate and extending substantially perpendicular to the first plate. The anti-vortex device is configured to disrupt formation of a vortex formed by liquid passing from the reservoir through said outlet ports.

  13. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  14. Reservoir Simulations of Low-Temperature Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Madhur Ganesh

    The eastern United States generally has lower temperature gradients than the western United States. However, West Virginia, in particular, has higher temperature gradients compared to other eastern states. A recent study at Southern Methodist University by Blackwell et al. has shown the presence of a hot spot in the eastern part of West Virginia with temperatures reaching 150°C at a depth of between 4.5 and 5 km. This thesis work examines similar reservoirs at a depth of around 5 km resembling the geology of West Virginia, USA. The temperature gradients used are in accordance with the SMU study. In order to assess the effects of geothermal reservoir conditions on the lifetime of a low-temperature geothermal system, a sensitivity analysis study was performed on following seven natural and human-controlled parameters within a geothermal reservoir: reservoir temperature, injection fluid temperature, injection flow rate, porosity, rock thermal conductivity, water loss (%) and well spacing. This sensitivity analysis is completed by using ‘One factor at a time method (OFAT)’ and ‘Plackett-Burman design’ methods. The data used for this study was obtained by carrying out the reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 simulator. The second part of this work is to create a database of thermal potential and time-dependant reservoir conditions for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs by studying a number of possible scenarios. Variations in the parameters identified in sensitivity analysis study are used to expand the scope of database. Main results include the thermal potential of reservoir, pressure and temperature profile of the reservoir over its operational life (30 years for this study), the plant capacity and required pumping power. The results of this database will help the supply curves calculations for low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the United States, which is the long term goal of the work being done by the geothermal research group under Dr. Anderson at

  15. A review of reservoir desiltation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation......physical geography, hydrology, desilation efficiency, reservoir flushing, density-current venting, sediment slucing, erosion pattern, downstream effects, flow characteristics, sedimentation...

  16. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  17. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  18. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  19. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... 50% calcite, leaving the remaining internal surface to the fine grained silica and clay. The high specific surface of these components causes clay- and silica rich intervals to have high irreducible water saturation. Although chalks typically are found to be water wet, chalk with mixed wettability...... stabilizes chemically by recrystallization. This process requires energy and is promoted by temperature. This recrystallization in principle does not influence porosity, but only specific surface, which decreases during recrystallization, causing permeability to increase. The central North Sea is a warm...

  20. Pacifiers: a microbial reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Elodie; Marion, Karine; Renaud, François N R; Dore, Jeanne; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean

    2006-12-01

    The permanent contact between the nipple part of pacifiers and the oral microflora offers ideal conditions for the development of biofilms. This study assessed the microbial contamination on the surface of 25 used pacifier nipples provided by day-care centers. Nine were made of silicone and 16 were made of latex. The biofilm was quantified using direct staining and microscopic observations followed by scraping and microorganism counting. The presence of a biofilm was confirmed on 80% of the pacifier nipples studied. This biofilm was mature for 36% of them. Latex pacifier nipples were more contaminated than silicone ones. The two main genera isolated were Staphylococcus and Candida. Our results confirm that nipples can be seen as potential reservoirs of infections. However, pacifiers do have some advantages; in particular, the potential protection they afford against sudden infant death syndrome. Strict rules of hygiene and an efficient antibiofilm cleaning protocol should be established to answer the worries of parents concerning the safety of pacifiers.

  1. Assesment of bathymetric maps via GIS for water in reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceylan

    Full Text Available In order to adopt measures for storing more water in reservoirs, lakes and ponds; to prevent water pollution, protect water sources and extend the service life of these facilities, it is important for manager (Municipalities, Directorates of the State Hydraulic Works (DSHW, Irrigation Unions etc. to know the current topographic conditions and any changes in the storage capacities of these facilities. This study aimed to identify the updated topographic and bathymetric data required for the efficient management and usage of Altınapa reservoir, changes in surface area and volume of the facility, and to form a Reservoir Information System (RIS. Two digital elevation models, from 2009 and 1984, were used to determine changes in the storage capacity of the reservoir. The calculations indicated that, within this 25-year period, the storage capacity of the reservoir decreased by 12.7% due to sedimentation. A Dam Information System (RIS was developed from a wide range of data sources, including topographic and bathymetric data of the reservoir and its surrounding area, data on specific features such as plant cover, water quality characteristics (Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Secchi Disk Depth (SDD and pH, geological structure, average water level, water supplied from springs, evaporation value of the reservoir, and precipitation.

  2. Tidal phenomena in reservoirs; Fenomeno de mare em reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla Cortes, John Freddy

    1997-06-01

    This work models the oceanic tidal effect on reservoirs by coupling geomechanic principles with equations for fluid in a deformable porous media. The coupling revealed the importance of establishing properly the system compressibility under the various possible configurations of the loading system. The basic models for infinite reservoir, constant outer-pressure reservoir and closed reservoir were considered. It was verified that it was possible to apply the superposition of effects on the solution for the basic models by carrying a simple transformation on the solution variable. The problem was treated by in the context of test analysis, concerning dimensionless form of variables and the inclusion of well effects. The solution for the infinite reservoir including tidal effects. The solution for the infinite reservoir including tidal effects was obtained in the Laplace space and was inverted numerically by using Crump's routine. The results were incorporated to conventional type curves, and were validated by comparison with real and simulated pressure test data. Finally, alternate practices were suggested to integrate the well test analysis in reservoirs affected by the tidal effect. (author)

  3. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Sande Guy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  4. A dimension reduction method for flood compensation operation of multi-reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Wu, S.; Fan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple reservoirs cooperation compensation operations coping with uncontrolled flood play vital role in real-time flood mitigation. This paper come up with a reservoir flood compensation operation index (ResFCOI), which formed by elements of flood control storage, flood inflow volume, flood transmission time and cooperation operations period, then establish a flood cooperation compensation operations model of multi-reservoir system, according to the ResFCOI to determine a computational order of each reservoir, and lastly the differential evolution algorithm is implemented for computing single reservoir flood compensation optimization in turn, so that a dimension reduction method is formed to reduce computational complexity. Shiguan River Basin with two large reservoirs and an extensive uncontrolled flood area, is used as a case study, results show that (a) reservoirs' flood discharges and the uncontrolled flood are superimposed at Jiangjiaji Station, while the formed flood peak flow is as small as possible; (b) cooperation compensation operations slightly increase in usage of flood storage capacity in reservoirs, when comparing to rule-based operations; (c) it takes 50 seconds in average when computing a cooperation compensation operations scheme. The dimension reduction method to guide flood compensation operations of multi-reservoir system, can make each reservoir adjust its flood discharge strategy dynamically according to the uncontrolled flood magnitude and pattern, so as to mitigate the downstream flood disaster.

  5. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  6. Optimization and Non-Linear Identification of Reservoir Water Flooding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Grema

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dynamic optimization and identification of petroleum reservoir waterflooding using receding horizon (RH principles was examined. Two forms of the strategy were compared on a realistic reservoir model. Sequential quadratic programming (SQP was applied to optimize net present value (NPV using water injection rates as the variables. MRST from SINTEF was used for the reservoir modeling. The identification of the reservoir was performed using nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX neural network from MATLAB. Data for the network training and validation was obtained by carrying out a numerical experiment on a high fidelity model of the reservoir. This model was developed with Eclipse Reservoir Simulator from Schlumberger. From the results obtained, moving-end RH gave a higher NPV than fixed-end RH with a margin of $0.5 billion. The identification algorithm was very much effective and near perfect for the studied reservoir.

  7. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  8. Well testing in gas hydrate reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Kome, Melvin Njumbe

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir testing and analysis are fundamental tools in understanding reservoir hydraulics and hence forecasting reservoir responses. The quality of the analysis is very dependent on the conceptual model used in investigating the responses under different flowing conditions. The use of reservoir testing in the characterization and derivation of reservoir parameters is widely established, especially in conventional oil and gas reservoirs. However, with depleting conventional reserves, the ...

  9. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology

  10. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology.

  11. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom

    1997-12-31

    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Sediment Characteristics of Tennessee Streams and Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Stanley W; Carey, William P

    1984-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams Data from 31 reservoirs plus suspended-sediment...

  13. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    The Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 14, 1977, with 104 attendees from six nations. In keeping with the recommendations expressed by the participants at the Second Workshop, the format of the Workshop was retained, with three days of technical sessions devoted to reservoir physics, well and reservoir testing, field development, and mathematical modeling of geothermal reservoirs. The program presented 33 technical papers, summaries of which are included in these Proceedings. Although the format of the Workshop has remained constant, it is clear from a perusal of the Table of Contents that considerable advances have occurred in all phases of geothermal reservoir engineering over the past three years. Greater understanding of reservoir physics and mathematical representations of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated reservoirs are evident; new techniques for their analysis are being developed, and significant field data from a number of newer reservoirs are analyzed. The objectives of these workshops have been to bring together researchers active in the various physical and mathematical disciplines comprising the field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give the participants a forum for review of progress and exchange of new ideas in this rapidly developing field, and to summarize the effective state of the art of geothermal reservoir engineering in a form readily useful to the many government and private agencies involved in the development of geothermal energy. To these objectives, the Third Workshop and these Proceedings have been successfully directed. Several important events in this field have occurred since the Second Workshop in December 1976. The first among these was the incorporation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) into the newly formed Department of Energy (DOE) which continues as the leading Federal agency in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The Third

  14. Changes to the Bakomi Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubinský Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the analysis and evaluation of the changes of the bottom of the Bakomi reservoir, the total volume of the reservoir, ecosystems, as well as changes in the riparian zone of the Bakomi reservoir (situated in the central Slovakia. Changes of the water component of the reservoir were subject to the deposition by erosion-sedimentation processes, and were identifed on the basis of a comparison of the present relief of the bottom of reservoir obtained from feld measurements (in 2011 with the relief measurements of the bottom obtained from the 1971 historical maps, (i.e. over a period of 40 years. Changes of landscape structures of the riparian zone have been mapped for the time period of 1949–2013; these changes have been identifed with the analysis of ortophotomaps and the feld survey. There has been a signifcant rise of disturbed shores with low herb grassland. Over a period of 40 years, there has been a deposition of 667 m3 of sediments. The results showed that there were no signifcant changes in the local ecosystems of the Bakomi reservoir in comparison to the other reservoirs in the vicinity of Banská Štiavnica.

  15. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  16. Identification of genetic polymorphism in Mystus cavasius (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 from Gandhisagar reservoir and Bansagar reservoir, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Garg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relatedness was estimated among 30 genotypes of two populations of Mystus cavasius i.e., Gandhisagar reservoir (n = 15 and Bansagar reservoir (n = 15 using 5 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR markers. Ten primers were primarily scored of which, 05 primers showed polymorphism and these were selected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR to be used in the final molecular analyses. 64 scorable loci were generated in genotypes from Gandhisagar reservoir of which 62 loci (70.45% were polymorphic; whereas, 108 loci were obtained in genotypes from Bansagar reservoir out of which 87 (98.86% were polymorphic. RAPD analysis showed that the Bansagar reservoir population had higher genetic polymorphism than the Gandhisagar reservoir population. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA indicated low genetic diversity (Hpop = 0.2017 ± 0.1836; I = 0.312 ± 0.2599 and relative genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst = 0.2052 and restricted gene flow (Nm = 1.9369. The phylogenetic tree constructed by un-weighted pair-group method of analysis (UPGMA showed that all genotypes formed two major clusters representing their respective geographical locations i.e., Gandhisagar reservoir population and Bansagar reservoir population. Present investigation elucidates effectiveness of balancing approaches to make polymorphism as descriptive and determined for optimum genetic amelioration and successful conservation of its genotypic variability. This study also showed high levels of morphometric and genetic variation in Bansagar reservoir population indicated dynamic evolution as revealed by genetic variations in genotypes.

  17. A reservoir simulation approach for modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the Warren and Root model proposed for the simulation of naturally fractured reservoir was improved. A reservoir simulation approach was used to develop a 2D model of a synthetic oil reservoir. Main rock properties of each gridblock were defined for two different types of gridblocks called matrix and fracture gridblocks. These two gridblocks were different in porosity and permeability values which were higher for fracture gridblocks compared to the matrix gridblocks. This model was solved using the implicit finite difference method. Results showed an improvement in the Warren and Root model especially in region 2 of the semilog plot of pressure drop versus time, which indicated a linear transition zone with no inflection point as predicted by other investigators. Effects of fracture spacing, fracture permeability, fracture porosity, matrix permeability and matrix porosity on the behavior of a typical naturally fractured reservoir were also presented.

  18. Effect of coherence of nonthermal reservoirs on heat transport in a microscopic collision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zou, Jian; Li, Hai; Xu, Bao-Ming; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Shao, Bin

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the heat transport between two nonthermal reservoirs based on a microscopic collision model. We consider a bipartite system consisting of two identical subsystems, and each subsystem interacts with its own local reservoir, which consists of a large collection of initially uncorrelated ancillas. Then a heat transport is formed between two reservoirs by a sequence of pairwise collisions (intersubsystem and subsystem-local reservoir). In this paper we consider two kinds of the reservoir's initial states: the thermal state and the state with coherence whose diagonal elements are the same as that of the thermal state and the off-diagonal elements are nonzero. In this way, we define the effective temperature of the reservoir with coherence according to its diagonal elements. We find that for two reservoirs having coherence the direction of the steady current of heat is different for different phase differences between the two initial states of two reservoirs, especially the heat can transfer from the "cold reservoir" to the "hot reservoir" in the steady regime for particular phase difference. In the limit of the effective temperature difference between the two reservoirs Δ T →0 , for most of the phase differences, the steady heat current increases with the increase of effective temperature until it reaches the high effective temperature limit, while for the thermal state or particular phase difference the steady heat current decreases with the increase of temperature at high temperatures, and in this case the conductance can be obtained.

  19. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1993-04-09

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems - an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by CR(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSPI system and evaluation and identification of a suitable organic crosslinked system will be done. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: development and selection of gelled polymer systems, physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modeling of gel systems.

  20. Biofouling on Reservoir in Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Eom, C.; Kong, M.; Park, Y.; Chung, K.; Kim, B.

    2011-12-01

    The organisms which take part in marine biofouling are primarily the attached or sessile forms occurring naturally in the shallower water along the coast [1]. This is mainly because only those organisms with the ability to adapt to the new situations created by man can adhere firmly enough to avoid being washed off. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling biofilms developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the biofilm communities formed on the reservoir polymer surfaces were tested for. The quantities of the diverse microorganisms in the biofilm samples developed on the prohibiting polymer reservoir surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. To confirm microbial and formation of biofilm on adsorbents was done CLSM (Multi-photon Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope system) analysis. Microbial identified using 16S rRNA. Experiment results, five species which are Vibrio sp., Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Sulfitobacter, and Alteromonas discovered to reservoir formed biofouling. There are some microorganism cause fouling and there are the others control fouling. The experimental results offered new specific information, concerning the problems in the application of new material as well as surface coating such as anti-fouling coatings. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the national research project titled "The Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Seawater" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. References [1] M. Y. Diego, K. Soren, and D. J. Kim. Prog. Org. Coat. 50, (2004) p.75-104.

  1. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  2. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  3. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  4. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  5. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The added value of gravity data for reservoir monitoring and characterization is analyzed within closed-loop reservoir management concept. Synthetic 2D and 3D numerical experiments are performed where var...

  6. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  7. Ecological and floristic characteristics of higher aquatic plants in Volgograd reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkova Anna Igorevna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the long-term gydro-botanical studies of Volgograd reservoir were analyzed. Flora in different parts of the reservoir, located in Volgograd and Saratov regions was compared. In the floristic investigations, several species of flora, rare in Volgograd region and previously not noted were revealed. The regularities in the floristic composition changes depending on the amplification of climate aridity and features of the hydrological regime of the Volgograd reservoir were determined. Unstable hydrological conditions in the reservoir contribute to the emergence of new free habitats, which are so necessary for the spread and establishment of different plants, including new invasive ones and formed hybrids.

  8. Dynamics of the zooplankton assemblage of Ojirami Reservoir, Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zooplankton form an important trophic link between phytoplankton and fish in the aquatic food chain. Investigation was carried out on the zooplankton community of Ojirami, Reservoir, Nigeria, to document the composition, abundance and distribution and their interactions with the physico-chemical conditions. Surface water ...

  9. HIV Reservoir: Finding the Right Needles in a Needlestack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasternak, Alexander O.; Berkhout, Ben

    2016-01-01

    HIV forms a reservoir that persists despite prolonged therapy and is considered the main barrier to an HIV cure. Baxter et al. (2016) in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe and Boritz et al. (2016) in a recent Cell paper shed new light on HIV persistence in infected individuals

  10. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  11. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.

    2009-01-01

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  12. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  13. Sedimentological and Geomorphological Effects of Reservoir Flushing: The Cachi Reservoir, Costa Rica, 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders; Swenning, Joar

    1999-01-01

    Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs......Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs...

  14. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  15. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  16. Understanding the Role of Reservoir Size on Probable Maximum Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.

    2011-12-01

    formation of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) in the vicinity of dams/reservoirs that may have explicitly been triggered by their presence. The significance of this finding is that water resources managers need to consider the post-dam impact of water cycle and local climate due to the very reservoir and land use change triggered if efficient water resources management is desired. Future works of the study will include incorporation of the anthropogenic changes that occur as a result of the presence of dams/reservoirs in the forms of irrigation, urbanization and downstream wetland reduction. Similar hypothesis testing procedures will be applied to understand the combined effects of the reservoir size variation and anthropogenic changes in the extreme precipitation patterns.

  17. Williston Reservoir: Site preparation and post-flood cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Williston Reservoir is the second largest in Canada and ranks ninth on the world scale. It was formed by the construction of the W.A.C. Bennet Dam and is the most important hydroelectric storage reservoir and largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Site preparation for the reservoir began in 1962, with pre-flood clearing involving salvage of merchantable timber, handfalling, machine downing, burning of slash and burial. Post-flood cleanup included timber salvage, bailing and burning debris, tractor piling and burning, crane piling in shallows, underwater cutting, and hand cutting during low drawdown. Various types of floating debris have presented problems for recreational use, log booming and transport, waterways and aviation. Protection of the spillway is accomplished with a floating boom upstream of the channel. Administration, funding, forest clearance, salvage methods, clearing standards, wood volumes, project costs, environmental concerns, and future priorities are discussed. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Reservoir Sedimentation Based on Uncertainty Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Imanshoar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation can result in loss of much needed reservoir storage capacity, reducing the useful life of dams. Thus, sufficient sediment storage capacity should be provided for the reservoir design stage to ensure that sediment accumulation will not impair the functioning of the reservoir during the useful operational-economic life of the project. However, an important issue to consider when estimating reservoir sedimentation and accumulation is the uncertainty involved in reservoir sedimentation. In this paper, the basic factors influencing the density of sediments deposited in reservoirs are discussed, and uncertainties in reservoir sedimentation have been determined using the Delta method. Further, Kenny Reservoir in the White River Basin in northwestern Colorado was selected to determine the density of deposits in the reservoir and the coefficient of variation. The results of this investigation have indicated that by using the Delta method in the case of Kenny Reservoir, the uncertainty regarding accumulated sediment density, expressed by the coefficient of variation for a period of 50 years of reservoir operation, could be reduced to about 10%. Results of the Delta method suggest an applicable approach for dead storage planning via interfacing with uncertainties associated with reservoir sedimentation.

  19. Acid Fluid-Rock Interactions with Shales Comprising Unconventional Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and with Shale Capping Carbon Storage Reservoirs: Experimental Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Bratcher, J.; Marcon, V.; Herz-Thyhsen, R.

    2015-12-01

    form in experiments emulating both unconventional and carbon reservoirs. Smectite precipitates in the latter, the identity of clays in the former is still being determined. Both systems are initially dominated by acid reactions; subsequent differences in geochemical behavior derive from the amount and source of acidity and buffering reactions of the rock.

  20. Data assimilation in reservoir management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at improving computer models that allow simulations of water, oil and gas flows in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This is done by integrating, or assimilating, measurements into physics-bases models. In recent years petroleum technology has developed

  1. Reservoirs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, G. Earl

    1948-01-01

    Man has engaged in the control of flowing water since history began. Among his early recorded efforts were reservoirs for muncipal water-supplies constructed near ancient Jerusalem to store water which was brought there in masonry conduits. 1/  Irrigation was practiced in Egypt as early as 2000 B. C. There the "basin system" was used from ancient times until the 19th century. The land was divided , into basins of approximately 40,000 acres, separated by earthen dikes. 2/  Flood waters of the Nile generally inundated the basins through canals, many of which were built by the Pharaohs. Even then the economic consequences of a deficient annual flood were recognized. Lake Maeris, which according to Herodotus was an ancient storage reservoir, is said to have had an area of 30,000 acres. In India, the British found at the time of their occupancy of the Presidency of Madras about 50,000 reservoirs for irrigation, many believed to be of ancient construction. 3/ During the period 115-130 A. D. reservoirs were built to improve the water-supply of Athens. Much has been written concerning the elaborate collection and distribution system built to supply Rome, and parts of it remain to this day as monuments to the engineering skill employed by the Romans in solving the problem of large-scale municipal water-supplies.

  2. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    , aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...

  3. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  4. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  5. Dissolved methane in Indian freshwater reservoirs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvenkar, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kurian, S.; Shenoy, D.M.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Patil, S.; Sarkar, A.; Gauns, M.

    Emission of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, from tropical reservoirs is of interest because such reservoirs experience conducive conditions for CH4 production through anaerobic microbial activities. It has been suggested that Indian...

  6. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Quarterly status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1996-04-30

    On February 18, 1992, Louisiana State University with two technical subcontractors, BDM, Inc. and ICF, Inc., began a research program to estimate the potential oil and gas reserve additions that could result from the application of advanced secondary and enhanced oil recovery technologies and the exploitation of undeveloped and attic oil zones in the Gulf of Mexico oil fields that are related to piercement salt domes. This project is a one year continuation of this research and will continue work in reservoir description, extraction processes, and technology transfer. Detailed data will be collected for two previously studies reservoirs: a South Marsh Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and one additional Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil. Additional reservoirs identified during the project will also be studied if possible. Data collected will include reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data will be used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation will provide additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, and water compatibility. Geological investigations will be conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. Research on advanced reservoir simulation will also be conducted. This report describes a review of fine-grained submarine fans and turbidite systems.

  7. Bacterial pathogens in a reactor cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasweck, K.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the sampling in both Par Pond and Clark Hill Reservoir are given. The frequency of isolation is a qualitative parameter which indicates how often the specified bacterium was isolated from each habitat. Initial scoping experiments demonstrated that a wider variety of pathogenic bacteria occur in Par Pond than in Clark Hill Reservoir. Such findings are interesting because Par Pond does not receive any human wastes directly, yet bacteria generally associated with human wastes are more frequently isolated from Par Pond. Previous studies have demonstrated that certain non-spore-forming enteric bacteria do not survive the intense heat associated with the cooling water when the reactor is operating. However, even when the reactor is not operating, cooling water, consisting of 10% makeup water from Savannah River, continues to flow into Par Pond. This flow provides a source of bacteria which inoculate Par Pond. Once the reactor is again operating, these same bacteria appear to be able to survive and grow within the Par Pond system. Thus, Par Pond and the associated lakes and canals of the Par Pond system provide a pool of pathogens that normally would not survive in natural waters

  8. Reservoir characterization of the Snorre Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestvang, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The fluvial sandstone in the Snorre field consists of braided to meander streams deposited in arid and in humid climate that show a clear differences in the sedimentology and reservoir properties, especially the silt content in large part of the reservoir which decrease the reservoir properties and water saturation. The heterogeneity of these fluvial formations combined with the faulting history makes this reservoir highly complex with many local an...

  9. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  10. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  11. 32 CFR 644.4 - Reservoir Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reservoir Projects. 644.4 Section 644.4 National... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.4 Reservoir Projects. (a) Joint land acquisition policy for reservoir projects. The joint policies of the Department of the Interior and the Department of the Army...

  12. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  13. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  14. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.

    2001-03-28

    This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.

  15. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Albright, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boade, R.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway)

    1994-07-01

    A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

  17. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...... that a heavy oil (that with a large fraction of heavy components) exhibited viscosity reduction in contact with brine, while a light crude oil exhibited emulsion formation. Most of reported high salinity waterflooding studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs, and by performing spontaneous...

  18. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    With an increasing demand for oil and diculties in nding new major oil elds, research on methods to improve oil recovery from existing elds is more necessary now than ever. The subject of this thesis is to construct ecient numerical methods for simulation and optimization of oil recovery...... programming (SQP) with line-search and BFGS approximations of the Hessian, and the adjoint method for ecient computation of the gradients. We demonstrate that the application of NMPC for optimal control of smart-wells has the potential to increase the economic value of an oil reservoir....... with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...

  19. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    for both variational upscaling and the construction of linear solvers. In particular, it is found to be beneficial (or even necessary) to apply an AMGe based multigrid solver to solve the upscaled problems. It is found that the AMGe upscaling changes the spectral properties of the matrix, which renders...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...... based on element-based Algebraic Multigrid (AMGe). In particular, an advanced AMGe technique with guaranteed approximation properties is used to construct a coarse multilevel hierarchy of Raviart-Thomas and L2 spaces for the Galerkin coarsening of a mixed formulation of the reservoir simulation...

  20. MIKROMITSETY- MIGRANTS IN MINGECHEVIR RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall. 

  1. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  2. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  3. Reservoir Model Information System: REMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Kwang-Wu; Rhee, Taehyun; Neumann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel data visualization framework named Reservoir Model Information System (REMIS) for the display of complex and multi-dimensional data sets in oil reservoirs. It is aimed at facilitating visual exploration and analysis of data sets as well as user collaboration in an easier way. Our framework consists of two main modules: the data access point module and the data visualization module. For the data access point module, the Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is adopted for helping users facilitate the visualization of data. It integrates data source applications and external visualization tools and allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map with step-by-step visual guidance. For the data visualization module, we implemented our first prototype of an interactive volume viewer named REMVR to classify and to visualize geo-spatial specific data sets. By combining PDGS and REMVR, REMIS assists users better in describing visualizations and exploring data so that they can easily find desired data and explore interesting or meaningful relationships including trends and exceptions in oil reservoir model data.

  4. Challenges of reservoir properties and production history matching in a CHOPS reservoir study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Mahbub [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In order to meet increasing world energy demand, wells have to be drilled within very thin reservoir beds. This paper, we present one of the solutions for optimizing the reservoir characterization. Reservoir characterization is the process between the discovery of a property and the reservoir management phase. Principal data for reservoir modeling are: 4D Seismic interpretation, wireline log interpretation, core analysis, and petrophysical analysis. Reservoir conditions, perforation and completion technology are the key issues to the production rate of cold production. Reservoir modeling intends to minimize the risk factor, maximize production, and help determine the location for infill drillings. Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a method for enhancing primary production from heavy oil reservoirs. Gravitational forces, natural fluid pressure gradients and foamy oil flow phenomena are the major driving forces of the CHOPS mechanism. Finally, Reservoir characterization allows better understanding of permeability and porosity prediction.

  5. Mercury in water and bottom sediments from a mexican reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Perez, P.; Zarazua Ortega, G.; Barcelo Quintal, D.; Rosas, P.; Diazdelgado, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Lerma-Santiago river's source is located in the State of Mexico. Its drainage basin occupies an area of 129,632 km2. The river receives urban wastewater discharges from 29 municipalities, as well as industrial water discharges, both treated and untreated, mainly from the industrial zones of Toluca, Lerma, Ocoyoacac, Santiago Tianguistengo, Pasteje and Atlacomulco. It is estimated that during a year, the stream receives 536 x 106 m3 of waste waters, which carries 350,946 ton of organic load; 33% of these waste waters come from urban discharges, and 67% originate from industrial discharges. The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico and both are considered the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. Mercury concentrations in water and bottom sediments in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir were determined in 6 different sampling zones over a 1-year period. Mercury was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 9 x 1012 n. cm-2 s-1 for a period of 26 hours. High variations of mercury concentrations in water in both, soluble and suspended forms, were observed to depend on the sampling season. During the rainy season, rain events contribute with a substantial water volume to modify physicochemical parameters like pH, which dilute chemical species in the Alzate Reservoir. There are evidence that in the Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir, sedimentation and adsorption act as a natural cleaning process, decreasing the dissolved concentrations and increasing the metallic content of the sediments. A negative gradient was identified for mercury concentrations, from the Lerma river inlet to Alzate Reservoir dam, which demonstrates the considerable influence of the Lerma river inlet. This gradient also proves the existence of a metal recycling process between water and sediment, while the

  6. Numerical study of sediment and137Cs discharge out of reservoirs during various scale rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hironori; Malins, Alex; Kitamura, Akihiro; Onishi, Yasuo

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of reservoirs with radiocesium is one of the main concerns in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. We performed simulations using the three-dimensional finite volume code FLESCOT to understand sediment and radiocesium transport in generic models of reservoirs with parameters similar to those in Fukushima Prefecture. The simulations model turbulent water flows, transport of sediments with different grain sizes, and radiocesium migration both in dissolved and particulate forms. To demonstrate the validity of the modeling approach for the Fukushima environment, we performed a test simulation of the Ogaki Dam reservoir over Typhoon Man-yi in September 2013 and compared the results with field measurements. We simulated a set of generic model reservoirs systematically varying features such as flood intensity, reservoir volume and the radiocesium distribution coefficient. The results ascertain how these features affect the amount of sediment or 137 Cs discharge downstream from the reservoirs, and the forms in which 137 Cs is discharged. Silt carries the majority of the radiocesium in the larger flood events, while the clay-sorbed followed by dissolved forms are dominant in smaller events. The results can be used to derive indicative values of discharges from Fukushima reservoirs under arbitrary flood events. For example the generic model simulations indicate that about 30% of radiocesium that entered the Ogaki Dam reservoir over the flood in September 2015 caused by Typhoon Etau discharged downstream. Continued monitoring and numerical predictions are necessary to quantify future radiocesium migration in Fukushima Prefecture and evaluate possible countermeasures since reservoirs can be a sink of radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Are Geotehrmal Reservoirs Stressed Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Laboso, R. C.; Layland-Bachmann, C. E.; Feigl, K. L.; Foxall, W.; Tabrez, A. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Templeton, D. C.; Akerley, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal permeability can be strongly influenced by developing connected networks of open fractures. However, the detailed evolution of a fracture network, its extent, and the persistence of fracture porosity are difficult to analyze. Even in fault-hosted geothermal systems, where heat is brought to the surface from depth along a fault, hydrothermal flow is heterogeneously distributed. This is presumably due to variations in fracture density, connectivity, and attitude, as well as variations in fracture permeability caused by sealing of fractures by precipitated cements or compaction. At the Brady Geothermal field in Nevada, we test the relationship between the modeled local stress state perturbed by dislocations representing fault slip or volume changes in the geothermal reservoir inferred from surface deformation measured by InSAR and the location of successful geothermal wells, hydrothermal activity, and seismicity. We postulate that permeability is favored in volumes that experience positive Coulomb stress changes and reduced compression, which together promote high densities of dilatant fractures. Conversely, permeability can be inhibited in locations where Coulomb stress is reduced, compression promotes compaction, or where the faults are poorly oriented in the stress field and consequently slip infrequently. Over geologic time scales spanning the development of the fault system, these local stress states are strongly influenced by the geometry of the fault network relative to the remote stress driving slip. At shorter time scales, changes in fluid pressure within the fracture network constituting the reservoir cause elastic dilations and contractions. We integrate: (1) direct observations of stress state and fractures in boreholes and the mapped geometry of the fault network; (2) evidence of permeability from surface hydrothermal features, production/injection wells and surface deformations related to pumping history; and (3) seismicity to test the

  8. Effect of pore structure on the seepage characteristics of tight sandstone reservoirs: A case study of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm reservoirs in the western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Sima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone reservoirs are characterized by complex pore structures and strong heterogeneity, and their seepage characteristics are much different from those of conventional sandstone reservoirs. In this paper, the tight sandstone reservoirs of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm in western Sichuan Basin were analyzed in terms of their pore structures by using the data about physical property, mercury injection and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR tests. Then, the seepage characteristics and the gas–water two-phase migration mechanisms and distribution of tight sandstone reservoirs with different types of pore structures in the process of hydrocarbon accumulation and development were simulated by combining the relative permeability experiment with the visual microscopic displacement model. It is shown that crotch-like viscous fingering occurs in the process of gas front advancing in reservoirs with different pore structures. The better the pore structure is, the lower the irreducible water saturation is; the higher the gas-phase relative permeability of irreducible water is, the more easily the gas reservoir can be developed. At the late stage of development, the residual gas is sealed in reservoirs in the forms of bypass, cutoff and dead end. In various reservoirs, the interference between gas and water is stronger, so gas and water tends to be produced simultaneously. The sealed gas may reduce the production rate of gas wells significantly, and the existence of water phase may reduce the gas permeability greatly; consequently, the water-bearing low-permeability tight sandstone gas reservoirs reveal serious water production, highly-difficult development and low-recovery percentage at the late stage, which have adverse impacts on the effective production and development of gas wells.

  9. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  10. Effect of reservoir heterogeneity on air injection performance in a light oil reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well

  11. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  12. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  14. Assessing ways to combat eutrophication in a Chinese drinking water reservoir using SWAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Me, W

    2013-01-01

    both point sources and surface activities within the watershed of a reservoir. We expanded the ordinary Soil Water Assessment Tool – (SWAT) with a widely used empirical equation to estimate total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in lakes and reservoirs. Subsequently, we examined the effects of changes...... model performance and nutrient transport pathways, which are challenged by a complex artificially altered water infrastructure in the form of ditches, channels and ponds in monsoon-influenced subtropical watersheds....

  15. Global Reservoir and Dam Database, Version 1 (GRanDv1): Reservoirs, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) Database, Version 1.1 contains 6,862 records of reservoirs and their associated dams with a cumulative storage capacity of 6,197...

  16. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  17. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  18. Multiobjective reservoir operating rules based on cascade reservoir input variable selection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Li, Liping; Xu, Chongyu

    2017-04-01

    The input variable selection in multiobjective cascade reservoir operation is an important and difficult task. To address this problem, this study proposes the cascade reservoir input variable selection (CIS) method that searches for the most valuable input variables for decision making in multiple-objectivity cascade reservoir operations. From a case study of Hanjiang cascade reservoirs in China, we derive reservoir operating rules based on the combination of CIS and Gaussian radial basis functions (RBFs) methods and optimize the rules through Pareto-archived dynamically dimensioned search (PA-DDS) with two objectives: to maximize both power generation and water supply. We select the most effective input variables and evaluate their impacts on cascade reservoir operations. From the simulated trajectories of reservoir water level, power generation, and water supply, we analyze the multiobjective operating rules with several input variables. The results demonstrate that the CIS method performs well in the selection of input variables for the cascade reservoir operation, and the RBFs method can fully express the nonlinear operating rules for cascade reservoirs. We conclude that the CIS method is an effective and stable approach to identifying the most valuable information from a large number of candidate input variables. While the reservoir storage state is the most valuable information for the Hanjiang cascade reservoir multiobjective operation, the reservoir inflow is the most effective input variable for the single-objective operation of Danjiangkou.

  19. Impact of Reservoir Operation to the Inflow Flood - a Case Study of Xinfengjiang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Building of reservoir shall impact the runoff production and routing characteristics, and changes the flood formation. This impact, called as reservoir flood effect, could be divided into three parts, including routing effect, volume effect and peak flow effect, and must be evaluated in a whole by using hydrological model. After analyzing the reservoir flood formation, the Liuxihe Model for reservoir flood forecasting is proposed. The Xinfengjiang Reservoir is studied as a case. Results show that the routing effect makes peak flow appear 4 to 6 hours in advance, volume effect is bigger for large flood than small one, and when rainfall focus on the reservoir area, this effect also increases peak flow largely, peak flow effect makes peak flow increase 6.63% to 8.95%. Reservoir flood effect is obvious, which have significant impact to reservoir flood. If this effect is not considered in the flood forecasting model, the flood could not be forecasted accurately, particularly the peak flow. Liuxihe Model proposed for Xinfengjiang Reservoir flood forecasting has a good performance, and could be used for real-time flood forecasting of Xinfengjiang Reservoir.Key words: Reservoir flood effect, reservoir flood forecasting, physically based distributed hydrological model, Liuxihe Model, parameter optimization

  20. Development of a national, dynamic reservoir-sedimentation database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.R.; Bernard, J.M.; Stewart, D.W.; McFaul, E.J.; Laurent, K.W.; Schwarz, G.E.; Stinson, J.T.; Jonas, M.M.; Randle, T.J.; Webb, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of dependable, long-term water supplies, coupled with the need to quantify rates of capacity loss of the Nation’s re servoirs due to sediment deposition, were the most compelling reasons for developing the REServoir- SEDimentation survey information (RESSED) database and website. Created under the auspices of the Advisory Committee on Water Information’s Subcommittee on Sedimenta ion by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the RESSED database is the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir bathymetric and dry-basin surveys in the United States. As of March 2010, the database, which contains data compiled on the 1950s vintage Soil Conservation Service’s Form SCS-34 data sheets, contained results from 6,616 surveys on 1,823 reservoirs in the United States and two surveys on one reservoir in Puerto Rico. The data span the period 1755–1997, with 95 percent of the surveys performed from 1930–1990. The reservoir surface areas range from sub-hectare-scale farm ponds to 658 km2 Lake Powell. The data in the RESSED database can be useful for a number of purposes, including calculating changes in reservoir-storage characteristics, quantifying sediment budgets, and estimating erosion rates in a reservoir’s watershed. The March 2010 version of the RESSED database has a number of deficiencies, including a cryptic and out-of-date database architecture; some geospatial inaccuracies (although most have been corrected); other data errors; an inability to store all data in a readily retrievable manner; and an inability to store all data types that currently exist. Perhaps most importantly, the March 2010 version of RESSED database provides no publically available means to submit new data and corrections to existing data. To address these and other deficiencies, the Subcommittee on Sedimentation, through the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, began a collaborative project in

  1. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  2. Electrical characteristics of rocks in fractured and caved reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianzhi; Lu, Tao; Zhang, Haining; Jiang, Liming; Liu, Tangyan; Meng, He; Wang, Feifei

    2017-12-01

    The conductive paths formed by fractures and cave in complex reservoirs differ from those formed by pores and throats in clastic rocks. In this paper, a new formation model based on fractured and caved reservoirs is established, and the electrical characteristics of rocks are analyzed with different pore structures using resistance law to understand their effects on rock resistivity. The ratio of fracture width to cave radius (C e value) and fracture dip are employed to depict pore structure in this model. Our research shows that the electrical characteristics of rocks in fractured and caved reservoirs are strongly affected by pore structure and porous fluid distribution. Although the rock electrical properties associated with simple pore structure agree well with Archie formulae, the relationships between F and φ or between I and S w , in more complicated pore structures, are nonlinear in double logarithmic coordinates. The parameters in Archie formulae are not constant and they depend on porosity and fluid saturation. Our calculations suggest that the inclined fracture may lead to resistivity anisotropy in the formation. The bigger dip the inclining fracture has, the more anisotropy the formation resistivity has. All of these studies own practical sense for the evaluation of oil saturation using resistivity logging data.

  3. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  4. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves

  5. Monitoring programme of water reservoir Grliste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovic, M; Milenkovic, P.; Lukic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of surface waters is a very important problem incorporated in the environment protection, especially in water resources. The Timok border-land hasn't got sufficient underground and surface waters. This is certificated by the International Association for Water Resource. That was reason for building the water reservoir 'Grliste'. Drinking water from water reservoir 'Grliste' supplies Zajecar and the surroundings. (author)

  6. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... depressing the brake pedal or treadle valve to the limit of its travel. (c) Safeguarding of air and vacuum... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.50 Reservoirs required. (a) Reservoir capacity for air-braked... driver to make a full service brake application with the engine stopped without depleting the air...

  7. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  8. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations

  9. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  10. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  11. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  12. Incorporating EM Inversion into Reservoir Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirianto, M.; Mulder, W.A.; Slob, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the application of controlled source electromagnetics for reservoir monitoring on land, the timelapse signal measured with a surface-to-surface acquisition can reveal the lateral extent on the surface of resistivity changes at depth in a hydrocarbon reservoir under production. However, a direct

  13. Multiscale ensemble filtering for reservoir engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawniczak, W.; Hanea, R.G.; Heemink, A.; McLaughlin, D.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir management requires periodic updates of the simulation models using the production data available over time. Traditionally, validation of reservoir models with production data is done using a history matching process. Uncertainties in the data, as well as in the model, lead to a nonunique

  14. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  15. 3D Geostatistical Modeling and Uncertainty Analysis in a Carbonate Reservoir, SW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of geostatistical reservoir characterization is to utilize wide variety of data, in different scales and accuracies, to construct reservoir models which are able to represent geological heterogeneities and also quantifying uncertainties by producing numbers of equiprobable models. Since all geostatistical methods used in estimation of reservoir parameters are inaccurate, modeling of “estimation error” in form of uncertainty analysis is very important. In this paper, the definition of Sequential Gaussian Simulation has been reviewed and construction of stochastic models based on it has been discussed. Subsequently ranking and uncertainty quantification of those stochastically populated equiprobable models and sensitivity study of modeled properties have been presented. Consequently, the application of sensitivity analysis on stochastic models of reservoir horizons, petrophysical properties, and stochastic oil-water contacts, also their effect on reserve, clearly shows any alteration in the reservoir geometry has significant effect on the oil in place. The studied reservoir is located at carbonate sequences of Sarvak Formation, Zagros, Iran; it comprises three layers. The first one which is located beneath the cap rock contains the largest portion of the reserve and other layers just hold little oil. Simulations show that average porosity and water saturation of the reservoir is about 20% and 52%, respectively.

  16. Sediment pollution characteristics and in situ control in a deep drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zizhen; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Yang; Ma, Weixing; Zhou, Shilei; Long, Shenghai

    2017-02-01

    Sediment pollution characteristics, in situ sediment release potential, and in situ inhibition of sediment release were investigated in a drinking water reservoir. Results showed that organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in sediments increased from the reservoir mouth to the main reservoir. Fraction analysis indicated that nitrogen in ion exchangeable form and NaOH-extractable P (Fe/Al-P) accounted for 43% and 26% of TN and TP in sediments of the main reservoir. The Risk Assessment Code for metal elements showed that Fe and Mn posed high to very high risk. The results of the in situ reactor experiment in the main reservoir showed the same trends as those observed in the natural state of the reservoir in 2011 and 2012; the maximum concentrations of total OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn reached 4.42mg/L, 3.33mg/L, 0.22mg/L, 2.56mg/L, and 0.61mg/L, respectively. An in situ sediment release inhibition technology, the water-lifting aerator, was utilized in the reservoir. The results of operating the water-lifting aerator indicated that sediment release was successfully inhibited and that OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn in surface sediment could be reduced by 13.25%, 15.23%, 14.10%, 5.32%, and 3.94%, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    effect on radiocarbon dating in an estuarine environment is examined. Here, freshwater influence causes reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 14C years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. The examples in this study show clearly that the freshwater reservoir effect can seriously corrupt radiocarbon......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  18. Reservoir formation mechanism analysis and deep high-quality reservoir prediction in Yingcheng Formation in Longfengshan area of Songliao Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial gas flow was produced in several wells with recent years' exploration of Longfengshan area in Changling fault sag, the formation mechanism and controlling factors for high-quality reservoirs still remained undefined. Here, the Yingcheng tight gas reservoirs of Longfengshan area are used as an example to characterize high-quality reservoir formation mechanism and distribution rules. Based on the thin section, SEM, X-ray diffraction, computed tomography (CT scanning, burial history, constant-rate mercury penetration and physical properties testing, formation mechanism and controlling factors for high-quality reservoirs were analyzed. Results show the following characteristics. First, the reservoir is dominated by chlorite and laumontite cements, and compaction is the most important factor to control reservoir physical properties. According to this, the reservoir can be divided into compacted tight sandstones, chlorite-cemented sandstones and laumontite-cemented sandstones. Second, the high-quality reservoirs are formed due to early extensive laumontite precipitation and the later dissolution of laumontite by organic acid. Meanwhile, it is found that the distribution of cementation and dissolution exhibits some regulations in sedimentary facies, and the distribution is mainly effected and controlled by the lake water and charging of fresh water. Besides, the distribution model of various types of sandstones was established. Studies over diagenesis and sedimentary facies reveal that the high-quality laumontite-cemented sandstones exist in the outside subaqueous fan-delta of the deep sag in Longfengshan area. These findings have been validated by recent exploration wells which obtained high industrial gas flow.

  19. Some practical aspects of reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Cole, E.L.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The practical essence of reservoir management is the optimal application of available resources-people, equipment, technology, and money to maximize profitability and recovery. Success must include knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system, (2) the technologies available, and (3) the reservoir management business environment. Two Reservoir Management Demonstration projects (one in a small, newly-discovered field and one in a large, mature water-flood) implemented by the Department of Energy through BDM-Oklahoma illustrate the diversity of situations suited for reservoir management efforts. Project teams made up of experienced engineers, geoscientists, and other professionals arrived at an overall reservoir management strategy for each field. in 1993, Belden & Blake Corporation discovered a regionally significant oil reservoir (East Randolph Field) in the Cambrian Rose Run formation in Portage County, Ohio. Project objectives are to improve field operational economics and optimize oil recovery. The team focused on characterizing the reservoir geology and analyzing primary production and reservoir data to develop simulation models. Historical performance was simulated and predictions were made to assess infill drilling, water flooding, and gas repressurization. The Citronelle Field, discovered in 1955 in Mobile County, Alabama, has produced 160 million barrels from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Rodessa formation. Project objectives are to address improving recovery through waterflood optimization and problems related to drilling, recompletions, production operations, and regulatory and environmental issues. Initial efforts focused on defining specific problems and on defining a geographic area within the field where solutions might best be pursued. Geologic and reservoir models were used to evaluate past performance and to investigate improved recovery operations.

  20. The Alphabet Soup of HIV Reservoir Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Radwa R; Li, Jonathan Z

    2017-04-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy in suppressing HIV, life-long therapy is required to avoid HIV reactivation from long-lived viral reservoirs. Currently, there is intense interest in searching for therapeutic interventions that can purge the viral reservoir to achieve complete remission in HIV patients off antiretroviral therapy. The evaluation of such interventions relies on our ability to accurately and precisely measure the true size of the viral reservoir. In this review, we assess the most commonly used HIV reservoir assays, as a clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each is vital for the accurate interpretation of results and for the development of improved assays. The quantification of intracellular or plasma HIV RNA or DNA levels remains the most commonly used tests for the characterization of the viral reservoir. While cost-effective and high-throughput, these assays are not able to differentiate between replication-competent or defective fractions or quantify the number of infected cells. Viral outgrowth assays provide a lower bound for the fraction of cells that can produce infectious virus, but these assays are laborious, expensive and substantially underestimate the potential reservoir of replication-competent provirus. Newer assays are now available that seek to overcome some of these problems, including full-length proviral sequencing, inducible HIV RNA assays, ultrasensitive p24 assays and murine adoptive transfer techniques. The development and evaluation of strategies for HIV remission rely upon our ability to accurately and precisely quantify the size of the remaining viral reservoir. At this time, all current HIV reservoir assays have drawbacks such that combinations of assays are generally needed to gain a more comprehensive view of the viral reservoir. The development of novel, rapid, high-throughput assays that can sensitively quantify the levels of the replication-competent HIV reservoir is still needed.

  1. Reservoir Identification: Parameter Characterization or Feature Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The ultimate goal of oil and gas exploration is to find the oil or gas reservoirs with industrial mining value. Therefore, the core task of modern oil and gas exploration is to identify oil or gas reservoirs on the seismic profiles. Traditionally, the reservoir is identify by seismic inversion of a series of physical parameters such as porosity, saturation, permeability, formation pressure, and so on. Due to the heterogeneity of the geological medium, the approximation of the inversion model and the incompleteness and noisy of the data, the inversion results are highly uncertain and must be calibrated or corrected with well data. In areas where there are few wells or no well, reservoir identification based on seismic inversion is high-risk. Reservoir identification is essentially a classification issue. In the identification process, the underground rocks are divided into reservoirs with industrial mining value and host rocks with non-industrial mining value. In addition to the traditional physical parameters classification, the classification may be achieved using one or a few comprehensive features. By introducing the concept of seismic-print, we have developed a new reservoir identification method based on seismic-print analysis. Furthermore, we explore the possibility to use deep leaning to discover the seismic-print characteristics of oil and gas reservoirs. Preliminary experiments have shown that the deep learning of seismic data could distinguish gas reservoirs from host rocks. The combination of both seismic-print analysis and seismic deep learning is expected to be a more robust reservoir identification method. The work was supported by NSFC under grant No. 41430323 and No. U1562219, and the National Key Research and Development Program under Grant No. 2016YFC0601

  2. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  3. A non-reflecting boundary condition for the finite element modeling of infinite reservoir with layered sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Indrani; Maity, Damodar

    2006-10-01

    The design of seismic resistant concrete gravity dam necessitates accurate determination of hydrodynamic pressure developed in the adjacent reservoir. The hydrodynamic pressure developed on structure is dependent on the physical characteristics of the boundaries surrounding the reservoir including reservoir bottom. The sedimentary material in the reservoir bottom absorbs energy at the bottom, which will affect the hydrodynamic pressure at the upstream face of the dam. The fundamental parameter characterizing the effect of absorption of hydrodynamic pressure waves at the reservoir bottom due to sediment is the reflection coefficient. The wave reflection coefficient is determined from parameters based on sediment layer thickness, its material properties and excitation frequencies. An analytical or a closed-form solution cannot account for the arbitrary geometry of the dam or reservoir bed profile. This problem can be efficiently tackled with finite element technique. The need for an accurate truncation boundary is felt to reduce the computational domain of the unbounded reservoir system. An efficient truncation boundary condition (TBC) which accounts for the reservoir bottom effect is proposed for the finite element analysis of infinite reservoir. The results show the efficiency of the proposed truncation boundary condition.

  4. Paleogeographic evolution of carbonate reservoirs: geological and geophysical analysis at the Albian Campos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela; Favoreto, Julia; Roemers-Oliveira, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    An integrated geophysical and geological analysis of a carbonate reservoir can offer an effective method to better understand the paleogeographical evolution and distribution of a geological reservoir and non-reservoir facies. Therefore, we propose a better method for obtaining geological facies from geophysical facies, helping to characterize the permo-porous system of this kind of play. The goal is to determine the main geological phases from a specific hydrocarbon producer (Albian Campos Basin, Brazil). The applied method includes the use of a petrographic and qualitative description from the integrated reservoir with seismic interpretation of an attribute map (energy, root mean square, mean amplitude, maximum negative amplitude, etc), all calculated at the Albian level for each of the five identified phases. The studied carbonate reservoir is approximately 6 km long with a main direction of NE-SW, and it was sub-divided as follows (from bottom to top): (1) the first depositional sequence of the bank was composed mainly of packstone, indicating that the local structure adjacent to the main bank is protected from environmental conditions; (2) characterized by the presence of grainstone developed at the higher structure; (3) the main sequence of the peloidal packstone with mudstones oncoids; (4) corresponds to the oil production of carbonate reservoirs formed by oolitic grainstone deposited at the top of the carbonate bank; at this phase, rising sea levels formed channels that connected the open sea shelf with the restricted circulation shelf; and (5) mudstone and wackestone represent the system’s flooding phase.

  5. The reservoir engineering report in financial transactions: 'a useful tool - neither panacea nor placebo'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    The important role that independent reservoir engineering reports play in the oil and gas industry, was discussed. Among other things, such reports often form the basis upon which oil and gas properties are valued, bought and sold, and of course, they are necessary for the industry to gain access to sources of capital. However, interpretation plays a critical role in the process, and very different conclusions can be drawn by equally reputable and qualified engineers. Because of this, financial investors insist upon independent reservoir engineering reports (and then frequently ignore the limitations and qualifications which are stated in the report). Some of the important limitations stated in reservoir engineering reports were discussed, along with the risks inherent in reservoir engineering reports, and the strategies for minimizing those risks. The engineer's professional responsibilities and potential liabilities in the matter of reserves estimates, were re-stated

  6. Bathymetry of Ashokan, Cannonsville, Neversink, Pepacton, Rondout, and Schoharie Reservoirs, New York, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    Drinking water for New York City is supplied from several large reservoirs, including a system of reservoirs west of the Hudson River. To provide updated reservoir capacity tables and bathymetry maps of the City’s six West of Hudson reservoirs, bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2013 to 2015. Depths were surveyed with a single-beam echo sounder and real-time kinematic global positioning system along planned transects at predetermined intervals for each reservoir. A separate quality assurance dataset of echo sounder points was collected along transects at oblique angles to the main transects for accuracy assessment. Field-survey data were combined with water surface elevations in a geographic information system to create three-dimensional surfaces in the form of triangulated irregular networks (TINs) representing the elevations of the reservoir geomorphology. The TINs were linearly enforced to better represent geomorphic features within the reservoirs. The linearly enforced TINs were then used to create raster surfaces and 2-foot-interval contour maps of the reservoirs. Elevation-area-capacity tables were calculated at 0.01-foot intervals. The results of the surveys show that the total capacity of the West of Hudson reservoirs has decreased by 11.5 billion gallons (Ggal), or 2.3 percent, since construction, and the useable capacity (the volume above the minimum operating level required to deliver full flow for drinking water supply) has decreased by 7.9 Ggal (1.7 percent). The available capacity (the volume between the spillway elevation and the lowest intake or sill elevation used for drinking water supply) decreased by 9.6 Ggal (2.0 percent), and dead storage (the volume below the lowest intake or sill elevation) decreased by 1.9 Ggal (11.6 percent).

  7. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  8. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    2010-05-01

    Conventional reservoir simulation and modeling is a bottom-up approach. It starts with building a geological model of the reservoir that is populated with the best available petrophysical and geophysical information at the time of development. Engineering fluid flow principles are added and solved numerically so as to arrive at a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir model is calibrated using the production history of multiple wells and the history matched model is used to strategize field development in order to improve recovery. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling approaches the reservoir simulation and modeling from an opposite angle by attempting to build a realization of the reservoir starting with the measured well production behavior (history). The production history is augmented by core, log, well test and seismic data in order to increase the accuracy of the Top-Down modeling technique. Although not intended as a substitute for the conventional reservoir simulation of large, complex fields, this novel approach to reservoir modeling can be used as an alternative (at a fraction of the cost) to conventional reservoir simulation and modeling in cases where performing conventional modeling is cost (and man-power) prohibitive. In cases where a conventional model of a reservoir already exists, Top-Down modeling should be considered as a compliment to, rather than a competition for the conventional technique, to provide an independent look at the data coming from the reservoir/wells for optimum development strategy and recovery enhancement. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling starts with well-known reservoir engineering techniques such as Decline Curve Analysis, Type Curve Matching, History Matching using single well numerical reservoir simulation, Volumetric Reserve Estimation and calculation of Recovery Factors for all the wells (individually) in the field. Using statistical techniques multiple Production Indicators (3, 6, and 9 months cum

  9. An experimental unification of reservoir computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; D'Haene, M; Stroobandt, D

    2007-04-01

    Three different uses of a recurrent neural network (RNN) as a reservoir that is not trained but instead read out by a simple external classification layer have been described in the literature: Liquid State Machines (LSMs), Echo State Networks (ESNs) and the Backpropagation Decorrelation (BPDC) learning rule. Individual descriptions of these techniques exist, but a overview is still lacking. Here, we present a series of experimental results that compares all three implementations, and draw conclusions about the relation between a broad range of reservoir parameters and network dynamics, memory, node complexity and performance on a variety of benchmark tests with different characteristics. Next, we introduce a new measure for the reservoir dynamics based on Lyapunov exponents. Unlike previous measures in the literature, this measure is dependent on the dynamics of the reservoir in response to the inputs, and in the cases we tried, it indicates an optimal value for the global scaling of the weight matrix, irrespective of the standard measures. We also describe the Reservoir Computing Toolbox that was used for these experiments, which implements all the types of Reservoir Computing and allows the easy simulation of a wide range of reservoir topologies for a number of benchmarks.

  10. Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Constrained by Seismic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Alfhild Lien

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict future production of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir, it is important to have a good description of the reservoir in terms of geometry and physical parameters. This description is used as input to large numerical models for the fluid flow in the reservoir. With increased quality of seismic data, it is becoming possible to extend their use from the study of large geologic structures such as seismic horizons to characterization of the properties of the reservoir between the horizons. Uncertainties because of the low resolution of seismic data can be successfully handled by means of stochastic modeling, and spatial statistics can provide tools for interpolation and simulation of reservoir properties not completely resolved by seismic data. This thesis deals with stochastic reservoir modeling conditioned to seismic data and well data. Part I presents a new model for stochastic reservoir characterization conditioned to seismic traces. Part II deals with stochastic simulation of high resolution impedance conditioned to measured impedance. Part III develops a new stochastic model for calcite cemented objects in a sandstone background; it is a superposition of a marked point model for the calcites and a continuous model for the background.

  11. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  12. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  13. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  14. The First Israeli Hydro-Electric Pumped Storage Power Plant Gilboa PSPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruzewski, P., Dr.; Sautereau, T.; Sapir, Y.; Barak, H.; Hénard, F.; Blaix, J.-C.

    2016-11-01

    The Israeli Public Utilities Authority, PUA, decided to increase the instantaneous power available on the grid by adding Pumped Storage Power Plants, PSPP, to the existing generation capacity. PSP Investments Ltd. is a private investor that decided to develop the Gilboa PSPP. Its capacity is 300MWe. The project performance has to comply with PUA regulation for PSPP, and with all relevant Israeli laws and IECo standards. This paper itemizes an overview of the Gilboa PSPP through short summaries of units’ components from design step to manufacturing processes.

  15. The future role of hydro-electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazenby, J.B.C.

    1989-01-01

    Hydroelectric power currently supplies 56-93% of the electricity requirements of the different geographic areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and accounted for 73% of total requirements in 1980. The continent is richly endowed with hydro resources in all areas, with central Africa possessing the most abundant reserves. Existing installed hydro capacity is 13,500 MW and of the total technical resource of 290,000 MW, some 110,000 MW are estimated to constitute the potential that warrants investigation. The demand for electricity in the region is presently low and growing at 5-10%/y. It is projected to double from 47,000 GWh in 1980 to 110,000-170,000 GWh by the year 2000, and is likely to double again by 2020. Hydro reserves warranting investigation exceed the demand projected for the year 2000 by a ratio of over 3:1 and only 13 countries out of 36 have a ratio less than one. A large proportion of these reserves are estimated to be economic to develop relative to other means of power generation. The development of hydro resources should maintain the proportion of the demand met by hydro in the range of 60-75% well into the 21st century. The existing installed capacity is likely to be increased at the rate of 3,000-5,000 MW per decade to achieve this. Constraints on such increase include the large amounts of capital needed, environmental issues, the need to displace populations affected by flooding, and fluctuations in the oil price which make long-term planning uncertain. 5 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  16. Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board 52. annual report : Building as one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A provincial Crown corporation, Manitoba Hydro serves approximately 502,000 customers throughout Manitoba with electric energy, and provides natural gas service to 251,000 customers in several communities in southern Manitoba. In addition, Manitoba Hydro exports electricity to electric utilities and marketers in the mid-western United States, Ontario, and Saskatchewan. In 2002, Winnipeg Hydro was purchased from the City of Winnipeg. Records were broken for historical peak demand for electricity (24 February 2003) and natural gas (22 January 2003). A study of wind power generation was launched, with seven sites being monitored. A Power Smart program focusing on geothermal heat pump systems also offered assistance to Manitoba homeowners. Successful conversion of the Selkirk Generating Station from coal to natural gas was achieved. In Brandon, a 260 mega watt (MW) natural gas combustion turbine plant was opened. Over $29 million in loans were issued to customers under the Home Comfort and Energy Savings Program. Electricity rates for residential customers remained unchanged, as did those for large industrial customers. Approval was received by the National Energy Board to export 500 MW of electricity to Northern States Power. A new international interconnection was brought into service in November 2002 between Glenboro, Manitoba and Harvey, North Dakota. The ISO 14001 international certification for environmental management systems was awarded to Manitoba Hydro. tabs., figs

  17. Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen Lai

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

  18. Perceived risk of nuclear and hydro electrical power generation in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report deals with the estimation of risk factors of hydro plants and the perception of risks and benefits of nuclear, hydropower and coal by a selected part of the public. Historical data (1922 - 1979) on occurrence of earthquakes in Colombia demonstrate high seismicity (3,489 incidents) for the country in total and also for areas where the majority of hydro projects are to be located. Model-based calculations of regional probabilities for earthquakes at prospective dam-sites with a magnitude of 7 (Richter scale) or larger resulted in p=0.038/year for a 50 year recurrence period for high and p=0.0004/year for low seismicity areas. Attitudes towards three energy systems were elicited from 130 university students and graduates with a questionnaire based on a psychometric model. Generally attitudes were most favourable towards hydro, less favourable towards coal and more critical towards nuclear. Nuclear is perceived to have economic advantages, but to pose environmental, individual and societal risks. Respondents PRO and CON nuclear agree on the lack of risk from hydropower

  19. Gasbuggy reservoir evaluation - 1969 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, C.H.; Ward, Don C.; Lemon, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    The December 10, 1967, Project Gasbuggy nuclear detonation followed the drilling and testing of two exploratory wells which confirmed reservoir characteristics and suitability of the site. Reentry and gas production testing of the explosive emplacement hole indicated a collapse chimney about 150 feet in diameter extending from the 4,240-foot detonation depth to about 3,900 feet, the top of the 300-foot-thick Pictured Cliffs gas sand. Production tests of the chimney well in the summer of 1968 and during the last 12 months have resulted in a cumulative production of 213 million cubic feet of hydrocarbons, and gas recovery in 20 years is estimated to be 900 million cubic feet, which would be an increase by a factor of at least 5 over estimated recovery from conventional field wells in this low permeability area. At the end of production tests the flow rate was 160,000 cubic feet per day, which is 6 to 7 times that of an average field well in the area. Data from reentry of a pre-shot test well and a new postshot well at distances from the detonation of 300 and 250 feet, respectively, indicate low productivity and consequently low permeability in any fractures at these locations. (author)

  20. 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, B.G.; Cowie, D.M.

    2005-01-15

    Formed in 1979 after the completion of the Peace Canyon Dam, Dinosaur Reservoir is 21 km long and backs water up to the tailrace of W.A.C. Bennett Dam. BC Hydro has funded studies to evaluate fish stocking programs and assess habitat limitations and potential enhancements as part of a water licence agreement. The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Programs (PWFWCP) have undertaken a number of projects to address fish habitat limitations, entrainment and stocking assessments as a result of recommendations stemming from these studies. It was determined that existing baseline fish data was needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of these activities. A preliminary boat electro-fishing program which was started in October 2001, noted that a propensity for rainbow trout to concentrate near woody debris. In response, a program was started in 2002 to add woody debris to embayment areas throughout the reservoir. These enhanced woody debris structures are located in small sheltered bays and consist of a series of large trees cabled together and anchored to the shore. The area between the cabled trees and the shoreline is filled with woody debris and root wads collected from along the shoreline. The 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir presents the findings from a study that compares the number of fish captured using trap nets, angling, and minnow traps, at the woody debris structures to sites with similar physical characteristics where woody debris had not been added. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Impact of Fish Farming on Phosphorus in Reservoir Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Binyang; Tang, Ya; Tian, Liyan; Franz, Leander; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-11-18

    Fish farming has seriously influenced the aquatic environment in Sancha reservoir in SW China since 1985 and has been strongly restricted since 2005. Thus, phosphorus speciation in a sediment core dated between 1945 and 2010 at cm-resolution and in surface sediments from Sancha reservoir may allow us track how fish farming impacts phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments. Fish farming shifts the major binding forms of phosphorus in sediments from organic to residual phosphorus, which mostly originated from fish feed. Sorption to metal oxides and association with organic matters are important mechanisms for phosphorus immobilisation with low fish farming activities, whereas calcium-bound phosphorous had an essential contribution to sediment phosphorus increases under intensive fish framing. Notwithstanding the shifting, the aforementioned phosphorus fractions are usually inert in the lake environment, therefore changing phosphorus mobility little. The use of fish feed and water-purification reagents, the most important additives for fish farming, introduce not only phosphorus but also large amounts of sand-sized minerals such as quartz into the lake, to which phosphorus weakly sorbs. The sand-sized minerals as additional sorbents increase the pool of easily mobilisable phosphorus in sediments, which will slow down the recovery of reservoir water due to its rapid re-mobilisation.

  2. PHOSPHORUS CONTAMINATION AS A BARRIER TO WATER QUALITY OF SMALL RETENTION RESERVOIRS IN PODLASIE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ewa Szczykowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dam retention reservoirs created on the rivers play a special role as an environmentally friendly forms of stopping and slowing of water runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water flowing into small retention reservoirs in terms of the concentration of total phosphorus and phosphates. The study involved three small retention reservoirs located in the municipalities of: Bransk, Dubicze Cerkiewne and Kleszczele in Podlasie region. Selection of the research facilities was made due to the similarity in the soil management type within catchment of the flowing watercourse, retained water utilization ways, and a small surface of reservoirs. Watercourse reaching the reservoir provides biogens along with water, which directly affect the water quality resulting in high concentrations in water, either indirectly by initiating or accelerating the process of degradation of the reservoir and the loss of its usability. Given the concentration of total phosphorus, it can be said that only in the case of 20.8% of water samples from Nurzec river feeding the Otapy-Kiersnówek reservoir, about 25% of water samples of Orlanka river feeding Bachmaty reservoir, and 17% of samples taken from the watercourse supplying Repczyce reservoir, corresponded to values specified for the second class in the current Regulation of the Minister of the Environment [Regulation 2014]. It can be assumed that this situation is caused by a long-term fertilization using manure, which in consequence led to the oversaturation of soils and phosphorus compounds penetration into the river waters in areas used for agricultural purposes. Especially in the early spring periods, rising temperature together with rainfall caused soil thawing resulting in increasing concentrations of contaminants carried along with the washed soil particles during the surface and subsurface runoff. Values of TSI(TP calculated for Otapy-Kiersnówek reservoir amounted to 112.4 in hydrological

  3. The Role and Behavior of Exsolved Volatiles in Magma Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Woods, A.

    2016-12-01

    There is an abundance of evidence for complex, vertically protracted and frequently recharged magma reservoirs in a range of tectonic settings. Geophysical evidence suggests that vertically protracted mushy zones with liquid-rich regions may extend throughout much of the crust and even beyond the Moho. Geochemical evidence suggests that magma mixing, as well as extensive fractional crystallization, dominates the differentiation of crystal-rich magmas. These magmas may reside for long timescales close to their solidus temperatures in the crust before being recharged by mafic magmas, which supply heat and volatiles. The volatile budgets and gas emissions associated with eruptions from these long-lived reservoirs typically show that there is an abundance of magmatic vapor emitted, far above that expected from syn-eruptive degassing of the erupted, crystal-rich intermediate or evolved melts. Eruptions are often associated with muted ground deformation, far less than expected to account for the volumes erupted, suggesting a compressible magma. Breccia pipes in a number of mafic layered intrusion settings, thought to be the expression of diatreme-like volcanism, testify to the importance of gas overpressure in slowly crystallizing magmas. These observations are all consistent with the existence of a substantial fraction of exsolved magmatic vapor throughout much of the upper crustal zones of the magma reservoir, which holds much of the sulfur, as well as carbon dioxide, chlorine and metal species. Reconstruction of the distribution and form of this exsolved vapor phase is a challenge, as there is little geochemical record in the erupted rocks, beyond that which may be established from melt inclusion studies. The most promising approach to understand the distribution and role of exsolved vapor in magma reservoir dynamics is through analogue experiments, which have yielded valuable insights into the role of crystals in modulating gas storage and flow in the plutonic and

  4. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R. [BDM Federal, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sawyer, W.K. [Mathematical and Computer Services, Inc., Danville, VA (United States); Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  5. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces.

  6. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  7. Distribution and structure of internal secretory reservoirs on the vegetative organs of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and topography of endogenous secretory tissues of Inula helenium L. By using light and electron microscopy, morphological and anatomical observations of stems, leaves and rhizomes were made. It was shown that in the stems secretory cavities were situated in the vicinity of phloem and xylem bundles. The number of the reservoirs reached its maximum value (34 at shoot flowerig termination, whereas the cavities with the largest diameter were observed at full flowering stage (44.6 µm. In the leaf petioles and midribs, the reservoirs also accompanied the vascular bundles, and their number and size increased along with the growth of the assimilation organs. Observations of the cross sections of the rhizomes revealed the presence of several rings of secretory reservoirs. The measurements of the cavities showed that as a rule the reservoirs with a larger dimension were located in the phelloderm, whereas the smallest ones in the xylem area. The secretory cavities located in the stems and leaves developed by schizogenesis, whereas the rhizome reservoirs were probably formed schizolisygenously. The cells lining the reservoirs formed a one - four-layered epithelium. Observed in TEM, the secretory cells of the mature cavities located in the rhizomes were characterised by the presence of a large central vacuole, whereas the protoplast was largely degraded. Fibrous elements of osmophilic secretion and numerous different coloured vesicles could be distinguished in it. The cell walls formed, from the side of the reservoir lumen, ingrowths into the interior of the epithelial cells. Between the cell wall and the plasmalemma of the glandular cells, a brighter periplasmatic zone with secretory vesicles was observed.

  8. Zooplankton assemblage of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    The influence of physico-chemical properties of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a shallow tropical African reservoir) on its zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated at three stations for two years between January 2002 and December 2003. Diversity is not high: only three groups of zooplankton were found: Rotifera with eight genera; and Cladocera and Copepoda with three genera each. Rotifera dominated numerically (71.02%), followed by Cladocera (16.45%) and Copepoda (12.53%). The zooplankton was more prevalent during the rainy season, and there were variations in the composition and abundance along the reservoir continuum. Factors such as temperature, nutrients, food availability, shape and hydrodynamics of the reservoir, as well as reproductive strategies of the organisms, strongly influence the generic composition and population density of zooplankton. Prevention of ecological deterioration of the water body would greatly should result in a more productive water body, rich in zooplankton and with better fisheries.

  9. Hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalachori, Ioanna; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologic forecasting is a topic of special importance for a variety of users with different purposes. It concerns operational hydrologists interested in forecasting hazardous events (eg., floods and droughts) for early warning and prevention, as well as planners and managers searching to optimize the management of water resources systems at different space-time scales. The general aim of this study is to investigate the benefits of using hydrological ensemble predictions for reservoir inflow management. Ensemble weather forecasts are used as input to a hydrologic forecasting model and daily ensemble streamflow forecasts are generated up to a lead time of 7 days. Forecasts are then integrated into a heuristic decision model for reservoir management procedures. Performance is evaluated in terms of potential gain in energy production. The sensitivity of the results to various reservoir characteristics and future streamflow scenarios is assessed. A set of 11 catchments in France is used to illustrate the added value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for reservoir management.

  10. Measuring the latent reservoir in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanella, Marta; Richman, Douglas D.

    2016-01-01

    Current efforts toward achieving a cure for HIV are focused on developing strategies to eliminate latently infected CD4+ T cells, which represent the major barrier to virus eradication. Sensitive, precise, and practical assays that can reliably characterize and measure this HIV reservoir and can reliably measure the impact of a candidate treatment strategy are essential. PCR-based procedures for detecting integrated HIV DNA will overestimate the size of the reservoir by detecting replication-incompetent proviruses; however, viral outgrowth assays underestimate the size of the reservoir. Here, we describe the attributes and limitations of current procedures for measuring the HIV reservoir. Characterizing their relative merits will require rigorous evaluation of their performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, etc.) and their relationship to the results of clinical studies. PMID:26829625

  11. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafalda, Viana; Rebecca, Mancy; Roman, Biek; Sarah, Cleaveland; Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Daniel T, Haydon

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  12. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  13. Destratification of an impounding reservoir using compressed air??case of Mudi reservoir, Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipofya, V. H.; Matapa, E. J.

    This paper reviews the operational and cost effectiveness of a compressed air destratification system that was installed in the Mudi reservoir for destratifying the reservoir. Mudi reservoir is a raw water source for the Blantyre Water Board. It has a capacity of 1,400,000 cubic metres. The reservoir is 15.3 m deep at top water level. In the absence of any artificial circulation of air, the reservoir stratifies into two layers. There is a warm epilimnion in the top 3 m of the reservoir, with temperatures ranging from 23 to 26 °C. There is prolific algal growth in this layer. The bottom layer has much lower temperatures, and is oxygen deficient. Under such anaerobic conditions, ammonia, sulphides, iron and manganese are released from the sediments of the reservoir. As a result of nutrient inflow from the catchments, coupled with tropical ambient temperatures, the reservoir is most times infested with blue-green algae. This results into water treatment problems in respect of taste and odour and iron and manganese soluble salts. To abate such problems, air is artificially circulated in the reservoir, near the intake tower, through a perforated pipe that is connected to an electrically driven compressor. This causes artificial circulation of water in the hypolimnion region of the reservoir. As a result of this circulation, a hostile environment that inhibits the propagation of algae is created. Dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles are practically uniform from top to bottom of reservoir. Concentrations of iron and manganese soluble salts are much reduced at any of the draw-off points available for the water treatment process. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant cost savings in water treatment that are accrued from the use of compressed air destratification in impounding water storage reservoirs for the control of algae and other chemical pollutants.

  14. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  15. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  16. Flow of a stream through a reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, K.

    1967-01-01

    If a reservoir is fed from a single source, which may not always be pure, the extent to which the inflowing stream mixes with the water in the reservoir is important for the quality of the water supplied by the reservoir. This question was investigated at the Lingese Reservoir, containing between one and two million cubic metres of water, in the Bergisches Land (North Rhine-Westphalia). The investigation was carried out at four different seasons so that the varying effects of the stream-water temperatures could be studied in relation to the temperature of the reservoir water. The stream was radioactively labelled at the point of inflow into the reservoir, and its flow through the reservoir was measured in length and depth from boats, by means of 1-m-long Geiger counters. In two cases the radioactivity of the outflowing water was also measured at fixed points. A considerable variety of intermixing phenomena were observed; these were mainly of limnological interest. The results of four experiments corresponding to the four different seasons are described in detail. They were as follows: (1) The mid-October experiment where the stream, with a temperature of 8.0 deg. C, was a good 5 deg. C colder than the water of the reservoir, whose temperature was almost uniform, ranging from 13.2 deg. C at the bed to 13.6 deg. C at the surface. (2) The spring experiment (second half of March), when the stream temperature was only 0.3 deg. C below that of the reservoir surface (7.8 deg. C), while the temperature of the bed was 5.8 deg. C. (3) The winter experiment (early December) where at first the temperature of the stream was approximately the same as that of the surface so that, once again, the stream at first flowed 1/2 - 1 m below the surface. During the almost wind-free night a sudden fall in temperature occurred, and the air temperature dropped from 0 deg. C to -12 deg. C. (4) The summer experiment (end of July to mid-August) when the stream was nearly 1 deg. C colder than

  17. Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomarian, N.B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Aminzadeh, F. [UNOCAL Corp., Sugarland, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  18. Limits on replenishment of the resting CD4+ T cell reservoir for HIV in patients on HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R Sedaghat

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Whereas cells productively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 decay rapidly in the setting of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, latently infected resting CD4(+ T cells decay very slowly, persisting for the lifetime of the patient and thus forming a stable reservoir for HIV-1. It has been suggested that the stability of the latent reservoir is due to low-level viral replication that continuously replenishes the reservoir despite HAART. Here, we offer the first quantitative study to our knowledge of inflow of newly infected cells into the latent reservoir due to viral replication in the setting of HAART. We make use of a previous observation that in some patients on HAART, the residual viremia is dominated by a predominant plasma clone (PPC of HIV-1 not found in the latent reservoir. The unique sequence of the PPC serves as a functional label for new entries into the reservoir. We employ a simple mathematical model for the dynamics of the latent reservoir to constrain the inflow rate to between 0 and as few as 70 cells per day. The magnitude of the maximum daily inflow rate is small compared to the size of the latent reservoir, and therefore any inflow that occurs in patients on HAART is unlikely to significantly influence the decay rate of the reservoir. These results suggest that the stability of the latent reservoir is unlikely to arise from ongoing replication during HAART. Thus, intensification of standard HAART regimens should have minimal effects on the decay of the latent reservoir.

  19. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is less than 10%. Long-term silting measurements of three small reservoirs were used to evaluate the method described by Rahmanian and Banihashemi for predicting sediment distributions in small reservoirs. Rahmanian and Banihashemi stated that their model of distribution of sediment deposition in water reservoir works well for a long duration operation. In the presented study, the silting rate was used in order to determine the long duration operation. Silting rate is a quotient of volume of the sediment deposited in the reservoir and its original volume. It was stated that when the silting rate had reached 50%, the sediment deposition in the reservoir may be described by an empirical reservoir depth shape function (RDSF.

  20. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  1. A reservoir operating method for riverine ecosystem protection, reservoir sedimentation control and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-An; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Petts, Geoffrey E.; Kondolf, G. Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Riverine ecosystem protection requires the maintenance of natural flow and sediment regimes downstream from dams. In reservoir management schedules this requirement should be integrated with sedimentation control and human water supply. However, traditional eco-friendly reservoir operating methods have usually only considered the natural flow regime. This paper seeks to develop a reservoir operating method that accounts for both the natural flow and sediment regimes as well as optimizing the water supply allocations. Herein, reservoir water level (RWL), sediment-occupied ratio of reservoir volume (SOR) and rate of change of SOR (RCSOR) are adopted as three triggers of a drawdown-flushing-based sediment management policy. Two different groups of reservoir operating rule curves (RORCs) are designed for sediment-flushing and non-sediment-flushing years, and the three triggers, RWL, SOR and RCSOR, are used to change the “static” RORCs to “dynamic” ones. The approach is applied to the Wangkuai Reservoir, China to test its effectiveness. This shows that the approach can improve the flexibility of reservoir operators to balance the reservoir management, water supply management and the flow and sediment needs of the downstream riverine ecosystem.

  2. Evidence for an ancient osmium isotopic reservoir in Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, Anders; Frei, Robert

    2002-04-19

    Iridosmine grains from placer deposits associated with peridotite-bearing ophiolites in the Klamath mountains have extremely radiogenic 186Os/188Os ratios and old Re-Os minimum ages, from 256 to 2644 million years. This indicates the existence of an ancient platinum group element reservoir with a supra-chondritic Pt/Os ratio. Such a ratio may be produced in the outer core as a result of inner core crystallization that fractionates Os from Pt. However, if the iridosmine Os isotopic compositions are a signature of the outer core, then the inner core must have formed very early, within several hundred million years after the accretion of Earth.

  3. Water in chalk reservoirs: 'friend or foe?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth

    2004-01-01

    Most of the petroleum fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are sandstone reservoirs; the oil and gas are trapped in different species of sandstone. But the Ekofisk Field is a chalk reservoir, which really challenges the operator companies. When oil is produced from chalk reservoirs, water usually gets in and the reservoir subsides. The subsidence may be expensive for the oil companies or be used to advantage by increasing the recovery rate. Since 60 per cent of the world's petroleum reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, it is important to understand what happens as oil and gas are pumped out. Comprehensive studies at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Applied Geophysics at Stavanger University College in Norway show that the mechanical properties of chalk are considerably altered when the pores in the rock become saturated with oil/gas or water under different stress conditions. The processes are extremely complex. The article also maintains that the effects of injecting carbon dioxide from gas power plants into petroleum reservoirs should be carefully studied before this is done extensively

  4. The pollution of the 'iron gate' reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic-Mladenovic, M.; Varga, S; Popovic, L.; Damjanovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Iron Gate I (the Djerdap) Water Power and Navigational System, one of the largest in Europe (completed in 1972 by joint efforts of Yugoslavia and Romania). In this paper the attention is devoted to review of the sediment monitoring program and impacts of reservoir sedimentation, as well as to the investigations of water and sediment quality. Special consideration is paid to the issue of sediment pollution research needs. Namely, the hot spot of the 'Iron Gate' sedimentation represents a scarcely known pollution of sediment deposits. The present pollution probably is considerable, since the 'Iron Gate' reservoir drains about 577000 km 2 , with over 80 million inhabitants, and developed municipal and industrial infrastructure. Therefore, in the thirty-year reservoir life various types of sediment-bound pollutants entered and deposited within it. Especially severe incidents happened during 1999 (as a result of NATO bombing campaign) and 2000 (two accidental pollutions in the Tisza river catchment). The study of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir pollution should be prepared in order to enlighten the present state of reservoir sedimentation and pollution. The main objectives of the study are to enhance the government and public awareness of the present environmental state of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir and to serve as a baseline for all future actions. (author)

  5. Reservoir diagenesis research of Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingming Kong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir diagenesis of Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin was studied based on a large number of thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction tests, and some other experiments. Seven diagenetic processes were identified, including compaction, cementation, clay mineral transformation, replacement, dissolution, organic matter thermal maturation, and tectonic disruption. Three kinds of cements (quartz, carbonate and sulfide were recognized, while the source material of quartz cements and the main factor of forming abundant carbonate cements were summed up. According to the single well analysis of the Well N3, it shows that the best, the suboptimal and the none shale reservoir sections were subjected to different diagenetic transformations. As to best shale reservoir, except for compaction, all the main inorganic diagenesis were significantly related to organic matter maturation. Through comprehensive analysis of diagenetic indicators, it is observed that the reservoir has already been in period B of middle diagenetic stage to late diagenetic stage. The inorganic diagenesis has a significant impact on shale reservoir, because it not only controls the conservation, development, and evolution of porosity, but also the mechanical property and the adsorption capacity of rocks. The organic diagenesis is the source material of shale gas, and it generates a large number of nanoporosity in organic matter, which increases the total porosity and the adsorption capacity of the reservoir.

  6. Characterization of microbial community and the alkylscccinate synthase genes in petroleum reservoir fluids of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lei; Mu, Bo-Zhong [University of Science and Technology (China)], email: bzmu@ecust.edu.cn; Gu, Ji-Dong [The University of Hong Kong (China)], email: jdgu@hkucc.hku.hk

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum reservoirs represent a special ecosystem consisting of specific temperature, pressure, salt concentration, oil, gas, water, microorganisms and, enzymes among others. This paper presents the characterization of microbial community and the alkyl succinate synthase genes in petroleum reservoir fluids in China. A few samples were analyzed and the physical and chemical characteristics are given in a tabular form. A flow chart shows the methods and procedures for microbial activities. Six petroleum reservoirs were studied using an archaeal 16S rRNA gene-based approach to establish the presence of archaea and the results are given. The correlation of archaeal and bacterial communities with reservoir conditions and diversity of the arachaeal community in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at different temperatures is also shown. From the study, it can be summarized that, among methane producers, CO2-reducing methanogens are mostly found in oil reservoir ecosystems and as more assA sequences are revealed, more comprehensive molecular probes can be designed to track the activity of anaerobic alkane-degrading organisms in the environment.

  7. Controlling factors of volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs are developed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in Bohai Bay Basin in China. There is more than one hundred million tons of proven oil reserves in the said reservoir. They performed different actors for oil and gas accumulation in the basin. Faults controlled the distribution and accumulation of oil and gas related to volcanic rocks in Bohai Bay Basin. Not to mention, the zone near the faults is favorable for the development of good reservoirs. Volcanic rocks and volcanism can serve several roles during the course of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation. Volcanism can promote hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. Simultaneously, volcanic activity can damage petroleum reservoirs. Volcanic rocks can be both the reservoirs and the cap-rocks or obscured layer in the basin. The occurrence of volcanic rocks in source rocks can form fractures more easily compared to that in sandstones. Finally, volcanic rocks also control the distribution of mantle-derived CO2 gas reservoirs in the basin.

  8. Multi-objective reservoir operation during flood season considering spillway optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Chen, Lu; Zhu, Yonghui; Singh, Vijay P.; Qu, Geng; Guo, Xiaohu

    2017-09-01

    Flood control and hydropower generation are two main functions of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. In this study, a multi-objective operation model for TGR considering these two functions was developed. Since the optimal results of reservoir operation are mostly in the form of gross outflow which is hardly used to directly guide reservoir operation, the optimization of spillways operation was taken into account. For observed historical flood hydrographs and design flood hydrographs, the progressive optimality algorithm (POA) was employed to determine the optimal operation of spillways. For the real-time reservoir operation, a smooth support vector machine (SSVM) model was applied to abstract the optimal operation rules which consider the order and the number of spillways put into use. Results demonstrate that the use of different spillways has a significant impact on reservoir operation. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the order and number of spillways that should be used. Instead of optimizing outflow, direct optimization of the order and number of spillways can yield most reasonable results. The SSVM model simulates the relationship among inflow, water level and outflow satisfactorily and can be used for real-time or short term reservoir operation. Application of the SSVM model can also reduce flood risk and increase hydropower generation during the flood season.

  9. Reservoir compartmentalization and management strategies: Lessons learned in the Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grube, J.P.; Crockett, J.E.; Huff, B.G. [and others

    1997-08-01

    A research project jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Illinois State Geological Survey focused on the Cypress and Aux Vases Formations (Mississippian), major clastic reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Results from the research showed that understanding the nature and distribution of reservoir compartments, and using effective reservoir management strategies, can significantly improve recovery efficiencies from oil fields in this mature basin. Compartments can be most effectively drained where they are geologically well defined and reservoir management practices are coordinated through unified, compartment-wide, development programs. Our studies showed that the Cypress and Aux Vases reservoirs contain lateral and vertical permeability barriers forming compartments that range in size from isolated, interlaminated sandstone and shale beds to sandstone bodies tens of feet in thickness and more than a mile in length. Stacked or shingled, genetically similar sandstone bodies are commonly separated by thin impermeable intervals that can be difficult to distinguish on logs and can, therefore, cause correlation problems, even between wells drilled on spacing of less than ten acres. Lateral separation of sandstone bodies causes similar problems. Reservoir compartmentalization reduces primary and particularly secondary recovery by trapping pockets of by-passed or banked oil. Compartments can be detected by comparing recovery factors of genetically similar sandstone bodies within a field; using packers to separate commingled intervals and analyzing fluid recoveries and pressures; making detailed core-to-log calibrations that identify compartment boundaries; and analyzing pressure data from waterflood programs.

  10. Modelling of Hydropower Reservoir Variables for Energy Generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient management of hydropower reservoir can only be realized when there is sufficient understanding of interactions existing between reservoir variables and energy generation. Reservoir inflow, storage, reservoir elevation, turbine release, net generating had, plant use coefficient, tail race level and evaporation losses ...

  11. Episodic entrainment of primordial material in plumes from isolated lower mantle reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. D.; McNamara, A. K.; Garnero, E. J.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The noble gas systematics observed in ocean island basalts (OIBs) relative to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs), suggests OIBs preferentially sample a primordial reservoir located somewhere within Earth's mantle. The lower mantle has been favored as a candidate reservoir, either in its entirety or discrete reservoirs located within it. Thermal plumes originating from the lower mantle could potentially sample these reservoirs, which may have remained isolated from the MORB source region over much of Earth's history. Recently, seismic observations of two, nearly anti-podal large, low-shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle have been hypothesized as being chemically distinct, and thus, may be long-lived reservoirs that have retained primordial noble gas signatures from earlier in Earth's history. Geodynamic models predict that thermal plumes are likely to be associated with LLSVPs and could potentially entrain a small amount of these chemically distinct reservoirs, which may ultimately reach the surface of the Earth in the form of OIBs. However, isotopic variability within OIBs challenges the notion of multiple plumes tapping the same reservoir. Here, we perform geodynamic calculations that investigate the time-dependent rate of material entrained into thermal plumes from these primordial reservoirs. In particular, we examine how the rate of entrainment varies within a single, long-lived thermal plume with a relatively steady buoyancy flux. Using phase relations for mantle peridotite, the amount of entrained material comprising the melt is estimated. We find that time-dependent dynamical processes at the interface between a deep, primordial reservoir and the base of a mantle plume strongly influences the entrainment rate, causing the amount of entrainment to vary episodically with time. Thus, melts rising to the surface (e.g., OIBs) are predicted to contain variable proportions of material entrained from these primordial reservoirs. This time

  12. Geological Model of Supercritical Geothermal Reservoir on the Top of the Magma Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    We are conducting supercritical geothermal project, and deep drilling project named as "JBBP: Japan Beyond Brittle Project" The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550 °C under lithostatic pressures, and then pressures dropped drastically. The solubility of silica also dropped, resulting in formation of quartz veins under a hydrostatic pressure regime. Connections between the lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure regimes were key to the formation of the hydrothermal breccia veins, and the granite-porphyry system provides useful information for creation of fracture clouds in supercritical geothermal reservoirs. A granite-porphyry system, associated with hydrothermal activity and mineralization, provides a suitable natural analog for studying a deep-seated geothermal reservoir where stockwork fracture systems are created in the presence of supercritical geothermal fluids. I describe fracture networks and their formation mechanisms using petrology and fluid inclusion studies in order to understand this "beyond brittle" supercritical geothermal reservoir, and a geological

  13. Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

  14. Petrologic characteristic and Geological Model of Igneous Reservoir: An example in Zhanhua Seg, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Shao, S.; Kang, R.; Liu, K.

    2003-12-01

    The diabase is a typical igneous rock, which intrude the oil-bearing mudstone and form potential reservoir. As an example of Luo151 igneous rock in Zhanhua Seg, Eastern China, we studied the diabase reservoir in detail, including petrologic analysis, reservoir anisotropy and geological modeling. Four lithofacies zones are divided according to analyzing petrology, texture and structureϻwhich comprise carbonaceous slate, hornfels containing cordierite and grammite, border subfacies and central subfacies, and the petrologic types include carbonaceous slate, hornfels, and diabases. The diabase construction is divided into grammite hornfels micropore and diabase porous-fracture type reservoirs. The mudstone layers in Third Member of Shahejie Formation (Es3) provide favorable hydrocarbon source rock and cap formation, diabase and hornfels belts serve as reservoirs, faults and microcracks in the wall rocks as the pathways for oil and gas migration. The invasive time was about in the later deposition period of Dongying Formation and the middle of that of Guantao Formation, the oil generated from oil source rock of Es3 in the period of the Minghuazhen formation and is earlier more than the period of diabase oil trap and porous space forming.

  15. Beyond the replication-competent HIV reservoir: transcription and translation-competent reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy E; O'Doherty, Una; Kaufmann, Daniel E

    2018-02-02

    Recent years have seen a substantial increase in the number of tools available to monitor and study HIV reservoirs. Here, we discuss recent technological advances that enable an understanding of reservoir dynamics beyond classical assays to measure the frequency of cells containing provirus able to propagate a spreading infection (replication-competent reservoir). Specifically, we focus on the characterization of cellular reservoirs containing proviruses able to transcribe viral mRNAs (so called transcription-competent) and translate viral proteins (translation-competent). We suggest that the study of these alternative reservoirs provides complementary information to classical approaches, crucially at a single-cell level. This enables an in-depth characterization of the cellular reservoir, both following reactivation from latency and, importantly, directly ex vivo at baseline. Furthermore, we propose that the study of cellular reservoirs that may not contain fully replication-competent virus, but are able to produce HIV mRNAs and proteins, is of biological importance. Lastly, we detail some of the key contributions that the study of these transcription and translation-competent reservoirs has made thus far to investigations into HIV persistence, and outline where these approaches may take the field next.

  16. Reservoir architecture and tough gas reservoir potential of fluvial crevasse-splay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Toorenenburg, K.A.; Donselaar, M.E.; Weltje, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional tough gas reservoirs in low-net-to-gross fluvial stratigraphic intervals may constitute a secondary source of fossil energy to prolong the gas supply in the future. To date, however, production from these thin-bedded, fine-grained reservoirs has been hampered by the economic risks

  17. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  18. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  19. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, V; Asael, D; Baland, R M; Baludikay, B K; Beghin, J; Belza, J; Beuthe, M; Breuer, D; Chernonozhkin, S; Claeys, Ph; Cornet, Y; Cornet, L; Coyette, A; Debaille, V; Delvigne, C; Deproost, M H; De WInter, N; Duchemin, C; El Atrassi, F; François, C; De Keyser, J; Gillmann, C; Gloesener, E; Goderis, S; Hidaka, Y; Höning, D; Huber, M; Hublet, G; Javaux, E J; Karatekin, Ö; Kodolanyi, J; Revilla, L Lobo; Maes, L; Maggiolo, R; Mattielli, N; Maurice, M; McKibbin, S; Morschhauser, A; Neumann, W; Noack, L; Pham, L B S; Pittarello, L; Plesa, A C; Rivoldini, A; Robert, S; Rosenblatt, P; Spohn, T; Storme, J -Y; Tosi, N; Trinh, A; Valdes, M; Vandaele, A C; Vanhaecke, F; Van Hoolst, T; Van Roosbroek, N; Wilquet, V; Yseboodt, M

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) 'PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  20. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  1. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, M.A. (DSIR, Wellington, New Zealand); Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  2. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  3. Model based management of a reservoir system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharaw, B.; Westerhoff, T. [Fraunhofer IITB, Ilmenau (Germany). Anwendungszentrum Systemtechnik; Puta, H.; Wernstedt, J. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The main goals of reservoir management systems consist of prevention against flood water damages, the catchment of raw water and keeping all of the quality parameters within their limits besides controlling the water flows. In consideration of these goals a system model of the complete reservoir system Ohra-Schmalwasser-Tambach Dietharz was developed. This model has been used to develop optimized strategies for minimization of raw water production cost, for maximization of electrical energy production and to cover flood situations, as well. Therefore a proper forecast of the inflow to the reservoir from the catchment areas (especially flooding rivers) and the biological processes in the reservoir is important. The forecast model for the inflow to the reservoir is based on the catchment area model of Lorent and Gevers. It uses area precipitation, water supply from the snow cover, evapotranspiration and soil wetness data to calculate the amount of flow in rivers. The other aim of the project is to ensure the raw water quality using quality models, as well. Then a quality driven raw water supply will be possible. (orig.)

  4. Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzingwane, Mayibongwe L; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2017-03-01

    The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia. Some anatomical reservoirs that may harbor such cells include the brain and the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and other lymphoid organs, and the genital tract. The presence of immune cells and other HIV susceptible cells, occurring in differing compositions in anatomical reservoirs, coupled with variable and poor drug penetration that results in suboptimal drug concentrations in some sites, are all likely factors that fuel the continued low-level replication and persistent viremia during treatment. Latently, HIV-infected CD4+ T cells harboring replication-competent virus, HIV cell-to-cell spread, and HIV-infected T cell homeostatic proliferation due to chronic immune activation represent further drivers of this persistent HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element that occurs naturally, but evidence suggests that human activities have resulted in increased amounts being released to the atmosphere and land surface. When Hg is converted to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems, MeHg accumulates and increases in the food web so that some fish contain levels which pose a health risk to humans and wildlife that consume these fish. Reservoirs unlike natural lakes, are a part of river systems that are managed for flood control. Data compiled and interpreted for six flood-control reservoirs in Indiana showed a relation between Hg transport, MeHg formation in water, and MeHg in fish that was influenced by physical, chemical, and biological differences among the reservoirs. Existing information precludes a uniform comparison of Hg and MeHg in all reservoirs in the State, but factors and conditions were identified that can indicate where and when Hg and MeHg levels in reservoirs could be highest.

  6. Physical modelling of the Akkajaure reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sahlberg

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the seasonal temperature development in the Akkajaure reservoir, one of the largest Swedish reservoirs. It lies in the headwaters of the river Lulealven in northern Sweden; it is 60 km long and 5 km wide with a maximum depth of 92 m. The maximum allowed variation in surface water level is 30 m. The temperature field in the reservoir is important for many biochemical processes. A one-dimensional lake model of the Akkajaure reservoir is developed from a lake model by Sahlberg (1983 and 1988. The dynamic eddy viscosity is calculated by a two equation turbulence model, a k–ε model and the hypolimnic eddy diffusivity formulation which is a function of the stability frequency (Hondzo et al., 1993. A comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles showed a maximum discrepancy of 0.5–1.0°C over the period 1999-2002. Except for a few days in summer, the water temperature is vertically homogeneous. Over that period of years, a weak stratification of temperature occurred on only one to two weeks a year on different dates in July and August. This will have biological consequences. Keywords: temperature profile,reservoir, 1-D lake model, stratification, Sweden

  7. Integral cesium reservoir: Design and transient operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe N., Jr.; Horner, M. Harlan; Begg, Lester L.; Wrobleski, William J.

    An electrically heated thermionic converter has been designed built and successfully tested in air. One of the unique features of this converter was an integral cesium reservoir thermally coupled to the emitter. The reservoir consisted of fifteen cesiated graphite pins located in pockets situated in the emitter lead with thermal coupling to the emitter, collector and the emitter terminal; there were no auxiliary electric heaters on the reservoir. Test results are described for conditions in which the input thermal power to the converter was ramped up and down between 50% and 100% of full power in times as short as 50 sec, with data acquisition occurring every 12 sec. During the ramps the emitter and collector temperature profiles. the reservoir temperature and the electric output into a fixed load resistor are reported. The converter responded promptly to the power ramps without excessive overshoot and with no tendency to develop instabilities. This is the rust demonstration of the performance of a cesium-graphite integral reservoir in a fast transient.

  8. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  9. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-09-12

    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  10. The age and growth of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specimens of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) were collected from Opa reservoir in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between October 1991 and February 1994. The fishing methods employed were castnetting and gillnetting. Annular rings were formed on the scales of 1310 specimens of the species between December and February of each year of ...

  11. Using outcrop data for geological well test modelling in fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aljuboori, F.; Corbett, P.; Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Geiger, S.

    2015-01-01

    Outcrop fracture data sets can now be acquired with ever more accuracy using drone technology augmented by field observations. These models can be used to form realistic, deterministic models of fractured reservoirs. Fractured well test models are traditionally seen to be finite or infinite

  12. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%.......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...

  13. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  14. Mechanical Testing Development for Reservoir Forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenski, E.G.

    2000-05-22

    The goal of this project was to determine the machining techniques and testing capabilities required for mechanical property evaluation of commercially procured reservoir forgings. Due to the small size of these specific forgings, specialized methods are required to adequately machine and test these sub-miniature samples in accordance with the requirements of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E9. At the time of project initiation, no capability existed at Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) to verify the physical properties of these reservoirs as required on the drawing specifications. The project determined the sample definitions, machining processes, and testing procedures to verify the physical properties of the reservoir forgings; specifically, tensile strength, yield strength, reduction of area, and elongation. In addition, a compression test method was also developed to minimize sample preparation time and provide a more easily machined test sample while maintaining the physical validation of the forging.

  15. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  16. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  17. Pressure Transient Analysis of Dual Fractal Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual fractal reservoir transient flow model was created by embedding a fracture system simulated by a tree-shaped fractal network into a matrix system simulated by fractal porous media. The dimensionless bottom hole pressure model was created using the Laplace transform and Stehfest numerical inversion methods. According to the model's solution, the bilogarithmic type curves of the dual fractal reservoirs are illustrated, and the influence of different fractal factors on pressure transient responses is discussed. This semianalytical model provides a practical and reliable method for empirical applications.

  18. Controls on Cementation in a Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meireles, Leonardo Teixeira Pinto; Hussein, A.; Welch, M.J.

    In this study, we identify different controls on cementation in a chalk reservoir. Biot’s coefficient, a measure of cementation, stiffness and strength in porous rocks, is calculated from logging data (bulk density and sonic Pwave velocity). We show that Biot’s coefficient is correlated...... to the water saturation of the Kraka reservoir and is partly controlled by its stratigraphic sub-units. While the direct causal relationship between Biot’s coefficient and water saturation cannot be extended for Biot’s coefficient and porosity, a correlation is also identified between the two, implying...

  19. Nonlinearities in reservoir engineering: Enhancing quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangming; Hu, Qingping; Li, Lingchao; Huang, Chen; Rao, Shi

    2017-12-01

    There are two decisive factors for quantum correlations in reservoir engineering, but they are strongly reversely dependent on the atom-field nonlinearities. One is the squeezing parameter for the Bogoliubov modes-mediated collective interactions, while the other is the dissipative rates for the engineered collective dissipations. Exemplifying two-level atomic ensembles, we show that the moderate nonlinearities can compromise these two factors and thus enhance remarkably two-mode squeezing and entanglement of different spin atomic ensembles or different optical fields. This suggests that the moderate nonlinearities of the two-level systems are more advantageous for applications in quantum networks associated with reservoir engineering.

  20. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  1. Sediment-water interactions affecting dissolved-mercury distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Stewart, A. Robin; Fend, Steven V.; Parcheso, Francis; Moon, Gerald E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in April and November 2002 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micrometer filtered) mercury species (total and methylated forms) between the bottom sediment and water column at three sampling locations within Camp Far West Reservoir, California: one near the Bear River inlet to the reservoir, a second at a mid-reservoir site of comparable depth to the inlet site, and the third at the deepest position in the reservoir near the dam (herein referred to as the inlet, midreservoir and near-dam sites, respectively; Background, Fig. 1). Because of interest in the effects of historic hydraulic mining and ore processing in the Sierra Nevada foothills just upstream of the reservoir, dissolved-mercury species and predominant ligands that often control the mercury speciation (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest. Benthic flux, sometimes referred to as internal recycling, represents the transport of dissolved chemical species between the water column and the underlying sediment. Because of the affinity of mercury to adsorb onto particle surfaces and to form insoluble precipitates (particularly with sulfides), the mass transport of mercury in mining-affected watersheds is typically particle dominated. As these enriched particles accumulate at depositional sites such as reservoirs, benthic processes facilitate the repartitioning, transformation, and transport of mercury in dissolved, biologically reactive forms (dissolved methylmercury being the most bioavailable for trophic transfer). These are the forms of mercury examined in this study. In contrast to typical scientific manuscripts, this report is formatted in a pyramid-like structure to serve the needs of diverse groups who may be interested in reviewing or acquiring information at various levels of technical detail (Appendix 1). The report enables quick transitions between the initial

  2. Origin and Evolution of the Cometary Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, Luke; Brasser, Ramon; Kaib, Nathan; Rickman, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Comets have three known reservoirs: the roughly spherical Oort Cloud (for long-period comets), the flattened Kuiper Belt (for ecliptic comets), and, surprisingly, the asteroid belt (for main-belt comets). Comets in the Oort Cloud were thought to have formed in the region of the giant planets and then placed in quasi-stable orbits at distances of thousands or tens of thousands of AU through the gravitational effects of the planets and the Galaxy. The planets were long assumed to have formed in place. However, the giant planets may have undergone two episodes of migration. The first would have taken place in the first few million years of the Solar System, during or shortly after the formation of the giant planets, when gas was still present in the protoplanetary disk around the Sun. The Grand Tack (Walsh et al. in Nature 475:206-209, 2011) models how this stage of migration could explain the low mass of Mars and deplete, then repopulate the asteroid belt, with outer-belt asteroids originating between, and outside of, the orbits of the giant planets. The second stage of migration would have occurred later (possibly hundreds of millions of years later) due to interactions with a remnant disk of planetesimals, i.e., a massive ancestor of the Kuiper Belt. Safronov (Evolution of the Protoplanetary Cloud and Formation of the Earth and the Planets, 1969) and Fernández and Ip (Icarus 58:109-120, 1984) proposed that the giant planets would have migrated as they interacted with leftover planetesimals; Jupiter would have moved slightly inward, while Saturn and (especially) Uranus and Neptune would have moved outward from the Sun. Malhotra (Nature 365:819-821, 1993) showed that Pluto's orbit in the 3:2 resonance with Neptune was a natural outcome if Neptune captured Pluto into resonance while it migrated outward. Building on this work, Tsiganis et al. (Nature 435:459-461, 2005) proposed the Nice model, in which the giant planets formed closer together than they are now, and

  3. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  4. A New Method for Fracturing Wells Reservoir Evaluation in Fractured Gas Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fracture is a geological phenomenon widely distributed in tight formation, and fractured gas reservoir stimulation effect mainly depends on the communication of natural fractures. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the evaluation of this reservoir and to find out the optimal natural fractures development wells. By analyzing the interactions and nonlinear relationships of the parameters, it establishes three-level index system of reservoir evaluation and proposes a new method for gas well reservoir evaluation model in fractured gas reservoir on the basis of fuzzy logic theory and multilevel gray correlation. For this method, the Gaussian membership functions to quantify the degree of every factor in the decision-making system and the multilevel gray relation to determine the weight of each parameter on stimulation effect. Finally through fuzzy arithmetic operator between multilevel weights and fuzzy evaluation matrix, score, rank, the reservoir quality, and predicted production will be gotten. Result of this new method shows that the evaluation of the production coincidence rate reaches 80%, which provides a new way for fractured gas reservoir evaluation.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs: Effects of Reservoir Parameters on Gas Productivity and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Gaddipati, M.; Nyayapathi, L.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on production rates of natural gas from gas hydrates by the method of depressurization, using CMG STARS. Seven factors/parameters were considered as perturbations from a base-case hydrate reservoir description based on Problem 7 of the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison Study led by the Department of Energy and the USGS. This reservoir is modeled after the inferred properties of the hydrate deposit at the Prudhoe Bay L-106 site. The included sensitivity variables were hydrate saturation, pressure (depth), temperature, bottom-hole pressure of the production well, free water saturation, intrinsic rock permeability, and porosity. A two-level (L=2) Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to study the relative effects of these factors. The measured variable was the discounted cumulative gas production. The discount rate chosen was 15%, resulting in the gas contribution to the net present value of a reservoir. Eight different designs were developed for conducting sensitivity analysis and the effects of the parameters on the real and discounted production rates will be discussed. The breakeven price in various cases and the dependence of the breakeven price on the production parameters is given in the paper. As expected, initial reservoir temperature has the strongest positive effect on the productivity of a hydrate deposit and the bottom-hole pressure in the production well has the strongest negative dependence. Also resulting in a positive correlation is the intrinsic permeability and the initial free water of the formation. Negative effects were found for initial hydrate saturation (at saturations greater than 50% of the pore space) and the reservoir porosity. These negative effects are related to the available sensible heat of the reservoir, with decreasing productivity due to decreasing available sensible heat. Finally, we conclude that for the base case reservoir, the break-even price (BEP

  6. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  7. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  8. A stochastic conflict resolution model for water quality management in reservoir river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, optimal operating rules for water quality management in reservoir-river systems are developed using a methodology combining a water quality simulation model and a stochastic GA-based conflict resolution technique. As different decision-makers and stakeholders are involved in the water quality management in reservoir-river systems, a new stochastic form of the Nash bargaining theory is used to resolve the existing conflict of interests related to water supply to different demands, allocated water quality and waste load allocation in downstream river. The expected value of the Nash product is considered as the objective function of the model which can incorporate the inherent uncertainty of reservoir inflow. A water quality simulation model is also developed to simulate the thermal stratification cycle in the reservoir, the quality of releases from different outlets as well as the temporal and spatial variation of the pollutants in the downstream river. In this study, a Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm (VLGA), which has computational advantages comparing to other alternative models, is used. VLGA provides a good initial solution for Simple Genetic Algorithms and comparing to Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) reduces the number of state transitions checked in each stage. The proposed model, which is called Stochastic Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm with water Quality constraints (SVLGAQ), is applied to the Ghomrud Reservoir-River system in the central part of Iran. The results show, the proposed model for reservoir operation and waste load allocation can reduce the salinity of the allocated water demands as well as the salinity build-up in the reservoir.

  9. Thermomechanics of Triggering the Eruption of Large Magma Reservoirs: The Effects of Buoyancy and Magma Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P. M.; Grosfils, E. B.; de Silva, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The evacuation of large silicic magma reservoirs via catastrophic caldera forming eruptions that emplace 100s to 1000s of km3 of material is a devastating and rare natural disaster on Earth. Given the destructive nature of these eruptions, it is critical to better understand the evolution of large silicic systems and what parameters are responsible for either maintaining magma in storage conditions or triggering an eruption. The formation of large, shallow magma bodies requires thermal maturation of the upper crust through elevated magma fluxes over periods of 104-106 years. Once the crust is thermally primed, the viscoelastic response of the host rock buffers the reservoir and stifles the generation of significant overpressure, thus accommodating the accumulation of large magma volumes (103-104 km3). Given that overpressures are difficult to generate in magma reservoirs of this size, increasing attention has been focused on better understanding what mechanisms may trigger their eruption. Recent analytical models suggest that buoyancy may play a critical role in generating the necessary overpressures to trigger eruption of the largest systems. We build upon these findings and utilize numerical models to quantify overpressure generation due to buoyancy and magmatic recharge. Furthermore, the interplay between reservoir growth and fault formation is explored to determine whether eruption triggering is most likely to occur due to fault development within the overlying roof or due to rupture at the reservoir boundary. Specifically, we utilize viscoelastic finite element models with Mohr-Coulomb and von Mises failure criteria to explore foundering in the roof and failure development at the reservoir boundary during buoyant magma recharge. Presented results will compare temperature- and non-temperature dependent viscosities with elastic models to investigate end-member controls on fault formation and reservoir rupture.

  10. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Son, Jin Dam; Oh, Jae Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Three year project is being carried out on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by the reservoir characterization. This report describes the results of the second year's work. This project deals with characterization of fluids, bitumen ad rock matrix in the reservoir. New equipment and analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoir were also included in this study. Main purpose of the reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of fluids (gas, petroleum and water) and distribution of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but development of the petroleum. For the theme of reservoir geochemistry, methods and principles of the reservoir gas and bitumen characterization, which is applicable to the petroleum development, are studied. and case study was carried out on the gas, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir taken form Haenam area and Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Gases taken form the two different wells indicate the different origin. Formation water analyses show the absence of barrier within the tested interval. With the sidewall core samples from a well offshore Korea, the analysis using polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope with EDX and cathodoluminoscope was performed for the study on sandstone diagenesis. The I/S changes were examined on the cuttings samples from a well, offshore Korea to estimate burial temperature. Oxygen stable isotope is used to study geothermal history in sedimentary basin. Study in the field is rare in Korea and basic data are urgently needed especially in continental basins to determine the value of formation water. In the test analyses, three samples from marine basins indicate final temperature from 55 deg.C to 83 deg.C and one marine sample indicate the initial temperature of 36 deg.C. One sample from continental basin represented the final temperature from 53 and 80 deg.C. These temperatures will be corrected because these values were based on assumed

  11. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY; APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the project is to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study is performed at West Coalinga Field in California. We continued our investigation on the nature of seismic reactions from heterogeneous reservoirs. We began testing our algorithm to infer parameters of object-based reservoir models from seismic data. We began integration of seismic and geologic data to determine the deterministic limits of conventional seismic data interpretation. Lastly, we began integration of seismic and geologic heterogeneity using stochastic models conditioned both on wireline and seismic data.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  13. Impact of a Thermocline on Water Dynamics in Reservoirs – Dobczyce Reservoir Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachaj Paweł S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While modeling water dynamics in dam reservoirs, it is usually assumed that the flow involves the whole water body. It is true for shallow reservoirs (up to several meters of depth but may be false for deeper ones. The possible presence of a thermocline creates an inactive bottom layer that does not move, causing all the discharge to be carried by the upper strata. This study compares the results of hydrodydynamic simulations performed for the whole reservoir to the ones carried out for the upper strata only. The validity of a non-stratified flow approximation is then discussed.

  14. Metal assessment in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Suellen N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quináglia, Gilson A., E-mail: sncoutinho@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The study of the distribution of metals in sediments is very important from the point of view of environmental pollution once the sediment concentrates metals in aquatic systems and represents a relevant contamination monitor. The analysis of sediments has been used to evaluate the quality of aquatic systems in relation to the concentration of metals. This study aimed to assess sediment contamination by metals in the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Sediment and water samples were analyzed by ICP OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and by CV AAS (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) for Hg. The sediment samples results were compared to TEL (Threshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level) guidance values and RRV (Reference Regional Values). Geoaccumulation Index (I{sub geo}) was calculated to evaluate metals pollution degree using reference values established for metals and metalloids in sediments from the Upper Tietê Basin and E{sub H}-pH diagrams were applied to explain chemical forms and bioavailability of toxic metals in sediment samples. In general, most of the analyzed elements exceeded TEL values and Cr, Cu and Zn exceeded RRV guidelines. The high concentrations of Cu found in this reservoir can be explained by the frequent application of CuSO{sub 4} algicide, mainly at sampling site S-03. The I{sub geo} indicated moderated polluted sediments by Zn and moderately to extremely polluted sediments by Cu, especially at S-03, in agreement with the TEL, PEL and RRV values comparison. These results may indicate potential risk of the reservoir water quality. (author)

  15. Metal assessment in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Suellen N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Quináglia, Gilson A.

    2017-01-01

    The study of the distribution of metals in sediments is very important from the point of view of environmental pollution once the sediment concentrates metals in aquatic systems and represents a relevant contamination monitor. The analysis of sediments has been used to evaluate the quality of aquatic systems in relation to the concentration of metals. This study aimed to assess sediment contamination by metals in the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Sediment and water samples were analyzed by ICP OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and by CV AAS (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) for Hg. The sediment samples results were compared to TEL (Threshold Effect Level) and PEL (Probable Effect Level) guidance values and RRV (Reference Regional Values). Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ) was calculated to evaluate metals pollution degree using reference values established for metals and metalloids in sediments from the Upper Tietê Basin and E H -pH diagrams were applied to explain chemical forms and bioavailability of toxic metals in sediment samples. In general, most of the analyzed elements exceeded TEL values and Cr, Cu and Zn exceeded RRV guidelines. The high concentrations of Cu found in this reservoir can be explained by the frequent application of CuSO 4 algicide, mainly at sampling site S-03. The I geo indicated moderated polluted sediments by Zn and moderately to extremely polluted sediments by Cu, especially at S-03, in agreement with the TEL, PEL and RRV values comparison. These results may indicate potential risk of the reservoir water quality. (author)

  16. Magmas and reservoirs beneath the Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Huber, C.

    2013-12-01

    The area of Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) consists of at least seven - possibly nine - nested-calderas that have formed over the past 200 ky. The last caldera-forming eruption occurred 1400 y BP, and produced about 10 km3 of crystal-poor, two-pyroxene dacite. Since then, five effusive and explosive eruptive episodes have occurred from volcanic centres along the caldera rim. The most recent of these was preceded by decade-long unrest (starting in 1971) until the simultaneous eruption of Vulcan and Tavurvur, two vents on opposite sides of the caldera in 1994. Most eruptive products are andesitic in composition and show clear signs of mixing/mingling between a basalt and a high-K2O dacite. The hybridization is in the form of banded pumices, quenched mafic enclaves, and hybrid bulk rock compositions. In addition, the 1400 y BP caldera-related products show the presence of a third mixing component; a low-K2O rhyodacitic melt or magma. Geochemical modeling considering major and trace elements and volatile contents shows that the high-K2O dacitic magma can be generated by fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma at shallow depths (~7 km, 200 MPa) and under relatively dry conditions (≤3 wt% H2O). The low-K2O rhyodacitic melt can either be explained by extended crystallization at low temperatures (e.g. in the presence of Sanidine) or the presence of an additional, unrelated magma. Our working model is therefore that basalts ascend to shallow crustal levels before intruding a main silicic reservoir beneath the Rabaul caldera. Storage depths and temperatures estimated from volatile contents, mineral-melt equilibria and rock densities suggest that basalts ascend from ~20 km (~600 MPa) to ~7 km (200 MPa) and cool from ~1150-1100°C before intruding a dacitic magma reservoir at ~950°C. Depending on the state of the reservoir and the volumes of basalt injected, the replenishing magma may either trigger an eruption or cool and crystallize. We use evidence from major and

  17. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  18. Characterization of a reservoir-type capillary optical microsensor for pCO(2) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Kadriye; Klimant, Ingo; Neurauter, Gerhard; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2003-02-06

    A reservoir type of capillary microsensor for pCO(2) measurements is presented. The sensor is based on the measurement of the fluorescence intensity of the anionic form of the pH indicator 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrenetrisulfonate in the form of its ion pair with a quaternary ammonium base in an ethyl cellulose matrix. The glass capillary containing the reservoir sensor was prepared by immersing the tip of the optical fiber into the sensing agent very close to the sensor tip thus providing a very small volume for the sensing reaction. The purpose of the sensing approach is to regenerate the dye/buffer system by diffusion, which may be poisoned by interfering acids, or bleach by photolysis. The fresh cocktail from the reservoir takes the place of protonated form of the dye. The internal buffer system also makes the protonation-deprotonation equilibria reversible. The distal tip of the internal buffer containing reservoir is coated with a gas-permeable but ion-impermeable teflon membrane. The dynamic range for the detection of pCO(2) is between 1 and 20 hPa, which corresponds to the range of dissolved CO(2) in water. The response time is 15 s and the detection limit is 1 hPa of pCO(2.) The recovery performance of this sensor can be improved by means of mechanical adjustment of the sensor tip in a micrometric scale.

  19. The elusive Hadean enriched reservoir revealed by 142Nd deficits in Isua Archaean rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Boyet, Maud; Blichert-Toft, Janne; O'Neil, Jonathan; Rosing, Minik T; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-01

    The first indisputable evidence for very early differentiation of the silicate Earth came from the extinct (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer. (142)Nd excesses measured in 3.7-billion-year (Gyr)-old rocks from Isua (southwest Greenland) relative to modern terrestrial samples imply their derivation from a depleted mantle formed in the Hadean eon (about 4,570-4,000 Gyr ago). As dictated by mass balance, the differentiation event responsible for the formation of the Isua early-depleted reservoir must also have formed a complementary enriched component. However, considerable efforts to find early-enriched mantle components in Isua have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that the signature of the Hadean enriched reservoir, complementary to the depleted reservoir in Isua, is recorded in 3.4-Gyr-old mafic dykes intruding into the Early Archaean rocks. Five out of seven dykes carry (142)Nd deficits compared to the terrestrial Nd standard, with three samples yielding resolvable deficits down to -10.6 parts per million. The enriched component that we report here could have been a mantle reservoir that differentiated owing to the crystallization of a magma ocean, or could represent a mafic proto-crust that separated from the mantle more than 4.47 Gyr ago. Our results testify to the existence of an enriched component in the Hadean, and may suggest that the southwest Greenland mantle preserved early-formed heterogeneities until at least 3.4 Gyr ago.

  20. Bubble generation and venous air filtration by hard-shell venous reservoirs: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S J; Willcox, T; Gorman, D F

    1997-09-01

    We have previously shown significant bubble formation in Medtronic Maxima hard-shell venous reservoirs (HSVRs). In the present study, we not only investigated the mechanism of this bubble formation, but also the extent of bubble clearance by membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters. In addition, we also compared the performance of five HSVRs with respect to bubble formation and venous air filtration. Salvaged clinical CPB circuits containing different HSVRs were studied by downstream Doppler monitoring under fixed flow-decreasing volume, fixed volume-increasing flow, and entrained venous air conditions. Bubbles formed in the Medtronic Maxima top entry HSVR at volumes below 800 ml and flows above 3.5 l min-1, and were incompletely removed by a membrane oxygenator and arterial line filter. Decreased bubbling was seen when the reservoir atmosphere was flushed with CO2, suggesting that these bubbles formed in a fountain at the venous inflow. The Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR formed significantly fewer bubbles at low volumes, and filtered venous air effectively. Negligible bubble formation occurred in the Sorin, Terumo, or Baxter reservoirs. The minimum recommended operating volume for the Medtronic Maxima top entry reservoir should be reset at 600 ml and this device should always be used with an arterial filter. Bubble formation is substantially reduced in the new Medtronic Maxima Forte HSVR and this device is a good filter for venous air.

  1. Scientific rationale for antiretroviral therapy in 2005: viral reservoirs and resistance evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    Hope for a cure for HIV-1 infection was dampened by the discovery of a latent form of the virus that persists in resting CD4+ cells. This reservoir of latently HIV-infected resting memory T cells represents an archive of viral genotypes produced in an individual from the onset of infection. Entry into the reservoir is stopped with suppressive antiretroviral therapy, but the archived viruses are capable of re-initiating active infections, are released continuously from this reservoir, and can cause viral rebound if antiretroviral therapy is stopped. Studies of residual low-level viremia (Robert F. Siliciano, MD, PhD, at the International AIDS Society-USA course in New York in March 2005.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Integrated Bathymetric and Geodetic Data for Inventory Surveys of Mining Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochałek, Agnieszka; Lipecki, Tomasz; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Jabłoński, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    The significant part of the hydrography is bathymetry, which is the empirical part of it. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of waterways and reservoirs, and graphic presentation of measured data in form of bathymetric maps, cross-sections and three-dimensional bottom models. The bathymetric measurements are based on using Global Positioning System and devices for hydrographic measurements - an echo sounder and a side sonar scanner. In this research authors focused on introducing the case of obtaining and processing the bathymetrical data, building numerical bottom models of two post-mining reclaimed water reservoirs: Dwudniaki Lake in Wierzchosławice and flooded quarry in Zabierzów. The report includes also analysing data from still operating mining water reservoirs located in Poland to depict how bathymetry can be used in mining industry. The significant issue is an integration of bathymetrical data and geodetic data from tachymetry, terrestrial laser scanning measurements.

  3. Hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in the Sinian Dengying Fm, central Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiang Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Sinian Dengying Fm is the focus of natural gas exploration in the central part of the Sichuan Basin (central Sichuan Basin in recent years. Especially, epigenic karstification and its resulted reservoir-seepage spaces have always been the focal points in researches. Based on the petrographic characteristics of drilling cuttings and core samples, and through experimental analysis by using trace elements, isotopes, and cathodoluminescence, the Dengying Fm dolomite was demonstrated to have matrix recrystallized dolomite (MRD, filled saddle dolomite (FSD (the mean homogenization temperature of inclusion: 178.5 °C, high concentrations of Fe & Mn, slightly positive 87Sr/86Sr value and hydrothermal minerals combination (including sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and quartz, etc.. Thus, it was proposed that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies (HDRF exist in the Dengying Fm dolomite, in other words, the dolomite reservoir is composed of hydrothermal dissolved pores, intercrystalline pores of hydrothermal origin, hydrothermal caverns and expanded fractures, and was formed due to the reworking of hydrothermal fluid on tight matrix dolomite. Identification marks are presented in terms of petrography and geochemistry so that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies can be effectively recognized and identified. It is concluded that the development of hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in this area are preliminary controlled by deep and large basement faults and the strength of hydrothermal fluids.

  4. AI techniques for optimizing multi-objective reservoir operation upon human and riverine ecosystem demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Herricks, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    Flow regime is the key driver of the riverine ecology. This study proposes a novel hybrid methodology based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for quantifying riverine ecosystems requirements and delivering suitable flow regimes that sustain river and floodplain ecology through optimizing reservoir operation. This approach addresses issues to better fit riverine ecosystem requirements with existing human demands. We first explored and characterized the relationship between flow regimes and fish communities through a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN). Then the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan. The ecosystem requirement took the form of maximizing fish diversity, which could be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement was to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology could offer a number of diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operational strategies producing downstream flows that could meet both human and ecosystem needs. Applications that make this methodology attractive to water resources managers benefit from the wide spread of Pareto-front (optimal) solutions allowing decision makers to easily determine the best compromise through the trade-off between reservoir operational strategies for human and ecosystem needs.

  5. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  6. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  7. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  8. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  9. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  10. Sidi Saâd reservoir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... with environmental factors in a semi arid area: Sidi. Saâd reservoir .... between changes in environmental parameters, biological factors and ..... Dinophyceae. Copepoda. Anabaena sp. Gonyaulax sp. Acanthocyclops robustus Acanthocyclops viridis. Chroococcus sp. Gonyaulax spinifera. Gloeothece sp.

  11. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  12. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The

  13. Do cyanobacterial picoplankton exist in eutrophic reservoirs?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárková, Jaroslava

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2002), s. 497-500 ISSN 0368-0770 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6017004; GA AV ČR IAA6017803; GA AV ČR KSK2005601 Keywords : reservoir * colonial picocynobacteria Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  14. Novel Synechococcus genomes reconstructed from freshwater reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabello-Yeves, P.J.; Haro-Moreno, J.M.; Martin-Cuadrado, A.B.; Ghai, Rohit; Picazo, A.; Camacho, A.; Rodriguez-Valera, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, June (2017), č. článku 1151. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04828S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Synechococcus * picocyanobacteria * freshwater reservoirs * metagenomics * abundance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  15. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  16. Sinusoidal cycling swimming pattern of reservoir fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Kubečka, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2002), s. 456-471 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6017901; GA AV ČR IAA6017201; GA ČR GA206/02/0520 Keywords : sinusoidal swimming * echosounder * reservoir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2002

  17. Can Dams and Reservoirs Cause Earthquakes?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect investigations of these regions are subject to inevitable multiple interpretations. Still, a measure of understanding about reservoir induced earthquakes has been achieved. It is my aim to put the phenomenon in a perspective on this basis. I saw the Koyna Earthquake Recorded. Koyna earthquake of December 10, ...

  18. Analysis of Sedimentation in Wonogiri Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Inti Budi Santosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wonogiri reservoir which has 730 million cubic meters of total storage, 90 square kilometers of water area, and 1260 square kilometers of catchment area, is located in the Wonogiri Regency, Central Java Province. It was first established in 1981 and began its operation in 1982 with the expectation that it would last for about 100 years. Today (2002 the reservoir has got a serious problem of sedimentation. The sedimentation is so large that it would decrease the capacity storage of the reservoir and would shorten the length of operation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the sediment that comes into the reservoir. This research would be based on the total sediment calculation of the sedimentation, through some methods, such as echo sounding measured data, land erosion (USLE, the calculation of the sediment in rivers. This research calculates the sediment capacities based on the water flow data and the sediment rating curves in rivers of Keduang, Tirtomoyo, Temon, upstream reach of Bengawan Solo, Alang, and Wuryantoro. The suspended load was calculated based on the sediment rating curves, whereas the bed load was computed as the percentage of the suspended load. The sum of both calculation results would be the total sediment. The calculation result showed that the total sediment which has come into the reservoir is 6.68 million cubic meters per year. As a comparison, the writer noted that the former researcher using echo sounding method done by the Faculty of Geography of the Universitas Gadjah Mada in 1985, it found that the total sediment capacity which came into the reservoir was 6.60 million cubic meters per year or 5.40 mm per year of sheet erosion. The other research using echo sounding method done by JICA in 2000 found that the total sediment which had come into the reservoir was 4.50 million cubic meters per year or 3.50 mm per year of sheet erosion. By knowing the results of calculation of the total sediment, we can learn that

  19. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  20. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR FLOW MEASUREMENTS FROM MARIOTTE RESERVOIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, Jim; Murphy, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The mariotte reservoir supplies water at a constant hydraulic pressure by self-regulation of its internal gas pressure. Automated outflow measurements from mariotte reservoirs are generally difficult because of the reservoir's self-regulation mechanism. This paper describes an automated flow meter specifically designed for use with mariotte reservoirs. The flow meter monitors changes in the mariotte reservoir's gas pressure during outflow to determine changes in the reservoir's water level. The flow measurement is performed by attaching a pressure transducer to the top of a mariotte reservoir and monitoring gas pressure changes during outflow with a programmable data logger. The advantages of the new automated flow measurement techniques include: (i) the ability to rapidly record a large range of fluxes without restricting outflow, and (ii) the ability to accurately average the pulsing flow, which commonly occurs during outflow from the mariotte reservoir.

  1. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  2. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  3. Enhancement of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) is widely considered as one of the most significant enablers of the successful exploitation of hydrocarbons in North America. Massive usage of HF is currently adopted to increase the permeability in shale and tight-sand deep reservoirs, despite the economical downturn. The exploitation success is less due to the subsurface geology, but in technology that improves exploration, production, and decision-making. This includes monitoring of the reservoir, which is vital. Indeed, the general mindset in the industry is to keep enhancing seismic monitoring. It allows understanding and tracking processes in hydrocarbon reservoirs, which serves two purposes, a) to optimize recovery, and b) to help minimize environmental impact. This raises the question of how monitoring, and especially seismic techniques could be more efficient. There is a pressing demand from seismic service industry to evolve quickly and to meet the oil-gas industry's changing needs. Nonetheless, the innovative monitoring techniques, to achieve the purpose, must enhance the characterization or the visualization of a superior-quality images of the reservoir. We discuss recent applications of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs, detailing potential enhancement and eventual limitations. The aim is to test the validity of these seismic monitoring techniques, qualitatively discuss their potential application to energy fields that are not only limited to HF. Outcomes from our investigation may benefit operators and regulators in case of future massive HF applications in Europe, as well. This work is part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu), funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, whose aims is to help minimize the environmental footprint of the shale-gas exploration and exploitation.

  4. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    with deionized water and less reduction when saturated with saline water. This reduction in relative permeability can be explained by formation of ice crystals in the center of pores. Theoretically, the radius of ice formed in the center of the pore can be determined using the Kozeny–Carman Equation by assuming the pores and pore throats as a cube with ‘N’ identical parallel pipes embedded in it. Using the values of kro obtained from the experimental work as input to the Kozeny–Carman Equation at -10ºC, the radius of ice crystals dropped from 0.145 μm to 0.069 μm when flooding-water salinity is increased to 6467 ppm. This explains the reduction of relative permeability with decreasing salinity but does not take into consideration other effects such as variations in pore throat structure. In addition, fluids like deionized water, saline water, and antifreeze (a mixture of 60% ethylene or propylene glycol with 40% water) were tested to find the best flooding agent for frozen reservoirs. At 0ºC, 9% greater recovery was observed with antifreeze was used as a flooding agent as compared to using saline water. Antifreeze showed 48% recovery even at -10ºC, at which temperature the rest of the fluids failed to increase production. Preliminary evaluation of drilling fluids indicate that the brine-based muds caused significantly less swelling in the Umiat reservoir sands when compared to fresh-water based muds. However since freezing filtrate is another cause of formation damage, a simple water-based-mud may not a viable option. It is recommended that new fluids be tested, including different salts, brines, polymers and oil-based fluids. These fluids should be tested at low temperatures in order to determine the potential for formation damage, the fluid properties under these conditions and to ensure that the freezing point is below that of the reservoir. In order to reduce the surface footprint while accessing the maximum amount of the Lower Grandstand interval

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    slides of root tips meristem were dyed with aceto-orcein. Approximately 150 ana-telophases were scored for each root. 20-40 roots were analyzed for each water sample. In total 3000 - 6000 ana-telophases for each water sample were analyzed. Chromosome aberrations in ana-telophases (chromatid and chromosomal bridges and fragments), mitotic abnormalities (multipolar mitosis and laggards) were scored. The data analysis was arranged using R statistics. Aberration frequency in water samples from the natural control reservoir (0.46 ± 0.12%) exceeded insignificantly the frequency of aberrations in distilled (0.15 ± 0.08%) and bottled waters (0.33 ± 0.08%). Average frequency of aberrant cells in root meristem of onion germinated in water samples from R-11 reservoir (1.36 ± 0.24%) was about 3 times higher compared to control ones. Mitotic activity in root meristem was slightly inhibited in bulbs germinated in R-11 sample, but this effect was statistically insignificant. There was no difference in types of aberrations among all water samples but only in the frequency of abnormalities. So genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test shows the presence of genotoxic factor in water from the reservoir. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment, Technical Report 1999-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    The Arrow Lakes food web has been influenced by several anthropogenic stressors during the past 45 years. These include the introduction of mysid shrimp (Mysis relicta) in 1968 and 1974 and the construction of large hydroelectric impoundments in 1969, 1973 and 1983. The construction of the impoundments affected the fish stocks in Upper and Lower Arrow lakes in several ways. The construction of Hugh Keenleyside Dam (1969) resulted in flooding that eliminated an estimated 30% of the available kokanee spawning habitat in Lower Arrow tributaries and at least 20% of spawning habitat in Upper Arrow tributaries. The Mica Dam (1973) contributed to water level fluctuations and blocked upstream migration of all fish species including kokanee. The Revelstoke Dam (1983) flooded 150 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 80 km of tributary streams which were used by kokanee, bull trout, rainbow trout and other species. The construction of upstream dams also resulted in nutrient retention which ultimately reduced reservoir productivity. In Arrow Lakes Reservoir (ALR), nutrients settled out in the Revelstoke and Mica reservoirs, resulting in decreased productivity, a process known as oligotrophication. Kokanee are typically the first species to respond to oligotrophication resulting from aging impoundments. To address the ultra-oligotrophic status of ALR, a bottom-up approach was taken with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of liquid fertilizer from 1999 to 2004). Two of the main objectives of the experiment were to replace lost nutrients as a result of upstream impoundments and restore productivity in Upper Arrow and to restore kokanee and other sport fish abundance in the reservoir. The bottom-up approach to restoring kokanee in ALR has been successful by replacing nutrients lost as a result of upstream impoundments and has successfully restored the productivity of Upper Arrow. Primary production rates increased, the phytoplankton community responded

  7. Disposal of iron tailings in reservoirs: a GPR application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jardim Martini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A large volume of waste is generated by iron mining in Brazil, and the amount has been rapidly increasing. The waste is usually stored in large piles or in reservoirs formed by tailings dams, which occupy large areas in the mining complex. The limitation of natural resources and of new areas for waste disposal has led to change in paradigms. This study therefore aimed to apply a geophysical technique, known as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, in order to define sedimentation patterns in the subsurface reservoir created by Diogo's tailings dam in Rio Piracicaba in Minas Gerais, Brazil. To assist the recognition of patterns captured by the GPR, subsurface material samples were collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition, moisture content, electrical conductivity, mineralogical analysis, particle size, X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence. The results indicated that areas with tailings that had high concentrations of hematite (around 60% in the mineralogical analysis altered the reflection patterns. The presence of water generated some multiple reflections, which were less significant in shallower sites with more waste and more significant in deeper sites with less waste. In general, the application of the GPR was feasible in aquatic environments with rich subsurface hematite deposits.

  8. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  9. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.; Lemaire, B.; Vinc on Leite, B.; Tassin, B.; Amacha, N.; Slim, K.; Atoui, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  10. Calculation of reservoir capacity loss due to sediment deposition in the `Muela reservoir, Northern Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liphapang Khaba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetry survey records of the `Muela Reservoir in northern Lesotho were obtained from the Lesotho Highlands Development Authority (LHDA with the aim of identifying reservoir storage capacity loss due to sediment deposition, between 1985 and 2015. For this purpose, data from eight surveys completed between 1985 and January 2015 were analyzed to quantify bathymetric change between each survey. Four interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, Kriging, natural neighbor, and spline, were used to create digital terrain models from each survey data-set. In addition, a triangulated irregular network (TIN surface was created from each data-set. The average reservoir storage capacity loss of 15,400 m3/year was determined across the whole period between 1985 and early 2015, based on Kriging. Whilst the results indicate high inter-annual variability in the rate of reservoir capacity reduction, consideration of errors in the surveying and reservoir volumetric calculation methods suggest that rates of reservoir volume reduction can vary between 11,400 m3/year and 18,200 m3/year.

  11. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  12. Analysis of Fluvial Sediment Discharges into Kubanni Reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sediment discharges into the Kubanni Reservoir (KR) has been measured and analysed in this study. The predominant sandy-clay sediment in the reservoir has an estimated total sediment load of 20,387,000 kg/year. The depth and area coverage of the reservoir was surveyed using a defined distributed grid line ...

  13. Time-lapse seismic imaging of the Reykjanes geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weemstra, C.; Obermann, Anne; Blanck, Hanna; Verdel, Arie; Paap, B; Guðnason, Egill Árni; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Jousset, Philippe; Sigurðsson, Ömar

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results obtained from a dense seismic deployment over a geothermal reservoir. The reservoir has been producing continuously for almost a decade and is located on the tip of the Reykjanes peninsula, SW Iceland. The seismic stations on top of the reservoir have continuously recorded

  14. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0, produced...

  15. WATER LOSS OF KOKA RESERVOIR, ETHIOPIA: COMMENTS ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Water balance evaluation of Koka Reservoir was attempted by different authors, and different leakage rates were estimated. However, the water balance equation that the previous authors used does not take into account ground. water inflow into the reservoir. Koka Reservoir is known to receive groundwater ...

  16. Mathematical and field analysis of longitudinal reservoir infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, W. T.; Capart, H.

    2016-12-01

    In reservoirs, severe problems are caused by infilled sediment deposits. In long term, the sediment accumulation reduces the capacity of reservoir storage and flood control benefits. In the short term, the sediment deposits influence the intakes of water-supply and hydroelectricity generation. For the management of reservoir, it is important to understand the deposition process and then to predict the sedimentation in reservoir. To investigate the behaviors of sediment deposits, we propose a one-dimensional simplified theory derived by the Exner equation to predict the longitudinal sedimentation distribution in idealized reservoirs. The theory models the reservoir infill geomorphic actions for three scenarios: delta progradation, near-dam bottom deposition, and final infill. These yield three kinds of self-similar analytical solutions for the reservoir bed profiles, under different boundary conditions. Three analytical solutions are composed by error function, complementary error function, and imaginary error function, respectively. The theory is also computed by finite volume method to test the analytical solutions. The theoretical and numerical predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional small-scale laboratory experiment. As the theory is simple to apply with analytical solutions and numerical computation, we propose some applications to simulate the long-profile evolution of field reservoirs and focus on the infill sediment deposit volume resulting the uplift of near-dam bottom elevation. These field reservoirs introduced here are Wushe Reservoir, Tsengwen Reservoir, Mudan Reservoir in Taiwan, Lago Dos Bocas in Puerto Rico, and Sakuma Dam in Japan.

  17. Reservoir management under consideration of stratification and hydraulic phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandalal, K.D.W.

    1995-01-01


    Reservoirs are the most important components in a water resources system. They are used to store water to extend its temporal availability. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water change when impounded in reservoirs. This implies the possibility of using reservoirs

  18. An Assessment of Sediment Loading into an Agricultural Reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    total lack of natural protection against detachment of soil due to sparse vegetation .... The reservoir was surveyed with grid squares of l 5 m by 15 m made over it using ropes. The elevation at each grid on the reservoir embankment was found. The depth of the reservoir at each grid was measured with a long calibrated pole.

  19. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  20. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  1. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  2. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  3. Biological characteristics of silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna in commercial fishery in the Kyiv reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zakharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The determination and analysis of main biological characteristics of silver bream from the point of view of the formation and exploitation of its commercial stock in the Kyiv reservoir. Methodology. The work is based the results of monitoring field studies carried out on the Kyiv reservoir during 2012–2014. Ichthyological materials were collected from standard commercial gill nets with mesh sizes of 30–80 mm, which were set in different habitats and depths of the reservoir. Collection and processing of samples was carried out using conventional ichthyological methods adapted for the Dnieper reservoirs. Findings. According to the data of monitoring gill nets, silver bream population in 2014 was composed of 10 age groups. The majority of their population (70.8% in catches was composed of age-5 to age-7 fish, i.e. the number of modal classes increased due to the right wing of the older age groups. The frequency distribution of silver bream had a shape of a curve with wide, however broken (due to the reduction in age-5 fish peak and gradual decrease. Age-length properties, fatness parameters and condition factor of silver bream in the Kiev reservoir during last years remained on the stable high level indicating on favorable fattening conditions and forming the ichthyomass of this species. At the present time, silver bream of the Kyiv reservoir formed a commercial stock with such qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which allow exploiting it in the mode of traditional commercial harvest and specialized harvest of silver bream concentrations with the use of gill nets with mesh sizes of 50, 60 mm. Originality. We obtained and analyzed the new data on the current state of silver bream (Blіcca bjoerkna in Kyiv reservoir as an important element of commercial fish production. Practical Value. The results of the work allows increasing qualitative and quantitative characteristics of silver bream catches and will be used for the

  4. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  5. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant influences species distribution and thermal tolerance of fishes in reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.K.; Das, T.; Dalvi, R.S.; Bagchi, S.; Manush, S.M.; Ayyappan, S.; Chandrachoodan, P.P.; Apte, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    During electricity generation water bodies like reservoir act as a heat sink for thermal effluent discharges from nuclear power plant. We hypothesized that the fish fauna gets distributed according to their temperature preference in the thermal gradient. In a simulated environment using critical thermal methodology (CTM), we assessed thermal tolerance and metabolic profile of fishes (Puntius filamentosus, Parluciosoma daniconius, Ompok malabaricus, Mastacembelus armatus, Labeo calbasu, Horabragrus brachysoma, Etroplus suratensis, Danio aequipinnatus and Gonoproktopterus curmuca) collected from Kadra reservoir in Karnataka state. Results of CTM tests agrees with the species abundance as per the temperature gradient formed in the reservoir due to thermal effluent discharge. E. suratensis and H. brachysoma) appear to be adapted to high temperature (with high CTMax and CTMin values) and are in abundance at point of thermal discharge. Similarly, P. daniconius, appear to be adapted to cold (low CTM values) is in abundance in lower stretches of Kadra reservoir. Overall results indicate that discharge form nuclear power plant influences the species biodiversity in enclosed water bodies. (author)

  6. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer

    2008-09-15

    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  7. Characterization of fractured reservoirs joint inversion of seismic and production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahraini, Ali

    2011-03-15

    modeling tools (based on Ruger's approximation and also Zoeppritz's exact solution for reflection coefficients) has been used to calculate amplitude versus angle and azimuth (AVAZ) data. It is also shown in this study that AVAZ or seismic reflection coefficients data are not very sensitive to the fracture aperture and consequently to the effective permeability tensor of a fractured porous media. It also shows that assuming a known fracture aperture to estimate the effective permeability tensor using seismic AVAZ data can cause a high uncertainty in the estimated permeability tensor. Very few (if any) previous studies exist with aperture as an unknown parameter in the characterization work flow. In this study I proposed a work flow that considers the fracture aperture as well as fracture density and orientation as unknown parameters in the history matching work flow. Different Bayesian methods have been used in the inversion part. Compared to the deterministic methods, Bayesian methods can provide information about the uncertainty in the unknown parameters in the form of a posterior probability density function (PDF). Sampling method such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) and randomise maximum likelihood method (RML) has been used to obtain the samples of the posterior PDF for the fracture parameters. The work flow has been further developed using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) method in a history matching part. EnKF has been used as an assimilation method for continuous model updating of fracture parameters (fracture density, orientation and aperture). The method has also been applied for characterization of faulted reservoirs and deformation zones. The transmissibility multiplier is used to model the effect of the fault core and the consistent rock physics model has been used to model fractures and deformation bands in the damaged zone. (Author)

  8. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mella, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geoscience Inst.

    2016-08-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate an approach for tracking the evolution of circulation immediately following a hydraulic stimulation in an EGS reservoir. Series of high-resolution tracer tests using conservative and thermally reactive tracers were designed at recently created EGS reservoirs in order to track changes in fluid flow parameters such as reservoir pore volume, flow capacity, and effective reservoir temperature over time. Data obtained from the project would be available for the calibration of reservoir models that could serve to predict EGS performance following a hydraulic stimulation.

  9. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico)], E-mail: adalop123@mailbanamex.com; Romero, A.; Chavez, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico); Carrillo, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (CICATA-IPN, Altamira Tamaulipas) (Mexico); Lopez, S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo - Molecular Engineering Researcher (Mexico)

    2008-11-15

    The study and computational representation of porous media properties are very important for many industries where problems of fluid flow, percolation phenomena and liquid movement and stagnation are involved, for example, in building constructions, ore processing, chemical industries, mining, corrosion sciences, etc. Nevertheless, these kinds of processes present a noneasy behavior to be predicted and mathematical models must include statistical analysis, fractal and/or stochastic procedures to do it. This work shows the characterization of sandstone berea core samples which can be found as a porous media (PM) in natural oil reservoirs, rock formations, etc. and the development of a mathematical algorithm for simulating the anisotropic characteristics of a PM based on a stochastic distribution of some of their most important properties like porosity, permeability, pressure and saturation. Finally a stochastic process is used again to simulated the topography of an oil reservoir.

  10. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  11. Nuclear stimulation of oil-reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Supiot, F.

    1970-01-01

    Underground nuclear explosions in the Hoggar nuclear test site have shown that the geological effects may increase the production of oil or gas reservoirs. By studying the permanent liquid flow-rate with approximate DUPUIT's equation, or with a computer code, it is shown that the conventional well flow-rate may be increased by a factor between 3 and 50, depending on the medium and explosion conditions. (author)

  12. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  13. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  14. Modelling phosphorus retention in lakes and reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejzlar, Josef; Šámalová, K.; Boers, P.; Kronvang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, 5-6 (2006), s. 487-494 ISSN 1567-7230 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3017301; GA AV ČR 1QS600170504 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK1-CT-2001-00096; MSM(CZ) 6007665801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : phosphorus * retention * reservoir Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  15. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  16. The Calculation Of Ngancar Batuwarna Reservoir, Wonogiri, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Ulfa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of reservoir capacity is needed to find out how big the effective volume change of Ngancar Reservoir from the beginning of measurement until 2016. The purpose of this research is measuring volume of Ngancar Reservoir using bathymetry method with echosounder and calculating the remaining relative age of Ngancar Reservoir. Measurement topography of Ngancar Reservoir is done by bathymetry method of aquatic systematic random sampling method through certain path using echosounder. Analysis of reservoir capacity is done by calculating the volumes of Ngancar Reservoir and calculating the residual life of the reservoir relative. Fluctuation analysis of volume change was done by calculating the effective volume of reservoirs 1946-2016 and graphs. The calculation of the volume of the Ngancar Reservoir from the topographic map produces an effective volume value of 2016 is 1269905 m3 and the effective puddle area is 1393416 m2. An increase in sedimentation volume from 2011-2016 amounted to 296119.75 m3 with sedimentation rate was 59223.95 / year. With the assumption that the same landuse and sedimentation rate tend to be stable then the remaining age of Ngancar Reservoir is 21 years and 95 years old.

  17. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  18. Risk Analysis of Extreme Rainfall Effects on the Shihmen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y.; Lien, W.; Tung, C.

    2009-12-01

    Typhoon Morakot intruded Taiwan during 7th and 8th of August 2009, brought about 2,700 mm of total rainfall which caused serious flood and debris to the southern region of Taiwan. One of the serious flooded areas is in the downstream of Zengwen reservoir. People believed that the large amount of floodwater released from Zengwen reservoir led to the severe inundation. Therefore, the Shihmen reservoir is one of the important reservoirs in northern Taiwan. The Taipei metropolis, which is in downstream of Shihmen reservoir, is the political and economical center of Taiwan. If heavy rainfall as those brought by Typhoon Marakot falls in the Shihmen reservoir watershed, it may create a bigger disaster. This study focused on the impacts of a typhoon, like Morakot, in Shihmen reservoir. The hydrological model is used to simulate the reservoir inflows under different rainfall conditions. The reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir’s storage and outflows under the inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. Besides, the released floodwater from reservoir and the inflows from different tributaries are used to determine whether or not the river stage will overtop levee. Also, the maximum released floodwater and other inflows which could lead to damages will be stated. Lastly, the criteria of rainfall conditions and initial stages of reservoir will be analyzed in this study.

  19. A Study of the Optimal Planning Model for Reservoir Sustainable Management- A Case Study of Shihmen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The reservoir management in Taiwan faces lots of challenge. Massive sediment caused by landslide were flushed into reservoir, which will decrease capacity, rise the turbidity, and increase supply risk. Sediment usually accompanies nutrition that will cause eutrophication problem. Moreover, the unevenly distribution of rainfall cause water supply instability. Hence, how to ensure sustainable use of reservoirs has become an important task in reservoir management. The purpose of the study is developing an optimal planning model for reservoir sustainable management to find out an optimal operation rules of reservoir flood control and sediment sluicing. The model applies Genetic Algorithms to combine with the artificial neural network of hydraulic analysis and reservoir sediment movement. The main objective of operation rules in this study is to prevent reservoir outflow caused downstream overflow, minimum the gap between initial and last water level of reservoir, and maximum sluicing sediment efficiency. A case of Shihmen reservoir was used to explore the different between optimal operating rule and the current operation of the reservoir. The results indicate optimal operating rules tended to open desilting tunnel early and extend open duration during flood discharge period. The results also show the sluicing sediment efficiency of optimal operating rule is 36%, 44%, 54% during Typhoon Jangmi, Typhoon Fung-Wong, and Typhoon Sinlaku respectively. The results demonstrate the optimal operation rules do play a role in extending the service life of Shihmen reservoir and protecting the safety of downstream. The study introduces a low cost strategy, alteration of operation reservoir rules, into reservoir sustainable management instead of pump dredger in order to improve the problem of elimination of reservoir sediment and high cost.

  20. Analysis of the Movement of Sanzhouxi Landslide in Three-Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Du; Kunlong, Yin; Yiping, Wu; Lixia, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Since the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in June 2003, a number of new landslides occurred and many dormant landslides were reactivated. Sanzhouxi Landslide located in Wanzhou, the city of Chongqing, 286.9 km west of the Three Gorges Dam and began to deform noticeably after the first impoundment in June 2003. Based on the collection of geological and monitoring data and field investigation, the geological conceptual model was established and the formation mechanism was studied synthetically. Firstly, the intrinsic geological condition, slope structure and material component were analyzed to obtain the geological basis of the landslide formation. Secondly, through the field investigation and analysis of monitoring data, the function of triggering factors, including rainfall and fluctuation of reservoir water level, were discussed. The result indicted that the hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy pressure caused by the rise up of reservoir water level are the main triggering factors for the deformation of landside. Finally, the formation pattern of the landslide was summarized, the formation process is the transition from retrogressive deformation caused by rainfall to the advancing sliding under the action of fluctuation of reservoir water level. The detail formation process is: (1) the top of landslide moved triggered by rainfall, (2) tension cracks occurred in the tongue and middle part of landslide caused by fluctuation of reservoir water level, (3) the tongue and middle part of landslide deformed periodically by the iterative action of rainfall and fluctuation of reservoir water level, (4) the unitive sliding plane formed and the tongue and middle part of landslide moved, (5) the top of landslide slid because of losing bottom supporting.

  1. Phytoplankton assemblages in a reservoir cascade of a large tropical - subtropical river (SE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Nogueira

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton assemblages from eight reservoirs of the Paranapanema River were studied during two consecutive years. Chlorophyceae and Bacillaryophyceae dominated in richness. The observed high number of taxa, 234, reflects the extensive sampling programme and evidences the necessity of considering the whole hydrograph basin to assess the biodiversity status of inland water ecosystems. The dams had a negative effect on phytoplankton richness, with higher number of taxa associate to riverine (non-regulated stretches. The tributary rivers also exhibited high species richness, showing the importance of considering the lateral dimension, in addition to the longitudinal one, for aquatic biota inventories in large river basins/reservoirs. Richness and diversity were also positively influenced by the connectivity with lateral wetlands (macrophyte-dominated lakes due to the periphyton influence. The phytoplankton abundance/biomass was not influenced by higher water retention time. Higher values occurred in the middle basin stretches (river-passage reservoirs due to the increase in the trophic conditions. There was a positive correlation with phosphorus. Poorer light conditions in the cascade do not limit the phytoplankton biomass, with assemblages dominated by species tolerant to turbulent conditions and high mineral turbidity. Bacillariophyceae and Cryptophyceae dominated numerically. The first group (unicellular forms was prominent in the large and oligotrophic upstream reservoirs. The second was highly abundant in the river-passage (low retention time, and more eutrophic, reservoirs. Cyanophyceae growth is probably controlled by advection processes (wash-out effect. The zooplankton does not control the phytoplankton biomass and the diversity of both groups is positively associated in the cascade. The structure of the phytoplankton assemblages showed to be a good indicator of the operationally distinct reservoirs of the Paranapanema cascade and

  2. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  3. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  5. Permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, D.M.; Haynes, C.D.; Whittle, G.P.

    1973-09-01

    The aim of the research performed was to explore methods of permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs that may improve the receptive capacity of a well to a level that will allow continued use of the disposal zone without resorting to elevated injection pressures. The laboratory investigation employed a simulated open-hole completion in a disposal well wherein the entire formation face is exposed to the well bore. Cylindrical core samples from representative reservoir rocks through which a central vertical opening or borehole had been drilled were injected with a liquid waste obtained from a chemical manufacturing plant. This particular waste material was found to have a moderate plugging effect when injected into samples of reservoir rocks in a prior study. A review was made of the chemical considerations that might account for the reduction of permeability in waste injection. Purpose of this study was to ascertain the conditions under which the precipitation of certain compounds might occur in the injection of the particular waste liquid employed. A summary of chemical calculations is contained in Appendix B. The data may be useful in the treatment of wastes prior to injection and in the design of restoration procedures where analyses of waste liquids and interstitial materials are available. The results of permeability restoration tests were analyzed mathematically by curve-fitting techniques performed by a digital computer. A summary of the analyses is set forth in the discussion of test results and examples of computer printouts are included in Appendix A

  6. Thermochemical sulfate reduction in deep petroleum reservoirs: a molecular approach; Thermoreduction des sulfates dans les reservoirs petroliers: approche moleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanin, S.

    2002-11-01

    The thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a set of chemical reactions leading to hydrocarbon oxidation and production of carbon dioxide and sour gas (H{sub 2}S) which is observed in deep petroleum reservoirs enriched in anhydrites (calcium sulfate). Molecular and isotopic studies have been conducted on several crude oil samples to determine which types of compounds could have been produced during TSR. Actually, we have shown that the main molecules formed by TSR were organo-sulfur compounds. Indeed, sulfur isotopic measurements. of alkyl-di-benzothiophenes, di-aryl-disulfides and thia-diamondoids (identified by NMR or synthesis of standards) shows that they are formed during TSR as their value approach that of the sulfur of the anhydrite. Moreover, thia-diamondoids are apparently exclusively formed during this phenomenon and can thus be considered as true molecular markers of TSR. In a second part, we have investigated with laboratory experiments the formation mechanism of the molecules produced during TSR. A first model has shown that sulfur incorporation into the organic matter occurred with mineral sulfur species of low oxidation degree. The use of {sup 34}S allowed to show that the sulfates reduction occurred during these simulations. At least, some experiments on polycyclic hydrocarbons, sulfurized or not, allowed to establish that thia-diamondoids could be formed by acid-catalysed rearrangements at high temperatures in a similar way as the diamondoids. (author)

  7. Integrated Approach to Drilling Project in Unconventional Reservoir Using Reservoir Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Jerzy; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Wojnarowski, Paweł; Janiga, Damian; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Accumulation and flow mechanisms in unconventional reservoir are different compared to conventional. This requires a special approach of field management with drilling and stimulation treatments as major factor for further production. Integrated approach of unconventional reservoir production optimization assumes coupling drilling project with full scale reservoir simulation for determine best well placement, well length, fracturing treatment design and mid-length distance between wells. Full scale reservoir simulation model emulate a part of polish shale - gas field. The aim of this paper is to establish influence of technical factor for gas production from shale gas field. Due to low reservoir permeability, stimulation treatment should be direct towards maximizing the hydraulic contact. On the basis of production scenarios, 15 stages hydraulic fracturing allows boost gas production over 1.5 times compared to 8 stages. Due to the possible interference of the wells, it is necessary to determine the distance between the horizontal parts of the wells trajectories. In order to determine the distance between the wells allowing to maximize recovery factor of resources in the stimulated zone, a numerical algorithm based on a dynamic model was developed and implemented. Numerical testing and comparative study show that the most favourable arrangement assumes a minimum allowable distance between the wells. This is related to the volume ratio of the drainage zone to the total volume of the stimulated zone.

  8. An Effective Reservoir Parameter for Seismic Characterization of Organic Shale Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luanxiao; Qin, Xuan; Zhang, Jinqiang; Liu, Xiwu; Han, De-hua; Geng, Jianhua; Xiong, Yineng

    2017-12-01

    Sweet spots identification for unconventional shale reservoirs involves detection of organic-rich zones with abundant porosity. However, commonly used elastic attributes, such as P- and S-impedances, often show poor correlations with porosity and organic matter content separately and thus make the seismic characterization of sweet spots challenging. Based on an extensive analysis of worldwide laboratory database of core measurements, we find that P- and S-impedances exhibit much improved linear correlations with the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity than the single parameter of organic matter volume fraction or porosity. Importantly, from the geological perspective, porosity in conjunction with organic matter content is also directly indicative of the total hydrocarbon content of shale resources plays. Consequently, we propose an effective reservoir parameter (ERP), the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity, to bridge the gap between hydrocarbon accumulation and seismic measurements in organic shale reservoirs. ERP acts as the first-order factor in controlling the elastic properties as well as characterizing the hydrocarbon storage capacity of organic shale reservoirs. We also use rock physics modeling to demonstrate why there exists an improved linear correlation between elastic impedances and ERP. A case study in a shale gas reservoir illustrates that seismic-derived ERP can be effectively used to characterize the total gas content in place, which is also confirmed by the production well.

  9. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-07-15

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Bakken - An Unconventional Petroleum and Reservoir System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarg, J.

    2011-12-31

    effective stress as the Middle Bakken suggesting that the shale will not contain induced fractures, and will contribute hydrocarbons from interconnected micro-fractures. Organic-rich shale impedance increases with a reduction in porosity and an increase in kerogen stiffness during the burial maturation process. Maturation can be directly related to impedance, and should be seismically mappable. Fractures enhance permeability and production. Regional fractures form an orthogonal set with a dominant NE-SW trend, and a less prominent NW-SE trend. Many horizontal 1 direction to intersect these fractures. Local structures formed by basement tectonics or salt dissolution generate both hinge parallel and hinge oblique fractures that may overprint and dominate the regional fracture signature. Horizontal microfractures formed by oil expulsion in the Bakken shales, and connected and opened by hydrofracturing provide permeability pathways for oil flow into wells that have been hydro-fractured in the Middle Bakken lithofacies. Results from the lithofacies, mineral, and fracture analyses of this study were used to construct a dual porosity Petrel geo-model for a portion of the Elm Coulee Field. In this field, dolomitization enhances reservoir porosity and permeability. First year cumulative production helps locate areas of high well productivity and in deriving fracture swarm distribution. A fracture model was developed based on high productivity well distribution, and regional fracture distribution, and was combined with favorable matrix properties to build a dual porosity geo-model.

  11. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  12. Managing geological uncertainty in CO2-EOR reservoir assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, Kris; Piessens, Kris

    2014-05-01

    Recently the European Parliament has agreed that an atlas for the storage potential of CO2 is of high importance to have a successful commercial introduction of CCS (CO2 capture and geological storage) technology in Europe. CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is often proposed as a promising business case for CCS, and likely has a high potential in the North Sea region. Traditional economic assessments for CO2-EOR largely neglect the geological reality of reservoir uncertainties because these are difficult to introduce realistically in such calculations. There is indeed a gap between the outcome of a reservoir simulation and the input values for e.g. cost-benefit evaluations, especially where it concerns uncertainty. The approach outlined here is to turn the procedure around, and to start from which geological data is typically (or minimally) requested for an economic assessment. Thereafter it is evaluated how this data can realistically be provided by geologists and reservoir engineers. For the storage of CO2 these parameters are total and yearly CO2 injection capacity, and containment or potential on leakage. Specifically for the EOR operation, two additional parameters can be defined: the EOR ratio, or the ratio of recovered oil over injected CO2, and the CO2 recycling ratio of CO2 that is reproduced after breakthrough at the production well. A critical but typically estimated parameter for CO2-EOR projects is the EOR ratio, taken in this brief outline as an example. The EOR ratio depends mainly on local geology (e.g. injection per well), field design (e.g. number of wells), and time. Costs related to engineering can be estimated fairly good, given some uncertainty range. The problem is usually to reliably estimate the geological parameters that define the EOR ratio. Reliable data is only available from (onshore) CO2-EOR projects in the US. Published studies for the North Sea generally refer to these data in a simplified form, without uncertainty ranges, and are

  13. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  14. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujun Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  15. Identification and dating of indigenous water storage reservoirs along the Rio San José at Laguna Pueblo, western New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Gary; Ferguson, T.J.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Banet, Chris; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into indigenous water storage on the Rio San José in western New Mexico was conducted in support of efforts by the Pueblo of Laguna to adjudicate their water rights. Here we focus on stratigraphy and geochronology of two Native American-constructed reservoirs. One reservoir located near the community of Casa Blanca was formed by a ∼600 m (2000 feet) long stone masonry dam that impounded ∼1.6 × 106 m3 (∼1300 acre-feet) of stored water. Four optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages obtained on reservoir deposits indicate that the dam was constructed prior to AD 1825. The other reservoir is located adjacent to Old Laguna Pueblo and contains only a small remnant of its former earthen dam. The depth and distribution of reservoir deposits and a photogrammetric analyses of relict shorelines indicate a storage capacity of ∼6.5 × 106 m3 (∼5300 ac-ft). OSL ages from above and below the base of the reservoir indicate that the reservoir was constructed sometime after AD 1370 but before AD 1750. The results of our investigation are consistent with Laguna oral history and Spanish accounts demonstrating indigenous construction of significant water-storage reservoirs on the Rio San José prior to the late nineteenth century.

  16. Exploring synergistic benefits of Water-Food-Energy Nexus through multi-objective reservoir optimization schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uen, Tinn-Shuan; Chang, Fi-John; Zhou, Yanlai; Tsai, Wen-Ping

    2018-03-22

    This study proposed a holistic three-fold scheme that synergistically optimizes the benefits of the Water-Food-Energy (WFE) Nexus by integrating the short/long-term joint operation of a multi-objective reservoir with irrigation ponds in response to urbanization. The three-fold scheme was implemented step by step: (1) optimizing short-term (daily scale) reservoir operation for maximizing hydropower output and final reservoir storage during typhoon seasons; (2) simulating long-term (ten-day scale) water shortage rates in consideration of the availability of irrigation ponds for both agricultural and public sectors during non-typhoon seasons; and (3) promoting the synergistic benefits of the WFE Nexus in a year-round perspective by integrating the short-term optimization and long-term simulation of reservoir operations. The pivotal Shihmen Reservoir and 745 irrigation ponds located in Taoyuan City of Taiwan together with the surrounding urban areas formed the study case. The results indicated that the optimal short-term reservoir operation obtained from the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) could largely increase hydropower output but just slightly affected water supply. The simulation results of the reservoir coupled with irrigation ponds indicated that such joint operation could significantly reduce agricultural and public water shortage rates by 22.2% and 23.7% in average, respectively, as compared to those of reservoir operation excluding irrigation ponds. The results of year-round short/long-term joint operation showed that water shortage rates could be reduced by 10% at most, the food production rate could be increased by up to 47%, and the hydropower benefit could increase up to 9.33 million USD per year, respectively, in a wet year. Consequently, the proposed methodology could be a viable approach to promoting the synergistic benefits of the WFE Nexus, and the results provided unique insights for stakeholders and policymakers to pursue

  17. Factors Governing the Germination of Sulfate-Reducing Desulfotomaculum Endospores Involved in Oil Reservoir Souring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A.; Bell, E.; Cueto, G.; Suarez-Suarez, A.; Pilloni, G.; Hubert, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir souring is caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in subsurface oil reservoirs, and is often induced by seawater injection during secondary oil recovery. Souring can potentially contribute to corrosion of infrastructure, health and safety hazards to the workforce, and reduction in value by increasing refining costs associated with producing the oil resource. Souring causes annual losses in the billions of dollars to the oil industry. Endospore-forming SRM, such as Desulfotomaculum spp., are often suspected culprits in reservoir souring. Endospores can survive unfavourable conditions for long periods, yet remain poised to germinate and become active if conditions become more favourable. Factors governing endospore germination are poorly understood, but are thought to include availability of nutrients, possibly metabolic by products of other anaerobic bioprocesses, and/or variations in temperature. Most research has focused on aerobic Bacillus spp., with very few studies dedicated to spore germination among anaerobes (order Clostridiales) including the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum found in anoxic subsurface petroleum reservoirs. For Desulfotomaculum spores in deep hot oil reservoirs, cold seawater introduction during secondary oil recovery may create thermal viability zones for sulfate reduction near the injection wellbore. To evaluate these processes, sulfate-containing microcosms were prepared with different marine sediments as a source of spores, and amended with organic substrates in the presence or absence of oil. Incubation at 80°C for six days was followed by a down-shift in temperature to 60°C to mimic cold seawater injection into a hot reservoir. Souring did not occur at 80°C, but commenced within hours at 60°C. Microcosms were monitored for sulfate reduction and organic acids in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (Ion Torrent, Illumina MiSeq). Through a combination of high

  18. Climate variability and sedimentation of a hydropower reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the relicensing of a large Hydroelectric Project in the central Appalachians, large scale watershed and reservoir sedimentation models were developed to forecast potential sedimentation scenarios. The GIS based watershed model was spatially explicit and calibrated to long term observed data. Potential socio/economic development scenarios were used to construct future watershed land cover scenarios. Climatic variability and potential change analysis were used to identify future climate regimes and shifts in precipitation and temperature patterns. Permutations of these development and climate changes were forecasted over 50 years and used to develop sediment yield regimes to the project reservoir. Extensive field work and reservoir survey, including current and wave instrumentation, were used to characterize the project watershed, rivers and reservoir hydrodynamics. A fully 3 dimensional hydrodynamic reservoir sedimentation model was developed for the project and calibrated to observed data. Hydrologic and sedimentation results from watershed forecasting provided boundary conditions for reservoir inputs. The calibrated reservoir model was then used to forecast changes in reservoir sedimentation and storage capacity under different future climate scenarios. Results indicated unique zones of advancing sediment deltas and temporary storage areas. Forecasted changes in reservoir bathymetry and sedimentation patterns were also developed for the various climate change scenarios. The warmer and wetter scenario produced sedimentation impacts similar to extensive development under no climate change. The results of these analyses are being used to develop collaborative watershed and soil conservation partnerships to reduce future soil losses and reservoir sedimentation from projected development. (author)

  19. Functional age as an indicator of reservoir senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been conjectured that reservoirs differ in the rate at which they manifest senescence, but no attempt has been made to find an indicator of senescence that performs better than chronological age. We assembled an indicator of functional age by creating a multimetric scale consisting of 10 metrics descriptive of reservoir environments that were expected to change directionally with reservoir senescence. In a sample of 1,022 U.S. reservoirs, chronological age was not correlated with functional age. Functional age was directly related to percentage of cultivated land in the catchment and inversely related to reservoir depth. Moreover, aspects of reservoir fishing quality and fish population characteristics were related to functional age. A multimetric scale to indicate reservoir functional age presents the possibility for management intervention from multiple angles. If a reservoir is functionally aging at an accelerated rate, action may be taken to remedy the conditions contributing most to functional age. Intervention to reduce scores of selected metrics in the scale can potentially reduce the rate of senescence and increase the life expectancy of the reservoir. This leads to the intriguing implication that steps can be taken to reduce functional age and actually make the reservoir grow younger.

  20. Mrica Reservoir Sedimentation: Current Situation and Future Necessary Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Utomo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mrica Reservoir is one of many reservoirs located in Central Java that experienced a considerably high sedimentation during the last ten years. This condition has caused a rapid decrease in reservoir capacity. Various countermeasures have been introduced to reduce the rate of the reservoir sedimentation through catchment management and reservoir operation by means of flushing and/or dredging. However, the sedimentation remains intensive so that the fulfillment of water demand for electrical power generation was seriously affected. This paper presents the results of evaluation on the dynamics of the purpose of this research is to evaluate the sediment balance of the Mrica Reservoir based on two different scenarios, i.e. the existing condition and another certain type of reservoir management. The study on sediment balance was carried out by estimating the sediment inflow applying sheet erosion method in combination with the analysis of sediment rating curve. The measurement of the deposited sediment rate in the reservoir was conducted through the periodic echo sounding, whereas identification of the number of sediment that has been released from the reservoir was carried out through the observation on both flushing and dredging activities. The results show that during the last decade, the rate of the sediment inflow was approximately 5.869 MCM/year, whereas the released sediment from the reservoir was 4.097 MCM/year. In order to maintain the reservoir capacity, therefore, at least 1.772 MCM/year should be released from the reservoir by means of either flushing or dredging. Sedimentation management may prolong the reservoir’s service life to exceed the design life. Without sediment management, the lifetime of the reservoir would have finished by 2016, whereas with the proper management the lifetime may be extended to 2025.

  1. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches.

  2. Dredged Material Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement. McNary Reservoir and Lower Snake River Reservoirs. Appendix C: Economic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...; for managment of dredged material from these reservoirs; and for maintenance of flow conveyance capacity at the most upstream extent of the Lower Granite reservoir for the remaining economic life of the dam and reservoir project (to year 2074...

  3. Exploration and reservoir characterization; Technology Target Areas; TTA2 - Exploration and reservoir characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    In future, research within exploration and reservoir characterization will play an even more important role for Norway since resources are decreasing and new challenges like deep sea, harsh environment and last but not least environmental issues have to be considered. There are two major fields which have to be addressed within exploration and reservoir characterization: First, replacement of reserves by new discoveries and ultimate field recoveries in mature basins at the Norwegian Continental shelf, e.g. at the Halten Terrace has to be addressed. A wealth of data exists in the more mature areas. Interdisciplinary integration is a key feature of reservoir characterization, where available data and specialist knowledge need to be combined into a consistent reservoir description. A systematic approach for handling both uncertainties in data sources and uncertainties in basic models is needed. Fast simulation techniques are necessary to generate models spanning the event space, covering both underground based and model-based uncertainties. Second, exploration in frontier areas like the Barents Sea region and the deeper Voering Basin has to be addressed. The scarcity of wells in these frontier areas leads to uncertainties in the geological understanding. Basin- and depositional modelling are essential for predicting where source rocks and reservoir rocks are deposited, and if, when and which hydrocarbons are generated and trapped. Predictive models and improved process understanding is therefore crucial to meet these issues. Especially the challenges related to the salt deposits e.g. sub-salt/sub-basalt reservoir definitions in the Nordkapp Basin demands up-front research and technology developments. TTA2 stresses the need to focus on the development of new talents. We also see a strong need to push cooperation as far as possible in the present competitive environment. Projects that may require a substantial financial commitment have been identified. The following

  4. Morphological, sediment and soil chemical characteristics of dry tropical shallow reservoirs in the Southern Mexican Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis ARREDONDO-FIGUEROA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry, sediment and soil chemical characteristics of eleven dry tropical shallow reservoirs situated in Southern Mexican Highlands were studied. The reservoirs are located at 1104 to 1183 meters above sea level in a sedimentary area. Seventeen morphometric and eight sediment and soil chemical parameters were measured. The results of the morphometric parameters showed that these reservoirs presented a soft and roughness bottom, with an ellipsoid form and a concave depression that permit the mix up of water and sediments, causing turbidity and broken thermal gradients; their slight slopes allowed the colonization of submerged macrophyte and halophyte plants and improved the incidence of sunlight on water surface increasing evaporation and primary productivity. Dry tropical shallow reservoirs have fluctuations in area, and volume according to the amount of rainfall, the effect of evaporation, temperature, lost volume for irrigation, and other causes. The sand-clay was the most important sediment texture and their values fluctuated with the flooded periods. The concentration-dilution cycle showed a direct relationship in the percentage of organic matter in the soil as well as with pH, soil nitrogen and phosphorus. El Tilzate, El Candelero and El Movil were related by the shore development and high concentrations of organic matter and nitrogen in the soil. Finally, we emphasize the importance of this study, in relation to possible future changes in morphometrical parameters as a consequence of human impact.

  5. Analysis of multi-factor coupling effect on hydraulic fracture network in shale reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhang Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results of lab triaxial hydraulic fracturing simulation experiments, field fracturing practice, and theory analysis, the factors affecting the growth of hydraulic fracture network in shale reservoirs, including brittleness, difference of horizontal stress, distribution and mechanical characteristics of natural fractures, fluid viscosity and fracturing parameters, etc are analyzed in this study. The results show that the growth of fracture network in shale reservoirs is affected by geological factors and engineering factors jointly. From the perspective of reservoir geological factors, the higher the rock brittleness, the more developed the natural fractures, and the poorer the natural fracture consolidation, the more likely hydraulic fracture network will be formed. From the perspective of fracturing engineering factors, lower fluid viscosity and larger fracturing scale will be more helpful to the formation of extensive fracture network. On the basis of the analysis of single factors, a multi-factor coupling index has been established to characterize the growth degree of hydraulic fracture network and evaluate the complexity of hydraulic fractures after the fracturing of shale reservoirs.

  6. A welfare study into capture fisheries in cirata reservoir: a bio-economic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Z.; Hindayani, P.

    2018-04-01

    Capture fishery in inland such as reservoirs can be a source of food security and even the economy and public welfare of the surrounding community. This research was conducted on Cirata reservoir fishery in West Java, to see how far reservoir capture fishery can contribute economically in the form of resource rents. The method used is the bioeconomic model Copes, which can analyze the demand and supply functions to calculate the optimization of stakeholders’ welfare in various management regimes. The results showed that the management of capture fishery using Maximum Economic Yield regime (MEY) gave the most efficient result, where fewer inputs would produce maximum profit. In the MEY management, the producer surplus obtained is IDR 2,610.203.099, - per quarter and IDR 273.885.400,- of consumer surplus per quarter. Furthermore, researches showed that sustainable management regime policy MEY result in the government rent/surplus ofIDR 217.891,345, - per quarter with the average price of fish per kg being IDR 13.929. In open access fishery, it was shown that the producer surplus becomesIDR 0. Thus the implementation of the MEY-based instrument policy becomes a necessity for Cirata reservoir capture fishery.

  7. Penerapan Dinamika Fluida dalam Perhitungan Kecepatan Aliran dan Perolehan Minyak di Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Listriana Kusumastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water, oil and gas inside the earth are stored in the pores of the reservoir rock. In the world of petroleum industry, calculation of volume of the oil that can be recovered from the reservoir is something important to do. This calculation involves the calculation of the velocity of fluid flow by utilizing the principles and formulas provided by the Fluid Dynamics. The formula is usually applied to the fluid flow passing through a well defined control volume, for example: cylinder, curved pipe, straight pipes with different diameters at the input and output, and so forth. However, because of reservoir rock, as the fluid flow medium, has a wide variety of possible forms of the control volumes, hence, calculation of the velocity of the fluid flow is becoming difficult as it would involve calculations of fluid flow velocity for each control volume. This difficulties is mainly caused by the fact that these control volumes, that existed in the rock, cannot be well defined. This paper will describe a method for calculating this fluid flow velocity of the control volume, which consists of a combination of laboratory measurements and the use of some theories in the Fluid Dynamics. This method has been proofed can be used for calculating fluid flow velocity as well as oil recovery in reservoir rocks, with fairly good accuration.

  8. Guiding rational reservoir flood operation using penalty-type genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chiu

    2008-06-01

    SummaryReal-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. This study proposes a reservoir flood control optimization model with linguistic description of requirements and existing regulations for rational operating decisions. The approach involves formulating reservoir flood operation as an optimization problem and using the genetic algorithm (GA) as a search engine. The optimizing formulation is expressed not only by mathematical forms of objective function and constraints, but also by no analytic expression in terms of parameters. GA is used to search a global optimum of a mixture of mathematical and nonmathematical formulations. Due to the great number of constraints and flood control requirements, it is difficult to reach a solution without violating constraints. To tackle this bottleneck, the proper penalty strategy for each parameter is proposed to guide the GA searching process. The proposed approach is applied to the Shihmen reservoir in North Taiwan for finding the rational release and desired storage as a case study. The hourly historical data sets of 29 typhoon events that have hit the area in last thirty years are investigated bye the proposed method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the simplex method was performed. The results demonstrated that a penalty-type genetic algorithm could effectively provide rational hydrographs to reduce flood damage during the flood operation and to increase final storage for future usages.

  9. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  10. Zooplankton assemblage of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood K Mustapha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of physico-chemical properties of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a shallow tropical African reservoir on its zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated at three stations for two years between January 2002 and December 2003. Diversity is not high: only three groups of zooplankton were found: Rotifera with eight genera; and Cladocera and Copepoda with three genera each. Rotifera dominated numerically (71.02%, followed by Cladocera (16.45% and Copepoda (12.53%. The zooplankton was more prevalent during the rainy season, and there were variations in the composition and abundance along the reservoir continuum. Factors such as temperature, nutrients, food availability, shape and hydrodynamics of the reservoir, as well as reproductive strategies of the organisms, strongly influence the generic composition and population density of zooplankton. Prevention of ecological deterioration of the water body would greatly should result in a more productive water body, rich in zooplankton and with better fisheries. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1027-1047. Epub 2009 December 01.La influencia de las propiedades fisicoquímicas del Reservorio Oyun, Offa, Nigeria (un embalse tropical somero sobre la composición y abundancia del zooplancton fue investigada en tres estaciones entre enero de 2002 y diciembre de 2003. La diversidad no resultó muy alta con tres grupos de zooplancton: Rotifera con ocho géneros, y Cladocera y Copepoda con tres géneros cada uno. Rotifera dominó (71.02%, seguido de Cladocera (16.45% y Copepoda (12.53%. El zooplancton fue más común durante la temporada de lluvias, y hubo variaciones en su composición y abundancia a lo largo del embalse. Factores tales como la temperatura, los nutrientes, la disponibilidad de alimentos, la forma y la hidrodinámica del embalse, así como las estrategias reproductivas de los organismos, influyen fuertemente en la composición genérica y la densidad poblacional del zooplancton. La

  11. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...... species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful. ...

  12. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve...... this problem numerically using a single shooting sequential quadratic programming (SQP) based optimization method. Explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) methods are used for integration of the stiff system of differential equations describing the two-phase flow, and the adjoint method...

  13. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  14. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013

  15. Flood risk management for large reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupart, M.

    2006-01-01

    Floods are a major risk for dams: uncontrolled reservoir water level may cause dam overtopping, and then its failure, particularly for fill dams. Poor control of spillway discharges must be taken into consideration too, as it can increase the flood consequences downstream. In both cases, consequences on the public or on properties may be significant. Spillway design to withstand extreme floods is one response to these risks, but must be complemented by strict operating rules: hydrological forecasting, surveillance and periodic equipment controls, operating guides and the training of operators are mandatory too, in order to guarantee safe operations. (author)

  16. Monitoring gas reservoirs by seismic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph; Priolo, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Ambient seismic noise can be used to image spatial anomalies in the subsurface, without the need of recordings from seismic sources, such as earthquakes or explosions. Furthermore, the temporal variation of ambient seismic noise's can be used to infer temporal changes of the seismic velocities in the investigated medium. Such temporal variations can reflect changes of several physical properties/conditions in the medium. For example, they may be consequence of stress changes, variation of hydrogeological parameters, pore pressure and saturation changes due to fluid injection or extraction. Passive image interferometry allows to continuously monitor small temporal changes of seismic velocities in the subsurface, making it a suitable tool to monitor time-variant systems such as oil and gas reservoirs or volcanic environments. The technique does not require recordings from seismic sources in the classical sense, but is based on the processing of noise records. Moreover, it requires only data from one or two seismic stations, their locations constraining the sampled target area. Here we apply passive image interferometry to monitor a gas storage reservoir in northern Italy. The Collalto field (Northern Italy) is a depleted gas reservoir located at 1500 m depth, now used as a gas storage facility. The reservoir experience a significant temporal variation in the amount of stored gas: the injection phases mainly occur in the summer, while the extraction take place mostly in winter. In order to monitor induced seismicity related to gas storage operations, a seismic network (the Collalto Seismic Network) has been deployed in 2011. The Collalto Seismic Network is composed by 10 broadband stations, deployed within an area of about 20 km x 20 km, and provides high-quality continuous data since January 1st, 2012. In this work we present preliminary results from ambient noise interferometry using a two-months sample of continuous seismic data, i.e. from October 1st, 2012, to the

  17. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  18. Recent earthquakes in the Orlik reservoir region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanžlová, R.; Hudová, Zuzana; Málek, Jiří; Novotný, O.; Pazdírková, J.; Zedník, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2007), s. 189-195 ISSN 1213-1962. [Nové poznatky a měření v seizmologii, inženýrské geofyzice a geotechnice/16./. Ostrava, 17.04.2007-19.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30860518; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : shallow earthquake * Orlík reservoir * seismological stations Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  19. The generation of three-dimensional petroleum reservoirs scenarios; Geracao de cenarios tridimensionais de reservatorios petroliferos canalizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Andre Luiz F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)]. E-mail: andre.alfa@gmail.com; Silva, Rosana M. da [Universidade Federal de Campo Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: rosana@dme.ufcg.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a modeler aimed to obtain 3-dimensional geologic scenarios which simulate canalized petroleum reservoirs from information about the geometry of the geologic units that compound them and the wells' profiles, using as a base the 'Namorado' Field (Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro). The connected volumes that form a reservoir have proper shapes, which can be hardly modeled by known surfaces with parametric description (or implicit). The geologic units implemented by the prototype are formed by turbidity canals, which are represented by poliedric surfaces through triangulated webs. The 3-dimensional models that represent the reservoir geometry were obtained using the method of superposition of geologic units, according to the natural depositional sequence, through intersection operations between the geologic units modeled as poliedric surfaces. Limit boxes are used to optimize the calculus of intersections in the triangulated webs, using the algorithm proposed by Lo and Wang (2004). The validation of the 3-dimensional model, that models the reservoir, is done through the calculus of interiority, obtained from the implicit equations that describe the transversal sections of the canal's surface, whose domains include the identified intervals as reservoir in the data of previously informed wells. (author)

  20. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH. Appendix A: Upper reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Overriding considerations including operating range, volume and lining of reservoir, embankment design, intake/outlet arrangements and filling and make up water provisions were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to the selection of a reservoir formed by embankment of compacted rockfill together with an intake/outlet structure located in the embankment. The reservoir floor and upstream slopes of the embankment will have an asphalt lining to prevent leakage. The material and cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  1. Characterization of biocenosis in the storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Tryapitsina, G.; Andreyev, S.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Mokrov, Y.; Ivanov, I. [Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    cycle. In reservoir R-3 there was no small pelophylic mollusks either, 90% of zooplankton community was represented by rotifers, in zoo-benthos community there was no small pelophylic mollusks, in species composition of ichthyofauna there was no carnivorous species of fish. In reservoir R-17 ichthyofauna was completely absent, species diversity of phytoplankton was significantly reduced, zooplankton was represented only by rotifers, and zoo-benthos was represented only by gnat larvae. In reservoir R-9 there was no ichthyofauna; phytoplankton was almost a mono-culture of cyanobacteria Geitlerinema amphibium, zooplankton was almost a mono-culture of rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus or Hexartra fennic in different years. In all of the above mentioned reservoirs, the development of bacterial plankton was at the levels characteristic of the standing water bodies of this geographical zone. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  3. Deposited Micro Porous Layer as Lubricant Carrier in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    as lubricant reservoirs. Conventional friction tests for cold forming; ring compression and double cup extrusion tests are carried out with Molykote DX paste and mineral oil as lubricant. Both lubricants act as intended for the ring compressions test whereas only the low viscosity oil perform successfully...

  4. Phytoplankton and water quality in a Mediterranean drinking-water reservoir (Marathonas Reservoir, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiapi, Matina; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplankton and water quality of Marathonas drinking-water Reservoir were examined for the first time. During the study period (July-September 2007), phytoplankton composition was indicative of eutrophic conditions although phytoplankton biovolume was low (max. 2.7 mm³ l⁻¹). Phytoplankton was dominated by cyanobacteria and diatoms, whereas desmids and dinoflagellates contributed with lower biovolume values. Changing flushing rate in the reservoir (up to 0.7% of reservoir's water volume per day) driven by water withdrawal and occurring in pulses for a period of 15-25 days was associated with phytoplankton dynamics. Under flushing pulses: (1) biovolume was low and (2) both 'good' quality species and the tolerant to flushing 'nuisance' cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa dominated. According to the Water Framework Directive, the metrics of phytoplankton biovolume and cyanobacterial percentage (%) contribution indicated a moderate ecological water quality. In addition, the total biovolume of cyanobacteria as well as the dominance of the known toxin-producing M. aeruginosa in the reservoir's phytoplankton indicated a potential hazard for human health according to the World Health Organization.

  5. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply anddemand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can besignificantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment ofreservoir storage loss in conjunction with

  6. Phosphorus cycling in a dimictic reservoir - the Seč Reservoir (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovec, Jakub; Hejzlar, Josef; Vyhnálek, Vojtěch

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 83, Special Issue (1998), s. 295-302 ISSN 1434-2944. [International Conference on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /3./. České Budějovice, 11.08.1997-15.08.1997] Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 1997

  7. Ecological-geochemical characteristics of bottom sediments of Sophiivske reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Миколаївна Альохіна

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the investigation of the chemical composition of the bottom sediments Sophiivske reservoir located on the Ingul River was presented in this article. The most significant factor of differential sedimentation chemical compounds can be facies factor that reflects the impact of geomorphic parameters and hydrological characteristics of the reservoir. There are a change of environment sedimentogenesis from oxidative to reductive on sites near reservoir dam.

  8. HIV Reservoir Characterization Symposium: 19 September 2016, Ghent, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatinkova, Eva; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Sips, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The HIV Cure Research Center (HCRC) in Ghent organised the first HIV Reservoir Characterization Symposium, and brought together virologists, molecular biologists, immunologists and clinicians to discuss the most recent developments in HIV reservoir characterisation with a view to achieving an HIV cure. The one-day symposium covered new developments in the field of HIV reservoir and HIV cure research, with the latest news on the European HIV cure trials. This report summarises the major themes discussed during the symposium.

  9. Dynamic modeling of surfactant flooding in low permeable argillaceous reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, A. N.; Gunkin, A. S.; Rogachev, M. К

    2017-10-01

    This article reveals the current state and problems of the Russian oil production sector. Physicochemical enhanced oil recovery methods are proposed as a solution. The investigation of surfactant treatment efficiency and their integrated effect on oil and reservoir rock is conducted as well as its applicability analysis for low permeable poly-mineral reservoir. The results of dynamic modeling of oil displacement by the developed surfactant composition in a low permeable reservoir are presented.

  10. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  11. A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Quanshu Li; Huilin Xing; Jianjun Liu; Xiangchon Liu

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is widely accepted and applied to improve the gas recovery in unconventional reservoirs. Unconventional reservoirs to be addressed here are with very low permeability, complicated geological settings and in-situ stress field etc. All of these make the hydraulic fracturing process a challenging task. In order to effectively and economically recover gas from such reservoirs, the initiation and propagation of hydraulic fracturing in the heterogeneous fractured/porous media u...

  12. Deriving Area-storage Curves of Global Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Tang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Basic information including capacity, dam height, and largest water area on global reservoirs and dams is well documented in databases such as GRanD (Global Reservoirs and Dams), ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams). However, though playing a critical role in estimating reservoir storage variations from remote sensing or hydrological models, area-storage (or elevation-storage) curves of reservoirs are not publicly shared. In this paper, we combine Landsat surface water extent, 1 arc-minute global relief model (ETOPO1) and GRanD database to derive area-storage curves of global reservoirs whose area is larger than 1 km2 (6,000 more reservoirs are included). First, the coverage polygon of each reservoir in GRanD is extended to where water was detected by Landsat during 1985-2015. Second, elevation of each pixel in the reservoir is extracted from resampled 30-meter ETOPO1, and then relative depth and frequency of each depth value is calculated. Third, cumulative storage is calculated with increasing water area by every one percent of reservoir coverage area and then the uncalibrated area-storage curve is obtained. Finally, the area-storage curve is linearly calibrated by the ratio of calculated capacity over reported capacity in GRanD. The derived curves are compared with in-situ reservoir data collected in Great Plains Region in US, and the results show that in-situ records are well captured by the derived curves even in relative small reservoirs (several square kilometers). The new derived area-storage curves have the potential to be employed in global monitoring or modelling of reservoirs storage and area variations.

  13. A Comparative Study of Reservoir Computing for Temporal Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Goudarzi, Alireza; Banda, Peter; Lakin, Matthew R.; Teuscher, Christof; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing (RC) is a novel approach to time series prediction using recurrent neural networks. In RC, an input signal perturbs the intrinsic dynamics of a medium called a reservoir. A readout layer is then trained to reconstruct a target output from the reservoir's state. The multitude of RC architectures and evaluation metrics poses a challenge to both practitioners and theorists who study the task-solving performance and computational power of RC. In addition, in contrast to tradit...

  14. Mathematical models of a liquid filtration from reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvarbek Meirmanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the filtration from reservoirs into porous media under gravity. We start with the exact mathematical model at the microscopic level, describing the joint motion of a liquid in reservoir and the same liquid and the elastic solid skeleton in the porous medium. Then using a homogenization procedure we derive the chain of macroscopic models from the poroelasticity equations up to the simplest Darcy's law in the porous medium and hydraulics in the reservoir.

  15. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetyukhina, D.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Luthi, S.M.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluvio-deltaic sedimentary systems are of great interest for explorationists because they can form prolific hydrocarbon plays. However, they are also among the most complex and heterogeneous ones encountered in the subsurface, and potential reservoir units are often close to or below seismic

  16. Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data.

  17. Towards an HIV-1 cure: measuring the latent reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Katherine M.; Hosmane, Nina N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The latent reservoir of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells serves as a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. While many PCR- and culture-based assays have been used to measure the size of the latent reservoir, correlation between results of different assays is poor and recent studies indicate that no available assay provides an accurate measurement of reservoir size. The discrepancies between assays are a hurdle to clinical trials that aim to measure the efficacy of HIV-1 eradication strategies. Here we describe the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to measure the latent reservoir. PMID:25747663

  18. Reservoir sizing using inert and chemically reacting tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A.; Tester, J.W.; Brown, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    Non-reactive tracer tests in prototype hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs indicate multiple fracture flow paths that show increases in volume due to energy extraction. Tracer modal volumes correlate roughly with estimated reservoir heat-transfer capacity. Chemically reactive tracers are proposed which will map the rate of advance of the cooled region of an HDR reservoir, providing advanced warning of thermal drawdown. Critical parameters are examined using a simplified reservoir model for screening purposes. Hydrolysis reactions are a promising class of reactions for this purpose.

  19. Overtopping of Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Front Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of breakwaters with front reservoir are discussed on the basis of physical 2-D model tests with a number of cross sections, in which vertopping discharge and spatial distribution, wave forces on inner parapet walls, and stability of reservoir armour were studied....... The sensitivity of these quantities to the width of the reservoir is discussed. It is demonstrated that front reservoir solutions are more economical than conventional cross section solutions, such as bermed structures and mild slope structures, in cases where low crests and small overtopping discharges...

  20. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  1. Artisanal fisheries in a Brazilian hypereutrophic reservoir: Barra Bonita reservoir, middle Tietê river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLC. Novaes

    Full Text Available This study examines the qualitative and quantitative aspects of fishery landings at the hypereutrophic Barra Bonita reservoir, Brazil. Data were collected each month (July/2004-June/2006 at three localities and the reported catch, fishing effort and fishing techniques were recorded from 745 landings, comprising a total fish catch of 86,691.9 kg. The most caught species were exotic tilapias, especially the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., which represented 82.5% of the total biomass. The reservoir's fishery productivity was 11.1 kg/ha-1/day-1 with a Catch Per Unit Effort of 62.4 kg/fisher-1/day-1. Five fishing techniques were identified: cast net, gill net, trawl net, beating gill net, and beating gill net + gill net. The analysis of DCA related the active strategies for the tilapia catch, to the passive strategies for the Pimelodus maculatus (Lacepède and Triportheus angulatus catches (Spix & Agassiz, and the mixed strategies for the tilapia, catfish and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes catches. ANCOVA results were significant for all the variables analysed (season, fishing location and fishing technique. The results showed that fishing for "corvina" Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, predominant in the 1990s, had been replaced by fishing focused on the Nile tilapia. This substitution appears to be due to the increasing levels of eutrophication in the reservoir, combined with changes in fishing techniques. The pattern of the fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir follow those in other eutrophic Brazilian reservoirs, with catches of the exotic Nile tilapia predominating.

  2. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  3. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  4. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  5. Nutrition: a reservoir for integrative science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, S H; Allen, L H; Coburn, S P; Erdman, J W; Failla, M L; Freake, H C; King, J C; Storch, J

    2001-04-01

    In the last twenty years, powerful new molecular techniques were introduced that made it possible to advance knowledge in human biology using a reductionist approach. Now, the need for scientists to deal with complexity should drive a movement toward an integrationist approach to science. We propose that nutritional science is one of the best reservoirs for this approach. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences can play an important role by developing and delivering a cogent message that convinces the scientific establishment that nutrition fills this valuable niche. The society must develop a comprehensive strategy to develop our image as the reservoir for life sciences integration. Our efforts can start with our national meeting and publications, with the research initiatives for which we advocate, with our graduate training programs and with the public relations image we project for ourselves. Defining the image and future directions of nutrition as the discipline that can integrate scientific knowledge from the cell and molecule to the whole body and beyond to populations can be the most important task that our society undertakes. If we do not effectively meet this challenge, a golden opportunity will pass to others and nutritional scientists will be left to follow them.

  6. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  7. Spatial Stochastic Point Models for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syversveen, Anne Randi

    1997-12-31

    The main part of this thesis discusses stochastic modelling of geology in petroleum reservoirs. A marked point model is defined for objects against a background in a two-dimensional vertical cross section of the reservoir. The model handles conditioning on observations from more than one well for each object and contains interaction between objects, and the objects have the correct length distribution when penetrated by wells. The model is developed in a Bayesian setting. The model and the simulation algorithm are demonstrated by means of an example with simulated data. The thesis also deals with object recognition in image analysis, in a Bayesian framework, and with a special type of spatial Cox processes called log-Gaussian Cox processes. In these processes, the logarithm of the intensity function is a Gaussian process. The class of log-Gaussian Cox processes provides flexible models for clustering. The distribution of such a process is completely characterized by the intensity and the pair correlation function of the Cox process. 170 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  9. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; S.A. Bailey

    2000-01-01

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery.This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery. Research has begun on the program and experimental laboratory work is underway. Polymer-producing cultures have been isolated from produced water samples and initially characterized. Concurrently, a microcosm scale sand-packed column has been designed and developed for testing cultures of interest, including polymer-producing strains. In research that is planned to begin in future work, comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents will be conducted in sand pack and cores with synthetic and natural field waters at concentrations, flooding rates, and with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs.

  10. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SANANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-15

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; (7) Mobility control agents.

  11. Monitoring Impacts of Long-Term Drought on Surface Water Quantity and Quality in Middle Rio Grande Basin Reservoirs Using Multispectral Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Elephant Butte and Caballo dams form the largest surface water reservoirs in the Middle Rio Grande basin. The basin supports more than 2 million people, including the major urban centers of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces, New Mexico, plus more than 70,000 ha of land with water rights for irrigated agriculture. However, this region has experienced severe droughts and growing water demand over the past few decades. This study applied GIS and remote sensing techniques to (1) quantify the shrinking and expansion of the reservoirs for the 44-year period 1973-2017; (2) demonstrate the use of multispectral satellite imagery for qualitative assessment of reservoir water turbidity; and (3) investigate and compare annual and seasonal variability of reservoir temperature. Our preliminary results show apparent shrinkage and recovery cycles of both reservoirs, depending on annual inflow and diversion cycles. For example, the period 1981 to 1993 was unusually `wet' on average, in contrast to the period around September 2002 when the Elephant Butte reservoir shrinked to less than 11 percent of its capacity due to drought. Water in the reservoirs appears more turbid in the fall compared to the summer season, and satellite images showed distinctive zones of deep and shallow water, with evident sedimentation near the in-flow of each reservoir. Examination of image digital numbers revealed the following three distinct temperature zones: scrub environment around the reservoirs, very shallow water around reservoir edges, and deeper reservoir water. The zones were represented by a higher range of digital numbers in the summer in comparison to the fall season, indicating greater surface temperature variability in the summer season. The distinction between high summer temperatures and low fall temperatures was especially prominent along the shallow edges of each reservoir. The fluctuating thermal patterns can be explained by variations in depth

  12. Potosi Reservoir Modeling; History and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from two projects: the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois, as well as data from the Illinois – Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (IL-ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the Verification Well 1 (VW1) and the Injection Well (CCS1), structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for the Potosi Formation. The intention was for two million tonnes per annum (MTPA) of CO₂ to be injected for 20 years into the Potosi Formation. In 2013, updated reservoir models for the Cambrian Potosi Formation were evaluated. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the CCS1, VW1, and Verification Well 2 (VW2) wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from a larger 3D seismic survey, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. The objective is to simulate the injection of CO₂ at a rate 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA]) for 30 years 106 million tons (96 MT total) into the Potosi Formation. The Potosi geomodeling efforts have evolved

  13. Reservoirs for Comets: Compositional Differences Based on Infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanti, Michael A.; Mumma, Michael J.

    Tracing measured compositions of comets to their origins continues to be of keen interest to cometary scientists and to dynamical modelers of Solar System formation and evolution. This requires building a taxonomy of comets from both present-day dynamical reservoirs: the Kuiper Belt (hereafter KB), sampled through observation of ecliptic comets (primarily Jupiter Family comets, or JFCs), and the Oort cloud (OC), represented observationally by the long-period comets and by Halley Family comets (HFCs). Because of their short orbital periods, JFCs are subjected to more frequent exposure to solar radiation compared with OC comets. The recent apparitions of the JFCs 9P/Tempel 1 and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 permitted detailed observations of material issuing from below their surfaces—these comets added significantly to the compositional database on this dynamical class, which is under-represented in studies of cometary parent volatiles. This chapter reviews the latest techniques developed for analysis of high-resolution spectral observations from ˜2-5 μm, and compares measured abundances of native ices among comets. While no clear compositional delineation can be drawn along dynamical lines, interesting comparisons can be made. The sub-surface composition of comet 9P, as revealed by the Deep Impact ejecta, was similar to the majority of OC comets studied. Meanwhile, 73P was depleted in all native ices except HCN, similar to the disintegrated OC comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). These results suggest that 73P may have formed in the inner giant planets' region while 9P formed farther out or, alternatively, that both JFCs formed farther from the Sun but with 73P forming later in time.

  14. Stimulation technologies for Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and their application results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yongqiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Longwangmiao Fm group gas reservoirs in the Moxi structure in central Sichuan Basin feature high temperature, high pressure and high H2S content. The thickness of such high permeable reservoirs with great homogeneity is a geologic basis for a high-productivity gas well, and good match of natural fractures and vugs is the key factor to high well productivity. Overbalance drilling is likely to cause the opening-up of natural fractures, which will lead to the leakage of drilling fluid and severe damage to the reservoir. Experimental evaluation results show that the damage rate of the drilling fluid to the rock sample is between 82.2% and 89.2%, which severely restricts the productivity of gas wells. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen the experimental evaluation technologies and methods to promote the design pertinence of technical parameters. The study shows: first, the optimized gelling acid and steering acid are effective in slowing down speed and removing blockage, forming acidizing wormholes and effectively eliminating the blockage effect caused by drilling liquid pollution; second, the self-developed fiber steering agent and soluble temporary blocking ball can divert the acid, increasing the processing pressure at the well bottom by 5–15 MPa, realizing the even stimulation of heterogeneous reservoirs; third, based on experimental evaluation such as the acid penetration and acid rock reaction, it is recommended that the pumping rate be 3.0–3.5 m3/min in acidizing treatment and the acid intensity for blockage removal be 3.0–5.0 m3/m; fourth, the established blockage removal and steering acidizing technology have been applied in more than 20 wells with a remarkable productivity-increase effect, which gives full play to the natural productivity of gas wells and decreases the acid application scale. All these technologies and measures effectively enhance the development quality and profit of the gas reservoir.

  15. A unique research partnership investigating the fundamental principles of subsurface carbon dioxide behaviour and carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, I.; Blunt, M. J.; Maitland, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs hold the majority of CO2 sequestration potential, however, they are also more complicated than sandstone reservoirs in terms of heterogeneity and potential reactivity impact on operations. There are both significant carbonate reservoir CO2 sinks and CO2 point sources around Qatar making carbon capture and storage a potential decarbonisation pathway. The Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC) was formed in 2009 to address the gaps in our current knowledge of both local carbonate reservoir platforms and how CO2 would behave post sequestration. Our work spans 35 graduated PhD students, 10 still studying, 29 post-doctoral researchers, 18 faculty members all aided by 5 support staff and more than 100 MSc and summer students from 30 different countries, the centre has published over 150 papers in over 40 different journals. Our research is based within the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Earth Science and Engineering. Our team annually attends over 20 conferences world-wide to disseminate our findings and activity engage in outreach events (UNFCCC, science festivals, social media, science bars, school visits, etc.). QCCSRC is a research framework agreement over 10 years and valued at $70 million between Qatar Petroleum, Shell, the Qatar Science and Technology Park and Imperial College London bringing together each organisation's unique capabilities. This novel quadruple helix management structure is responsible for the largest single industrially funded research programme conducted at Imperial College London. Our research has focused on data to create and/or improve predictive models for CO2 storage in carbonate reservoirs. Our three broad thematic areas include: Rocks : Rock-fluid interactions : Fluid-fluid interactions and are supported by 5 laboratories. Overall this unique programme is an example of how to approach grand challenges in the energy-carbon dilemma through long-term and multidisciplinary

  16. Multi-objective nested algorithms for optimal reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    . These algorithms have been denoted as multi-objective nDP (MOnDP), multi-objective nSDP (MOnSDP) and multi-objective nRL (MOnRL). The MOnDP, MOnSDP and MOnRL algorithms were tested at the multipurpose reservoir Knezevo of the Zletovica hydro-system located in the Republic of Macedonia, with eight objectives, including urban water supply, agriculture, ensuring ecological flow, and generation of hydropower. The MOnSDP and MOnRL derived/learned the optimal reservoir policy using 45 (1951-1995) years and were tested on 10 (1995-2005) years historical data, and compared with MOnDP optimal reservoir operation in the same period. The found solutions form the Pareto optimal set in eight dimensional objective function space (since the eight different objectives were considered). The MOnDP was used as a scanning algorithm with 10 sets of varying weights that can identify the most desirable multi-objective solutions and was selected because it is much quicker than MOnSDP and MOnRL. From the 10 sets of weights and their MOnDP results, three sets were selected to be used by MOnSDP and MOnRL. The solutions of both MOnSDP and MOnSDP were compared and the conclusion is that the MOnRL were found to be much better than those of the MOnSDP.

  17. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual report, June 13, 1994--June 12, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.K.

    1996-11-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period have consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities are being identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program will be implemented using the results of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  18. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  19. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  20. Modelling of Reservoir Operations using Fuzzy Logic and ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Coerver, B.; Rutten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, almost 40.000 large reservoirs, containing approximately 6.000 km3 of water and inundating an area of almost 400.000 km2, can be found on earth. Since these reservoirs have a storage capacity of almost one-sixth of the global annual river discharge they have a large impact on the timing, volume and peaks of river discharges. Global Hydrological Models (GHM) are thus significantly influenced by these anthropogenic changes in river flows. We developed a parametrically parsimonious method to extract operational rules based on historical reservoir storage and inflow time-series. Managing a reservoir is an imprecise and vague undertaking. Operators always face uncertainties about inflows, evaporation, seepage losses and various water demands to be met. They often base their decisions on experience and on available information, like reservoir storage and the previous periods inflow. We modeled this decision-making process through a combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks in an Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). In a sensitivity analysis, we compared results for reservoirs in Vietnam, Central Asia and the USA. ANFIS can indeed capture reservoirs operations adequately when fed with a historical monthly time-series of inflows and storage. It was shown that using ANFIS, operational rules of existing reservoirs can be derived without much prior knowledge about the reservoirs. Their validity was tested by comparing actual and simulated releases with each other. For the eleven reservoirs modelled, the normalised outflow, , was predicted with a MSE of 0.002 to 0.044. The rules can be incorporated into GHMs. After a network for a specific reservoir has been trained, the inflow calculated by the hydrological model can be combined with the release and initial storage to calculate the storage for the next time-step using a mass balance. Subsequently, the release can be predicted one time-step ahead using the inflow and storage.

  1. Method to form a barrier in a reservoir with a magnetorheological fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of winning oil from a source via a bored well, wherein a magnetorheological fluid is introduced into the source via the bored well to re duce the water content of the oil won. Oil drilling is resumed in the presence of a magnetic field, thereby increasing the oil yield and/or decreasing the water content of the drilled oil.

  2. Method to form a barrier in a reservoir with a magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of winning oil from a source via a bored well, wherein a magnetorheological fluid is introduced into the source via the bored well to re duce the water content of the oil won. Oil drilling is resumed in the presence of a magnetic field, thereby increasing the oil

  3. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in a previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results showed that injection of B. licheniformis 421 as a tertiary oil recovery method, in the residual oil...

  4. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1983-12-15

    (Reservoir Chemistry), Malcolm Mossman (Reservoir Chemistry), Greg Raasch (Production), Manny Nathenson (Injection), Susan Petty (Injection), Subir Sanyal (Simulation), Marty Molloy (Petrothermal), and Allen Moench (Reservoir Physics). The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Joanne Hartford, Terri Ramey, Amy Osugi, and Marilyn King for their valued help with the Workshop arrangements and the Proceedings. We also owe thanks to the program students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Ninth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U . S . Department of Energy through contract DE-AT03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. H. J. Ramey, Jr., R. N. Horne, P. Kruger, W. E. Brigham, F. G. Miller, J. S . Gudmundsson -vii

  5. Reactive Tracers for Characterizing Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Adam J.

    Multi-component tracer tests were conducted at a 10 x 10 m well field located in the Altona Flat Rocks of northern New York. Temperature advancement between two wells separated by 14 m was monitored throughout the well field during progressive heating of the reservoir over 6 d. Multiple approaches to predicting heat transport were applied to field data and compared to temperature rise recorded during reservoir heat-up. Tracer analysis incorporated both an analytical one-dimensional model and a two-dimensional numerical model for non-uniform fractures experiencing "flow-channeling." Modeling efforts demonstrated that estimating heat transfer surface area using a combined inert/adsorbing tracer (cesium-iodide) could provide accurate forecasting of premature thermal breakthrough. In addition, thermally degrading tracer tests were used to monitor inter-well temperature during progressive reservoir heating. Inert tracers alone were, in general, inadequate in forecasting thermal performance. In fact, moment analysis shows that, mathematically, thermal breakthrough is independent of parameters that primarily influence inert tracers. The most accurate prediction of thermal breakthrough using inert tracer alone was produced by treating hydrodynamic dispersion as a truly Fickian process with known and accurate mathematical models. Under this assumption, inert tracer data was matched by solving an inverse problem for non-uniform fracture aperture. Early arrival of the thermal front was predicted at the production, but was less accurate than using a combined inert/adsorbing tracer test. The spatial distribution of fluid flow paths in the plane of the fracture were identified using computational models, Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) imaging of saline tracer flow paths in the target fracture. Without exception, fluid flow was found to be concentrated in a roughly 1 m wide flow channel directly between the two wells. The

  6. Production Characteristics of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic natural gas hydrate (NGH) accumulations form when natural gas is trapped thermodynamically within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), which extends downward from the seafloor in open ocean depths greater than about 500 metres. As water depths increase, the thickness of the GHSZ thickens, but economic NGH deposits probably occur no deeper than 1 km below the seafloor. Natural gas (mostly methane) appears to emanate mostly from deeper sources and migrates into the GHSZ. The natural gas crystallizes as NGH when the pressure - temperature conditions within the GHSZ are reached and when the chemical condition of dissolved gas concentration in pore water is high enough to favor crystallization. Although NGH can form in both primary and secondary porosity, the principal economic target appears to be turbidite sands on deep continental margins. Because these are very similar to the hosts of more deeply buried conventional gas and oil deposits, industry knows how to explore for them. Recent improvements in a seismic geotechnical approach to NGH identification and valuation have been confirmed by drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico and allow for widespread exploration for NGH deposits to begin. NGH concentrations occur in the same semi-consolidated sediments in GHSZs worldwide. This provides for a narrow exploration window with low acoustic attenuation. These sediments present the same range of relatively easy drilling conditions and formation pressures that are only slightly greater than at the seafloor and are essentially equalized by water in wellbores. Expensive conventional drilling equipment is not required. NGH is the only hydrocarbon that is stable at its formation pressures and incapable of converting to gas without artificial stimulation. We suggest that specialized, NGH-specific drilling capability will offer opportunities for much less expensive drilling, more complex wellbore layouts that improve reservoir connectivity and in which gas

  7. Integrated seismic studies at the Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2002-05-23

    A 3-D surface seismic reflection survey, covering an area of over 3 square miles, was conducted at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada) to explore the structural features that may control geothermal production in the area. In addition to the surface sources and receivers, a high-temperature three-component seismometer was deployed in a borehole at a depth of 3900 ft within the basement below the reservoir, which recorded the waves generated by all surface sources. A total of 1959 first-arrival travel times were determined out of 2134 possible traces. Two-dimensional ray tracing was performed to simulate wave propagation from the surface sources to the receiver at depth. Travel time differences between observed and calculated times were mapped to topographic changes in the elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the sedimentary and volcanic unit above. Results indicate the presence of two dominant geologic features. The first confirms the regional trend of the geologic units in the Basin and Range province with a north-south strike and dip to the west, as expected for normal faulting encountered in an extensional regime. The second is a local disturbance of this regional pattern in form of an elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the overlying sedimentary sequence, striking east-west. The geometry of the structure is corroborated by results from a seismic-reflection survey, and by results of tomographic studies conducted as part of the seismic survey. Seismic waves, generated from far-offset shots during the 3-D surface survey, exhibit a sudden decrease in amplitudes while propagating across the boundaries of the elevation high. This apparent boundary correlates spatially with the location of the Rye Patch fault as interpreted from the 3-D seismic reflection data. Finite-difference modeling of elastic wave propagation is performed to estimate the structural parameters of the fault. Questions to be answered are

  8. Fracture system influence on the reservoirs rock formation of Ordovician-Devonian carbonates in West Siberia tectonic depression

    OpenAIRE

    Koveshnikov, Aleksandr Evgenievich; Nesterova, A. C.; Dolgaya, Tatiana Fedorovna

    2016-01-01

    During the Paleozoic period from the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the Carboniferous in the boundaries of the West Siberia tectonic depression there occurred the sea, where the carbonate platforms were formed by the limestones accumulation. All the area at the end of the Carboniferous period was turned to land. Resulting from Gertsynskaya folding in the times of Permian - Triassic the formed deposits were folded and denudated to a considerable extent. Besides, the reservoir rocks of...

  9. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to

  10. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion paper. Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its 5 storage capacity due

  11. Sustaining reservoir use through sediment trapping in NW Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getahun, Mulatie Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    To increase crop production and improve food self-sufficiency, rain-fed agriculture need to be supplemented with irrigated agriculture. To this end, a large number of reservoirs had been constructed in Ethiopia. However, reservoirs are suffering from sedimentation. This study was conducted in Minizr

  12. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to

  13. BEKWAAM, a model fit for reservoir design and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoist, A.P.; Brinkman, A.G.; Diepenbeek, van P.M.J.A.; Waals, J.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Province of Limburg in the Netherlands a new reservoir will be used for the drinking water production of 20 million m3 per annum from the year 2002. With the use of this reservoir the WML is shifting towards the use of surface water (River Meuse) as primary source instead of ground water.

  14. Modeling of Reservoir Inflow for Hydropower Dams Using Artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stream flow at the three hydropower reservoirs in Nigeria were modeled using hydro-meteorological parameters and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The model revealed positive relationship between the observed and the modeled reservoir inflow with values of correlation coefficient of 0.57, 0.84 and 0.92 for Kainji, ...

  15. Geological Characterisation of Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the derived reservoir and seal properties such as porosity, permeability, thickness and depth with the minimum recommended site selection criteria shows that the reservoirs are potential candidates for carbon geosequestration with a total theoretical storage capacity of 147MM tons. © JASEM ...

  16. Petrophysical Charaterization of the Kwale Field Reservoir Sands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the average permeability values vary between 3.2 and 28.0 mD. This study is a first attempt to make available Petrophysical data for the reservoir sands in the Kwale field of the Niger delta basin. The results of this study will also enhance the proper characterization of the reservoir sands. However, other sources of ...

  17. The role of rainfall variability in reservoir storage management at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir operation and management is usually patterned after the background of long standing water resources management experience. Reservoir management for optimum power production at any hydropower station requires constant assessment of the quantity of available water. The hydrographic responses of flow ...

  18. Reservoir Complete Denture in a Patient with Xerostomia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir Complete Denture in a Patient with Xerostomia Secondary to Radiotherapy for Oral Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature. ... In severe xerostomia salivary substitutes can be used and if the xerostomic patient is edentulous, then reservoir space for artificial salivary substitute can be created in partial ...

  19. Petrophysical evaluation of reservoir sand bodies in Kwe Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir sand bodies in Kwe Field, coastal swamp depobelt, onshore eastern Niger Delta Basin were evaluated from a composite log suite comprising gamma ray, resistivity, density and neutron logs of five (5) wells with core photographs of one (1) reservoir of one well. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ...

  20. Intermittent reservoir daily-inflow prediction using lumped and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cations such as flood control, drought manage- ment, optimal reservoir operation and hydropower generation. There are many studies pertaining to .... est, 49% cultivated area, 6% waste land and 4% of others (CDO 1992). The water spread area at full reservoir level is 115.36 km2 which is about 13% of the total catchment ...

  1. Fisheries in small reservoirs in Northern Ghana: Incidental Benefit or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fisheries in small reservoirs in the Upper East Region are perceived to be an incidental benefit and the potential of this livelihood strategy is neglected. However, in some communities fishing in small reservoirs is part of their livelihood strategies. Several participatory appraisal tools provided entry points for investigations, ...

  2. Investigation of Ojirami reservoir, Akoko-Edo, Southsouth, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojirami Reservoir was constructed between 1971 and 1974 for the purpose of supplying potable water to Edo North senatorial zone, Nigeria. The reservoir is aging, with evidence of siltation but relatively free of any anthropogenic activities. A study was carried out between January 2009 and December 2010 to monitor the ...

  3. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  4. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliakbardoust, E; Rahimpour-Bonab, H

    2013-01-01

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  5. Reservoir and injection technology and Heat Extraction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, R.N.; Ramey, H.H. Jr.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Kruger, P.

    1989-12-31

    For the Stanford Geothermal Program in the fiscal year 1989, the task areas include predictive modeling of reservoir behavior and tracer test interpretation and testing. Major emphasis is in reservoir technology, reinjection technology, and heat extraction. Predictive modeling of reservoir behavior consists of a multi-pronged approach to well test analysis under a variety of conditions. The efforts have been directed to designing and analyzing well tests in (1) naturally fractured reservoirs; (2) fractured wells; (3) complex reservoir geometries; and, (4) gas reservoirs including inertial and other effects. The analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoirs are determined using fracture size distribution. In the study of fractured wells, an elliptical coordinate system is used to obtain semi-analytical solutions to finite conductivity fractures. Effort has also been directed to the modeling and creation of a user friendly computer program for steam/gas reservoirs including wellbore storage, skin and non-Darcy flow effects. This work has a complementary effort on modeling high flow rate wells including inertial effects in the wellbore and fractures. In addition, work on gravity drainage systems is being continued.

  6. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  7. Seasonal and diurnal stratification in two small Zimbabwean reservoirs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shallow nature of small reservoirs and the considerable fluctuations in their water levels makes them more vulnerable to external fluxes such as daily changes in incoming short-wave solar radiation and wind runs, and hence the prevalence of diel stratification regimes. Consequently, small reservoirs are characterised ...

  8. Surrogate reservoir models for CSI well probabilistic production forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Buitrago

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the construction and use of Surrogate Reservoir Models capable of accurately predicting cumulative oil production for every well stimulated with cyclic steam injection at any given time in a heavy oil reservoir in Mexico considering uncertain variables. The central composite experimental design technique was selected to capture the maximum amount of information from the model response with a minimum number of reservoir models simulations. Four input uncertain variables (the dead oil viscosity with temperature, the reservoir pressure, the reservoir permeability and oil sand thickness hydraulically connected to the well were selected as the ones with more impact on the initial hot oil production rate according to an analytical production prediction model. Twenty five runs were designed and performed with the STARS simulator for each well type on the reservoir model. The results show that the use of Surrogate Reservoir Models is a fast viable alternative to perform probabilistic production forecasting of the reservoir.

  9. Fisheries and limnology of two reservoirs in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forage feeding habits were the major feeding group in Libga Reservoir. The forage-carnivore ratios of 1.60 and 2.12 for Bontanga and Libga reservoirs, respectively, suggest a suitable ecological balance between carnivorous fishes and their prey populations. The estimated potential fish yield per year for the Bontanga ...

  10. Geomechanical production optimization in faulted and fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Pizzocolo, F.; Osinga, S.; Veer, E.F. van der

    2016-01-01

    Faults and fractures in hydrocarbon reservoirs are key to some major production issues including (1) varying productivity of different well sections due to intersection of preferential flow paths with the wellbore, (2) varying hydrocarbon column heights in different reservoir compartments due to

  11. Organic fertilizer decomposition and nutrient loads in water reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition in aquatic ecosystems is controlled by various factors. The study investigated the trend of decomposition and the potential nutrients loaded in reservoir water. Analysis of water samples and organic fertilizer composition was according to APHA (1995) and Klute (1986) respectively. Reservoir water ...

  12. Fisheries and Limnology of Two Reservoirs in Northern Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Clarias anguillaris. Mudfish. *. = Present·. TABLE 1 cont'd. Family/Species. Common Name. Bontanga. Libga. Cyprinidae. Barbus macrops. Blackstripe barb. *. *. Labeo coubie. African carp ..... in the Bontanga Reservoir due to food availability in the reservoir and successful reproduction. The prominence of Heterotis ...

  13. Cyanobacteria species identified in the Weija and Kpong reservoirs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kpong and Weija reservoirs supply drinking water to Accra, Ghana. This study was conducted to identify the cyanobacteria present in these reservoirs and to ascertain whether current treatment processes remove whole cyanobacteria cells from the drinking water produced. Cyanotoxins are mostly cell bound and could ...

  14. Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Natural Gas Storage in Nigeria. ... (1) utilization of the abandoned oil wells of known production histories; (2) recovery of substantial quantities of oil that otherwise might not have been recovered; (3) converting partially depleted oil reservoirs ...

  15. Determination of volume and direction of flow of Kainji Reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    geomatics techniques. ... river bed were produced to create a 3D effect of Kainji reservoir flow direction. A depth of 23.50m was obtained during the sounding field operation. Keywords: Kainji Dam, Reservoir, Bathymetry, Volume, Direction of flow ...

  16. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  17. The Role of Rainfall Variability in Reservoir Storage Management at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    The objective is to develop functional hydrological relationship between (rainfall, inflow, reservoir storage and turbine releases) over the dam. This will provide scientific basis for operational decisions which can lead to optimum power plant utilization. 1.1. The Study Area. The study area is the Shiroro dam reservoir.

  18. Reservoir site evaluation through routing | Ogunlela | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir routing was conducted for site evaluation of a proposed surface reservoir to be located in an ungauged watershed. The study was part of an integrated approach to the development of the watershed. Nash's synthetic hydrograph technique was used in developing the unit hydrograph, from which the 25-yr, 24-hr ...

  19. Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-05-01

    Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History matching has long been dominated by adjusting reservoir parameters based solely on well data whose spatial sparse sampling has been a challenge for characterizing the flow properties in areas away from the wells. Geophysical data are widely collected nowadays for reservoir monitoring purposes, but has not yet been fully integrated into history matching and forecasting fluid flow. In this thesis, I present a pioneering approach towards incorporating different time-lapse geophysical data together for enhancing reservoir history matching and uncertainty quantification. The thesis provides several approaches to efficiently integrate multiple geophysical data, analyze the sensitivity of the history matches to observation noise, and examine the framework’s performance in several settings, such as the Norne field in Norway. The results demonstrate the significant improvements in reservoir forecasting and characterization and the synergy effects encountered between the different geophysical data. In particular, the joint use of electromagnetic and seismic data improves the accuracy of forecasting fluid properties, and the usage of electromagnetic data has led to considerably better estimates of hydrocarbon fluid components. For volatile oil and gas reservoirs the joint integration of gravimetric and InSAR data has shown to be beneficial in detecting the influx of water and thereby improving the recovery rate. Summarizing, this thesis makes an important contribution towards integrated reservoir management and multiphysics integration for reservoir history matching.

  20. Pareja limno-reservoir (Guadalajara, Spain): environmental and hydrologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Navarro, E.; Martinez Perez, S.; Sastre Merlin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of small reservoir on the edge of large ones is an innovative idea designed to counteract some of the negative impacts caused by the construction and use of reservoirs. The denomination Limno-reservoirs is proposed here, as these water bodies are created to maintain a natural lake dynamics. Pareja's limno-reservoir is among the first limno-reservoirs in Spain, and its construction raises some questions about hydrological viability and siltation risk. The proposition of the methodologies to solve them and the evaluation of the first results is the aim of this study. A detailed water balance makes possible to affirm that, in a firs approach, the limno-reservoir is viable from the hydrological point of view, because the Ompolveda basin -Tajo's tributary at Entrepenas reservoir- has enough water resources to guarantee the permanence of the water body, even during dry years. To assess the siltation risk, a soil loss observation network will be monitoring the Ompolveda basin for the next three years to evaluate the net erosion in the watershed and the sediment delivery to the reservoir. (Author)

  1. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  2. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  3. Endophytic Fungi: A Reservoir of Antibacterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the undeveloped countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relavent to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at the affordable price!!!. Herculean task for researcher all over the world. In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda that has been effective as ‘handed down data’ in family generations. May need a second, third and more in-depth investigations?

  4. Endophytic fungi: a reservoir of antibacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sunil K.; Verekar, Shilpa A.; Bhave, Sarita V.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the under developed countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in numbers are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relevant to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at an affordable price! A Herculean task for researchers all over the world! In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda have been effective as “handed down data” in family generations. May need a second, third and more “in-depth investigations?” PMID:25620957

  5. TDT monitors gas saturation in heterogeneous reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, G.M.; Al-Awad, M.N.J. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-05-25

    Thermal decay time (TDT) logs were used for determining the gas/oil contact in wells in the Zeit Bay field in Egypt. Gas/oil contact in the field was revised using the results from the model that was developed. The analysis followed the Polyachenko model of functional relationship between count rates and gas saturation. Several crossplots were made for the same range of porosity and connate water saturation. These crossplots included: formation capture cross section; total selected near detector counts; total selected far detector counts; capture cross section of the borehole; and inelastic far detector counts. Each crossplot gave a definite diagnostic shape around the depth of the gas/oil contact. By using these crossplots, it is possible to calculate gas saturation from a stand-alone run. The model was validated by RFT (reservoir formation tester) and open hole log data from infill wells. Also, the analysis was successfully applied in wells without an ambiguous gas/oil contact.

  6. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  7. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we

  8. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into

  9. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  10. Redesigning reservoir compensation releases for ecological beenfit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Carly

    2010-05-01

    River regulation is commonplace in England and much of the UK. Regulation for the purposes of public water supply causes flows downstream of a reservoir to be attenuated and the flow regime of the channel to be altered. The impact of channel impoundment on a small, upland UK river, has been assessed and methods for mitigation of ecological impacts explored. The method utilised a unique macroinvertebrate data set for pre- and post-impoundment periods to quantify the impact of Derwent Reservoir and the steady, continuous compensation release into the River Derwent, Northumberland. Impacts on the hydrological regime were also investigated and links drawn between changes in flow regime and changes in macroinvertebrate richness and diversity as a result of impoundment. In response to the claim that the impoundment has caused a change in flow regime and had deleterious effects on fish and macroinvertebrates, a compensation redesign tool (CRAB: Compensation Release Assessment at the Broad scale) was employed to design new compensation release regimes from the reservoir which account for the seasonal flow requirements of a number of key fish species. The impact of impoundment on the current flow regime was modelled and the impacts of predicted new regimes were predicted, using a 1D hydrodynamic model (HEC-RAS), as part of a modelling process known as CRAM (Compensation Release Assessment at the Meso-scale). Depth and velocity were the foci of the analysis as they are the two habitat requirements most well documented for the fish species in question, they could be modelled using HEC-RAS and they can act as surrogates for other habitat parameters such as temperature and substrate. The suitability of the depth and velocity combinations predicted using the HEC-RAS model were assessed using fuzzy-rule based modelling, which allowed the habitat quality of a given parameter combination to be quantified. Based on the results of the investigation it was concluded that there has

  11. Static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.

    2018-02-01

    3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.

  12. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  13. Depleted Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Present a Safe and Practical Burial Solution for Graphite Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, L.

    2016-01-01

    A solution for graphite waste is proposed that combines reliance on thick impermeable host rock that is needed to confine the long-life radioactivity content of most irradiated graphite with low capitalistic and operational unit volume costs that are required to render this bulky waste form manageable. The solution, uniquely applicable to irradiated graphite due to its low dose rates, moderate mechanical strength and light density, consists in three steps: first, graphite is fine-crushed under water; second, it is made in an aqueous suspension; third, the suspension is injected into a deep, disused hydrocarbon reservoir. Each of these steps only involves well mastered techniques. Regulatory changes that may allow this solution to be added to the gamut of available waste routes, geochemical issues, availability of depleted reservoirs and cost projections are presented. (author)

  14. The valley system of the Jihlava river and Mohelno reservoir with enhanced tritium activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, P; Kořínková, T; Svetlik, I; Povinec, P P; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L; Stepan, V

    2017-01-01

    The Dukovany nuclear power plant (NPP Dukovany) releases liquid effluents, including HTO, to the Mohelno reservoir, located in a deep valley. Significantly enhanced tritium activities were observed in the form of non-exchangeable organically bound tritium in the surrounding biota which lacks direct contact with the water body. This indicates a tritium uptake by plants from air moisture and haze, which is, besides the uptake by roots from soil, one of the most important mechanisms of tritium transfer from environment to plants. Results of a pilot study based on four sampling campaigns in 2011-2015 are presented and discussed, with the aim to provide new information on tritium transport in the Mohelno reservoir - Jihlava River - plants ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  16. Eighteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1993-01-28

    PREFACE The Eighteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 26-28, 1993. There were one hundred and seventeen registered participants which was greater than the attendance last year. Participants were from eight foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Guatemala, and Iceland. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Dean Gary Ernst opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Mock who also spoke at the banquet. Thirty-nine papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: field operations, The Geysers, geoscience, hot-dry-rock, injection, modeling, slim hole wells, geochemistry, well test and wellbore. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: John Counsil, Kathleen Enedy, Harry Olson, Eduardo Iglesias, Marcelo Lippmann, Paul Atkinson, Jim Lovekin, Marshall Reed, Antonio Correa, and David Faulder. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to John Hornbrook who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  17. Bathymetry and capacity of Shawnee Reservoir, Oklahoma, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Smith, Kevin A.

    2017-02-13

    Shawnee Reservoir (locally known as Shawnee Twin Lakes) is a man-made reservoir on South Deer Creek with a drainage area of 32.7 square miles in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. The reservoir consists of two lakes connected by an equilibrium channel. The southern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 1) was impounded in 1935, and the northern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 2) was impounded in 1960. Shawnee Reservoir serves as a municipal water supply, and water is transferred about 9 miles by gravity to a water treatment plant in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Secondary uses of the reservoir are for recreation, fish and wildlife habitat, and flood control. Shawnee Reservoir has a normal-pool elevation of 1,069.0 feet (ft) above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The auxiliary spillway, which defines the flood-pool elevation, is at an elevation of 1,075.0 ft.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, has operated a real-time stage (water-surface elevation) gage (USGS station 07241600) at Shawnee Reservoir since 2006. For the period of record ending in 2016, this gage recorded a maximum stage of 1,078.1 ft on May 24, 2015, and a minimum stage of 1,059.1 ft on April 10–11, 2007. This gage did not report reservoir storage prior to this report (2016) because a sufficiently detailed and thoroughly documented bathymetric (reservoir-bottom elevation) survey and corresponding stage-storage relation had not been published. A 2011 bathymetric survey with contours delineated at 5-foot intervals was published in Oklahoma Water Resources Board (2016), but that publication did not include a stage-storage relation table. The USGS, in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, performed a bathymetric survey of Shawnee Reservoir in 2016 and released the bathymetric-survey data in 2017. The purposes of the bathymetric survey were to (1) develop a detailed bathymetric map of the reservoir and (2) determine the relations between stage and reservoir storage

  18. Three dimensional heat transport modeling in Vossoroca reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcie Polli, Bruna; Yoshioka Bernardo, Julio Werner; Hilgert, Stephan; Bleninger, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater reservoirs are used for many purposes as hydropower generation, water supply and irrigation. In Brazil, according to the National Energy Balance of 2013, hydropower energy corresponds to 70.1% of the Brazilian demand. Superficial waters (which include rivers, lakes and reservoirs) are the most used source for drinking water supply - 56% of the municipalities use superficial waters as a source of water. The last two years have shown that the Brazilian water and electricity supply is highly vulnerable and that improved management is urgently needed. The construction of reservoirs affects physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water body, e.g. stratification, temperature, residence time and turbulence reduction. Some water quality issues related to reservoirs are eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere and dissolved oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. The understanding of the physical processes in the water body is fundamental to reservoir management. Lakes and reservoirs may present a seasonal behavior and stratify due to hydrological and meteorological conditions, and especially its vertical distribution may be related to water quality. Stratification can control heat and dissolved substances transport. It has been also reported the importance of horizontal temperature gradients, e.g. inflows and its density and processes of mass transfer from shallow to deeper regions of the reservoir, that also may impact water quality. Three dimensional modeling of the heat transport in lakes and reservoirs is an important tool to the understanding and management of these systems. It is possible to estimate periods of large vertical temperature gradients, inhibiting vertical transport and horizontal gradients, which could be responsible for horizontal transport of heat and substances (e.g. differential cooling or inflows). Vossoroca reservoir was constructed in 1949 by the impoundment of São João River and is located near to

  19. Rate Transient Analysis for Multistage Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Oil Reservoirs considering Stimulated Reservoir Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of multistage fractured horizontal well (MsFHW considering stimulated reservoir volume (SRV was presented for tight oil reservoirs. Both inner and outer regions were assumed as single porosity media but had different formation parameters. Laplace transformation method, point source function integration method, superposition principle, Stehfest numerical algorithm, and Duhamel’s theorem were used comprehensively to obtain the semianalytical solution. Different flow regimes were divided based on pressure transient analysis (PTA curves. According to rate transient analysis (RTA, the effects of related parameters such as SRV radius, storativity ratio, mobility ratio, fracture number, fracture half-length, and fracture spacing were analyzed. The presented model and obtained results in this paper enrich the performance analysis models of MsFHW considering SRV.

  20. Heat Extraction Project, geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the SGP Heat Extraction Project is to provide a means for estimating the thermal behavior of geothermal fluids produced from fractured hydrothermal resources. The methods are based on estimated thermal properties of the reservoir components, reservoir management planning of production and reinjection, and the mixing of reservoir fluids: geothermal, resource fluid cooled by drawdown and infiltrating groundwater, and reinjected recharge heated by sweep flow through the reservoir formation. Several reports and publications, listed in Appendix A, describe the development of the analytical methods which were part of five Engineer and PhD dissertations, and the results from many applications of the methods to achieve the project objectives. The Heat Extraction Project is to evaluate the thermal properties of fractured geothermal resource and forecasted effects of reinjection recharge into operating reservoirs.