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Sample records for formed fe66b30nb4 alloy

  1. Corrosion resistance of Fe-based amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, W.J.; Berger, J.E.; Kiminami, C.S.; Roche, V.; Nogueira, R.P.; Bolfarini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report corrosion properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys in different media. ► The Cr-containing alloys had corrosion resistance close to that of Pt in all media. ► The wide range of electrochemical stability is relevant in many industrial domains. -- Abstract: Fe-based amorphous alloys can be designed to present an attractive combination of properties with high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Such properties are clearly adequate for their technological use as coatings, for example, in steel pipes. In this work, we studied the corrosion properties of amorphous ribbons of the following Fe-based compositions: Fe 66 B 30 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.6 Co 0.4 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.7 Co 0.3 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , Fe 56 Cr 23 Ni 5.7 B 16 , Fe 53 Cr 22 Ni 5.6 B 19 and Fe 50 Cr 22 Ni 5.4 B 23 . The ribbons were obtained by rapid solidification using the melt-spinning process, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion properties were evaluated by corrosion potential survey and potentiodynamic polarization. The Cr containing alloys, that is the FeCrNiB type of alloys, showed the best corrosion resistance properties with the formation of a stable passive film that ensured a very large passivation plateau

  2. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  3. Study on Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Now, the aluminum alloy is often used as auto parts, for example, body, engine. For example, there are the body, a cylinder block, a piston, a connecting rod, interior, exterior parts, etc. These are practical used the characteristic of a light and strong aluminum alloy efficiently. However, although an aluminum alloy is lighter than steel, the elongation is smaller than that. Therefore, in press forming, some problems often occur. We have proposed use of explosive forming, in order to solve this problem. In the explosive forming, since a blank is formed at high speed, a strain rate effect becomes large and it can be made the elongation is larger. Then, in order to clarify this feature, we carried out experimental research and numerical analysis. In this paper, these contents will be discussed.

  4. Amorphous Alloy: Promising Precursor to Form Nanoflowerpot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous copper is fabricated by dealloying the amorphous Ti2Cu alloy in 0.03 M HF electrolyte. The pore and ligament sizes of the nanoporous copper can be readily tailored by controlling the dealloying time. The as-prepared nanoporous copper provides fine and uniform nanoflowerpots to grow highly dispersed Au nanoflowers. The blooming Au nanoflowers in the nanoporous copper flowerpots exhibit both high catalytic activity and stability towards the oxidation of glucose, indicating that the amorphous alloys are ideal precursors to form nanoflowerpot which can grow functional nanoflowers.

  5. Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

    1996-01-01

    An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ''noble'' nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation

  6. Ti-Pt Alloys form mechanical milling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available C maximum in these alloys. A few researchers have studied the martensitic transformation in TiPt alloys using arc melted cast samples. In this work high temperature shape memory alloys are targeted using powder metallurgy as a processing route....

  7. High temperature mechanical forming of Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwembela, A.; McQueen, H.J.; Myshlyaev, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mg alloys are hot worked in the range 180-450 o C and 0.0-10 s -1 ; the present project data are compared with a wide selection of published results. The flow stresses and their dependence on temperature and strain rate are fairly similar to simple Al alloys: however, the hot ductility is much lower (≤3 in torsion). Twinning plays a significant role in Mg alloys almost independently of temperature; the twins initiate at low strains in grains poorly oriented for basal slip and in consequence become well disposed for such slip. As T rises, there is increasing formation of subgrains that spread toward the grain centers from grain and twin boundaries: this is indicative of stress concentrations inducing non-basal sup which helps provide the geometrically necessary dislocations. Above about 240 o C, dynamic (DRX) nucleates at grain and twin boundaries, preferentially at intersections; this again is evidence of non-basal slip that provides the highly misoriented cells. The boundaries in which further strain concentrates producing further DRX. The microstructure remains very heterogeneous compared to the uniform dynamically recovered substructure in Al alloys, thus giving rise to the reduced ductility. These results are employed to interpret the mechanical and microstructural behavior of Mg alloys in extrusion, rolling and forging. (author)

  8. Microstructure evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junfeng; Zou, Linchi; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of the 7050 Al alloy treated by age-forming was studied using a designed device which can simulate the age-forming process. The grain shape, grain boundary misorientation and grain orientation evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming have been quantitatively characterized by electron backscattering diffraction technique. The results show that age-forming produced abundant low-angle boundaries and elongated grains, which attributed to stress induced dislocation movement and grain boundary migration during the age-forming process. On the other side, the stress along rolling direction caused some unstable orientation grains to rotate towards the Brass and S orientations during the age-forming process. Hence, the intensity of the rolling texture orientation in age-formed samples is enhanced. But this effect decays gradually with increasing aging time, since stress decreases and precipitation hardening occurs during the age-forming process. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of grain evolution of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming • Stress induces some grain rotation of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Creep leads to elongate grain of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Obtains a trend on texture evolution during age-forming applied stress

  9. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken from a billet of an experimental alloy (alloy 1 and were subsequently hot-rolled and cold-rolled (height reduction, 72% and 70%, respectively. The other used samples, alloys 2 and 3, were taken from cylinders liners. The results from the Laue camera showed texture just in the axial direction of alloy 3. The pole figures also indicated the presence of a typical low intensity deformation texture, especially for alloy 3. The spray formed microstructure, which is very fine, hinders the Al-Si texture formation during mechanical work.

  10. Characteristics of Film Formed on Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in Water Containing lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Ju Yup

    1999-01-01

    Anodic polarization behaviors of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 have been studied as a function of lead content in the solution of pH 4 and 10 at 90 .deg. C. As the amount of lead in the solution increased, critical current densities and passive current densities of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 increased, while the breakdown potential of the alloys decreased. The high critical current density in the high lead solution was thought to come from the combination of an enhanced dissolution of constituents on the surface of the alloys by the lead and an anodic dissolution of metallic lead deposited on the surface of the specimens. The morphology of lead precipitated on the specimen after the anodic scan changed with the pH of solution: small irregular particles were precipitated on the surface of the specimen in the solution of pH 4, while the high density of regular sized particles was formed on it in the solution of pH 10.Pb was observed to enhance Cr depletion from the outer surface of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 and also to increase the ratio of O 2- /OH - in the surface film formed in the high lead solution. The SCC resistance of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 may have decreased due to the poor quality of the passive film formed and the enhanced oxygen evolution in the solution containing lead

  11. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  12. Cold Forming of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Kaung-Jau; Su, Jhe-Yung

    2018-03-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloy has two specific properties, superelasiticity and shape memory effect, and thus is widely applied in diverse industries. To extend its further application, this study attempts to investigate the feasibility of cold forming its sheet blank especially under a bi-axial tensile stress state. Not only experiments but also a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with DEFORM 2D was conducted in this study. The material data for FEA was accomplished by the tensile test. An Erichsen-like cupping test was performed as well to determine the process parameter for experiment setup. As a result of the study, the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy sheet has a low formability for cold forming and shows a relative large springback after releasing the forming load.

  13. Flow forming of Al-Zn alloys 7075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Feasibility of flow forming aluminium alloy 7075 for manufacturing the tubes of about 70 mm diameter and different lengths has been studied. The elongation of the material was increased by increasing the working temperature of the process. Effect of various process parameters like roller rpm, roller offset, roller feed, spindle speed etc. on the flow ability of ally 7075 and the hardness and surface furnish of the tube has been determined. It was found that the roller bite and roller speed, of the flow forming machine, were two most important process parameters, which affected the hardness and the surface finish of the tube. By establishing the optimum process parameters, it was possible to produce aluminium alloy 7075 tubes of lengths ranging from 500 cm to 1 m with 70 mm outer diameter. The maximum hardness achieved on the surface of the tube was 146 Hv with good surface finish. (author)

  14. QuikForm: Intelligent deformation processing of structural alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, R.J.; Wellman, G.W.

    1994-09-01

    There currently exists a critical need for tools to enhance the industrial competitiveness and agility of US industries involved in deformation processing of structural alloys. In response to this need, Sandia National Laboratories has embarked upon the QuikForm Initiative. The goal of this program is the development of computer-based tools to facilitate the design of deformation processing operations. The authors are currently focusing their efforts on the definition/development of a comprehensive system for the design of sheet metal stamping operations. The overall structure of the proposed QuikForm system is presented, and the focus of their thrust in each technical area is discussed.

  15. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  16. Tribological Behaviour of the Ceramic Coating Formed on Magnesium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fei; Zhou Hai; Chen Qiang; Ge Yuanjing; Lv Fanxiu

    2007-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation is a recently developed surface treatment technology under anodic oxidation. Through micro-arc oxidation, a ceramic coating is directly formed on the surface of magnesium alloy, by which its surface property is significantly improved. In this paper, a dense ceramic oxide coating was prepared on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation in a NaOH-Na 2 SiO 3 -NaB 4 O 7 -(NaPO 3 ) 6 electrolytic solution. Micro-structure, surface morphology and phase composition were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The tribological behavior of the micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating under dry sliding against GCr15 steel was evaluated on a ball-on-disc test rig. The results showed that the AZ31 alloy was characterized by adhesion wear and scuffing under dry sliding against the steel, while the surface micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating experienced much abated adhesion wear and scuffing under the same testing conditions. The micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating showed good friction-reducing and fair antiwear ability in dry sliding against the steel

  17. Forming of Zr-4 alloy guide tube with varied diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Songyan; Tian Zhenye

    1989-10-01

    A new built-up mould method to manufacture Zr-4 alloy guide tubes with varied diameters at the middle of tube is introduced. The guide tube is used in nuclear power plants for guiding the control rods. This method has many advantages such as simple in forming, low cost of manufacturing, no need of special devices and favour of batch processing. The test results show that the accuracy of size, mechanical properties, resistance to corrosion, grain size and hydrogenate orientation of the end-products can meet the technical needs for nuclear reactor operation

  18. Undercooling Limits and Thermophysical Properties in Glass Forming Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Ohsaka, Kenichi; Spjut, R. Erik

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is to produce deeply undercooled metallic liquids and to identify factors that limit undercooling and glass formation. The main research objectives are: (1) Investigating undercooling limits in glass-forming alloys and identifying factors that affect undercooling; (2) Measuring thermophysical properties and investigating the validity of the classical nucleation theory and other existing theories in the extreme undercooled states; and (3) To investigate the limits of electrostatic levitation technology in the ground base and to identify thermophysical parameters that might require reduced-g environment.

  19. Microstructurally Controlled Mechanical Properties of Al-Mg-Si Alloys for Warm Forming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to their light weight and excellent corrosion resistance the use of aluminium alloys in automotive industries is increasing progressively. However, aluminium alloys remain mainly handicapped by poor room temperature formability compared to steel. Increasing temperature during forming, but

  20. Aeronautical Cast Ti Alloy and Forming Technology Development

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Meijuan; NAN Hai; JU Zhongqiang; GAO Fuhui; QIE Xiwang; ZHU Langping

    2016-01-01

    The application and feature of Ti alloy and TiAl alloy for aviation at home and abroad were briefly introduced. According to the patent application status in Ti alloy field, the development of Ti alloy casting technology was analyzed in the recent thirty years, especially the transformation in aviation. Along with the development of aeronautional manufacturing technology and demand of high performance aircraft, Ti alloy casting is changing towards to be large, integral and complicated, and th...

  1. Modeling and Investigation of Elongation in Free Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plate

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alipour; F.Najarian

    2011-01-01

    Because of high ductility, aluminum alloys, have been widely used as an important base of metal forming industries. But the main week point of these alloys is their low strength so in forming them with conventional methods like deep drawing, hydro forming, etc have been always faced with problems like fracture during of forming process. Because of this, recently using of explosive forming method for forming of these plates has been recommended. In this paper free explosive forming of A2024 al...

  2. Microstructures and mechanical properties of age-formed 7050 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.F.; Zhen, L.; Jiang, J.T.; Yang, L.; Shao, W.Z.; Zhang, B.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Age-forming leads to the grain elongation in 7050 alloy. ► Age-forming varies the texture components in 7050 alloy. ► Age-forming promotes precipitates growth and PFZ enlargement in 7050 alloy. ► Age-forming induces to descend apparently elongation in 7050 alloy. ► The effect of age-forming on microstructure and properties is discussed in-depth. - Abstract: The effects of age-forming on microstructures and mechanical properties of 7050 Al alloy were investigated in this work. The alloy was subjected to age-forming as well as stress-free ageing at 160 °C for 6, 12, 18 and 24 h, and its microstructures were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was shown that creep might lead to grain elongation during age-forming, and the applied stress induces the coarsening of precipitates in 7050 Al alloy. The texture in the alloy was also influenced by age-forming. Consequently, the differences in microstructures result in differences in mechanical properties of age-forming versus traditional stress-free ageing. The ultimate tensile strength of age-formed samples were slightly lower than that of stress-free aged samples, while the yield strength of age-formed samples were apparently lower than that of stress-free aged samples. Specifically, the elongation of samples age-formed displays apparently decrease.

  3. Durability and degradation of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Ni and Cr content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-31

    Short-term electrochemical and long-term hybrid electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on alloy waste forms in reference aqueous solutions that bound postulated repository conditions. The alloy waste forms investigated represent candidate formulations that can be produced with advanced electrochemical treatment of used nuclear fuel. The studies helped to better understand the alloy waste form durability with differing concentrations of nickel and chromium, species that can be added to alloy waste forms to potentially increase their durability and decrease radionuclide release into the environment.

  4. Anomalies in the Thermophysical Properties of Undercooled Glass-Forming Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Rogers, Jan R.; Kelton, Kenneth F.; Gangopadhyay, Anup

    2008-01-01

    The surface tension, viscosity, and density of several bulk metallic glass-forming alloys have been measured using noncontact techniques in the electrostatic levitation facility (ESL) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. All three properties show unexpected behavior in the undercooled regime. Similar deviations were previously observed in titanium-based quasicrystal-forming alloys,but the deviations in the properties of the glass-forming alloys are much more pronounced. New results for anomalous thermophysical properties in undercooled glass-forming alloys will be presented and discussed.

  5. THE FORMING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOY FORGINGS FOR AIRCRAFT AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and technological aspects of forming magnesium alloy parts for aircraft and automotive applications. The main applications of magnesium alloys in the aircraft and automotive industries are discussed. In addition, the forging technology for magnesium alloys is generally described, with a particular emphasis on wrought alloys. A brief outline of the state of the art in the forging of magnesium alloys is given based on a survey of the specialist literature and the results of previous research by the authors.

  6. Forgeability test of extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn alloys under warm forming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jonghun; Park, Sunghyuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared forgeability of new developed TAZ alloys with conventional AZ alloys. • Forgeability was evaluated with a T-shape forging under hot forming condition. • TAZ alloys show the best performance in forgeability under hot forging condition. • Microstructures of the forged part were investigated with EBSD experiments. • YS and UTS of forged part with TAZ alloy are enhanced compared with AZ alloy. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been thoroughly researched to replace steel or aluminum parts in automotives for reducing weight without sacrificing their strength. The widespread use of Mg alloys has been limited by its insufficient formability, which results from a lack of active slip systems at room temperature. It leads to a hot forming process for Mg alloys to enhance the formability and plastic workability. In addition, forged or formed parts of Mg alloys should have the reliable initial yield and ultimate tensile strength after hot working processes since its material properties should be compatible with other parts thereby guaranteeing structural safety against external load and crash. In this research, an optimal warm forming condition for applying extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn (TAZ) Mg alloys into automotive parts is proposed based on T-shape forging tests and the feasibility of forged parts is evaluated by measuring the initial yield strength and investigating the grain size in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) maps

  7. The Properties of 7xxx Series Alloys Formed by Alloying Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak Z.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking.

  8. Preparation of a high strength Al–Cu–Mg alloy by mechanical alloying and press-forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Huaguo; Cheng Zhiqiang; Liu Jianwei; Ma Xianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A high strength aluminum alloy of Al–2 wt.%Mg–2 wt.%Cu has been prepared by mechanical alloying and press-forming. ► The alloy only consists of solid solution α-Al. ► The grains size of α-Al was about 300 nm–5 μm. ► The solid solution strengthening and the grain refinement strengthening are the main reasons for such a high strength. - Abstract: A high strength aluminum alloy, with the ratio of 96 wt.%Al–2 wt.%Mg–2 wt.%Cu, has been prepared by mechanical alloying and press-forming. The alloy exhibited a high tensile strength of 780 MPa and a high microhardness of 180 HV. X-ray diffraction characterizations confirmed that the alloy only consists of a solid solution α-Al. Microstructure characterizations revealed that the grain size of α-Al was about 300 nm–5 μm. The solid solution strengthening and the grain refinement strengthening were considered to be the reason for such a high strength.

  9. Preparation of a high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy by mechanical alloying and press-forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Huaguo [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Cheng Zhiqiang [College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Liu Jianwei [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ma Xianfeng, E-mail: xfma@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high strength aluminum alloy of Al-2 wt.%Mg-2 wt.%Cu has been prepared by mechanical alloying and press-forming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy only consists of solid solution {alpha}-Al. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grains size of {alpha}-Al was about 300 nm-5 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solid solution strengthening and the grain refinement strengthening are the main reasons for such a high strength. - Abstract: A high strength aluminum alloy, with the ratio of 96 wt.%Al-2 wt.%Mg-2 wt.%Cu, has been prepared by mechanical alloying and press-forming. The alloy exhibited a high tensile strength of 780 MPa and a high microhardness of 180 HV. X-ray diffraction characterizations confirmed that the alloy only consists of a solid solution {alpha}-Al. Microstructure characterizations revealed that the grain size of {alpha}-Al was about 300 nm-5 {mu}m. The solid solution strengthening and the grain refinement strengthening were considered to be the reason for such a high strength.

  10. Features of ultrafine-grained structure forming in Zr-1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, Ekaterina N.; Prosolov, Konstantin A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Grabovetskaya, Galina P.; Mishin, Ivan P. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained structure forming by the method combined reversible hydrogenation and hot pressing in Zr-1Nb alloy was investigated. Preliminary hydrogenation to concentrations of (0.14–0.4) % at 873 K is found to lead to yield strength decreasing in Zr-1Nb alloy during hot pressing by 1,5–2 times. During uniaxial compression at (70–72) % under isothermal conditions at a temperature of 873 K in Zr-1Nb alloy, hydrogenated to concentration of 0.22 %, homogeneous ultrafine grained structure with an average grain size of 0,4 P m was formed. Key words: zirconium alloy, ultrafine-grained structure, hydrogen.

  11. Metastability and thermophysical properties of metallic bulk glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.K.; Fecht, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of crystallization over a wide time/temperature window can be used to produce bulk metallic glass by relatively slow cooling of the melt. For a number of alloys, including several multicomponent Zr-based alloys, the relevant thermodynamic and thermomechanical properties of the metastable glassy and undercooled liquid states have been measured below and above the glass transition temperature. These measurements include specific heat, viscosity, volume, and elastic properties as a function of temperature. As a result, it becomes obvious that the maximum undercooling for these alloys is given by an isentropic condition before an enthalpic or isochoric instability is reached. Alternatively, these glasses can also be produced by mechanical alloying, thus replacing the thermal disorder by static disorder and resulting in the same thermodynamic glass state. During heating through the undercooled liquid, a nanoscale phase separation occurs for most glasses as a precursor of crystallization

  12. Dual-Alloy Disks are Formed by Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.; Miner, R. V.; Kortovich, C. S.; Marder, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    High-performance disks have widely varying properties from hub to rim. Dual property disk is fabricated using two nickel-base alloys, AF-115 for rim and Rene 95 for hub. Dual-alloy fabrication may find applications in automobiles, earth-moving equipment, and energy conversion systems as well as aircraft powerplants. There is potential for such applications as shafts, gears, and blades.

  13. Early stage crystallization kinetics in metallic glass-forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous nucleation may precede the homogeneous one in an alloy. • High kinetic constants and the nucleation rate at the initial stage. • Metallic glasses have heterogeneous nucleation sites which saturate later. -- Abstract: The crystallization kinetics and structural changes of a few metallic glassy alloys were monitored using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetry methods. Microstructural observations were used to estimate the nucleation and growth rates. A clear comparison of the differences in the crystallization kinetics in the metallic glassy samples is observed at the early and later crystallization stages

  14. Poor glass-forming ability of Fe-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.J.; Hu, L.N.; Zhao, X.

    2017-01-01

    processes. By using the concept of fluid cluster and supercooled liquid fragility in metallic liquids, it has been found that this dynamic transition makes the Fe-based supercooled liquids become more unstable, which leads to the poor GFA of Fe-based alloys. Further, it has been found that the degree...

  15. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, O. Dale

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetrostructive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube.

  16. Density and glass forming ability in amorphous atomic alloys: The role of the particle softness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Ian; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A key property of glass forming alloys, the anomalously small volume difference with respect to the crystal, is shown to arise as a direct consequence of the soft repulsive potentials between metals. This feature of the inter-atomic potential is demonstrated to be responsible for a significant component of the glass forming ability of alloys due to the decrease in the enthalpy of fusion and the associated depression of the freezing point.

  17. Density and glass forming ability in amorphous atomic alloys: The role of the particle softness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, Ian; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-04-14

    A key property of glass forming alloys, the anomalously small volume difference with respect to the crystal, is shown to arise as a direct consequence of the soft repulsive potentials between metals. This feature of the inter-atomic potential is demonstrated to be responsible for a significant component of the glass forming ability of alloys due to the decrease in the enthalpy of fusion and the associated depression of the freezing point.

  18. Spray Forming of al Alloys: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S. E. Antipas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Close coupled gas atomization has been studied. Pitot tube gas flow measurements support a postulate of transition from an initial sonic to a supersonic and a final sonic state along the convergence region of the jets. Predictions of the d50 median diameter utilizing a two phase model for primary and secondary break up correlate strongly with experimental results from He-atomized Al alloys by a factor of 0.8216.

  19. Method of thermally processing superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloys to obtain optimum strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Claire E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Optimum strengthening of a superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloy structure is achieved via a thermal processing technique which eliminates the conventional step of solution heat-treating immediately following the step of superplastic forming of the structure. The thermal processing technique involves quenching of the superplastically formed structure using static air, forced air or water quenching.

  20. Microstructural and Mechanical Property Characterization of Shear Formed Aerospace Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Lillianne P.; Domack, Marcia S.; Wagner, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing processes such as near-net-shape forming can reduce production costs and increase the reliability of launch vehicle and airframe structural components through the reduction of material scrap and part count and the minimization of joints. The current research is an investigation of the processing-microstructure-property relationships for shear formed cylinders of the Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag alloy 2195 for space applications and the Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy C415 for airframe applications. Cylinders which had undergone various amounts of shear-forming strain were studied to correlate the grain structure, texture, and mechanical properties developed during and after shear forming.

  1. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Shear Formed Aluminum Alloys for Airframe and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, L. P.; Domack, M. S.; Wagner, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing processes such as near-net-shape forming can reduce production costs and increase the reliability of launch vehicle and airframe structural components through the reduction of material scrap and part count and the minimization of joints. The current research is an investigation of the processing-microstructure-property relationship for shear formed cylinders of the Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag alloy 2195 for space applications and the Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy C415 for airframe applications. Cylinders which have undergone various amounts of shear-forming strain have been studied to assess the microstructure and mechanical properties developed during and after shear forming.

  2. Devitrification behavior and glass-forming ability of Cu-Zr-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an influence of Ag addition on the glass-forming ability and devitrification behavior of Cu-Zr glassy alloys on heating. The crystallization kinetics and structure changes in Cu 45 Zr 45 Ag 10 and Cu 35 Zr 45 Ag 20 glassy alloys on heating were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetry methods. Based on the results obtained one can assume that the improvement of the glass-forming ability of the Cu-Zr alloys by the addition of Ag is connected with a particular crystallization mechanism and a higher reduced glass-transition temperature of the Cu 45 Zr 45 Ag 10 ternary alloy compared to the binary Cu 55 Zr 45 counterpart. As observed in the present work crystallization of the Cu-Zr-Ag alloys is found to cause embitterment of the samples and should be avoided as these alloys are considered to be used as structural materials. The Cu 35 Zr 45 Ag 20 alloy shows possible submicron-scale phase separation upon annealing

  3. Characteristic values for the forming of the magnesium alloy AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, E.; Janssen, S.; Wieser, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of investigation and development at the institute for metal forming and metal forming machine tools (IFUM) at the University of Hanover, Germany is to advance magnesium forming scientifically which has so far been based on experience and empirically determined process data only. Optimized process parameter with a sound material scientific and process control base have to be determined for the deformation of magnesium wrought alloys in order to broaden the technical use of such alloys. Aim of the investigations introduced in this paper is the determination of characteristic values as well-founded basis for the forming technological processing of magnesium wrought alloys in massive forming processes. The basic data for the description of the deformation ability in the form of friction factor and flow curve is to be detected, especially in connection with the integration into an FEM-simulation. In order to achieve such data for the magnesium wrought alloy AZ31 the flow curve at temperatures between 250 and 300 C and the deformation ratio 1, 10, 20 and 30 are presented. On the other hand a ring upsetting test for the determination of the friction factor at altitude reductions of 30, 50, 70%, a tool temperature of 200 C, a work piece temperature between 300 and 400 C and different lubricants are shown for the said alloy. (orig.)

  4. Technological aspects regarding machining the titanium alloys by means of incremental forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologa Octavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are materials with reduced formability, due to their low plasticity. However, today there are high demands regarding their use in the automotive industry and in bio-medical industry, for prosthetic devices. This paper presents some technological aspects regarding the machinability of titanium alloys by means of incremental forming. The research presented in this paper aimed to demonstrate that the parts made from these materials could be machined at room temperature, in certain technological conditions.

  5. Y and Er minor addition effect on glass forming ability of a Ni–Nb–Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, L.P.; Oliveira, M.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical selection criterion to predict the GFA was used for Ni–Nb–Zr–RE alloys. • The prediction agrees very well with thermal parameter gm used to evaluate experimentally the GFA. • RE doped alloys showed higher GFA than the base alloy. • Y and Er elements showed similar effects to improve the GFA of the base alloy. - Abstract: Since the discovering of amorphous alloys in 1960, the actual causes of why some alloys can be easily formed into glasses while others cannot, are not clearly known, thus there is no universal theory to predict the glass forming ability in metallic systems. It is well known that the minor amount addition of proper rare-earth elements can greatly enhance the glass forming ability of some glass-forming alloys. In the present study, a selection criterion was successfully used to predict the glass forming ability improvement of Ni 67.3 Nb 28.4 Zr 4.3 alloy with minor additions of Y or Er. The actual glass forming ability of the base alloy and rare-earth doped alloys were evaluated by the thermal parameter γ m and the results agree very well with the tendency predicted by the calculation. The amorphous nature of alloys was mainly analyzed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. This work also presents a brief and complementary consideration about oxygen contamination quantified by the inert gas fusion method

  6. Precipitation kinetics in warm forming of AW-7020 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M., E-mail: Manoj.kumar@ait.ac.at [Leichtmetall-Kompetenzzentrum Ranshofen GmbH, Austrian Institute of Technology, Postfach 26, A-5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Institute of Material Science and Technology, TU Vienna (Austria); Poletti, C. [Present address: Institute of Material Science and Welding, TU Graz (Austria); Institute of Material Science and Technology, TU Vienna (Austria); Degischer, H.P. [Institute of Material Science and Technology, TU Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-20

    The warm formability of the precipitation hardening AW-7020 (AlZn 4.5Mg1) alloy is investigated by testing extruded tubes. The precipitation kinetics of different conditions before and after warm deformation is studied by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microcopy. The precipitation conditions are correlated with the results of hardness tests at room temperature and of tensile tests at temperatures between 200 and 350 Degree-Sign C at different strain rates. The yield strength decreases with increasing test temperature approaching that of samples in the annealed condition, while the strain at fracture increases. The overall influence of the strain rate on ductility is dominated by the corresponding time required for deformation. The formability of the starting condition T1 as well as the corresponding strain hardening exponent is particularly promising for high strain rates at 250 Degree-Sign C, where the metastable precipitates of the T1 condition are dissolved. The short exposure of about 30 s at 250 Degree-Sign C re-establishes the potential for precipitation strengthening by natural ageing after the warm deformation and a following paint baking heat treatment maintains the hardness level.

  7. Ductile Bulk Aluminum-Based Alloy with Good Glass-Forming Ability and High Strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-Chao, Zhuo; Shu-Jie, Pang; Hui, Wang; Tao, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Based on a new approach for designing glassy alloy compositions, bulk Al-based alloys with good glass-forming ability (GFA) are synthesized. The cast Al 86 Si 0.5 Ni 4.06 Co 2.94 Y 6 Sc 0.5 rod with a diameter of 1 mm shows almost fully amorphous structure besides about 5% fcc-Al nucleated in the center of the rod. The bulk alloy with high Al concentration exhibits an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.18 GPa and maximum strength of 1.27 GPa as well as an obvious plastic strain of about 2.4% during compressive deformation. This light Al-based alloy with good GFA and mechanical properties is promising as a new high specific strength material with good deformability. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  8. Microstructure and protection characteristics of the naturally formed oxide films on Mg–xZn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yingwei; Han, En-Hou; Dong, Kaihui; Shan, Dayong; Yim, Chang Dong; You, Bong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The oxide films on Mg–xZn alloys consist of similar chemical composition. •The higher Zn content results in the thicker but higher defect of the oxide films. •The oxide films exhibit different protection performance under various potentials. -- Abstract: The naturally formed oxide films on Mg–2Zn and Mg–5Zn alloys were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. The oxide films on the both alloys present a similar chemical composition, consisting of surface layer of basic magnesium carbonate and MgO following with MgO and ZnO, but the oxide film on Mg–5Zn is thicker and contains more defects. The protection performance of the oxide film on Mg–5Zn is worse under open circuit potential but better in a suitable anodic potential scope compared with that on Mg–2Zn alloy

  9. Chemical durability and degradation mechanisms of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Zr content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-30

    In Corrosion studies were undertaken on alloy waste forms that can result from advanced electrometallurgical processing techniques to better classify their durability and degradation mechanisms. The waste forms were based on the RAW3-(URe) composition, consisting primarily of HT9 steel and other elemental additions to simulate nuclear fuel reprocessing byproducts. The solution conditions of the corrosion studies were taken from an electrochemical testing protocol, and meant to simulate conditions in a repository. The alloys durability was examined in alkaline and acidic brines.

  10. Effect of similar elements on improving glass-forming ability of La-Ce-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Li Ran; Pang Shujie

    2009-01-01

    To date the effect of unlike component elements on glass-forming ability (GFA) of alloys have been studied extensively, and it is generally recognized that the main consisting elements of the alloys with high GFA usually have large difference in atomic size and atomic interaction (large negative heat of mixing) among them. In our recent work, a series of rare earth metal-based alloy compositions with superior GFA were found through the approach of coexistence of similar constituent elements. The quinary (La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) 65 Al 10 (Co 0.6 Cu 0.4 ) 25 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in a rod form with a diameter up to 32 mm was synthesized by tilt-pour casting, for which the glass-forming ability is significantly higher than that for ternary Ln-Al-TM alloys (Ln = La or Ce; TM = Co or Cu) with critical diameters for glass-formation of several millimeters. We suggest that the strong frustration of crystallization by utilizing the coexistence of La-Ce and Co-Cu to complicate competing crystalline phases is helpful to construct BMG component with superior GFA. The results of our present work indicate that similar elements (elements with similar atomic size and chemical properties) have significant effect on GFA of alloys.

  11. Springback of aluminum alloy brazing sheet in warm forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu Bin; George, Ryan; Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.; Winkler, Sooky

    2017-10-01

    The use of aluminum is increasing in the automotive industry due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, recyclability and corrosion resistance. However, aluminum is prone to significant springback due to its low elastic modulus coupled with its high strength. In this paper, a warm forming process is studied to improve the springback characteristics of 0.2 mm thick brazing sheet with an AA3003 core and AA4045 clad. Warm forming decreases springback by lowering the flow stress. The parts formed have complex features and geometries that are representative of automotive heat exchangers. The key objective is to utilize warm forming to control the springback to improve the part flatness which enables the use of harder temper material with improved strength. The experiments are performed by using heated dies at several different temperatures up to 350 °C and the blanks are pre-heated in the dies. The measured springback showed a reduction in curvature and improved flatness after forming at higher temperatures, particularly for the harder temper material conditions.

  12. Characterization of coatings formed on AZX magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawati, Anawati; Gumelar, Muhammad Dikdik

    2018-05-01

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is an electrochemical anodization process which involves the application of a high voltage to create intense plasma on a metal surface to form a ceramic type of oxide. The resulted coating exhibits high wear resistance and good corrosion barrier which are suitable to enhance the performance of biodegradable Mg alloys. In this work, the role of alloying element Ca in modifying the characteristics of PEO layer formed on AZ61 series magnesium alloys was investigated. PEO treatment was conducted on AZ61, AZX611, and AZX612 alloys in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current of 200 A/m2 at 25°C for 8 min. The resulted coatings were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), as well as hardness test. The presence of alloying element Ca in the AZ61 alloys accelerated the PEO coatings formation without altering the coating properties significantly. The coating formed on AZX specimen was slightly thicker ( 14-17 µm) than that of formed onthe AZ specimens ( 13 µm). Longer exposure time to plasma discharge was the reason for faster thickening of the coating layer on AZX specimen. XRD detected a similar crystalline oxide phase of Mg3(PO4)2 in the oxide formed on all of the specimens. Zn was highly incorporated in the coatings with a concentration in the range 24-30 wt%, as analyzed by XRF. Zn compound might exist in amorphous phases. The microhardness test on the coatings revealed similar average hardness 124 HVon all of the specimens.

  13. Metal Compression Forming of aluminum alloys and metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Porter, W.D.; Brinkman, C.R.; Sabau, A.S.; Purgert, R.M.

    2000-02-01

    Metal Compression Forming (MCF) is a variant of the squeeze casting process, in which molten metal is allowed to solidify under pressure in order to close porosity and form a sound part. However, the MCF process applies pressure on the entire mold face, thereby directing pressure on all regions of the casting and producing a uniformly sound part. The process is capable of producing parts with properties close to those of forgings, while retaining the near net shape, complexity in geometry, and relatively low cost of the casting process.

  14. The microstructure and composition of equilibrium phases formed in hypoeutectic Te-In alloy during solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baoguang [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu, Jinwu [Center of Failure Analysis, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Chongyun; Yang, Wenhui [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Tian, Wenhuai, E-mail: wenhuaitian@ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-03-15

    As a key tellurium atoms evaporation source for ultraviolet detection photocathode, the hypoeutectic Te{sub 75}In{sub 25} alloy was prepared by employing a slow solidification speed of about 10{sup −2} K/s. The microstructure and chemical composition of the equilibrium phases formed in the as-prepared alloy were studied in this research work. The experimental results show that the as-prepared Te-In alloy was constituted by primary In{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase and eutectic In{sub 2}Te{sub 5}/Te phases. The eutectic In{sub 2}Te{sub 5}/Te phases are distributed in the grain boundaries of primary In{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase. With the slow solidification speed, a pure eutectic Te phase without any excessive indium solute was obtained, where Te content of eutectic Te phase is 100 mass%. Moreover, it can be considered that the stress between the In{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Te phases plays an important role in reducing the tellurium vapor pressure in Te{sub 75}In{sub 25} alloy. - Highlights: • The microstructure of Te-In alloy as an evaporation source was analyzed. • A pure eutectic Te phase was obtained by using a slow solidification speed method. • The relation between vapor pressure and inner-stress in the alloy was discussed.

  15. Characterization of a Fe-based alloy system for an AFCI metallic waste form - 16134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Mark J.; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The AFCI waste management program aims to provide a minimum volume stable waste form for high level radioactive waste from the various process streams. The AFCI Integrated Waste Management Strategy document has identified a Fe-Zr metallic waste form (MWF) as the baseline alloy for disposal of Tc metal, undissolved solids, and TRUEX fission product wastes. Several candidate alloys have been fabricated using vacuum induction melting to investigate the limits of waste loading as a function of Fe and Zr content. Additional melts have been produced to investigate source material composition. These alloys have been characterized using SEM/EDS and XRD. Phase assemblage and specie partitioning of Re metal (surrogate for Tc) and noble metal FP elements into the phases is reported. (authors)

  16. Cobalt-based orthopaedic alloys: Relationship between forming route, microstructure and tribological performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Bhairav [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Favaro, Gregory [CSM Instruments SA, Rue de la Gare 4, Galileo Center, CH-2034 Peseux (Switzerland); Inam, Fawad [Advanced Composite Training and Development Centre and School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Angadji, Arash [Orthopaedic Research UK, Furlong House, 10a Chandos Street, London W1G 9DQ (United Kingdom); Bonfield, William [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Huang, Jie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The average longevity of hip replacement devices is approximately 10-15 years, which generally depends on many factors. But for younger generation patients this would mean that revisions may be required at some stage in order to maintain functional activity. Therefore, research is required to increase the longevity to around 25-30 years; a target that was initially set by John Charnley. The main issues related to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement devices are the high wear rates when malpositioned and the release of metallic ions into the blood stream and surrounding tissues. Work is required to reduce the wear rates and limit the amount of metallic ions being leached out of the current MoM materials, to be able to produce an ideal hip replacement material. The most commonly used MoM material is the cobalt-based alloys, more specifically ASTM F75, due to their excellent wear and corrosion resistance. They are either fabricated using the cast or wrought method, however powder processing of these alloys has been shown to improve the properties. One powder processing technique used is spark plasma sintering, which utilises electric current Joule heating to produce high heating rates to sinter powders to form an alloy. Two conventionally manufactured alloys (ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537) and a spark plasma sintered (SPS) alloy were evaluated for their microstructure, hardness, tribological performance and the release of metallic content. The SPS alloy with oxides and not carbides in its microstructure had the higher hardness, which resulted in the lowest wear and friction coefficient, with lower amounts of chromium and molybdenum detected from the wear debris compared to the ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537. In addition the wear debris size and size distribution of the SPS alloy generated were considerably small, indicating a material that exhibits excellent performance and more favourable compared to the current conventional cobalt based alloys used in orthopaedics. - Highlights

  17. FORMING OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SLUGS OF TITANIC ALLOY BT23 AT THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhе changings of the initial plate structure of alloy BT23 at running of high-temperature thermal treatment of large-sized slugs with heating up to 650- 950 eC and cooling on air and in water and their influence on forming of complex of mechanical characteristics are examined.

  18. Glass forming ability: Miedema approach to (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States)], E-mail: jbasu@engr.uconn.edu; Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2008-10-06

    Miedema's approach has been useful in determining the glass forming composition range for a particular alloy system. The concept of mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy can be used in order to quantify Inoue's criteria of bulk metallic glass formation. In the present study, glass forming composition range has been determined for different binary and ternary (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) alloys based on the mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy calculations. Though copper and nickel appear next to each other in the periodic table, the glass forming ability of the copper and nickel bearing alloys is different. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that the glass forming behaviour of Zr and Hf is similar, whereas it is different from that of Ti. The smaller atomic size of Ti and the difference in the heat of mixing of Ti, Zr, Hf with Cu and Ni leads to the observed changes in the glass forming behaviour. Enthalpy contour plots can be used to distinguish the glass forming compositions on the basis of the increasing negative enthalpy of the composition. This method reveals the high glass forming ability of binary Zr-Cu, Hf-Cu, Hf-Ni systems over a narrow composition range.

  19. A two-step superplastic forging forming of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step technology combined forging with superplastic forming has been developed to enhance the forgeability of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy and realize the application of the as-cast magnesium alloy in large deformation bullet shell. In the first step, fine-grained microstructure preforms that are suitable for superplastic forming were obtained by reasonably designing the size of the initial blanks with the specific height-to-diameter ratio, upsetting the blanks and subsequent annealing. In the second step, the heat treated preforms were forged into the end products at the superplastic conditions. The end products exhibit high quality surface and satisfied microstructure. Consequently, this forming technology that not only avoids complicating the material preparation but also utilizes higher strain rate superplastic provides a near net-shaped novel method on magnesium forging forming technology using as-cast billet.

  20. Zr inclusions in actinide—Zr alloys: New data and ideas about how they form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, Dawn E.; O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    High-Zr inclusions are common in actinide—Zr alloys despite phase diagrams indicating that these alloys should not contain a high-Zr phase. The inclusions may contain enough Zr to cause significant differences between bulk compositions and those of inclusion-free areas, leading to possible errors in interpreting data if the inclusions are not considered. This paper presents data from high-Zr inclusions in a complex U—Np—Pu—Am—Zr—RE alloy. It is suggested that the high-Zr inclusions nucleated as high-Zr solid solutions at interfaces with high-actinide RE liquids, then unmixed to form nanometer-scale high-actinide sub-inclusions.

  1. Zr/ZrC modified layer formed on AISI 440B stainless steel by plasma Zr-alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, X. Z.; Guo, Q.; Meng, T. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Yang, H. J.; Liu, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    The surface Zr/ZrC gradient alloying layer was prepared by double glow plasma surface alloying technique to increase the surface hardness and wear resistance of AISI 440B stainless steel. The microstructure of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer formed at different alloying temperatures and times as well as its formation mechanism were discussed by using scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrum, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adhesive strength, hardness and tribological property of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer were also evaluated in the paper. The alloying surface consists of the Zr-top layer and ZrC-subsurface layer which adheres strongly to the AISI 440B steel substrate. The thickness of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer increases gradually from 16 μm to 23 μm with alloying temperature elevated from 900 °C to 1000 °C. With alloying time from 0.5 h to 4 h, the alloyed depth increases from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the ZrC-rich alloyed thickness vs time is basically parabola at temperature of 1000 °C. Both the hardness and wear resistance of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer obviously increase compared with untreated AISI 440B steel.

  2. Evolution of microstructure of U-Mo alloys in as cast and sintered forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Hegde, P.V.; Prasad, G.J.; Kamath, H.S.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years U 3 Si 2 compound dispersed in aluminium matrix has been successfully used as potential Low Enriched Uranium (LEU 235 ) base dispersion fuel in new research and test reactors and also for converting High Enriched Uranium (HEU > 85% U 235 ) cores to LEU in most of the existing research and test reactors. The maximum density achievable with U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion fuel is around 4.8 g U cm -3 . To achieve a uranium density of 8.0 to 9.0 g U cm -3 in dispersion fuel with aluminium as matrix material, it is required to use γ-stabilized uranium metal powders. At Metallic Fuels Division, R and D efforts are on to develop these high density uranium alloys. Molybdenum plays a crucial role in metastabilising the γ-phase of uranium at room temperature which is very much evident when we see the microstructures of different U-Mo alloys with varying molybdenum concentration as solute atom. The paper describes the role of molybdenum in imparting metastability in U-Mo alloys from their microstructures in as cast and sintered forms. The paper also covers the role of tailored microstructure in U-Mo alloy for the purpose of hydriding and dehydriding treatment to generate alloy powders. (author)

  3. Self-Formed Barrier with Cu-Mn alloy Metallization and its Effects on Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Wada, M.; Usui, T.; Nasu, H.; Takahashi, S.; Shimizu, N.; Yoshimaru, M.; Shibata, H.

    2006-01-01

    Advancement of semiconductor devices requires the realization of an ultra-thin (less than 5 nm thick) diffusion barrier layer between Cu interconnect and insulating layers. Self-forming barrier layers have been considered as an alternative barrier structure to the conventional Ta/TaN barrier layers. The present work investigated the possibility of the self-forming barrier layer using Cu-Mn alloy thin films deposited directly on SiO2. After annealing at 450 deg. C for 30 min, an amorphous oxide layer of 3-4 nm in thickness was formed uniformly at the interface. The oxide formation was accompanied by complete expulsion of Mn atoms from the Cu-Mn alloy, leading to a drastic decrease in resistivity of the film. No interdiffusion was observed between Cu and SiO2, indicating an excellent diffusion-barrier property of the interface oxide

  4. Forming characteristics of artificial aging Al-Mg-Si-Cu sheet alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Artur; Kellner, Sven; Wortberg, Daniel; Walter, Philipp; Bassi, Corrado; Merklein, Marion

    2017-10-01

    AA6111 is a commonly used aluminum alloy for body-in-white (BIW) components with good bake-hardening response, high strength and excellent formability. For industrial applications various process strategies are considered to reach strength of about 250 MPa in the final body part with that type of alloy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent process strategies of high-strength AA6111 sheets to evaluate the forming characteristics, precipitation kinetics dissolution and mechanical properties in the final condition. The forming behavior is investigated by four potential process chains after single-stage or multi-stage heat treatment including T4 (pre-aged at > 80 °C after quenching), T61 (T4 + artificial aged at 120-150 °C for 10-18 h), T6 (T4 + artificial aged at 180-220°C up to 12 h) and PFHT (T4 + post form heat treatment at 205°C for 30 min). The experimental input for characterization of the formability consists of tensile tests, bending tests and drawing tests. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used, to correlate the forming behavior with the precipitation distribution in the advanced stages of aging. The study shows that the forming behavior is strongly dependent on the condition the alloy.

  5. Zr/ZrC modified layer formed on AISI 440B stainless steel by plasma Zr-alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.H.; Liu, L.; Liu, X.Z.; Guo, Q.; Meng, T.X.; Wang, Z.X.; Yang, H.J.; Liu, X.P., E-mail: liuxiaoping@tyut.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A Zr/ZrC modified layer was formed on AISI 440B stainless steel using plasma surface Zr-alloying. • The thickness of the modified layer increases with alloying temperature and time. • Formation mechanism of the modified layer is dependent on the mutual diffusion of Zr and substrate elements. • The modified surface shows an improved wear resistance. - Abstract: The surface Zr/ZrC gradient alloying layer was prepared by double glow plasma surface alloying technique to increase the surface hardness and wear resistance of AISI 440B stainless steel. The microstructure of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer formed at different alloying temperatures and times as well as its formation mechanism were discussed by using scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrum, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adhesive strength, hardness and tribological property of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer were also evaluated in the paper. The alloying surface consists of the Zr-top layer and ZrC-subsurface layer which adheres strongly to the AISI 440B steel substrate. The thickness of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer increases gradually from 16 μm to 23 μm with alloying temperature elevated from 900 °C to 1000 °C. With alloying time from 0.5 h to 4 h, the alloyed depth increases from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the ZrC-rich alloyed thickness vs time is basically parabola at temperature of 1000 °C. Both the hardness and wear resistance of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer obviously increase compared with untreated AISI 440B steel.

  6. The forming process of magnesium alloy for Japanese home electric components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, A. [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan); Higashi, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have replaced resins as a material for the components of electronic products such as cell phone and notebook personal computer mainly, because of their lightness and rigidity. Thin walls, a complicated shape, and high appearance quality are all needed in the external parts. Die-casting and injection molding are the main method of manufacturing magnesium alloy parts. The optimal cast conditions and mold design have been investigated in order that a few defects such as surface cracks and mold cavities in casting parts would be reduced. Instead of cast, plastic forming technologies such as warm drawing and hot forging have been developed to form thinner walls and less defects. Plastic formability of magnesium alloy in hot working is dependent on a grain size of material. The material with fine grains has advantage of being formed at high strain rate. The characteristics of forming processes of magnesium parts for Japanese home electric appliances are compared in the viewpoint of quality, cost, and productivity. (orig.)

  7. Microstructure distribution and mechanical properties prediction of boron alloy during hot forming using FE simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Junjia; Lei Chengxi; Xing Zhongwen; Li Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model microstructural evolution during hot forming using a metallo-thermo-mechanical model. ► The effect of water-cooled on temperature distribution of blank and tools was investigated. ► The effect of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. ► FE results were compared to experimental results and the errors of mechanical properties were in a reasonable scope. - Abstract: As a theoretical tool predicting microstructural evolution of boron alloy, the finite element (FE) method has received considerable attention in recent years. In this work, we focus on the boron alloy under non-isothermal hot forming conditions and establish a fully coupled metallo-thermo-mechanical model taking account of cooling and oxide. Based on the proposed model, we investigate the phase transformation and predict the hardness during the hot forming process via FE simulation. In addition, according to the hardness, the tensile strength during non-isothermal forming is predicted. Supporting the feasibility of the proposed model is the experiments where BR1500HS alloy is hot-worked at various conditions that derive a promising agreement of microstructures, hardness, and tensile strength to the simulation data.

  8. TEM characterization of corrosion products formed on a SS-15ZR alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J. S.; Abraham, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion products formed on a stainless steel-15Zr (SS-15Zr) alloy have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Examination of alloy particles that were immersed in 90 C deionized water for two years revealed that different corrosion products were formed on the stainless steel and intermetallic phases. Two corrosion products were identified on an austenite particle: trevorite (NiFe 2 O 4 ) in the layer close to the metal and maghemite (Fe 2 O 3 ) in the outer layer. The corrosion layer formed on the intermetallic was uniform, adherent, and amorphous. The EDS analysis indicated that the layer was enriched in zirconium when compared with the intermetallic composition. High-resolution TEM images of the intermetallic-corrosion layer interface show an interlocking metal-oxide interface which may explain the relatively strong adherence of the corrosion layer to the intermetallic surface. These results will be used to evaluate corrosion mechanisms and predict long-term corrosion behavior of the alloy waste form

  9. An Investigation into the Effect of Aging on the Forming Limit Diagram of 6063 Aluminum Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, S. M.; Hosseimpour, S. J.; Nourouzi, S.; Gorji, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ageing on the forming limit diagram of a commercially available 6063 aluminum alloy has been investigated. For this purpose, initially the specimens have been aged at 200 deg. C and at various times. The hardness tests have been carried out and the hardness-aging time curve has been obtained for this alloy. Moreover, the mechanical properties were determined by tensile test. Then, the forming limit diagrams have been achieved by using the out-of-plane formability test method at four different conditions containing: annealed, under-aged, peak-aged, and over-aged. The results indicate that in comparing with the annealed condition the FLD 0 decreases significantly from the under-aged condition to the peak-aged condition and increases slightly from the peak-aged condition to the over-aged condition.

  10. A simple criterion to predict the glass forming ability of metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao de Oliveira, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    A new and simple criterion with which to quantitatively predict the glass forming ability (GFA) of metallic alloys is proposed. It was found that the critical cooling rate for glass formation (R C ) correlates well with a proper combination of two factors, the minimum topological instability (λ min ) and the Δh parameter, which depends on the average work function difference (Δφ) and the average electron density difference (Δn ws 1/3 ) among the constituent elements of the alloy. A correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.76 was found between R c and the new criterion for 68 alloys in 30 different metallic systems. The new criterion and the Uhlmann's approach were used to estimate the critical amorphous thickness (Z C ) of alloys in the Cu-Zr system. The new criterion underestimated R C in the Cu-Zr system, producing predicted Z C values larger than those observed experimentally. However, when considering a scale factor, a remarkable similarity was observed between the predicted and the experimental behavior of the GFA in the binary Cu-Zr. When using the same scale factor and performing the calculation for the ternary Zr-Cu-Al, good agreement was found between the predicted and the actual best GFA region, as well as between the expected and the observed critical amorphous thickness.

  11. Effect of phase transformations on laser forming of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.; Cheng, P.; Yao, Y.L.; Yang, Z.; Egland, K.

    2005-01-01

    In laser forming, phase transformations in the heat-affected zone take place under steep thermal cycles, and have a significant effect on the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the laser-forming process. The flow-stress data of a material are generally provided as only dependent on strain, strain rate, and temperature, while phase transformations are determined by both temperature and temperature history. Therefore, effect of phase transformations on the flow behavior of materials in thermomechanical processing is not given necessary considerations. In the present work, both the α→β transformation during heating and the decomposition of β phase, producing martensite α ' or lamellae α dependent on cooling rate, are numerically investigated. The spatial distribution of volume fractions of phases is obtained by coupling thermal and phase transformation kinetic modeling. Consequently, the flow stress of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is calculated by the rule of mixtures based on the phase ratio and the flow stress of each single phase, which is also a function of temperature, strain, and strain rate. According to the obtained flow-stress data, the laser-forming process of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is modeled by finite element method, and the deformation is predicted. A series of carefully controlled experiments are conducted to validate the theoretically predicted results

  12. New Forming Limits For Light Alloys By Means Of Electromagnetic Forming And Numerical Simulation Of The Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimbert, P.; Fernandez, J. I.; Eguia, I.; Gutierrez, M.; Ulacia, I.; Hurtado, I.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that one of the main advantages of the high speed forming (HSF) processes is the improvement in the forming limits of the used materials.Using the Electromagnetic Forming (EMF) technology two materials have been tested with different mechanical and physical properties: the AA5754 aluminium and the AZ31B magnesium alloys.The EMF process principle can be described as follows: A significant amount of electrical energy is stored in a bank of capacitors which are suddenly discharged releasing all the stored energy. This electric discharge runs through a coil which generates an intense transient magnetic field. At the same time transient Eddy currents are induced in the electrically conductive part placed some millimetres far from the coil. Another intense magnetic field is generated due to those Eddy currents but on the opposite direction as the one generated by the coil. A big magnetic repulsion force is created between the part and the coil. This magnetic repulsion between both fields is used to launch the blank with no physical contact and obtain the desired deformation on it.The Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) obtained in the EMF experiments were them compared to the ones obtained with the 'Nakazima' method at conventional deformation speed for both alloys. In parallel to these physical experiments, some simulations were carried out. But trying to simulate this process by FEM is a though work. There are several physics and many factors to take into account in a few microseconds deformation process. And all these factors are tightly related with each other, that is why to this date there is no commercial software able to simulate the EMF process accurately.From LABEIN-Tecnalia we are working with to different softwares to simulate the whole process: Maxwell 3D for the electromagnetic part and PAM-STAMP2G for the mechanical part of the problem

  13. Formation, Characteristics and Electrocatalytic Properties of Nanoporous Metals Formed by Dealloying of Ternary-Noble Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Zuniga, Adrian A.

    Nanoporous metals formed by electrochemical dealloying of silver from Ag-Au-Pt alloys, with 77 at.% silver and platinum contents of 1, 2 and 3 at.%, have been studied. The presence of platinum, which is immobile relative to gold, refine the ligament size and stabilized the nanostructure against coarsening, even under experimental conditions that would be expected to promote coarsening (e.g., exposure to high temperature, longer dealloying times). By adding only 1 at.% Pt to the alloy precursor, the ligament/pore size was reduced by 50% with respect to that in nanoporous gold (NPG), which was formed on a Ag-Au alloy with the same silver content as ternary alloys. A further decrease in the ligament size was observed by increasing the platinum content of the precursor; however, most of the improvement occurred with 1 at.% Pt. The adsorbate-induced surface segregation of platinum was also investigated for these nanoporous metals. By exposing freshly-dealloyed nanostructures to moderate temperatures in the presence of air, platinum segregated to the ligament surface; in contrast, in an inert atmosphere (Ar-H 2), platinum mostly reverted to the bulk of the ligaments. This thermally activated process was thermodynamically driven by the interaction between platinum and oxygen; however, at the desorption temperature of oxygen, platinum de-segregated from the surface. Moreover, the co-segregation of platinum and oxygen hindered the thermal coarsening of the ligaments. Finally, the electrocatalytic abilities of these nanostructures were studied towards methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation, in alkaline and acidic media, showing significantly improved response in comparison to that observed in NPG. The synergistic effect between gold and platinum atoms and the smaller feature size of the nanostructures were directly associated with this behaviour. In alkaline electrolyte, the nanostructure formed on the alloy with 1 at.% Pt showed higher catalytic response than the other two

  14. Microstructural studies of suck cast (Zr-SS)-3 and 5 AI alloys for nuclear metallic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Das, N.; Sengupta, P.; Arya, A.; Dey, G.K.

    2015-01-01

    Management of radioactive metallic waste using 'alloy melting route' is currently being investigated. For disposal of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes, Zr-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) alloys. In this context Zr-16 wt. %55 has been selected for MWF alloy in our previous study. In present study, to include amorphous phase in this alloy, 3 and 5 wt. % Al has been added in order to improve desirable properties and useful features of MWF and the two alloys have been prepared by suck casting techniques. Microstructure of these alloys have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy which shows occurrence of two different phases, e.g. dark grey and white phases, in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al and three different phases, e.g. grey, dark grey and white phases in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. Electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of these two alloy specimens revealed the occurrence of Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey) and Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases in (Zr-16 SS)-3 Al whereas, Zr (Fe, Cr, AI) (dark grey), Zr 2 (Fe, Cr, AI) (grey) and Zr 3 (Fe, Cr, AI) (white) phases were found in (Zr-16 SS)-5 AI. In addition, presence of amorphous phase was indicated by XRD analysis that could be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of these two alloys. (author)

  15. Experimental and FE simulation validation of sheet thickness optimization in superplastic forming of Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, G.; Jothilingam, A. [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-07-15

    Superplasticity is the ability of a polycrystalline materials to exhibit very large elongations without necking prior to failure. In this paper, the superplastic forming potential of fine grained 7075 aluminium alloy was studied. The process parameters like pressure, forming time and initial sheet thickness were selected, using the design of experiments technique. The same condition of formation process was attempted in the finite element simulation using ABAQUS software. The deviation of the thickness distribution between the simulation and experiment was made and the variation lies within 8%.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of oxide film formed at high temperature on Alloy 690

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Geogy J., E-mail: gja@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhambroo, Rajan [Deptt. of Metallurgical Engg. and Mat. Sci., IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Kain, V. [Materials Science Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Shekhar, R. [CCCM, BARC, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Raja, V.S. [Deptt. of Metallurgical Engg. and Mat. Sci., IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GD-QMS studies of high temperature oxide film formed on Alloy 690. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect density reduced with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical behaviour of oxide film correlated to the Cr-content in oxide. - Abstract: High temperature passivation studies on Alloy 690 were carried out in lithiated water at 250 Degree-Sign C, 275 Degree-Sign C and 300 Degree-Sign C for 72 h. The passive films were characterized by glow discharge-quadrupole mass spectroscopy (GD-QMS) for compositional variation across the depth and micro laser Raman spectroscopy for oxide composition on the surface. The defect density in the oxide films was established from the Mott-Schottky analysis using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical experiments at room temperature in chloride medium revealed best passivity behaviour by the oxide film formed at 300 Degree-Sign C for 72 h. The electrochemical studies were correlated to the chromium (and oxygen) content of the oxide films. Autoclaving at 300 Degree-Sign C resulted in the best passive film formation on Alloy 690 in lithiated water.

  17. Forming a structure of the CoNiFe alloys by X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Natalia; Kasperovich, Andrey; Koltunowicz, Tomasz N.

    The experimental data of electrodeposition kinetics researches and structure formation of ternary CoNiFe alloys deposited onto low-carbon steel 08kp in the presence of X-rays are presented. Relations of deposit rate, current efficiencies, element and phase compositions of CoNiFe coatings formed from sulfate baths with respect to cathode current densities (0.5-3A/dm2), electrolyte composition and irradiation were obtained. It is shown that, the CoNiFe coatings deposited by the electrochemical method involving exposure of the X-rays are characterized by more perfect morphology surfaces with less developed surface geometry than reference coatings. The effect of the X-ray irradiation on the electrodeposition of CoNiFe coatings promotes formatting of alloys with increased electropositive component and modified phase composition.

  18. Specific-heat measurements in superconducting indium-thallium alloys and the pseudopotential form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munukutla, L.V.; Cappelletti, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Normal-state specific heats between 1 and 4.4 K and superconducting transition temperatures of pure indium and In-Tl alloys have been measured. Excellent agreement with previous results was found. N/sub bs/(0) was extracted using our γ values and Dynes's lambda values and shows a large variation. The measured variation of lambda 2 > was also obtained from Dynes's results and found to be nearly linear in spite of the large variation of N/sub bs/(0). This is shown to be a consequence of the fact that the ratio of the calculated average screened pseudopotential form factor to electron density of states, 2 /sub s/>/N/sub bs/(0), is nearly constant across the alloy series for each element. No anomaly was found in the specific heat of In/sub 0.69/Tl/sub 0.31/ at the expected martensitic transition temperature

  19. Process for forming seamless tubing of zirconium or titanium alloys from welded precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, G.P.; Barry, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for forming seamless tubing of a material selected from zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, and titanium alloys, from welded precursor tubing of the material, having a heterogeneous structure resulting from the welding thereof. The process consists of: heating successive axial segments of the welded tubing, completely through the wall thereof, including the weld, to uniformly transform the heterogeneous, as welded, material into the beta phase; quenching the beta phase tubing segments, the heating and quenching effected sufficiently rapid enough to produce a fine sized beta grain structure completely throughout the precursor tubing, including the weld, and to prevent growth of beta grains within the material larger than 200 micrometers in diameter; and subsequently uniformly deforming the quenched precursor tubing by cold reduction steps to produce a seamless tubing of final size and shape

  20. Fragility of superheated melts and glass-forming ability in Pr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Q.G.; Zhou, J.K.; Zheng, H.X.; Li, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic viscosity (η) of superheated melts, thermal properties (T x , T m , T L ) and X-ray diffraction analysis on the Pr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) are reported and discussed. A new refined concept, the superheated fragility defined as M' = E S δ x /k B , has been developed based on common solidification theory and the Arrhenius equation. The interrelationship between this kind of fragility and the glass-forming ability (GFA) is elaborated on and evaluated in Pr-based BMG and Al-based amorphous ribbon alloys. Using viscosity data of superheated melts, it is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that the fragility parameter M' may be used as a GFA indicator for metallic alloys

  1. Hardening mechanisms of spray formed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with scandium and other elemental additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.M.; Amateau, M.F.; Eden, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    The hardening mechanisms in spray formed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with additions of chromium, zinc and scandium were studied. The microstructure of the spray formed alloys was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A range of tensile strengths were achieved, and varied based on elemental additions, and second phase particle strengthening. To explain the significantly higher strength in one alloy with scandium, theoretical results due to the yield stress of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys as a function of volume fraction and precipitate particle size, were compared to experimental data. Both the possibilities of coherency and order strengthening are examined. The significant additional hardening achieved in the alloy with scandium is attributed to small ordered particles of Al 3 Sc, which precipitated during aging

  2. Manufacture of a four-sheet complex component from different titanium alloys by superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allazadeh, M. R.; Zuelli, N.

    2017-10-01

    A superplastic forming (SPF) technology process was deployed to form a complex component with eight-pocket from a four-sheet sandwich panel sheetstock. Six sheetstock packs were composed of two core sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-5Al-4Cr-4Mo-2Sn-2Zr titanium alloy and two skin sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo titanium alloy in three different combinations. The sheets were welded with two subsequent welding patterns over the core and skin sheets to meet the required component's details. The applied welding methods were intermittent and continuous resistance seam welding for bonding the core sheets to each other and the skin sheets over the core panel, respectively. The final component configuration was predicted based on the die drawings and finite element method (FEM) simulations for the sandwich panels. An SPF system set-up with two inlet gas pipe feeding facilitated the trials to deliver two pressure-time load cycles acting simultaneously which were extracted from FEM analysis for specific forming temperature and strain rate. The SPF pressure-time cycles were optimized via GOM scanning and visually inspecting some sections of the packs in order to assess the levels of core panel formation during the inflation process of the sheetstock. Two sets of GOM scan results were compared via GOM software to inspect the surface and internal features of the inflated multisheet packs. The results highlighted the capability of the tested SPF process to form complex components from a flat multisheet pack made of different titanium alloys.

  3. The corrosion properties of Zr-Cr-NM alloy metallic waste form for longterm disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Youb; Jang, Seon Ah; Eun, Hee Chul; Choi, Jung Hoon; Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    KAERI is conducting research on spent cladding hulls and additive metals to generate a solidifcation host matrix for the noble metal fssion product waste in anode sludge from the electro-refning process to minimize the volume of waste that needs to be disposed of. In this study, alloy compositions Zr-17Cr, Zr-22Cr, and Zr-27Cr were prepared with or without eight noble metals representing fuel waste using induction melting. The microstructures of the resulting alloys were characterized and electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted to evaluate their corrosion characteristics. All the compositions had better corrosion characteristics than other Zr-based alloys that were evaluated for comparison. Analysis of the leach solution after the corrosion test of the Zr-22Cr-8NM specimen indicated that the noble metals were not leached during corrosion under 500 mV imposed voltage, which simulates a highly oxidizing disposal environment. The results of this study confrm that Zr-Cr based compositions will likely serve as chemically stable waste forms.

  4. Microstructural Evolution of Al-1Fe (Weight Percent) Alloy During Accumulative Continuous Extrusion Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Guan, Ren-Guo; Tie, Di; Shang, Ying-Qiu; Jin, Hong-Mei; Li, Hong-Chao

    2018-04-01

    As a new microstructure refining method, accumulative continuous extrusion forming (ACEF) cannot only refine metal matrix but also refine the phases that exist in it. In order to detect the refinements of grain and second phase during the process, Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy was processed by ACEF, and the microstructural evolution was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that the average grain size of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy decreased from 13 to 1.2 μm, and blocky Al3Fe phase with an average length of 300 nm was granulated to Al3Fe particle with an average diameter of 200 nm, after one pass of ACEF. Refinement of grain was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX), and the granulation of Al3Fe phase included the spheroidization resulting from deformation heat and the fragmentation caused by the coupling effects of strain and thermal effect. The spheroidization worked in almost the entire deformation process, while the fragmentation required strain accumulation. However, fragmentation contributed more than spheroidization. Al3Fe particle stimulated the formation of substructure and retarded the migration of recrystallized grain boundary, but the effect of Al3Fe phase on refinement of grain could only be determined by the contrastive investigation of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy and pure Al.

  5. The glass-forming ability of model metal-metalloid alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are amorphous alloys with desirable mechanical properties and processing capabilities. To date, the design of new BMGs has largely employed empirical rules and trial-and-error experimental approaches. Ab initio computational methods are currently prohibitively slow to be practically used in searching the vast space of possible atomic combinations for bulk glass formers. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained, anisotropic potential, which mimics interatomic covalent bonding, to measure the critical cooling rates for metal-metalloid alloys as a function of the atomic size ratio σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and number fraction x{sub S} of the metalloid species. We show that the regime in the space of σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and x{sub S} where well-mixed, optimal glass formers occur for patchy and LJ particle mixtures, coincides with that for experimentally observed metal-metalloid glass formers. Thus, our simple computational model provides the capability to perform combinatorial searches to identify novel glass-forming alloys.

  6. Glass forming ability of Al–Ni–La alloys with Si addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, J.J.; Xiong, X.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Inoue, A. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); WPI-Advanced Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kong, L.T. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, J.F., E-mail: jfli@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-11-25

    (Al{sub 85.5}Ni{sub 9.5}La{sub 5}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x}, (Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9}La{sub 5}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x}, (Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9.5}La{sub 4.5}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x}, (Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 10}La{sub 4}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} and (Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 10.5}La{sub 3.5}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} alloys, where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0, were cast under the same suction casting conditions into a wedge-shaped copper mold for investigating the effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA). The GFA of the Al–Ni–La base alloys, except for the optimal glass former (Al{sub 85.5}Ni{sub 9.5}La{sub 5}), is enhanced when a proper content of Si is added. The largest content of Si up to which GFA can be enhanced changes in the following order of the base alloys: Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9}La{sub 5}, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9.5}La{sub 4.5}, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 10}La{sub 4} and Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 10.5}La{sub 3.5}. The enhancement of GFA due to Si addition becomes more significant as the La content decreases. This is presumably because more free Al atoms are present in the base alloy. - Highlights: • 0.2–2.0 at. % Si was added to each ternary base alloy. • Wedge-shaped samples were suction cast to obtain the glass-forming ability (GFA). • The GFA of the ternary non-optimal glass formers can be enhanced by Si addition. • The number of free-Al atoms dominates the best Si addition.

  7. Glass forming ability of Al–Ni–La alloys with Si addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, J.J.; Xiong, X.Z.; Inoue, A.; Kong, L.T.; Li, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    (Al_8_5_._5Ni_9_._5La_5)_1_0_0_−_xSi_x, (Al_8_6Ni_9La_5)_1_0_0_−_xSi_x, (Al_8_6Ni_9_._5La_4_._5)_1_0_0_−_xSi_x, (Al_8_6Ni_1_0La_4)_1_0_0_−_xSi_x and (Al_8_6Ni_1_0_._5La_3_._5)_1_0_0_−_xSi_x alloys, where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0, were cast under the same suction casting conditions into a wedge-shaped copper mold for investigating the effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA). The GFA of the Al–Ni–La base alloys, except for the optimal glass former (Al_8_5_._5Ni_9_._5La_5), is enhanced when a proper content of Si is added. The largest content of Si up to which GFA can be enhanced changes in the following order of the base alloys: Al_8_6Ni_9La_5, Al_8_6Ni_9_._5La_4_._5, Al_8_6Ni_1_0La_4 and Al_8_6Ni_1_0_._5La_3_._5. The enhancement of GFA due to Si addition becomes more significant as the La content decreases. This is presumably because more free Al atoms are present in the base alloy. - Highlights: • 0.2–2.0 at. % Si was added to each ternary base alloy. • Wedge-shaped samples were suction cast to obtain the glass-forming ability (GFA). • The GFA of the ternary non-optimal glass formers can be enhanced by Si addition. • The number of free-Al atoms dominates the best Si addition.

  8. Semi-solid metal forming of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, W.; Lane, L.; Marder, J.; Nicholas, N.

    1995-01-01

    A Powder Metallurgy (PM) based, Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) forming process has been developed to produce low cost near-net shapes of beryllium-reinforced aluminum alloys. Beryllium acts as a reinforcing additive to the aluminum, in which there is nearly no mutual solid solubility. The modulus of elasticity of the alloy dramatically increases, while the density and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing beryllium content. The material is suitable for complex thermal management and vibration resistance applications, as well as for airborne components which are density and stiffness sensitive. The forming process involves heating a blank of the material to a temperature at which the aluminum is semi-solid and the beryllium is solid. The semi-solid blank is then injected without turbulence into a permanent mold. High quality, near net shape components can be produced which are functionally superior to those produced by other permanent mold processes. Dimensional accuracy is equivalent to or better than that obtained in high pressure die casting. Cost effectiveness is the primary advantage of this technique compared to other forming processes. The advantages and limitations of the process are described. Physical and mechanical property data are presented, as well as directions for future investigation

  9. Novel Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Ti Metal and Its Alloys by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Kokubo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium titanate formed on Ti metal by NaOH and heat treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment and bonds to living bone. These treatments have been applied to porous Ti metal in artificial hip joints, and have been used clinically in Japan since 2007. Calcium titanate formed on Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy by NaOH, CaCl2, heat, and water treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment. Titanium oxide formed on porous Ti metal by NaOH, HCl, and heat treatments exhibits osteoinductivity as well as osteoconductivity. This is now under clinical tests for application to a spinal fusion device.

  10. The Influence of Forming Directions and Strain Rate on Dynamic Shear Properties of Aerial Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Meng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic shear properties under high strain rate are an important basis for studying the dynamic mechanical properties and microscopic mechanisms of materials. Dynamic impact shear tests of aerial aluminum alloy 7050-T7451 in rolling direction (RD, transverse direction (TD and normal direction (ND were performed at a range of strain rates from 2.5 × 104 s−1 to 4.5 × 104 s−1 by High Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB. The influence of different forming directions and strain rates on the dynamic shear properties of material and the microstructure evolution under dynamic shear were emphatically analyzed. The results showed that aluminum alloy 7050-T7451 had a certain strain rate sensitivity and positive strain rate strengthening effect, and also the material had no obvious strain strengthening effect. Different forming directions had a great influence on dynamic shear properties. The shear stress in ND was the largest, followed by that in RD, and the lowest was that in TD. The microstructure observation showed that the size and orientation of the grain structure were different in three directions, which led to the preferred orientation of the material. All of those were the main reasons for the difference of dynamic shear properties of the material.

  11. Conical surface textures formed by ion bombarding 2% Be-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.

    1991-01-01

    A homogeneous, micrometer-sized conical surface texture forms on 2% Be-Cu alloy which is bombarded with an argon beam produced by a Kaufman ion source. The dimensions of the features that form depend strongly on argon energy (from 250 to 1500 eV); argon fluence (10 19 to 10 20 ions cm -2 ); and argon flux (0.1 to 1 mA cm -2 ). The texture morphology depends less strongly on the background ambient (Mo versus graphite), earlier alloy heat treatments and the temperature during bombardment (100 o C and 450 o C). As the texture matures with increasing fluence, the number of large features increases at the expense of the number of small features. The observed relationship between texture formation and ion flux suggests that the evolution of these features is not adequately described by theories predicting that the mature conical side-wall angle is related to the angle of the maximum sputtering yield. These textured surfaces can be coated with other metals for a variety of possible applications including pulsed power Li + beam anodes; cold cathode field emission devices; optical absorbers and catalysis supports. (author)

  12. Conical surface textures formed by ion bombarding 2% Be Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous, micrometer-sized conical surface texture forms on 2% Be-Cu alloy which is bombarded with an argon beam produced by a Kaufman ion source. The dimensions of the features that form strongly depend on: (1) argon energy (from 250 to 1500 eV), (2) fluence (10 19 to 10 20 ions/cm 2 ), and (3) flux (0.1 to 1 mA/cm 2 ). The texture morphology depends less strongly on the background ambient (Mo vs graphite), earlier alloy heat treatments and the temperature during bombardment (100 degree C and 450 degree C). As the texture matures with increasing fluence, the number of large features increases at the expense of the number of small features. The observed relationship between texture formation and ion flux suggests that the evolution of these features is not adequately described by theories predicting that the mature conical sidewall angle is related to the angle of the maximum sputtering yield. These textured surfaces can be coated with other metals for a variety of possible applications including: (1) pulsed power Li+ beam anodes, (2) cold cathode field emission devices, (3) optical absorbers and (4) catalysis supports. 18 refs., 5 figs

  13. Strong composition-dependence on glass-forming ability in Ni-(Ti,Zr)-Si pseudo-ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.; Wang, J.Q.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The glass formation in Ni-(Ti,Zr)-Si pseudo-ternary alloys was studied. For suction casting, by carefully adjusting the alloy composition and studying the microstructure changes, the best glass-forming alloy with a 2 mm diameter is pinpointed in a narrow composition region of 57.5-58.5 at.% Ni, 36.5-38.5 at.% (Ti + Zr) and 5-5.5 at.% Si. The main competing crystalline phases, identified by XRD and SEM, were Ni 10 (Zr,Ti) 7 , Ni(Ti,Zr) and an unidentified Si-containing phase. Our results indicate a clear need for monitoring the microstructure change in the cross section of the ingots to locate the best glass-forming alloys

  14. Semiconducting properties of oxide and passive films formed on AISI 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira M. G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconducting properties of passive films formed on AISI 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600 in borate buffer solution were studied by capacitance (Mott-Schottky approach and photocurrent measurements. Oxide films formed on 304 stainless steel in air at 350 ºC have also been studied. The results obtained show that, in all cases the electronic structure of the films is comparable to that of a p-n heterojunction in which the space charges developed at the metal-film and film-electrolyte interfaces have also to be considered. This is in accordance with analytical results showing that the oxide films are in all cases composed of an inner region rich in chromium oxide and an outer region rich in iron oxide.

  15. Semiconducting behavior of the anodically passive films formed on AZ31B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work includes determination of the semiconductor character and estimation of the dopant levels in the passive film formed on AZ31B alloy in 0.01 M NaOH, as well as the estimation of the passive film thickness as a function of the film formation potential. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials preponderated. Based on the Mott–Schottky analysis, it was shown that the calculated donor density increases linearly with increasing the formation potential. Also, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results indicated that the thickness of the passive film was decreased linearly with increasing the formation potential. The results showed that decreasing the formation potential offer better conditions for forming the passive films with higher protection behavior, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective films.

  16. Linear arrangement of nano-scale magnetic particles formed in Cu-Fe-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung, E-mail: k3201s@hotmail.co [Department of Materials Engineering (SEISAN), Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogayaku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan); Takeda, Mahoto [Department of Materials Engineering (SEISAN), Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogayaku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Advanced Electron Microscopy Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sakura 3-13, Tsukuba, 305-0047 (Japan); Bae, Dong-Sik [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-30

    The structural evolution of nano-scale magnetic particles formed in Cu-Fe-Ni alloys on isothermal annealing at 878 K has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Phase decomposition of Cu-Fe-Ni occurred after an as-quenched specimen received a short anneal, and nano-scale magnetic particles were formed randomly in the Cu-rich matrix. A striking feature that two or more nano-scale particles with a cubic shape were aligned linearly along <1,0,0> directions was observed, and the trend was more pronounced at later stages of the precipitation. Large numbers of <1,0,0> linear chains of precipitates extended in three dimensions in late stages of annealing.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of the ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 bulk glass forming alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and thermodynamic properties of a ternary Cu50Ti25Zr25 metallic glass forming alloy in solid-liquid to glass phases were studied using molecular dynamics (MD method based on tight-binding (TB potentials. An atomic description of the melting, glass formation and crystallization process has been analyzed using different heating and cooling rates. The computed Glass Forming Ability (GFA parameters are in good agreement with experimental data. The structure analysis of the Cu50Ti25Zr25 based on molecular dynamics simulation will be also presented and compared with available MD results. We have also discussed the crystallization transition with two different interatomic potentials used in this work

  18. Glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of some binary and ternary Ni-based glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Xie Guoqiang; Li Song; Zhang Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to study the influence of Ti, V, Nb, Al, Sn and Pd additions on the glass-forming ability, formation of a supercooled liquid region and a devitrification process of some Ni-Zr glassy alloys as well as to compare the results with those obtained for similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. The Ni-based glassy alloys were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. Although the studied Ni-based alloys showed high values of the reduced glass-transition temperature of about 0.6, their glass-forming ability is quite low. This fact may be explained by low stability of the supercooled liquid against crystallization and formation of the equilibrium intermetallic compounds with a high growth rate compared to those observed in similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. Relatively low thermal conductivity of Ni-based alloys is also found to be another factor limiting their glass-forming ability

  19. Effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability of a NiTiZrAlCu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.Z.; Shen, J.; Sun, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA) of a NiTiZrAlCu alloy was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The maximum diameter of glassy rods increased from 0.5 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 20 Zr 25 Al 8 Cu 5 alloy (the base alloy) to 2.5 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 20 Zr 21.5 Al 8 Cu 5 Si 3.5 alloy and to 3 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 19 Zr 22.5 Al 8 Cu 5 Si 3.5 alloy, when prepared by using the copper mould casting. The GFA of the alloys can be assessed by the reduced glass transition temperature T rg (=T g /T l ) and a newly proposed parameter, δ(=T x /T l - T g ). An addition of a proper amount of Si and a minor substitution of Ti with Zr can enhance the GFA of the base alloy by suppressing the formation of primary Ni(TiZr) and (TiZr)(CuAl) 2 phases and inducing the composition close to eutectic

  20. Study on the early surface films formed on Mg-Y molten alloy in different atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mirak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the non-isothermal early stages of surface oxidation of liquid Mg-1%Y alloy during casting were studied under UPH argon, dry air, and air mixed with protective fluorine-bearing gases. The chemistry and morphology of the surface films were characterized by SEM and EDX analyses. The results indicate a layer of smooth and tightly coherent oxidation film composed of MgO and Y2O3 formed on the molten Mg-Y alloy surface with 40–60 nm thickness under dry air. A dendritic/cellular microstructure is clearly visible with Y-rich second phases gathered in surface of the melt and precipitated along the grain/cell boundaries under all gas conditions. Under fluorine-bearing gas mixtures, the surface film was a mixed oxide and fluoride and more even; a flat and folded morphology can be seen under SF6 with oxide as dominated phase and under 1, 1, 1, 2-tetra-fluoroethane, a smooth and compact surface film uniformly covering the inner surface of the bubble with equal oxide and fluoride thickness, which results in a film without any major defects. MgF2 phase appears to be the key characteristic of a good protective film.

  1. Comprehension and modelling of chromia-forming alloys corrosion mechanisms in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmucker, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear wastes management consists in the confinement of the radioactive wastes in a glass matrix. This is made by inductive melting in a hot crucible at an operating temperature around 1150 C. These crucibles are constituted of nickel based superalloys with high chromium content. They are submitted to a harsh corrosion by the molten glass, eventually leading to their replacement. The protection of the crucible against corrosion is best provided by the establishment of a protective chromium oxide layer at the surface of the alloy. A binary chromia-forming alloy (Ni-30Cr) is studied in this work. Three different binary and ternary glass compositions are chosen in order to understand the influence of the glass basicity and glass viscosity on the corrosion kinetics. Besides, the de-correlation of the formation and dissolution kinetics of the oxide layer allows the modelling of the overall oxide growth in the molten glass. For that purpose, the oxide formation kinetics in molten glass media is assimilated to the oxidation kinetics of the alloy in gaseous media with oxygen partial pressure that are representative of the redox properties of the glasses. Studies of the oxidation kinetics and of the diffusion mechanisms have shown that the oxidation kinetics is independent on the oxygen pressure in the range of 10"-"1"3 up to 10"-"3 atm O_2 at 1150 C. The present work has shown that the dissolution kinetics of the oxide layer is governed by the diffusion of Cr(III) in the glass melt. This dissolution kinetics has been evaluated from the diffusion coefficient and the solubility limit of Cr(III) in the glass. Finally, the overall growth kinetics of the Cr_2O_3 layer in the glass has been successfully modelled for each glass, thanks to the knowledge of (i) the solubility limit of Cr(III), (ii) its diffusion coefficient in the glasses and (iii) the oxidation kinetics of the alloy. The presented model also allows quantifying the influence of each of these parameters on the

  2. Study of a chromia-forming alloy behavior as interconnect material for High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, S.

    2011-01-01

    In High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis (HTVE) system, the materials chosen for the inter-connectors should have a good corrosion behaviour in air and in H 2 -H 2 O mixtures at 800 C, and keep a high electronic conductivity over long durations as well. In this context, the first goal of this study was to evaluate a commercial ferritic alloy (the K41X alloy) as interconnect for HTVE application. Oxidation tests in furnace and in microbalance have therefore been carried out in order to determine oxidation kinetics. Meanwhile, the Area Specific Resistance (ASR) was evaluated by Contact Resistance measurements performed at 800 C. The second objective was to improve our comprehension of chromia-forming alloys oxidation mechanism, in particular in H 2 /H 2 O mixtures. For that purpose, some specific tests have been conducted: tracer experiments, coupled with the characterization of the oxide scale by PEC (Photo-Electro-Chemistry). This approach has also been applied to the study of a LaCrO 3 perovskite oxide coating on the K41X alloy. This phase is indeed of high interest for HTVE applications due to its high conductivity properties. This latter study leads to further understanding on the role of lanthanum as reactive element, which effect is still under discussion in literature.In both media at 800 C, the scale is composed of a Cr 2 O 3 /(Mn,Cr) 3 O 4 duplex scale, covered in the case of H 2 -H 2 O mixture by a thin scale made of Mn 2 TiO 4 spinel. In air, the growth mechanism is found to be cationic, in agreement with literature. The LaCrO 3 coating does not modify the direction of scale growth but lowers the growth kinetics during the first hundreds hours. Moreover, with the coating, the scale adherence is favored and the conductivity appears to be slightly higher. In the H 2 -H 2 O mixture, the growth mechanism is found to be anionic. The LaCrO 3 coating diminishes the oxidation kinetics. Although the scale thickness is about the same in both media, the ASR parameter

  3. Development of Weldable Superplastic Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheet Final Report CRADA No. TC-1086-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, T. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Numerous applications could exist for superplastic formable, weldable aluminum alloys in the automotive, aerospace, architectural, and construction industries. In this project, LLNL and Kaiser worked with the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems to develop and evaluate weldable superplastic alloys.

  4. Glass-forming ability and stability of ternary Ni-early transition metal (Ti/Zr/Hf) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Ranganathan, S. [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)]. E-mail: rangu@met.iisc.ernet.in

    2006-08-15

    Four Ni-bearing Ti, Zr and Hf ternary alloys of nominal composition Zr{sub 41.5}Ti{sub 41.5}Ni{sub 17}, Zr{sub 25}Ti{sub 25}Ni{sub 50}, Zr{sub 41.5}Hf{sub 41.5}Ni{sub 17} and Ti{sub 41.5}Hf{sub 41.5}Ni{sub 17} were rapidly solidified in order to produce ribbons. The Zr-Ti-Ni and Ti-Hf-Ni alloys become amorphous, whereas the Zr-Hf-Ni alloy shows precipitation of a cubic phase. The devitrification of all three alloys was followed and the relative tendency to form nanoquasicrystals and cF96 phases analysed. The relative glass-forming ability of the alloys can be explained by taking into account their atomic size difference. Addition of Ni often leads to quasicrystallisation or quasicrystal-related phases. This can be explained by the atomic radius and heat of mixing of the constituent elements. The phases precipitated at the initial stages of crystallisation indicate the possible presence of Frank-Kasper polyhedral structure in the amorphous alloys. Structural analysis reveals that the Laves and the anti-Laves phases have the same polyhedral structural unit, which is similar to the structural characteristics of glass.

  5. A new Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.J.; Shen, J.; Sun, J.F.; Yu, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of Sn substitution for Cu on the glass-forming ability was investigated in Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 42.5-x Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn x (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7) alloys by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. The alloy containing 5% Sn shows the highest glass-forming ability (GFA) among the Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn system. Fully amorphous rod sample with diameters up to 6 mm could be successfully fabricated by the copper mold casting Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 alloy. The activation energies for glass transition and crystallization for Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 amorphous alloy are both larger than those values for the Sn-free alloy. The enhancement in GFA and thermal stability after the partial replacement of Cu by Sn may be contributed to the strong atomic bonding nature between Ti and Sn and the increasing of atomic packing density. The amorphous Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 alloy also possesses superior mechanical properties

  6. Development of Cast Alumina-forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys for use in High Temperature Process Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Pankiw, Roman [Duraloy Technologies Inc; Voke, Don [Duraloy Technologies Inc

    2015-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of alumina-forming, creep resistant alloys for use in various industrial process environments. It is expected that these alloys can be fabricated into components for use in these environments through centrifugal casting and welding. Based on the successful earlier studies on the development of wrought versions of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) alloys, new alloy compositions have been developed for cast products. These alloys achieve good high-temperature oxidation resistance due to the formation of protective Al2O3 scales while multiple second-phase precipitation strengthening contributes to excellent creep resistance. This work will summarize the results on the development and properties of a centrifugally cast AFA alloy. This paper highlights the strength, oxidation resistance in air and water vapor containing environments, and creep properties in the as-cast condition over the temperature range of 750°C to 900°C in a centrifugally cast heat. Preliminary results for a laboratory cast AFA composition with good oxidation resistance at 1100°C are also presented.

  7. Biomedical Titanium alloy prostheses manufacturing by means of Superplastic and Incremental Forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccininni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work collects some results of the three-years Research Program “BioForming“, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR and aimed to investigate the possibility of using flexible sheet forming processes, i.e. Super Plastic Forming (SPF and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF, for the manufacturing of patient-oriented titanium prostheses. The prosthetic implants used as case studies were from the skull; in particular, two different Ti alloys and geometries were considered: one to be produced in Ti-Gr23 by SPF and one to be produced in Ti-Gr2 by SPIF. Numerical simulations implementing material behaviours evaluated by characterization tests were conducted in order to design both the manufacturing processes. Subsequently, experimental tests were carried out implementing numerical results in terms of: (i gas pressure profile able to determine a constant (and optimal strain rate during the SPF process; (ii tool path able to avoid rupture during the SPIF process. Post forming characteristics of the prostheses in terms of thickness distributions were measured and compared to data from simulations for validation purposes. A good correlation between numerical and experimental thickness distributions has been obtained; in addition, the possibility of successfully adopting both the SPF and the SPIF processes for the manufacturing of prostheses has been demonstrated.

  8. In temperature forming of friction stir lap welds in aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Carlo; Cabibbo, Marcello; Greco, Luciano; Pieralisi, Massimiliano

    2018-05-01

    The objective of such investigation is the study in depth of the forming phase of welds realized on three sheet metal blanks in aluminium alloys by friction stir lap welding. Such forming phase was performed by upsetting at different constant forming temperatures varying from 200°C to 350°C with constant ram velocities of 0.01 and 0.1 mm/s. The temperature values were obtained by the use of heating strips applied on the upper tool and on the lower tool. It was observed an increase in the friction factor, acting at the upsetting tool-workpiece interface, with increasing temperature that is very useful in producing the required localized deformation with which to improve the weld. It was also confirmed that the forming phase allows to realize a required thickness in the weld area allowing to neglect the surficial perturbation produced by the friction stir welding tool shoulder. The obtained thickness could be subjected to springback when too low temperatures are considered.

  9. Influence of rare earth additions on the oxidation resistance of chromia forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    1995-01-01

    The addition of rare earths to alloys, either in elemental form or as surface coatings reduces the oxidation rate of chromia forming alloys. The rare earths either act as nucleation sites for surface oxides or get incorporates into the surface oxide and diffuse to oxide grain boundaries. If the latter occurs, a change in the defect structure close to the grain boundaries, probably takes place. In this manner, the rare earths inhibits the movement of chromium ions to the oxide/gas interface. The influence of rare earth additions to AISI 316, AISI 316L and Ni-20 Cr on their oxidation behavior has been studied., AISI 316+Ce, AISI 316+Y, Ni-20 Cr and Ni-20 Cr-2 Al-1 Ce were prepared by melting and AISI 316L, AISI 316L+Ce O 2 and AISI 316L+Y 2 O 3 by powder compaction. The effect of superficial deposits of rare earth oxides was also studied. The alloys were coated with rare earth oxides by high temperature conversion of the respective rare earth nitrates. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 900-1100 deg C and the cyclic oxidation tests consisted of 6 cycles of 2 hours each at 900 deg C, followed by cooling to room temperature. All the tests were carried out in air. Oxidation behavior was evaluated gravimetrically. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study surface morphology. Energy dispersive analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to identify oxide constituents. Overall, it has been observed that with the addition of rare earths, oxidation resistance increases by decreasing oxidation rates and increasing oxide adhesion. Addition of rare earths to AISI 316 prepared by melting resulted in rapid formation of a chromium rich oxide layered near the metal/oxide interface which reduced overall oxidation rate. The addition of Ce O 2 to AISI 316L was found to improve oxidation behavior after 10 hours at 1100 deg C and also inhibit the formation of volatile Cr O 3 . The isothermal oxidation behavior of rare earth oxide covered Ni-20 Cr at 900 deg C

  10. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the

  11. Structural analysis of surface film on alloy 600 formed under environment of PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terachi, Takumi; Totsuka, Nobuo; Yamada, Takuyo; Nakagawa, Tomokazu [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Deguchi, Hiroshi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Horiuchi, Masaki; Oshitani, Masato [Kanden Kako Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    It has been shown by one of the present authors and so forth that PWSCC of alloy 600 relates to dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) in water and oxide film structure. However, the mechanism of PWSCC has not been clear yet. Therefore, in order to investigate relationship between them, structural analysis of the oxide film formed under the environment of PWR primary water was carried out by using X-ray diffraction, the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope. Especially, to perform accurate analysis, the synchrotron orbital radiation with SPring-8 was tried to use for thin film X-ray diffraction measurement. From the results, observed are as follows: 1. the oxide film is mainly composed of NiO, under the condition without hydrogen. 2. In the environment of DH 2.75ppm, the oxide film forms thin spinel structures. 3. On the other hand, needlelike oxides are formed at DH 1ppm. For this reason, around 1ppm of DH there would be the boundary that stable NiO and spinel oxide generate, and it agrees with the peak range of the PWSCC susceptibility on hydrogen. From this, it is suggested that the boundary of NiO/spinel oxide affects the SCC susceptibility. (author)

  12. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Danez, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al 85 Ni 10 RE 5 alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  13. Forming of Hollow Shaft Forging From Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Means of Rotary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of theoretical-experimental works concerning forming of hollow shafts forgings from titanium alloys, which are applied in aviation industry. At the first stage of conducted analysis, the forging forming process was modeled by means of finite element method. Calculations were made using software Simufact Forming. On the basis of performed simulations optimal parameters of rotary compression process were determined. Next, experimental tests of forging forming in laboratory conditions were made. For the research needs, a forging aggregate, designed by the Authors, was used. Conducted research works confirmed the possibility of metal forming (by means of rotary compression of hollow shafts from hard workable titanium alloys. Numerous advantages of rotary compression process, make it attractive both for low series production (aircraft industry and for mass production (automotive industry.

  14. Research on Al-alloy sheet forming formability during warm/hot sheet hydroforming based on elliptical warm bulging test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaoshen; Wu, Chuanyu; Gao, Zepu; Lang, Lihui; Alexandrov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    An elliptical warm/hot sheet bulging test under different temperatures and pressure rates was carried out to predict Al-alloy sheet forming limit during warm/hot sheet hydroforming. Using relevant formulas of ultimate strain to calculate and dispose experimental data, forming limit curves (FLCS) in tension-tension state of strain (TTSS) area are obtained. Combining with the basic experimental data obtained by uniaxial tensile test under the equivalent condition with bulging test, complete forming limit diagrams (FLDS) of Al-alloy are established. Using a quadratic polynomial curve fitting method, material constants of fitting function are calculated and a prediction model equation for sheet metal forming limit is established, by which the corresponding forming limit curves in TTSS area can be obtained. The bulging test and fitting results indicated that the sheet metal FLCS obtained were very accurate. Also, the model equation can be used to instruct warm/hot sheet bulging test.

  15. Mn-coatings on the micro-pore formed Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by RF-magnetron sputtering for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Yeong; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Mn-coatings on the micro-pore formed Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by RF-magnetrons sputtering for dental applications were studied using different experimental techniques. Mn coating films were formed on Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique for 0, 1, 3, and 5 min at 45 W. The microstructure, composition, and phase structure of the coated alloys were examined by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The microstructure of Ti-29Nb alloy showed α" phase in the needle-like structure and Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy showed β phase in the equiaxed structure. As the sputtering time increased, the circular particles of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb alloy increased at inside and outside surfaces. As the sputtering time increased, [Mn + Ca/P] ratio of the plasma electrolytic oxidized films in Ti- 29Nb-xHf alloys increased. The corrosion potential (Ecorr) of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb alloy showed higher than that of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy. The passive current density (Ipass) of the Mn coating on the Ti-29Nb alloy and Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy was less noble than the non-Mn coated Ti-29Nb and Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloys surface.

  16. Electrochemical and biological characterization of coatings formed on Ti-15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Simka, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    β-Type titanium alloys are considered the future materials for bone implants. To improve the bioactivity of Ti-15Mo, the surface was modified using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP, Ca3PO4), wollastonite (CaSiO3) and silica (SiO2) were selected as additives in the anodizing bath to enhance the bioactivity of the coatings formed during the PEO process. Electrochemical analysis of the samples was performed in Ringer's solution at 37°C. The open-circuit potential (EOCP) as a function of time, corrosion potential (ECORR), corrosion current density (jCORR) and polarization resistance (Rp) of the samples were determined. Surface modification improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo in Ringer's solution. In vitro studies with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were performed for 1, 3 and 7 days. After 24h, the cells were well adhered on the entire surfaces, and their number increased with increasing culture time. The coatings formed in basic solution with wollastonite exhibited better biological performance compared with the as-ground sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of minor alloying additions on the glass-forming ability of Mg-Ni-La bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.; Figueroa, I.A.; Todd, I.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses of Mg 60 Ni 23.6 Y x La (16.4-x) and Mg 65 Ni 20 Y x LaMM (15-x) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 at.% have been produced by injection casting. For the La-containing alloy a maximum amorphous diameter of 4 mm for x = 0.5 and 0.75 was obtained. The LaMM-containing alloy showed a maximum amorphous diameter of 2 mm for x = 0 and 0.25 but decreased to 1 mm with further Y additions. The glass-forming ability of the Mg 60 Ni 23.6 La 16.4 alloy decreased when La is partially substituted by small amounts of small atoms (Si or B) or by large atoms (Y and Si).

  18. Microstructure and deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by high-power laser solid forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.M.; Lin, X.; Fu, X.; Tan, H.; Chen, J.; Huang, W.D.

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the microstructure and tensile deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated using a high-power laser solid forming (LSF) additive manufacturing. The results show that the post-fabricated heat-treated microstructure consists of coarse columnar prior-β grains (630–1000 μm wide) and α-laths (5–9 μm) under different scanning velocities (900 and 1500 mm/min), which caused large elongation (∼18%) superior to the conventional laser additive manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The deformation behavior of the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated using in situ tensile test scanning electron microscopy. The results show that shear-bands appeared along the α/β interface and slip-bands occurred within the α-laths, which lead to cracks decaying in a zigzag-pattern in the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy with basket-weave microstructure. These results demonstrate that the small columnar prior-β grains and fine basket-weave microstructure exhibiting more α/β interfaces and α-laths can disperse the load and resist the deformation in the LSF Ti-6Al-4V components. In addition, a modified microstructure selection map of the LSF Ti-6Al-4V alloy was established, which can reasonably predict the microstructure evolution and relative grain size in the LSF process.

  19. Effect of in-situ formed Al3Ti particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Chaudhari, G. P.; Daniel, B. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, in situ Titanium-tri-aluminide (Al3Ti) particles reinforced Al 6061 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by the reaction of potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) inorganic salt with molten Al 6061 alloy via liquid metallurgy route. The development of in-situ Al3Ti particles and their effects on the mechanical properties such as yield strength (YS), ductility, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness, and microstructure of Al 6061 alloy were studied. It was observed from the results that in-situ formed Al3Ti particles were blocky in morphology whose average size was around 2.6 ± 1.1 μm. Microstructure studies showed that grain size of Al matrix was reduced due to the nucleating effect of Al3Ti particles. It was observed from the mechanical properties analysis that when the volume fraction of Al3Ti particles was increased, the hardness, UTS and YS of the composites were also increased as compared to that of Al 6061 alloy. An improvement in ductility was observed with the dispersion of Al3Ti particles in base alloy which is contrary to many other composites.

  20. The Effects of CO{sub 2} Pressure on Corrosion and Carburization Behaviors of Chromia-forming Austenitic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    By applying S-CO{sub 2} cycle to SFR, the inherent safety could be improved by alleviating the concern of explosive reaction between high temperature steam and liquid sodium as well as increased thermal efficiency at 500-550 .deg. C compared to helium Brayton cycle. Meanwhile, from the material point of view, a compatibility such as corrosion and carburization of candidate materials in S-CO{sub 2} environment should be evaluated to assure the long-term integrity of IHX. It has been previously reported that Ni-base alloys and high-Cr Fe-base austenitic alloys showed a good corrosion resistance by the formation of thin chromia layer while carburization behaviors of those materials were not properly investigated. Corrosion and carburization behaviors of three chromia-forming austenitic alloys (Ni-base alloys and Alloy 800HT) were evaluated in S-CO{sub 2} (200 bar) and CO{sub 2} (1 bar) environment at 550.650 .deg. C for 1000 h. For all test materials, a good corrosion resistance was exhibited by the formation of thin chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with small amount of minor oxides such as Mn1.5Cr1.5O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}.

  1. A new Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shen, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: junshen@hit.edu.cn; Sun, J.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu, X.B. [Lab of Energy Science and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)]. E-mail: yuxuebin@hotmail.com

    2007-01-16

    The effect of Sn substitution for Cu on the glass-forming ability was investigated in Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 42.5-x}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn {sub x} (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7) alloys by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. The alloy containing 5% Sn shows the highest glass-forming ability (GFA) among the Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn system. Fully amorphous rod sample with diameters up to 6 mm could be successfully fabricated by the copper mold casting Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} alloy. The activation energies for glass transition and crystallization for Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} amorphous alloy are both larger than those values for the Sn-free alloy. The enhancement in GFA and thermal stability after the partial replacement of Cu by Sn may be contributed to the strong atomic bonding nature between Ti and Sn and the increasing of atomic packing density. The amorphous Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} alloy also possesses superior mechanical properties.

  2. Expanded heat treatment to form residual compressive hoop stress on inner surface of zirconium alloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    A specific heat treatment process that introduces hoop stress has been developed. This technique can produce zirconium alloy tubing with a residual compressive hoop stress near the inner surface by taking advantage of the mechanical anisotropy in hexagonal close-packed zirconium crystal. Since a crystal having its basal pole parallel to the tangential direction of the tubing is easier to exhibit plastic elongation under the hoop stress than that having its basal pole parallel to the radial direction, the plastic and elastic elongation can coexist under a certain set of temperature and hoop stress conditions. The mechanical anisotropy plays a role to extend the coexistent stress range. Thus, residual compressive hoop stress is formed at the inner surface where more plastic elongation occurs during the heat treatment. This process is referred to as expanded heat treatment. Since this is a fundamental crystallographic principle, it has various applications. The application to improve PCI/SCC (pellet cladding interaction/stress corrosion cracking) properties of water reactor fuel cladding is promising. Excellent results were obtained with laboratory-scale heat treatment and an out-reactor iodine SCC test. These results included an extension of the time to SCC failure. (author)

  3. Non-contact sheet forming using lasers applied to a high strength aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Humberto Mota Siqueira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam forming (LBF is a contactless mechanical process accomplished by the introduction of thermal stresses on the surface of a material using a laser in order to induce plastic deformation. In this work, LBF was performed on 1.6 mm thick sheets of a high strength aluminum alloy, AA6013-T4 class by using a defocused continuous Yb-fiber laser beam of 0.6 mm in diameter on the sheet top surface. The laser power and process speed were varied from 200 W to 2000 W and from 3 to 30 mm/s, respectively. For these experimental conditions, the bending angle of the sheet ranged from 0.1° to 2.5° per run. In the highest bending angle condition, 1000 W and 30 mm/s, the depth of remelted pool was 0.6 mm and the microstructure near the plate bottom surface remained unaltered. For the whole set of experimental conditions, the hardness remained constant at approximately 100 HV, which is similar to the base material. In order to verify the applicability of the method, some previously T-welded sheets were straightened. The method was efficient in correcting the distortion of the sheets with a bending angle up to 5°.

  4. Icosahedral binary clusters of glass-forming Lennard-Jones binary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2007-01-01

    It is widely believed that the local icosahedral structure is related to the formation of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Specifically the existence of 13-atom icosahedral cluster in undercooled liquid is imagined to play a key role to initiate the glass formation as the seed of amorphous structure or to block the nucleation of regular crystal as the impurity. The existence of 13-atom icosahedral clusters in one-component liquids was predicted more than half a century ago by Frank from his total energy calculation for isolated clusters. In BMG alloys, however, the situation is less clear. In this report, we present the lowest-energy structures of 13-atom Lennard-Jones binary cluster calculated from the modified space-fixed genetic algorithm. We study, in particular, the artificial Lennard-Jones potential designed by Kob and Andersen [W. Kob, H.C. Andersen, Phys. Rev. E 51 (1995) 4626] that is known to form BMG. Curiously, the lowest-energy structures of 13-atom cluster are non-icosahedral for almost all compositions. Our result suggests that the existence of the icosahedral cluster is not a necessary condition but only a sufficient condition for glass formation

  5. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, E; Ugues, D; Brytan, Z; Perucca, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al) x N 1-x /Si 3 N 4 coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC (registered) ) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr 1-x Al x N type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  6. Vacuum Plasma Spray Formed High Transition Temperature Shape Memory Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Smart materials control of aero-surfaces based on shape memory alloys (SMA) is seeing increased use for improving of future subsonic fixed wing aircraft aero-surface...

  7. Optimum schedules of difficult-to-form heat-resistant alloys forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzengel'ter, V.A.; Shuvalov, A.A.; Perevozov, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of manufacturing half finished discs for hydroturbine engines from heat resistant difficulty deformed nickel, iron-nickel and cobalt alloys (EI435, EI868, VZh145-ID, EK79-ID, EK152-ID, EI826, EP648-VI) is described. The recommendations on the modes of forging the single-phase nonaging and double phase aging alloys are developed. The conclusion is made, that the first compressions of ingots shoved be accomplished by small press runs. The subsequent compressions should constituted not less than 8% during one run. The total compression of the ingot during one heating should be within the concrete alloy properties. With the purpose of obtaining uniform fine-grain structure the ingot heating during the last manufacturing cycle should be accomplished within the range of 1100-1130 deg C for the majority of heat resistant alloys [ru

  8. Peculiarities of forming diffusion bimetallic joints of aluminum foam with a monolithic magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khokhlov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is carried out to determine an optimal method to obtain the welded bimetallic joints of monolithic Mg-alloy with porous Al-alloy using gallium as chemical activator and heating up to 300 °C by two different methods: long-term in vacuum oven and short-term without vacuum by passing of low voltage current. There is no microstructure change in Al-foam but indentation test records the negligible reduction of the mechanical properties. SEM showed the crystallization of two types of Mg5Ga2 and Mg2Ga inter-metallic phases in the wavy uneven diffusion zone on Mg-alloy side with significant increase of micro-hardness and Young's modulus. The narrow depth of the diffusion zone takes place in joints by short-term heating, so this method is more applicable for welding of monolithic and porous alloys at chemical activation using gallium.

  9. Oxidation-induced phase transformations and lifetime limits of chromia-forming nickel-base alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrkin, Anton

    2011-12-05

    For its high creep resistance the commercial nickel-base alloy 625 relies on solid solution strengthening in combination with precipitation hardening by formation of δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb and (Ni,Mo,Si){sub 6}C precipitates during high-temperature service. In oxidizing environments the alloy forms a slow growing, continuous chromia layer on the material surface which protects the alloy against rapid oxidation attack. The growth of the chromia base oxide scale results during exposure at 900-1000 C in oxidation-induced chromium depletion in the subsurface zone of the alloy. Microstructural analyses of the cross-sectioned specimens revealed that this process results in formation of a wide subsurface zone in which the mentioned strengthening phases are dissolved, in spite of the fact that both phases do not contain substantial amounts of the scale-forming element chromium. The cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in parallel to the formation of a precipitate depleted zone, a thin, continuous layer of niobium-rich intermetallic precipitates formed in the immediate vicinity of the scale/alloy interface. The Subsurface Phase Enrichment (abbreviated as SPE) was shown to be the result of an uphill-diffusion of niobium, i.e. the element stabilizing the strengthening precipitates δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb, in the chromium activity gradient and is thus a natural consequence of the oxidation-induced chromium depletion beneath the chromia scale. The thermodynamic calculations carried out using the Thermo-Calc/DICTRA software packages revealed that in alloy 625 the chemical activity of niobium decreases with decreasing chromium content. As chromium is being continuously removed from the alloy as the result of the chromia scale growth, the zone of lowest Nb-activity is formed in the location with the lowest chromium concentration, i.e. the scale/alloy interface. This creates a driving force for Nb to diffuse towards the scale/alloy interface against its own concentration gradient, which is known

  10. Combined transmission electron microscope and ion channeling study of metastable metal alloys formed by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullis, A.G.; Borders, J.A.; Hirvonen, J.K.; Poate, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recently, ion implantation has been used to produce metastable alloy layers with a range of structures from crystalline substitutional solid solutions to amorphous. The technique offers the possibility of producing metastable metal layers with unique physical properties. Its application in the formation of alloys exhibiting different although complementary types of metastability is described. The metal combinations chosen (Ag-Cu and Ta-Cu) show little mutual solubility under equilibrium conditions

  11. Thermal stability and glass-forming ability of amorphous Nd-Al-TM (TM=Fe, Co, Ni or Cu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Zhang Tao

    1997-01-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys were prepared for Nd 70 Al 10 TM 20 and Nd 60 Al 10 TM 30 (TM=Fe or Co) alloys by copper mold casting. The maximum sample thickness for glass formation reaches 15 mm for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys and 5 mm for the Nd-Al-Co alloys. A significant difference in the phase transition upon heating is recognized between the Fe- and Co-containing alloys. No glass transition before crystallization is observed for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys, but the Nd-Al-Co alloys exhibit the glass transition. The ΔT x (=T x -T g ) and T g /T m are 40-55 K and 0.65-0.67, respectively, for the latter alloys. The absence of supercooled liquid for the former alloys is different from those for all bulk amorphous alloys reported up to date. The T x /T m and ΔT m (=T m -T x ) are 0.85-0.89 and 88-137 K, respectively, for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys and, hence, the large glass-forming ability is presumably due to the high T x /T m and small ΔT m values. (orig.)

  12. Direct visualization of β phase causing intergranular forms of corrosion in Al–Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Young-Ki, E-mail: deltag@naver.com; Allen, Todd

    2013-06-15

    For a more effective examination of microstructure in Al–Mg alloys, a new etching solution has been developed; dissolved ammonium persulfate in water. It is demonstrated how β phase (Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}) in Al–Mg alloys respond to this solution using samples of a binary Al–Mg alloy and a commercial 5083 aluminum alloy. Nanometer sized β phase is clearly visualized for the first time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) instead of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is anticipated that direct and unambiguous visualization of β phase will greatly augment intergranular corrosion research in 5xxx series aluminum alloys. - Highlights: • Nanometer sized β phase in Al-10% Mg is first clearly visualized with SEM. • Nanometer sized β phase in wrought alloy 5083 is first clearly visualized with SEM. • Grain boundary decorating β phase and isolated sponge-like β phase are shown. • This phase is confirmed to be β phase using composition analysis.

  13. Phase selection and microstructure in directional solidification of glass forming Pd-Si-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yang

    Phase selection and microstructure formation during the rapid solidification of alloy melts has been a topic of substantial interest over the last several decades, attributed mainly to the access to novel structures involving metastable crystalline and non-crystalline phases. In this work, Bridgeman type directional solidification was conducted in Pd-Si-Cu glass forming system to study such cooling rate dependent phase transition and microstructure formation. The equilibrium state for Pd-Si-Cu ternary system was investigated through three different works. First of all, phase stabilities for Pd-Si binary system was accessed with respects of first-principles and experiments, showing Pd5Si, Pd9Si2, Pd3Si and Pd 2Si phase are stable all way to zero Kevin while PdSi phase is a high temperature stable phase, and Pd2Si phase with Fe2P is a non-stoichiometry phase. A thermodynamic database was developed for Pd-Si system. Second, crystal structures for compounds with ternary compositions were studied by XRD, SEM and TEM, showing ordered and disordered B2/bcc phases are stable in Pd-rich part. At last, based on many phase equilibria and phase transitions data, a comprehensive thermodynamic discrption for Pd-Si-Cu ternary system was first time to be developed, from which different phase diagrams and driving force for kinetics can be calculated. Phase selection and microstructure formation in directional solidification of the best glass forming composition, Pd 77.5Si16.5Cu6, in this system with growth velocities from 0.005 to 7.5mm/s was systematically studied and the solidification pathways at different conditions were interpreted from thermodynamic simulation. The results show that for growth velocities are smaller than 0.1mm/s Pd 3Si phase is primary phase and Pd9Si2 phase is secondary phase, the difficulty for Pd9Si2 phase nucleation gives rise to the formation of two different eutectic structure. For growth velocities between 0.4 and 1mm/s, instead of Pd3Si phase, Pd9Si2

  14. STUDY THE EFFECTS OF PRESTRAINS IN UNIAXIAL TENSION ON THE FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAM OF ALUMINUM ALLOY SHEETS(2024 T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed J. Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available           The strain path for sheet metal may be changed during forming , this may be affect the forming limit curve (FLC . In this work the FLC before and after prestraining was determined for aluminum alloy (2024 T3 to study the effect of this type of prestraining and in different values on the FLC. This alloy was chosen because it is used widely , specially in aircraft structures .It was shown that the using of uniaxial tension prestrain affects the FLC . The major strain in right side is increased with the increasing in the prestrain , while in the left side the effect is small .

  15. Applying a new criterion to predict glass forming alloys in the Zr–Ni–Cu ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Déo, L.P., E-mail: leonardopratavieira@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo, EESC, SMM - Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400 – São Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil); Mendes, M.A.B., E-mail: marcio.andreato@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, DEMa - Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235 – São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Costa, A.M.S., E-mail: alexmatos1980@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo, DEMAR, EEL – Polo Urbo-Industrial Gleba AI-6, s/n – Lorena, SP 12600-970 (Brazil); Campos Neto, N.D., E-mail: nelsonddcn@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo, EESC, SMM - Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400 – São Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil); Oliveira, M.F. de, E-mail: falcao@sc.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, EESC, SMM - Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400 – São Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Calculation to predict and select the glass forming ability (GFA) of metallic alloys in Zr–Ni–Cu system. ► Good correlation between theoretical and experimental GFA samples. ► Combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques mainly to characterize the samples. ► Oxygen impurity dramatically reduced the GFA. ► The selection criterion used opens the possibility to obtain new amorphous alloys, reducing the experimental procedures of trial and error. -- Abstract: A new criterion has been recently proposed to predict and select the glass forming ability (GFA) of metallic alloys. It was found that the critical cooling rate for glass formation (R{sub c}) correlates well with a proper combination of two factors, the minimum topological instability (λ{sub min}) and the thermodynamic parameter (Δh). The (λ{sub min}) criterion is based on the concept of topological instability of stable crystalline structures and (Δh) depends on the average work function difference (Δϕ) and the average electron density difference Δn{sub ws}{sup 1/3} among the constituent elements of the alloy. In the present work, the selection criterion was applied in the Zr–Ni–Cu system and its predictability was analyzed experimentally. Ribbon-shaped and splat-shaped samples were produced by melt-spinning and splat-cooling techniques respectively. The crystallization content and behavior were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The results showed a good correlation between the theoretical GFA values and the amorphous phase percentages found in different alloy compositions.

  16. Investigation of interfacial heat transfer mechanism for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in HFQ hot forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Liang; Gao, Tianhan; Dai, Minghua; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transient IHTC between 7075 alloy and die in HFQ process is investigated. • The accuracy of IHTC calculated by Beck and heat balance method is compared. • The relationship between IHTC and process parameter of 7075 alloy is studied. • The transient IHTC law is verified by U-type HFQ forming experiment. - Abstract: The IHTC (Interfacial-Heat-Transfer-Coefficient) between aluminum alloy and die during HFQ (Heat-Forming-Quenching) process is an important thermal parameter to reflect the heat transfer efficiency. In the present work, the instantaneous heat transfer law for high strength 7075-T6 alloy during HFQ process based on cylindrical-die model was investigated. The accuracy of IHTC calculated by Beck’s non-linear estimation method (Beck’s method) and heat balance method (HBM) were compared, and instantaneous IHTC of 7075-T6 alloy was acquired in experiment and analyzed in consideration of different contact pressure, surface roughness and lubricate conditions. Furthermore, the obtained IHTC was applied to the simulation process of typical U-type experimental model in order to validate the universality of heat transfer law. The result shows that the average IHTC goes near to 3300 W/m"2·K when pressure is above 80 MPa; Surface roughness can also affect the IHTC in HFQ process, but the effect mechanism is different from the boron steel in hot stamping process. The average IHTC decreases sharply when surface roughness increases in the range of 0.570–0.836 μm, the value is from 3453 W/m"2·K to 2001 W/m"2·K under 80 MPa. Furthermore, surface lubrication can promote heat transfer efficiency and increase IHTC value when contact pressure is relatively high.

  17. Effect of temperature and dissolved hydrogen on oxide films formed on Ni and Alloy 182 in simulated PWR water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonça, R.; Bosch, R.-W.; Van Renterghem, W.; Vankeerberghen, M.; Araújo Figueiredo, C. de

    2016-01-01

    Alloy 182 is a nickel-based weld metal, which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water. It shows a peak in SCC susceptibility at a certain temperature and hydrogen concentration. This peak is related to the electrochemical condition where the Ni to NiO transition takes place. One hypothesis is that the oxide layer at this condition is not properly developed and so the material is not optimally protected against SCC. Therefore the oxide layer formed on Alloy 182 is investigated as a function of the dissolved hydrogen concentration and temperature around this Ni/NiO transition. Exposure tests were performed with Alloy 182 and Ni coupons in a PWR environment at temperatures between 300 °C and 345 °C and dissolved hydrogen concentration between 5 and 35 cc (STP)H 2 /kg. Post-test analysis of the formed oxide layers were carried out by SEM, EDS and XPS. The exposure tests with Ni coupons showed that the Ni/NiO transition curve is at a higher temperature than the curve based on thermodynamic calculations. The exposure tests with Alloy 182 showed that oxide layers were present at all temperatures, but that the morphology changed from spinel crystals to needle like oxides when the Ni/NiO transition curve was approached. Oxide layers were present below the Ni/NiO transition curve i.e. when the Ni coupon was still free of oxides. In addition an evolved slip dissolution model was proposed that could explain the observed experimental results and the peak in SCC susceptibility for Ni-based alloys around the Ni/NiO transition. - Highlights: • Exposure tests with Ni-coupons showed that the Ni/NiO transition curve shifted to more oxidizing conditions. • The Ni specimens tested in PWR water were free of oxides at all temperatures. • The exposure tests with Alloy 182 showed that oxide layers were present at all temperatures. • The Alloy 182 surface morphology changed from spinel crystals to needle like oxides when the Ni/NiO curve was approached

  18. Effect of temperature and dissolved hydrogen on oxide films formed on Ni and Alloy 182 in simulated PWR water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, R. [CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education, Brasilia (Brazil); Bosch, R.-W., E-mail: rbosch@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van Renterghem, W.; Vankeerberghen, M. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Araújo Figueiredo, C. de [CDTN/CNEN, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Alloy 182 is a nickel-based weld metal, which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water. It shows a peak in SCC susceptibility at a certain temperature and hydrogen concentration. This peak is related to the electrochemical condition where the Ni to NiO transition takes place. One hypothesis is that the oxide layer at this condition is not properly developed and so the material is not optimally protected against SCC. Therefore the oxide layer formed on Alloy 182 is investigated as a function of the dissolved hydrogen concentration and temperature around this Ni/NiO transition. Exposure tests were performed with Alloy 182 and Ni coupons in a PWR environment at temperatures between 300 °C and 345 °C and dissolved hydrogen concentration between 5 and 35 cc (STP)H{sub 2}/kg. Post-test analysis of the formed oxide layers were carried out by SEM, EDS and XPS. The exposure tests with Ni coupons showed that the Ni/NiO transition curve is at a higher temperature than the curve based on thermodynamic calculations. The exposure tests with Alloy 182 showed that oxide layers were present at all temperatures, but that the morphology changed from spinel crystals to needle like oxides when the Ni/NiO transition curve was approached. Oxide layers were present below the Ni/NiO transition curve i.e. when the Ni coupon was still free of oxides. In addition an evolved slip dissolution model was proposed that could explain the observed experimental results and the peak in SCC susceptibility for Ni-based alloys around the Ni/NiO transition. - Highlights: • Exposure tests with Ni-coupons showed that the Ni/NiO transition curve shifted to more oxidizing conditions. • The Ni specimens tested in PWR water were free of oxides at all temperatures. • The exposure tests with Alloy 182 showed that oxide layers were present at all temperatures. • The Alloy 182 surface morphology changed from spinel crystals to needle like oxides when the Ni/NiO curve was

  19. Experimental study on the warm forming and quenching behavior for hot stamping of high-strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, J.; Horn, A.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last decades, stringent regulations on fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and product recyclability forced the automotive sector to implement new strategies within the field of car body manufacturing. Due to their low density and good corrosion resistance, aluminum became one of the most relevant lightweight materials. Recently, especially high- strength aluminum alloys for structural components gained importance. Since the low formability of these alloys limits their application, there is a need for novel process strategies in order to enhance the forming behavior. One promising approach is the hot stamping of aluminum alloys. The combination of quenching and forming in one step after solution heat treatment leads to a significant improvement of the formability. Furthermore, higher manufacturing accuracy can be achieved due to reduced spring back. Within this contribution, the influence of forming temperature on the subsequent material behavior and the heat transfer during quenching will be analyzed. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal material characteristics such as flow behavior and heat transfer coefficient during hot stamping are investigated.

  20. Osteogenic potential of a novel microarc oxidized coating formed on Ti6Al4V alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Lou, Jin; Zeng, Lilan; Xiang, Junhuai; Zhang, Shufang; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Fucheng; Li, Chenglin; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Rongfa

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility, Ti6Al4V alloys are processed by micro arc oxidation (MAO) in a novel electrolyte of phytic acid, a natural organic phosphorus-containing matter. The MAO coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytocompatibility of Ti6A14V alloys before and after MAO were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the fabricated MAO coatings were composed of rutile, anatase, TiP2O7 as well as some OH- groups, exhibiting the excellent hydrophilicity and a porous structure with small micro pores. No cytotoxicity towards MC3T3-E1cells was observed in this study. In particular, MAO treated Ti6Al4V alloys presented comparable cell adhesion and proliferation as well as significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization and collagen secretion in comparison with the untreated control. The results suggest that the Ti6Al4V alloys treated by MAO in phytic acid can be used as implants for orthopaedic applications, providing a simple and practical method to widen clinical acceptance of titanium alloys.

  1. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  2. Osteogenic potential of a novel microarc oxidized coating formed on Ti6Al4V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaping [School of Materials and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China); Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lou, Jin [School of Materials and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China); Zeng, Lilan [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Xiang, Junhuai; Zhang, Shufang; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Fucheng; Li, Chenglin [School of Materials and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China); Zhao, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhao@siat.ac.cn [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang, Rongfa, E-mail: rfzhang-10@163.com [School of Materials and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Phytic acid is used as the MAO electrolyte of titanium alloys. • MAO coatings are composed of rutile, anatase, TiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} and some OH{sup −} groups. • The MAO samples present excellent in vitro cytocompatibility. - Abstract: In order to improve the biocompatibility, Ti6Al4V alloys are processed by micro arc oxidation (MAO) in a novel electrolyte of phytic acid, a natural organic phosphorus-containing matter. The MAO coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytocompatibility of Ti6A14V alloys before and after MAO were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the fabricated MAO coatings were composed of rutile, anatase, TiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} as well as some OH{sup −} groups, exhibiting the excellent hydrophilicity and a porous structure with small micro pores. No cytotoxicity towards MC3T3-E1cells was observed in this study. In particular, MAO treated Ti6Al4V alloys presented comparable cell adhesion and proliferation as well as significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization and collagen secretion in comparison with the untreated control. The results suggest that the Ti6Al4V alloys treated by MAO in phytic acid can be used as implants for orthopaedic applications, providing a simple and practical method to widen clinical acceptance of titanium alloys.

  3. Dislocation Substructures Formed After Fracture of Deformed Polycrystalline Cu-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with the dislocation substructure of polycrystalline FCC alloys modified by plastic deformation at a distance from the area of the specimen fracture. Observations are performed using the transmission electron microscopy. Cu-Al alloys with grain size ranging from 10 to 240 μm are studied in this paper. The parameters of the dislocation substructure are measured and their variation is determined by the increasing distance from the fracture area. It is shown how the grain size influences these processes. The different dislocation substructures which determine the specimen fracture at a mesocscale level are found herein.

  4. Mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained structure formed in Al-Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk-Cieslak, B.; Lewandowska, M.; Mizera, J.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical properties (microhardness, yield stress) of two model Al-Li alloys by the Equal-Channel-Angular-Extrusion (ECAE) process. The applied ECAE process reduced the grain size from an initial value of ∼300 μm to a value of ∼0.7 μm leading to profound increase of plastic flow resistance. Such an increase is related to the grain size refinement and strengthening due to Li atoms in solid solution. Microhardness data confirm the Hall - Petch relation for grain sizes not available so far in Al-Li alloys. (author)

  5. Assessment of the Quality of Newly Formed Bone around Titanium Alloy Implants by Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nakada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in bones quality between newly formed bone and cortical bone formed around titanium alloy implants by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result of narrow scan measurement at 4 weeks, the newly formed bone of C1s, P2p, O1s, and Ca2p were observed at a different peak range and strength compared with a cortical bone. At 8 weeks, the peak range and strength of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at C1s, P2p, and Ca2p, but not O1s. The results from this analysis indicate that the peaks and quantities of each element of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at 8 weeks, suggestive of a strong physicochemical resemblance.

  6. Creep age forming of Al-Cu-Li alloy: Application to thick sheet forming of double curvature aircraft panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Wael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep-age-forming of a thick Al-Cu-Li sheet is studied. An industrial stamping press is used to form a double curvature panel at a reduced scale. This forming, which includes several relaxation steps, is modelled using ABAQUS. A material model describing an elasto-viscoplastic behaviour with anisotropy effect has been identified and implemented in ABAQUS using Fortran subroutine. The numerical model is validated by comparing experiments and numerical results in terms of deformed shapes and an improved forming cycle is suggested.

  7. Is Cu60Ti10Zr30 a bulk glass-forming alloy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Saida, J.; Kato, H.

    2003-01-01

    . Nanocrystals with a significant volume fraction are randomly distributed in the amorphous matrix. The copper element is enriched in nanocrystals while a slightly high zirconium content is found in the matrix. We classify that the Cu60Ti10Zr30 alloy prepared by both of the aforementioned methods...

  8. Thermo-mechanical Forming of Al¿Mg¿Si Alloys: Modeling and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Ghosh, M.; Miroux, A.; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In an ongoing quest to realize lighter vehicles with improved fuel efficiency, deformation characteristics of the material AA 6016 is investigated. In the first part of this study, material behavior of Al–Mg–Si sheet alloy is investigated under different process (temperature and strain rate) and

  9. Cathodic cycling effects in the oxide films formed on zirconium alloys type AB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, J.O; Visintin, A; Triaca, W

    2003-01-01

    The passive behavior of ZrNi alloys near the rest potential is studied through in situ voltammetry, ellipsometry, and microscopic observation.A significant oxide layer growth is observed in aqueous 1 M KOH during the application of different potential programs currently used in the activation processes of the alloy.The understanding of both the alloy activation process and the hydrogen absorption process is important in the strategies employed for the design of electrodes for nickel metal hydride batteries.The kinetics of the oxide layer formation, under potential cycling in the cathodic region related to the rest potential, plays a significant role in the activation process of metal alloy.Cathodic potential cycling increases the thickness and decreases the compactness of the passive oxide layer.The protonation of the oxide decreases the barrier effect and makes the anodic polarization more effective.Potential cycling gives rise to increasing surface oxidation, hydrogen absorption and hydride formation, and produces the consequent fragmentation of the material mainly through grain limits (J.Solid State Eletrochem. in press)

  10. Corrosion resistance of micro-arc oxidation coatings formed on aluminum alloy with addition of Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, H. Q.; Zhao, YW

    2018-03-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings were formed on the aluminum alloy in silicate-based electrolyte without and with the addition of Al2O3. It is showed that the coating produced in 7 g l‑1 Al2O3-containing electrolyte was of the most superior corrosion resistance. Besides, the corrosion properties of the coatings were studied by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test in both 0.5 M and 1 M NaCl solution. The results proved that the coating is capable to protect the substrate from the corrosion of aggressive Cl‑ in 0.5 M NaCl after 384 h immersion. However, it can not offer protection to the aluminum alloy substrate after 384 h immersion in 1 M NaCl solution. The schematic diagrams illustrate the corrosion process and matched well with the corrosion test results.

  11. Nano-scale clusters formed in the early stage of phase decomposition of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirosawa, S.; Sato, T. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The formation of nano-scale clusters (nanoclusters) prior to the precipitation of the strengthening {beta}'' phase significantly influences two-step aging behavior of Al-Mg-Si alloys. In this work, the existence of two kinds of nanoclusters has been verified in the early stage of phase decomposition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP). Pre-aging treatment at 373 K before natural aging was also found to form preferentially one of the two nanoclusters, resulting in the remarkable restoration of age-hardenability at paint-bake temperatures. Such microstructural control by means of optimized heat-treatments; i.e. nanocluster assist processing (NCAP), possesses great potential for enabling Al-Mg-Si alloys to be used more widely as a body-sheet material of automobiles. (orig.)

  12. Mechanism of growth, composition and structure of oxide films formed on ferrous alloys in molten salt electrolytes - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tz.; Kolchakov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The growth kinetics, chemical composition and structure of scales formed during corrosion of Fe and its alloys in molten salts are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers. First, the thermodynamical background of the corrosion and oxidation of Fe-base engineering materials in molten salt media is briefly commented. A concise review of the growth kinetics of passivating oxide films is also presented. These two introductory chapters serve as a guide for the extensive survey of the growth mechanism, nature and properties of oxide and related scales on ferrous alloys in a range of molten electrolytes - chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, carbonates, hydroxides and mixtures thereof in gas atmospheres containing O 2 , CO 2 , SO 2 , SO 3 and HCl

  13. Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-04-19

    The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Preparation and corrosion resistance of a nanocomposite plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on Mg-1%Ca alloy formed in aluminate electrolyte containing titania nano-additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daroonparvar, Mohammadreza; Yajid, M. A. M.; Yusof, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles were utilized as suspension in alkaline aluminate electrolyte to form nanocomposite coatings on magnesium alloy containing 1 wt% calcium by plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Microhardness, wettability, potentiodynamic polarization, wettability, electrochemical impedance...

  15. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni3Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Cieślak, Grzegorz; Norek, Małgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwik, Paweł; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anodic porous alumina was formed by Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy anodization. ► The anodizations were conducted in 0.3 M citric acid. ► Nanopores geometry depends on anodizing voltage. ► No barrier layer was formed during anodization. - Abstract: Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 μm/h was found for the anodization at 0 °C and 2.0 V. The highest one – 2.29 μm/h – was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 °C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 °C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 °C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/μm 2 (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 94.9 pores/μm 2 (12.0 V, 0 °C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the operating conditions.

  16. Effects of plasma pretreatment on the process of self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barriers for Cu interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of plasma pretreatment on the process of a self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barrier on porous low-k dielectrics. To study the effects of plasma on the performance of a self-formed Mn-based barrier, low-k dielectrics were pretreated with H2 plasma or NH3 plasma. Cu–Mn alloy materials on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with H2 plasma exhibited lower electrical resistivity values and the formation of thicker Mn-based interlayers than those on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with NH3 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, and thermal stability analyses demonstrated the exceptional performance of the Mn-based interlayer on plasma-pretreated low-k substrates with regard to thickness, chemical composition, and reliability. Plasma treating with H2 gas formed hydrophilic Si–OH bonds on the surface of the low-k layer, resulting in Mn-based interlayers with greater thickness after annealing. However, additional moisture uptake was induced on the surface of the low-k dielectric, degrading electrical reliability. By contrast, plasma treating with NH3 gas was less effective with regard to forming a Mn-based interlayer, but produced a Si–N/C–N layer on the low-k surface, yielding improved barrier characteristics.

  17. The structural and phase state formed in construction titanium alloy by radial forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, Galina V.; Danilov, Vladimir I.; Orlova, Dina V.; Zuev, Lev B. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Zavodchikov, Aleksandr S. [Perm State Technical University, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of rod manufacture from construction titanium alloy using radial forging on a high duty machine SXK16 was investigated. The investigations were carried on for titanium rod samples using the methods of metallography, electron transmission microscophy and X-ray analysis. The results obtained are described herein. It is found that radial forging results in the formation of homogeneous fine-grained structure.Using radial forging process, high-quality items are produced. As-worked material has submicrocrystalline globular structure and an optimal α:β phase ratio. Besides, the technology is more cost-effective relative to conventional flow charts. Key words: forging, titanium alloy, fine-grain structure, substructure, pore size.

  18. Analysis of the Glass-Forming Ability of Fe-Er Alloys, Based on Thermodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, N. A.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Dunaev, S. F.; Kalmykov, K. B.; El'nyakov, D. D.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.

    2018-05-01

    The Fe-Er phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of all its phases are assessed by means of self-consistent analysis. To refine the data on phase equilibria in the Fe-Er system, an investigation is performed in the 10-40 at % range of Er concentrations. The temperature-concentration dependences of the thermodynamic properties of a melt are presented using the model of ideal associated solutions. Thermodynamic parameters of each phase are obtained, and the calculated results are in agreement with available experimental data. The correlation between the thermodynamic properties of liquid Fe-Er alloys and their tendency toward amorphization are studied. It is shown that compositions of amorphous alloys prepared by melt quenching coincide with the ranges of concentration with the predominance of Fe3Er and FeEr2 associative groups that have large negative entropies of formation.

  19. Microstructural features and heat flow analysis of atomized and spray-formed Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Ranganathan, S.; Ojha, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructural features of rapidly solidified powders and preforms of Al 80 Fe 10 V 4 Si 6 alloy produced by spray forming process have been studied. The atomization and spray deposition were carried out using a confined gas atomization process and the microstructural features were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The microstructure of a wide size range of atomized powders invariably revealed cellular and dendritic morphology. The extent of dendritic region and the dendritic arm spacing were observed to increase with power particle size. The TEM investigations indicated the presence of ultrafine second-phase particles in the intercellular or interdendritic regions. In contrast, the spray deposits of the alloy showed considerable variation in microstructure and size and dispersion of the second-phase particles at specific distances from the deposit-substrate interface and the exterior regions of the deposit. Nevertheless, considerable homogeneity was observed in the microstructure toward the center of the spray deposit. The formation and distribution of a cubic phase α-Al(Fe, V)Si has been characterized in both atomized powders and spray deposits. A one-dimensional heat flow model has been used to analyze the evolution of microstructure during atomization and also during spray deposition processing of this alloy. The results indicate that thermal history of droplets in the spray on deposition surface and their solidification behavior considerably influence the microstructural features of the spray deposits

  20. Mechanical and microstructural properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Mn-Zr shape memory alloy processed by spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cava, R.D.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Mazzer, E.M.; Pedrosa, V.M.; Botta, W.J.; Gargarella, P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMA) presents higher thermal and electrical conductivities, low material cost and combine good mechanical properties with a pronounced shape memory effect [1]. By using rapid solidification methods, their microstructure is refined and detrimental segregations can be avoided, which results in better mechanical properties. Additionally, the microalloying additions as Ti, B, Si and Zr can refine the grains and improve of mechanical and thermal properties of Cu-based SMA alloys [2-4]. In this investigation the Cu81.95Al11.35Ni3.2Mn3Zr0.5 (wt%) SMA alloy has been processed by spray forming in order to investigate the potential of achieving a deposit with adequate microstructure with goal to a SMA part production. The alloy was atomized with nitrogen gas at pressure of 0.5MPa. The microstructure of the deposit was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The deposit presented homogeneous microstructure consisting of equiaxial grains with martensite microstructure and mean grain size of 30 ?m. The shape memory effect and the temperatures transformation have been evaluated by differential scanning calorimetric. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and compression tests at room and at 220 deg C(T>Af) temperatures. [1] T. Waitz, et al., T, J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 55, 2007. [2] D. W. Roh, et al., Metall Trans. A, 21, 1990. [3] D. W. Roh, et al., Mat. Sci. and Eng. A136, 1991. (author)

  1. The conflicting roles of boron on the radiation response of precipitate-forming austenitic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, T.; Sekimura, N.; Garner, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Boron is often a deliberately added solute to improve the radiation resistance of austenitic structural alloys, with boron exerting its greatest influence on carbide precipitation. However, boron also a source of helium via transmutation and therefore tends to accelerate the onset of void nucleation. These conflicting contributions of boron with respect to radiation resistance are not easily separated, but are sometimes utilized to mimic fusion-relevant gas generation rates when testing in surrogate fission spectra. In an earlier study the authors demonstrated that in simple model ternary alloys that boron additions tended to homogenize swelling somewhat via increased helium generation but not to exert any significant influence on the total swelling. In these easily swelling alloys void nucleation was not significantly influenced by additional helium or by boron's chemical effect, with boron remaining primarily in solution. In the current study, Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25 Ti-0.05C alloys with four levels of natural boron addition (0, 100, 500, 2500 appm) were irradiated side-by-side at ∼400 deg. C in the Fast Flux Test Facility under active temperature control in the Materials Open Test Assembly. Although three sets of irradiation conditions were explored, the boron variation was the only variable operating in each data set. The bulk swelling was measured using an immersion density technique and electron microscopy was employed to determine the details of void, dislocation and precipitate microstructure. It was found that by 100 appm B the strongest and most immediate effect of boron was to reduce swelling at all irradiation conditions explored, but the boron-induced increases in overall helium content were rather small over the 0-100 appm B range. This indicates that boron's primary effect was chemical in nature, expressed via its effect on precipitation. As the boron level was progressively increased, however, there was a reversal in

  2. Effect of solute atoms on glass-forming ability for Fe–Y–B alloy: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.J.; Wang, W.Y.; Liu, X.J.; Wang, C.P.; Hui, X.D.; Liu, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The glass-forming abilities of Fe 78 B 22 , Fe 70 Y 6 B 24 , Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 and Fe 72.5 Y 3.5 B 24 alloys were characterized comprehensively using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results were correlated with the properties and atomic structures. It was found that the Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy consists of both the most stable and the least deformed body centered cubic atomic packing structures in the supercooled liquid and glassy states. It was observed that the local compositions in the Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy significantly deviate from the compositions of stable crystalline phases, indicating that the Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy has the best glass-forming ability among the alloys studied. However, Fe 72 Y 6 B 22 alloy has two flaws in terms of glass-forming ability, i.e. relatively large atomic diffusivity and insufficiently close atomic packing. The best performance in these two aspects is observed in the Fe 72.5 Y 3.5 B 24 alloy. Thus, the theoretical study predicts that the best glass former for the Fe–Y–B system is within the compositional range of 22–24 at.% B and 3.5–6 at.% Y

  3. Influence of Al-Si alloy microstructure on the corrosion resistance of coatings formed by the microarc oxidation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudareva Natalia.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the high-silicon aluminum alloy initial microstructure on the quality of the coating formed by microarc oxidation (MAO has been studied. The MAO treatment is applied to AK12D samples in the initial coarse-grained state and after high pressure torsion. The following coating properties are studied: thickness, microhardness, porosity and corrosion resistance. It is established that the MAO layers properties depend on the base microstructure much. High pressure torsion applied to AK12D samples before MAO results in increase of the coating thickness by ∼ 2 times. The microhardness of coatings reduces and their corrosion resistance degrades by ∼ 10 times.

  4. Superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4Zn alloy; Conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llanes-Briceno, J. A.; Torres-Villasenor, G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In the present work the necessary steps to carry on the superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4Zn alloy are defined. The use of either atmospheric pressure or gas pressure as forming tools is analyzed. The optimum values of the variable involved (temperature, maximum strain and sensitivity index) are determined while a method for the characterization of futures superplastic alloys is set forth. The experimental characterization of the superplastic forming is achieved with free bulging of circular membranes of 12, 16, 24, 32 and 40 mm in diameter and with three different membrane thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm). [Spanish] Se definen los pasos necesarios para el conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4 Zn. Se comparan la presion atmosferica y el gas a presion como herramientas de conformado. Se determinan los valores optimos de la variables involucradas (temperatura, deformacion maxima e indice de sensibilidad) y se plantea una metodologia para la caracterizacion de futuras aleaciones superplasticas. El conformado superplastico se caracteriza experimentalmente mediante el inflado libre de membranas circulares de 12, 16, 24, 32 y 40 mm de diametro y tres diferentes espesores (0.4, 0.6 y 0.8 mm). Se muestra la estructura perlitica (enfuiada al aive Cd-17.4Zn) y la estructura grano fino. Se muestra la profundidad de deformacion en tres espesores (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm) a P=200 Kpa y T = 200 y a T = 230.

  5. Influence of pH on the chemical and structural properties of the oxide films formed on 316L stainless steel, alloy 600 and alloy 690 in high temperature aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, M.; Gosser, P.; Walls, M.G.; Rondot, B.; Pastol, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The oxide films formed on 316L stainless steel, alloy 600 and alloy 690 at 320 deg C in high temperature aqueous environments of different pH have been examined by glow discharge optical spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and capacitance measurements. The analytical study reveals that the films formed at pH 5 are mainly composed of chromium oxides. When the pH increases the chromium concentration decreases and those of the other two elements (Ni and Fe) tend to increase. The films formed at pH 5 on 316L stainless steel and alloy 600 are thick and powder-like. The film formed at the same pH on alloy 690 is thin and is composed of a compact protective inner layer and a less-compact outer layer formed by crystals of mixed iron-nickel-chromium oxides. The morphological appearance of the thick films and that of the thin films is very different. However, equivalent morphologies can be observed for the relatively thin duplex films formed at pH 8 and pH 9.5 on the 316L stainless steel and nickel-base alloys. The evolution of the chemical composition of the films is accompanied by important changes from the point of view of their semi-conductivity. (authors)

  6. Effect of P addition on glass forming ability and soft magnetic properties of melt-spun FeSiBCuC alloy ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Yang, Y.Z.; Li, W.; Chen, X.C.; Xie, Z.W.

    2016-01-01

    The dependency of phosphorous content on the glass forming ability, thermal stability and soft magnetic properties of Fe 83.4 Si 2 B 14−x P x Cu 0.5 C 0.1 (x=0,1,2,3,4) alloys was investigated. The experimental results showed that the substitution of B by P increased the glass forming ability in this alloy system. The Fe 83.4 Si 2 B 10 P 4 Cu 0.5 C 0.1 alloy shows a fully amorphous character. Thermal stability of melt-spun ribbons increases and temperature interval between the first and second crystallization peaks enlarges with the increase of P content. And the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) shows a slight increase with the increase of P content. The Fe 83.4 Si 2 B 11 P 3 Cu 0.5 C 0.1 nanocrystalline alloy exhibits a high Bs about 200.6 emu/g. The Bs of fully amorphous alloy Fe 83.4 Si 2 B 10 P 4 Cu 0.5 C 0.1 drops dramatically to 172.1 emu/g, which is lower than that of other nanocrystallines. Low material cost and excellent soft magnetic properties make the FeSiBPCuC alloys promise soft magnetic materials for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Partial substituting B by P helps to improve the glass forming ability of the alloy. • The addition of P content reduces the thermal stability and improves heat treatment temperature region for these alloys. • The Fe 83.4 Si 2 B 11 P 3 Cu 0.5 C 0.1 nanocrystalline alloy exhibits a high saturation magnetic density of 200.6 emu/g.

  7. Designing new biocompatible glass-forming Ti75-x Zr10 Nbx Si15 (x = 0, 15) alloys: corrosion, passivity, and apatite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Somayeh; Oswald, Steffen; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Helth, Arne; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Calin, Mariana; Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Gebert, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single β-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and β-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr  alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass  = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the β-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of spray forming process parameters on the microstructure and porosity of Mg{sub 2}Si rich aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelling, O.; Hehl, A. von [Foundation Institute for Material Science, Bremen (Germany); Uhlenwinkel, V. [University of Bremen, FB4 FG01 Department Process and Chemcial Engineering, Bremen (Germany); Krug, P. [PEAK Werkstoff GmbH, Velbert (Germany); Ellendt, N.

    2010-07-15

    Due to high cooling rates spray forming is an appropriate process to produce aluminum alloys with a high content of Mg{sub 2}Si. Compared to common casting processes, a fine microstructure can be achieved yielding in improved mechanical properties. In this work, billets were spray formed from the two alloys AlMg15Si8Cu2 (22 mass-% Mg{sub 2}Si) and AlMg20.5Si11Cu2 (30 mass-% Mg{sub 2}Si) under different spraying conditions. The analysis of the microstructure showed that the size of Mg{sub 2}Si dispersoids is very sensitive to process parameters. Besides the well known thermal effects of melt superheat (carried out from -40 K to +170 K) and GMR (varied from 2.0 to 6.3) a strong influence of the scanning frequency of the atomizer nozzle (7 Hz and 15 Hz) could be observed. Similar effects could be found for the occurrence of porosity. A new parameter, the enthalpy flow to gas flow ratio (EGR), was defined from these two parameters of which correlations of Mg{sub 2}Si dispersoid size and amount of porosity were found. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Calculation of glass forming ranges in Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) ternary alloys and their sub-binaries based on Miedema's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.P.; Yi, D.Q.; Liu, H.Q.; Zang, B.; Jiang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A method based on semi-empirical Miedema's and Toop's model for predicting glass forming range of ternary alloy system has been systematically described. → The method is superior to conventional models by considering the effect of the thermodynamic asymmetric component when dealing with a ternary alloy system. → The glass forming ranges of Al-Ni-RE (Al-Ni-Ce, Al-Ni-Y and Al-Ni-La) systems and their sub-binaries have been successfully calculated. → The present calculations using the method are in well agreement with experiments. → This model is especially useful for predicting the glass forming range of ternary alloy system because the calculations do not require experimental data. - Abstract: A method based on the semi-empirical Miedema's and Toop's model for calculating the glass forming range of a ternary alloy system was systematically described. The method is superior to conventional models by considering the effect of the thermodynamic asymmetric component when dealing with a ternary alloy system. Using this method, the glass forming ranges of Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) systems and their sub-binaries were successfully predicted. The mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy were calculated, and their effects on the glass forming abilities of Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) systems were also discussed. The glass forming abilities of Al-Ni-Ce, Al-Ni-La and Al-Ni-Y are found to be close. The calculated glass forming ranges agree with experiments well. Meanwhile, the enthalpy change from amorphous phase to solid solution in the glass forming ranges was calculated, and the results suggest that those alloys close to the Ni-RE sub-binary system have higher glass forming abilities.

  10. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Stoermer, M.; Dietzel, W.

    2009-01-01

    PEO coatings were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation process in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes using a pulsed DC power source. The microstructure and composition of the PEO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings was evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. It was found that the electrolyte composition has a significant effect on the coating evolution and on the resulting coating characteristics, such as microstructure, composition, coating thickness, roughness and thus on the corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance of the PEO coating formed in silicate electrolyte was found to be superior to that formed in phosphate electrolyte in both the short-term and long-term electrochemical corrosion tests.

  11. Structural Origin of the Enhanced Glass-Forming Ability Induced by Microalloying Y in the ZrCuAl Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural origin of the enhanced glass-forming ability induced by microalloying Y in a ZrCuAl multicomponent system is studied by performing synchrotron radiation experiments combined with simulations. It is revealed that the addition of Y leads to the optimization of local structures, including: (1 more Zr-centered and Y-centered icosahedral-like clusters occur in the microstructure; (2 the atomic packing efficiency inside clusters and the regularity of clusters are both enhanced. These structural optimizations help to stabilize the amorphous structure in the ZrCuAlY system, and lead to a high glass-forming ability (GFA. The present work provides an understanding of GFAs in multicomponent alloys and will shed light on the development of more metallic glasses with high GFAs.

  12. Atom probe tomography of intermetallic phases and interfaces formed in dissimilar joining between Al alloys and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, B.; Springer, H.; Duarte, M.J.; De Graeve, I.; De Strycker, J.; Raabe, D.; Verbeken, K.

    2016-01-01

    While Si additions to Al are widely used to reduce the thickness of the brittle intermetallic seam formed at the interface during joining of Al alloys to steel, the underlying mechanisms are not clarified yet. The developed approach for the site specific atom probe tomography analysis revealed Si enrichments at grain and phase boundaries between the θ (Fe 4 Al 13 ) and η (Fe 2 Al 5 ) phase, up to about ten times that of the concentration in Al. The increase in Si concentration could play an important role for the growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases formed for example in hot-dip aluminizing of steel. - Highlights: •Si additions to Al reduce thickness of intermetallic seam in joining with steel. •Approach developed for the site specific APT analysis of the intermetallic seam •Si enrichment at grain and phase boundaries possibly affects growth of intermetallics.

  13. Improved the microstructures and properties of M3:2 high-speed steel by spray forming and niobium alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road 30, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Hou, L.G., E-mail: lghou@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road 30, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, J.X.; Wang, H.B.; Cui, H.; Huang, J.F. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road 30, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Y.A. [State Key Laboratory of Non-Ferrous Metals and Process, General Research Institute for Non-Ferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhang, J.S. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Xueyuan Road 30, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The microstructures and properties of spray formed (SF) high-speed steels (HSSs) with or without niobium (Nb) addition were studied. Particular emphasis was placed on the effect of Nb on the solidification microstructures, decomposition of M{sub 2}C carbides, thermal stability and mechanical properties. The results show that spray forming can refine the cell size of eutectic carbides due to the rapid cooling effect during atomization. With Nb addition, further refinement of the eutectic carbides and primary austenite grains are obtained. Moreover, the Nb addition can accelerate the decomposition of M{sub 2}C carbides and increase the thermal stability of high-speed steel, and also can improve the hardness and bending strength with slightly decrease the impact toughness. The high-speed steel made by spray forming and Nb alloying can give a better tool performance compared with powder metallurgy M3:2 and commercial AISI M2 high-speed steels. - Highlights: • Spray forming can effectively refine the microstructure of M3:2 steel. • Niobium accelerates the decomposition of M{sub 2}C carbides. • Niobium increases the hardness and bending strength of spray formed M3:2 steel. • Spray-formed niobium-containing M3:2 steel has the best tool performance.

  14. Spray forming of Cu–11.85Al–3.2Ni–3Mn (wt%) shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cava, Régis D., E-mail: regis_cava@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos (Brazil); Bolfarini, Claudemiro; Kiminami, Cláudio S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos (Brazil); Mazzer, Eric M. [Postgraduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil); Botta Filho, Walter J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos (Brazil); Gargarella, Piter; Eckert, Jürger [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • We characterized a Cu-based shape memory alloy produced by spray forming. • The deposit presented equiaxial grains and monoclinic martensite β′ microstructure. • The deposit’s shape memory properties varied as a function of the cooling rates. • The results opened a new window in the manufacture of Cu shape memory materials. - Abstract: Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMA) in the range of Cu–(11.8–13.5)Al–(3.2–4)Ni–(2–3)Mn (wt%) exhibit high thermal and electrical conductivity, combine good mechanical properties with a pronounced shape memory effect, and are low cost (Dutkiewicz et al., 1999). Their processing requires high cooling rates to reduce grain size, prevent decomposition of the ß phase into equilibrium phases, and induce martensite transformation. In this investigation, Cu–11.85Al–3.2Ni–3Mn (wt%) shape memory alloy was processed by spray forming, a rapid solidification technique that involves cooling rates of 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 4} K/s, to determine the potential of producing deposits with adequate microstructure, homogeneity and porosity for the manufacture of SMA near net shape parts. To this end, 5.2 kg of alloy with nominal composition was atomized with nitrogen gas under a pressure of 0.5 MPa and a gas–metal ratio (GMR) of 1.93. The atomized material was deposited at 60 rpm on a rotating steel substrate positioned 350 mm below the gas nozzle. The microstructure of the deposit was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The deposit with an effective diameter of 240 mm and 75 mm height presented equiaxial grains with a martensite microstructure. Grain sizes varied from 25 μm in the lower region (contact with the steel substrate) to 160 μm in the upper region of the deposit. Measurements of the reverse martensite transformation temperature of the deposit in different regions revealed its strong influence on the grain size.

  15. Distribution of antimony in the oxide layer formed by potentiostatic oxidation of Pb-Sb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifuku, F.; Yoneyama, H.; Tamura, H.

    1979-09-01

    The distribution of antimony within the oxide films on Pb-Sb alloy prepared by potentiostatic oxidation in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions was examined by SIMS. The study of oxide films prepared by applying different potentials for three hours showed that two types of film were obtained depending on whether the potential was more negative or more positive than 1.5 V. Antimony profiles were obtained for films at several stages in the initial growth. It was found that antimony was retained in the oxide film at 1.5 V during both nucleation and two- or three-dimensional growth of PbO/sub 2/ and at 1.6 V during the lateral overlaps of three-dimensional centers of PbO/sub 2/. Relationships between the antimony distribution profiles and the oxide film growth are discussed. 8 figures, 1 table.

  16. FEG-SEM investigation of α-alumina scales formed on FeCrAlY alloys oxidised at 1200 celsius degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Badairy, H.; Tatlock, G.; Beahan, P.; Fawcett, S.; Hunt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.The work presented here is part of an ongoing European funded project, SMILER, with the aim of improving the performance of alumina forming Fe-20 Cr-5 Al during high temperature industrial applications. One aspect of the project is to investigate the influence of additives on the oxidation behaviour of these alloys. During this study a LEO 1550 FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope), equipped with INCA x-ray microanalysis facilities was used. Ultra-high-purity model alloys, where the levels of additives (Hf, Zr, Ti, Si and Y) were carefully controlled, and one commercial YHfAl alloy were oxidised at 1200 degree celsius for up to 3100h (100h/cycle). The YHfAl, (Ti+Zr)- and (Zr+Hf)-containing alloys showed the highest oxidation rates when oxidised, whereas the Si-containing alloy showed the lowest oxidation rate. However, the Si-containing alloy spalled the most while the (Zr+Hf)-containing and YHfAl alloys showed little spallation. The additives appeared to influence the spallation of the formed α-alumina scale. On the alloy with Si, the scale spalled at the scale/metal interface (adhesively). Whereas on alloys containing (Hf+Ti) and (Hf+Zr) and the YHfAl alloy, the scale mainly spalled in a cohesive manner (within the scale). Also, the added elements affected the scale topography. In general the formed scale has a columnar at the scale/metal interface whereas the grains are equiaxed at the scale/gas interface. However, in the cas of YHfAl and (Zr+Hf)-containing alloys, a sunflower type structure was observed in both fractured samples in the regions where the scale spalled cohesively. Preliminary EDX analysis revealed that the center of the sunflower structure was rich in Mg, for example in the case of YHfAl. This suggests that there may be inhomogeneities in the metal substrate, prior to oxidation, where high concentrations of Mg increase the local oxide growth rate. However, the exact reason behind the formation of sunflower type structure

  17. Microstructures and mechanical properties evolution of an Al–Fe–Cu alloy processed by repetitive continuous extrusion forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangxin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Hui, E-mail: zhanghui63hunu@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ji, Xiankun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-08-26

    Repetitive continuous extrusion forming process (R-Conform process), as a continuous severe plastic deformation method, was performed on a horizontal continuous casting Al–0.74Fe–0.23Cu alloy. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties were studied by optical microscope, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and tensile testing. The results show that tensile ductility of the Al–0.74Fe–0.23Cu alloy is greatly improved but tensile strength is gradually decreased after repetitive Conform processing. The necking is more intense and the size of dimples becomes bigger with increasing Conform passes. The first pass Conform process induces obviously grains refining, dissolution of AlFe, AlFeSi and AlSi primary phases, strain-induced precipitation and transformation of crystal orientation distributions, but further Conform deformation only changes the redistribution of precipitates. The changes of mechanical properties may be attributed to a complex progress of recovery, recrystallization and redistribution of precipitates during repetitive Conform process.

  18. A model for strain hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth with applications to forming processes of nickel base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.riedel@iwm.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Materials Mechanics, Wöhlerstr. 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Svoboda, Jiri, E-mail: svobj@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-17

    An ensemble of n spherical grains is considered, each of which is characterized by its radius r{sub i} and by a hardening variable a{sub i}. The hardening variable obeys a Chaboche-type evolution equation with dynamic and static recovery. The grain growth law includes the usual contribution of the grain boundary energy, a term for the stored energy associated with the hardening variable, and the Zener pinning force exerted by particles on the migrating grain boundaries. New grains develop by recrystallization in grains whose stored energy density exceeds a critical value. The growth or shrinkage of the particles, which restrain grain boundary migration, obeys a thermodynamic/kinetic evolution equation. This set of first order differential equations for r{sub i}, a{sub i} and the particle radius is integrated numerically. Fictitious model parameters for a virtual nickel base alloy are used to demonstrate the properties and capabilities of the model. For a real nickel alloy, model parameters are adjusted using measured stress-strain curves, as well as recrystallized volume fractions and grain size distributions. Finally the model with adjusted parameters is applied to a forming process with complex temperature-strain rate histories.

  19. EXAMINATION OF THE OXIDATION PROTECTION OF ZINC COATINGS FORMED ON COPPER ALLOYS AND STEEL SUBSTRATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G.; Skolianos, S.

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steel substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.

  20. Surface Properties of the IN SITU Formed Ceramics Reinforced Composite Coatings on TI-3AL-2V Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Wei; Hu, Dakui; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Yuanbin

    2012-04-01

    The synthesis of hard composite coating on titanium alloy by laser cladding of Al/Fe/Ni+C/Si3N4 pre-placed powders has been investigated in detail. SEM result indicated that a composite coating with metallurgical joint to the substrate was formed. XRD result indicated that the composite coating mainly consisted of γ-(Fe, Ni), FeAl, Ti3Al, TiC, TiNi, TiC0.3N0.7, Ti2N, SiC, Ti5Si3 and TiNi. Compared with Ti-3Al-2V substrate, an improvement of the micro-hardness and the wear resistance was observed for this composite coating.

  1. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF THE IN SITU FORMED CERAMICS REINFORCED COMPOSITE COATINGS ON TI-3AL-2V ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    PENG LIU; WEI GUO; DAKUI HU; HUI LUO; YUANBIN ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hard composite coating on titanium alloy by laser cladding of Al/Fe/Ni+C/Si3N4 pre-placed powders has been investigated in detail. SEM result indicated that a composite coating with metallurgical joint to the substrate was formed. XRD result indicated that the composite coating mainly consisted of γ-(Fe, Ni), FeAl, Ti3Al, TiC, TiNi, TiC0.3N0.7, Ti2N, SiC, Ti5Si3 and TiNi. Compared with Ti-3Al-2V substrate, an improvement of the micro-hardness and the wear resistance was obser...

  2. Nanoscale phase transition behavior of shape memory alloys — closed form solution of 1D effective modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. P.; Sun, Q. P.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the roles of grain size (lg) and grain boundary thickness (lb) on the stress-induced phase transition (PT) behaviors of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys (SMAs) by using a Core-shell type "crystallite-amorphous composite" model. A non-dimensionalized length scale lbarg(=lg /lb) is identified as the governing parameter which is indicative of the energy competition between the crystallite and the grain boundary. Closed form analytical solutions of a reduced effective 1D model with embedded microstructure length scales of lg and lb are presented in this paper. It is shown that, with lbarg reduction, the energy of the elastic non-transformable grain boundary will gradually become dominant in the phase transition process, and eventually bring fundamental changes of the deformation behaviors: breakdown of two-phase coexistence and vanishing of superelastic hysteresis. The predictions are supported by experimental data of nanocrystalline NiTi SMAs.

  3. Composition dependency of the glass forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Ni-Si system by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Haowen; Lin Jianguo; Li Yuncang; Hodgson, Peter D.; Wen Cuie

    2007-01-01

    The pure elemental powder mixtures with the compositions of Mg 65 Ni x Si 35-x (x = 10, 20, 25, 33 at.%) were subject to high-energy ball mill, and the structures of the mixtures at different intervals of milling were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The compositional dependency of the glass forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Ni-Si system was evaluated based on the experimental results and the theoretical calculation. The compositional dependency of GFA in Mg-Ni-Si system can be understood well by comparing the enthalpies of the crystalline and amorphous phases based on the Miedema's theory for the formation enthalpy of alloys. Increasing the Ni/Mg ratio and/or decreasing Si content can improve the amorphous formability. The calculation results might be of great help in optimising the composition with high GFA in Mg-Ni-Si system

  4. Rubber bulge forming of single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloy using the displacement control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Hiromasa; Yamaji, Toru; Okita, Keisuke; Okabe, Nagatoshi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the bulge process for forming the single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloys, which is proposed as a new type of seismic applications, and especially considering the material's special behavior. Thin walled tubes with 20% cold work, whose composition is Ti-51.0 at% Ni, were prepared. First they are appropriately heat-treated and then the rubber bulge process is introduced for the tubes under the condition of austenite phase at room temperature. Displacement control method is adapted to the process. Theoretical prediction of change in outer diameter of the tube on compression is derived, and modified taking into account the progress of the stress-induced martensite transformation on tube's surface by observing the detachment of the oxide layer of the surface. Finally theoretical relationship between compressive displacement and the outer diameter of the tube, which is the most important for the design of the bellows shape, is cleared. (author)

  5. Dry metal forming of high alloy steel using laser generated aluminum bronze tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiße Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the optimization of forming technology in economic and environmental aspects, avoiding lubricants is an approach to realize the vision of a new green technology. The resulting direct contact between the tool and the sheet in non-lubricated deep drawing causes higher stress and depends mainly on the material combination. The tribological system in dry sliding has to be assessed by means on the one hand of the resulting friction coefficient and on the other hand of the wear of the tool and sheet material. The potential to generate tailored tribological systems for dry metal forming could be shown within the investigations by using different material combinations and by applying different laser cladding process parameters. Furthermore, the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a deep drawing tool was demonstrated. The tool was successfully applied to form circular cups in a dry metal forming process.

  6. Tribological evaluation of surface modified H13 tool steel in warm forming of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Li, Heng; Yang, He; Ma, Jun; Li, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    The H13 hot-working tool steel is widely used as die material in the warm forming of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet. However, under the heating condition, severe friction and lubricating conditions between the H13 tools and Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet would cause difficulty in guaranteeing forming quality. Surface modification may be used to control the level of friction force, reduce the friction wear and extend the service life of dies. In this paper, four surface modification methods (c...

  7. Analysis of the corrosion products formed on Ti and a Ti-Pd alloy during exposure in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olefjord, I.; Mattsson, H.

    1982-01-01

    This is a preliminary report dealing with the surface analysis of reaction products formed on Ti and a Ti-Pd alloy during their exposure in hot water. The compositions of the aqueous media were varied with respect to the dissolved oxygen and the content of chloride ions. The temperature was 60 0 C and the exposure times were 10 min. and 6 months. Work is in progress in which samples are exposed at 80 0 C and 95 0 C in the aqueous solutions. Surface analysis was also performed on a sample which had been exposed in water-saturated bentonite. It appears from te ESCA spectra that the oxide products formed on the surface consist of TiO 2 . The results also indicate that the thickness of the film formed at 60 0 C in water is in the range 50 A to 100 A. This is somewhat more than that obtained after exposure in water at room temperature. Exposure for 6 months increases the thickness of the oxide two to three times compared to that obtained during the short exposure at 60 0 C. The analyses of the samples that had been embedded in bentonite indicate that the surface reaction products are thinner than those found on the surface after exposure in an open vessel

  8. Study of the corrosion behavior and the corrosion films formed on the surfaces of Mg–xSn alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Li, Yang; Huang, Song; Zhou, Xiaoen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion of four cast Mg–xSn alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated. • Both Mg(OH) 2 /SnO 2 corrosion product film and Mg(OH) 2 /MgSnO 3 clusters formed on Mg–1.5Sn. • Compact Mg(OH) 2 /MgSnO 3 film suppressed the cathodic effect of the impurity inclusions. • Mg–xSn (x = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 wt.%) alloys only formed loose Mg(OH) 2 /SnO 2 corrosion product film. - Abstract: The corrosion behavior and the corrosion films formed on the surfaces of Mg–xSn (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt.%) alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by immersion tests, electrochemical measurements, corrosion morphology observations, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Immersion tests and electrochemical measurements illustrated that the best corrosion resistance was reported for the Mg–1.5Sn alloy. Both Mg(OH) 2 /SnO 2 corrosion product film and Mg(OH) 2 /MgSnO 3 clusters formed on Mg–1.5Sn alloy surface. Mg(OH) 2 /MgSnO 3 clusters were compact and suppressed the cathodic effect of the impurity inclusions greatly. The Mg–xSn (x = 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.%) alloys only formed loose Mg(OH) 2 /SnO 2 corrosion product film during the corrosion process

  9. Tool degradation during sheet metal forming of three stainless steel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Wiklund, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate if changes in tool design and tool surface preparation are needed when low-Ni stainless steels are used instead of austenitic stainless steels, the effect on tool degradation in the form of galling was investigated with three different types of stainless steel. The resistance to tool ...

  10. Effect of temperature on anisotropy in forming simulations of aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; Miroux, A.; Ghosh, M.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2009-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study of the effect of temperature on anisotropy in warm forming of AA 6016-T4 aluminum was performed. The anisotropy coefficients of the Vegter yield function were calculated from crystal plasticity models with an adequate combination of extra slip systems.

  11. Influence of substitution of La by Ce on the glass forming ability and crystallization behavior of Al–Ni–La alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiong, X.Z.; Zhou, W.; Li, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Wedge-shaped samples were suction cast with casting conditions controlled. •Partial substitution of La by Ce decreases the GFA of Al 85.5 Ni 9.5 La 5 . •Partial substitution of La by Ce increases the GFA of other Al–Ni–La alloys. •The GFA was analyzed from the thermodynamic and topological points of view. -- Abstract: Wedge-shaped samples of Al–Ni–(La–Ce) alloys were suction cast under an identical preparation condition, and their glass forming abilities (GFAs) and crystallization behaviors were compared. It was revealed that the partial substitution of La by Ce decreases the GFA of Al 85.5 Ni 9.5 La 5 alloy but increases the GFAs of Al 87.5 Ni 7.5 La 5 , Al 86.5 Ni 8.5 La 5 , Al 86 Ni 9 La 5 and Al 86 Ni 9.5 La 4.5 alloys. Meantime the crystallization behavior significantly changes. The optimal substitution content of La for glass formation depends on the composition of the base alloy. The lower the Ni content in the base alloy, the more the La content to be substituted. The GFA change with the substitution content is determined by the atomic packing efficiencies of the La (Ce)-centered clusters

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hypo/hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys synthesized using a near-net shape forming technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Ling, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, three aluminum-silicon alloys containing 7, 10 and 19 wt % silicon were synthesized using a novel technique commonly known as disintegrated melt deposition technique. The results following processing revealed that a yield of at least 80% can be achieved after defacing the shrinkage cavity from the as-processed ingots. Microstructural characterization studies conducted on the as-processed samples revealed an increase in the volume fraction of porosity with an increase in silicon content. Porosity levels of 1.07, 1.51 and 2.65% attained in the case of Al-7Si, Al-10Si, and Al-19Si alloys indicates the near-net shape forming capability of the disintegrated melt deposition technique. The results of aging studies conducted on the aluminum-silicon alloys revealed similar aging kinetics irrespective of different silicon content. Results of ambient temperature mechanical tests demonstrate an increase in matrix microhardness and 0.2% yield stress and decrease in ductility with an increase in silicon content in aluminum. Furthermore, the results of an attempt to investigate the effect of extrusion on Al-19Si alloy revealed that the extrusion process significantly assists in reducing porosity and improving microstructural uniformity, 0.2% yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and ductility when compared to the as-processed Al-19Si alloy. The results of microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of aluminum-silicon alloys were finally correlated with the amount of silicon in aluminum and secondary processing technique. (orig.)

  13. Liquid -to-glass transition in bulk glass-forming Cu55-xZr45Agx alloys using molecular dynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celtek M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report results from molecular dynamics (MD studies concerning the microscopic structure of the ternary, bulk metallic glass-forming Cu55-x Zr45Agx (x=0,10,20 alloys using tight-binding potentials. Understanding of the nature of Glass Forming Ability (GFA of studied alloys, GFA parameters, glass transition temperature (T-g, melting temperature (T-m, reduced glass transition temperature (T-g/T-m, the supercooled liquid region and other parameters were simulated and compared with experiments. The computed pair distribution functions reproduce well experimental x-ray data of Inoue and co-workers. Structure analysis of the Cu-Zr-Ag alloy based on MD simulation will be also presented

  14. In situ observation of ultrasonic cavitation-induced fragmentation of the primary crystals formed in Al alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tzanakis, Iakovos; Eskin, Dmitry; Mi, Jiawei; Connolley, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cavitation-induced fragmentation of primary crystals formed in Al alloys were investigated for the first time by high-speed imaging using a novel experimental approach. Three representative primary crystal types, Al 3 Ti, Si and Al 3 V with different morphologies and mechanical properties were first extracted by deep etching of the corresponding Al alloys and then subjected to ultrasonic cavitation processing in distilled water. The dynamic interaction between the cavitation bubbles and primary crystals was imaged in situ and in real time. Based on the recorded image sequences, the fragmentation mechanisms of primary crystals were studied. It was found that there are three major mechanisms by which the primary crystals were fragmented by cavitation bubbles. The first one was a slow process via fatigue-type failure. A cyclic pressure exerted by stationary pulsating bubbles caused the propagation of a crack pre-existing in the primary crystal to a critical length which led to fragmentation. The second mechanism was a sudden process due to the collapse of bubbles in a passing cavitation cloud. The pressure produced upon the collapse of the cloud promoted rapid monotonic crack growth and fast fracture in the primary crystals. The third observed mechanism was normal bending fracture as a result of the high pressure arising from the collapse of a bubble cloud and the crack formation at the branch connection points of dendritic primary crystals. The fragmentation of dendrite branches due to the interaction between two freely moving dendritic primary crystals was also observed. A simplified fracture analysis of the observed phenomena was performed. The specific fragmentation mechanism for the primary crystals depended on their morphology and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Failure prediction during backward flow forming of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Narasimhan, K.; Singh, Ramesh

    2018-05-01

    The Flow forming process is a tube spinning process where the thickness of a tube is reduced with the help of spinning roller/s by keeping the internal diameter unchanged. A 3-D Finite element model for the flow-formability test has been developed by using Abaqus/explicit software. A coupled damage criterion based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) has been studied in this research. The damage model is introduced by using FORTRAN based VUMAT subroutine which is developed through a stress integration algorithm. Further, the effect of reduction angle, friction coefficient, and coolant heat transfer coefficient on fracture has been studied. The results show that the formability improves with increase in reduction angle. Both, equivalent plastic strain and damage variable increases from inner to outer surface of flow formed tube.

  16. Bulk glass formation and crystallization in zirconium based bulk metallic glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savalia, R.T.; Neogy, S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures of Zr based metallic glasses produced in bulk form have been described in the as-cast condition and after crystallization. Various microscopic techniques have been used to characterize the microstructures. The microstructure in the as-cast condition was found to contain isolated crystals and crystalline aggregates embedded in the amorphous matrix. Quenched-in nuclei of crystalline phases were found to be present in fully amorphous regions. These glasses after crystallization gave rise to nanocrystalline solids. (author)

  17. Self-forming Al oxide barrier for nanoscale Cu interconnects created by hybrid atomic layer deposition of Cu–Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Han, Dong-Suk; Kang, You-Jin [Division of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, So-Ra; Park, Jong-Wan, E-mail: jwpark@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    The authors synthesized a Cu–Al alloy by employing alternating atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface reactions using Cu and Al precursors, respectively. By alternating between these two ALD surface chemistries, the authors fabricated ALD Cu–Al alloy. Cu was deposited using bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy) copper as a precursor and H{sub 2} plasma, while Al was deposited using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and H{sub 2} plasma. The Al atomic percent in the Cu–Al alloy films varied from 0 to 15.6 at. %. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a uniform Al-based interlayer self-formed at the interface after annealing. To evaluate the barrier properties of the Al-based interlayer and adhesion between the Cu–Al alloy film and SiO{sub 2} dielectric, thermal stability and peel-off adhesion tests were performed, respectively. The Al-based interlayer showed similar thermal stability and adhesion to the reference Mn-based interlayer. Our results indicate that Cu–Al alloys formed by alternating ALD are suitable seed layer materials for Cu interconnects.

  18. Self-forming Al oxide barrier for nanoscale Cu interconnects created by hybrid atomic layer deposition of Cu–Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Han, Dong-Suk; Kang, You-Jin; Shin, So-Ra; Park, Jong-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The authors synthesized a Cu–Al alloy by employing alternating atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface reactions using Cu and Al precursors, respectively. By alternating between these two ALD surface chemistries, the authors fabricated ALD Cu–Al alloy. Cu was deposited using bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy) copper as a precursor and H 2 plasma, while Al was deposited using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and H 2 plasma. The Al atomic percent in the Cu–Al alloy films varied from 0 to 15.6 at. %. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a uniform Al-based interlayer self-formed at the interface after annealing. To evaluate the barrier properties of the Al-based interlayer and adhesion between the Cu–Al alloy film and SiO 2 dielectric, thermal stability and peel-off adhesion tests were performed, respectively. The Al-based interlayer showed similar thermal stability and adhesion to the reference Mn-based interlayer. Our results indicate that Cu–Al alloys formed by alternating ALD are suitable seed layer materials for Cu interconnects

  19. Reinforcement of 2124 Al alloy with low micron SiC and nano Al2O3 via solid-state forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gxowa, Z

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A powder metallurgical process was used to fabricate Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs). A 2124 aluminium alloy was reinforced with 5 and 10 vol. % of Al2O3 (40-70nm) to form Metal Matrix Nano Composites (MMNCs) as well as 10 and 15 vol. % of SiC (1...

  20. Biological Behavior of Osteoblast Cell and Apatite Forming Ability of the Surface Modified Ti Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingming; Hwang, K H; Choi, W S; Shin, S J; Lee, J K

    2016-02-01

    Titanium as one kind of biomaterials comes in direct contact with the body, making evaluation of biocompatibility an important aspect to biomaterials development. Surface chemistry of titanium plays an important role in osseointegration. Different surface modification alters the surface chemistry and result in different biological response. In this study, three kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coating successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid increased the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surface allows better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrates. After modification of titanium surface by mixed acidic solution and subsequently H2O2/HCL treatment evaluation of biocompatibility was conducted from hydroxyapatite formation by biomimetic process and cell viability on modified titanium surface. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Results from this study indicated that surface treatment methods affect the surface morphology, type of TiO2 layer formed and subsequent apatite deposition and biological responses. The thermo scientific alamarblue cell viability assay reagent is used to quantitatively measure the viability of mammalian cell lines, bacteria and fungi by incorporating a rapid, sensitive and reliable fluorometric/colorimetric growth indicator, without any toxic and side effect to cell line. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than widely used alkali treatment.

  1. Study on glass-forming ability and hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Mg60Ni30La10−xCox (x = 0, 4) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Peng; Wang, Zhong-min; Zhang, Huai-gang; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Ji, Zi-jun; Deng, Jian-qiu; Zhou, Huai-ying

    2013-01-01

    Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0, 4) amorphous alloys were prepared by rapid solidification, using a melt-spinning technique. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis were employed to measure their microstructure, thermal stability and glass-forming ability, and hydrogen storage properties were studied by means of PCTPro2000. Based on differential scanning calorimetry results, their glass-forming ability and thermal stability were investigated by Kissinger method, Lasocka curves and atomic cluster model, respectively. The results indicate that glass-forming ability, thermal properties and hydrogen storage properties in the Mg-rich corner of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys were enhanced by Co substitution for La. It can be found that the smaller activation energy (ΔΕ) and frequency factor (υ 0 ), the bigger value of B (glass transition point in Lasocka curves), and higher glass-forming ability of Mg–Ni–La–Co alloys would be followed. In addition, atomic structure parameter (λ), deduced from atomic cluster model is valuable in the design of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys with good glass-forming ability. With an increase of Co content from 0 to 4, the hydrogen desorption capacity within 4000 s rises from 2.25 to 2.85 wt.% at 573 K. - Highlights: • Amorphous Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0 and 4) alloys were produced by melt spinning. • The GFA and hydrogen storage properties were enhanced by Co substitution for La. • With an increase of Co content, the hydrogen desorption capacity rises at 573 K

  2. Role of string-like collective atomic motion on diffusion and structural relaxation in glass forming Cu-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Zhejiang University and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Xiaodong; Cao, Qingping; Jiang, Jian-Zhong, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Zhejiang University and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Douglas, Jack F., E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Zhang, Dongxian [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-04-28

    We investigate Cu-Zr liquid alloys using molecular dynamics simulation and well-accepted embedded atom method potentials over a wide range of chemical composition and temperature as model metallic glass-forming (GF) liquids. As with other types of GF materials, the dynamics of these complex liquids are characterized by “dynamic heterogeneity” in the form of transient polymeric clusters of highly mobile atoms that are composed in turn of atomic clusters exhibiting string-like cooperative motion. In accordance with the string model of relaxation, an extension of the Adam-Gibbs (AG) model, changes in the activation free energy ΔG{sub a} with temperature of both the Cu and Zr diffusion coefficients D, and the alpha structural relaxation time τ{sub α} can be described to a good approximation by changes in the average string length, L. In particular, we confirm that the strings are a concrete realization of the abstract “cooperatively rearranging regions” of AG. We also find coexisting clusters of relatively “immobile” atoms that exhibit predominantly icosahedral local packing rather than the low symmetry packing of “mobile” atoms. These two distinct types of dynamic heterogeneity are then associated with different fluid structural states. Glass-forming liquids are thus analogous to polycrystalline materials where the icosahedrally packed regions correspond to crystal grains, and the strings reside in the relatively disordered grain boundary-like regions exterior to these locally well-ordered regions. A dynamic equilibrium between localized (“immobile”) and wandering (“mobile”) particles exists in the liquid so that the dynamic heterogeneity can be considered to be type of self-assembly process. We also characterize changes in the local atomic free volume in the course of string-like atomic motion to better understand the initiation and propagation of these fluid excitations.

  3. Effect of radiolysis on long-term corrosion system formed on low-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badet, H.

    2013-01-01

    In France, for nuclear waste management, it is planned to build a storage device with a barrier system composed of steel container. Corrosion is evaluated for the safety of anoxic storage over the long term. With radiation, water radiolysis generates oxidizing and reducing species that can change the corrosion. Three aspects are developed in this thesis. The first concerns iron coupon samples experimented in carbonate deaerated water and subjected to gamma irradiation. It is shown that irradiation can increase corrosion rates within the parameters of dose. Identified crystalline phases are little changed with irradiation. Solution chemistry shows a decrease in pH with dose related to iron. Organic species are identified. The second axis is archaeological analogues irradiation with an old corrosion products layer. Structural analysis verified the phase stability with radiolysis, only the newly formed products changes. The third axis is a kinetic simulation approach. It checks the pH drop under irradiation. Taken together, these results allow us to provide new data for the anoxic corrosion under irradiation. (author) [fr

  4. Bulk synthesis by spray forming of Al–Cu–Fe and Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloys containing a quasicrystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Cui, C.; Uhlenwinkel, V.; Schulz, A.; Mukhopadhyay, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 40 kg Bulk material spray formed based on Al–Cu–Fe and Al–Cu–Fe + Sn. • Deposited Al–Cu–Fe alloy showed single phase bulk quasicrystals(QC). • DSC, XRD and microscopic analyses were done to ascertain the QC nature. • Sn does not help in single phase quasicrystal formation in the deposit. • The possible structural evolution mechanisms have been discussed in detail. - Abstract: In this study, Al–Cu–Fe alloys without and with the addition of Sn and containing a quasicrystalline phase were spray deposited. The spray-deposited bulk materials were characterized in terms of microstructure and hardness. The results showed that the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 alloy contains the icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase) along with the minor λ-Al 13 Fe 4 phase, whereas the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 + Sn alloy contains five phases: the major i-phase and the crystalline phases of Sn, θ-Al 2 Cu, λ-Al 13 Fe 4 and β-AlFe(Cu) phases. These results have been corroborated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hardness value of the Al–Cu–Fe alloy reached 10.5 GPa at 50 g load and then decreased steadily with increase in the applied load, while that for Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloy it was originally somewhat lower, then decreased dramatically with slight increase in the applied load but stayed constant with further load increase. The hardness indentations in Al–Cu–Fe alloy introduced cracking in the material, whereas in the case of Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloy the Sn-rich areas inhibited the crack growth. The present study provides an insight into the mechanism of phase and microstructural evolutions during spray forming of the studied alloys. Furthermore, the role of Sn in terms of microstructure and properties is highlighted

  5. Effect of the existing form of Cu element on the mechanical properties, bio-corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Mian; Hou, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu alloys have exhibited strong antibacterial ability, but Ti-Cu alloys prepared by different processes showed different antibacterial ability. In order to reveal the controlling mechanism, Ti-Cu alloys with different existing forms of Cu element were prepared in this paper. The effects of the Cu existing form on the microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu alloys have been systematically investigated. Results have shown that the as-cast Ti-Cu alloys showed a higher hardness and mechanical strength as well as a higher antibacterial rate (51-64%) but a relatively lower corrosion resistance than pure titanium. Treatment at 900°C/2h (T4) significantly increased the hardness and the strength, improved the corrosion resistance but had little effect on the antibacterial property. Treatment at 900°C/2h+400°C/12h (T6) increased further the hardness and the mechanical strength, improved the corrosion resistance and but also enhanced the antibacterial rate (>90%) significantly. It was demonstrated that the Cu element in solid solution state showed high strengthening ability but low antibacterial property while Cu element in Ti2Cu phase exhibited strong strengthening ability and strong antibacterial property. Ti2Cu phase played a key role in the antibacterial mechanism. The antibacterial ability of Ti-Cu alloy was strongly proportional to the Cu content and the surface area of Ti2Cu phase. High Cu content and fine Ti2Cu phase would contribute to a high strength and a strong antibacterial ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microscopic characterization of pretransition oxide formed on Zr–Nb–Sn alloy under various Zn and dissolved hydrogen concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyu Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure of oxide formed on Zr–Nb–Sn tube sample was intensively examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy after exposure to simulated primary water chemistry conditions of various concentrations of Zn (0 or 30 ppb and dissolved hydrogen (H2 (30 or 50 cc/kg for various durations without applying desirable heat flux. Microstructural analysis indicated that there was no noticeable change in the microstructure of the oxide corresponding to water chemistry changes within the test duration of 100 days (pretransition stage and no significant difference in the overall thickness of the oxide layer. Equiaxed grains with nano-size pores along the grain boundaries and microcracks were dominant near the water/oxide interface, regardless of water chemistry conditions. As the metal/oxide interface was approached, the number of pores tended to decrease. However, there was no significant effect of H2 concentration between 30 cc/kg and 50 cc/kg on the corrosion of the oxide after free immersion in water at 360°C. The adsorption of Zn on the cladding surface was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and detected as ZnO on the outer oxide surface. From the perspective of OH− ion diffusion and porosity formation, the absence of noticeable effects was discussed further. Keywords: Dissolved Hydrogen Effect, Porosity, Pretransition Oxide, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Zirconium Alloys

  7. Finite element modelling of shot peening and peen forming processes and characterisation of peened AA2024-T351 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Alexandre

    The main purpose of this thesis was to develop and validate finite element (FE) simulation tools for shot peening and peen forming. The specific aim was to achieve quantitatively accurate predictions for both processes and demonstrate the potential of reliable FE modelling for scientific investigation and industrial applications. First, an improved dynamic impact model that takes into account the stochastic nature of shot peening was proposed by carefully studying its dimensions, introducing a dispersion of shot sizes and significantly reducing its computational cost. In addition, cyclic mechanical testing was conducted to define a suitable material constitutive theory for aluminium alloy (AA) 2024-T3/T351 subjected to shot peening. By combining a realistic shot peening model with an appropriate material law, fairly good residual stress predictions were achieved for three different sets of shot peening parameters. Second, an experimental and numerical characterization of AA2024-T351 shot peened with parameters representative of fatigue life improvement applications was conducted. Multiple techniques, such as micro-indentation, residual stress determination and electron backscatter diffraction, were combined to gain a better understanding of the influence of shot peening on the material. The potential uses of finite element simulation to complement experimental data were also studied. The material heterogeneity arising from the random impact sequence was investigated and it was found that the impact modelling methodology could provide useful information on such heterogeneities. Third, a novel peen forming simulation methodology was introduced. The impact model provided the necessary input data as part of a multiscale approach. Numerically calculated unbalanced induced stress profiles were input into shell elements and the deformed shape after peen forming was computed as a springback analysis. In addition, a simple interpolation method was proposed to model the

  8. Optimizing cathodic electrodeposition parameters of ceria coating to enhance the oxidation resistance of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-forming alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu, E-mail: xuw388@mail.usask.ca; Fan, Fan; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2016-07-29

    Nano-ceria coating was deposited onto a chromium oxide forming alloy through galvanostatic cathodic electro-deposition method in cerium nitrate electrolyte. The electrochemical behavior and influence of main deposition parameters of current density, deposition time, and temperature were studied. It was seen that the crystal size decreased with increasing of current density while micro-cracks were also observed at higher current density. Slightly increasing of crystal size and smoothing of surface morphology were seen with increasing of deposition time. It was reported that the bath temperature has the most significant effect on crystal size and surface morphology of the deposit. Green rust as corrosion product was also observed with deposition temperatures higher than 35 °C. Optimized deposition parameters were used to produce homogeneous, continuous and green rust-free coatings which enhance the oxidation resistance of alloy 230. The electro-deposition process was found to be an accessible and efficient method to prepare nano-crystalline ceria coating. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition was used to make ceria coating on a chromium oxide forming alloy; • Deposition parameters of current density, time and temperature were investigated; • Crystal size and morphology of coating vary with changing of deposition parameters; • Coating prepared with optimized parameters reduced oxidation rate of alloy 230.

  9. Anti-corrosion film formed on HAl77-2 copper alloy surface by aliphatic polyamine in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yinzhe; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Daquan, E-mail: zhdq@sh163.net; Wang, Yizhen; Gao, Lixin

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Properties of ADDD meet environment-friendly requirements. • ADDD’s inhibition efficiency is better than BTA at the low concentration. • ADDD adsorbs on the copper alloy surface by via the N atom in its amino group using flat mode. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition of a polyamine compound, N-(4-amino-2, 3-dimethylbutyl)-2, 3-dimethylbutane-1, 4-diamine (ADDD), was investigated for HAl77-2 copper alloy in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. Electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were employed for this research. The results show that ADDD strongly suppresses the corrosion of HAl77-2 alloy. The inhibition efficiency of ADDD is 98.6% at 0.5 mM, which is better than benzotriazole (BTAH) at the same concentration. Polarization curves indicate that ADDD is an anodic type inhibitor. Surface analysis suggests that a protective film is formed via the interaction of ADDD and copper. FT-IR reveals that the inhibition mechanism of ADDD is dominated by chemisorption onto the copper alloy surface to form an inhibition film. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations methods show that ADDD adsorbs on HAl77-2 surface via amino group in its molecule.

  10. Phase Transformation Behavior of Oxide Particles Formed in Mechanically Alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Jung-Sun; Noh, Sanghoon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Do [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The phase transformation behavior of the oxides formed in mechanically alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is investigated. Non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides with sizes of less than 300 nm are observed in the mechanically alloyed powder. The diffusion and redistribution reactions of the elements in these oxides during heating of the powder above 800 ℃ were observed, and these reactions result in the formation of a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase after heating at 1050 ℃. Thus, it is considered that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and some Fe powder are formed from the non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides after the mechanical alloying process, and a considerable energy accumulated during the mechanical alloying process leads to a phase transformation of the Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides to Y{sub α}Fe{sub β}O{sub γ}-type phase during heating.

  11. The Effect of Normal Force on Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Ti-10Zr Alloy and Porous TiO2-ZrO2 Thin Film Electrochemical Formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dănăilă, E.; Benea, L.

    2017-06-01

    The tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti-10Zr alloy and porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy was evaluated in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva solution. Tribocorrosion experiments were performed using a unidirectional pin-on-disc experimental set-up which was mechanically and electrochemically instrumented, under various solicitation conditions. The effect of applied normal force on tribocorrosion performance of the tested materials was determined. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements performed before, during and after sliding tests were applied in order to determine the tribocorrosion degradation. The applied normal force was found to greatly affect the potential during tribocorrosion experiments, an increase in the normal force inducing a decrease in potential accelerating the depassivation of the materials studied. The results show a decrease in friction coefficient with gradually increasing the normal load. It was proved that the porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy lead to an improvement of tribocorrosion resistance compared to non-anodized Ti-10Zr alloy intended for biomedical applications.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of AM50 alloy according to thickness and forming condition of the products by a high pressure die-casting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Hong [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chung Gil [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In recent years, Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have become a center of special interest in the automotive industry. Due to their high specific mechanical properties, they offer a significant weight saving potential in modern vehicle constructions. Most Mg alloys show very good machinability and processability, and even the most complicated die casting parts can be easily produced. The die casting process is a fast production method capable of a high degree of automation for which certain Mg alloys are ideally suited. Although Mg alloys are fulfilling the demands for low specific weight materials with excellent machining and casting abilities, they are still not used in die casting process to the same extent as the competing material aluminum. One of the reasons is that effects of various forming variables for die casting process is not closely examined from the viewpoint of die design. In this study, step die and flowability tests for AM50 were performed by die casting process according to various combination of casting pressure and plunger velocity. Microstructure, Vickers hardness and tensile tests were examined and performed for each specimen to verify effects of forming conditions.

  13. Influence of substitution of La by Ce on the glass forming ability and crystallization behavior of Al–Ni–La alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiong, X.Z.; Zhou, W.; Li, J.F., E-mail: jfli@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •Wedge-shaped samples were suction cast with casting conditions controlled. •Partial substitution of La by Ce decreases the GFA of Al{sub 85.5}Ni{sub 9.5}La{sub 5}. •Partial substitution of La by Ce increases the GFA of other Al–Ni–La alloys. •The GFA was analyzed from the thermodynamic and topological points of view. -- Abstract: Wedge-shaped samples of Al–Ni–(La–Ce) alloys were suction cast under an identical preparation condition, and their glass forming abilities (GFAs) and crystallization behaviors were compared. It was revealed that the partial substitution of La by Ce decreases the GFA of Al{sub 85.5}Ni{sub 9.5}La{sub 5} alloy but increases the GFAs of Al{sub 87.5}Ni{sub 7.5}La{sub 5}, Al{sub 86.5}Ni{sub 8.5}La{sub 5}, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9}La{sub 5} and Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 9.5}La{sub 4.5} alloys. Meantime the crystallization behavior significantly changes. The optimal substitution content of La for glass formation depends on the composition of the base alloy. The lower the Ni content in the base alloy, the more the La content to be substituted. The GFA change with the substitution content is determined by the atomic packing efficiencies of the La (Ce)-centered clusters.

  14. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  15. Microstructural characterization of spray formed Fe-based amorfizable alloy; Caracterizacao microestrutural de ligas ferrosas amorfizaveis processadas por conformacao por spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, A.H.G.; Ananias, M.Jr. da S.; Lucena, F.A.; Santos, L.S. dos; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S.; Afonso, C.R.M., E-mail: guimaraes.andreh@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys show outstanding characteristics such as high hardness and wear resistance, with microstructure partially amorphous, making them favorable to spray forming process (SF), which has cooling rates between 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} K/s. Thus, this work aims to use the SF in one of the alloy cast iron present in this project, being chosen the alloy with a better set of results, through the performed characterizations. The alloys studied in this project were: (Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 17}Mo{sub 2}C{sub 14}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}){sub 100-x}B{sub x} (x = 5, 8 and 12% at) and (Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 17}Mo{sub 2}C{sub 14}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}){sub 88}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 8} (at.%), being all processed through Discovery® Plasma and 'melt- spinning' and characterized using: TEM, SEM, DSC, XRD and microhardness test. The cast iron alloy selected were (Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 17}Mo{sub 2}C{sub 14}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}){sub 88}Nb{sub 4}B+8, getting by the spray forming process, deposit and overspray powder. With them, were realized almost the same characterizations, except for the TEM. The results showed 1044±102 (HV1) in Vickers microhardness and nanocrystalline overspray powder from 20-45 μm to > 180 μm. (author)

  16. Difference between Cr and Ni K-edge XANES spectra of rust layers formed on Fe-based binary alloys exposed to Cl-rich environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The rust layer formed on weathering steel possesses a strong protective ability against corrosives in an atmospheres. This ability is related to the structure of the rust layer. The difference in the protective ability of a rust layer. The difference in the protective ability of a rust layer in a Cl-rich environment between conventional weathering steel containing Cr and advanced weathering steel containing Ni is believed to be caused by the differences in local structural and chemical properties between alloying elements. Cr and Ni, in the rust layer. In order to examine the effect of these alloying elements on the structure of the rust layer formed on steel in a Cl-rich environment, we have performed Cr and Ni K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni binary alloys exposed to a Cl-rich atmosphere using synchrotron radiation. The results of the Cr K-edge XANES measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Cr binary alloys show that the atomic geometry around Cr depends on the concentration of Cr. Therefore, it is expected that the local structure around Cr in the rust layer is unstable. On the other hand, from the results of the Ni K-edge XANES measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Ni binary alloys. Ni is considered to be positioned at a specific site in the crystal structure of a constituent of the rust layer, such as akaganeite or magnetite. As a consequence, Ni negligibly interacts with Cl - ions in the rust layer. (author)

  17. Formation of a cerium conversion coating on magnesium alloy using ascorbic acid as additive. Characterisation and anticorrosive properties of the formed films

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Loperena; I.L. Lehr; S.B. Saidman.

    2016-01-01

    Cerium-based conversion coatings were formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy by immersion of the substrate in solutions containing Ce(NO3)3, H2O2 and ascorbic acid (HAsc). The characterisation of the films was performed by electrochemical and surface analysis techniques such as SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degree of corrosion protection achieved was evaluated in simulated physiological solution by the open circuit potential monitoring, polarisation tech...

  18. Characterisation of intermetallic particles formed during solution treatment of an Al–7Si–0.4Mg–0.12Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.Y.; Taylor, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is concluded in this work that the fine needle-like particles formed during the solution treatment of the 356 type alloy are indeed β phase plates similar to those frequently observed in as-cast aluminium alloys but of much finer sizes, most likely formed by precipitation in the vicinity of the dissolving π phase particles. ► The crystal structure of the needle-like particles, as examined by selected area electron diffraction, can be essentially indexed as either the A-Centred Monoclinic lattice or the Orthorhombic lattice . ► The particles appear to co-exist in two distinct forms: single crystal particles and composite micro-constituent particles. - Abstract: When Fe-containing Al–7Si–xMg alloys are solution-treated, usually as the initial stage of a T6 heat treatment, some of the π-Al 9 Mg 3 FeSi 5 phase present in the as-cast alloy transforms into fine needle-like intermetallic particles (as seen on a polished surface). These precipitated needles, speculated to be β-Al 5 FeSi phase, have not been definitively characterised to date. In this work, electron microscopy characterisation by various techniques was conducted to assess the nature (i.e. the composition, morphology and crystallography) of these particles to verify or otherwise the validity of the above hypothesis. It is found that the particles are indeed β phase platelets, of the same Al 5 FeSi or Al 4.5 FeSi stoichiometry as particles formed during solidification. Close observation of their crystallographic structure suggests fine-scale internal complexities in some of the particles.

  19. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  20. An X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) study of the Sn L_3 edge in zirconium alloy oxide films formed during autoclave corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, Helen; Baxter, Felicity; Babu, R. Prasath; Denecke, Melissa A.; Gass, Mhairi; Steuwer, Axel; Norén, Katarina; Carlson, Stefan; Preuss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of tin speciation in zirconium alloy metal and oxide films using Sn L_3-XANES. • Chemical environment of tin in Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide films shown to be similar. • Tin in the oxide films is present in both the di- and tetravalent states and oxidises progressively with oxide-layer growth. - Abstract: Application of Sn L_3-XANES to study the oxidation state of alloying additions of tin (1–1.2 wt%) in <2 μm oxide layers formed on nuclear grade zirconium alloy has been demonstrated. Data obtained for metallic and corroded ZIRLO™ (1 wt% Sn) and Zircaloy-4 (1.2 wt% Sn) indicate tin has a similar chemical speciation in both metal alloys but this differs in the oxidised surface layers. By recording XANES at various incident angles to vary the photon penetration depth and amount of the oxide layer probed in the measurement, the authors found evidence that the oxidation of tin progresses with increasing oxide thickness.

  1. A detailed TEM and SEM study of Ni-base alloys oxide scales formed in primary conditions of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennour, Mohamed; Marchetti, Loic; Martin, Frantz; Perrin, Stephane; Molins, Regine; Pijolat, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The oxide film formed on nickel-based alloys in pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary coolant conditions (325 o C, aqueous media) is very thin, in the range of 1-100 nm thick, depending on the surface state and on the corrosion test duration. The nature and the structure of this scale have been investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). TEM observations revealed an oxide layer divided in two parts. The internal layer was mainly composed of a continuous spinel layer, identified as a mixed iron and nickel chromite (Ni (1-x) Fe x Cr 2 O 4 ). Moreover, nodules of Cr 2 O 3 , with a size about 5 nm, were present at the interface between this spinel and the alloy. No chromium depletion was observed in the alloy, at the alloy/oxide interface. The external layer is composed of large crystallites corresponding to a spinel structure rich in iron (Ni (1-z) Fe (2+z) O 4 ) resulting from precipitation phenomena. SEM and TEM observations showed a link between the nucleation and/or the growth of crystallites of nickel ferrite and the crystallographic orientation of the substrate. A link between the presence of surface defects and the nucleation of the crystallites was also underlined by SEM observations. Partially hydrated nickel hydroxide, was also observed by TEM in the external scale. Based on these results, some considerations about the mechanism of formation of this oxide layer are discussed.

  2. Regularities in forming hardened layer during electric spark alloying on the mechanized plant EhFI-66

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Zajtsev, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The regularities in erosion and formation of a hardened layer during electric spark alloying by a mechanized installation EFI-66-type have been studied. The heat resisting metals: Ti,Zr,V,Nb,Ta,Cr,Mo,W have been used as material for alloying electrodes. The effect of the thermophysical constants, as well as of the time of treatment and the material nature have been investigated. No direct dependence of erosion on the thermophysical constants was found. The erosion resistance of material, when treated by a mechanized installation, depends on its plasticity. Tantalum appeared to be more erosion-resistant, its cold-embrittlement temperature being the least. The dependence of the erosion on the alloying time is of a linear character. Depending on the nature of material are the most erosive vanadium and chromium, tantalum is the least erosive. The metallographic analysis has shown, that in the electric spark alloying by means of the mechanized installation the hardened layer could be subdivided into a ''white'' layer of high hardness and a layer of transformed structure. The ''white'' layer thickness is practically the same for each of the metals. The largest summary thickness of the layer is observed when alloying with the metals Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta

  3. Room and ultrahigh temperature structure-mechanical property relationships of tungsten alloys formed by field assisted sintering technique (FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Paul N.; Alagic, Sven [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Kulkarni, Anil [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Nuclear and Mechanical Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Matson, Lawrence [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH (United States); Singh, Jogender, E-mail: jxs46@arl.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State College, PA-16801 (United States); Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State College, PA-16801 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Tungsten based alloys have become of critical importance in a number of applications including plasma-facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, rocket nozzles for aerospace applications, and in kinetic energy penetrators in the defense industry. Formation of components for these uses by powder metallurgical techniques has proven challenging, due to tungsten's relatively poor sinterability. Here we report the use of field assisted sintering technique (FAST) to produce high density, fine grain alloys with mechanical properties comparable or superior to that of components produced by conventional techniques. Alloys of pure tungsten, W-3 vol%TiC, W-5 vol%TiC, and W-10 vol%Ta were synthesized at 2100 °C, 35 MPa for 25 min using FAST. Microstructural characterization revealed effective reduction of grain size with TiC addition and preferential diffusion of oxygen into the center of tantalum particles in tantalum containing alloys. Tensile testing of alloys revealed TiC addition to W resulted in substantially improved ultimate tensile strength at the cost of ductility in comparison at temperatures up to 1926 °C (3500 °F) however this strengthening effect was lost at 2204 °C (4000 °F). Addition of 10 vol%Ta to W resulted in reduced hardness at room temperature, but substantially increased yield strength at the cost of slightly reduced ductility at 1926 °C and 2204 °C.

  4. A study into the impact of interface roughness development on mechanical degradation of oxides formed on zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, P.; Wedge, S.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2015-01-01

    As a cladding material used to encapsulate nuclear fuel pellets, zirconium alloys are the primary barrier separating the fuel and a pressurised steam or lithiated water environment. Degradation mechanisms such as oxidation can be the limiting factor in the life-time of the fuel assembly. Key to controlling oxidation, and therefore allowing increased burn-up of fuel, is the development of a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process. In an autoclave, the oxidation kinetics for zirconium alloys are typically cyclical, with periods of accelerated kinetics being observed in steps of ∼2 μm oxide growth. These periods of accelerated oxidation are immediately preceded by the development of a layer of lateral cracks near the metal-oxide interface, which may be associated with the development of interface roughness. The present work uses scanning electron microscopy to carry out a statistical analysis of changes in the metal-oxide interface roughness between three different alloys at different stages of autoclave oxidation. The first two alloys are Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO ™ for which analysis is carried out at stages before, during and after first transition. The third alloy is an experimental low tin alloy, which under the same oxidation conditions and during the same time period does not appear to go through transition. Assessment of the metal-oxide interface roughness is primarily carried out based on the root mean square of the interface slope known as the R dq parameter. Results show clear trends with relation to transition points in the corrosion kinetics. Discussion is given to how this relates to the existing mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process, and the components required for possible future modelling approaches

  5. Contribution to the identification of the processes kinetically limiting of the zirconium alloys oxidation; characterization of the oxide films formed at high temperature by solids electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermoyal, J.J.

    2000-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys used for cladding tubes has been extensively studied under several oxidation conditions (temperature, steam, dry air, oxygen...) in order to clarify the mechanism(s) of oxide growth and breakdown. Oxidation rate is generally assumed to be controlled by oxygen diffusion inwards the oxide layer. Nevertheless, several experimental facts, such as acceleration or inhibition of corrosion rate in coupling conditions, suggest that electrochemical processes are involved as a rate determining step. This work is an attempt to shed light about the rate-limiting-mechanism of two zirconium alloys oxidation: Zircaloy-4 (Zy-4) and Zr-Nb(1%)O(0,13%). Impedance spectroscopy characterizations of oxide films formed in high temperature water and studied in gaseous atmosphere clearly show the difference of electrical properties between the two alloys. The in situ electrochemical and thermogravimetric investigations in gaseous medium, and the polarization effects on oxidation and hydridation of Zr alloys in PWRs conditions indicate that oxygen diffusion can be considered as the limiting kinetic step for Zy-4 oxidation. On the contrary, the acceleration of oxide growth on Zr-Nb(1%)O(0,13%) under anodic polarization in PWRs conditions (360 deg C) suggests that either the electronic conductivity in the oxide or an interfacial process at least partially control the oxidation rate. Catalytic effects observed in gaseous medium when noble metals increase the oxygen reduction rate would tend to corroborate the oxidation control of this alloy by an interfacial mechanism. An electrochemical description and a heterogeneous kinetics approach based on a diffusion-interfacial process as rate determining step are then proposed. (author)

  6. Composites Strengthened with Graphene Platelets and Formed in Semisolid State Based on α and α/β MgLiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz; Fima, Przemyslaw; Ozga, Piotr

    2018-05-01

    MgLiAl base composites strengthened with graphene platelets were prepared by semisolid processing of ball-milled alloy chips with 2% of graphene platelets. Composites strengthened with graphene platelets show higher hardness and yield stress than the cast alloys, i.e., 160 MPa as compared to 90 MPa for as-cast alloy MgLi9Al1.5. Mechanical properties for MgLiAl-based composites were similar or higher than for composites based on conventional AZ91 or WE43 alloys. The strengthening however was not only due to the presence of graphene, but also phases resulting from the reaction between carbon and lithium, i.e., Li2C2 carbide. Graphene platelets were located at globules boundaries resulting from semisolid processing for all investigated composites. Graphene platelets were in agglomerates forming continuous layers at grain boundaries in the composite based on the alloy MgLi4.5Al1.5. The shape of agglomerates was more complex and wavy in the composite based on MgLi9Al1.5 alloy most probably due to lithium-graphene reaction. Electron diffraction from the two-phase region α + β in MgLi9Al1.5 indicated that [001]α and [110]β directions are rotated about 4° from the ideal relationship [001] hex || [110] bcc phases. It showed higher lattice rotation than in earlier studies what is most probably caused by lattice slip and rotation during semisolid pressing causing substantial deformation particularly within the β phase. Raman spectroscopy studies confirmed the presence of graphene platelets within agglomerates and in addition the presence mainly of Li2C2 carbides in composites based on MgLi4.5Al1.5 and Mg9Li1.5Al alloys. From the character of Raman spectra refinement of graphene platelets was found in comparison with their initial size. The graphene areas without carbides contain graphene nanoplatelets with lateral dimension close to initial graphene sample. Electron diffraction allowed to confirm the presence of Li2C2 carbide at the surface of agglomerates found from

  7. Influence of Applied Voltage and Film-Formation Time on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Coatings Formed on Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca Bio-magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandong, Yu; Shuzhen, Kuang; Jie, Li

    2015-09-01

    The influence of applied voltage and film-formation time on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of coatings formed on a Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy has been investigated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. Phase composition and microstructure of as-coated samples were analyzed by the x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. And the porosity and average of micro-pore aperture of the surface on ceramic coatings were analyzed by general image software. Corrosion microstructure of as-coated samples was caught by a microscope digital camera. The long-term corrosion resistance of as-coated samples was tested in simulated body fluid for 30 days. The results showed that the milky white smooth ceramic coating formed on the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy was a compound of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and MgSiO3, and its corrosion resistance was significantly improved compared with that of the magnesium substrate. In addition, when the MAO applied voltage were 450 V and 500 V and film-formation time were 9 min and 11 min, the surface micro-morphology and the corrosion resistance of as-coated samples were relatively improved. The results provided a theoretical foundation for the application of the Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca novel bio-magnesium alloy in biomedicine.

  8. Influence of multi-step heat treatments in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy: Optimization for springback, strength and exfoliation corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi Jeshvaghani, R.; Zohdi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, H.R., E-mail: shahverdi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bozorg, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3197, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Multi-step heat treatments comprise of high temperature forming (150 Degree-Sign C/24 h plus 190 Degree-Sign C for several minutes) and subsequent low temperature forming (120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h) is developed in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy to decrease springback and exfoliation corrosion susceptibility without reduction in tensile properties. The results show that the multi-step heat treatment gives the low springback and the best combination of exfoliation corrosion resistance and tensile strength. The lower springback is attributed to the dislocation recovery and more stress relaxation at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that corrosion resistance is improved due to the enlargement in the size and the inter-particle distance of the grain boundaries precipitates. Furthermore, the achievement of the high strength is related to the uniform distribution of ultrafine {eta} Prime precipitates within grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep age forming developed for manufacturing of aircraft wing panels by aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good combination of properties with minimal springback is required in this component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This requirement can be improved through the appropriate heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-step cycles developed in creep age forming of AA7075 for improving of springback and properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results indicate simultaneous enhancing the properties and shape accuracy (lower springback).

  9. Formation of Ag nanoparticles in percolative Ag–PbTiO3 composite thin films through lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Zongrong; Su, Yanbo; Tang, Liwen; Shen, Ge; Song, Chenlu; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2012-01-01

    The Ag nanoparticle dispersed percolative PbTiO 3 ceramic thin film was prepared in situ by sol–gel method with excess lead introduced into a sol precursor. The influence of excess lead and the heat treatment time on the formation of Ag nanoparticles was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. Results showed that the excess lead introduced into the sol precursor was in favor of the crystallization of the thin film and in favor of formation of the perovskite phase without the pyrochlore phase. Lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles first formed in the thin films and then decomposed to become large numbers of Ag nanoparticles of about 3 nm in size in the thin films when the heat treatment time was longer than 2 min. The content of the Ag nanoparticles increased with increasing the heat treatment time. The percolative behavior appears typically in the Ag nanoparticle dispersed thin films. The dielectric constant of the thin film was about 3 times of that without Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: ► The Ag nanoparticles formed in the PbTiO 3 percolative ceramic thin film. ► The Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase during thin film preparation. ► The lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles decomposed to form Ag nanoparticles in the film. ► Permittivity of the thin film is 3 times higher than that without Ag nanoparticles.

  10. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepniowski, Wojciech J., E-mail: wstepniowski@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of New Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2 Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Cieslak, Grzegorz; Norek, Malgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domanska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jozwik, Pawel; Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of New Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2 Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anodic porous alumina was formed by Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy anodization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anodizations were conducted in 0.3 M citric acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanopores geometry depends on anodizing voltage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No barrier layer was formed during anodization. - Abstract: Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 {mu}m/h was found for the anodization at 0 Degree-Sign C and 2.0 V. The highest one - 2.29 {mu}m/h - was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 Degree-Sign C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 Degree-Sign C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/{mu}m{sup 2} (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 94.9 pores/{mu}m{sup 2} (12.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the

  11. Investigation of Abnormal Grain Growth in a Friction Stir Welded and Spin-Formed Al-Li Alloy 2195 Crew Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayon, Wesley A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve manufacturing efficiency and reduce structural mass and costs in the production of launch vehicle structures, NASA is pursuing a wide-range of innovative, near-net shape manufacturing technologies. A technology that combines friction stir welding (FSW) and spin-forming has been applied to manufacture a single-piece crew module using Aluminum-Lithium (AL-Li) Alloy 2195. Plate size limitations for Al-Li alloy 2195 require that two plates be FSW together to produce a spin-forming blank of sufficient size to form the crew module. Subsequent forming of the FSW results in abnormal grain growth (AGG) within the weld region upon solution heat treatment (SHT), which detrimentally impacts strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The current study seeks to identify microstructural factors that contribute to the development of AGG. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to correlate driving forces for AGG, such as stored energy, texture, and grain size distributions, with the propensity for AGG. Additionally, developmental annealing treatments prior to SHT are examined to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of AGG by promoting continuous, or uniform, grain growth

  12. Effect of thermal exposure, forming, and welding on high-temperature, dispersion-strengthened aluminum alloy: Al-8Fe-1V-2Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Gilman, P. S.; Zedalis, M. S.; Skinner, D. J.; Peltier, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of applying conventional hot forming and welding methods to high temperature aluminum alloy, Al-8Fe-1V-2Si (FVS812), for structural applications and the effect of thermal exposure on mechanical properties were determined. FVS812 (AA8009) sheet exhibited good hot forming and resistance welding characteristics. It was brake formed to 90 deg bends (0.5T bend radius) at temperatures greater than or equal to 390 C (730 F), indicating the feasibility of fabricating basic shapes, such as angles and zees. Hot forming of simple contoured-flanged parts was demonstrated. Resistance spot welds with good static and fatigue strength at room and elevated temperatures were readily produced. Extended vacuum degassing during billet fabrication reduced porosity in fusion and resistance welds. However, electron beam welding was not possible because of extreme degassing during welding, and gas-tungsten-arc welds were not acceptable because of severely degraded mechanical properties. The FVS812 alloy exhibited excellent high temperature strength stability after thermal exposures up to 315 C (600 F) for 1000 h. Extended billet degassing appeared to generally improve tensile ductility, fatigue strength, and notch toughness. But the effects of billet degassing and thermal exposure on properties need to be further clarified. The manufacture of zee-stiffened, riveted, and resistance-spot-welded compression panels was demonstrated.

  13. Comparison of electrochemical corrosion behaviour of MgO and ZrO2 coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Dietzel, W.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of PEO coatings were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy using pulsed DC plasma electrolytic oxidation process in an alkaline phosphate and acidic fluozirconate electrolytes, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of these PEO coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of the coated samples was evaluated by open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in neutral 0.1 M NaCl solution. The results showed that PEO coating prepared from alkaline phosphate electrolyte consisted of only MgO and on the other hand the one formed in acidic fluozirconate solution was mainly composed of ZrO 2 , MgF 2 . Electrochemical corrosion tests indicated that the phase composition of PEO coating has a significant effect on the deterioration process of coated magnesium alloy in this corrosive environment. The PEO coating that was composed of only MgO suffered from localized corrosion in the 50 h exposure studies, whereas the PEO coating with ZrO 2 compounds showed a much superior stability during the corrosion tests and provided an efficient corrosion protection. The results showed that the preparation of PEO coating with higher chemical stability compounds offers an opportunity to produce layers that could provide better corrosion protection to magnesium alloys.

  14. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating with Si content on the nanotube-formed Ti–Nb–Zr alloy using electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on the nanotube-formed Ti–35Nb–10Zr alloy. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) coatings on the nanotube structure were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition and anodization methods, and biodegradation properties were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Si–HA layers were deposited with rough features having highly ordered nanotube structures on the titanium alloy substrate. The thickness of the Si–HA coating was less than that of the HA coating. The XRD results confirmed that the Si–HA coating on the nanotube structure consisted of TiO 2 anatase, TiO 2 rutile, hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate silicate. The Si–HA coating surface exhibited lower I corr than the HA coating, and the polarization resistance was increased by substitution of silicon in hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: • Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) was coated on nanotubular titanium alloy. • The Si–HA coating thickness was less than single hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. • Si–HA coatings consisted of TiO 2 , HA, and Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 2 SiO 4 . • Polarization resistance of the coating was increased by Si substitution in HA

  15. Effect of Mo-Fe substitution on glass forming ability, thermal stability, and hardness of Fe-C-B-Mo-Cr-W bulk amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Hesham E.; Cheney, Justin L. [University of California, San Diego Materials Science and Engineering Program, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Vecchio, Kenneth S. [University of California, San Diego Department of NanoEngineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)], E-mail: kvecchio@ucsd.edu

    2008-08-25

    Amorphous Fe{sub 67-x}C{sub 10}B{sub 9}Mo{sub 7+x}Cr{sub 4}W{sub 3} (x = 1-7 at.%) plates with 640 {mu}m thickness were prepared by copper mold casting. The thermal properties and microstructural development during heat treatments were investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The glass forming ability (GFA) and activation energy for crystallization have a distinct dependence on Mo content. Fe{sub 62}C{sub 10}B{sub 9}Mo{sub 12}Cr{sub 4}W{sub 3} is the best glass former in this study, demonstrating a supercooled liquid region, {delta}T{sub x} = 51 K, and an activation energy for crystallization, Q = 453 kJ/mol. The GFA of alloys in this system was governed by elastic strain optimization resulting directly from the variation in Mo content. Heat treatments were performed to demonstrate resistance to crystallization under typical processing conditions. Alloys in this system exhibited a three-phase evolution during crystallization. A second set of heat treatments was performed to identify each phase. Hardness data was collected at each of the heat treatment conditions, and a bulk metallic glasses (BMG)-derived composite containing a Mo-rich phase exhibited Vickers Hardness in excess of 2000. The fully amorphous alloys had an average hardness approaching 1500.

  16. [A preliminary study on the forming quality of titanium alloy removable partial denture frameworks fabricated by selective laser melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y F; Yu, H; Wang, W N; Gao, B

    2017-06-09

    Objective: To evaluate the processing accuracy, internal quality and suitability of the titanium alloy frameworks of removable partial denture (RPD) fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) technique, and to provide reference for clinical application. Methods: The plaster model of one clinical patient was used as the working model, and was scanned and reconstructed into a digital working model. A RPD framework was designed on it. Then, eight corresponding RPD frameworks were fabricated using SLM technique. Three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner was used to scan and obtain the 3D data of the frameworks and the data was compared with the original computer aided design (CAD) model to evaluate their processing precision. The traditional casting pure titanium frameworks was used as the control group, and the internal quality was analyzed by X-ray examination. Finally, the fitness of the frameworks was examined on the plaster model. Results: The overall average deviation of the titanium alloy RPD framework fabricated by SLM technology was (0.089±0.076) mm, the root mean square error was 0.103 mm. No visible pores, cracks and other internal defects was detected in the frameworks. The framework fits on the plaster model completely, and its tissue surface fitted on the plaster model well. There was no obvious movement. Conclusions: The titanium alloy RPD framework fabricated by SLM technology is of good quality.

  17. Antibiotic resistance, ability to form biofilm and susceptibility to copper alloys of selected staphylococcal strains isolated from touch surfaces in Polish hospital wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Różańska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the employment of sanitary regimes, contact transmission of the aetiological agents of hospital infections is still exceedingly common. The issue of microbe transmission becomes particularly important when facing multidrug-resistant microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In the case of deficiencies in cleaning and disinfection procedures, hospital equipment made of copper alloys can play an important role, complementing traditional hospital hygiene procedures. The objective of this study was to characterize staphylococcal strains isolated from touch surfaces in Polish hospital wards in terms of their drug resistance, ability to form biofilm and susceptibility to antimicrobial activity of copper alloys. Methods The materials for the study were 95 staphylococcal strains isolated from touch surfaces in 13 different hospital wards from Małopolska province (the south of Poland. Phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance were checked for erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and mupirocin. Biofilm formation ability for the tested strains was checked with the use of culture on Congo red agar. Susceptibility to copper, tin bronze, brass and new silver was tested using a modification of the Japanese standard. Results Over 67% of the analysed staphylococcal strains were methicillin-resistant (MR. Four strains were resistant to all of the tested antibiotics, and 14 were resistant to all except mupirocin. Strains classified as MR had significantly increased resistance to the remaining antibiotic groups. About one-third of the analysed strains revealed biofilm-forming ability. Among the majority of species, biofilm-forming and non-biofilm-forming strains were distributed evenly; in the case of S. haemolyticus only, negative strains accounted for 92.8%. Susceptibility to copper alloys was different between strains and rather lower than in the case of the SA

  18. Super plastic forming of the Cd-17.4 Zn alloy; Conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4 Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llanes Briceno, J. A.; Torres Villasenor, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In the present work the necessary steps to carry on the superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4 Zn alloy are defined. The use of either atmospheric pressure or gas pressure as forming tools is analyzed. The optimum values of the variables involved (temperature, maximum strain and sensitivity index) are determined while a method for the characterization of future superplastic alloys is set forth. The experimental characterization of the superplastic forming is achieved with free bulging of circular membranes of 12, 16, 24, 32 and 40 mm in diameter and with three different membrane thicknesses (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm). [Spanish] Se definen los pasos necesarios para el conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4Zn. Se comparan la presion atmosferica y el gas a presion como herramientas de conformado. Se determinan los valores optimos de las variables involucradas (temperatura, deformacion maxima e indice de sensibilidad) y se plantea una metodologia para la caracterizacion de futuras aleaciones superplasticas. El conformado superplastico se caracteriza experimentalmente mediante el inflado libre de membranas circulares de 12, 16, 24, 32 y 40 mm de diametro y tres diferentes espesores (0.4, 0.6 y 0.8 mm).

  19. Microstructural evolution and magnetic properties of ultrafine solute-atom particles formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy on isothermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seop; Takeda, Mahoto; Bae, Dong-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Microstructural features strongly affect magnetism in nano-granular magnetic materials. In the present work we have investigated the relationship between the magnetic properties and the self-organized microstructure formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy comprising ferromagnetic elements and copper atoms. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations showed that on isothermal annealing at 873 K, nano-scale solute (Fe,Ni)-rich clusters initially formed with a random distribution in the Cu-rich matrix. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements revealed that these ultrafine solute clusters exhibited super-spinglass and superparamagnetic states. On further isothermal annealing the precipitates evolved to cubic or rectangular ferromagnetic particles and aligned along the directions of the copper-rich matrix. Electron energy-band calculations based on the first-principle Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (KKR) method were also implemented to investigate both the electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the alloy. Inputting compositions obtained experimentally by scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis, the KKR calculation confirmed that ferromagnetic precipitates (of moment 1.07μB per atom) formed after annealing for 2 × 104 min. Magneto-thermogravimetric (MTG) analysis determined with high sensitivity the Curie temperatures and magnetic susceptibility above room temperature of samples containing nano-scale ferromagnetic particles.

  20. Effects of product form and boron addition on the creep damage in the modified Hastelloy X alloys in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Yuji; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper investigates early-stage-creep damage of Hastelloy XR and XR-II alloys, modified versions of Hastelloy X alloy, which have been developed in Japan as most promising candidate structural alloys for Japanese high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Creep tests were made on Hastelloy XR forging, tube and XR-II tube at 1,123 to 1,273 K in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment. The tests were interrupted at different strain levels of up to 5 % in order to evaluate creep damage via intergranular voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries and the A-parameter, the ratio of the number of damaged grain boundaries, on which one or more voids are found, to that of the total grain boundaries observed are used in order to evaluate creep damage. Statistical analysis of the A-parameter as well as the void sizes reveals that the values of the parameter show wide variations and follow the Weibull distribution, reflecting spatial randomness of the voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries, on the other hand, follow the log-normal distribution. The maximum void size d max and the mean value of the A-parameter A m are calculated and plotted against interruption creep strain ε int . The resultant d max vs. ε int and A m vs. ε int diagrams show that Hastelloy XR forging had suffered more damage than Hastelloy XR tube; nevertheless, the forging has longer interruption life, or the time to reach a given interruption creep strain. The result indicates that grains may have been deformed more easily in Hastelloy XR in the form of tube than in the form of forging. The diagrams also imply that the addition of boron has suppressed the nucleation as well as the growth of voids and thus has brought about longer interruption life of Hastelloy XR-II. (author)

  1. Effect of electrolyte additives on performance of plasma electrolytic oxidation films formed on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Hongping; Yan, Chuanwei; Wang, Fuhui

    2007-01-01

    Various plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films were prepared on magnesium alloy AZ91D in a silicate bath with different additives such as phosphate, fluoride and borate. Effects of the additives on chemical composition and corrosion resistance of the PEO films were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that the PEO films obtained in solutions with both borate and fluoride had better corrosion resistance. In order to understand the corrosion mechanism of PEO films on magnesium alloy AZ91D, electronic property of the magnesium electrode with PEO films was studied by Mott-Schottky approach in a solution containing borate and chloride. The results indicated that magnesium electrodes with and without PEO films all exhibited n-type semiconducting property. However, in comparison with the magnesium electrode treated in solutions containing phosphate or borate, the electrode treated in solutions containing both borate and fluoride (M-film) had lower donor concentration and much negative flat band potential; therefore, the M-film had lower reactivity and higher corrosion resistance

  2. Effects of benzotriazole on anodized film formed on AZ31B magnesium alloy in environmental-friendly electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinghua; An Maozhong; Yang Peixia; Li Haixian; Su Caina

    2009-01-01

    An environmental-friendly electrolyte of silicate and borate, which contained an addition agent of 1H-benzotriazole (BTA) with low toxicity (LD50 of 965 mg/kg), was used to prepare an anodized film on AZ31B magnesium alloy under the constant current density of 1.5 A/dm 2 at room temperature. Effects of BTA on the properties of the anodized film were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), loss weight measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results demonstrated that anodized growth process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependant on the BTA concentration, which might be attributed to the formation of an BTA adsorption layer on magnesium substrate surface. When the BTA concentration was 5 g/L in the electrolyte, a compact and thick anodized film could provide excellent corrosion resistance for AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  3. Influence of Short Austenitization Treatments on the Mechanical Properties of Low-Alloy Steels for Hot Forming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweissig, Martin Joachim; Lackmann, Jan; Konrad, Stefan; Schaper, Mirko; Niendorf, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The current work elucidates an improvement of the mechanical properties of tool-quenched low-alloy steel by employing extremely short austenitization durations utilizing a press heating arrangement. Specifically, the influence of different austenitization treatments—involving austenitization durations ranging from three to 15 seconds—on the mechanical properties of low-alloy steel in comparison to an industrial standard furnace process was examined. A thorough set of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of different austenitization durations and temperatures on the resulting mechanical properties such as hardness, bending angle, tensile strength, and strain at fracture. The most important finding is that the hardness, the bending angle as well as the tensile strength increase with shortened austenitization durations. Furthermore, the ductility of the steels exhibits almost no difference following the short austenitization durations and the standard furnace process. The enhancement of the mechanical properties imposed by the short heat treatments investigated, is related to a refinement of microstructural features as compared to the standard furnace process.

  4. Characteristics and corrosion studies of vanadate conversion coating formed on Mg–14 wt%Li–1 wt%Al–0.1 wt%Ce alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yibin; Li Ning; Li Deyu; Zhang Milin; Huang Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vanadate film forms on the surface of Mg–Li–Al–Ce alloy. ► Vanadate coating improves the corrosion resistance. ► Vanadate coating is composed of Mg(OH) 2 , Li 2 O and V 2 O 5 . - Abstract: Mg–14Li–1Al–0.1Ce alloy is immersed in NH 4 VO 3 + K 3 (Fe(CN) 6 ) solutions with different NH 4 VO 3 and/or K 3 (Fe(CN) 6 ) concentrations, and different immersion time. The surface morphology and composition of the vanadate coating are then characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the corrosion behavior of the conversion coating is studied by polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results indicate that the vanadate film with better corrosion resistance forms on Mg–Li–Al–Ce surface after the sample is immersed in 30 g L −1 NH 4 VO 3 + 3.75 g L −1 K 3 (Fe(CN) 6 ) solution at 80 °C for 10 min. The coating consists of V 2 O 5 , Li 2 O and Mg(OH) 2 .

  5. Coercivity of the Nd–Fe–B hot-deformed magnets diffusion-processed with low melting temperature glass forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, U.M.R. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Akiya, T.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Kato, A. [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Nd- and Pr-based alloys with bulk glass forming ability and low melting temperatures, Nd{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20} and Pr{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20}, were used for grain boundary diffusion process to enhance the coercivity of hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity increment was proportional to the weight gain after the diffusion process. For the sample with 64% weight gain, the coercivity increased up to 2.8 T, which is the highest value for bulk Nd–Fe–B magnets that do not contain heavy rare-earth elements, Dy or Tb. Approximately half of the intergranular regions were amorphous and the remaining regions were crystalline. Magnetic isolation of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains by the Nd-rich amorphous/crystalline intergranular phases is attributed to the large coercivity enhancement. The coercivity does not change after the crystallization of the intergranular phase, indicating that the coercivity is not influenced by the strain at the interface with the crystalline intergranular phase. - Highlights: • Bulk-glass forming alloys were infiltrated into hot-deformed Nd–Fe–B magnets. • Very high coercivity of 2.8 T was attained without heavy rare-earth elements. • Approximately half of the inter-granular regions were amorphous. • Crystallization of amorphous intergranular phase does not change coercivity.

  6. Characteristics and corrosion studies of vanadate conversion coating formed on Mg-14 wt%Li-1 wt%Al-0.1 wt%Ce alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yibin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning, E-mail: lininghit@263.net [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Deyu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin; Huang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadate film forms on the surface of Mg-Li-Al-Ce alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadate coating improves the corrosion resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadate coating is composed of Mg(OH){sub 2}, Li{sub 2}O and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. - Abstract: Mg-14Li-1Al-0.1Ce alloy is immersed in NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} + K{sub 3}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) solutions with different NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} and/or K{sub 3}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) concentrations, and different immersion time. The surface morphology and composition of the vanadate coating are then characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the corrosion behavior of the conversion coating is studied by polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results indicate that the vanadate film with better corrosion resistance forms on Mg-Li-Al-Ce surface after the sample is immersed in 30 g L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} + 3.75 g L{sup -1} K{sub 3}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) solution at 80 Degree-Sign C for 10 min. The coating consists of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Li{sub 2}O and Mg(OH){sub 2}.

  7. Synthesis and Properties of Metallic Technetium and Technetium-Zirconium Alloys as Transmutation Target and Radioactive waste storage form in the UREX+1 Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Thomas [Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)]|[Harry Reid Center, University Nevada - Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R. [Harry Reid Center, University Nevada - Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the application of UREX+1 process, technetium will be separated together with uranium and iodine within the first process step. After the separation of uranium, technetium and iodine must be immobilized by their incorporation in a suitable waste storage-form. Based on recent activities within the AFCI community, a potential candidate as waste storage form to immobilize technetium is to alloy the metal with excess zirconium. Alloys in the binary Tc-Zr system may act as potential transmutation targets in order to transmute Tc-99 into Ru-100. We are presenting first results in the synthesis of metallic technetium, and the synthesis of equilibrium phases in the binary Tc-Zr system at 1400 deg. C after arc-melting and isothermal annealing under inert conditions. Samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe micro-analysis, which allows us to construct the binary Tc-Zr phase diagram for the isothermal section at 1400 deg. C. (authors)

  8. Tribological evaluation of surface modified H13 tool steel in warm forming of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The H13 hot-working tool steel is widely used as die material in the warm forming of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet. However, under the heating condition, severe friction and lubricating conditions between the H13 tools and Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet would cause difficulty in guaranteeing forming quality. Surface modification may be used to control the level of friction force, reduce the friction wear and extend the service life of dies. In this paper, four surface modification methods (chromium plating, TiAlN coating, surface polishing and nitriding treatment were applied to the H13 surfaces. Taking the coefficient of friction (CoF and the wear degree as evaluation indicators, the high-temperature tribological behavior of the surface modified H13 steel was experimentally investigated under different tribological conditions. The results of this study indicate that the tribological properties of the TiAlN coating under dry friction condition are better than the others for a wide range of temperature (from room temperature to 500 °C, while there is little difference of tribological properties between different surface modifications under graphite lubricated condition, and the variation law of CoF with temperature under graphite lubricated is opposite to that under the dry friction.

  9. Effect of alumina sol addition to micro-arc oxidation electrolyte on the properties of MAO coatings formed on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laleh, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour; Shahrabi, T.; Shanghi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Oxide coatings were formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy using micro-arc oxidation process in alkaline electrolyte without and with addition of alumina sol. The microstructures and compositions of the MAO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behaviors of the coatings were evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5%NaCl solution. Porosities of the coatings were measured by potentiodynamic polarization tests. It was found that the coating produced in the electrolyte with alumina sol has more compact and uniform morphology than that produced in the electrolyte without alumina sol. The results of corrosion tests showed that the coating formed in electrolyte with alumina sol enhances the corrosion resistance of the substrate significantly. XRD patterns showed that the coating produced in the electrolyte with alumina sol has more MgAl 2 O 4 phase than MgO.

  10. Eutectic crystallization behavior of new Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 alloy with high glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q S; Zhang, W; Xie, G Q; Inoue, A

    2009-01-01

    A water quenching method is used to produce as-cast Zr 48 Cu 36 Al 8 Ag 8 rods with diameters from 20 mm to 25 mm. The microstructures of the as-cast samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the crystallization behavior of the Zr 48 Cu 36 Al 8 Ag 8 glassy alloy was examined by XRD and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the results obtained one can assume that the simultaneous precipitation of the Zr 2 Cu+AlCu 2 Zr eutectic phases is the possible reason for the high stabilization of the quaternary Zr 48 Cu 36 Al 8 Ag 8 supercooled liquid.

  11. Forming and control of pores by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing in NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, B; Zhu, M; Gao, Y; Li, X; Chung, C Y

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pore evolution process of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) fabricated by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (CF-HIP) was investigated by adopting different fabricating parameters. It is shown that porous NiTi SMAs with homogeneous pore distribution and nearly spherical pore shape can be prepared by CF-HIP under suitable conditions. In addition, two novel pore structures were produced, one with a sandwich-like structure, and another with controlled gradient of porosity along the radial direction, with pore size increasing from the outside towards the center of the specimen. The former was obtained by balancing the pressure in the HIP chamber and the gas pressure resulting from the gas expansion in the green sample. The latter resulted from the formation of air bubbles in the liquid phase during the sintering

  12. The forming of coke by catalytic cracking of black mineral oil by catalysts on the base of activated aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaeva, L.M.; Akhverdiev, R.B.; Aliev, Eh.T.; Gusejnova, A.D.; Gadzhi-Kasumov, V.S.; Akerson, V.I.; Sarmurzina, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with an investigation in coke formation under black mineral oil reactions on oxide catalysts which care based on activated aluminium alloys containing 2-20% of active components of In and Ga. The coke yield is of extreme nature and depends on the content of active components in the catalyst composition. The application of thermogravimetric method shows that the oxidation of coke depositions after black mineral oil cracking proceeds in the same temperature range while after the steam-water treatment of coked catalysts the oxidation of coke deposition proceeds at higher temperatures with different temperature maximums which points to the inhomogeneity of coke depositions. It is shown that the catalyst phase composition changes significantly during the reaction under the effect of reaction mixture. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating with Si content on the nanotube-formed Ti–Nb–Zr alloy using electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States); Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on the nanotube-formed Ti–35Nb–10Zr alloy. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) coatings on the nanotube structure were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition and anodization methods, and biodegradation properties were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Si–HA layers were deposited with rough features having highly ordered nanotube structures on the titanium alloy substrate. The thickness of the Si–HA coating was less than that of the HA coating. The XRD results confirmed that the Si–HA coating on the nanotube structure consisted of TiO{sub 2} anatase, TiO{sub 2} rutile, hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate silicate. The Si–HA coating surface exhibited lower I{sub corr} than the HA coating, and the polarization resistance was increased by substitution of silicon in hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: • Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) was coated on nanotubular titanium alloy. • The Si–HA coating thickness was less than single hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. • Si–HA coatings consisted of TiO{sub 2}, HA, and Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. • Polarization resistance of the coating was increased by Si substitution in HA.

  14. Electroless plating of low-resistivity Cu–Mn alloy thin films with self-forming capacity and enhanced thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sung-Te, E-mail: stchen@mail.hust.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Dali 412, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Giin-Shan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen 407, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-05

    Previous studies have typically used sputter deposition to fabricate Cu–Mn alloy thin films with concentrated solute additions which have exceeded several atomic percentages, and the electrical resistivity values of the resultant films from previous studies are relatively high, ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 μΩ-cm. Herein, we proposed a different approach by using electroless process to plate dilute Cu–Mn (0.1 at.%) alloy thin films on dielectric layers (SiO{sub 2}). Upon forming-gas annealing, the Mn incorporated into Cu–Mn films was segregated toward the SiO{sub 2} side, eventually converting itself into a few atomic layer thickness at the Cu/SiO{sub 2} interface, and forming films with a low level of resistivity the same as that of pure Cu films (2.0 μΩ-cm). The interfacial layer served as not only a diffusion barrier, but also an adhesion promoter that prevented the film’s agglomeration during annealing at elevated temperatures. The mechanism for the dual-function performance by the Mn addition was elucidated by interfacial bonding analysis, as well as dynamic (adhesive strength) and thermodynamic (surface-tension) measurements. - Highlights: • Electroless plating is proposed to grow dilute (0.1%) Cu–Mn films on SiO{sub 2} layers. • Adequate annealing results in a self-forming of MnO{sub x} at the Cu/SiO{sub 2} interface. • The role of interfacial MnO{sub x} as a barrier and adhesion promoter is demonstrated. • The treated dilute film has a low ρ level of pure Cu, in contrast to concentrated films. • Its potential as a single entity replacement of Cu interconnect is presented.

  15. A statistical analysis on erosion wear behaviour of A356 alloy reinforced with in situ formed TiB2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Subramanya Sarma, V.; Murty, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Solid particle erosion wear behaviour of A356 and A356/TiB 2 in situ composites has been studied. A356 alloy reinforced with in situ TiB 2 particles was fabricated by the reaction of halide salts with aluminium melt and the formation of Al 3 Ti brittle phase is completely suppressed. The composites show good grain refinement of α-Al and modification of eutectic Si. These in situ composites show high hardness and better erosion resistance than the base alloy. Though the sizes of in situ formed TiB 2 reinforcement particles are smaller than the erodent SiC particles, TiB 2 particles are able to effectively resist the erodent particles. Design of experiment has been used to run the solid particle erosion experiment. An attempt has also been made to develop a mathematical model by using regression analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique is applied to check the validity of the developed model. Student's t-test is utilized to find out the significance of factors. The wear mechanism has been studied by analyzing the surface of the worn specimen using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

  16. Effects of anodic passivation on the constitution, stability and resistance to corrosion of passive film formed on an Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.S.; Zhu, X.M.; Liu, M.; Che, R.X.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of anodic aging time and potential on the corrosion resistance, stability and constitution of the passive film formed on an Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy in 50% HNO 3 solution were studied by using combined electrochemical measurements and Auger electron spectroscopic (AES)/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. In the anodic passive region, prolonged anodic aging time or increased passivating potential can induce better protective and stable properties of the passive film and better resistance to corrosion. With increasing aging time from 15 min to 5 h, the time required for the potential decay from the passive to active state increases from about 300 up to above 12,000 s, and the corrosion resistance in 1 mol l -1 Na 2 SO 4 solution of Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy, characterized by polarization curves, is superior to that of Fe-13% Cr-0.1% C stainless steel. AES and XPS analyses of the aging passive film show that these improvements of properties are related to modifications of the passive layer with time. The increase of resistance to corrosion is attributed to Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 enrichment and oxides of Fe and Mn depletion in the passive film and a thickening of the effective barrier layer of oxides

  17. Residual stress determination in oxide layers at different length scales combining Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction: Application to chromia-forming metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerain, Mathieu; Grosseau-Poussard, Jean-Luc; Geandier, Guillaume; Panicaud, Benoit; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Dejoie, Catherine; Micha, Jean-Sebastien; Thiaudière, Dominique; Goudeau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    In oxidizing environments, the protection of metals and alloys against further oxidation at high temperature is provided by the oxide film itself. This protection is efficient only if the formed film adheres well to the metal (substrate), i.e., without microcracks and spalls induced by thermomechanical stresses. In this study, the residual stresses at both macroscopic and microscopic scales in the oxide film adhering to the substrate and over the damaged areas have been rigorously determined on the same samples for both techniques. Ni-30Cr and Fe-47Cr alloys have been oxidized together at 900 and 1000 °C, respectively, to create films with a thickness of a few microns. A multi-scale approach was adopted: macroscopic stress was determined by conventional X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, while microscopic residual stress mappings were performed over different types of bucklings using Raman micro-spectroscopy and synchrotron micro-diffraction. A very good agreement is found at macro- and microscales between the residual stress values obtained with both techniques, giving confidence on the reliability of the measurements. In addition, relevant structural information at the interface between the metallic substrate and the oxide layer was collected by micro-diffraction, a non-destructive technique that allows mapping through the oxide layer, and both the grain size and the crystallographic orientation of the supporting polycrystalline metal located either under a buckling or not were measured.

  18. Microstructure characteristics and properties of in-situ formed TiC/Ni based alloy composite coating by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Liu, Wenjin; Zhong, Minlin

    2003-03-01

    Different weight ratio of nickel based alloy, titanium and graphite powders were mixed and then laser cladded onto carbon steel substrate to produce a surface metal matrix composite layer. The experimental results showed that the coating was uniform, continuous and free of cracks. An excellent bonding between the coating and the carbon steel substrate was ensured by the strong metallurgical interface. The microstructures of the coating were mainly composed of γ-Ni dendrite, M23C6, a small amount of CrB, and dispersed TiC particles, and the in-situ generated TiCp/matrix interfaces were clean and free from deleterious surface reaction. The morphologies of TiC particles changed from the global, cluster to flower-like shape, the volume fraction of TiCp and the microhardness gradually increased from the bottom to the top of the coating layer, and the maximum microhardness of the coating was about HV0.2850, 3 times larger than that of steel substrate. The volume fraction of TiC particles increased with increasing of volume fraction of Ti and C too.

  19. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi, E-mail: boiler@seu.edu.cn; Xu, Jian-Qun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-07-28

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  20. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi; Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You; Xu, Jian-Qun

    2014-07-01

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  1. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi; Xu, Jian-Qun; Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You

    2014-01-01

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  2. PIIID-formed (Ti, O)/Ti, (Ti, N)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti coatings on NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tao, E-mail: taosun@hotmail.com.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Institute of Microelectronics, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) (Singapore); Wang Langping, E-mail: aplpwang@hit.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Wang Min; Tong Howang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Lu, William W. [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong, Sassoon Road (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01

    (Ti, O)/Ti, (Ti, N)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coatings were fabricated on NiTi shape memory alloy via plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). Surface morphology of samples was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology indicated that the PIIID-formed coatings were dense and uniform. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the phase composition of samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the surface of coated NiTi SMA samples was Ni-free. Nanoindentation measurements and pin-on-disc tests were carried out to evaluate mechanical properties and wear resistance of coated NiTi SMA, respectively. For the in vitro biological assessment of the composite coatings in terms of cell morphology and cell viability, osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured on NiTi SMA samples, respectively. SaOS-2 cells attached and spread better on coated NiTi SMA. Viability of MCF-7 cells showed that the PIIID-formed composite coatings were noncytotoxic and coated samples were more biocompatible than uncoated samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIIID-formed coatings were fabricated on NiTi SMA to improve its biocompatibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of coatings were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All PIIID-formed composite coatings were noncytotoxic and cytocompatible.

  3. Time-dependent rheoforging of A6061 aluminum alloy on a mechanical servo press and the effects of forming conditions on homogeneity of rheoforged samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid and liquid phases in semisolid metal slurry exhibited different forming behaviours during deformation result in products with inhomogeneous quality. A6061 aluminum alloy was forged in the semisolid state on a mechanical servo press with the capability of multistage compression. To improve the homogeneity of rheoforged samples a time-dependent rheoforging strategy was designed. The distributions of the microstructure and mechanical properties the samples manufactured under various experimental conditions were investigated. The A6061 samples forged in the temperature range from 625 to 628 ∘C with a short holding time of 4 s and the upper die preheated to 300 ∘C exhibited a homogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties. The homogeneity of rheoforged samples resulted from the controllable free motion capability of the mechanical servo press and the adjustable fluidity and viscosity of the semisolid slurry.

  4. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  5. Effect of Si on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Zr-Mo-W-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.-M. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany); Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Gebert, A. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany)], E-mail: a.gebert@ifw-dresden.de; Roth, S.; Kuehn, U.; Schultz, L. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany)

    2008-07-14

    This paper presents investigations on the effect of Si on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-Co-Zr-Mo-W-B samples (group I: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 10}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 15-x}Si{sub x}, 1 {<=} x {<=} 4; group II: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 10-x}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 15}Si{sub x}, 0 {<=} x {<=} 4; group III: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 8}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 17-x}Si{sub x}, 0 {<=} x {<=} 2) prepared by melt spinning, injection casting, and centrifugal casting methods. It is found that the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the alloys in group I is more deteriorated than that in group II, and that the alloys in group III can be cast into the rods of 1-3 mm diameter without crystalline reflections in their XRD patterns. For the amorphous ribbons and rods, a non-monotonic change of the nearest neighbour distance r{sub 1} with increasing Si content c{sub Si} was detected, which is parallel to that of the glass transition and crystallization temperatures T{sub g} and T{sub x}, but opposite to that of the magnetization at room temperature M{sub RT} and the Curie temperature T{sub c}. This correlation can be interpreted by a structure model presuming that iron atoms appear simultaneously in two types of local structures in the amorphous samples.

  6. Microstructure of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The structure of transient scales formed on pure and Y or Zr-doped Ni-15Cr-13Al alloys oxidized for 0.1 hr at 1100 C was studied by the use of transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographically oriented scales were found on all three alloys, but especially for the Zr-doped NiCrAl. The oriented scales consisted of alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3, Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 and gamma-Al2O3. They were often found in intimate contact with each other such that the close-packed planes and directions of one oxide phase were aligned with those of another. The prominent structural features of the oriented scales were approximately equal to micrometer subgrains; voids, antiphase domain boundaries and aligned precipitates were also prevalent. Randomly oriented alpha-Al2O3 was also found and was the only oxide ever observed at the immediate oxide metal interface. These approximately 0.15 micrometer grains were populated by intragranular voids which decreased in size and number towards the oxide metal interface. A sequence of oxidation was proposed in which the composition of the growing scale changed from oriented oxides rich in Ni and Cr to oriented oxides rich in Al. At the same time the structure changed from cubic spinels to hexagonal corundums with apparent precipitates of one phase in the matrix of the other. Eventually randomly oriented pure alpha-Al2O3 formed as the stable oxide with an abrupt transition: there was no gradual loss of orientation, no gradual compositional change or no gradual decrease in precipitate density.

  7. Microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical and creep properties of Mg–4Y–3Nd–0.5Zr alloy in the product form of a large structural casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Z.L.; Yi, J.Y.; Qian, M.; Sun, H.C.; Cao, F.Y.; Liu, H.H.; Sun, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified WE43 alloy, free of heavy rare earth elements, has been assessed. • The new alloy, Mg–4Y–3Nd–0.5Zr (wt.%), is stronger than WE43 up to 573 K. • The new alloy is more creep resistant than WE43 alloy at 473 K under 40–80 MPa. • It is promising to use neodymium to replace heavy rare earth elements in WE43. - Abstract: In order to save the invaluable heavy rare earth (HRE) elements for important functional applications, a modified version of the WE43 magnesium alloy, Mg–4Y–3Nd–0.5Zr (wt.%), free of the HRE elements, has been designed. As part of the alloy development program, a large complex component of the alloy (net product weight: 80 kg) was made via differential pressure casting. The large component was then subjected to the T6 treatment (solid solution and ageing) following established commercial practice for the T6 treatment of the WE43 alloy. A significant number of samples were prepared from the thickest section (58 mm) of the T6-treated component for both microstructural characterization and detailed property assessment. The alloy showed noticeably higher tensile strengths than did the HRE-containing WE43 alloy over the temperature range of 473–573 K. The creep resistance of the alloy was superior to that of the WE43 alloy at 473 K while being similar at 523 K. The microstructures of the alloy in the as-cast, solution treated and then aged states were characterized. The component-based detailed assessment suggests that the idea of using neodymium (Nd) to replace the HRE elements in the WE43 alloy is promising for structural applications at elevated temperatures

  8. Superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to superconductors having high critical currents. The superconductor described comprises an alloy consisting of a matrix of a Type II superconductor which is a homogeneous mixture of 50 to 95 at.% Pb and 5 to 40 at.%Bi and/or 10 to 50 at.%In. Dispersed in the matrix is a material to provide pinning centres comprising from 0.01% to 20% by volume of the alloy; this material is a stable discontinuous phase of discrete crystalline particles of Cu, Mn, Te, Se, Ni, Ca, Cr, Ce, Ge or La, either in the form of the element or a compound with a component of the matrix. These particles should have an average diameter of not more than 2μ. A method for making this alloy is described. (U.K.)

  9. Forming Limit Diagram of Titanium and Stainless Steel Alloys to Study the Formability of Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirizly, A.

    2005-08-01

    The increase demand for stronger, lighter and economic sheet metal products, make the Hydromecanical deep drawing process lately more and more popular. The Hydromecanical process is used in almost all types of sheet metal parts from home appliances and kitchenware to automotive and aviation industries. Therefore, many common materials were tested and characterized by their ability to sustain large strains via the well known Forming Limit Diagram (FLD). The aim of this work is to examine the forming capability if the Hydromecanical process in production of hemisphere parts made of materials commonly used in the aviation and aerospace industries. Experimental procedures were carried out to assess their ductility through FLD and the Forming Limit Carve (FLC).Two type of material sheets were tested herewith for demonstrating the procedure: commercial pure titanium and stainless steel 316L. A numerical simulation of the Hydromecanical process was examined and compared to self made Hydromecanical deep drawing of hemispherical parts.

  10. Forming Limit Diagram of Titanium and Stainless Steel Alloys to Study the Formability of Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing Parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirizly, A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase demand for stronger, lighter and economic sheet metal products, make the Hydromecanical deep drawing process lately more and more popular. The Hydromecanical process is used in almost all types of sheet metal parts from home appliances and kitchenware to automotive and aviation industries. Therefore, many common materials were tested and characterized by their ability to sustain large strains via the well known Forming Limit Diagram (FLD).The aim of this work is to examine the forming capability if the Hydromecanical process in production of hemisphere parts made of materials commonly used in the aviation and aerospace industries. Experimental procedures were carried out to assess their ductility through FLD and the Forming Limit Carve (FLC).Two type of material sheets were tested herewith for demonstrating the procedure: commercial pure titanium and stainless steel 316L. A numerical simulation of the Hydromecanical process was examined and compared to self made Hydromecanical deep drawing of hemispherical parts

  11. Characterization of rust layer formed on Fe, Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys exposed to Cl-rich environment by Cl and Fe K-edge XANES measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Chloride in atmosphere considerably reduces the corrosion resistance of conventional weathering steel containing a small amount of Cr. Ni is an effective anticorrosive element for improving the corrosion resistance of steel in a Cl-rich environment. In order to clarify the structure of the protective rust layer of weathering steel, Cl and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of atmospheric corrosion products (rust) formed on Fe, Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys exposed to Cl-rich atmosphere were measured. The Fe K-XANES measurements enable the characterization of mixture of iron oxides such as rust. The chemical composition of the rust was determined by performing pattern fitting of the measured spectra. All the rust is composed mainly of goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite and magnetite. Among these iron oxides, akaganeite in particular is the major component in the rust. Additionally, the amount of akaganeite in the rust of Fe-Ni alloy is much greater than that in rust of Fe-Cr alloy. Akaganeite is generally considered to facilitate the corrosion of steel, but our results indicate that akaganeite in the rust of Fe-Ni alloy is quantitatively different from that in rust of Fe-Cr alloy and does not facilitate the corrosion of steel. The shoulder peak observed in Cl K-XANES spectra reveals that the rust contains a chloride other than akaganeite. The energy of the shoulder peak does not correspond to that of any well-known chlorides. In the measured spectra, there is no proof that Cl, by combining with the alloying element, inhibits the alloying element from acting in corrosion resistance. The shoulder peak appears only when the content of the alloying element is lower than a certain value. This suggests that the generation of the unidentified chloride is related to the corrosion rate of steel. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF WEAR RESISTANT COATINGS FORMED BY PLASMA SPRAYING OF ALLOY Ni–Fe–Cr–Si–B–C SYSTEM REINFORCED WITH CERAMICS Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available . Creating a functionally oriented, including nanostructured, anti-friction materials and coatings with qualitatively new complex of service properties is an important scientific and practical problem. In particular, for the cable industry it is urgent task of ensuring the high performance properties of fast deteriorating stretching and supporting rollers. Working surfaces of these parts operate under practically dry friction conditions with constantly updated material of stretching wire. Plasma spraying is one of the widely used methods of surface engineering to create wear resistant coatings and which is characterized with process flexibility and the ability to create coatings using various materials and alloys including composite ones. The installation UPU-3D with the PP-25 plasma torch was used for plasma spraying. The thickness of the sprayed layer was 0.8–1.1 mm. As a material for the deposition of composite coatings a powder mixture of self-fluxing nickel alloy PG-HN80SR4 (system Ni–Fe–Cr–Si–B–C and a neutral oxide ceramics Al2O3 was used. The amount of ceramics varied from 15 to 33 %. This ceramic oxide was selected due to the desire to reduce coatings’ costs while providing high durability. Carried out phase and microstructural studies have shown when ceramics was added in an amount more than 20 % a formation of conglomerates formed by not melted alumina particles often was observed. These conglomerates serve as crack formation centers in the coating. The phase composition of the coatings practically does not depend on the content of ceramics compounds. Tribological tests have shown that the best results were obtained when the content of the oxide ceramic in the coating was in the range from 15 to 20 %.

  13. Structure and Infrared Emissivity Properties of the MAO Coatings Formed on TC4 Alloys in K2ZrF6-Based Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Hu, Dan; Xi, Zhengping

    2018-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) ceramic coatings were formed on TC4 alloy surface in silicate and metaphosphate electrolytes based with K2ZrF6 for various concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the phase composition, microstructure and chemical compositions of the coatings. The infrared emissivity of the coatings was measured at 50 °C in a wavelength range of 8–20 µm. The microstructural observations all revealed the typical porousstructures. Moreover, adecline in roughness and thickness of the prepared coatings can be observed when the concentration of K2ZrF6 increases. Combined with the results of XRD and XPS, it was found that all the oxides existed as the amorphous form in the coatings except the TiO2 phase. The coatings exhibited the highest infrared emissivity value (about 0.89) when the concentration of K2ZrF6 was 6 g/L, which was possibly attributed to the defect microstructure and the optimal role of ZrO2. PMID:29414841

  14. Influence of KMnO4 Concentrationon Infrared Emissivity of Coatings Formed on TC4 Alloys by Micro-Arc Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Chaozhong; Hu, Dan; Li, Zhengxian; Xi, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic coatings with high emissivity were fabricated on TC4 alloys by micro-arc oxidation technique (MAO) in mixed silicate and phosphate electrolytes with varying KMnO4 addition. The microstructure, phase and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the infrared emissivity of the MAO coatings was measured in a waveband of 5–20 μm. The results show that the thickness of the coatings increased with the addition of KMnO4, but the roughness of the coatings first decreased and then increased slightly due to the inhibitory effect of KMnO4 on Na2SiO3 deposition. The main phase composition of the coatings was anatase and rutile TiO2, amorphous form of SiO2 and MnO2. The infrared emissivity value of the coatings strongly depended on KMnO4 concentration, the coating formed at the concentration of 0.8 g/L KMnO4 reached the highest and an average of up to 0.87 was observed. PMID:29137192

  15. Structure and Composition of Scales Formed on AISI 316 L Steel Alloyed with Ce/La Using High Intensity Plasma Pulses after Oxidation in 1000o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Walis, L.; Starosta, W.; Piekoszewski, J.; Barlak, M.; Pochrybniak, C.; Bochenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that the high oxygen affinity elements such as Y, Ce, La, Er and other rare earth elements added to steel in small amounts can improve their high temperature oxidation resistance. Rare earth elements can be either alloyed during the steel making process or introduced through surface treatment techniques. Improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of AISI 316 L steel by incorporation Ce and La elements into its near surface region using high intensity pulsed plasma beams in so-called deposition by the pulse erosion mode was investigated in the present work. The samples were irradiated with 3 short (μs scale) intense (energy density 3 J/cm 2 ) plasma pulses. Heating and cooling processes occur under non-equilibrium conditions. In all samples the near surface layer of the thickness in μm range was melted and simultaneously doped with cerium and lanthanum. The modified samples were oxidized at 1000 o C for 100 h in air. The obtained effects were: oxide scales formed on the treated samples were more fine-grained, compact and adhering better that those formed on the un-treated samples. (author)

  16. Corrosion mechanisms for metal alloy waste forms: experiment and theory Level 4 Milestone M4FT-14LA0804024 Fuel Cycle Research & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Christopher D. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Fontana Corrosion Center; Kim, Eunja [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Goff, George Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kolman, David Gary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document meets Level 4 Milestone: Corrosion mechanisms for metal alloy waste forms - experiment and theory. A multiphysics model is introduces that will provide the framework for the quantitative prediction of corrosion rates of metallic waste forms incorporating the fission product Tc. The model requires a knowledge of the properties of not only the metallic waste form, but also the passive oxide films that will be generated on the waste form, and the chemistry of the metal/oxide and oxide/environment interfaces. in collaboration with experimental work, the focus of this work is on obtaining these properties from fundamental atomistic models. herein we describe the overall multiphysics model, which is based on MacDonald's point-defect model for passivity. We then present the results of detailed electronic-structure calculations for the determination of the compatibility and properties of Tc when incorporated into intermetallic oxide phases. This work is relevant to the formation of multi-component oxides on metal surfaces that will incorporate Tc, and provide a kinetic barrier to corrosion (i.e. the release of Tc to the environment). Atomistic models that build upon the electronic structure calculations are then described using the modified embedded atom method to simulate metallic dissolution, and Buckingham potentials to perform classical molecular dynamics and statics simulations of the technetium (and, later, iron-technetium) oxide phases. Electrochemical methods were then applied to provide some benchmark information of the corrosion and electrochemical properties of Technetium metal. The results indicate that published information on Tc passivity is not complete and that further investigation is warranted.

  17. Effect of Ga substitution on the crystallization behaviour and glass forming ability of Zr-Al-Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devinder; Yadav, T.P.; Mandal, R.K.; Tiwari, R.S.; Srivastava, O.N.

    2010-01-01

    The crystallization behaviour of melt spun Zr 69.5 Al 7.5-x Ga x Cu 12 Ni 11 (x = 0-7.5; in at.%) metallic glasses has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC traces showed changes in crystallization behaviour with substitution of Ga. Formation of single nano-quasicrystalline phase by controlled crystallization of glasses has been found only for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5. Further increase of Ga content gives rise to formation of the quasicrystals together with Zr 2 Cu type crystalline phase. In addition to this, the substitution of Ga influences the size and shape of nano-quasicrystals. The glass forming abilities (GFAs) of these metallic glasses were assessed by the recognition of glass forming ability indicators, i.e. reduced glass transition temperature (T rg ) and supercooled liquid region (ΔT x ). The glass transition temperature (T g ) has been observed for all the melt spun ribbons.

  18. The implementation of microstructural and heat treatment models to development of forming technology of critical aluminum-alloy parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biba, Nikolay; Alimov, Artem; Shitikov, Andrey; Stebunov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    The demand for high performance and energy efficient transportation systems have boosted interest in lightweight design solutions. To achieve maximum weight reductions, it is not enough just to replace steel parts by their aluminium analogues, but it is necessary to change the entire concept of vehicle design. In this case we must develop methods for manufacturing a variety of critical parts with unusual and difficult to produce shapes. The mechanical properties of the material in these parts must also be optimised and tightly controlled to provide the best distribution within the part volume. The only way to achieve these goals is to implement technology development methods based on simulation of the entire manufacturing chain from preparing a billet through the forming operations and heat treatment of the product. The paper presents an approach to such technology development. The simulation of the technological chain starts with extruding a round billet. Depending on the extrusion process parameters, the billet can have different levels of material workout and variation of grain size throughout the volume. After extrusion, the billet gets formed into the required shape in a forging process. The main requirements at this stage are to get the near net shape of the product without defects and to provide proper configuration of grain flow that strengthens the product in the most critical direction. Then the product undergoes solution treatment, quenching and ageing. The simulation of all these stages are performed by QForm FEM code that provides thermo-mechanical coupled deformation of the material during extrusion and forging. To provide microstructure and heat treatment simulation, special subroutines has been developed by the authors. The proposed approach is illustrated by an industrial case study.

  19. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO{sub 2}-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, J.J.; Guo, Y.Q.; Xiang, N. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Song, R.G., E-mail: songrg@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PEO coatings were formed in K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte. • K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} is capable to optimize the microstructure of PEO coating. • Corrosion resistance of PEO coatings is effected by K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} concentration in the electrolyte. • Potentiodynamic polarization results are well matched with the EIS test results. • Long time immersion test confirmed the electrochemical results. - Abstract: ZrO{sub 2}-containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF{sub 2} and t-ZrO{sub 2}. Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}. Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}-containing electrolyte.

  20. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO2-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, J.J.; Guo, Y.Q.; Xiang, N.; Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q.; Song, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PEO coatings were formed in K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte. • K 2 ZrF 6 is capable to optimize the microstructure of PEO coating. • Corrosion resistance of PEO coatings is effected by K 2 ZrF 6 concentration in the electrolyte. • Potentiodynamic polarization results are well matched with the EIS test results. • Long time immersion test confirmed the electrochemical results. - Abstract: ZrO 2 -containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K 2 ZrF 6 ) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF 2 and t-ZrO 2 . Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K 2 ZrF 6 . Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K 2 ZrF 6 -free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K 2 ZrF 6 is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K 2 ZrF 6 has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K 2 ZrF 6 -containing electrolyte.

  1. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  2. Effects of pH and temperature on the deposition properties of stannate chemical conversion coatings formed by the potentiostatic technique on AZ91 D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsentriecy, Hassan H.; Azumi, Kazuhisa; Konno, Hidetaka

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH and temperature of a stannate bath on the quality of stannate chemical conversion coatings formed on AZ91 D magnesium alloy by using the potentiostatic polarization technique at E = -1.1 V were investigated in order to improve uniformity and corrosion protection performance of the coating films. It was found that the uniformity and corrosion resistance of coating films deposited by potentiostatic polarization were closely associated with pH and temperature of the coating bath. The pH and temperature to obtain the best coating film were investigated as a function of corrosion protection performance evaluated by curves of potentiodynamic anodic polarization conducted in borate buffer solution. Scanning electron microscope observation and electrochemical corrosion tests of the stannate-coated samples confirmed significant improvement in uniformity and corrosion resistivity of coating films deposited by the potentiostatic technique by modifying the pH and temperature of the coating bath. It was also found that uniformity and corrosion resistivity of the coating films deposited by the potentiostatic technique were considerably improved compared to those of coatings deposited by the simple immersion method at the best conditions of pH and temperature of the coating bath

  3. Effects of Voltage on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Micro-arc Oxidation Ceramic Coatings Formed on KBM10 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. P.; Cao, G. P.; Quan, G. F.; Wang, C.; Zhuang, J. J.; Song, R. G.

    2018-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings on KBM10 magnesium alloy were prepared in an electrolyte system with sodium silicate, potassium hydroxide, sodium tungstate, and citric acid. The effects of voltage on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of MAO coatings were studied using stereoscopic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scratch tests, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the roughness of the MAO coatings, diameter, and number of pores increase with the increase in voltage. The coating formed at the voltage of 350 V exhibited the best adhesive strength when evaluated by the automatic scratch tester. The coatings were mainly composed of MgO, MgWO4, and Mg2SiO4, and the content of Mg2SiO4 increased with the increase in voltage. The corrosion resistance of MAO coatings could be improved by changing the applied voltage, and the best corrosion resistance of MAO coating was observed at the voltage of 350 V.

  4. Unequal-thickness billet optimization in transitional region during isothermal local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component using response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke WEI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding the folding defect and improving the die filling capability in the transitional region are desired in isothermal local loading forming of a large-scale Ti-alloy rib-web component (LTRC. To achieve a high-precision LTRC, the folding evolution and die filling process in the transitional region were investigated by 3D finite element simulation and experiment using an equal-thickness billet (ETB. It is found that the initial volume distribution in the second-loading region can greatly affect the amount of material transferred into the first-loading region during the second-loading step, and thus lead to the folding defect. Besides, an improper initial volume distribution results in non-concurrent die filling in the cavities of ribs after the second-loading step, and then causes die underfilling. To this end, an unequal-thickness billet (UTB was employed with the initial volume distribution optimized by the response surface method (RSM. For a certain eigenstructure, the critical value of the percentage of transferred material determined by the ETB was taken as a constraint condition for avoiding the folding defect in the UTB optimization process, and the die underfilling rate was considered as the optimization objective. Then, based on the RSM models of the percentage of transferred material and the die underfilling rate, non-folding parameter combinations and optimum die filling were achieved. Lastly, an optimized UTB was obtained and verified by the simulation and experiment. Keywords: Die filling, Folding defect, Isothermal local loading forming, Transitional region, Unequal-thickness billet optimization

  5. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco M, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  6. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  7. Uranium alloy forming process research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.S.; Biesiada, T.A.; Sunwoo, A.; Long, J.; Anklam, T.; Kang, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    The study of modern U-6Nb processes is motivated by the needs to reduce fabrication costs and to improve efficiency in material usage. We have studied two potential options: physical vapor deposition (PVD) for manufacturing near-net-shape U-6Nb, and kinetic-energy metallization (KEM) as a supplemental process for refurbishing recycled parts. In FY 1996, we completed two series of PVD runs and heat treatment analyses, the characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties, a comparison of the results to data for wrought-processed material, and experimental demonstration of the KEM feasibility process with a wide range of variables (particle materials and sizes, gases and gas pressures, and substrate materials), and computer modeling calculations

  8. Enhancing elevated temperature strength of copper containing aluminium alloys by forming L12 Al3Zr precipitates and nucleating θ″ precipitates on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Makineni, Surendra; Sugathan, Sandeep; Meher, Subhashish; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Kumar, Subodh; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2017-09-11

    Strengthening by precipitation of second phase is the guiding principle for the development of a host of high strength structural alloys, in particular, aluminium alloys for transportation sector. Higher efficiency and lower emission demands use of alloys at higher operating temperatures (200 °C-250 °C) and stresses, especially in applications for engine parts. Unfortunately, most of the precipitation hardened aluminium alloys that are currently available can withstand maximum temperatures ranging from 150-200 °C. This limit is set by the onset of the rapid coarsening of the precipitates and consequent loss of mechanical properties. In this communication, we present a new approach in designing an Al-based alloy through solid state precipitation route that provides a synergistic coupling of two different types of precipitates that has enabled us to develop coarsening resistant high-temperature alloys that are stable in the temperature range of 250-300 °C with strength in excess of 260 MPa at 250 °C.

  9. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cu-Sn-Ti-Based Active Braze Alloy Containing In Situ Formed Nano-Sized TiC Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenbach, Christian; Transchel, Robert; Gorgievski, Klea; Kuster, Friedrich; Elsener, Hans Rudolf; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    A Cu-Sn-Ti-based active brazing filler alloy was in situ reinforced with nanosized TiC particles by adding different amounts of a cellulose nitride-based binder. The TiC particles emanate from a reaction of the Ti within the filler alloy with the carbon from the binder that does not decompose completely during heating. The correlation between the microstructure and mechanical performance was studied. In addition, the effect of different binder amounts on the shear strength and cutting performance of brazed diamond grains was studied in shear tests and single grain cutting tests. The results clearly show that the mechanical performance of the brazed diamond grains can be improved by the formation of TiC particles. This is attributed to particle strengthening of the filler alloy matrix as well as to the decreasing grain size and more homogeneous distribution of the (Cu,Sn)3Ti5 phase with increasing amount of binder.

  11. Characterisation of Oxides Formed on the Internal Surface of Steam Generator Tubes in Alloy 690 Corroded in the Primary Environment of Pressurised Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, Florence; Leclercq, Stephanie; Legras, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Since the end of the 1990s, EDF R and D has been studying the phenomenon of corrosion product release from Steam Generator tubes in order to minimize the Source Term of the contamination and radiation exposure during operation and maintenance of Pressurised Water Reactors. With the BOREAL loop, release tests in primary water at 325 deg. C were performed on various Steam Generator tubes made of alloy 690. The experimental conditions of these tests (chemistry, temperature and hydraulics) were the same for all the tests but the results showed various behaviours towards release. For some tubes, the release was weak whereas for others, it was higher; the release rate of the tubes decreased more or less quickly with time. In order to explain these results, the internal surface of the tubes was characterised before and after the tests. Before the tests, various parameters were studied; the main parameters were the roughness, the impurities, the grain size and the cold work. The results demonstrated that it was not easy to quantify the influence of each parameter on release and to differentiate the tubes. A new parameter was proposed to characterise the internal extreme surface of SG tubes: the surface nano-hardness by nano-indentation measurements. The tubes were also observed and analysed by SEM, (X)TEM. Data obtained by (X)TEM revealed differences of the surface state (layer of perturbed microstructure, density of dislocations, grain size, impurities, initial oxide,...). After the tests, the oxides formed on the internal surface and the underlying material of the samples were characterised by SEM, (X)TEM and SIMS. The examinations showed various types of oxides. For some tubes, a duplex oxide scale was identified, for the others, only one oxide scale was observed. For equivalent durations of corrosion, the thickness of the enriched - chromium oxide layer can vary from 5 nm to 100 nm and the chemical composition can be different. The examinations of the underlying

  12. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  13. Neutron-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoi, K.I.; Arabei, L.B.; Gryaznov, G.M.; Levi, L.I.; Lunin, G.L.; Kozhukhov, V.M.; Markov, J.M.; Fedotov, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the production of an alloy consiting of 1 to 20% In, 0.5 to 15% Sm, and from 3 to 18% Hf, the balance being Ni. Such alloys show a good absorption capacity for thermal and intermediate neutrons, good neutron capture efficiency, and good corrosion resistance, and find application in nuclear reactor automatic control and safety systems. The Hf provides for the maintenance of a reasonably high order of neutron capture efficiency throughout the lifetime of a reactor. The alloys are formed in a vacuum furnace operating with an inert gas atmosphere at 280 to 300 mm.Hg. They have a corrosion resistance from 3 to 3.5 times that of the Ag-based alloys commonly employed, and a neutron capture efficiency about twice that of the Ag alloys. Castability and structural strength are good. (U.K.)

  14. Thermo-physical characterization of the Fe_6_7Mo_6Ni_3_._5Cr_3_._5P_1_2C_5_._5B_2_._5 bulk metallic glass forming alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochtler, Benedikt; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The iron-phosphorus based bulk metallic glass forming alloy Fe_6_7Mo_6Ni_3_._5Cr_3_._5P_1_2C_5_._5B_2_._5 is characterized with respect to its thermophysical properties, crystallization and relaxation behavior, as well as its viscosity. The alloy provides a high critical casting thickness of 13 mm, thus allowing for the casting of amorphous parts with a considerable size. Calorimetric measurements reveal the characteristic transformation temperatures, transformation enthalpies, and the specific heat capacity. The analyses show that no stable supercooled liquid region exists upon heating. The specific heat capacity data are used to calculate the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy differences between the crystalline and the supercooled liquid state. The crystallization behavior of amorphous samples upon heating is analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction, and a time-temperature-transformation diagram is constructed. Dilatometry is used to determine the thermal expansion behavior. The equilibrium viscosity below the glass transition as well as volume relaxation behavior are measured by three-point beam bending and dilatometry, respectively, to assess the kinetic fragility. With a kinetic fragility parameter of D* = 21.3, the alloy displays a rather strong liquid behavior. Viscosity above the melting point is determined using electromagnetic levitation in microgravity on a reduced gravity aircraft in cooperation with the German Aerospace Center (DLR). These high-temperature viscosity data are compared with the low-temperature three-point beam bending measurements. The alloy displays a strong liquid behavior at low temperatures and a fragile behavior at high temperatures. These results are analogous to the ones observed in several Zr-based bulk metallic glass forming liquids, indicating a strong to fragile liquid-liquid transition in the undercooled liquid, which is obscured by crystallization.

  15. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  16. Characterization and diffusion model for the titanium boride layers formed on the Ti6Al4V alloy by plasma paste boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keddam, Mourad, E-mail: keddam@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Technologie des Matériaux, Faculté de Génie Mécanique et Génie des Procédés, USTHB, B.P. No. 32, 16111 El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Taktak, Sukru [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Campus, 03200, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Titanium boride layers were produced by plasma paste boriding on Ti6Al4V at 973–1073 K. • Formation rates of the Ti boride layers have parabolic character at all temperatures. • Boron diffusivities were estimated using a diffusion model including incubation times. • Activation energies of boron in TiB{sub 2} and TiB were 136 and 63 kJ/mol respectively. - Abstract: The present study is focused on the estimation of activation energy of boron in the plasma paste borided Ti6Al4V alloy, which is extensively used in technological applications, using an analytical diffusion model. Titanium boride layers were successfully produced by plasma paste boriding method on the Ti6Al4V alloy in the temperature range of 973–1073 K for a treatment time ranging from 3 to 7 h. The presence of both TiB{sub 2} top-layer and TiB whiskers sub-layer was confirmed by the XRD analysis and SEM observations. The surface hardness of the borided alloy was evaluated using Micro-Knoop indenter. The formation rates of the TiB{sub 2} and TiB layers were found to have a parabolic character at all applied process temperatures. A diffusion model was suggested to estimate the boron diffusivities in TiB{sub 2} and TiB layers under certain assumptions, by considering the effect of boride incubation times. Basing on own experimental data on boriding kinetics, the activation energies of boron in TiB{sub 2} and TiB phases were estimated as 136.24 ± 0.5 and 63.76 ± 0.5 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. Finally, the obtained values of boron activation energies for Ti6Al4V alloy were compared with the data available in the literature.

  17. Corrosion resistance of multilayered magnesium phosphate/magnesium hydroxide film formed on magnesium alloy using steam-curing assisted chemical conversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Kudo, Ruriko; Omi, Takeshi; Teshima, Katsuya; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Shigematsu, Ichinori; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2012-01-01

    Anticorrosive multilayered films were successfully prepared on magnesium alloy AZ31 by chemical conversion treatment, followed by steam curing treatment. The crystal structures, chemical composition, surface morphologies, chemical bonding states of the film was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements. All the films had thicknesses of ranging from 24 to 32 μm. The film had two layers that were composed of crystalline NH 4 MgPO 4 ·H 2 O, Mg 2 PO 4 OH·3H 2 O, Mg(OH) 2 and amorphous MgO. The outer layers include magnesium, oxygen, and phosphorous, and the inner layers include magnesium and oxygen. The corrosion resistant performances of the multilayered films in 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution were investigated by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the corrosion current density (j corr ) of all the film coated magnesium alloys decreased by more than four orders of magnitude as compared to that of the bare magnesium alloy, indicating that all the films had an inhibiting effect of corrosion reaction. Gravimetric measurements showed that the average corrosion rates obtained from the weight loss rates were estimated to be in the ranges of ca. 0.085–0.129 mm/y. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test revealed that the adhesion of our anticorrosive multilayered film to the magnesium alloy surface was very good.

  18. Structure of the glass-forming metallic liquids by ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics, a case study: Quenching the Cu{sub 60}Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 20} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amokrane, S.; Ayadim, A.; Levrel, L. [Groupe “Physique des Liquides et Milieux Complexes,” Faculté des Sciences et Technologie, Université Paris-Est (Créteil), 61 av. du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France)

    2015-11-21

    We consider the question of the amorphization of metallic alloys by melt quenching, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations with semi-empirical potentials. The parametrization of the potentials is discussed on the example of the ternary Cu-Ti-Zr transition metals alloy, using the ab-initio simulation as a reference. The pair structure in the amorphous state is computed from a potential of the Stillinger-Weber form. The transferability of the parameters during the quench is investigated using two parametrizations: from solid state data, as usual and from a new parametrization on the liquid structure. When the adjustment is made on the pair structure of the liquid, a satisfactory transferability is found between the pure components and their alloys. The liquid structure predicted in this way agrees well with experiment, in contrast with the one obtained using the adjustment on the solid. The final structure, after quenches down to the amorphous state, determined with the new set of parameters is shown to be very close to the ab-initio one, the latter being in excellent agreement with recent X-rays diffraction experiments. The corresponding critical temperature of the glass transition is estimated from the behavior of the heat capacity. Discussion on the consistency between the structures predicted using semi-empirical potentials and ab-initio simulation, and comparison of different experimental data underlines the question of the dependence of the final structure on the thermodynamic path followed to reach the amorphous state.

  19. A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Barranco, Violeta; El-Hadad, A.A.; Llorente, Irene; Serra, Carmen; Galván, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of heat treated magnesium alloys. • Relation between heat treatment and aluminium subsurface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and corrosion behaviour. - Abstract: This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5–60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times

  20. A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, Sebastián, E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barranco, Violeta [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); El-Hadad, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Llorente, Irene [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Serra, Carmen [Servicio de Nanotecnologia y Análisis de Superficies, CACTI, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Galván, J.C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of heat treated magnesium alloys. • Relation between heat treatment and aluminium subsurface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and corrosion behaviour. - Abstract: This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5–60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times.

  1. Rare earth metal alloy magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, I.R.; Evans, J.M.; Nyholm, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth metal alloy magnets and to methods for their production. The technique is based on the fact that rare earth metal alloys (for e.g. cerium or yttrium) which have been crumbled to form a powder by hydride formation and decomposition can be used for the fabrication of magnets without the disadvantages inherent in alloy particle size reduction by mechanical milling. (UK)

  2. Glass forming ability and mechanical properties of the NiZrTiSi amorphous alloys modified with Al, Cu and Nb additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeppe, Tomasz; Ochin, Patrick; Sypien, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The composition of the amorphous alloy Ni 59 Zr 20 Ti 16 Si 5 was modified with 2-9 at.% additions of Cu, Al and Nb. The ribbons and the bars 2.7 mm in diameter were prepared by melt spinning and injection casting from the alloys of the compositions: Ni 56 Zr 18 Ti 16 Si 5 Al 3 Cu 2 , Ni 56 Zr 18 Ti 13 Al 6 Si 5 Cu 2 , Ni 56 Zr 16 Ti 12 Nb 9 Al 3 Cu 2 Si 2 and Ni 56 Zr 16 Ti 12 Nb 6 Al 6 Cu 2 Si 2 . All ribbons were amorphous up to the resolution of the X-ray diffraction and conventional transmission electron microscopy, however rods were partially crystalline. Increase of Al content lowered and Nb content slightly increased crystallization start temperature T x and glass transition temperature T g . The influence of composition changes on the overcooled liquid range ΔT was more complicated. The increase of Nb and decrease of Ti and Zr content led to the remarkable increase of the liquidus temperature T l . As a result GFA calculated as T g /T l was lowered to the values about 0.63 for 6 and 9 at.% Nb addition. The activation energies for primary crystallization in alloy with 6 at.% Al and 6 at.% of Nb, were determined. The changes of tensile test strength and microhardness with Al and Nb additions showed hardening effect caused by Nb additions and increase in fracture strength with increasing Al content

  3. Photometric method to determining boron microamounts in the form of β-diketonate complex in steel and alloys bsed on nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchenko, A.V.; Stashkova, N.V.; Timoteus, Kh.R.; Fedorova, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    A sensitive technique of determining boron microamounts in steels and alloys based on nickel, doped with chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium and vanadium is developed. After boron preextraction by β-diol chloroform solutions its determination is carried out directly in organic phase in acidic and sulfuric acids by β-diketone class reagent: 4,4'-dihydroxydibensoylmethane (I) or 4,4'-dimethoxydibenzoylmethane. Molar light-absorption coefficient for reagent I at formation of boroxalate complex is 8.48x10 4 , at of complexing in presence of sulfuric acid -10.63x10 4 , of acetic acid-17.27x10 4

  4. The effect of surface pre-conditioning treatments on the local composition of Zr-based conversion coatings formed on aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, J.; Vandendael, I.; Posner, R.; de Wit, J. H. W.; Mol, J. M. C.; Terryn, H.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of different alkaline, acidic and thermal pre-conditioning treatments applied to different Al alloy surfaces. The obtained results are compared to the characteristics of Zr-based conversion coatings that were subsequently generated on top of these substrates. Focus is laid on typical elemental distributions on the sample surfaces, in particular on the amount of precipitated functional additives such as Cu species that are present in the substrate matrix as well as in the conversion bath solutions. To this aim, Field Emission Auger Electron spectra, depth profiles and surface maps with superior local resolution were acquired and compared to scanning electron microscopy images of the sample. The results show how de-alloying processes, which occur at and around intermetallic particles in the Al matrix during typical industrial alkaline or acidic cleaning procedures, provide a significant source of crystallization cores for any following coating processes. This is in particular due for Cu-species, as the resulting local Cu structures on the surface strongly affect the film formation and compositions of state-of-the-art Zr-based films. The findings are highly relevant for industrial treatments of aluminium surfaces, especially for those that undergo corrosion protection and painting process steps prior to usage.

  5. Effects of cathode current density on structure and corrosion resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on ZK60 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Peibo; Wu Xiaohong; Guo Yun; Jiang Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    Current density is a key factor in plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of cathode current density on the composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance of ceramic coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloy prepared through bi-polar plasma electrolytic oxidation in Na 3 PO 4 solution. The phase composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance were studied by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. It is found that the as-produced coatings are only composed of MgO. The increase of cathode current density made the coatings less porous and more compact. Analysis of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization technique on the samples shows that the corrosion resistance of the coated samples is better than that of ZK60 magnesium alloy, and that a bigger cathode current density can improve the corrosion resistance of as-prepared coatings.

  6. A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Sebastián; Samaniego, Alejandro; Barranco, Violeta; El-Hadad, A. A.; Llorente, Irene; Serra, Carmen; Galván, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5-60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times.

  7. Study of the glass forming ability of Cu60Zr32,5Ti7,5 alloy by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimidt, C.S.; Lima, L.V.; Bastos, I.N.; Aliaga, L.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of molecular dynamics simulation of Cu 60 Zr 32.5 Ti 7.5 alloy through the open source code LAMMPS. Amorphous samples were produced by quenching the metallic molten from 2300K to 200K at cooling rates of 50, 5 and 0.5K/ps. The pair distribution functions of both the liquid and solid were calculated and compared at different temperatures. The topology of short-range order was analyzed using the Voronoi tessellation method, which determined the presence of Cu-centered icosahedral clusters as the prevailing in the amorphous state at 300K. Moreover, the sample was submitted to uniaxial tensile tests at strain rate of 10ps -1 , in order to investigate the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass. The result of the stress-strain curve showed that applied loads lead to the plastic regime. However, the presences of shear bands, typical in the experimental testing, were not observed. Moreover, the evolution of the viscosity above the glass transition temperature and the fragility of the alloy were determined. The solidus and liquidus temperatures were determined and a good agreement with experimental data was found. (author)

  8. Effect of Sn4+ Additives on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Anodic Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Alkaline Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, S. A.; Kuroda, K.; Saito, N.; Okido, M.

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal with high specific strength and good mechanical properties. However, poor corrosion resistance limits its widespread use in many applications. Magnesium is usually treated with Chromate conversion coatings. However, due to changing environmental regulations and pollution prevention requirements, a significant push exists to find new, alternative for poisonous Cr6+. Therefore, we aim to improve corrosion resistance of anodic coatings on AZ31 alloys using low cost non-chromate electrolyte. Anodizing was carried out in alkaline solutions with tin additives. The effect of tin additives on the coating film was characterized by SEM and XRD. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using anodic and cathodic polarizations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion resistance property was improved with tin additives and the best anti-corrosion property was obtained with addition of 0.03 M Na2SnO3.3H2O to anodizing solution.

  9. Electrolytic dissolution of aluminium alloys (chip form) and mullet-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoletto, Tania

    2001-01-01

    Several aluminum alloys with different chip's size were dissolved using aqua regia (HCl:HN0 3 ,3:1). The residues of the dissolution procedure were either rejected or used in silicon volatilization with hydrofluoric acid before determination of Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sn, Ti and Zr by ICP-OES. The influence caused by crescent amounts of aluminum in the determination of other elements and the probable spectral interference by Cu in determination of Zn (with or without electrolytic separation of Cu) was evaluated. The electrolytic dissolution of aluminum alloys was performed by pressing chips against a platinum electrode for the electrolysis to occur, so that way the chips behaved as the anode. A tube (body of syringe of 2.5 mL) with perforations around the open base was used to contain the sample and Pt electrode. The alloy was placed on synthetic wool (perlon) in this tube. An acrylic dowel with a platinum wire across its interior was fixed in the superior part a tube with Teflon film, with an orifice through which the electrolytic solution flowed (HNO 3 1 mol L -1 ; 4.5 mL min -1 ). A platinum dish was fixed at the inferior extremity of the platinum wire to press the sample. The solution came out through the inferior orifices of the tube to a flask, from where it was again captured (with a peristaltic pump) to go into the superior part of the tube. In this flask, a Pt wire cathode was also placed. A current of 0.6 A and ten minutes of electrolysis provided good results. Due to the partial dissolution, the knowledge of percentages of previous elements analyzed after total dissolution, or using certified reference material are necessary. The results were normalized by knowledge percentages. The calculations were made by the ratio between the concentration of the element determined, with the determined concentration of aluminum; the ratio between concentration of the element and the sum of the concentrations of the elements determined, including Al; the ratio

  10. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  11. Effect of (NaPO3)6 concentrations on corrosion resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Haihe; Cai Qizhou; Wei Bokang; Yu Bo; Li Dingjun; He Jian; Liu Ze

    2008-01-01

    Different plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy in electrolytes containing various concentrations of (NaPO 3 ) 6 . The morphologies, chemical compositions and corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coatings were mainly composed of MgO, Mg 2 SiO 4 , MgAl 2 O 4 and amorphous compounds. As the (NaPO 3 ) 6 concentrations increased from 0 to 10 g/l, the thickness and surface roughness of the coatings approximately linearly increased; the MgO and Mg 2 SiO 4 phase increased within the concentration range of 0-3 and 0-5 g/l, and then decreased within the range of 3-10 and 5-10 g/l, respectively, while the MgAl 2 O 4 phase gradually decreased. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the coatings increased within the range of 0-5 g/l and then decreased within the range of 5-10 g/l. The best corrosion resistance coating was obtained in electrolyte containing 5 g/l (NaPO 3 ) 6 , it had the most compact microstructure. Besides, a reasonable equivalent circuit was established, and the fitting results were consistent with the results of the EIS test

  12. Characteristics and in vitro biological assessment of (Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coating formed on NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tao; Wang Langping; Wang Min; Tong, Ho-Wang; Lu, William W.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) was used to fabricate a (Ti, O, N)/Ti coating on NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) to improve its long-term biocompatibility and wear resistance. The surface morphology, composition and roughness of uncoated and coated NiTi SMA samples were examined. Energy dispersive X-ray elemental mapping of cross-sections of (Ti, O, N)/Ti coated NiTi SMA revealed that Ni was depleted from the surface of coated samples. No Ni was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the surface of coated samples. Furthermore, three-point bending tests showed that the composite coating could undergo large deformation without cracking or delamination. After 1 day cell culture, SaOS-2 cells on coated samples spread better than those on uncoated NiTi SMA samples. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells on coated samples was significantly higher at day 3 and day 7 of cell culture.

  13. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-01-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide–sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (I corr ) and higher corrosion potential (E corr ) than those of the substrate.

  14. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei, E-mail: wangjw@ustb.edu.cn; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-11-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide–sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (I{sub corr}) and higher corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) than those of the substrate.

  15. Determination of optimum parameters of the technological process for plates forming from V95 and V-1461 alloys in creep applied in aircrafts constructed by “Sukhoi design bureau”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevskaya, G. A.; Zakharchenko, K.; Larichkin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The research is devoted to the scientific justification of metal processing by pressure with the help of thick monolithic plates forming (thickness 40 mm) from the V95 (analog 7475) (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) and V-1461 (analog 2099) (Al-Cu-Li-Zn) alloys in creep and close-to-superplasticity. Optimum parameters of the technological process of plate forming are described. The effect of temperature on the magnitude of mechanical stresses (relaxation) during the tests of materials on pure bending is experimentally determined. Forming of thick plates (40 mm) on the UFP-1M unit, and the control of the obtained surface, in comparison with the given electronic model, made it possible to experimentally determine the time and number of forming stages. Mechanical properties of the material after the technological process and heat treatment are preliminary evaluated. The efficiency of using the obtained parameters of the technological process and treatment of metals by pressure in such methods in general is shown.

  16. Effects of iron-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria on the transformations of iron corrosion products, magnetite and siderite, formed at the surface of non-alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etique, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste is one of the major problems facing the nuclear industry. To circumvent this issue France plans to store vitrified high-level nuclear waste in a stainless steel container, placed into a non-alloy steel overpack, at a depth of 500 m in an argillaceous formation. The main iron corrosion products formed at the surface of the non-alloy steel are siderite (Fe II CO 3 ) and magnetite (Fe II Fe III 2 O 4 ). These compounds are formed in the anoxic conditions present in the nuclear waste repository and play a protective role against corrosion as a passive layer. This work aims to investigate the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB, Klebsiella mobilis) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB, Shewanella putrefaciens) during the transformation of siderite and magnetite, especially those involved in anoxic iron biogeochemical cycle. Klebsiella mobilis and Shewanella putrefaciens were first incubated with siderite or magnetite suspensions (high surface specific area) in order to exacerbate the microbial iron transformation, subsequently incubated with a magnetite/siderite film synthesized by anodic polarization at applied current density. The transformation of siderite and magnetite by direct or indirect microbial processes led to the formation of carbonated green rust (Fe II 4 Fe III 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 ). As a transient phase shared by several bacterial reactions involving Fe II and Fe III , this compound is the cornerstone of the anoxic iron biogeochemical cycle. The novelty of this thesis is the consideration of bacterial metabolisms of NRB and IRB often overlooked in bio-corrosion processes. (author) [fr

  17. Influence of rare earth additions on the oxidation resistance of chromia forming alloys; Influencia da adicao de terras raras sobre a resistencia a oxidacao de ligas formadoras de cromia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    1995-12-31

    The addition of rare earths to alloys, either in elemental form or as surface coatings reduces the oxidation rate of chromia forming alloys. The rare earths either act as nucleation sites for surface oxides or get incorporates into the surface oxide and diffuse to oxide grain boundaries. If the latter occurs, a change in the defect structure close to the grain boundaries, probably takes place. In this manner, the rare earths inhibits the movement of chromium ions to the oxide/gas interface. The influence of rare earth additions to AISI 316, AISI 316L and Ni-20 Cr on their oxidation behavior has been studied., AISI 316+Ce, AISI 316+Y, Ni-20 Cr and Ni-20 Cr-2 Al-1 Ce were prepared by melting and AISI 316L, AISI 316L+Ce O{sub 2} and AISI 316L+Y{sub 2} O{sub 3} by powder compaction. The effect of superficial deposits of rare earth oxides was also studied. The alloys were coated with rare earth oxides by high temperature conversion of the respective rare earth nitrates. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 900-1100 deg C and the cyclic oxidation tests consisted of 6 cycles of 2 hours each at 900 deg C, followed by cooling to room temperature. All the tests were carried out in air. Oxidation behavior was evaluated gravimetrically. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study surface morphology. Energy dispersive analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to identify oxide constituents. Overall, it has been observed that with the addition of rare earths, oxidation resistance increases by decreasing oxidation rates and increasing oxide adhesion. Addition of rare earths to AISI 316 prepared by melting resulted in rapid formation of a chromium rich oxide layered near the metal/oxide interface which reduced overall oxidation rate. The addition of Ce O{sub 2} to AISI 316L was found to improve oxidation behavior after 10 hours at 1100 deg C and also inhibit the formation of volatile Cr O{sub 3}. The isothermal oxidation behavior of rare earth oxide covered

  18. Nonswelling alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  19. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  20. Titanium alloys. Advances in alloys, processes, products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsop, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The last few years have been a period of consolidation of existing alloys and processes. While the aerospace industry remains the principal driving force for alloy development, the paper illustrates examples of new markets being established in 'older' alloys, by a combination of product/process development and a re-examination of engineering design parameters. Considerable attention is still being directed towards the titanium aluminide systems, but other more conventional alloy developments are underway aimed at specific engineering and process requirements, both in the aerospace and non-aerospace sectors. Both the advanced high temperature and conventional alloy developments are considered, before the paper goes on to assess the potential of new processes and products, like spray-forming, metal matrix composites and shaped-plate rolling. (orig.)

  1. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M [Sandia Park, NM; Powers, Dana A [Albuquerque, NM; Zhang, Zhenyuan [Durham, NC

    2011-08-16

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  2. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy; Efeito das terras raras Y, Gd e Sm na tendencia a formacao de amorfo e na cristalizacao termica em ligas a base de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J., E-mail: aliaga@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Danez, G.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}RE{sub 5} alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  3. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  4. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  5. Infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on sodium borosilicate glass interacted with thermally oxidized aluminides formed on alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufali, C.; Dutta, R.S.; Dey, G.K.; Kshirsagar, R.J.; Jagannath; Mishra, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Thermally oxidized aluminides formed on Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates were subjected to interaction with sodium borosilicate melt (used as matrices for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste) at 1248 K for 192 hours. After the interaction, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of glass samples indicated the incorporation of Al in the glass network. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of glass specimens revealed modified glass structure. (author)

  6. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  7. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  8. Moessbauer study of corrosion products formed on Fe80B20 and Fe40Ni40 (MoB)20 amorphous alloys in an SO2-polluted atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davalos, J.; Marco, J.F.; Gracia, M.; Gancedo, J.R.; Greneche, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    ICEMS, XPS, XRD, and AES have been used to study the corrosion layers formed on two metallic glasses, Fe 80 B 20 and Fe 40 Ni 40 (MoB) 20 (2605 and 2826 MB, Allied Company), exposed to an SO 2 -polluted humid atmosphere. The iron-containing corrosion products are the same found for pure iron in the same environment, but different relative concentrations were clearly evidenced by ICEMS results. Elemental sulphur, Ni(OH) 2 , and B(OH) 3 , the latter enriched at the surface, were found by XPS, XRD and AES. (orig.)

  9. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  10. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  11. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  12. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  13. Influence of C3H8O3 in the electrolyte on characteristics and corrosion resistance of the microarc oxidation coatings formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Di; Liu Xiangdong; Lu Kai; Zhang Yaping; Wang Huan

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic coatings were fabricated on AZ91D Mg-alloy substrate by microarc oxidation in Na 2 SiO 3 -NaOH-Na 2 EDTA electrolytes with and without C 3 H 8 O 3 addition. The effects of different concentrations of C 3 H 8 O 3 contained in the electrolyte on coatings thickness were investigated. The surface morphologies, RMS roughness, phase compositions and corrosion resistance property of the ceramic coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical corrosion test respectively. It is found that the addition of C 3 H 8 O 3 into silicate electrolyte leads to increase of the unit-area adsorptive capacity of the negative ions at anode-electrolyte interface and thus improves the compactness and corrosion resistance of the MAO coating. The coating thickness decreases gradually with the increase of concentrations of C 3 H 8 O 3 in the electrolyte. The oxide coating formed in base electrolyte containing 4 mL/L C 3 H 8 O 3 exhibits the best surface appearance, the lowest surface RMS roughness (174 nm) and highest corrosion resistance. In addition, both ceramic coatings treated in base electrolyte with and without C 3 H 8 O 3 are mainly composed of periclase MgO and forsterite Mg 2 SiO 4 phase, but no diffraction peak of Mg phase is found in the patterns.

  14. Laser surface treatment on a nickel based alloy in order to form chromium oxide to reduce cations release in primary circuit. Experimental and numerical study of laser mater interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouton, Lucille

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 690 (60%Ni, 30%Cr, 10%Fe) is mainly used in primary circuit pipes for nuclear power plants.The aim of this thesis is to form a Cr 2 O 3 layer, using laser surface melting, with the objective of creating a chromium-rich oxide layer. In order to optimize the treatment, it was first important to determine parameters influence on the layer oxide properties then, with the objective of a deeper understanding of mechanisms involved, to address thermo-physical phenomena occurring during and after the laser pulse striking the upper surface. A deep parametric study first enabled to find an optimized laser surface treatment which produces chromium enrichment of the upper surface and a dense and continuous oxide layer. This treatment has been applied on samples, set in a primary medium simulation loop. Experiments and calculations were carried out to provide understanding of surface chromium enrichment by laser process. The results were shown to explain chromium enrichment until melt pool solidification occurred on the upper surface, assumingly just before chromium oxide formation. This was also promoted by a high affinity with oxygen and a higher stability of Cr 2 O 3 oxide compared with other potential oxide formation. (author) [fr

  15. Dry sliding wear of Al-Fe-Cr-Mn quasicrystalline phase former alloy obtained by spray forming; Estudo do comportamento ao desgaste de liga Al-Fe-Cr-Mn obtida por conformacao por spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, S.M.T.; Rios, C.T.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Gargarella, P.; Mendes, M.A.B., E-mail: marcio.andreato@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Samples from different regions of a spray formed billet of Al{sub 92}Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} quasicrystalline phase former alloy were analyzed and their wear behavior has been studied. The microstructures observed depend on the cooling rate imposed to the material. The border of the billet exhibits a very fine structure with presence of quasicrystalline phase and the base showed a fine structure but without presence of quasicrystalline phase. Dry sliding wear tests were made using three loads and samples of these two different regions. The wear surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Similar wear behavior was observed in the border and the base samples at the same load. The wear mechanism verified is the adhesive and the applied load increases the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These particles can take off the surface and act as abrasive, which can explain the large increase in the wear rate for the samples loaded at 30N.(author)

  16. Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Meyer, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. (author)

  17. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  18. WC-3015 alloy (high-temperature alloy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    WC-3015 Nb alloy containing 28 to 30 Hf, 1 to 2 Zr, 13 to 16 W, 0 to 4 Ta, 0 to 5 Ti, 0.07 to 0.33 C, less than or equal to 0.02 N, less than or equal to 0.03 O, less than or equal to 0.001 H was developed for use at high temperature in oxidizing environments. Its composition can be tailored to meet specific requirements. When WC-3015 is exposed to O at elevated temperature, Hf and Nb oxidized preferentially and HfO 2 dissolves in Nb 2 O 5 to form 6HfO-Nb 2 O 5 . This complex oxide has a tight cubic lattice which resists the diffusion of O into the substrate. During 24-h exposure to air at 2400 0 F, the alloy oxidizes to a depth of approximately 0.035 in. with a surface recession of 0 to 0.004 in. Oxidation resistance of WC-3015 welds and base material can be further enhanced greatly by applying silicide coatings. WC-3015 alloy can be machined by conventional and electrical-discharge methods. It can be hot worked readily by extrusion, forging or rolling. Cold working can be used at room or elevated temperature. It can be welded by the electron-beam or Tig processes. Physical constants, typical mechanical properties at 75 to 2400 0 F, and effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile and stress-rupture properties of the alloy are tabulated

  19. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  20. [Microanalytical determinations of gold alloys for fixed dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, M; Negri, P; Fraschini, M

    1993-01-01

    In this work the authors analyse gold alloys for fixed prosthesis by X-ray spectrometry in energy dispersion (EDS). The results of this analysis, given in graphic and table form, show remarkable differences in alloy composition. For this reason recommended dentists are to be attentive and severe in the control of gold alloys for fixed prosthesis.

  1. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  2. Oxide films on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-S.; Liu, J.-B.; Wei, P.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are very active and readily ignite during heating and melting. In this study, we discuss the combustion of magnesium and magnesium alloys and propose prospective anti-ignition mechanisms for magnesium alloys during the heating process. When magnesium and magnesium alloys were heated in air, the sample surfaces produced layers of thermally formed oxides. These thermally formed oxides played an important role in affecting the combustion of the magnesium and magnesium alloys. When magnesium was heated in air, brucite that formed in the early stage was then transformed into periclase by dehydroxylation. By extending the heating time, more periclase formed and increased in thickness which was associated with microcracks formation. When magnesium was heated in a protective atmosphere (SF 6 ), a film of MgF 2 formed at the interface between the oxide layer and the Mg substrate. This film generated an anti-ignition behavior which protected the substrate from oxidation. When solution-treated AZ80 alloy was heated, spinel developed at the interface between the thermally formed oxide layer and the Mg substrate, improving the anti-ignition properties of the substrate. In addition, we also explain the effects of beryllium in an AZB91 alloy on the ignition-proofing behavior

  3. Mechanical properties of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1977-06-01

    A survey is given of the metallophysical fundamentals of the mechanical properties of ordered two-phase alloys. Alloys of this type have a superlattice structure in a substitution mixed crystal. Ordering is achieved by slow cooling or by annealing below the critical temperature, during which ordering domains (antiphase domains) are formed. At a high degree of ordering, the dislocations are concentrated to form pairs, so-called super-dislocations. The mechanical properties may be selectively changed by varying different parameters (size of the ordering domains, degree of ordering, energy of the antiphase boundaries) by a special composition and heat treatment.(GSC) [de

  4. A highly ductile magnesium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W; Liu, H

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are finding increasing applications in industry mainly due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. However, they have intrinsically poor plastic deformation ability at room temperature. Therefore, the vast majority of Mg alloys are used only in cast state, severely limiting the development of their applications. We have recently discovered a new Mg alloy system that possesses exceptionally high ductility as well as good mechanical strength. The superior plasticity allows this alloy system to be mechanically deformed at room temperature, directly from an as-cast alloy plate, sheet or ingot into working parts. This type of cold mechanical forming properties has never been reported with any other Mg alloy systems.

  5. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2017-12-05

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  6. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2017-10-10

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  7. Local atomic order in nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartych, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using the 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, a local atomic order in nanocrystalline alloys of iron with Al, Ni, W and Mo has been determined. Alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying method. Analysis of Moessbauer spectra was performed on the basis of the local environment model in terms of Warren-Cowley parameters. It was shown that impurity atoms are not randomly distributed in the volume of the first and the second co-ordination spheres of 57 Fe nuclei and they form clusters

  8. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  9. Ductility behavior of irradiated path B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the practicality of using five Path B alloys in their current form as structural materials in the Fusion First-Wall/Blanket by evaluating both their postirradiation ductility and the corresponding microstructures

  10. Synthesis of shape memory alloys using electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Timothy Roy

    Shape memory alloys are used in a variety of applications. The area of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is a developing field for thin film shape memory alloys for making actuators, valves and pumps. Until recently thin film shape memory alloys could only be made by rapid solidification or sputtering techniques which have the disadvantage of being "line of sight". At the University of Missouri-Rolla, electrolytic techniques have been developed that allow the production of shape memory alloys in thin film form. The advantages of this techniques are in-situ, non "line of sight" and the ability to make differing properties of the shape memory alloys from one bath. This research focused on the electrodeposition of In-Cd shape memory alloys. The primary objective was to characterize the electrodeposited shape memory effect for an electrodeposited shape memory alloy. The effect of various operating parameters such as peak current density, temperature, pulsing, substrate and agitation were investigated and discussed. The electrodeposited alloys were characterized by relative shape memory effect, phase transformation, morphology and phases present. Further tests were performed to optimize the shape memory by the use of a statistically designed experiment. An optimized shape memory effect for an In-Cd alloy is reported for the conditions of the experiments.

  11. Corrosion of cast and non equilibrium magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, S.; Rapin, C.; Steinmetz, P.; Hazan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Due to their low density, magnesium alloys arc very promising as regards applications in the automotive or aeronautical industry. Their corrosion resistance has however to be increased, particularly for cast alloys which are very often two-phased and thus suffer from internal galvanic corrosion. With use of sputtering methods of elaboration, homogeneous magnesium alloys containing far from equilibrium Al, Zr or valve metals contents can be prepared. Corrosion data for Mg-Al-Zn-Sn alloys and MgZr alloys obtained by sputtering, have been determined and compared to those of cast and thixocast AZ91 alloy. Electrochemical tests have evidenced a significantly better behaviour of non equilibrium alloys which, thanks to XPS measurements, could be correlated to the composition of the superficial oxide scale formed on these alloys. (author)

  12. HAYNES 244 alloy – a new 760 ∘C capable low thermal expansion alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrmann Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HAYNES® 244TM alloy is a new 760∘C capable, high strength low thermal expansion (CTE alloy. Its nominal chemical composition in weight percent is Ni – 8 Cr – 22.5 Mo – 6 W. Recently, a first mill-scale heat of 244 alloy was melted by Haynes International, and processed to various product forms such as re-forge billet, plate, and sheet. This paper presents key attributes of this new alloy (CTE, strength, low-cycle fatigue performance, oxidation resistance, thermal stability as they pertain to the intended use in rings and seals of advanced gas turbines.

  13. Reaction kinetics of oxygen on single-phase alloys, oxidation of nickel and niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalauze, Rene

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis first addresses the reaction kinetics of oxygen on alloys. It presents some generalities on heterogeneous reactions (conventional theory, theory of jumps), discusses the core reaction (with the influence of pressure), discusses the influence of metal self-diffusion on metal oxidation kinetics (equilibrium conditions at the interface, hybrid diffusion regime), reports the application of the hybrid diffusion model to the study of selective oxidation of alloys (Wagner model, hybrid diffusion model) and the study of the oxidation kinetics of an alloy forming a solid solution of two oxides. The second part reports the investigation of the oxidation of single phase nickel and niobium alloys (phase α, β and γ)

  14. Method of treating Ti--Nb--Zr--Ta superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, T.; Monju, Y.; Tatara, I.; Nagai, N.; Hisata, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    A superconducting alloy is formulated from 10 to 50 at. percent Ti, 20 to 50 at. percent Nb, 10 to 40 at. percent Zr, and 5 to 12 at. percent Ta. A Ti--Nb--Zr--Ta superconducting alloy with a fine, non-homogeneous structure is obtained by forming a β solid solution of Ti--Nb--Zr--Ta alloy by heating to a temperature within the β solid solution range, cooling, and then cold working the heated alloy. The cold worked alloy is heated to a temperature within the (β' + β'') alloy to maintain the peritectoid structure, cold worked, then heated to a temperature within the eutectoid range to form a multiphase alloy structure and then cooled and finally cold worked. (U.S.)

  15. The corrosion and passivity of sputtered Mg–Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Guang-Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, Harry; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A supersaturated single phase Mg–Ti alloy can be obtained by magnetron sputtering. • The anodic dissolution of Mg–Ti alloy is inhibited by Ti addition. • The alloy becomes passive when Ti content is high and the alloy has become Ti based. • The formation of a continuous thin passive film is responsible for the passivation of the alloy. - Abstract: This study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. The surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  16. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  17. [Compressive and bend strength of experimental admixed high copper alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourai, P; Paximada, H; Lagouvardos, P; Douvitsas, G

    1988-01-01

    Mixed alloys for dental amalgams have been used mainly in the form of admixed alloys, where eutectic spheres are blend with conventional flakes. In the present study the compressive strength, bend strength and microstructure of two high-copper alloys (Tytin, Ana-2000) is compared with three experimental alloys prepared of the two high copper by mixing them in proportions of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 by weight. The results revealed that experimental alloys inherited high early and final strength values without any significant change in their microstructure.

  18. Zirconium alloy barrier having improved corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, R.B.; Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor has a composite cladding container having a substrate and a dilute zirconium alloy liner bonded to the inside surface of the substrate. The dilute zirconium alloy liner forms about 1 to about 20 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of zirconium and a metal selected from the group consisting of iron, chromium, iron plus chromium, and copper. The dilute zirconium alloy liner shields the substrate from impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material and protects the substrate from stress corrosion and stress cracking. The dilute zirconium alloy liner displays greater corrosion resistance, especially to oxidation by hot water or steam than unalloyed zirconium. The substrate material is selected from conventional cladding materials, and preferably is a zirconium alloy. (author)

  19. Electron microscopy study of hardened layers structure at electrospark alloying the VT-18 titanium alloy with aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyankevich, A.N.; Martynenko, A.N.; Verkhoturov, A.D.; Paderno, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of metallographic, electron-microscopic, and X-ray structure analysis, of microhardness measurements and of the study of the electrode weight changes at electrospark alloying the VT-18 titanium alloy with aluminium. It is shown, that pulsating thermal and mechanical loadings in the process of electrospark alloying result in the electrode surface electroerosion, a discrete relief is being formed, which changes constantly in the process depending on the alloying time. Though with the process time the cathode weight gain increases, microareas of fracture in the hardened layer appear already at the initial stages of electrospark alloying

  20. Misoriented dislocation substructures and the fracture of polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.; Kozlov, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of the dislocation substructure in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys with various grain sizes is studied during deformation to failure. A relation between the fracture of the alloys and the forming misorientation dislocation substructures is revealed. Microcracks in the alloy are found to form along grain boundaries and the boundaries of misoriented dislocation cells and microtwins.

  1. Precipitation Behavior of Magnesium Alloys Containing Neodymium and Yttrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ellen L. S.

    Magnesium is the lightest of the structural metals and has great potential for reducing the weight of transportation systems, which in turn reduces harmful emissions and improves fuel economy. Due to the inherent softness of Mg, other elements are typically added in order to form a fine distribution of precipitates during aging, which improves the strength by acting as barriers to moving dislocations. Mg-RE alloys are unique among other Mg alloys because they form precipitates that lie parallel to the prismatic planes of the Mg matrix, which is an ideal orientation to hinder dislocation slip. However, RE elements are expensive and impractical for many commercial applications, motivating the rapid design of alternative alloy compositions with comparable mechanical properties. Yet in order to design new alloys reproducing some of the beneficial properties of Mg-RE alloys, we must first fully understand precipitation in these systems. Therefore, the main objectives of this thesis are to identify the roles of specific RE elements (Nd and Y) on precipitation and to relate the precipitate microstructure to the alloy strength. The alloys investigated in this thesis are the Mg-Nd, Mg-Y, and Mg-Y-Nd systems, which contain the main alloying elements of commercial WE series alloys (Y and Nd). In all three alloy systems, a sequence of metastable phases forms upon aging. Precipitate composition, atomic structure, morphology, and spatial distribution are strongly controlled by the elastic strain energy originating from the misfitting coherent precipitates. The dominating role that strain energy plays in these alloy systems gives rise to very unique microstructures. The evolution of the hardness and precipitate microstructure with aging revealed that metastable phases are the primary strengthening phases of these alloys, and interact with dislocations by shearing. Our understanding of precipitation mechanisms and commonalities among the Mg-RE alloys provide future avenues to

  2. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  3. Miniature High Force, Long Stroke Linear Shape Memory Alloy Actuators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are metal alloys (Nickel-Titanium, for example) that change shape when heated. When drawn and processed in wire form, the shape change is...

  4. Electroplated zinc-cobalt alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.E.O.S.; Farr, J.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on the deposition and use of ectrodeposited zinc-cobalt alloys is surveyed. Alloys containing lower of Nuclear quantities of cobalt are potentially more useful. The structures of the deposits is related to their chemical and mechanical properties. The inclusion of oxide and its role in the deposition mechanism may be significant. Chemical and engineering properties relate to the metallurgical structure of the alloys, which derives from the mechanism of deposition. The inclusion of oxides and hydroxides in the electroplate may provide evidence for this mechanism. Electrochemical impedance measurements have been made at significant deposition potentials, in alkaline electrolytes. These reveal a complex electrode behaviour which depends not only on the electrode potential but on the Co content of the electrolyte. For the relevant range of cathodic potential zinc-cobalt alloy electrodeposition occurs through a stratified interface. The formation of an absorbed layer ZnOH/sup +/ is the initial step, this inhibits the deposition of cobalt at low cathodic potentials, so explaining its 'anomalous deposition'. A porous layer of zinc forms on the adsorbed ZnOH/sup +/ at underpotential. As the potential becomes more cathodic, cobalt co- deposits from its electrolytic complex forming a metallic solid solution of Co in Zn. In electrolytes containing a high concentration of cobalt a mixed entity (ZnCo)/sub +/ is assumed to adsorb at the cathode from which a CoZn intermetallic deposits. (author)

  5. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  6. Passivation and alloying element retention in gas atomized powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidloff, Andrew J.; Rieken, Joel R.; Anderson, Iver E.

    2017-12-05

    A method for gas atomization of a titanium alloy, nickel alloy, or other alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3)-forming alloy wherein the atomized particles are exposed as they solidify and cool in a very short time to multiple gaseous reactive agents for the in-situ formation of a passivation reaction film on the atomized particles wherein the reaction film retains a precursor halogen alloying element that is subsequently introduced into a microstructure formed by subsequent thermally processing of the atomized particles to improve oxidation resistance.

  7. The influence of the deoxidization on the aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Wu, X.; Wang, W. [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    2000-07-01

    Though the composition of the 7075 and 7050 aluminum alloys are quite similar, the anodic behaviors of the two alloys were quite different. Unlike the 7075 alloy, a chromic acid anodic film could not be formed on the 7050 alloy surface with a conventional anodizing process, unless a so-called deoxidization was employed. Therefore, the effects of the deoxidization were studied. The results showed that the deoxidization affected the 7050 quite obviously, introducing numerous number of the ''pits'' to the sample surface, and hence the film obtained was relatively thick but rather weak. In addition, the anodizing voltage also brought remarkable effect to the anodic behavior of the 7050 alloy. The test results showed that the deoxidization lowered the corrosion resistance of the 7050 alloys. By contrast, neither oxidization nor the voltage affected the anodic behavior and the corrosion resistance of the 7075 alloy very much. (orig.)

  8. Properties of boride-added powder metallurgy magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Syota; Fujima, Takuya; Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium alloys with metallic borides, magnesium diboride (MgB2) or aluminum diboride (AlB2), were investigated regarding their mechanical properties, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and micro Vickers hardness (HV). The alloys were made from pure Mg, Al and B powders by mechanical alloying and hot pressing to have boride content of between 2.0 and 20 vol%. The alloy with AlB2 exhibited an obvious improvement of HV around a boride content of 6 vol% though the other alloy, with MgB2, did not. TRS showed moderate maxima around the same boride content region for the both alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated an intermetallic compound, Mg17Al12, formed in the alloy with AlB2, which was consistent with its higher hardness.

  9. Properties of boride-added powder metallurgy magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Syota; Fujima, Takuya; Takagi, Ken-ichi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo City University 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan)], E-mail: ktakagi@tcu.ac.jp

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium alloys with metallic borides, magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) or aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}), were investigated regarding their mechanical properties, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and micro Vickers hardness (HV). The alloys were made from pure Mg, Al and B powders by mechanical alloying and hot pressing to have boride content of between 2.0 and 20 vol%. The alloy with AlB{sub 2} exhibited an obvious improvement of HV around a boride content of 6 vol% though the other alloy, with MgB{sub 2}, did not. TRS showed moderate maxima around the same boride content region for the both alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated an intermetallic compound, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, formed in the alloy with AlB{sub 2}, which was consistent with its higher hardness.

  10. Properties of boride-added powder metallurgy magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Syota; Fujima, Takuya; Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with metallic borides, magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) or aluminum diboride (AlB 2 ), were investigated regarding their mechanical properties, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and micro Vickers hardness (HV). The alloys were made from pure Mg, Al and B powders by mechanical alloying and hot pressing to have boride content of between 2.0 and 20 vol%. The alloy with AlB 2 exhibited an obvious improvement of HV around a boride content of 6 vol% though the other alloy, with MgB 2 , did not. TRS showed moderate maxima around the same boride content region for the both alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated an intermetallic compound, Mg 17 Al 12 , formed in the alloy with AlB 2 , which was consistent with its higher hardness.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, V.A.; Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Chukin, A.V.; Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovich, V.A., E-mail: v.a.volkovich@urfu.ru [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F. [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry UD RAS, Ekaterinburg, 620137 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G. [JSC “State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors”, Dimitrovgrad, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  13. Lubrication for hot working of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotlib, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The isothermal lubrication of the following composition is suggested, wt. %: aluminium powder 4-6, iron scale 15-25, vitreous enamel up to 100. The lubricant improves forming and decreases the danger of the metal fracture when titanium alloys working. It is advisable to use the suggested lubrication when stamping thin-walled products of titanium alloys at the blank temperature from 700 to 1000 deg C [ru

  14. Corrosion and protection of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghali, E. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy

    2000-07-01

    The oxide film on magnesium offers considerable surface protection in rural and some industrial environments and the corrosion rate lies between that of aluminum and low carbon steels. Galvanic coupling of magnesium alloys, high impurity content such as Ni, Fe, Cu and surface contamination are detrimental for corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Alloying elements can form secondary particles which are noble to the Mg matrix, thereby facilitating corrosion, or enrich the corrosion product thereby possibly inhibiting the corrosion rate. Bimetallic corrosion resistance can be increased by fluxless melt protection, choice of compatible alloys, insulating materials, and new high-purity alloys. Magnesium is relatively insensible to oxygen concentration. Pitting, corrosion in the crevices, filiform corrosion are observed. Granular corrosion of magnesium alloys is possible due to the cathodic grain-boundary constituent. More homogeneous microstructures tend to improve corrosion resistance. Under fatigue loading conditions, microcrack initiation in Mg alloys is related to slip in preferentially oriented grains. Coating that exclude the corrosive environments can provide the primary defense against corrosion fatigue. Magnesium alloys that contain neither aluminum nor zinc are the most SCC resistant. Compressive surface residual stresses as that created by short peening increase SCC resistance. Cathodic polarization or cladding with a SCC resistant sheet alloy are good alternatives. Effective corrosion prevention for magnesium alloy components and assemblies should start at the design stage. Selective surface preparation, chemical treatment and coatings are recommended. Oil application, wax coating, anodizing, electroplating, and painting are possible alternatives. Recently, it is found that a magnesium hydride layer, created on the magnesium surface by cathodic charging in aqueous solution is a good base for painting. (orig.)

  15. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  16. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  17. Effectiveness of Ti-micro alloying in relation to cooling rate on corrosion of AZ91 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candan, S.; Celik, M.; Candan, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, micro Ti-alloyed AZ91 Mg alloys (AZ91 + 0.5wt.%Ti) have been investigated in order to clarify effectiveness of micro alloying and/or cooling rate on their corrosion properties. Molten alloys were solidified under various cooling rates by using four stage step mold. The microstructural investigations were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behaviors of the alloys were evaluated by means of immersion and electrochemical polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Mg 17 Al 12 (β) intermetallic phase in the microstructure of AZ91 Mg alloy formed as a net-like structure. The Ti addition has reduced the distribution and continuity of β intermetallic phase and its morphology has emerged as fully divorced eutectic. Compared to AZ91 alloy, the effect of the cooling rate in Ti-added alloy on the grain size was less pronounced. When AZ91 and its Ti-added alloys were compared under the same cooling conditions, the Ti addition showed notably high corrosion resistance. Electrochemical test results showed that while I corr values of AZ91 decrease with the increase in the cooling rate, the effect of the cooling rate on I corr values was much lower in the Ti-added alloy. The corrosion resistance of AZ91 Mg alloy was sensitive towards the cooling rates while Ti-added alloy was not affected much from the cooling conditions. - Highlights: • Effect the cooling rate on grain size was less pronounced in the Ti-added alloy. • The morphology of the β phase transformed into fully divorced eutectics. • Ti addition exhibited significantly higher corrosion resistance. • Ti micro alloying is more effective than faster cooling of the alloy on corrosion.

  18. Electronic structure of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references

  19. Characterization of Aluminum Magnesium Alloy Reverse Sensitized via Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually forming a continuous network and increasing...alloys. Al-Mg alloys can become sensitized when magnesium comes out of solution as a second phase, Al3Mg2, on the grain boundaries, eventually...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION Aluminum alloys are attractive ship-building materials. They are lightweight

  20. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Jamaliah; Christian, Chukwuekezie; Gaius, Eyu

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC) and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis par...

  1. Electrodeposition of platinum metals and alloys from chloride melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltykova N.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of platinum metals and their alloys deposited by the electrolysis of chloride melts have been investigated. The cathodic deposits were both in the form of compact layers and dendrites. All the alloys of platinum metals obtained are solid solutions in the whole range of composition. Depending on the experimental conditions the layers had columnar, stratum and spiral (dissipative structures. The stratum and dissipative structures were observed in the case of alloys only.

  2. Processing and production of molybdenum and tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagel, W.C.; Shields, J.A. Jr.; Tuominen, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The technological means to produce and process Mo and W alloys are summarized because for many Mo and W alloy systems the mechanical properties can be optimized only by thermomechanical processing requiring production and processing capabilities that are not widely available. First, the producers of commercial Mo and W alloys are presented along with currently available product forms. Second, currently disclosed standard capabilities of producers and processors in the United States are presented. 56 references, 13 figures, 9 tables

  3. Introduction to hydrogen in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlake, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Substitutional alloys, both those that form hydrides and those that do not, are discussed, but with more emphasis on the former than the latter. This overview includes the following closely related subjects: (1) the significant effects of substitutional solutes on the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) equilibria of metal-hydrogen systems, (2) the changes in thermodynamic properties resulting from differences in atom size and from modifications of electronic structure, (3) attractive and repulsive interactions between H and solute atoms and the effects of such interactions on the pressure dependent solubility for H, (4) H trapping in alloys of Group V metals and its effect on the terminal solubility for H (TSH), (5) some other mechanisms invoked to explain the enhancement (due to alloying) of the (TSH) in Group V metals, and (6) H-impurity complexes in alloys of the metals Ni, Co, and Fe. Some results showing that an enhanced TSH may ameliorate the resistance of a metal to hydrogen embrittlement are presented

  4. Influence of alloying elements and density on aqueous corrosion behaviour of some sintered low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandavel, T.K.; Chandramouli, R.; Karthikeyan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of low alloy P/M steels under HCl acid pickling environment has been studied. ► Influence of density, strain and alloying elements on the rate of corrosion of the steels has been investigated. ► Residual porosity has significant effect on acid corrosion. ► Addition of the alloying elements Cu, Mo and Ti reduces the corrosion rate significantly. ► Carbide forming elements Mo and Ti improve further the resistance of the steels to aqueous corrosion. -- Abstract: Low alloy steels produced through powder metallurgy route of sintering followed by forging are promising candidate materials for high strength small components. Porosity in such steels poses a real challenge during acid pickling treatment, which is one of the processing steps during manufacturing. The present research work attempts to investigate the mechanism underlying the acid corrosion behaviour of some sintered low alloy steels under induced acid pickling conditions. Sintered-forged low alloy steel samples containing molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu) and titanium (Ti) were subjected to aqueous corrosion attack by immersing the samples in 18% HCl (Hydrochloric acid) solution for 25 h. Sample weight loss and Fe (Iron) loss were estimated for the corroded samples. The morphology of the corroded surfaces was studied through metallography and scanning electron microscopy. Higher porosity alloys underwent enhanced corrosion rates. Both corrosion rate and iron loss are found to decrease linearly with reduction in porosity in all cases of the alloys. The alloying elements Mo, Ti and Cu, when added in combination, have played a complementary role in the reduction of corrosion rate by almost one order of magnitude compared to unalloyed steel. Presence of carbides of the carbide forming elements Mo and Ti played a positive role on the corrosion behaviour of the low alloy steels.

  5. Study on microstructure and properties of Mg-alloy surface alloying layer fabricated by EPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dongfeng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AZ91D surface alloying was investigated through evaporative pattern casting (EPC technology. Aluminum powder (0.074 to 0.104 mm was used as the alloying element in the experiment. An alloying coating with excellent properties was fabricated, which mainly consisted of adhesive, co-solvent, suspending agent and other ingredients according to desired proportion. Mg-alloy melt was poured under certain temperature and the degree of negative pressure. The microstructure of the surface layer was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that a large volume fraction of network new phases were formed on the Mg-alloy surface, the thickness of the alloying surface layer increased with the alloying coating increasing from 0.3 mm to 0.5 mm, and the microstructure became compact. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the new phases. It showed that the new phases mainly consist of β-Mg17Al12, in addition to a small quantity of inter-metallic compounds and oxides. A micro-hardness test and a corrosion experiment to simulate the effect of sea water were performed. The result indicated that the highest micro-hardness of the surface reaches three times that of the matrix. The corrosion rate of alloying samples declines to about a fifth of that of the as-cast AZ91D specimen.

  6. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  7. Room temperature creep in metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Characterization and Performance

    2014-09-01

    Time dependent deformation in the form of creep and stress relaxation is not often considered a factor when designing structural alloy parts for use at room temperature. However, creep and stress relaxation do occur at room temperature (0.09-0.21 Tm for alloys in this report) in structural alloys. This report will summarize the available literature on room temperature creep, present creep data collected on various structural alloys, and finally compare the acquired data to equations used in the literature to model creep behavior. Based on evidence from the literature and fitting of various equations, the mechanism which causes room temperature creep is found to include dislocation generation as well as exhaustion.

  8. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.; Laniesse, J.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small α grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [fr

  9. Grindability of cast Ti-Cu alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Kiyosue, Seigo; Yoda, Masanobu; Woldu, Margaret; Cai, Zhuo; Okuno, Osamu; Okabe, Toru

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Cu alloys in order to develop a titanium alloy with better grindability than commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), which is considered to be one of the most difficult metals to machine. Experimental Ti-Cu alloys (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mass% Cu) were made in an argon-arc melting furnace. Each alloy was cast into a magnesia mold using a centrifugal casting machine. Cast alloy slabs (3.5 mm x 8.5 mm x 30.5 mm), from which the hardened surface layer (250 microm) was removed, were ground using a SiC abrasive wheel on an electric handpiece at four circumferential speeds (500, 750, 1000, or 1250 m/min) at 0.98 N (100 gf). Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1min. Data were compared to those for CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. For all speeds, Ti-10% Cu alloy exhibited the highest grindability. For the Ti-Cu alloys with a Cu content of 2% or less, the highest grindability corresponded to an intermediate speed. It was observed that the grindability increased with an increase in the Cu concentration compared to CP Ti, particularly for the 5 or 10% Cu alloys at a circumferential speed of 1000 m/min or above. By alloying with copper, the cast titanium exhibited better grindability at high speed. The continuous precipitation of Ti(2)Cu among the alpha-matrix grains made this material less ductile and facilitated more effective grinding because small broken segments more readily formed.

  10. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  11. A DFT Structural Investigation of New Bimetallic PtSnx Surface Alloys Formed on the Pt(110) Surface and Their Interaction with Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Jian; Busch, Michael; Artiglia, Luca

    2016-01-01

    desorbs from the PtSnx surfaces at about 415-425 K compared to 495 K on the clean Pt(110). The energetics and geometry of the CO chemisorption sites have been studied by DFT calculations, obtaining an adsorption energy of 0.7-0.86 eV on p(3 x 1) and 0.9-1.05 eV on p(6 x 1). Overall our theoretical...... spectroscopy. Based on the experimental results and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we propose atomic models for these surface alloys, which both consist of a highly corrugated row structure with a very similar surface motif. CO temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments indicate that CO...

  12. In vitro corrosion of dental Au-based casting alloys in polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasusuki, Norio; Ida, Yusuke; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behaviors of two Au-based casting alloys (ISO type 1 and type 4 Au alloys) and their constituent pure metals, Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution were examined. The two Au alloys actively corroded, and the main anodic reaction for both was dissolution of Au as AuI₂(-). The amount of Au released from the ISO type 1 Au alloy was significantly larger than that from the ISO type 4 Au alloy (Palloy exhibited higher susceptibility to tarnishing than the type 4 alloy. The corrosion forms of the two Au alloys were found to be completely different, i.e., the type 1 alloy exhibited the corrosion attack over the entire exposed surface with a little irregularity whereas the type 4 alloy exhibited typical intergranular corrosion, which was caused by local cells produced by segregation of Pd and Pt.

  13. Controlled reactions between chromia and coating on alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren

    1996-01-01

    An electrically conducting Sr-doped lanthanum chromite (LSC) coating has been produced by reacting a coating of fine particles of La oxide and Sr oxide with chromia formed as an external scale on a metallic alloy. In addition to the formation of LSC the coating also resulted in much reduced...... buckling of the underlying chromia layer compared with a non-coated alloy....

  14. ANALYSIS OF KINETICS OF CAST IRON ALLOYING THROUGH SLAG PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cast iron alloying through slag phase due to use of nickel and copper oxides is considered and the analysis of kinetics regularity of alloying in case of absence of fuse in the form of milled cast-iron chips in slag and at their presence in it is carried out.

  15. Textural and morphological studies on zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits have industrial significance, since they provide better corrosion resistance and with improved mechanical properties when compared to pure zinc coatings. This is due to the unique phase structure of the alloy formed. But this deposition belongs to anomalous deposition, where the ...

  16. Interdiffusion between Co3O4 coating and the oxide scale of Fe-22Cr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Friehling, Peter B.; Linderoth, Søren

    2002-01-01

    on Fe-Cr alloys. Coatings of Co3O4 were deposited on a Fe-22Cr alloy by plasma spraying and spray-painting. As-deposited samples were oxidised in air containing 1% H2O at 900C for various exposure time. During exposure the Fe-22Cr alloy forms an oxide scale, which reacts with the coating. The effects...

  17. Modeling of Precipitation Sequence and Ageing Kinetics in Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrami, A.

    2010-01-01

    Al-Mg-Si alloys are heat treatable alloys in which strength is obtained by precipitation hardening. Precipitates, formed from a supersaturated solid solution during ageing heat treatment, are GP-zones, B", B´ and B-Mg2Si. Precipitation kinetics and strength vary with alloy composition and process

  18. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  19. Tribological research of cobalt alloys used as biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Karpiński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information about the cobalt alloys used in dentistry and medicine. The work includes a review of the literature describing the general properties of cobalt alloys. In addition it describes the impact of the manufacturing conditions and alloy additives used , on the structure and mechanical properties of these alloys. The research methodology and the results obtained has been presented in the study. Two cobalt-based alloys Co-CrMo-W and Co-Cr-Ni-Mo were selected for the tests. The first one was prepared with the use of casting technique whereas the second was obtained due to plastic forming. An analysis of the chemical composition and in vitro tribological tests with the use of tribotester of "ball-on-disc" type was conducted. Comparative tribological characteristics of these alloys has been presented.

  20. High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys with Excellent Biodegradation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, J.; Becker, M.; Martinelli, E.; Weinberg, A. M.; Mingler, B.; Kilian, H.; Pogatscher, S.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    This article deals with the development of fine-grained high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) magnesium alloys intended for use as biodegradable implant material. The alloys contain solely low amounts of Zn and Ca as alloying elements. We illustrate the development path starting from the high-Zn-containing ZX50 (MgZn5Ca0.25) alloy with conventional purity, to an ultrahigh-purity ZX50 modification, and further to the ultrahigh-purity Zn-lean alloy ZX10 (MgZn1Ca0.3). It is shown that alloys with high Zn-content are prone to biocorrosion in various environments, most probably because of the presence of the intermetallic phase Mg6Zn3Ca2. A reduction of the Zn content results in (Mg,Zn)2Ca phase formation. This phase is less noble than the Mg-matrix and therefore, in contrast to Mg6Zn3Ca2, does not act as cathodic site. A fine-grained microstructure is achieved by the controlled formation of fine and homogeneously distributed (Mg,Zn)2Ca precipitates, which influence dynamic recrystallization and grain growth during hot forming. Such design scheme is comparable to that of HSLA steels, where low amounts of alloying elements are intended to produce a very fine dispersion of particles to increase the material's strength by refining the grain size. Consequently our new, ultrapure ZX10 alloy exhibits high strength (yield strength R p = 240 MPa, ultimate tensile strength R m = 255 MPa) and simultaneously high ductility (elongation to fracture A = 27%), as well as low mechanical anisotropy. Because of the anodic nature of the (Mg,Zn)2Ca particles used in the HSLA concept, the in vivo degradation in a rat femur implantation study is very slow and homogeneous without clinically observable hydrogen evolution, making the ZX10 alloy a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  1. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  2. Cast and hipped gamma titanium aluminum alloys modified by chromium, boron, and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shyhchin.

    1993-01-01

    A cast body is described of a chromium, boron, and tantalum modified titanium aluminum alloy, said alloy consisting essentially of titanium, aluminum, chromium, boron, and tantalum in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti-Al 45-50 Cr 1-3 Ta 1-8 B 0.1-0.3 , and said alloy having been prepared by casting the alloy to form said cast body and by HIPping said body

  3. Tin-Silver Alloys for Flip-Chip Bonding Studied with a Rotating Cylinder Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Pedersen, E.H.; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1999-01-01

    Electrodeposition of solder for flip-chip bonding is studied in the form of a pyrophosphate/iodide tin-silver alloy bath. The objective is to obtain a uniform alloy composition, with 3.8 At.% silver, over a larger area. This specific alloy will provide an eutectic solder melting at 221°C (or 10°C...... photoresist, have shown a stable and promising alternative to pure tin and tin-lead alloys for flip-chip bonding applications....

  4. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy 600 to optimize resistance to intergranular stress corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, A.F.; Bibb, A.E.

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprises heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cooling the alloy body, and heating the cooled body to a temperature between 1100 to 1500/sup 0/F for about 1 to 30 hours.

  5. Laser cladding of quasicrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, F.; Sirkin, H.; Colaco, R.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Quasicrystals are a new class of ordinated structures with metastable characteristics room temperature. Quasicrystalline phases can be obtained by rapid quenching from the melt of some alloys. In general, quasicrystals present properties which make these alloys promising for wear and corrosion resistant coatings applications. During the last years, the development of quasicrystalline coatings by means of thermal spray techniques has been impulsed. However, no references have been found of their application by means of laser techniques. In this work four claddings of quasicrystalline compositions formed over aluminium substrate, produced by a continuous CO 2 laser using simultaneous powders mixture injection are presented. The claddings were characterized by X ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness. (Author) 18 refs

  6. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  7. Monitoring alloy formation during mechanical alloying process by x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom; Noraizam Md Diah; Mazli Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring alloying (MA) is a novel processing technique that use high energy impact ball mill to produce alloys with enhanced properties and microscopically homogeneous materials starting from various powder mixtures. Mechanical alloying process was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion strengthened nickel superalloys. In principal, in high-energy ball milling process, alloy is formed by the result of repeated welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high energy ball mill. In this process a powder mixture in a ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions among balls. MA has been shown to be capable of synthesizing a variety of materials. It is known to be capable to prepare equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases starting from blended elemental or prealloyed powders. The process ability to produce highly metastable materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructured materials has made this process attractive and it has been considered as a promising material processing technique that could be used to produce many advanced materials at low cost. The present study explores the conditions under which aluminum alloys formation occurs by ball milling of blended aluminum and its alloying elements powders. In this work, attempt was made in producing aluminum 2024 alloys by milling of blended elemental aluminum powder of 2024 composition in a stainless steel container under argon atmosphere for up to 210 minutes. X-ray diffraction together with thermal analysis techniques has been used to monitor phase changes in the milled powder. Results indicate that, using our predetermined milling parameters, alloys were formed after 120 minutes milling. The thermal analysis data was also presented in this report. (Author)

  8. Investigation of americium-241 metal alloys for target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO

    1982-01-01

    Several 241 Am metal alloys have been investigated for possible use in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Radiochemical Diagnostic Tracer Program. Several properties were desired for an alloy to be useful for tracer program applications. A suitable alloy would have a fairly high density, be ductile, homogeneous and easy to prepare. Alloys investigated have included uranium-americium, aluminium-americium, and cerium-americium. Uranium-americium alloys with the desired properties proved to be difficult to prepare, and work with this alloy was discontinued. Aluminium-americium alloys were much easier to prepare, but the alloy consisted of an aluminium-americium intermetallic compound (AmAl 4 ) in an aluminum matrix. This alloy could be cast and formed into shapes, but the low density of aluminum, and other problems, made the alloy unsuitable for the intended application. Americium metal was found to have a high solid solubility in cerium and alloys prepared from these two elements exhibited all of the properties desired for the tracer program application. Cerium-americium alloys containing up to 34 wt% americium have been prepared using both co-melting and co-reduction techniques. The latter technique involves co-reduction of cerium tetrafluoride and americium tetrafluoride with calcium metal in a sealed reduction vessel. Casting techniques have been developed for preparing up to eight 2.2 cm (0.87 in) diameter disks in a single casting, and cerium-americium metal alloy disks containing from 10 to 25 wt% 241 Am have been prepared using these techniques. (orig.)

  9. Surface energy of metal alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takrori, Fahed M.; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of surface energy of alloy nanoparticles experimentally is still a challenge therefore theoretical work is necessary to estimate its value. In continuation of our previous work on the calculation of the surface energy of pure metallic nanoparticles we have extended our work to calculate the surface energy of different alloy systems, namely, Co-Ni, Au-Cu, Cu-Al, Cu-Mg and Mo-Cs binary alloys. It is shown that the surface energy of metallic binary alloy decreases with decreasing particle size approaching relatively small values at small sizes. When both metals in the alloy obey the Hume-Rothery rules, the difference in the surface energy is small at the macroscopic as well as in the nano-scale. However when the alloy deviated from these rules the difference in surface energy is large in the macroscopic and in the nano scales. Interestingly when solid solution formation is not possible at the macroscopic scale according to the Hume-Rothery rules, it is shown it may form at the nano-scale. To our knowledge these findings here are presented for the first time and is challenging from fundamental as well as technological point of views.

  10. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  11. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  12. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported

  13. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  14. Formation and characterization of Al–Ti–Nb alloys by electron-beam surface alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkov, S., E-mail: stsvalkov@gmail.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lazarova, R. [Institute of Metal Science, Equipment and Technologies with Hydro and Aerodynamics Center, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 67 Shipchenski Prohod blvd., 1574 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bezdushnyi, R. [Department of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridsky”, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dechev, D. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Al–Ti–Nb surface alloys have been successfully obtained by electron-beam surface alloying technology. • The alloys consist of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} fractions, distributed in the biphasic structure of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} particles dispersed in α-Al. • The alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} and, does not form additional stresses, strains etc. • It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. • The measured hardness of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} compound reaches 775 HV[kg/cm{sup 2}] which is much greater than the values of NbAl{sub 3}. - Abstract: The combination of attractive mechanical properties, light weight and resistance to corrosion makes Ti-Al based alloys applicable in many industrial branches, like aircraft and automotive industries etc. It is known that the incorporation of Nb improves the high temperature performance and mechanical properties. In the present study on Al substrate Ti and Nb layers were deposited by DC (Direct Current) magnetron sputtering, followed by electron-beam alloying with scanning electron beam. It was chosen two speeds of the specimen motion during the alloying process: V{sub 1} = 0.5 cm/s and V{sub 2} = 1 cm/s. The alloying process was realized in circular sweep mode in order to maintain the melt pool further. The obtained results demonstrate a formation of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} fractions randomly distributed in biphasic structure of intermetallic (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} particles, dispersed in α-Al solid solution. The evaluated (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} lattice parameters are independent of the speed of the specimen motion and therefore the alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters and thus, does not form additional residual stresses, strains etc. It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. The metallographic analyses demonstrate a

  15. Sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    2001-01-01

    Alloys for use in high temperature environments rely on the formation of an oxide layer for their protection. Normally, these protective oxides are Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 and, some times, SiO 2 . Many industrial gaseous environments contain sulfur. Sulfides, formed in the presence of sulfur are thermodynamically less stable, have lower melting points and deviate much more stoichiometrically, compared to the corresponding oxides. The mechanism of sulfidation of various metals is as yet not clear, in spite of the concerted efforts during the last decade. To help address this situation, the sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr has been studied as a function of compositional modifications and surface state of the alloy. The alloys Fe20Cr, Fe20Cr0.7Y, Fe20Cr5Al and Fe20Cr5Al0.6Y were prepared and three sets of sulfidation tests were carried out. In the first set, the alloys were sulfidized at 700 deg C and 800 deg C for 10h. In the second set, the alloys were pre-oxidized at 1000 deg C and then sulfidized at 800 deg C for up to 45h. In the third set of tests, the initial stages of sulfidation of the alloys was studied. All the tests were carried out in a thermobalance, in flowing H 2 /2%H 2 S, and the sulfidation behavior determined as mass change per unit area. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the reaction products. The addition of Y and Al increased sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr. The addition of Y altered the species that diffused predominantly during sulfide growth. It changed from predominant cationic diffusion to predominant anionic diffusion. The addition of Al caused an even greater increase in sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr, with the parabolic rate constant decreasing by three orders of magnitude. Y addition to the FeCrAl alloy did not cause any appreciable alteration in sulfidation resistance. Pre-oxidation of the FeCrAl and FeCrAlY alloys resulted in an extended

  16. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  17. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  18. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation

  19. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  20. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, K.O.; Kostyuk, V.O.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemical-thermal treatment. The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30 - 29 GPa and with declining to 27- 26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm) owing to changes of the layer phase composition where T 2 B, TiB, TiB 2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30 - 110 μm) and transition zone (30 - 190 μm). Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2 - 3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening

  1. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  2. Structure of hardened alloys of Sr-Rh system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Taluth, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurement were applied to study the structure of hardened zirconium-rhodium system alloys with rhodium contents up to 4.5 at.%. It is shown that in hardening alloys with rhodium concentration lower 2.2 at.% the eutectoid decomposition takes place and bainite-like structure is formed. A metastable ω-phase is formed in alloys with rhodium concentration equal to 2.65 at.% and above. The formation of ω-phase suppresses the process of eutectoid decomposition

  3. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  4. A new paradigm for heat treatment of alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinovshikov, Y., E-mail: ust@ftiudm.ru

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • The sign of the ordering energy in alloys varies with the temperature. • Each temperature of heating leads to formation of its characteristic microstructure. • Quenching of alloys is a totally unnecessary and useless operation. - Abstract: The article considers the consequences in the field of heat treatment of alloys that could follow the introduction of the concept of phase transition ordering-phase separation into common use. By example of the Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 50} alloy, industrial carbon tool steel and Ni{sub 88}Al{sub 12} alloy, it is shown that this transition occurs at a temperature, which is definite for each system, that the change of the sign of the chemical interaction between component atoms reverses the direction of diffusion fluxes in alloys, which affects changes in the type of microstructures. The discovery of this phase transition dramatically changes our understanding of the solid solution, changes the ideology of alloy heat treatment. It inevitably leads to the conclusion about the necessity of carrying out structural studies with the help of TEM in order to adjust the phase diagrams of the systems where this phase transition has been discovered. Conclusions have been made that quenching of alloys from the so-called region of the solid solution, which is usually performed before tempering (aging) is a completely unnecessary and useless operation, that the final structure of the alloy is formed during tempering (aging) no matter what the structure was before this heat treatment.

  5. Order/disorder in electrodeposited aluminum-titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, morphology, and crystallographic microstructure of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from two different chloroaluminate molten salt electrolytes were examined. Alloys containing up to 28 % atomic fraction Ti were electrodeposited at 150 °C from 2:1 AlCl3-NaCl with controlled additions of Ti2+. The apparent limit on alloy composition is proposed to be due to a mechanism by which Al3Ti forms through the reductive decomposition of [Ti(AlCl43]-. The composition of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from the AlCl3-EtMeImCl melt at 80 °C is limited by the diffusion of Ti2+ to the electrode surface. Alloys containing up to 18.4 % atomic fraction Ti are only obtainable at high Ti2+ concentrations in the melt and low current densities. Alloys electrodeposited from the higher temperature melt have an ordered L12 crystal structure while alloys of similar composition but deposited at lower temperature are disordered fcc. The appearance of antiphase boundaries in the ordered alloys suggests that the deposit may be disordered initially and then orders in the solid state, subsequent to the charge transfer step and adatom incorporation into the lattice. This is very similar to the disorder-trapping observed in rapidly solidified alloys. The measured domain size is consistent with a mechanism of diffusion-controlled doman growth at the examined deposition temperatures and times.

  6. Effects of alloying elements on defect structures in the incubation period for void swelling in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Huang, S.S.; Sato, K.; Cao, X.Z.; Xu, Q.; Troev, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were used to study the effects of alloying elements on the defect structure during the incubation period for void swelling in several fcc model alloys. Pure Ni, four model alloys (Fe–Cr–Ni, Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo–Mn, Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo–Mn–Si and Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo–Mn–Si–Ti), and four commercial alloys (SUS316LSS, SUS316SS, SUS304SS and Ti added modified SUS316SS) were irradiated with electrons and neutrons. Even at 363 and 573 K to a dose of 0.2 dpa, an effect of alloying elements was observed. At 363 K irradiation, voids were formed only in Ni and Fe–Cr–Ni. At 573 K irradiation, voids were formed in Ni and all model alloys, though the concentration depended on the alloying elements. In commercial alloys, precipitates were formed instead of vacancy clusters, which prevented void growth

  7. Tensile behaviour at room and high temperatures of novel metal matrix composites based on hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valer, J.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Urcola, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work shows the improvement obtained on tensile stress at room and high temperatures of hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys. These alloys are produced by a combination of spray-forming, extrusion and thixoforming process, in comparison with conventional casting alloys.Al-25% Si-5%Cu. Al-25%Si-5%Cu-2%Mg and Al-30%Si-5%Cu alloys have been studied relating their microstructural parameters with tensile stress obtained and comparing them with conventional Al-20%Si. Al-36%Si and Al-50%Si alloys. Al-25%Si-5%Cu alloy-was tested before and after semi-solid forming, in order to distinguish the different behaviour of this alloy due to the different microstructure. The properties obtained with these alloys were also related to Al-SiC composites formed by similar processes. (Author) 20 refs

  8. Mechanical alloying of Hf and Fe powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Zelis, L.; Crespo, E.; Creus, M.; Damonte, L.C.; Sanchez, F.H.; Punte, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pure crystalline Hf and Fe powders were mixed and milled under an argon atmosphere. The evolution of the system with milling time was followed with Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that in the first stages an amorphous Fe-rich alloy was gradually formed together with a solid solution of Hf in Fe beyond the solubility limit. (orig.)

  9. Structure of Zr-Hf alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Taluts, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Structure of quenched zirconium-hafnium alloy system containing up to 2.5 at. % was studied. Existence of three morphological forms of α-phase was presented: lath, twinned, laminated. Twinning plane in the system was identified. Formation model of packet structure of lath martensite was suggested

  10. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is ...

  11. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  12. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.-C.; Rosenbaum, H.S.; Armijo, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of producing a composite nuclear fuel container is described which comprises a casing or fuel sheath of zirconium or its alloy with a lining cladding of deposited copper superimposed over the inside surface of the zirconium or alloy and a layer of oxide of the zirconium or alloy formed on the inside surface of the casing or sheath. (U.K.)

  13. Possibility of surface carburization of refractory metals of electric spark alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Isaeva, L.P.; Timofeeva, I.I.; Tsyban', V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a study in the alloying layer formation under electric spark alloying of refractory (Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, W, Co, Fe) metals with graphite in argon and in air using the EhFI-46A installation. It is shown that in electric spark alloying with graphite there appear certain specific conditions for the alloying layer formation manifested in the cathode mass decrease during treatment. In this case an alloying layer consisting of carbides, oxides of the corresponding metals and material of the base is formed on the metal surface. The best carburization conditions in the process of electric spark alloying are realized for group 4 metals when treating them in ''soft'' regime, specific time of alloying being 1-3 min/sm 2 and for group 5 and 6 metals - in ''rigid'' regime of treatment and specific time of alloying 3-5 min/cm 2 [ru

  14. Measuring the Thermophysical and Structural Properties of Glass-Forming and Quasicrystal-Forming Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Bradshaw, Richard C.; Rogers, Jan R.; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Kelton, Ken F.

    2006-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of glass-forming and quasicrystal-forming alloys show many interesting features in the undercooled liquid range. Some of the features in the thermophysical property curves are expected to reflect changes in the structure and coordination of the liquid. These measurements require containerless processing such as electrostatic levitation to access the undercooled liquid regime. An overview of the state of the art in measuring the thermophysical properties and structure of undercooled liquid glass-forming and quasicrystal-forming alloys will be presented, along with the status of current measurements.

  15. Alloying behavior of iron, gold and silver in AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, U.S.; Hung, U.D.; Yeh, J.W.; Chen, S.K.; Huang, Y.S.; Yang, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are newly developed alloys that are composed, by definition, of at least five principal elements with concentrations in the range of 5-35 at.%. Therefore, the alloying behavior of any given principal element is significantly affected by all the other principal elements present. In order to elucidate this further, the influence of iron, silver and gold addition on the microstructure and hardness of AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar alloys has been examined. The as-cast AlCoCrCuNi base alloy is found to have a dendritic structure, of which only solid solution FCC and BCC phases can be observed. The BCC dendrite has a chemical composition close to that of the nominal alloy, with a deficiency in copper however, which is found to segregate and form a FCC Cu-rich interdendrite. The microstructure of the iron containing alloys is similar to that of the base alloy. It is found that both of these aforementioned alloys have hardnesses of about 420 HV, which is equated to their similar microstructures. The as-cast ingot forms two layers of distinct composition with the addition of silver. These layers, which are gold and silver in color, are determined to have a hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition and a multielement mixture of the other principal elements, respectively. This indicates the chemical incompatibility of silver with the other principal elements. The hardnesses of the gold (104 HV) and silver layers (451 HV) are the lowest and highest of the alloy systems studied. This is attributed to the hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition of the former and the reduced copper content of the latter. Only multielement mixtures, i.e. without copper segregation, form in the gold containing alloy. Thus, it may be said that gold acts as a 'mixing agent' between copper and the other elements. Although several of the atom pairs in the gold containing alloy have positive enthalpies, thermodynamic considerations show that the high entropy contribution is sufficient to counterbalance

  16. Corrosion performance of Al-Si-Cu hypereutectic alloys in a synthetic condensed automotive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation the corrosion resistance of four Al-Si hypereutectic alloys in a solution typical of condensate from automotive fuel combustion products, and referred to here as synthetic condensed automotive solution, has been studied. Three commercial alloys that are used for cylinder liners, and a laboratory made alloy, were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and measurements were taken after increasing times of immersion in this solution. Comparison of the electrochemical response of the four alloys in the corrosive solution was carried out. Although the mechanisms by which the four alloys corroded were similar, the results indicated differences in corrosion resistances of these alloys, and these differences could be related to their microstructures. The laboratory prepared alloy showed increased susceptibility to pitting corrosion compared to the commercial alloys. The surfaces of the alloys were examined, before and after the corrosion test, by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results indicated preferential attack of the aluminium matrix phase in all the alloys. The alloy with higher copper content and prepared by spray forming was more susceptible to pitting compared to the other alloys. The EIS response at low frequencies indicated a diffusion-controlled process, probably that of oxygen to the alloy interface.

  17. Studies of the AA2519 Alloy Hot Rolling Process and Cladding with EN AW-1050A Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of plastic forming by hot rolling of the AA2519 aluminium alloy sheets and cladding these sheets with a layer of the EN AW-1050A alloy. Numerous hot-rolling tests were carried out on the slab ingots to define the parameters of the AA2519 alloy rolling process. It has been established that rolling of the AA2519 alloy should be carried out in the temperature range of 400-440°C. Depending on the required final thickness of the sheet metal, appropriate thickness of the EN AW-1050A alloy sheet, used as a cladding layer, was selected. As a next step, structure and mechanical properties of the resulting AA2519 alloy sheets clad with EN AW-1050A alloy was examined. The thickness of the coating layer was established at 0,3÷0,5mm. Studies covered alloy grain size and the core alloy-cladding material bond strength.

  18. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  19. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  20. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  1. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  2. Impact of Surface Potential on Apatite Formation in Ti Alloys Subjected to Acid and Heat Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seiji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Takadama, Hiroaki

    2017-09-24

    Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment with or without initial NaOH treatment was performed on typical Ti-based alloys used in orthopedic and dental fields. Dynamic movements of alloying elements were developed, which depended on the kind of treatment and type of alloy. It was found that the simple acid and heat treatment enriched/remained the alloying elements on Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al and Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta, resulting in neutral surface charges. Thus, the treated alloys did not form apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days. In contrast, when the alloys were subjected to a NaOH treatment prior to an acid and heat treatment, alloying elements were selectively removed from the alloy surfaces. As a result, the treated alloys became positively charged, and formed apatite in SBF within 3 days. Thus, the treated alloys would be useful in orthopedic and dental fields since they form apatite even in a living body and bond to bone.

  3. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedwill, M.A.; Glasgow, T.K.; Levine, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures

  4. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  5. Effect of reversible hydrogen alloying and plastic deformation on microstructure development in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murzinova, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen leads to degradation in fracture-related mechanical properties of titanium alloys and is usually considered as a very dangerous element. Numerous studies of hydrogen interaction with titanium alloys showed that hydrogen may be considered not only as an impurity but also as temporary alloying element. This statement is based on the following. Hydrogen stabilizes high-temperature β-phase, leads to decrease in temperature of β→α transformation and extends (α + β )-phase field. The BCC β-phase exhibits lower strength and higher ductility in comparison with HCP α -phase. As a result, hydrogen improves hot workability of hard-to-deform titanium alloys. Hydrogen changes chemical composition of the phases, kinetics of phase transformations, and at low temperatures additional phase transformation (β→α + TiH 2 ) takes place, which is accompanied with noticeable change in volumes of phases. As a result, fine lamellar microstructure may be formed in hydrogenated titanium alloys after heat treatment. It was shown that controlled hydrogen alloying improves weldability and machinability of titanium alloys. After processing hydrogenated titanium preforms are subjected to vacuum annealing, and the hydrogen content decreases up to safe level. Hydrogen removal is accompanied with hydrides dissolution and β→α transformation that makes possible to control structure formation at this final step of treatment. Thus, reversible hydrogen alloying of titanium alloys allows to obtain novel microstructure with enhanced properties. The aim of the work was to study the effect of hydrogen on structure formation, namely: i) influence of hydrogen content on transformation of lamellar microstructure to globular one during deformation in (α+β)-phase field; ii) effect of dissolved hydrogen on dynamic recrystallization in single α- and β- phase regions; iii) influence of vacuum annealing temperature on microstructure development. The work was focused on the optimization of

  6. Metal waste forms from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.P.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Park, J.

    1996-01-01

    Stainless steel-zirconium alloys are being developed for the disposal of radioactive metal isotopes isolated using an electrometallurgical treatment technique to treat spent nuclear fuel. The nominal waste forms are stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium alloy and zirconium-8 wt% stainless steel alloy. These alloys are generated in yttria crucibles by melting the starting materials at 1,600 C under an argon atmosphere. This paper discusses the microstructures, corrosion and mechanical test results, and thermophysical properties of the metal waste form alloys

  7. Corrosion phase formation on container alloys in basalt repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Rivera, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is evaluating the suitability of basalt in southeastern Washington State as a possible location for a nuclear waste repository. The performance of the waste package, which includes the waste form, container, and surrounding packing material, will be affected by the stability of container alloys in the repository environment. Primary corrosion phases and altered packing material containing metals leached from the container may also influence subsequent reactions between the waste form and repository environment. Copper- and iron-based alloys were tested at 50 0 to 300 0 C in an air/steam environment and in pressure vessels in ground-water-saturated basalt-bentonite packing material. Reaction phases formed on the alloys were identified and corrosion rates were measured. Changes in adhering packing material were also evaluated. The observed reactions and their possible effects on container alloy durability in the repository are discussed

  8. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  9. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  10. Nuclear fuel element containing strips of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Packard, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of strips and preferably the strips are positioned inside a helical member in the plenum. The position of the alloy strips permits gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact and react with the alloy strips. (U.S.)

  11. Surface coatings of mixed hard alloy powder metals sintered-on in vacuo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Reimann, H.

    1980-01-01

    No technological difficulties are to be encountered in the processing of pseudo hard alloys in the form of powder compounds of conventional nickel base hard alloys with carbides. There is a great alloy influence on the resulting structures of the surface layers. Under some processing conditions the tungsten carbide is completely dissolved from molten matrix alloy. Hard phases on chromium carbide basis resulted upon cooling. Induced chromium carbide Cr 3 C 2 retains its structure while absorbing large amounts of iron into its grid. It can be concluded that not only alloying properties, but also eminently structural criterions are decisive for the stability of the applied supplementary hard phases. (orig.) [de

  12. Analysis of iron-base alloys by low-wattage glow discharge emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, K.; Hirokawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Several iron-base alloys were investigated by low-wattage glow discharge emission spectrometry. The emission intensity principally depended on the sputtering parameters of constituent elements in the alloy. However, in the case of chromium, stable and firm oxides formed on the surface influencing the yield of ejected atoms. This paper discusses the relation between the sputtering parameters in Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr, and Fe-Co alloys and their relative emission intensities. Additionally, quantitative analysis was performed for some ternary iron-base alloys and commercial stainless steels with the calibration factors of binary alloy systems

  13. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg) alloys

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kaczorowski; A. Krzyńska

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg) type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening ...

  14. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco......, crystalline nano-particles, role of steam-based treatment on adhesion of industrially applied powder coating, and investigations of a failed painted aluminium window profile due to defects in the extruded profile. Chapters 13 and 14 describe the overall discussion, conclusions and future work based...

  15. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  16. Solidification processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Nancy L.; Shiohara, Yuh; Russell, Kenneth C.

    1989-01-01

    Directionally solidified aluminum-indium alloys of the monotectic composition were found to form an in situ rod composite which obeys a lambda exp 2 R = constant relation. The experimental data shows good agreement with previously reported results. A theoretical boundary between cellular and dendritic growth conditions was derived and compared with experiments. The unique wetting characteristics of the monotectic alloys can be utilized to tailor the interface structure in metal matrix composites. Metal matrix composites with monotectic and hypermonotectic Al-In matrices were made by pressure infiltration, remelted and directionally solidified to observe the wetting characteristics of the alloys as well as the effect on structure of solidification in the constrained field of the fiber interstices. Models for monotectic growth are modified to take into account solidification in these constrained fields.

  17. General aspects of surface alloy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Roetter, Ralf T.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Berko, Andras

    2010-07-01

    Surface confined alloys are excellent model systems for studies of structure-property relationships of bimetallic surfaces. They are formed by deposition of a guest metal B onto a substrate A, followed by annealing to a temperature, where place exchange between adatoms and atoms from the underlying surface layer becomes possible and diffusion into the bulk is sufficiently slow. We exemplarily confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy for PtRu/Ru(0001), PdRu/Ru(0001), AuPt/Pt(111), AgPt/Pt(111), and AgPd/Pd(111), surface alloys are obtained for systems where metal B has a negative surface segregation energy within metal A. By exchanging A and B, however, AB surface alloys are most likely overgrown by metal B, which we demonstrate for RuPt/Pt(111) in comparison to PtRu/Ru(0001).

  18. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaliah Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis parameters, such as cathodic current density and temperature at constant pH, on electrodeposition and microstructure of Ni-Co alloys were examined. A homogeneous surface morphology was obtained at all current densities of the plated samples, and it was evident that the current density and temperature affect the coating thickness of Ni-Co alloy coatings.

  19. Modification of Al-Si (13%) alloy using different modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Raza, M.R.; Ahmad, R.

    2007-01-01

    During present research work LM 13 aluminium silicon alloy was prepared using high purity aluminium ingot and various master alloys of AI-Si, AI-Cu, AI-Ni, AIFe, AI-Mn and AI-Mg. A gas fired crucible pit type furnace was used to prepare various heats of LM 13 alloy. Degassing procedure was carried out by using perforated bell type plunger using the degassing tablet. Modification was performed by plunging the modifier at the bottom of the crucible containing the molten metal. Three types of modifiers sodium salt, metallic sodium and strontium in the form of AI-Sr master alloy were used in order to evaluate the microstructure and tensile properties of the alloy. Degassed, unmodified and modified test samples for metallurgical testing purposes were prepared according to the standard procedures. (author)

  20. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, Elizabeth J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    This document details a method for evaluating the effect of silicon impurity content on U-10Mo alloys. Silicon concentration in U-10Mo alloys has been shown to impact the following: volume fraction of precipitate phases, effective density of the final alloy, and 235-U enrichment in the gamma-UMo matrix. This report presents a model for calculating these quantities as a function of Silicon concentration, which along with fuel foil characterization data, will serve as a reference for quality control of the U-10Mo final alloy Si content. Additionally, detailed characterization using scanning electron microscope imaging, transmission electron microscope diffraction, and atom probe tomography showed that Silicon impurities present in U-10Mo alloys form a Si-rich precipitate phase.

  1. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  2. Ion-induced surface modification of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1983-11-01

    In addition to the accumulation of the implanted species, a considerable number of processes can affect the composition of an alloy in the surface region during ion bombardment. Collisions of energetic ions with atoms of the alloy induce local rearrangement of atoms by displacements, replacement sequences and by spontaneous migration and recombination of defects within cascades. Point defects form clusters, voids, dislocation loops and networks. Preferential sputtering of elements changes the composition of the surface. At temperatures sufficient for thermal migration of point defects, radiation-enhanced diffusion promotes alloy component redistribution within and beyond the damage layer. Fluxes of interstitials and vacancies toward the surface and into the interior of the target induce fluxes of alloying elements leading to depth-dependent compositional changes. Moreover, Gibbsian surface segregation may affect the preferential loss of alloy components by sputtering when the kinetics of equilibration of the surface composition becomes competitive with the sputtering rate. Temperature, time, current density and ion energy can be used to influence the individual processes contributing to compositional changes and, thus, produce a rich variety of composition profiles near surfaces. 42 references

  3. Influence of iron and beryllium additions on heat resistance of silicide coatings on TsMB-30 molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtseva, A.L.; Fedorchuk, N.M.; Lazarev, Eh.M.; Korotkov, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Alloying of titanium modified silicide coatings on TsMB-30 molybdenum alloy with iron or beryllium is stated to improve their protective properties. Coatings with low content of alloying elements have the best protective properties. Service life of coatings is determined by the formed oxide film and phase transformations taking place in the coating

  4. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  5. Electrochemical Corrosion Studies for Modeling Metallic Waste Form Release Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poineau, Frederic; Tamalis, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The isotope 99 Tc is an important fission product generated from nuclear power production. Because of its long half-life (t 1/2 = 2.13 ∙ 105 years) and beta-radiotoxicity (β - = 292 keV), it is a major concern in the long-term management of spent nuclear fuel. In the spent nuclear fuel, Tc is present as an alloy with Mo, Ru, Rh, and Pd called the epsilon-phase, the relative amount of which increases with fuel burn-up. In some separation schemes for spent nuclear fuel, Tc would be separated from the spent fuel and disposed of in a durable waste form. Technetium waste forms under consideration include metallic alloys, oxide ceramics and borosilicate glass. In the development of a metallic waste form, after separation from the spent fuel, Tc would be converted to the metal, incorporated into an alloy and the resulting waste form stored in a repository. Metallic alloys under consideration include Tc–Zr alloys, Tc–stainless steel alloys and Tc–Inconel alloys (Inconel is an alloy of Ni, Cr and iron which is resistant to corrosion). To predict the long-term behavior of the metallic Tc waste form, understanding the corrosion properties of Tc metal and Tc alloys in various chemical environments is needed, but efforts to model the behavior of Tc metallic alloys are limited. One parameter that should also be considered in predicting the long-term behavior of the Tc waste form is the ingrowth of stable Ru that occurs from the radioactive decay of 99 Tc ( 99 Tc → 99 Ru + β - ). After a geological period of time, significant amounts of Ru will be present in the Tc and may affect its corrosion properties. Studying the effect of Ru on the corrosion behavior of Tc is also of importance. In this context, we studied the electrochemical behavior of Tc metal, Tc-Ni alloys (to model Tc-Inconel alloy) and Tc-Ru alloys in acidic media. The study of Tc-U alloys has also been performed in order to better understand the nature of Tc in metallic spent fuel. Computational modeling

  6. Electrochemical Corrosion Studies for Modeling Metallic Waste Form Release Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poineau, Frederic [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tamalis, Dimitri [Florida Memorial Univ., Miami Gardens, FL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The isotope 99Tc is an important fission product generated from nuclear power production. Because of its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 ∙ 105 years) and beta-radiotoxicity (β⁻ = 292 keV), it is a major concern in the long-term management of spent nuclear fuel. In the spent nuclear fuel, Tc is present as an alloy with Mo, Ru, Rh, and Pd called the epsilon-phase, the relative amount of which increases with fuel burn-up. In some separation schemes for spent nuclear fuel, Tc would be separated from the spent fuel and disposed of in a durable waste form. Technetium waste forms under consideration include metallic alloys, oxide ceramics and borosilicate glass. In the development of a metallic waste form, after separation from the spent fuel, Tc would be converted to the metal, incorporated into an alloy and the resulting waste form stored in a repository. Metallic alloys under consideration include Tc–Zr alloys, Tc–stainless steel alloys and Tc–Inconel alloys (Inconel is an alloy of Ni, Cr and iron which is resistant to corrosion). To predict the long-term behavior of the metallic Tc waste form, understanding the corrosion properties of Tc metal and Tc alloys in various chemical environments is needed, but efforts to model the behavior of Tc metallic alloys are limited. One parameter that should also be considered in predicting the long-term behavior of the Tc waste form is the ingrowth of stable Ru that occurs from the radioactive decay of 99Tc (99Tc → 99Ru + β⁻). After a geological period of time, significant amounts of Ru will be present in the Tc and may affect its corrosion properties. Studying the effect of Ru on the corrosion behavior of Tc is also of importance. In this context, we studied the electrochemical behavior of Tc metal, Tc-Ni alloys (to model Tc-Inconel alloy) and Tc-Ru alloys in acidic media. The study of Tc-U alloys has also been performed in order to better understand the

  7. Effects of different production technologies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of precious metal denture alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Paolo; Battaglia, Eleonora; Capuzzi, Stefano; Berto, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Precious metal alloys can be supplied in traditional plate form or innovative drop form with high degree of purity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the influence of precious metal alloy form on metallurgical and mechanical properties of the final dental products with particular reference to metal-ceramic bond strength and casting defects. A widely used alloy for denture was selected; its nominal composition was close to 55 wt% Pd - 34 wt% Ag - 6 wt% In - 3 wt% Sn. Specimens were produced starting from the alloy in both plate and drop forms. A specific test method was developed to obtain results that could be representative of the real conditions of use. In order to achieve further information about the adhesion behaviour and resistance, the fracture surfaces of the samples were observed using `Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)'. Moreover, material defects caused by the moulding process were studied. The form of the alloy before casting does not significantly influence the shear bond strength between the metal and the ceramic material (p-value=0,976); however, according to SEM images, products from drop form alloy show less solidification defects compared to products obtained with plate form alloy. This was attributed to the absence of polluting additives used in the production of drop form alloy. This study shows that the use of precious metal denture alloys supplied in drop form does not affect the metal-ceramic bond strength compared to alloys supplied in the traditional plate form. However, compared to the plate form, the drop form is found free of solidification defects, less expensive to produce and characterized by minor environmental impacts.

  8. Technetium and technetium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijdo, W.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey on technetium and technetium alloys. The literature has been searched through 1993. The survey was focused on technetium and (binary cubic) technetium alloys, but other important information on technetium has not been omitted from this survey. This report has been written with the aim to collect more information about phase systems which could be of importance in the transmutation process by neutrons of technetium. With the information presented in this report, it should be possible to select a suitable technetium alloy for further investigation regarding to the transmutation process. (orig.)

  9. Influence of impurities and ion surface alloying on the corrosion resistance of E110 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Novikov, V. V.; Markelov, V. A.; Pimenov, Yu. V.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys depends on their structural-phase state, the type of core coolant and operating factors. The formation of a protective oxide film on the zirconium alloys is sensitive to the content of impurity atoms present in the charge base of alloys and accumulating in them in the manufacture of products. The impurity composition of the initial zirconium is determined by the method of its manufacture and generally remains unchanged in the products, deter-mining their properties, including their corrosion resistance. An increased content of impurities (C, N, Al, Mo, Fe) both individually and in their combination negatively affects the corrosion resistance of zirconium and its alloys. One of the potentially effective methods to increase the protective properties of oxide films on zirconium alloys is a surface alloying using the regime of mixing the atoms of a film, preliminarily coated on the surface, and the atoms of a target. This method makes it possible to form a given structural-phase state in the thin surface layer with unique physicochemical properties and thus to in-crease the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of fuel claddings. In this context, the object of investigation was samples of cladding tubes from alloy E110 with various content of impurity elements (nitrogen, aluminum, and carbon) with the aim to reduce the negative influence of impurities on the corrosion resistance by changing the structural-phase state of the surface layer of fuel claddings and fuel assembly components with alloying in the regime of ion mixing of atoms

  10. PERSPECTIVES OF NANOPOWDERS APPLICATION FOR MANUFACTURING OF MODIFYING ALLOYING COMPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalinichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanomaterials for grain refining of metals and its allac is of great interest as it aimis achieveto higher physicalmechanical properties in finished parts. Analysis shows that to gain high effectiveness of nanoparticles it is important to provide proper input of these particles into alloying alloy. The aim of present research is study of initial nanoparticles structure on the base of titanium, boron, yttrium and carbon nanotubes as well as development of method to manufacture alloying alloys containing nanoparticles.Investigations of nanopowders phase compositions on the base of titanium, boron and yttrium have shown that active elements such as boron carbide, titanium carbide and nitride, yttrium oxide are base compounds of these nanopowders. Powder particles are formed by primary structural elements having mainly plate state (titanium and boron carbides and containing equiaxial inclusions with sizes of 5–200 nm. Chemical composition of specimens synthesized is uniform and contains 98.0 – 99.5% of main compound.Results of metal-protector and nanoparticles mixing have revealed that the increase of mixing duration from 2 to 6 hours assist to more uniform elements distribution through the pellet volume. Applying extrusion method specimens of alloying alloys have been produced and elements distribution in cross-section and longitudinal directions were determined.Analysis of research implemented has shown that distribution of active nanopowders in matrix is more uniform in extruded alloying alloys specimens compared to ones produced by methods of sintering or pressing of powder mixtures.

  11. La doping effect on TZM alloy oxidation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Kuai-She; Hu, Ping; He, Huan-Cheng; Kang, Xuan-Qi; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ren-Zhi; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oxidation can be resisted by doping La into TZM alloy. • La doped TZM alloy has more compact organization. • It can rise the starting temperature of severe oxidation reaction by more than 50 °C. • Effectively slow down the oxidation rate. • Provide guidance for experiments of improving high-temperature oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Powder metallurgy methods were utilized to prepare lanthanum-doped (La-TZM) and traditional TZM alloy plates. High temperature oxidation experiments along with the differential thermal analysis were employed to study the oxidation behavior of the two kinds of TZM alloys. An extremely volatile oxide layer was generated on the surface of traditional TZM alloy plates when the oxidation started. Molybdenum oxide volatilization exposed the alloy matrix, which was gradually corroded by oxygen, losing its quality with serious surface degradation. The La-TZM alloy has a more compact structure due to the lanthanum doping. The minute lanthanum oxide particles are pinned at the grain boundaries and refine the grains. Oxide layer generated on the matrix surface can form a compact coating, which effectively blocks the surface from being corroded by oxidation. The oxidation resistance of La-TZM alloys has been enhanced, expanding its application range

  12. Microstructural evolution of Ni40Zr60 alloy during early stage of mechanical alloying of intermetallic compounds NiZr2 and Ni11Zr9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Peeyew; Koch, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructural change of Ni 40 Zr 60 alloy during mechanical alloying of mixtures of the intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. A specific ''cauliflower'' phase was formed during early stage of mechanical alloying process. It is suggested that the solid state reaction between intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 is not the only origin for the formation of the ''cauliflower'' phase. ((orig.))

  13. Evaluation and comparison of castability between an indigenous and imported Ni-Cr alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Ganesh; Padmanabhan, T V; Ariga, Padma; Subramanian, R

    2011-01-01

    Since 1907 casting restorations have been in use in dentistry. Numerous companies have been manufacturing and marketing base metal alloys. Gold was a major component of casting alloys. But alloys with less than 65% gold tarnished easily and the increase in cost of gold post-1970s lead to the revival of base metal alloys such as nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys which were in use since 1930s. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the castability between an indigenous alloy and an imported alloy, as imported base metal alloys are considered to be expensive for fabrication of crowns and bridges. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the castability (for the accurate fabrication of crowns and bridges) between an indigenous base metal alloy-Non-ferrous Materials Technology Development Centre (NFTDC), Hyderabad (Alloy A) -and an imported base metal alloys (Alloy B). Castability measurement was obtained by counting the number of completely formed line segments surrounding the 81 squares in the pattern and later calculating the percentage values. The percentage obtained was taken as the castability value for a particular base metal alloy. The percentage of castability was determined by counting only the number of completely cast segments in a perfect casting (81 × 2 = 162), and then multiplying the resulting fraction by 100 to give the percentage completeness. The Student t-test was used. When the castability of alloys A and B was compared, the calculated value was less than the tabular value (1.171 indigenous alloy is on par with the imported alloy.

  14. Study on corrosion resistance of high - entropy alloy in medium acid liquid and chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, I; Buluc, G; Florea, R M; Carcea, I; Soare, V

    2015-01-01

    High-entropy alloy is a new alloy which is different from traditional alloys. The high entropy alloys were started in Tsing Hua University of Taiwan since 1995 by Yeh et al. Consisting of a variety of elements, each element occupying a similar compared with other alloy elements to form a high entropy. We could define high entropy alloys as having approximately equal concentrations, made up of a group of 5 to 11 major elements. In general, the content of each element is not more than 35% by weight of the alloy. During the investigation it turned out that this alloy has a high hardness and is also corrosion proof and also strength and good thermal stability. In the experimental area, scientists used different tools, including traditional casting, mechanical alloying, sputtering, splat-quenching to obtain the high entropy alloys with different alloying elements and then to investigate the corresponding microstructures and mechanical, chemical, thermal, and electronic performances. The present study is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance in a different medium acid and try to put in evidence the mechanical properties. Forasmuch of the wide composition range and the enormous number of alloy systems in high entropy alloys, the mechanical properties of high entropy alloys can vary significantly. In terms of hardness, the most critical factors are: hardness/strength of each composing phase in the alloy, distribution of the composing phases. The corrosion resistance of an high entropy alloy was made in acid liquid such as 10%HNO 3 -3%HF, 10%H 2 SO 4 , 5%HCl and then was investigated, respectively with weight loss experiment. Weight loss test was carried out by put the samples into the acid solution for corrosion. The solution was maintained at a constant room temperature. The liquid formulations used for tests were 3% hydrofluoric acid with 10% nitric acid, 10% sulphuric acid, 5% hydrochloric acid. Weight loss of the samples was measured by electronic scale. (paper)

  15. The mechanical properties of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with 10 wt.% W14Al86 alloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.G.; Ma, X.F.; Zhao, W.; Cai, S.G.; Zhao, B.; Qiao, Z.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mg-based metal matrix composite reinforced by 10 wt.% W 14 Al 86 alloy particles has been prepared by mechanical alloying and press-forming process. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of the composite. Microstructure characterization of the samples reveals the uniform distribution of fine W 14 Al 86 alloy. Mechanical properties characterization revealed that the reinforcement of W 14 Al 86 alloy lead to a significant increase in hardness and tensile strength of Mg and AZ91

  16. Positrons in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Pierre.

    1981-07-01

    Positron annihilation techniques give interesting informations about ''empty spaces'' in amorphous alloys. The results of an extensive research work on the properties of either pre-existing or irradiation induced ''empty spaces'' in four amorphous alloys are presented. The pre-existing empty spaces appear to be small vacancy-like defects. The irradiation induced defects are ''close pairs'' with widely distributed configurations. There is a strong interaction between vacancy like and interstitial like components. A model is proposed, which explains the radiation resistance mechanism of the amorphous alloys. An extensive joint research work to study four amorphous alloys, Fe 80 B 20 ,Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 , Cu 50 Ti 50 , Pd 80 Si 20 , is summarized

  17. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  18. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  19. Analyses of alloys for quelatometry, part one, alloys with copper, lead and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavijo Diaz, Alfonso

    1995-01-01

    A chemical-mathematic model and experimental method based on the acid base balances is developed for the analysis of metallic ions, isolated or in mixtures. The theoretical titling curves, including chelones-forming agents and metallo-chromic indicator were worked on a personal computer. This chelometric method was applied to the quantitative determination of copper, zinc and lead ions in alloys

  20. Acoustic emission from a solidifying aluminum-lithium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, D. P.; Wood, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the solidification of an AA2090 Al-Li alloy have been characterized by AE methods. Repeatable patterns of AE activity as a function of solidification time are recorded and explained for ultrahigh-purity (UHP) aluminum and an Al-4.7 wt pct Cu binary alloy, in addition to the AA2090 Al-Li alloy, by the complementary utilization of thermal, AE, and metallographic methods. One result shows that the solidification of UHP aluminum produces one discrete period of high AE activity as the last 10 percent of solid forms.

  1. Effective interactions approach to phase stability in alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrique, R.A.; Bellon, P.

    1999-01-01

    Phase stability in alloys under irradiation is studied considering effective thermodynamic potentials. A simple kinetic model of a binary alloy with phase separation is investigated. Time evolution in the alloy results form two competing dynamics: thermal diffusion, and irradiation induced ballistic exchanges. The dynamical (steady state) phase diagram is evaluated exactly performing Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The solution is then compared to two theoretical frameworks: the effective quasi-interactions model as proposed by Vaks and Kamishenko, and the effective free energy model as proposed by Martin. New developments of these models are proposed to allow for quantitative comparisons. Both theoretical frameworks yield fairly good approximations to the dynamical phase diagram

  2. Electroplating technologies of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Hwnag, Sung Sik; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Dong Jin; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-12-01

    In localization of electrosleeving technique, there are some problems like the following articles. Firstly, Patents published by OHT have claimed Ni-P, Ni-B alloy plating and Mo, Mn Cr, W, Co as a pinning agent. Secondly, alloy platings have many restrictions. There are some method to get alloy plating in spite of the various restrictions. If current density increase above limiting current density in one of the metals, both of the metals discharge at the same time. The addition of surface active agent(sufactant) in the plating solution is one of the methods to get alloy plating. Alloy plating using pulse current easily controls chemical composition and structure of deposit. Ni-Fe alloy plating is known to exhibit anomalous type of plating behavior in which deposition of the less noble metal is favoured. Presence of hypophohphite ion can control the iron codeposition by changing the deposition mechanism. Hypophohphite suppresses the deposition of Fe and also promotes Ni. Composite plating will be considered to improve the strength at the high temperature. Addition of particle size of 10δ400μm makes residual stress compressive in plate layer and suppress the grain growth rate at the high temperature. Addition of particle makes suface roughness high and fracture stress low at high temperature. But, selection of the kinds of particle and control of additives amount overcome the problems above

  3. Effect of Zn addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of an Al–Mg–Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Yan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an Al–0.66Mg–0.85Si–0.2Cu alloy with Zn addition was investigated by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD, high resolution electron microscopy (HREM, tensile and Erichsen tests. The mechanical properties of the alloy after pre-aging met the standards of sheet forming. After paint baking, the yield strength of the alloy was improved apparently. GP(II zones and ηʹ phases were formed during aging process due to Zn addition. With the precipitation of GP zones, β″ phases, GP(II zones and ηʹ phases, the alloys displayed excellent mechanical properties.

  4. Quantifying the properties of low-cost powder metallurgy titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Gordo, E.

    2017-01-01

    The extensive industrial employment of titanium is hindered by its high production costs where reduction of these costs can be achieved using cheap alloying elements and appropriate alternative processing techniques. In this work the feasibility of the production of low-cost titanium alloys is addressed by adding steel to pure titanium and processing the alloys by powder metallurgy. In particular, a spherical 4140 LCH steel powder commonly used in metal injection moulding is blended with irregular hydride-dehydride Ti. The new low-cost alloys are cold uniaxially pressed and sintered under high vacuum and show comparable properties to other wrought-equivalent and powder metallurgy titanium alloys. Differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that Ti can tolerate the employment of iron as primary alloying element without forming detrimental TiFe-based intermetallic phases. Thus, the newly designed α+β alloys could be used for cheaper non-critical components.

  5. Influence of carbides and microstructure of CoCrMo alloys on their metallic dissolution resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Vidal, C; Casabán-Julián, L; Herraiz-Cardona, I; Igual-Muñoz, A

    2013-12-01

    CoCrMo alloys are passive and biocompatible materials widely used as joint replacements due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Electrochemical behaviour of thermal treated CoCrMo alloys with different carbon content in their bulk alloy composition has been analysed. Both the amount of carbides in the CoCrMo alloys and the chemical composition of the simulated body fluid affect the electrochemical properties of these biomedical alloys, thus passive dissolution rate was influenced by the mentioned parameters. Lower percentage of carbon in the chemical composition of the bulk alloy and thermal treatments favour the homogenization of the surface (less amount of carbides), thus increasing the availability of Cr to form the oxide film and improving the corrosion resistance of the alloy. © 2013.

  6. Quantifying the properties of low-cost powder metallurgy titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, L., E-mail: bolzoni.leandro@gmail.com [WaiCAM (Waikato Centre for Advanced Materials), The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, 3240 Hamilton (New Zealand); Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Gordo, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-27

    The extensive industrial employment of titanium is hindered by its high production costs where reduction of these costs can be achieved using cheap alloying elements and appropriate alternative processing techniques. In this work the feasibility of the production of low-cost titanium alloys is addressed by adding steel to pure titanium and processing the alloys by powder metallurgy. In particular, a spherical 4140 LCH steel powder commonly used in metal injection moulding is blended with irregular hydride-dehydride Ti. The new low-cost alloys are cold uniaxially pressed and sintered under high vacuum and show comparable properties to other wrought-equivalent and powder metallurgy titanium alloys. Differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that Ti can tolerate the employment of iron as primary alloying element without forming detrimental TiFe-based intermetallic phases. Thus, the newly designed α+β alloys could be used for cheaper non-critical components.

  7. Impact of the De-Alloying Kinetics and Alloy Microstructure on the Final Morphology of De-Alloyed Meso-Porous Metal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-textured porous metal materials present unique surface properties due to their enhanced surface energy with potential applications in sensing, molecular separation and catalysis. In this paper, commercial alloy foils, including brass (Cu85Zn15 and Cu70Zn30 and white gold (Au50Ag50 foils have been chemically de-alloyed to form nano-porous thin films. The impact of the initial alloy micro-structure and number of phases, as well as chemical de-alloying (DA parameters, including etchant concentration, time and solution temperature on the final nano-porous thin film morphology and properties were investigated by electron microscopy (EM. Furthermore, the penetration depth of the pores across the alloys were evaluated through the preparation of cross sections by focus ion beam (FIB milling. It is demonstrated that ordered pores ranging between 100 nm and 600 nm in diameter and 2–5 μm in depth can be successfully formed for the range of materials tested. The microstructure of the foils were obtained by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD and linked to development of pits across the material thickness and surface during DA. The role of selective etching of both noble and sacrificial metal phases of the alloy were discussed in light of the competitive surface etching across the range of microstructures and materials tested.

  8. Prevention of pin tract infection with titanium-copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshiharu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Zen, Yo; Tomita, Katsuro

    2009-10-01

    The most frequent complication in external fixation is pin tract infection. To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, many published reports have looked at preventing bacterial adhesion by treating the pin surface. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Titanium-Copper (Ti-Cu) alloy on implant infection, and to determine the potential use of the Ti-Cu alloy as a biomaterial. Two forms of Ti-Cu alloys were synthesized: one with 1% Cu and the other with 5% Cu. For analyzing infectious behavior, the implants were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The reaction of pathogens to the Ti-Cu alloys was compared with their reaction to stainless steel and pure titanium as controls. Both Ti-Cu alloys evidently inhibited colonization by both bacteria. Conversely, cytocompatibility studies were performed using fibroblasts and colony formation on the metals was assessed by counting the number of colonies. Ti-1% Cu alloy showed no difference in the number of colonies compared with the control. External fixator pins made of Ti-Cu alloys were evaluated in a rabbit model. The tissue-implant interactions were analyzed for the presence of infection, inflammatory changes and osteoid-formation. Ti-1% Cu alloy significantly inhibited inflammation and infection, and had excellent osteoid-formation. Copper blood levels were measured before surgery and at 14 days postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative blood copper values were not statistically different. Overall, it was concluded that Ti-Cu alloys have antimicrobial activity and substantially reduce the incidence of pin tract infection. Ti-1% Cu alloy shows particular promise as a biomaterial. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  10. New Light Alloys (Les Nouveaux Alliages Legers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    composites r~alis~s avec I’alliage 15-3-3-3 (15-3) de TIMET, alliage 8 m~tastable, facilement laminable et disponible sous forme de feuillards de...part au procMd6 de fabrication - les matdriaux devant tre disponibles soit sous forme de feuillards, soit sous forme de poudres pr~alli~es - , d’autre...a naturaI so an ariii~ aain a( TeSI 5 40 SIC 1 Fig. 9. Compressive and tensile yield stress 1.b In time (secnds in an 6-Al 0 reinforced Al-A ICu alloy

  11. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  12. Spin-forming Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  13. The effect of silicon content on high temperature oxidation of 80Ni-20Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Atsushi; Nii, Kazuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    The effect of Si content on the oxidation behavior of 80Ni-20Cr alloys has been studied in the cyclic oxidation in an air stream at 1373K. The addition of 1% and 5%Si to the alloy lowered the mass gain in oxidation, whereas the amount of spalling of oxide scale was increased with the addition of Si. The structure of oxide layers observed by microphotography, X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were different with the Si content of alloys. The oxide layer of the alloy with 1%Si consists of multi-layers, that is Ni oxide, Cr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 as the external oxide layer. The oxide layer remaining on the alloy with 5%Si, however, was made of a single oxide layer of Cr 2 O 3 containing small amounts of Si and Ni. In spite of the fact that the amount of Si in this alloy is larger than that of the alloy with 1%Si, the SiO 2 oxide layer was not observed at the oxide-alloy interface. It was found by EPMA that the concentration of Si in the oxidized 5%Si alloy substrate was increased in the vicinity of the surface, although Si in the 1%Si alloy was depleted. From the above results the internal oxidation of Si is assumed in the near-surface region of the 5%Si alloy. The internal oxidation of the 5%Si alloy was confirmed by an increase in hardness in the near-surface region. The difference in oxidation behavior between the 1%Si and 5%Si alloys can be understood under the assumption that the oxide layer formed of the 5%Si alloy contained much larger amounts of Ni and Si than that on the 1%Si alloy, and that this oxide layer tends to crack more easily, thus being less protective for the penetration of oxygen. (author)

  14. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  15. Superplastic deformation of P/M and I/M Al-Li based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Incremental strain-rate and constant strain-rate cone-forming tests have been carried out at 450-550 C to investigate the superplastic forming characteristics of Al-Li-Cu-Mn, Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr, and Al-Li-Zn-Mg alloys processed by powder-metallurgy (P/M) and ingot-metallurgy (I/M) techniques. It is found that P/M Al-Li alloys containing 0.2 pct Zr are inherently superplastically formable without the need for extensive thermomechanical processing. I/M Al-Li alloys containing Zr are also superplastically formable. The mechanical properties of the superplastically formed and solution-treated-and-aged alloys are comparable to those of solution-treated-and-aged alloys before superplastic forming. 6 references

  16. Containerless Measurement of Thermophysical Properties of Ti-Zr-Ni Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert; Bradshaw, Richard C.; Rogers, Jan C.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Lee, Geun W.; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Kelton, Kenneth F.

    2004-01-01

    The surface tension, viscosity, density, and thermal expansion of Ti-Zr-Ni alloys were measured for a number of compositions by electrostatic levitation methods. Containerless methods greatly reduce heterogeneous nucleation, increasing access to the undercooled liquid regime at finite cooling rates. The density and thermal expansion are measured optically, while the surface tension and viscosity are measured by the oscillating drop method. The measured alloys include compositions which form a metastable quasicrystal phase from the undercooled liquid, and alloys close to the composition of several multi-component bulk metallic glass-forming alloys. Measurements of surface tension show behavior typical of transition metals at high temperature, but a sudden decrease in the deeply undercooled liquid for alloys near the quasicrystal-forming composition range, but not for compositions which form the solid-solution phase first.

  17. Amorphization of C-implanted Fe(Cr) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Sorensen, N.R.; Pope, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The amorphous phase formed by implanting C into Fe alloyed with Cr, which is a prototype for the amorphous phase formed by implanting C into stainless steels, is compared to that formed by implanting C and Ti into Fe and steels. The composition range of the phase has been examined; higher Cr and C concentrations are required than needed with Ti and C. The friction and wear benefits obtained by implanting stainless steels with C only do not persist for the long durations and high wear loads found with Ti and C. However, the amorphous Fe-Cr-C alloys exhibit good aqueous corrosion resistance. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Microstructure and Alloy Chemistry on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Precipitation-Hardened Ni-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, G. C.; Zhang, Z.; Sampath, D.; Morana, Roberto; Akid, R.; Preuss, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has been studied in respect of precipitation size distributions in two nickel-based superalloys: Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and Alloy 945X (UNS N09946). Quantitative microstructure analysis was carried out by the combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). While Alloy 718 is mainly strengthened by γ″, and therefore readily forms intergranular δ phase, Alloy 945X has been designed to avoid δ formation by reducing Nb levels providing high strength through a combination of γ' and γ″. Slow strain rate tensile tests were carried out for different microstructural conditions in air and after cathodic hydrogen (H) charging. HE sensitivity was determined based on loss of elongation due to the H uptake in comparison to elongation to failure in air. Results showed that both alloys exhibited an elevated sensitivity to HE. Fracture surfaces of the H precharged material showed quasi-cleavage and transgranular cracks in the H-affected region, while ductile failure was observed toward the center of the sample. The crack origins observed on the H precharged samples exhibited quasi-cleavage with slip traces at high magnification. The sensitivity is slightly reduced for Alloy 718, by coarsening γ″ and reducing the overall strength of the alloy. However, on further coarsening of γ″, which promotes continuous decoration of grain boundaries with δ phase, the embrittlement index rose again indicating a change of hydrogen embrittlement mechanism from hydrogen-enhanced local plasticity (HELP) to hydrogen-enhanced decohesion embrittlement (HEDE). In contrast, Alloy 945X displayed a strong correlation between strength, based on precipitation size and embrittlement index, due to the absence of any significant formation of δ phase for the investigated microstructures. For the given test parameters, Alloy 945X did not display any reduced sensitivity to HE compared with

  19. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  20. Structural, thermal and magnetic investigations on immiscible Ag–Co nanocrystalline alloy with addition of Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, B.N., E-mail: bholanath_mondal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chabri, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India); Sardar, G. [Department of Zoology, Baruipur College, South 24 Parganas 743610 (India); Nath, D.N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2016-08-15

    50Ag–50Co (at%) and 40Ag–40Co–20Mn (at%) alloys prepared by ball milling up to 50 h and subsequent isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 350–650 °C for 1 h has been investigated systematically. Mn promotes early formation of the nanostructures and solid solutions of the alloys by ball milling. In contrast, annealing at 350 °C of Ag–Co alloy resulted the dissolution of hcp Co. Annealing above 350 °C decomposes the metastable Ag–Co alloy into the polycrystalline and segregated Ag and fcc Co. Enthalpy of mixing of both the alloy has increased with increase in milling time. Both the nanocrystalline alloys prepared by ball milling and annealing have been revealed the ferromagnetic behavior. The most significant improvement of magnetic properties is yielded in as-milled Ag–Co–Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h. - Highlights: • A complete solid solution of Ag–Co–Mn alloy obtained after 50 h of milling. • A complete solid solution of milled Ag–Co alloy forms annealed at 350 {sup °}C for 1 h. • Precipitation of fcc Co are observed after annealing above 350 °C. • Enthalpy of mixing of the alloys increased with increase in milling time. • The superior magnetic properties achieved of Ag–Co–Mn alloy annealed at 550 °C.