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Sample records for formations bauru group

  1. BAURU GROUP (LATE CRETACEOUS VERTEBRATES FROM TRIÂNGULO MINEIRO

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    Carlos Roberto dos Anjos Candeiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State and western São Paulo State have a rich and diversefauna of Late Cretaceous vertebrates from Adamantina, Uberaba and Marília formations (BauruGroup. This paper attempts to list the vertebrate fauna known from each formation within theTriângulo Mineiro region and western São Paulo using the most recent and accepted definition foreach formation or higher taxonomical group. The faunal list produced now gives us a clearerunderstanding of the stratigraphical distribution of the Bauru Group vertebrates.

  2. A new turtle from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group of Brazil, updated phylogeny and implications for age of the Santo Anastácio Formation

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    Menegazzo, Mirian Costa; Bertini, Reinaldo José; Manzini, Flávio Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A new Podocnemidinura specimen from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Paraná Basin) of southeastern Brazil was described. The Bauru Group provided an important portrait of the Brazilian Mesozoic terrestrial biota, which boasts a vertebrate fauna formed from fishes, frogs, lacertilians, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs and mammals; records of palynomorphs; and invertebrate fauna consisted of gastropods, bivalves, ostracods and conchostracans. Nevertheless, the age of these continental deposits is not precisely estimated, which prevents global correlations, and its fauna is argued to be endemic. The new specimen described is the first turtle from the Santo Anastácio Formation, and its morphological comparison with other South American forms provided a significant advancement in the understanding of the age of this unit (Late Cretaceous). This study permitted a revision of the turtle taxa of the Bauru Group. As a result, some taxa were considered synonym, including the new Santo Anastácio form. The specimen is still unnamed due to the absence of skull characters that preclude its accurate positioning within the Bauru Group skull-based taxa. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon were analyzed into Podocnemidinura clade.

  3. INSIGHT ON THE THEROPOD FAUNA FROM THE UBERABA FORMATION (BAURU GROUP, MINAS GERAIS STATE: NEW MEGARAPTORAN SPECIMEN FROM THE LATE CRETACEOUS OF BRAZIL

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    AGUSTÍN G. MARTINELLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first bony theropod record from the Campanian Uberaba Formation (Bauru Group is described. It consists of an isolated caudal centrum (CPPLIP 1324 found in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The amphicoelous centrum possesses a length to height ratio of 1.74, deep elliptical lateral pneumatic foramen representing 26% of centrum length with three main sub-circular air chambers, andcamellate internal structure.This combination of features is shared with Aerosteon, Megaraptor, and Orkoraptor from the Late Cretaceous of Argentinaand with the Megaraptora indet. fromthe São José do Rio Preto Formation (Bauru Group, São Paulo State,allowing us to refer it to the Megaraptora clade (Tetanurae, Neovenatoridae. As such, the new specimen represents the second megaraptoran from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil and provides new information on tail anatomy on this bizarre group

  4. Sedimentation of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in São Paulo, Paraná Basin, Brazil

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    de Paula e Silva, Flavio; Kiang, Chang Hung; Caetano-Chang, Maria Rita

    2009-07-01

    The post-basaltic sediments of the Cretaceous Bauru Group in the Paraná Basin cover an area of 117,000 km 2 in São Paulo State, and are subdivided into the Caiuá, Pirapozinho, Santo Anastácio, Birigüi, Araçatuba, Adamantina and Marília formations. The sedimentation of Bauru Group was controlled by a combination of post-basaltic tectonism (responsible for the migration of the depocenters), erosion and climatic changes. Three main depositional phases are separated by two erosive/non-depositional phases defining depositional sequences. The fluvial-lacustrine deposition represented by the Caiuá/Pirapozinho formations (first sequence), initially filled the basaltic substratum troughs. After an erosional interval, the Santo Anastácio Formation was deposited and overlapped (eastward) underlying beds (second sequence). Renewed erosion and tectonism initiated the last depositional sequence, with the migration of the depocenter to the Queiroz depression. High topographic gradients initially favored the accumulation of fluvial deposits of braided systems of the Birigüi Formation. With the enlarging of the depositional area, a lacustrine system was formed (Araçatuba Formation) and overlapped by a fluvial system with progradation of lacustrine deltas (Adamantina Formation). The sedimentation of the Bauru Group ceased with deposition of marginal fans of Marília Formation.

  5. On a new peirosaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Cretaceous, Bauru Group, southeastern Brazil

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    Diogenes A. Campos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new crocodyliform from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian Presidente Prudente Formation of the Bauru Group is described based on two almost complete skulls and mandibles. The material comes from the "Tartaruguito" site, situated at an old railroad between the cities of Pirapozinho and Presidente Prudente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The new species, Pepesuchus deiseae gen. et sp. nov., is classified in the clade Peirosauridae on the basis of three synapomorphies: the presence of five premaxillary teeth, the anterior two premaxillary alveoli nearly confluent, and the oval cross-section of the jugal along the lower temporal bar. The new taxon increases the outstanding crocodyliform diversity of the Bauru Group, particularly of the Peirosauridae, which might turn out to be one of the most representative clades of gondwanan mesoeucrocodylians.Um novo crocodilomorfo da Formação Presidente Prudente, Cretáceo Superior (Campaniano-Maastrichtiano do Grupo Bauru é descrito com base em dois exemplares, consistindo de crânio e mandíbulas quase completos. O material é procedente da localidade conhecida como "Tartaruguito", situada em um antigo ramal ferroviário que ligava as cidades de Pirapozinho e Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A nova espécie, denominada de Pepesuchus deiseae gen. et sp. nov., é classificada no clado Peirosauridae, com base em três sinapomorfias: presença de cinco dentes pré-maxilares, os dois primeiros alvéolos da pré-maxila quase confluentes e a secção transversal do jugal ao longo da barra temporal inferior oval. O novo táxon aumenta a marcante diversidade de crocodiliformes do Grupo Bauru e dos Peirosauridae, que poderá vir a ser um dos clados mais representativos de mesoeucrocodilianos gondwânicos.

  6. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

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    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  7. A New Giant Titanosauria (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group, Brazil

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    2016-01-01

    Titanosaurian dinosaurs include some of the largest land-living animals that ever existed, and most were discovered in Cretaceous deposits of Argentina. Here we describe the first Brazilian gigantic titanosaur, Austroposeidon magnificus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous Presidente Prudente Formation (Bauru Group, Paraná Basin), São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. The size of this animal is estimated around 25 meters. It consists of a partial vertebral column composed by the last two cervical and the first dorsal vertebrae, all fairly complete and incomplete portions of at least one sacral and seven dorsal elements. The new species displays four autapomorphies: robust and tall centropostzygapophyseal laminae (cpol) in the last cervical vertebrae; last cervical vertebra bearing the posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina (pcdl) bifurcated; first dorsal vertebra with the anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae (acdl/pcdl) curved ventrolaterally, and the diapophysis reaching the dorsal margin of the centrum; posterior dorsal vertebra bearing forked spinoprezygapophyseal laminae (sprl). The phylogenetic analysis presented here reveals that Austroposeidon magnificus is the sister group of the Lognkosauria. CT scans reveal some new osteological internal features in the cervical vertebrae such as the intercalation of dense growth rings with camellae, reported for the first time in sauropods. The new taxon further shows that giant titanosaurs were also present in Brazil during the Late Cretaceous and provides new information about the evolution and internal osteological structures in the vertebrae of the Titanosauria clade. PMID:27706250

  8. Trajectory and contribution of geoscientists (1906-1961) to dinosaur research in the Bauru Group (Cretaceous) in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Brazil

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    Peyerl, Drielli; Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Mendonça Figueirôa, Silvia Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    The present study discusses geological and paleontological research conducted by geoscientists in the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group, of the Triângulo Mineiro region, Brazil. This analysis based largely on historical documentary sources focuses on the pioneering work of geoscientists, who made numerous discoveries of dinosaur fossils. This work contributes to a chronological survey that has been compiled on the geological studies in the Bauru Group, and describes the importance of the paleontological discoveries made during the twentieth century.

  9. Araçatuba Formation: palustrine deposits from the initial sedimentation phase of the Bauru Basin

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    Luiz A. Fernandes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous accumulated an essentially sandy continental sedimentary sequence. In a first desertic phase the basaltic substratum was covered by a widespread and homogeneous aeolian sand unit with minor loess intercalations. The substratum relief favored the formation of an endorheic drainage system under semi-arid climate, a process that started the development of the Araçatuba Paleoswamp. The palustrine deposits (Araçatuba Formation comprise siltstone and tipically greenish gray narrow tabular strata of sandstone cemented by carbonate. Moulds and gypsite and dolomite pseudomorphs were identified. The moulds seem to be genetically associated with desiccation cracks, root marks and climbing ripple lamination levels, that, on the whole, indicate calm shallow saline waters undergoing phases of subaerial exposition. At the boundaries of the study area, sand units may exhibit sigmoidal features and convolute bedding structure, which is characteristic of marginal deltaic deposits. The Araçatuba Formation is enclosed in and later overlaid by the aeolian deposits of the Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation.A Bacia Bauru (Cretáceo Superior, acumulou uma seqüência sedimentar continental essencialmente arenosa. Numa fase inicial desértica, o seu substrato basáltico foi soterrado por extensa e monótona cobertura de areias eólicas com intercalações subordinadas de depósitos de loesse. O relevo original do substrato favoreceu a formação de uma drenagem regional endorrêica, sob clima semi-árido, propiciando assim condições de formação do Paleopantanal Araçatuba. Os depósitos paludiais (Formação Araçatuba constituem estratos tabulares de siltitos e arenitos de cor cinza claro esverdeado típica, eventualmente cimentados por carbonato de cálcio. Moldes e pseudomorfos de cristais de gipsita e dolomita foram identificados na unidade. Aparentemente, estão associados com gretas de ressecação, marcas de raízes e

  10. Caracterização petrográfica e aspectos diagenéticos dos arenitos do Grupo Bauru na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo Petrography and diagenetic aspects of the Bauru Group sandstones in the southwestern region of the São Paulo State

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    Marcia Regina Stradioto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta a caracterização petrográfica e diagenética de arenitos pertencentes ao Grupo Bauru, tendo como material de estudo testemunhos de sondagem extraídos de um poço-pesquisa de 250m de profundidade, perfurado no município de Pirapozinho, região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo. O estudo envolveu a utilização de microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O arcabouço detrítico desses arenitos é constituído essencialmente por quartzo e feldspatos e, em menor quantidade, por fragmentos líticos e minerais acessórios. Os arenitos do Grupo Bauru apresentam evidências de processos eodiagenéticos. Os principais processos diagenéticos observados foram: dissolução de minerais pesados, fragmentos líticos e aluminossilicatos; cimentação por calcita microcristalina; formação de argilominerais; cimentação poiquilotópica de calcita; e cimentação por zeólitas.This work presents a petrographic and diagenetic study of the Bauru Group sandstones. Core samples were collected from a 250m-deep well located in the City of Pirapozinho, southwestern region of State of São Paulo. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were applied to these studies. The detrital composition of these sandstones is constituted essentially by quartz and feldspars and in minor amounts by rock fragments and accessory minerals. The sandstones of Bauru Group underwent eodiagenesis. The main diagenetic processes identified are: dissolution of heavy minerals, rock fragments and aluminossilicate mineral; microcrystalline calcite cementation; formation of clay minerals; poikilotopic calcite cementation; and zeolite cementation.

  11. Taphonomy of a Baurusuchus (Crocodyliformes, Baurusuchidae) from the Adamantina Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Bauru Basin), Brazil: Implications for preservational modes, time resolution and paleoecology

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    Araújo Júnior, Hermínio Ismael de; Silva Marinho, Thiago da

    2013-11-01

    Upper Cretaceous vertebrate accumulations from the Adamantina Formation are known due to their high taxonomic diversity. On the other hand, taphonomic analyses still are rare, limiting the understanding of processes related to the biostratinomic and fossildiagenetic histories of this lithostratigraphic unit. In 2005, fossils were collected from an outcrop located at Jales municipality, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. From this outcrop, a well-preserved Baurusuchus was recovered, which displays a peculiar set of taphonomic signatures. This paper identifies and interprets taphonomic features of a specimen of Baurusuchus (Crocodyliformes, Baurusuchidae; UFRJ DG 418-R) from the Adamantina Formation (Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Basin), in Jales municipality, state of São Paulo. Brief taphonomic comparisons with other specimens previously studied (crocodiles and dinosaurs) and a lithofaciological analysis of the outcrop were undertaken in order to enhance the knowledge of the stratigraphy and paleoenvironment and improve the time resolution for the Adamantina Formation in the region of Jales. Furthermore, paleoecological data were interpreted based on the taphonomic analysis. The fossil is composed of an articulated segment of vertebral column, ribs, part of the pelvic girdle and gastralia. There is no hydraulic equivalence between both the specimen of Baurusuchus and the size of quartz grain predominant in the fossiliferous layer, suggesting death in situ or short transport as a “water carcass”. Teeth marks identified on the pubes were assigned to a small/juvenile baurusuchid crocodyliform or a theropod dinosaur. The repositioning of some elements (ribs and dorsal osteoderms) is suggestive of mummification. Desiccation marks were observed and attributed to the stage 1 of weathering. These features suggest subaerial exposure of the carcass prior to burial, however, probably after the mummification. On the other hand, the subaerial exposure was short

  12. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  13. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  14. Group Formation in Economics

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    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  15. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

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    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  16. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  17. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive....... Following research based design methodology an experiment separating the two was initiated.This was to provide for more openness and creativity in contrast to a design in which existing relations seem predominant.......A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  18. Taxonomic identification of the Megaloolithid egg and eggshells from the Cretaceous Bauru Basin (Minas Gerais, Brazil: comparison with the Auca Mahuevo (Argentina titanosaurid eggs

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    Gerald Grellet-Tinner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomically (titanosaurid identified eggs and eggshells of Auca Mahuevo (Patagonia, Argentina provide an opportunity to compare and identify orphan megaloolithid eggs found elsewhere. Previous investigation determined that the oological material from Neuquén (Megaloolithus patagonicus and Peru (M. pseudomamillare are related to titanosaurid dinosaurs. Examination of an egg and several (megaloolithid eggshell fragments from the Upper Cretaceous Marilia Formation strongly suggests, as oological characters are at least genus specific, that the same group of titanosaur dinosaurs, which lived in the Neuquén Basin during the Late Campanian, were also present and reproducing in the Cretaceous Bauru Basin (Brazil. Furthermore, it has been suggested that these titanosaurs, based on the site of Auca Mahuevo, demonstrated colonial nesting and nesting fidelity. These reproductive behaviors would advocate that similar nesting sites should exist in the Upper Cretaceous formations of the Bauru Basin and remain to be discovered, as the present Peiropolis locality represents a secondary deposit where fossils have been transported by high-energy fluvial system.Os ovos e cascas de ovos provenientes de Auca Mahuevo (Patagonia, Argentina e identificados taxonomicamente como sendo de titanossaurídeos servem de base para comparação e identificação de ovos megaloolithídeos encontrados em outras localidades. Investigações prévias detreminaram que os materialis oológicos encontrados em Neuquén (Megaloolithus patagonicus e no Peru (M. pseudomamillare estão na realidade relacionados à dinossauros titanossaurídeos. O estudo de um ovo e diversos fragmentos de cascas de ovos (megaloolithídeo provenientes do Cretáceo Superior da Formação Marília sugere que o mesmo grupo taxonômico de dinossauros titanossauros que ocorria no Campaniano tardio da Bacia Neuquén também estava presente e se reproduzia durante o Cretáceo na Bacia Bauru, isto porque os

  19. The formation of compact groups of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马駬; 俞允强

    1999-01-01

    In the compact group of galaxies the galaxies can merge into a few massive ones in a very short time, so they must be formed very recently. On the other hand, according to the theory of structure formation, the denser system should form earlier. By analyzing the apparent paradox, we suggest that the merging process of CDM halo plays an important role in the formation of the compact groups of galaxies: it delays the formation of compact groups of galaxies, and makes the groups of galaxies much denser.

  20. Stratigraphic framework and evolution of the Cretaceous continental sequences of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana, and Parecis basins, Brazil

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    Batezelli, Alessandro; Ladeira, Francisco Sergio Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    With the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, the South American Plate has undergone an intense process of tectonic restructuring that led to the genesis of the interior basins that encompassed continental sedimentary sequences. The Brazilian Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins during Late Cretaceous have had their evolution linked to this process of structuring and therefore have very similar sedimentary characteristics. The purpose of this study is to establish a detailed understanding of alluvial sedimentary processes and architecture within a stratigraphic sequence framework using the concept of the stratigraphic base level or the ratio between the accommodation space and sediment supply. The integration of the stratigraphic and facies data contributed to defining the stratigraphic architecture of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins, supporting a model for continental sequences that depicts qualitative changes in the sedimentation rate (S) and accommodation space (A) that occurred during the Cretaceous. This study discusses the origin of the unconformity surfaces (K-0, K-1 and K-1A) that separate Sequences 1, 2A and 2B and the sedimentary characteristics of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins from the Aptian to the Maastrichtian, comparing the results with other Cretaceous Brazilian basins. The lower Cretaceous Sequence 1 (Caiuá and Areado groups) is interpreted as a low-accommodation systems tract compound by fluvial and aeolian systems. The upper Cretaceous lacustrine, braided river-dominated alluvial fan and aeolian systems display characteristics of the evolution from high-to low-accommodation systems tracts (Sequences 2A and 2B). Unconformity K-0 is related to the origin of the Bauru Basin itself in the Early Cretaceous. In Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins, the unconformity K-0 marks the contact between aeolian deposits from Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous alluvial systems (Sequences 1 and 2). Unconformity K-1, which was

  1. The dynamics of group formation among leeches

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    Giacomo eBisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2-3 hours, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control.

  2. [Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in bromeliads grown in the Bauru Municipal Botanical Gardens, São Paulo, Brazil].

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    Oliveira, Viviane Camila de; Almeida, Luiz Carlos de

    2017-01-23

    The aim of this study was to observe the occurrence of mosquito larvae, especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the tanks and axillae of bromeliads at the Bauru Municipal Botanical Gardens, São Paulo, Brazil, highlighting the epidemiological implications for the use of these plants. The majority of the larvae belonged to mosquitos from genus Culex, with only occasional findings of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The use of screens for protection of the plants, exposure to sunlight, and larger amounts of water in the tanks may have influenced the occurrence and grouping of larvae.

  3. Group formation and ideology. Text and context.

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    Hernandez, M

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the phenomenon of 'mass formation' (Massenbildung) and the production and circulation of ideologies is examined. The explanation of the said relationship must take into account both the social dimension as well as the intrapsychic structure of the ideological. To achieve this a brief review of Freud's ideas on group psychology and of some definitions of ideology, namely those proposed by Ricoeur, Althusser and Habermas is expounded. In the same way as the understanding of the vicissitudes of identification is crucial to gain insight into 'mass formation', the investigation of the processes of idealization is vital to the understanding of the ideological.

  4. Frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the human leukocyte antigen system in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luana de Cassia Salvadori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HLA allele identification is used in bone marrow transplant programs as HLA compatibility between the donor and recipient may prevent graft rejection. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of alleles and haplotypes of the HLA system in the region of Bauru and compare these with the frequencies found in other regions of the country. Methods: HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele frequencies and haplotypes were analyzed in a sample of 3542 volunteer donors at the National Registry of Voluntary Bone Marrow Donors (REDOME in Bauru. HLA low resolution typing was performed using reverse line blot with the Dynal Reli(tm SSO-HLA Typing Kit and automated Dynal AutoReli(tm48 device (Invitrogen, USA. Results: Twenty, 36, and 13 HLA-A*, HLA-B*, and HLA-DRB1* allele groups, respectively, were identified. The most common alleles for each locus were HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, and HLA-DRB1*07. The most frequent haplotype was A*01-B*08-DRB1*03. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared to other regions in Brazil and the similarities and differences among populations are shown. Conclusion: The knowledge of the immunogenic profile of a population contributes to the comprehension of the historical and anthropological aspects of different regions. Moreover, this helps to find suitable donors quickly, thereby shortening waiting lists for transplants and thus increasing survival rates among recipients.

  5. Expert group formation using facility location analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, Mahmood; Beigy, Hamid; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization framework to retrieve an optimal group of experts to perform a multi-aspect task. While a diverse set of skills are needed to perform a multi-aspect task, the group of assigned experts should be able to collectively cover all these required skills. We consid

  6. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.;

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  7. Politics and Business Group Formation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    and managerial independence from government agencies and which derives legitimacy from symbolizing China's economic rise. However, through the nomenklatura system, the Party controls the appointment of the CEOs and presidents of the most important of these enterprises and manages a cadre transfer system which......As a result of economic reform and administrative restructuring in China, a number of powerful state-owned business groups (“national champions”) have emerged within sectors of strategic importance. They are headed by a new corporate elite which enjoys unprecedentedly high levels of remuneration...

  8. Contracts and Insurance Group Formation by Myopic Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarova, E.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; van Velzen, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper employs a cooperative approach to insurance group formation problems.The insurance group formation is analyzed in terms of stability with respect to one-person deviations.Depending on the exact contractual setting, three stability concepts are proposed: individual, contractual and compens

  9. The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    2000-01-01

    The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication (CMC) was examined among students who used e-mail as part of a course. A network analysis of group structures revealed that (a) content and form of communication is normative, group norms defining communication patterns within groups, (

  10. The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    2000-01-01

    The formation of group norms in computer-mediated communication (CMC) was examined among students who used e-mail as part of a course. A network analysis of group structures revealed that (a) content and form of communication is normative, group norms defining communication patterns within groups, (

  11. PROSPECTS OF FORMATION FINANCIAL-INDUSTRIAL GROUPS IN UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Jasurbek Ataniyazov

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we evaluated the possibilities of the formation of financial-industrial groups, with participation of commercial banks and revealed features and prospects of formation financial-industrial groups in Uzbekistan. For the implementation of investment potential and development of financial-industrial integration, crucial are relations between the credit-financial institutions, mainly the commercial banks, and the industrial enterprises. The financial-industrial groups can play im...

  12. Influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal conditions in a population from Bauru, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ragghianti,Mariana Schützer; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; PASSANEZI, Euloir

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of health and disease in populations, and of how these conditions are influenced by heredity, biology, physical environment, social environment, and personal behavior. There are many epidemiological studies in Brazilian population but few about the influence of some risk factors in periodontal conditions. This cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal disease in a population from Bauru (Brazil). Data co...

  13. Performance analysis of the SAMU/Bauru-SP in peak demand periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Souza Ghussn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The population’s quality of life is linked to access to health care services. In the event of urgent or emergency calls to Emergency Services (SAE’s, rapid response to this demand is essential to minimize the possible consequences of the patient’s condition. The Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU/192 is an important SAE to society. It is a federal program and provides the population with emergency care. In this context, the average response time is of fundamental importance because a delay in treatment can mean life or death. Due to budget constraints, the SAE’s cannot have a large number of staff or equipment. Thus, there is a clear trade-off between investment, operating costs and the service level. An objective form to evaluate the system, especially in periods of high demand, is important for managers in order to make allowances for decision-making. In this sense, the objectives of this study are: (i to describe the calls to the SAMU-Bauru/SP, (ii to apply the hypercube model and (iii to obtain key performance measures. To this end, we conducted a case study of the Mobile Emergency Service (SAMU in Bauru. From this analysis, we it was possible to obtain the key performance measures of the SAMU- Bauru/SP.

  14. The Formation of Effective Work Groups within an FE Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Fascinated by the diversity of composition in effective work groups in Further Education (FE) classrooms, I studied group formation and composition in level 3 Biology classes over an academic year. Using information from the class teacher, observers and students, the importance of effective work groups (defining effectiveness in terms of…

  15. Enhancing the impact of groups: an evaluation of two group formats for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, P; Belcher, M; Stapleton, J

    1985-11-01

    The effects of two different group formats constituting part of an otherwise identical smoking cessation programme were evaluated. Each group format was in use for one full calendar year. One hundred and thirty-two smokers were treated in 14 'therapist-oriented' (T-O) groups run in traditional didactic style and 138 in 14 'group-oriented' (G-O) groups, where the primary emphasis was on group resources (group support, group pressure and spontaneous modelling of coping responses). G-O groups were significantly more successful. The two types of groups did not differ in the number of clients who succeeded in stopping smoking just after the first meeting, i.e. before the difference in group formats could have any impact; but in the G-O groups more of those who failed initially persisted in trying and succeeded later in the course. Independently of the format, larger groups were more successful and in addition there was significant variation between single groups regardless of both format and size. Group processes seem to play an important role in smoking cessation and the way in which a group is structured can affect outcome.

  16. Exogenous attention during perceptual group formation and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Fahrettin F; Ogmen, Haluk

    2017-02-01

    Under natural viewing conditions, a large amount of information reaches our senses, and the visual system uses attention and perceptual grouping to reduce the complexity of stimuli in order to make real-time perception possible. Prior studies have shown that attention and perceptual grouping operate in synergy; exogenous attention is deployed not only to the cued item, but also to the entire group. Here, we investigated how attention and perceptual grouping operate during the formation and dissolution of groups. Our results showed that reaction times are higher in the presence of perceptual groups than they are for ungrouped stimuli. On the other hand, attentional benefits of perceptual grouping were observed during both the formation and the dissolution of groups. The dynamics were similar during group formation and dissolution, showing a gradual effect that takes approximately half a second to reach its maximum level. In the case of group dissolution, the attentional benefits persisted for about a quarter of a second after dissolution of the group. Taken together, our results reveal the dynamics of how attention and grouping work in synergy during the transient period when groups form or dissolve.

  17. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful. PMID:27512586

  18. PROSPECTS OF FORMATION FINANCIAL-INDUSTRIAL GROUPS IN UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasurbek Ataniyazov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we evaluated the possibilities of the formation of financial-industrial groups, with participation of commercial banks and revealed features and prospects of formation financial-industrial groups in Uzbekistan. For the implementation of investment potential and development of financial-industrial integration, crucial are relations between the credit-financial institutions, mainly the commercial banks, and the industrial enterprises. The financial-industrial groups can play important role in spurring the investments in the real sector of the economy. The financial-industrial can become a basis for improved stability of national economy and for creation of favourable conditions in the development of the real sector.

  19. The History of Galaxy Formation in Groups: An Observational Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Conselice, C J

    2006-01-01

    We present a pedagogical review on the formation and evolution of galaxies in groups, utilizing observational information from the Local Group to galaxies at z~6. The majority of galaxies in the nearby universe are found in groups, and galaxies at all redshifts up to z~6 tend to cluster on the scale of nearby groups (~1 Mpc). This suggests that the group environment may play a role in the formation of most galaxies. The Local Group, and other nearby groups, display a diversity in star formation and morphological properties that puts limits on how, and when, galaxies in groups formed. Effects that depend on an intragroup medium, such as ram-pressure and strangulation, are likely not major mechanisms driving group galaxy evolution. Simple dynamical friction arguments however show that galaxy mergers should be common, and a dominant process for driving evolution. While mergers between L_* galaxies are observed to be rare at z < 1, they are much more common at earlier times. This is due to the increased densit...

  20. Método multirresíduo para monitoramento de contaminação ambiental de pesticidas na região de Bauru (SP usando mel como bio-indicador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of residues of the major groups of pesticides (organohalogen, organophosphorous, pyrethroids and organonitrogen in representative samples of honey produced in Bauru (state of São Paulo, Brazil was investigated from 1999 through2004. A multiresidue method was applied to honey samples to determine 48 pesticides with recoveries ranging from 76 to 95%. The limits of detection found were lower than 10 µg/kg for GC-MS-SIM. The results indicated that most pesticides found in the samples belonged to the organohalogen and organonitrogen groups. Residues of malathion were detected in almost all of the samples in high concentration.

  1. A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.

    2009-01-01

    In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…

  2. A New Group-Formation Method for Student Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.

    2009-01-01

    In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…

  3. Exploring Technology Supported Collaborative and Cooperative Group Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapina, Mia; Boticki, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the systematic literature review paper (in progress), which analyzes technology enhanced collaborative and cooperative learning in elementary education worldwide from 2004 to 2015, focusing on the exploration of technology mediated group formation. The review paper reports on only a few cases of technology supported methods…

  4. Cooperation driven by success-driven group formation

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional setup of public goods game all players are involved in every available groups and the mutual benefit is shared among competing cooperator and defector strategies. But in real life situations the group formation of players could be more sophisticated because not all players are attractive enough for others to participate in a joint venture. What if only those players can initiate a group formation and establish a game who are successful enough to the neighbors? To elaborate this idea we employ a modified protocol and demonstrate that a carefully chosen threshold to establish joint venture could efficiently improve the cooperation level even if the synergy factor would suggest a full defector state otherwise. The microscopic mechanism which is responsible for this effect is based on the asymmetric consequences of competing strategies: while the success of a cooperator provides a long-time well-being for the neighborhood, the temporary advantage of defection cannot be maintained if the protoco...

  5. Group impressions as dynamic configurations: the tensor product model of group impression formation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Y; Woolcock, J; Kashima, E S

    2000-10-01

    Group impressions are dynamic configurations. The tensor product model (TPM), a connectionist model of memory and learning, is used to describe the process of group impression formation and change, emphasizing the structured and contextualized nature of group impressions and the dynamic evolution of group impressions over time. TPM is first shown to be consistent with algebraic models of social judgment (the weighted averaging model; N. Anderson, 1981) and exemplar-based social category learning (the context model; E. R. Smith & M. A. Zárate, 1992), providing a theoretical reduction of the algebraic models to the present connectionist framework. TPM is then shown to describe a common process that underlies both formation and change of group impressions despite the often-made assumption that they constitute different psychological processes. In particular, various time-dependent properties of both group impression formation (e.g., time variability, response dependency, and order effects in impression judgments) and change (e.g., stereotype change and group accentuation) are explained, demonstrating a hidden unity beneath the diverse array of empirical findings. Implications of the model for conceptualizing stereotype formation and change are discussed.

  6. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ramires

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in scholars aging 12 to 15 years old, residents in the city of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 1318 volunteers were enrolled in this study and examined in 18 public schools of the State of São Paulo. The examinations were performed in the schools' court by three dentists (with a Master's degree in Public Health, after toothbrushing supervised by another dentist. The teeth were dried with cotton pellets and examined under natural light by visual inspection, using an explorer as recommended by the WHO, a plane mirror and a tongue depressor. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index was used for rating fluorosis. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated and data were submitted to descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 36% of the children presented dental fluorosis, of which 28% was diagnosed as TF1 while the remaining received scores between TF2 and TF4. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru is within the expected range, based on previous studies. Although fluoride is an important resource for caries control, its use must be adequate to the needs of each specific population.

  7. Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Chiglino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the occurrence of organic-walled microfossils in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, and the first Precambrian acritarchs so far reported for northeastern Brazil. The assemblage of the Frecheirinha Formation represents a low-diversity microflora comprising Leiosphaeridia, Lophosphaeridium and subordinated Bavlinella (=Sphaerocongregus. Their thermal alteration index (TAI between 4+ and 5, suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250°C. Higher temperatures are probably related to intruding granitic plutons (Meruoca, Mucambo. Reported δ13C values of carbonates of -3.5 ‰ VPDB (Vienna-Peedee Belemnite at the base, passing up section into a positive plateau of up to +3.7 ‰, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7075 and 0.7080 suggest an Ediacaran age. The acritarch assemblage is comparable to the Late Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora (LELP or Kotlin-Rovno assemblage, in broad agreement with chemostratigraphic data. Macrofossils belonging to the Ediacara fauna were reported from the overlying Jaibaras Group, which would constrain even further the depositional age of the Frecheirinha Formation to within ca. 575-555 Ma. A more comprehensive palynological study of the Frecheirinha Formation is necessary to confirm this age assignment.

  8. Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiglino, Leticia; Gaucher, Claudio; Sial, Alcides N; Ferreira, Valderez P

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of organic-walled microfossils in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, and the first Precambrian acritarchs so far reported for northeastern Brazil. The assemblage of the Frecheirinha Formation represents a low-diversity microflora comprising Leiosphaeridia, Lophosphaeridium and subordinated Bavlinella (=Sphaerocongregus). Their thermal alteration index (TAI) between 4+ and 5, suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250°C. Higher temperatures are probably related to intruding granitic plutons (Meruoca, Mucambo). Reported δ13C values of carbonates of -3.5 ‰ VPDB (Vienna-Peedee Belemnite) at the base, passing up section into a positive plateau of up to +3.7 ‰, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7075 and 0.7080 suggest an Ediacaran age. The acritarch assemblage is comparable to the Late Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora (LELP) or Kotlin-Rovno assemblage, in broad agreement with chemostratigraphic data. Macrofossils belonging to the Ediacara fauna were reported from the overlying Jaibaras Group, which would constrain even further the depositional age of the Frecheirinha Formation to within ca. 575-555 Ma. A more comprehensive palynological study of the Frecheirinha Formation is necessary to confirm this age assignment.

  9. Star Formation in Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Haynes, Martha P.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Troischt, Parker; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) Groups project is a coordinated study of gas and star formation properties of galaxies in and around 36 nearby (zALFALFA HI observations, optical observations, and digital databases like SDSS, and incorporates work undertaken by faculty and students at different institutions within the UAT. Here we present results from our wide area Hα and broadband R imaging project carried out with the WIYN 0.9m+MOSAIC/HDI at KPNO, including an analysis of radial star formation rates and extents of galaxies in the NGC 5846, Abell 779, NRGb331, and HCG 69 groups/clusters. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  10. CELL FORMATION IN GROUP TECHNOLOGY: A SIMILARITY ORDER CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping parts into families which can be produced by a cluster of machine cells is the cornerstone of cellular manufacturing, which in turn is the building block for flexible manufacturing systems. Cellular manufacturing is a group technology (GT concept that has recently attracted the attention of manufacturing firms operating under jobshop environment to consider redesigning their manufacturing systems so as to take advantage of increased throughput, reduction in work-in-progress, set-up time, and lead times; leading to product quality and customer satisfaction. The paper presents a generalised approach for machine cell formation from a jobshop using similarity order clustering technique for preliminary cell grouping and considering machine utilisation for the design of nonintergrouping material handling using the single-pass heuristic. The work addresses the shortcomings of cellular manufacturing systems design and implementations which ignore machine utilisations, group sizes and intergroup moves.

  11. Ozone-driven photochemical formation of carboxylic acid groups from alkane groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were highly associated with trajectories from an industrial region with high organic mass (OM, likely from fossil fuel combustion emissions. The concentration of carboxylic acid groups peaked during daytime, suggesting a photochemical secondary formation mechanism. This daytime increase in concentration was tightly correlated with O3 mixing ratio, indicating O3 was the likely driver in acid formation. Based on the diurnal cycles of carboxylic acid and alkane groups, the covariation of carboxylic acid groups with O3, and the composition of the Combustion factor resulted from the factor analyses, gas-phase alkane oxidation by OH radicals to form dihyfrofuran followed by further oxidation of dihydrofuran by O3 is the likely acid formation mechanism. Using the multi-day average of the daytime increase of carboxylic acid group concentrations and m/z 44-based Aged Combustion factor, we estimated the lower-bound contributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed in 12-h daytime of processing in a single day to be 30% of the carboxylic acid groups and 25–45% of the Combustion factor concentration. These unique ambient observations of photochemically-driven acid formation suggest that gas-phase alkanes might be important sources of SOA formation in this coastal region.

  12. Cooperation driven by success-driven group formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2016-10-01

    In the traditional setup of the public goods game all players are involved in every available group and the mutual benefit is shared among competing cooperator and defector strategies. However, in real life situations the group formation of players could be more sophisticated because not all players are attractive enough for others to participate in a joint venture. What if only those players who are successful enough to the neighbors can initiate a group formation and establish a game? To elaborate this idea we employ a modified protocol and demonstrate that a carefully chosen threshold to establish a joint venture could efficiently improve the cooperation level even if the synergy factor would suggest a full defector state otherwise. The microscopic mechanism that is responsible for this effect is based on the asymmetric consequences of competing strategies: while the success of a cooperator provides a long-time well-being for the neighborhood, the temporary advantage of defection cannot be maintained if the protocol is based on the success of leaders.

  13. THE FORMATION OF CONSCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT GROUPS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisa Maria, Martins da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical proposals, as the Theory of Human Relations, especially the Theory of Group Dynamics and the Conscience Formation, which promote understanding and support for the conduct of the leaders in team management, aiming at a route suitable for questions, reflections, enabling new perceptions of self-consciousness, as Hegel says. It is worth highlighting that through these considerations, it becomes possible to conduct more realistic impacts triggered in the organizational culture, as from a better management of interpersonal relationships within teams, these teams have a training goal or not.

  14. Strontium isotopic signature of groundwater from Adamantina aquifer, Bauru Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldaner, Carlos [Centre for Applied Groundwater Research, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Rd, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Martins, Veridiana; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Hirata, Ricardo [Centro de Pesquisas de Aguas Subterraneas do Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Using {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and the geochemistry of groundwater we were able to identify different hydrochemical facies in the Adamantina aquifer, Bauru Basin (Brazil). Samples from shallow wells show Cl-NO{sub 3}-Ca-Mg water with low pH due to natural and anthropogenic recharge. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios are greatest in the shallower parts of the aquifer (0.7134) and decrease with increasing well screen interval depth. The nitrate concentration gradually decreases with depth and aquifer pH increases, HCO{sub 3} predominates as the main anion, and the groundwater becomes saturated with respect to calcite, with average {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 0.708694 at depth. (authors)

  15. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Erfanianfar, G; Finoguenov, A; Wuyts, S; Wilman, D; Biviano, A; Ziparo, F; Salvato, M; Nandra, K; Lutz, D; Elbaz, D; Dickinson, M; Tanaka, M; Mirkazemi, M; Balogh, M L; Altieri, M B; Aussel, H; Bauer, F; Berta, S; Bielby, R M; Brandt, N; Cappelluti, N; Cimatti, A; Cooper, M; Fadda, D; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Magnelli, B; Mulchaey, J S; Nordon, R; Newman, J A; Poglitsch, A; Pozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass and halo occupation distribution in massive halos by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of SFR for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from SED fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high redshift groups (0.5groups at z~0. We show that the level of SF activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive halos than in the more common lower mass ...

  16. Simultaneous ISAR imaging of group targets flying in formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jie; Xiao Huaitie; Song Zhiyong; Fan Hongqi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging method based on second-order keystone transform (KT) and Sandglass transform for group targets flying in a formation with constant accelerated rectilinear motion in the same radar beam. First, range cur-vature and range walk of each sub-target among group targets are corrected by the second-order KT combined with the quadratic phase term compensation. After range alignment, the signals in each range frequency cell can be modelled as multiple chirp signals and then the Sandglass transform is uti-lized to cross-range imaging, which transforms the time–frequency distribution of the signals in each range frequency cell into beelines parallel to the slow time axis simultaneously. Finally, cross-range profiles of group targets in each range frequency cell are obtained via a projection of the perk of every scatterer in the two-dimensional accumulation plane onto the frequency axis. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can align range profiles of each sub-target simultaneously and image cross-range profiles directly without separating the returned signals, which simplifies the operation procedure. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Two formation channels of UCDs in Hickson Compact Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rocha, C; Georgiev, I Y; Hilker, M; Ziegler, B L; de Oliveira, C Mendes

    2010-01-01

    The formation of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) is believed to be interaction driven, and UCDs are abundant in the cores of galaxy clusters, environments that mark the end-point of galaxy evolution. Nothing is known about the properties of UCDs in compact groups of galaxies, environments where most of galaxy evolution and interaction is believed to occur and where UCDs in intermediate state of evolution may be expected. The main goal of this study is to detect and characterize, for the first time, the UCD population of compact groups. For that, 2 groups in different evolutionary stages, HCG 22 and HCG 90, were targeted with VLT/FORS2/MXU. We detect 16 and 5 objects belonging to HCG 22 and HCG 90, respectively, covering the magnitude range -10.0 > M_R > -11.5 mag. Their colours are consistent with old ages covering a broad range in metallicities. Photometric mass estimates put 4 objects in HCG 90 and 9 in HCG 22 in the mass range of UCDs (>2x10^6 M_Sun) for an assumed age of 12 Gyr. These UCDs are on aver...

  18. Simultaneous ISAR imaging of group targets flying in formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging method based on second-order keystone transform (KT and Sandglass transform for group targets flying in a formation with constant accelerated rectilinear motion in the same radar beam. First, range curvature and range walk of each sub-target among group targets are corrected by the second-order KT combined with the quadratic phase term compensation. After range alignment, the signals in each range frequency cell can be modelled as multiple chirp signals and then the Sandglass transform is utilized to cross-range imaging, which transforms the time–frequency distribution of the signals in each range frequency cell into beelines parallel to the slow time axis simultaneously. Finally, cross-range profiles of group targets in each range frequency cell are obtained via a projection of the perk of every scatterer in the two-dimensional accumulation plane onto the frequency axis. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can align range profiles of each sub-target simultaneously and image cross-range profiles directly without separating the returned signals, which simplifies the operation procedure. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Ozone-driven daytime formation of secondary organic aerosol containing carboxylic acid groups and alkane groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic acids are present in substantial quantities in atmospheric particles, and they play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. During measurements in coastal California in the summer of 2009, carboxylic acid functional groups were exclusively associated with a fossil fuel combustion factor derived from factor analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements and closely correlated with oxygenated organic factors from aerosol mass spectrometry measurements. The high fraction of acid groups and the high ratio of oxygen to carbon in this factor suggest that this factor is composed of secondary organic aerosol (SOA products of combustion emissions from the upwind industrial region (the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Another indication of the photochemically-driven secondary formation of this combustion-emitted organic mass (OM was the daytime increase in the concentrations of acid groups and the combustion factors. This daytime increase closely tracked the O3 mixing ratio with a correlation coefficient of 0.7, indicating O3 was closely associated with the SOA maximum and thus likely the oxidant that resulted in acid group formation. Using a pseudo-Lagrangian framework to interpret this daytime increase of carboxylic acid groups and the combustion factors, we estimate that the carboxylic acid groups formed in a 12-h daytime period of one day ("Today's SOA" accounted for 25–33 % of the measured carboxylic acid group mass, while the remaining 67–75 % (of the carboxylic acid group mass was likely formed 1–3 days previously (the "Background SOA". A similar estimate of the daytime increase in the combustion factors suggests that "Today's SOA" and the "Background SOA" respectively contributed 25–50 % and 50–75 % of the combustion factor (the "Total SOA", for a "Total SOA" contribution to the OM of 60 % for the project average. Further, size

  20. Nematóides que parasitam a soja na região de Bauru Nematode parasites of soybean in the Bauru region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga E. Lordello

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre os sérios fatôres que atuam contra a expansão da cultura da soja no Estado de São Paulo, acha-se o representado por nematóides parasitos. Dêstes, os que mais têm atraído a atenção dos cultivadores e fitopatologistas são as espécies formadoras de galhas no sistema radicular (Meloidogyne spp.. O estudo do material atacado coligido em Bauru revelou que, naquela região, três formas se acham envolvidas, a saber : Pratylenchus sp., Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 e M. javanica bauruensis n. subsp. Neste trabalho é estudada a nova subespécie, sendo também apresentadas algumas observações sobre a população de M. incognita.One of the serious detriments to soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivation in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, are root-parasitic nematodes. A study of infected material collected at Bauru, where at least two distinct soybean varieties were cultivated, disclosed that three forms were involved: a meadow nematode (Pralylenchus sp. and two root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949, and M. javanica bauruensis n. subsp.. Silva, Lordello & Miyasaka (3 published some observations about the resistance of several soybean varieties to the attacks by root-knot nematodes in Campinas. A detailed study of the nematodes involved in those experiments, which were considered as related do M. incognita, has not yet been made. One of the varieties tested, La 41-1219, proved to be resistant, thereby providing promising material for further studies and breeding. Unfortunately, such a variety when planted in Bauru, was severely attacked by a root-knot species, which is identified as M. incognita. Attacks by M. javanica bauruensis was not noted in that variety but was noted in another variety (Abura growing adjacent in the same field. The host preference of those two nematodes was specific and very marked. M. incognita attacked only var. La 41-1219 and M. javanica

  1. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  2. O empobrecimento causado pela erosão e pela cultura algodoeira no solo do arenito Bauru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grohmann

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available The empovrishment of the soil brought about by erosion and cultivation of cotton has been studied in experimental plots where catch tanks were employed to collect soil removed by erosion. These tests have been carried out by the Soil Conservation Department at the Experiment Station of the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, in Pindorama, and on the "Arenito Bauru" soil type representative of the region. Actually sixty percent of all coffee and eighty percent of all cotton cultivation in the State of São Paulo is on the "Arenito Bauru" soil type. Thus the data collected, although preliminary, are of great interest, and indicate that the empovrishment of the "Arenito Bauru" soil by erosion is extremely rapid. It is also pointed out that the "Arenito Bauru" soils are the most highly erodable of all soil types in the State of São Paulo. A chemical analysis was made of representative samples of the original soils in the experimental plots and of samples of soil carried in the runoff, for the purpose of determining the losses due to erosion. It has been determined that the soil transported in the runoff is proportionally very much richer in mineral elements than was the original soil. The data obtained from analysis of samples showed that soil eroded from the experimental plots contained 2.0 times as much organic material, 2.8 times as much P2O5 ; 2.3 times as much K2O, and 1.9 times as much CaO, as was determined present in the samples obtained from the original soil of the experimental plots. In the runoff water it has determined that calcium was present in larger quantities than other elements. On the basis of data obtained from the experimental plots with cotton cultivation, an evaluation and comparison was made of the amount of mineral elements lost by erosion and the amount used by the cotton crop. It was found that the empovrishment of the soil by loss of organic material and chemical elements was due more to erosion than to utilization of

  3. Estágios de desenvolvimento de Mariliasuchus amarali, Crocodyliformes Mesoeucrocodylia da Formação Adamantina, Cretáceo Superior da Bacia Bauru, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mesquita de Vasconcellos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariliasuchus amarali Carvalho & Bertini, 1999 , a Mesoeucrocodylia from the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous shows some adaptative features to terrestrial environments: short and high skull, lateral orbits, frontal external nares and reduction of the dental formula with specialization of the tooth crown morphology in incisiform, caniniform and molariform teeth. It has been included in the infraorder Notosuchia Gasparini, 1971. Three specimens of Mariliasuchus amarali, found near the municipality of Marília, São Paulo State were analysed. One of them, holotype of Mariliasuchus amarali (UFRJ DG 50-R, is a juvenile crocodylifom whereas the other two (UFRJ DG 105-R and UFRJ DG 106-R are adult animals. These fossils allowed an analysis of the ontogenetic development patterns of this species. It was performed a comparison betweeen the mandibular, laterotemporal and supratemporal fenestrae and the skull sculpturing in the three specimens. The results show that Mariliasuchus acquire in the course of its ontogeny a thicker and stronger skull. The caudal migration of the laterotemporal fenestra and the size increase of the supratemporal fenestra probably indicate a wider use or strength of the adductor muscles during seizing and food processing.

  4. FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION IN WATER AT THE AREA SUPPLIED BY THE WATER TREATMENT STATION OF BAURU, SP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Ramires, Irene; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru and classify the samples as acceptable or unacceptable according to the fluoride concentration. Material and methods: samples were collected from 30 areas at two periods, October 2002 and March 2003. The fluoride concentration in the samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion sensitive electrode (Orion 9609) connected to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720). Samples with fluoride concentration ranging from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L were considered acceptable, and those whose concentration was outside this range as unacceptable. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: the fluoride concentration of the water samples varied between 0.31 and 2.01 mg F/L. Nearly 56% of the samples were classified as acceptable. Conclusion: the variations in fluoride concentration at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station reinforce the need of constant monitoring for maintenance of adequate fluoride levels in the public water supply. PMID:19089059

  5. Fluoride concentrations in industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simonetti Lodi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of juices, soft drinks and teas among children has increased significantly fluoride ingestion at the age range of risk for development of dental fluorosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluoride concentrations in some brands of industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil. Material and Methods: 98 brands of beverages were analyzed, divided into 3 lots, comprising 36, 32 and 30 brands, respectively, for the first, second and third lots. Fluoride concentrations were determined by HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode (Orion 9409. Results: Fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 1.76 µg F/mL. It was observed a wide variation in fluoride concentrations among the different brands, as well as the different lots of the same brand. There was no information on fluoride concentrations on the labels of any product. Conclusions: Some of the products analyzed could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake and, thus, be important risk factors for development of dental fluorosis, which indicates the need of controlling the production of these beverages with respect to fluoride concentration.

  6. Crescimento e sobrevivência de duas procedências de Aspidosperma polyneuron em plantios experimentais em Bauru, SP. Growth and survival of two provenances of Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. in experimental plantation, in Bauru, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Sanae SATO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A exploração desordenada das matasnativas vem causando o esgotamento davariabilidade genética de muitas espécies de valoreconômico e ambiental. Desde a década de 1960,o Instituto Florestal de São Paulo vem desenvolvendoestudos pioneiros em conservação ex situ dealgumas espécies nativas ameaçadas e de interesseeconômico, como, por exemplo, Aspidospermapolyneuron, visando à conservação, ao melhoramentogenético e ao conhecimento do seu comportamentosilvicultural. Em 1964 foi implantado um experimentocom duas procedências de A. polyneuron: Bauru(SP e Alvorada do Sul (PR, em uma Unidade deConservação do Instituto Florestal, em Bauru/SP.Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso,com nove plantas por parcela, espaçamento 3 x 3 me seis repetições. Em 2006, foram avaliados odiâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, cm, altura total(HT, m, forma do fuste (F, volume cilíndricoindividual (VCi, m3, volume cilíndrico por hectare(VCha, m3 ha-1 e sobrevivência (S, %. Os resultadosdemonstraram que a procedência Bauru apresentoumaior produção volumétrica de madeira por hectare(VCha e que os valores das demais variáveis nãodiferiram estatisticamente entre as duas procedências.As informações obtidas neste estudo sãoimportantes para fornecer subsídios para avaliar aviabilidade de plantios comerciais e experimentaisde A. polyneuron visando à conservação e aomelhoramento genético desta espécie.The disorderly exploitation of nativeforests has caused the depletion of the geneticvariability of many species of economic andenvironmental value. Since the 1960 decade,the Forestry Institute of São Paulo has beendeveloping pioneering studies of ex situconservation of some endangered native treespecies and with economic interests, as for example,Aspidosperma polyneuron aiming the conservation,the tree breeding and the knowledge of thesilvicultural behavior. In 1964 an experiment withtwo provenances was implanted: A. polyneuron,Bauru (SP

  7. A Framework for Semantic Group Formation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Asma; Davis, Hugh C.; Millard, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration has long been considered an effective approach to learning. However, forming optimal groups can be a time consuming and complex task. Different approaches have been developed to assist teachers allocate students to groups based on a set of constraints. However, existing tools often fail to assign some students to groups creating a…

  8. Small Group/Seminar Format for Teaching Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe, John W.; Griffin, Phillip T.

    1981-01-01

    The design and implementation of the revised format of the freshman behavioral science course at Tulane University School of Medicine is described. The methods of evaluation utilized and the data from the first class of medical students to participate in the new curriculum are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  9. The formation of heterodimers by vancomycin group antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staroske, T; O'Brien, DP; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.;

    2000-01-01

    The formation of heterodimers in mixtures of glycopeptide antibiotics has been detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and dimerization constants have been determined. By using NMR spectroscopy, it has been shown that these heterodimers indeed exist in aqueous solution. Th...

  10. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of Batalha river reservoir for water captation and supply of the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Calcidoni Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the composition and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were evaluated in the reservoir of water captation of Batalha river for treatment and supplying of the city of Bauru. The samples were collected in dry (from June to August, 2005 and rainy (from December, 2005 to February, 2006 seasons. We analyzed and identified 840 organisms belonging to 8 taxa in dry season and 4 taxa in rainy season. The system presented low abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates probably due to the water quality and its physical and chemical variations associated with rain events.

  11. Macro e micromorfologia de ferricretes nodulares desenvolvidos de arenito do grupo Bauru, formação Adamantina

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Coelho; P. Vidal-Torrado; Ladeira,F. S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Nas paisagens do norte do estado de São Paulo, sob domínio do Planalto Ocidental, ferricretes ocorrem em diferentes níveis topográficos e, apesar de pouco documentados, constituem feições que se repetem com freqüência sobre os arenitos cretácicos do Grupo Bauru, Formação Adamantina. Realizou-se um estudo morfológico, em diferentes escalas de observação, a fim de elucidar a gênese desses ferricretes (plintita e petroplintita) encontrados no terço inferior de uma vertente dominada por solos com...

  12. Study of Risk Factors Associated with Peripheral Arteriopathy in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofolo, Luciana, E-mail: lgarofolo@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G. [Faculdade de Saúde Pública - Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Fausto Junior [Departamento de Cirurgia - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and emerging countries. Their main etiology, atherosclerosis, is a disseminated disease that affects the coronary, cerebral and peripheral territories. The peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as well as its consequences, indicates the involvement of the coronary territory. Therefore, its better understanding enables proper treatment, delaying local and long-term complications, reducing the cost to the health system. This study estimates the percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP), recognized by the high prevalence of metabolic disorders such as hypertension (43%), diabetes mellitus (33%) and hypercholesterolemia (60%), and examines the association with risk biomarkers. This cross-sectional population study evaluated 1,330 Japanese-Brazilians of both genders aged ≥ 30 who underwent a complete physical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants with ABI ≤ 0.90 were diagnosed as having PAD. After applying the exclusion criteria, 1,038 individuals were part of the analysis. We used Poisson regression to analyze associations with PAD. The mean age was 56.8 years and the percentage of PAD was 21.1%, equal among the genders. PAD was associated with smoking (PR 2.16 [1.33 to 3.48]) and hypertension (PR 1.56 [1.12-2.22]). The percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians was similar to other populations of adverse cardiometabolic profile (US PARTNERS and POPADAD). The independent association of PAD with smoking and hypertension, but not with other classical risk factors, may depend on the very high frequencies of metabolic disorders in this population.

  13. Formation Histories of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Ricotti, M; Ricotti, Massimo; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the properties of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group with the simulated galaxies formed before reionization in a cosmological simulation of unprecedented spatial and mass resolution. We find that a subset of the Local Group dwarfs are remarkably similar to the simulated dwarf galaxies in all their properties. Based on this similarity, we propose the hypothesis that Local Group dwarfs form in a variety of ways: some of them are ``true fossils'' of the pre-reionization era, some of them form most of their stars later, after reionization (we call them ``survivors'' of the reionization era), and the rest of them form an intermediate group of ``polluted fossils''. We also identify a simple observational test that is able to falsify our hypothesis.

  14. [A comparative study of individuals' responses to formative and declining groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, K

    1990-04-01

    Using 40 college students as subjects, this experiment was conducted to investigate differences in the influence exerted by formative groups and declining groups of the same size. No significant differences between formative and declining groups were found at the behavioural level, especially with respect to conformity rates. However, significant differences were found between the two groups at internal levels, especially with respect to the confidence exhibited in subjects' responses and the evaluation of group opinions. In formative groups, the confidence of conformers in the group increased but non-conformers showed no change. In declining groups, the confidence of non-conformers increased but conformers showed no change. Moreover, only the conformers continued to support group opinions after the groups broke down, evaluating the group opinions highly in private. The results suggested in general that individuals are influenced by group changes and that they select their own responses by anticipating changes likely to occur in the group.

  15. Influence of Group Formation Choices on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethamraju, Ravi; Borman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    With its multidisciplinary and applied foci, team-working skills are seen as especially critical in business courses in general and in business information systems courses in particular, and are specifically incorporated into desired graduate attributes by many universities. Past research has focused on the benefits of group working but little…

  16. Formation of functional groups on graphite during oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvelbar, Uros [Plasma Laboratory, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia)]. E-mail: uros.cvelbar@guest.arnes.si; Markoli, Bostjan [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Poberaj, Igor [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Zalar, Anton [Plasma Laboratory, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Kosec, Ladislav [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Spaic, Savo [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia)

    2006-12-15

    Improved sample wettability was obtained by oxygen plasma functionalization of pyrolytic graphite. The samples were exposed to highly dissociated oxygen plasma with the density of 1 x 10{sup 16} m{sup -3}, the electron temperature of about 5.5 eV and the density of neutral oxygen atoms of 8 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} for 20 s. The surface wettability was measured by a contact angle of water drop. The contact angle dropped from original 112{sup o} down to about 1{sup o}. The functional groups were detected by XPS analyses. The survey spectrum showed a substantial increase of oxygen concentration on the surface, while high-resolution analyses showed additional oxygen was bonded onto the graphite surface in the form of C-O polar functional group responsible for the increase of the surface energy.

  17. Charged group surface accessibility determines micelleplexes formation and cellular interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Sen, Soumyo; Král, Petr; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The model micelle system was formed from methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) mixed with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-b-oligoarginine (mPEG-PLA-Rx, x = 8 or 15). Surface properties of the micelles were varied by controlling the oligoarginine block length and conjugation density. Micelles were observed to have a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment where the PLA block constituted the hydrophobic core, mPEG and oligoarginine formed a hydrophilic corona. Significantly different thermodynamic behaviors were observed during the interaction of single stranded miRNA with micelles of different surface properties, and the resulting micelleplexes mediated substantial cellular association. Depending upon the oligoarginine length and density, micelles exhibited miRNA loading capacity directly related to the presentation of charged groups on the surface. The effect of charged group accessibility of cationic micelle on micelleplex properties provides guidance on future miRNA delivery system design.Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The

  18. Estudo dos Fatores de Risco Associados a Arteriopatia Periferica em Nipo-brasileiros de Bauru (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Garofolo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: As patologias cardiovasculares são a maior causa de morbimortalidade nos países desenvolvidos e emergentes. Sua principal etiologia, a aterosclerose, é doença disseminada acometendo os territórios coronariano, cerebral e periférico. A doença arterial obstrutiva periférica (DAOP, além de suas consequências per se, sinaliza o acometimento do território coronariano. Portanto, seu melhor conhecimento permite tratamento adequado, retardando complicações locais e à distância, diminuindo o custo para o sistema de saúde. Objetivo: Este estudo estima a porcentagem de DAOP em nipo-brasileiros de Bauru (SP, reconhecidos pela alta prevalência de distúrbios metabólicos, como hipertensão arterial (43%, diabetes melito (33% e hipercolesterolemia (60 %, e analisa a associação com biomarcadores de risco. Métodos: Este estudo transversal populacional avaliou 1.330 nipo-brasileiros de ambos os sexos com idade ≥ 30 anos que foram submetidos a exame físico completo, medidas antropométricas, exames laboratoriais e índice tornozelo-braço (ITB. Participantes com ITB ≤ 0,90 foram diagnosticados como portadores de DAOP. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, 1.038 indivíduos integraram a análise. Empregou-se regressão de Poisson para análise das associações com DAOP. Resultados: A idade média foi 56,8 anos e a porcentagem de DAOP foi 21,1%, igual entre os sexos. DAOP associou-se com tabagismo (RP 2,16 [1,33-3,48] e hipertensão arterial (RP 1,56 [1,12-2,22]. Conclusão: A porcentagem de DAOP nos nipo-brasileiros foi semelhante à de outras populações de perfil cardiometabólico desfavorável (US PARTNERS e POPADAD. A associação independente de DAOP com tabagismo e hipertensão, mas não com outros clássicos fatores de risco, pode depender das frequências muito elevadas dos distúrbios metabólicos nessa população.

  19. Formation of non-magmatic iron-meteorite group IIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation (INAA) data for metal in 22 nonmagmatic IIE meteorites show narrow ranges in Ir and other refractory siderophiles; the Ir range is a factor of 2.6, a factor of ∼2 smaller than in nonmagmatic IAB-MG, and orders of magnitude smaller than in the large magmatic groups. Siderophile data show no evidence of fractional crystallization. IIE irons can be split into two sets, a larger main-set and a set of 6 Cu- (or FeS) rich irons. Elemental concentrations in metal from veins in H5 chondrite Portales Valley fall within the IIE range with the exceptions of Co (high) and Ga (low). H-group-chondrite and Au-normalized IIE abundances for siderophiles show that IIE irons are ∼30% higher than H in refractory siderophiles Re, Ir and W and are about 30% lower than H chondrites in the volatiles Ga and Sb, inconsistent with proposals that IIE irons formed from H chondrites. The IIE fractionations contrast with those in L chondrites which are about 15% lower than H in the three refractory elements and 40% higher than H in volatiles indicating that IIE irons did not form from H chondrites but from a more reduced and siderophile-rich kind of ordinary chondrite ("HH" chondrites). Most O-isotope data support a close relationship between IIE irons and H or HH chondrites; lower Δ17O in primitive (chondritic) silicates support an HH classification. Literature isotopic data for Ru and Mo also show that IIE metal formed from an ordinary chondrite parent; it appears that the silicates and metal were formed by melting of a single asteroid. There is no evidence for radiogenic (26Al) heating; this, the rapid cooling recorded in the sizes of parental gamma crystal in the metal and the absence of fractional crystallization strongly support the hypothesis that IIE melting was the result of impacts. To summarize, the weight of the evidence favors the conclusion that IIE meteorites were formed by one or more impacts on an HH asteroid. The target probably had a

  20. Group Formation and Empowerment: The Case of Brac and Proshika in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study analyses the group formation process followed by Brac and Proshika in Bangladesh. Based upon field observation and interviews, it is apparent that the process of Brac and Proshika’s group formation suffers from internal contradiction in setting group objectives. The NGOs expect the groups to remain principally focused on social and political change, but the group members’ objective is to access credit from NGOs and gain economic benefit. The NGO workers remain almost detached from the process and remain unaware of the real group objectives. This produces a gap between the expectations of the NGOs and the offstage negotiated objectives of the groups. Despite this contradiction, the group approach clearly demonstrates the achievement of some desired empowering effects but not through the desired ways of the NGOs. Paying closer attention to the group formation process will help NGOs achieve their desired objectives better.

  1. Conhecimento dos médicos pediatras e odontopediatras de Bauru e Marília a respeito de flúor Knowledge of pediatric doctors and dentists from Bauru and Marília about fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho foi verificar o conhecimento dos médicos pediatras e odontopediatras, a respeito dos compostos fluoretados. Para tanto, foram visitados 91 médicos pediatras e 72 odontopediatras dos municípios de Bauru e Marília, que ao concordarem em participar da pesquisa receberam um questionário com 22 questões. O preenchimento e a devolução foram imediatos. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva, utilizando freqüências absolutas e relativas, representadas através de tabelas. Mediante a análise dos questionários, verificou-se que alguns polivitamínicos que contêm flúor são usualmente prescritos pelos médicos pediatras, ao passo que os géis, vernizes e soluções para bochecho são bastante empregados pelos odontopediatras. Não foi estabelecida relação entre o conhecimento e tempo de formado, a idade do profissional, a universidade de origem, a cidade em que trabalha e a área de atuação (particular, rede pública ou em ambos desses profissionais. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o conhecimento dos médicos pediatras e odontopediatras, das cidades de Bauru e de Marília, a respeito da presença de flúor em várias fontes de ingestão se mostrou insuficiente e, em algumas situações, preocupante, com relação à prevenção de fluorose dentária.The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of pediatric doctors and dentists, in respect to the use of fluoridated compounds. Ninety-one pediatric doctors and seventy-two pediatric dentists from Bauru and Marília municipalities were visited. After agreeing in participating, they received a questionnaire with 22 questions. They immediately filled and returned the questionnaires. Data obtained were analyzed by descriptive statistics, using absolute and relative frequencies, represented by tables. Some pediatric drugs containing a combination of vitamins and fluoride are usually prescribed by pediatric doctors, while fluoride

  2. Applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Group Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established, evidence-based treatment for children who have experienced trauma, has been increasingly utilized in a group format. Group therapy formats are appealing because they can be highly effective and have the potential to reach larger numbers of clients. Moreover, TF-CBT group delivery may be particularly valuable in reducing the feelings of shame, isolation, and stigma experienced by youth and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. This article reviews the group TF-CBT research, discusses the therapeutic benefits of TF-CBT therapy groups, and provides clinical and logistical guidance for implementing TF-CBT in group format, including a session-by-session protocol. Future directions for research and clinical work in this area are also discussed.

  3. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  4. Basic Science of the Fundamentals and Dynamics of Social-Fringe Group Formation and Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Counseling Psychology Ph ilosophy (3) Mathemancs Human Fact ors (2) Civil Engineering Secondary Political Science (2) Religious St udies ... Mexico , S. Korea). Study of Social Fringe Group Formation Processes: Crystallization vs. Transformation This proposes to use case study analysis to

  5. Networking the seceder model: Group formation in social and economic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Holme, Petter

    2004-09-01

    The seceder model illustrates how the desire to be different from the average can lead to formation of groups in a population. We turn the original, agent based, seceder model into a model of network evolution. We find that the structural characteristics of our model closely match empirical social networks. Statistics for the dynamics of group formation are also given. Extensions of the model to networks of companies are also discussed.

  6. Networking the seceder model: Group formation in social and economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grönlund, A

    2004-01-01

    The seceder model illustrates how the desire to be different than the average can lead to formation of groups in a population. We turn the original, agent based, seceder model into a model of network evolution. We find that the structural characteristics our model closely matches empirical social networks. Statistics for the dynamics of group formation are also given. Extensions of the model to networks of companies are also discussed.

  7. Effect of phosphate activating group on oligonucleotide formation on montmorillonite: the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Cole, T. D.; Ferris, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of amine structure on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine are investigated. 4-Aminopyridine derivatives yielded oligoadenylates as long as dodecamers with a regioselectivity for 3',5'-phosphodiester bond formation averaging 88%. Linear and cyclic oligomers are obtained and no A5'ppA-containing products are detected. Oligomers as long as the hexanucleotide are obtained using 2-aminobenzimidazole as the activating group. A predominance of pA2'pA is detected in the dimer fraction along with cyclic 3',5'-trimer; no A5'ppA-containing oligomers were detected. Little or no oligomer formation was observed when morpholine, piperidine, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and 2-pyridone are used as phosphate-activating groups. The effects of the structure of the phosphate activating group on the oligomer structure and chain lengths are discussed.

  8. Dispersal, group formation and kinship in the black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alexandre T A; Nali, Camila; da Fonseca, Gustavo A B

    2014-01-01

    We report on (i) new group formation, (ii) sex differences in dispersal and (iii) dispersal distance over 6 years for 3 social groups of the black-faced lion tamarin (Leontopithecus caissara) in the vicinity of Ariri, São Paulo state, Brazil. The groups were: Bina (monitored for 74 months), BM5 (52 months) and Teca (13 months). Each group was censused once a week and monitored for 3 days each month. Mating opportunities were found to be the incentive for young adult black-faced lion tamarins to either disperse or remain in their kin group. Young adults show delayed dispersal that is related to the cooperative breeding system characteristic of the Callitrichidae and to a low population density which hinders the formation of new breeding pairs. Our findings suggest that in L. caissara (i) both sexes disperse, (ii) successful immigration is related to breeding opportunities in an existing group, (iii) female immigration motivates male emigration and the formation of new groups, and (iv) emigrants tend to form new groups close to their natal groups. These patterns of dispersal and formation of new groups are efficient because the species has been able to avoid loss of genetic diversity despite their small population size. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Micromorphologic evidence for paleosol development in the Endicott group, Siksikpuk formation, Kingak(?) shale, and Ipewik formation, western Brooks range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; White, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Micromorphologic evidence indicates the presence of paleosols in drill-core samples from four sedimentary units in the Red Dog area, western Brooks Range. Well-developed sepic-plasmic fabrics and siderite spherules occur in claystones of the Upper Devonian through Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate (Endicott Group), the Pennsylvanian through Permian Siksikpuk Formation (Etivluk Group), the Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous Kingak(?) Shale, and the Lower Cretaceous Ipewik Formation. Although exposure surfaces have been previously recognized in the Endicott Group and Kingak Shale on the basis of outcrop features, our study is the first microscopic analysis of paleosols from these units, and it provides the first evidence of subaerial exposure in the Siksikpuk and Ipewik Formations. Regional stratigraphic relations and geochemical data support our interpretations. Paleosols in the Siksikpuk, Kingak, and Ipewik Formations likely formed in nearshore coastal-plain environments, with pore waters subjected to inundation by the updip migration of slightly brackish ground water, whereas paleosols in the Kanayut Conglomerate probably formed in a more distal setting relative to a marine basin.

  10. Capsular polysaccharide of Group B Streptococcus mediates biofilm formation in the presence of human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fan Di; Mallet, Adeline; Caliot, Elise; Gao, Cherry; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an asymptomatic colonizer of human mucosal surfaces that is responsible for sepsis and meningitis in neonates. Bacterial persistence and pathogenesis often involves biofilm formation. We previously showed that biofilm formation in medium supplemented with glucose is mediated by the PI-2a pilus. Here, biofilm formation was tested in cell culture medium supplemented with human plasma. GBS strains were able to form biofilms in these conditions unlike Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of mutants impaired for various surface components revealed that the GBS capsule is a key component in this process.

  11. Condições de saúde bucal e diabetes mellitus na população nipo-brasileira de Bauru-SP Relation between oral health conditions and diabetes mellitus in a japanese population from Bauru-SP-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Emy Tomita

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal foi delineado para estimar a prevalência de diabetes mellitus, intolerância à glicose e condições de saúde bucal na população de origem japonesa, na faixa de 40 a 79 anos de idade, residente no município de Bauru-Brasil. Todos os indivíduos da primeira geração (isseis e uma amostra casualizada de um terço da segunda geração (niseis foram submetidos a entrevista domiciliar, totalizando 530 indivíduos. O exame clínico e teste oral de tolerância à glicose, e exame das condições de saúde bucal, foram realizados no Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Crânio-Faciais - USP. Os dados foram processados através do programa Epi-Info, sendo que 22,9% apresentaram ocorrência de diabetes mellitus (grupo I, 15,1% tolerância à glicose diminuída (grupo II e 61,9% foram considerados normoglicêmicos (grupo III. O percentual de indivíduos desdentados totais foi de 45,9% para a amostra e valores de 58,4%, 46,7% e 41,2% foram verificados para os grupos I, II e III, respectivamente. Entre os indivíduos edêntulos, nenhum apresentava necessidade de confecção de prótese total, em contraposição aos dados encontrados para a população brasileira em levantamento realizado pelo Ministério da Saúde (1986, cuja necessidade era da ordem de 8,3% na faixa etária de 35 a 59 anos. Pôde-se concluir que o edentulismo apresenta associação significante com a ocorrência de diabetes mellitus, porém não com a intolerância à glicose.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the oral health condition in a Japanese population aged 40 to 79, in Bauru, Brazil as well as its association with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance. It involved 530 subjects, from both sexes. All persons of first generation (Issei and a random sample of one third of second generation (Nisei were submitted to a home interview. A clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test, and examination of

  12. Exploring Teacher Beliefs and Use of Acceleration, Ability Grouping, and Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, Tracy C.; Brunner, Marguerite M.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Moon, Tonya R.; Azano, Amy Price

    2014-01-01

    Few academic interventions for gifted students have generated more empirical support than acceleration and ability grouping, and formative assessment is advocated as a tool that educators can use to appropriately integrate accelerative practices and ability grouping into the classroom. However, the empirical support for accelerative practices,…

  13. A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Group Formation in Collaborative Learning Considering Multiple Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian; Ovalle, Demetrio A.; Vicari, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Considering that group formation is one of the key processes in collaborative learning, the aim of this paper is to propose a method based on a genetic algorithm approach for achieving inter-homogeneous and intra-heterogeneous groups. The main feature of such a method is that it allows for the consideration of as many student characteristics as…

  14. A Genetic Algorithm Approach for Group Formation in Collaborative Learning Considering Multiple Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian; Ovalle, Demetrio A.; Vicari, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Considering that group formation is one of the key processes in collaborative learning, the aim of this paper is to propose a method based on a genetic algorithm approach for achieving inter-homogeneous and intra-heterogeneous groups. The main feature of such a method is that it allows for the consideration of as many student characteristics as…

  15. Group Enrollment and Open Gym Format Decreases Cardiac Rehabilitation Wait Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Justin M; Klint, Zachary W; Jagoda, Allison M; McNatt, Jeremy K; Abney, Lesa R; Huang, Shi; Liddle, David G; Frontera, Walter R; Freiberg, Matthew S

    2017-09-01

    Wait times for the first cardiac rehabilitation (CR) session are inversely related to CR participation rates. We hypothesized that changing from individually scheduled appointments to a group enrollment and open gym format, in which patients were enrolled during group intake sessions and could arrive for subsequent CR sessions any time during open gym periods, would decrease wait times. A total of 603 patients enrolled in CR at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from July 2012 to December 2014 were included in the study. We evaluated the effect of changing to a group enrollment and open gym format after adjusting for referral diagnosis, insurance status, seasonality, and other factors. We compared outcomes, including exercise capacity and quality of life, between the 2 groups. Patients in the group enrollment and open gym format had significantly lower average wait times than those receiving individual appointments (14.9 vs 19.5 days, P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, the new CR delivery model was associated with a 22% (3.7 days) decrease in average wait times (95% CI, 1.9-5.6, P < .001). Patients completing CR had equally beneficial changes in 6-minute walk distance and Patient Health Questionnaire scores between the 2 groups, although there was no significant difference in participation rates or the number of sessions attended. Implementation of a group enrollment and open gym format was associated with a significant decrease in wait times for first CR sessions. This CR delivery model may be an option for programs seeking to decrease wait times.

  16. Experimental and Kinetic Investigation of the Influence of OH Groups on NOX Formation

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2016-05-04

    This work investigates the influence of one or more OH groups present on the fuel molecule and the resultant formation of NOX emissions. Combustion of oxygenated fuels has been increasing globally and such fuels offer significant potential in the reduction of pollutant emissions. One such emission class is the oxides of nitrogen, which typically form through a combination of two regimes: the thermal and non-thermal mechanisms. While thermal NO formation can be reduced by lowering the combustion temperature, non-thermal NO formation is coupled to the fuel chemistry. An experimental and computational investigation of NOX formation in three different burner configurations and under a range of equivalence ratios and temperature regimes explored the differences in NO formation. Measurements of temperature profiles and in-flame species concentrations, utilizing both probed and non-intrusive laser based techniques, allowed for the investigation of NO formation through non-thermal pathways and the differences that exist between fuels with varying numbers of OH groups. The first burner configuration was composed of a high swirl liquid spray burner with insulted combustion chamber walls designed specifically for the combustion of low energy density fuels. In this system the combustion of alcohols and glycerol (the largest by-product of biodiesel production), along with other fuels with multiple hydroxyl groups, was studied. Measurements of the mean flame temperature and exhaust gas measurements of NOX showed significant reductions in non-thermal NO concentrations with increasing numbers of OH groups. An accompanying modeling study and detailed reaction path analysis showed that fuel decomposition pathways through formaldehyde were shown a preference due to the presence of the OH groups which resulted in reduced contributions to the hydrocarbon radical pools subsequent reductions to the Prompt NO mechanism. Two burner configurations with reduced dimensionality facilitated

  17. Morphological Composition of z~0.4 groups: The site of S0 formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilman, D J; Mulchaey, J S; McGee, S L; Balogh, M L; Bower, R G

    2008-01-01

    The low redshift Universe (z99.999% confidence. Indeed the S0 fraction in groups is at least as high as in z~0.4 clusters and X-ray selected groups, which have more luminous Intra Group Medium (IGM). An 97% confident excess of S0s at >=0.3Mpc from the group centre at fixed luminosity, tells us that formation is not restricted to, and possibly even avoids, the group cores. Interactions with a bright X-ray emitting IGM cannot be important for the formation of the majority of S0s in the Universe. In contrast to S0s, the fraction of elliptical galaxies in groups at fixed luminosity is similar to the field, whilst the brightest ellipticals are strongly enhanced towards the group centres (>99.999% confidence within 0.3Mpc). We conclude that the group and sub-group environments must be dominant for the formation of S0 galaxies, and that minor mergers, galaxy harassment and tidal interactions are the most likely responsible mechanisms. This has implications not only for the inferred pre-processing of cluster galaxies...

  18. Formation of five- and seven-membered rings enabled by the triisopropylsilyl auxiliary group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, Dmitry L; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    A highly convenient synthetic pathway to 2-indanones from aldehydes was established. The introduction of a triisopropylsilyl group greatly facilitated Meinwald rearrangement of the intermediate epoxides and alleviated the necessity of polysubstitution for the clean formation of indenes and cyclopentadienes via cyclodehydration of allylic alcohols; unprecedented freedom with respect to the product structure was thus achieved. The developed methodology could also be applicable to the formation of seven-membered rings leading to dibenzo[7]annulenes and dibenzosuberones.

  19. Do I Know You? How Individual Recognition Affects Group Formation and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Groups in nature can be formed by interactions between individuals, or by external pressures like predation. It is reasonable to assume that groups formed by internal and external conditions have different dynamics and structures. We propose a computational model to investigate the effects of individual recognition on the formation and structure of animal groups. Our model is composed of agents that can recognize each other and remember previous interactions, without any external pressures, in order to isolate the effects of individual recognition. We show that individual recognition affects the number and size of groups, and the modularity of the social networks. This model can be used as a null model to investigate the effects of external factors on group formation and persistence. PMID:28125708

  20. Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and the Star Formation Law at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, N Yu

    2000-01-01

    I show how the existing observational data on Local Group dwarf galaxies can be used to estimate the average star formation law during the first 3 Gyr of the history of the universe. I find that the observational data are consistent with the orthodox Schmidt law with a star formation efficiency of about 4 percent if the star formation is continuous (during the first 3 Gyr). The efficiency is proportionally higher if most of the gas in the dwarfs was consumed (and never replenished) in a short time interval well before the universe turned 3 Gyr.

  1. A formation scenario of young stellar groups in the region of the Scorpio Centaurus OB association

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, V G; De la Reza, R; Bazzanella, B

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the role played by Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC) and Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL), both subcomponents of the Scorpio Centaurus OB association (Sco-Cen), in the formation of the groups beta Pictoris, TW Hydrae and the eta Chamaeleontis cluster. The dynamical evolution of all the stellar groups involved and of the bubbles and shells blown by LCC and UCL are calculated and followed from the past to the present. This leads to a formation scenario in which (1) the groups beta Pictoris, TW Hydrae were formed in the wake of the shells created by LCC and UCL, (2) the young cluster eta Chamaeleontis was born as a consequence of the collision of the shells of LCC and UCL, and (3) the formation of Upper Scorpius (US), the other main subcomponent of the Sco-Cen association, may have been started by the same process that created eta Chamaeleontis.

  2. Illusory correlation and group impression formation in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, S A

    2000-07-01

    This study investigated whether a greater illusory correlation bias is present in older adults' memory and evaluative judgment for majority and minority social groups and, if so, whether this bias might be due to an age-related decline in the ability to engage in on-line processing of group-trait information. Young and older adults read desirable and undesirable trait adjectives about the members of 2 groups under either no-distraction or distraction conditions. Group A had twice as many members as Group B and, for both groups, desirable traits occurred twice as often as undesirable traits. Afterwards, participants completed group-trait memory and evaluative judgment tasks. Greater illusory correlation in memory and evaluative judgment after distraction suggested that diverting resources to competing tasks produced deficits in both memory for specific group-trait information and on-line group impression formation. Older adults' memory for specific group-trait information was disrupted more by distraction than was young adults' memory. However, there were no age differences in evaluative judgment after either distraction condition, suggesting that on-line impression formation activities remain intact in old age. These findings are interpreted within the framework of fuzzy trace theory.

  3. The anatomy of the NGC 5044 group -- II. Stellar populations and star-formation histories

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, J Trevor; Rasmussen, Jesper; Brough, Sarah; Forbes, Duncan A

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of galaxy properties in groups and clusters holds important information on galaxy evolution and growth of structure in the Universe. While clusters have received appreciable attention in this regard, the role of groups as fundamental to formation of the present day galaxy population has remained relatively unaddressed. Here we present stellar ages, metallicities and alpha-element abundances derived using Lick indices for 67 spectroscopically confirmed members of the NGC 5044 galaxy group with the aim of shedding light on galaxy evolution in the context of the group environment. We find that galaxies in the NGC 5044 group show evidence for a strong relationship between stellar mass and metallicity, consistent with their counterparts in both higher and lower mass groups and clusters. Galaxies show no clear trend of age or alpha-element abundance with mass, but these data form a tight sequence when fit simultaneously in age, metallicity and stellar mass. In the context of the group environment, ...

  4. You want to give a good impression? Be honest! Moral traits dominate group impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Sacchi, Simona; Rusconi, Patrice; Cherubini, Paolo; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that warmth and competence are core dimensions on which perceivers judge others and that warmth has a primary role at various phases of impression formation. Three studies explored whether the two components of warmth (i.e., sociability and morality) have distinct roles in predicting the global impression of social groups. In Study 1 (N= 105) and Study 2 (N= 112), participants read an immigration scenario depicting an unfamiliar social group in terms of high (vs. low) morality, sociability, and competence. In both studies, participants were asked to report their global impression of the group. Results showed that global evaluations were better predicted by morality than by sociability or competence-trait ascriptions. Study 3 (N= 86) further showed that the effect of moral traits on group global evaluations was mediated by the perception of threat. The importance of these findings for the impression-formation process is discussed.

  5. A functional group oxidation model (FGOM for SOA formation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from a volatile organic compound (VOC involves multiple generations of oxidation that include functionalization and fragmentation of the parent carbon backbone and likely particle-phase oxidation and/or accretion reactions. Despite the typical complexity of the detailed molecular mechanism of SOA formation and aging, a relatively small number of functional groups characterize the oxidized molecules that constitute SOA. Given the carbon number and set of functional groups, the volatility of the molecule can be estimated. We present here a functional group oxidation model (FGOM that represents the process of SOA formation and aging. The FGOM contains a set of parameters that are to be determined by fitting of the model to laboratory chamber data: total organic aerosol concentration, and O : C and H : C atomic ratios. The sensitivity of the model prediction to variation of the adjustable parameters allows one to assess the relative importance of various pathways involved in SOA formation. An analysis of SOA formation from the high- and low-NOx photooxidation of four C12 alkanes (n-dodecane, 2-methylundecane, hexylcyclohexane, and cyclododecane using the FGOM is presented, and comparison with the statistical oxidation model (SOM of Cappa et al. (2013 is discussed.

  6. A Functional Group Oxidation Model (FGOM for SOA formation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from a volatile organic compound (VOC involves multiple generations of oxidation that include functionalization and fragmentation of the parent carbon backbone and, likely, particle-phase oxidation and/or accretion reactions. Despite the typical complexity of the detailed molecular mechanism of SOA formation and aging, a relatively small number of functional groups characterize the oxidized molecules that constitute SOA. Given the carbon number and set of functional groups, the volatility of the molecule can be estimated. We present here a Functional Group Oxidation Model (FGOM that represents the process of SOA formation and aging. The FGOM contains a set of parameters that are to be determined by fitting of the model to laboratory chamber data: total organic aerosol concentration, and O:C and H:C atomic ratios. The sensitivity of the model prediction to variation of the adjustable parameters allows one to assess the relative importance of various pathways involved in SOA formation. An analysis of SOA formation from the high- and low-NOx photooxidation of four C12 alkanes (n-dodecane, 2-methylundecane, hexylcyclohexane, and cyclododecane using the FGOM is presented, and comparison with the Statistical Oxidation Model (SOM of Cappa et al. (2012 is discussed.

  7. Estimation of Formation Enthalpies of Organic Pollutants from a New Structural Group Contribution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Bagheri; Afshin Bakhtiari; Masoume Jaberi

    2013-01-01

    Chemical stability and reactivity of organic pollutants is dependent to their formation enthalpies.The main objective of this study is to provide simple straightforward strategy for prediction of the formation enthalpies of wide range organic pollutants only from their structural functional groups.Using such an extended dataset comprising 1694 organic chemicals from 77 diverse material classes benefits the generalizability and reliability of the study.The new suggested collection of 12 functional groups and a simple linear regression lead to promising statistics of R2=0.958,Q2Loo =0.956,and δAEE=57 kJ·mol-1 for the whole dataset.Moreover,unknown experimental formation enthalpies for 27 organic pollutants are estimated by the presented approach.The resultant model needs no technical software/calculations,and thus can be easily applied by a non-specialist user.

  8. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  9. Effect of Peer Evaluation Format on Student Engagement in a Group Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Active participation in classrooms often involves group work. In order to examine the effect of using peer evaluations as part of that experience, this study measured the influence of four formats of peer evaluation on students' perceptions of fairness of the peer evaluation method, its impact on peer engagement, and peer evaluation scores. The…

  10. Study on the Formation Mechanism of Oxygen-containing Groups on the Surfaces of Hypercrosslinked Polystyrenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Hua MENG; Ai Min LI; Lin WU; Fu Qiang LIU; Quan Xing ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The synthetic parameters were changed to explore the formation mechanism of the oxygen-containing groups on the surfaces of the hypercrosslinked polymers. The FT-IR spectra and the Boehm titration were used to characterize the surface chemistry of the synthesized polymers. The GC-MS was applied to analyze nitrobenzene which was the solvent in the reaction.The functionalities such as carbonyls and phenols were formed through the oxidation of residual chloromethyl groups by nitrobenzene and the carboxylic groups were formed through further oxidation by oxygen. The nitrobenzene was deoxidized to nitrosobenzene and further to aniline.

  11. The formation of objects in the group matrix: Reflections on creative therapy with clay

    OpenAIRE

    Winship, G.; Haigh, R

    1998-01-01

    In this article describes an experimental group experience where five people worked in silence for 20 minutes around a 2 ft square slate using clay as a medium for communication as part of a creative therapy session on an inpatient psychiatric ward. The interaction culminated in a group sculpt. It is suggested that the process of the sculpting may throw some light on the formation of objects in the unconscious group matrix. The article is intended as a contribution towards the debate about th...

  12. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkic, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Cardiff, Ann H.; Durell, Pat R.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 m photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 m photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-red), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-blue) have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M yr1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  13. F-formation detection: individuating free-standing conversational groups in images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Setti

    Full Text Available Detection of groups of interacting people is a very interesting and useful task in many modern technologies, with application fields spanning from video-surveillance to social robotics. In this paper we first furnish a rigorous definition of group considering the background of the social sciences: this allows us to specify many kinds of group, so far neglected in the Computer Vision literature. On top of this taxonomy we present a detailed state of the art on the group detection algorithms. Then, as a main contribution, we present a brand new method for the automatic detection of groups in still images, which is based on a graph-cuts framework for clustering individuals; in particular, we are able to codify in a computational sense the sociological definition of F-formation, that is very useful to encode a group having only proxemic information: position and orientation of people. We call the proposed method Graph-Cuts for F-formation (GCFF. We show how GCFF definitely outperforms all the state of the art methods in terms of different accuracy measures (some of them are brand new, demonstrating also a strong robustness to noise and versatility in recognizing groups of various cardinality.

  14. F-formation detection: individuating free-standing conversational groups in images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Francesco; Russell, Chris; Bassetti, Chiara; Cristani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Detection of groups of interacting people is a very interesting and useful task in many modern technologies, with application fields spanning from video-surveillance to social robotics. In this paper we first furnish a rigorous definition of group considering the background of the social sciences: this allows us to specify many kinds of group, so far neglected in the Computer Vision literature. On top of this taxonomy we present a detailed state of the art on the group detection algorithms. Then, as a main contribution, we present a brand new method for the automatic detection of groups in still images, which is based on a graph-cuts framework for clustering individuals; in particular, we are able to codify in a computational sense the sociological definition of F-formation, that is very useful to encode a group having only proxemic information: position and orientation of people. We call the proposed method Graph-Cuts for F-formation (GCFF). We show how GCFF definitely outperforms all the state of the art methods in terms of different accuracy measures (some of them are brand new), demonstrating also a strong robustness to noise and versatility in recognizing groups of various cardinality.

  15. Formation of Amine Groups on the Surface of GaN: A Method for Direct Biofunctionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the formation of surface sensitive GaN /AlGaN two- dimensional electron gas HEMT devices [5–14]. Furthermore, GaN is robust in aqueous solutions [15...variations are particularly detrimental to GaN HEMT sensors, as they are highly sensitive to the separation between the target and the device surface. Because...locate /apsuscFormation of amine groups on the surface of GaN : A method for direct biofunctionalization R. Stine, B.S. Simpkins, S.P. Mulvaney, L.J

  16. Heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público em Bauru, SP, Brasil External control over the fluoridation of the public water supply in Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ramires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a fluoretação da água de abastecimento público, comparando os resultados obtidos com dados prévios de fluoretação. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de março de 2004 a 2005, na cidade de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo. Mensalmente, em datas estabelecidas por sorteio, foram coletadas 60 amostras de água nos 19 setores de abastecimento, totalizando 737 amostras. A concentração de flúor presente nas amostras de água foi determinada em duplicata, utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609, acoplado ao potenciômetro. Uma vez analisadas, as amostras foram classificadas como aceitáveis ou inaceitáveis de acordo com a concentração de flúor. A análise estatística empregada foi do tipo descritiva. RESULTADOS: A concentração média de flúor observada nos diferentes meses de coleta variou entre 0,37 e 1,00 mg/l. Cerca de 85% das amostras foram classificadas como aceitáveis. CONCLUSÕES: Comparados com dados de estudos prévios realizados na cidade, foi observada uma melhoria nas condições de fluoretação da água de abastecimento, um ano após a implantação do heterocontrole. A implantação do monitoramento da fluoretação da água de abastecimento por sistemas de vigilância deve ser incentivada, sendo fundamental para o controle da cárie dentária.OBJECTIVE: To assess the fluoridation of the public water supply and compare these results with previous data. METHODS: The study was carried out from March 2004-2005 in Bauru, a city of Southeastern Brazil. Every month, on dates established randomly, 60 water samples were collected from the 19 supply sectors of the city, totaling 737 samples. The fluoride concentration in the water samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion-specific electrode (Orion 9609 coupled to a potentiometer. Following analysis, the samples were classified as acceptable or unacceptable according to their fluoride concentration. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized

  17. Modern WTO coalitions and groups in the formation of the global trade policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Tsyhankova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It reveals the nature of the concepts «coalition» and «informal group» in the framework of the international economic organizations, realizes their comparative analysis and classifies the coalitions based on the circle of the covered activity directions, on the belonging to the regional integration groups, similarity of the level of development and type of unification structure. There has been observed an evolution of the coalition movement in the framework of the World Trade Organization, researched the modern influence mechanism of coalitions and informal groups on the processes of formation of the global trade policy alongside its definition. There were formulated positive aspects of Ukraine’s participation in the WTO coalitions and groups and characterized potential cooperation groups.

  18. The formation of young athletes’ specialization on the example of rhythmic gymnastics group exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvash I.S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to substantiate the approach to the formation of specializations gymnasts in the initial stages and preliminary basic training. On this basis, to develop the technology selection, orientation and training of athletes in rhythmic gymnastics group exercises. Material : an expert survey of 46 coaches and judges of Ukraine calisthenics different skills training for gymnasts to group exercise. The study involved 50 athletes who are at the initial stages and preliminary basic training. Results : the necessity of forming specialization. Presented educational technology selection, orientation and training gymnasts in group calisthenics exercises. Investigated the components and benefits of the proposed technology. Systematized criteria for selecting gymnasts to group exercise. Conclusions: experimentally proven technology selection, orientation and training of athletes in the group exercise. The main results of the study have been practically implemented in the training process of training young athletes.

  19. From Miao to Miaozu- Alterity in the Formation of Modern Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the Miao ethnic group has been known for its long and tragic history. This image, however, was formed only during the modern era. Using a historiographical approach, this paper reviews and analyzes the process through which the Chinese Miaoemerged as a modern ethnic group. Specifically, it focuses on the transition from Miao as a blanket term for non-Han ethnic groups in southern China during the pre-modern period to Miaozu as a modern ethnic group, originally constructed in the context of theemergence of Chinese nationalism at the beginning of the 20th century in the context of the domineering Other of Han culture and eventuating in the official recognition of fifty-six minority nationalities (shaoshu minzu in the 1950s. Based on this study, thispaper then goes on to a theoretical discussion on the question of alterity in the formation of ethnic groups.

  20. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Lenkic, Laura; Gallagher, Sarah; Desjardins, Tyler; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann; Durrell, Pat; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended timescales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by \\citet{tzanavaris10} and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFR$_{\\mathrm{UV}}$) using the UVOT uvw2photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFR$_{\\mathrm{IR}}$). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-"red"), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific star formation rates, and tend to lie in H~{\\sc i}-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-"blue") have redder ...

  1. Prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of interdisciplinary student aging interest groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine J; Vandenberg, Edward V; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and posttest of attitudes toward interdisciplinary education and knowledge about aging. Twenty-nine of 32 responding institutions funded by the Reynolds Foundation conducted a group; only medical students participated in one half of these groups. Panel presentations were the most prevalent group activity. Evaluation of their group revealed that an interprofessional service learning experience had the greatest impact on student perceptions of the educational preparation and competency of other disciplines. At posttest, medical students in their group had significantly less positive perceptions of actual cooperation between disciplines than did physical therapy or pharmacy students. Aging interest groups conducted by institutions funded by the Reynolds Foundation did not have a high level of interdisciplinary participation. Intermittent exposure to other disciplines during a small number of group activities may be insufficient to overcome "disciplinary split" and achieve interprofessional team orientation without changes in the structure of medical education.

  2. Characterization of the lower boundary layer based on Sodar observations (2010-2013) in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Gerhard; Cruz, Felipe

    2014-05-01

    Continuous Sodar observations from Bauru, located in the central State of São Paulo, are presented in this paper for a 4-year period (January 2010 - December 2013). The data were collected at the Meteorological Research Institute (IPMet) of the Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP), Campus Bauru, which is situated at the southeastern outskirts of the town, in a pristine environment with mostly indigenous vegetation. The medium-sized Sodar was programmed to record 60-minute averages of the vertical wind profiles (u, v, w) between 30 and 800 m above ground level (AGL, station height 624 m above mean sea level) at 30-minute intervals with a vertical resolution of 10 m. The data recovery was almost 100% in the first 160 m, subsequently diminishing gradually to 50% at 370 m, 20% at 500 m and then tailing off to only 1% at 800 m AGL. Since the Sodar is an acoustic sensor, the reception of the backscattered signals is strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. The maximum height of 800 m was maintained, despite the low recovery rate, because it is important for individual case studies. However, mean wind roses will only be presented up to 500 m AGL, to avoid a possible bias in sampling wind directions. In this paper wind roses at selected heights are presented to document the variation of the wind direction and speed with height, as well as their seasonal variation. Besides the standard primary data of the 3 wind components, the scalar hourly mean wind speed and the mean vector direction, the Sodar also generates their standard deviations. Furthermore, a variety of derived parameters, such as shear, shear direction, sigma speed, sigma Phi, sigma Theta, turbulence intensity, Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability class, turbulent kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rate are generated as hourly means at each height level and recorded as sliding means every 30 min. The Software also offers the facility to generate a separate daily file with so

  3. Contribution of methyl group to secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Qi, Li; Cocker, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The complete atmospheric oxidation pathways leading to secondary organic aerosol remain elusive for aromatic compounds including the role of methyl substitutes on oxidation. This study investigates the contribution of methyl group to Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation during the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons under low NOx condition by applying methyl carbon labeled aromatic hydrocarbons ((13C2) m-xylene and (13C2) p-xylene). Particle and gas phase oxidation products are analyzed by a series of mass spectrometers (HR-TOF-AMS, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS). The methyl group carbon containing oxidation products partition to the particle-phase at a lower rate than the carbons originating from the aromatic ring as a result of ring opening reactions. Further, the methyl carbon in the original aromatic structure is at least 7 times less likely to be oxidized when forming products that partition to SOA than the aromatic ring carbon. Therefore, oxidation of the methyl group in xylenes exerts little impact on SOA formation in current study. This study provides supporting evidence for a recent finding - a similarity in the SOA formation and composition from aromatic hydrocarbons regardless of the alkyl substitutes.

  4. The ultraviolet and infrared star formation rates of compact group galaxies: an expanded sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkić, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Durrell, Pat R.; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-07-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 μm photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 μm photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-`red'), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-`blue') have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M⊙ yr-1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  5. The anatomy of the NGC5044 group - II. Stellar populations and star formation histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. Trevor; Proctor, Robert N.; Rasmussen, Jesper; Brough, Sarah; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2009-07-01

    The distribution of galaxy properties in groups and clusters holds important information on galaxy evolution and growth of structure in the Universe. While clusters have received appreciable attention in this regard, the role of groups as fundamental to formation of the present-day galaxy population has remained relatively unaddressed. Here, we present stellar ages, metallicities and α-element abundances derived using Lick indices for 67 spectroscopically confirmed members of the NGC5044 galaxy group with the aim of shedding light on galaxy evolution in the context of the group environment. We find that galaxies in the NGC5044 group show evidence for a strong relationship between stellar mass and metallicity, consistent with their counterparts in both higher and lower mass groups and clusters. Galaxies show no clear trend of age or α-element abundance with mass, but these data form a tight sequence when fitted simultaneously in age, metallicity and stellar mass. In the context of the group environment, our data support the tidal disruption of low-mass galaxies at small group-centric radii, as evident from an apparent lack of galaxies below ~109Msolar within ~100kpc of the brightest group galaxy. Using a joint analysis of absorption- and emission-line metallicities, we are able to show that the star-forming galaxy population in the NGC5044 group appears to require gas removal to explain the ~1.5dex offset between absorption- and emission-line metallicities observed in some cases. A comparison with other stellar population properties suggests that this gas removal is dominated by galaxy interactions with the hot intragroup medium.

  6. Origin and evolution of palaeokarst within the Lower Ordovician (Ibexian) Goodwin Formation (Pogonip Group)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; J.; Kervin; Adam; D.; Woods

    2012-01-01

    Palaeokarst within the Lower to Middle Ordovician Goodwin Formation, Pogonip Group (upper Ibexian-lower Whiterockian) was examined in detail at Meiklejohn Peak, Nevada USA in order to determine its origin, evolution, and relationship to sea level change. Detailed outcrop and petrographic examination of dolostone breccias and host rock reveals that palaeokarst was formed and affected by two distinct cycles of sea level change. A relative transgression resulted in deposition of lagoonal, ooid shoal, and shallow subtidal facies as sea level rose. Exposure of the carbonate platform led to the formation of multiple phreatic caves below the water table, as well as the development of numerous vadose conduits from the downward percolation of meteoric waters. Vadose water flow through early cave-wall and cave-roof collapse breccias resulted in rounding of smaller breccias clasts via physical transport and corrosion, while subsidence of subsurface karst led to the formation of a palaeodoline at the exposure surface. A second relative transgression deposited lagoonal sediments over the older karst; subsequent re-exposure of the carbonate platform resulted in the development of small breccia pockets as well as grikes within the youngest lagoonal sediments, and may have led to further corrosion of the older, deeper subsurface karst. The distal location of the study area within the carbonate platform suggests karst formation was the result of a substantial drop in relative sea level; the presence of multiple generations of palaeokarst imply that at least two higher-frequency cycles of sea-level change overprint the larger regression.

  7. Side-group size effects on interfaces and glass formation in supported polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Song, Jake; Hsu, David D.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies on glass-forming polymers near interfaces have emphasized the importance of molecular features such as chain stiffness, side-groups, molecular packing, and associated changes in fragility as key factors that govern the magnitude of Tg changes with respect to the bulk in polymer thin films. However, how such molecular features are coupled with substrate and free surface effects on Tg in thin films remains to be fully understood. Here, we employ a chemically specific coarse-grained polymer model for methacrylates to investigate the role of side-group volume on glass formation in bulk polymers and supported thin films. Our results show that bulkier side-groups lead to higher bulk Tg and fragility and are associated with a pronounced free surface effect on overall Tg depression. By probing local Tg within the films, however, we find that the polymers with bulkier side-groups experience a reduced confinement-induced increase in local Tg near a strongly interacting substrate. Further analyses indicate that this is due to the packing frustration of chains near the substrate interface, which lowers the attractive interactions with the substrate and thus lessens the surface-induced reduction in segmental mobility. Our results reveal that the size of the polymer side-group may be a design element that controls the confinement effects induced by the free surface and substrates in supported polymer thin films. Our analyses provide new insights into the factors governing polymer dynamics in bulk and confined environments.

  8. Interaction of hydrogen with ZnO nanopowders--evidence of hydroxyl group formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kester W J; Field, Matthew R; Ou, Jian Zhen; Latham, Kay; Spencer, Michelle J S; Yarovsky, Irene; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2012-01-13

    There have been many investigations to reveal the nature of the hydrogen gas and ZnO nanopowder interaction at elevated temperatures, while at present no conclusive description of such an interaction has been confidently reported. In this work, we demonstrate that a hydroxyl group is formed during this interaction, depending on size and relative crystallinity of nanopowders. Our in situ Raman spectroscopy investigations show that the interaction directly affects the intensity of the Raman signal at 483 cm(-1), relative to the peak at 519 cm(-1). Ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy also show extra peaks at 44° and 1618 cm(-1), respectively, after hydrogenation. These peaks were all identified as surface hydroxyl groups, which can be related to the formation of water on the ZnO nanopowder surfaces.

  9. Macro e micromorfologia de ferricretes nodulares desenvolvidos de arenito do grupo Bauru, formação Adamantina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Coelho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas paisagens do norte do estado de São Paulo, sob domínio do Planalto Ocidental, ferricretes ocorrem em diferentes níveis topográficos e, apesar de pouco documentados, constituem feições que se repetem com freqüência sobre os arenitos cretácicos do Grupo Bauru, Formação Adamantina. Realizou-se um estudo morfológico, em diferentes escalas de observação, a fim de elucidar a gênese desses ferricretes (plintita e petroplintita encontrados no terço inferior de uma vertente dominada por solos com B textural. A área estudada localiza-se na Estação Experimental de Agronomia de Pindorama, do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, região norte do estado de São Paulo. Dois perfis foram selecionados para a descrição morfológica detalhada e para as observações micromorfológicas com lupa binocular e microscópio petrográfico. As evidências macro e micromorfológicas dos ferricretes revelam uma origem associada à lixiviação do ferro ferroso a montante da paisagem e reprecipitação na zona de vadosa. Esses ferricretes apresentaram diferentes fábricas internas, a maioria dos quais com estruturas de degradação, evidenciando o desmantelamento atual da couraça. As diferenças nas fábricas internas estão relacionadas com a distribuição do esqueleto e do plasma: alguns apresentam esqueleto bem selecionado, com predominância de areia muito fina, enquanto em outros predomina a areia média; outros, ainda, mostram esqueleto pouco selecionado, assemelhando-se ao fundo matricial interglebular; a maioria mostra alguns volumes ocupados apenas por plasma. Demonstra-se que fatores pedo-lito-biológicos estão envolvidos nessa diversidade entre ferricretes de um mesmo horizonte, formando in situ glébulas tão distintas em suas fábricas, que podem ser erroneamente interpretadas como provenientes de diferentes locais da paisagem, transportadas e depositadas nas baixas encostas durante a gênese dos ferricretes.

  10. Star formation history and evolution of gas-rich dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M; Pritzl, B J; Knezek, P M; Gallagher, J S; Minchin, R F; Freeman, K C

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the properties of three unusual dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group discovered with the HIPASS survey. From their optical morphology they appear to be low surface brightness dwarf spheroidals, yet they are gas-rich (M_{HI}/L_{B} > 1) with gas-mass-to-stellar light ratios larger than typical dwarf irregular galaxies. Therefore these systems appear different from any dwarfs of the Local Group. They should be favoured hosts for starburst, whereas we find a faint star formation region in only one object. We have obtained 21-cm data and Hubble Space Telescope photometry in V and I bands, and have constructed Colour Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) to investigate their stellar populations and to set a constraint on their age. From the comparison of the observed and model CMDs we infer that all three galaxies are at least older than 2 Gyr (possibly even as old as 10 Gyr) and remain gas-rich because their star formation rates (SFRs) have been very low (< 10^{-3} M_{sun}/yr) throughout. In such systems, sta...

  11. QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GROUPS: CENTRALS, SATELLITES, AND GALACTIC CONFORMITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobel, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Woo, Joanna; Kovač, Katarina, E-mail: christian.knobel@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-10

    We re-examine the fraction of low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey satellites and centrals in which star formation has been quenched, using the environment quenching efficiency formalism that separates out the dependence of stellar mass. We show that the centrals of the groups containing the satellites are responding to the environment in the same way as their satellites (at least for stellar masses above 10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}), and that the well-known differences between satellites and the general set of centrals arise because the latter are overwhelmingly dominated by isolated galaxies. The widespread concept of ''satellite quenching'' as the cause of environmental effects in the galaxy population can therefore be generalized to ''group quenching''. We then explore the dependence of the quenching efficiency of satellites on overdensity, group-centric distance, halo mass, the stellar mass of the satellite, and the stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of its central, trying to isolate the effect of these often interdependent variables. We emphasize the importance of the central sSFR in the quenching efficiency of the associated satellites, and develop the meaning of this ''galactic conformity'' effect in a probabilistic description of the quenching of galaxies. We show that conformity is strong, and that it varies strongly across parameter space. Several arguments then suggest that environmental quenching and mass quenching may be different manifestations of the same underlying process. The marked difference in the apparent mass dependencies of environment quenching and mass quenching which produces distinctive signatures in the mass functions of centrals and satellites will arise naturally, since, for satellites at least, the distributions of the environmental variables that we investigate in this work are essentially independent of the stellar mass of the satellite.

  12. Influence of Reprocessing in the formation of functional groups during low density polyethylene aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Selonke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in polymer recycling has increased. However, in every reprocessing step the material undergoes shear stress and is affected by temperature and oxygen. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of multiple extrusion in the generation of functional groups, namely hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and transvinylene. Low density polyethylene was reprocessed three times in a single screw extruder. In each recycling step hot pressed films were prepared. These films were submitted to a heat treatment in an oven with air circulation and renovation to proceed with aging tests at different times and temperatures. The results obtained showed that all functional groups had their concentration increased with the increase in number of reprocessing, the aging time and temperature of the heat treatment. The factorial design was applied to verify the influence of these parameters. All the parameters had significant effects, since their regression coefficients had the same order of magnitude, with the most influential parameter being the aging temperature, followed by the aging time and number of extrusions. Most of the interactions were influential, indicating that the formation of functional groups depends upon their interaction, and not only on their isolated effects.

  13. Star formation quenching in simulated group and cluster galaxies: When, how, and why?

    CERN Document Server

    Bahe, Yannick M

    2014-01-01

    Star formation is observed to be suppressed in group and cluster galaxies compared to the field. To gain insight into the quenching process, we have analysed ~2000 galaxies formed in the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The time of quenching varies from ~2 Gyr before accretion (first crossing of r200,c) to >4 Gyr after, depending on satellite and host mass. Once begun, quenching is rapid (>~ 500 Myr) in low-mass galaxies (M* < 10^10 M_Sun), but significantly more protracted for more massive satellites. The simulations predict a substantial role of outflows driven by ram pressure -- but not tidal forces -- in removing the star-forming interstellar matter (ISM) from satellite galaxies, especially dwarfs (M* ~ 10^9 M_Sun) where they account for nearly two thirds of ISM loss in both groups and clusters. Immediately before quenching is complete, this fraction rises to ~80% even for Milky Way analogues (M* ~ 10^10.5 M_Sun) in groups (M_host ~ 10^13.5 M_Sun). We show that (i) ISM stripping ...

  14. Evolution of Compact and Fossil Groups of Galaxies from Semi-analytical Models of Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Mamon, Gary A.; Dariush, Ali. A.; Raouf, Mojtaba

    2017-05-01

    We compare the mean mass assembly histories of compact and fossil galaxy groups in the Millennium Dark Matter Simulation and an associated semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Tracing the halo mass of compact groups (CGs) from z = 0 to z = 1 shows that, on average, 55% of the halo mass in CGs is assembled since z˜ 1, compared to 40% of the halo mass in fossil groups (FGs) on the same time interval, indicating that compared to FGs, CGs are relatively younger galaxy systems. At z = 0, for a given halo mass, FGs tend to have a larger concentration than CGs. Investigating the evolution of CG’s parameters reveals that they become more compact with time. CGs at z = 0.5 see their magnitude gaps increase exponentially, but it takes ˜10 Gyr for them to reach a magnitude gap of 2 mag. The slow growth of the magnitude gap leads to only a minority (˜41%) of CGs selected at z = 0.5 turning into a FG by z = 0. Also, while three-quarters of FGs go through a compact phase, most fail to meet the CG isolation criterion, leaving only ˜30% of FGs fully satisfying the CG selection criteria. Therefore, there is no strong link of CGs turning into FGs or FGs originating from CGs. The relation between CGs and FGs is thus more complex, and in most cases, FGs and CGs follow different evolutionary tracks.

  15. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies II. Searching For Signatures of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10$^4$ $<$ M$_{\\star}$ $<$ 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted `true fossils' identified by Bovill & Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environment...

  16. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  17. The relation between star formation, morphology and local density in high redshift clusters and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Poggianti, Bianca M; Finn, Rose; Bamford, Steven; De Lucia, Gabriella; Varela, Jesus; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Halliday, Claire; Noll, Stefan; Saglia, Roberto; Zaritsky, Dennis; Best, Philip; Clowe, Douglas; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Jablonka, Pascale; Pello, Roser; Rudnick, Gregory; Simard, Luc; von der Linden, Anja; White, Simon

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how the [OII] properties and the morphologies of galaxies in clusters and groups at z=0.4-0.8 depend on projected local galaxy density, and compare with the field at similar redshifts and clusters at low-z. In both nearby and distant clusters, higher-density regions contain proportionally fewer star-forming galaxies, and the average [OII] equivalent width of star-forming galaxies is independent of local density. However, in distant clusters the average current star formation rate (SFR) in star-forming galaxies seems to peak at densities ~15-40 galaxies Mpc^{-2}. At odds with low-z results, at high-z the relation between star-forming fraction and local density varies from high- to low-mass clusters. Overall, our results suggest that at high-z the current star formation (SF) activity in star-forming galaxies does not depend strongly on global or local environment, though the possible SFR peak seems at odds with this conclusion. We find that the cluster SFR normalized by cluster mass anticorrelate...

  18. Star Formation Suppression in Compact Group Galaxies: A New Path to Quenching?

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, K; Lisenfeld, U; Bitsakis, T; Lanz, L; Lacy, M; Charmandaris, V; Cluver, M; Dopita, M A; Guillard, P; Jarrett, T; Kewley, L J; Nyland, K; Ogle, P M; Rasmussen, J; Rich, J A; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Xu, C K; Yun, M

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H$_2$-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H$_2$ bright galaxies, with CARMA. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and early-type galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies show star formation suppression of $\\langle$S$\\rangle$=10$\\pm$5, distributed bimodally, with five objects exhibiting suppressions of S$\\gtrsim$10 and depletion timescales $\\gtrsim$10Gyr. This star formation inefficiency is also seen in the efficiency per freefall time. We investigate the gas-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal ratios. It is likely that the cause of the suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence int...

  19. Influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal conditions in a population from Bauru, Brazil Influência da idade, sexo, placa bacteriana e fumo nas condições periodontais em uma população de Bauru, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schützer Ragghianti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology is the study of health and disease in populations, and of how these conditions are influenced by heredity, biology, physical environment, social environment, and personal behavior. There are many epidemiological studies in Brazilian population but few about the influence of some risk factors in periodontal conditions. This cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal disease in a population from Bauru (Brazil. Data concerning periodontal status were collected from 380 patients in the University of São Paulo (USP. Measurements of periodontal pocket depths (PPD, clinical attachment levels (CAL, plaque index (PI of four sites in all teeth were registered. The influence of age, sex and smoking habits on the periodontal parameters were statistically evaluated using descriptive statistical and ANOVA. The correlation between plaque and periodontal parameters was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results showed an increase in the mean of periodontal destruction (PPD and CAL and a higher number of sites with severe losses with increasing age. Correlation among percentage of sites with plaque and periodontal parameters (PPD and CAL were positive but weakly related. The male group showed significantly higher means of CAL than the female. Smokers had significantly higher PPD and CAL means than non-smokers. Aging, smoking habit, male sex, and percentage of sites with plaque were associated with a great increase of periodontal destruction, being important factors in the diagnosis of the periodontal disease in this Brazilian population.A Epidemiologia é o estudo da saúde e da doença nas populações e de como esses estados são influenciados pela hereditariedade, biologia, ambiente físico e social e comportamento pessoal. Existem vários estudos epidemiológicos na população brasileira porém poucos sobre a influência de fatores de risco nas condi

  20. Star Formation and Environmental Quenching of GEEC2 Group Galaxies at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Angus; McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Bower, Richard G; Hou, Annie; Mulchaey, John S; Parker, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    We present new analysis from the GEEC2 spectroscopic survey of galaxy groups at $0.8group and field sample show a significant enhancement in star formation, which suggests that quenching is the primary process in the transition from the star-forming to the quiescent state. To model the environmental quenching scenario, we have tested the use of different exponential quenching timescales and delays between satellite accretion and the onset of quenching. We find that with no delay, the quenching timescale needs to be long in order to match the observed quiescent fraction, but then this model produces too many intermediate galaxies. Fixing a delay time of 3 Gyr, as suggested from the local universe, produces too few quiescent galaxies. The observed fractions are be...

  1. Condições de saúde bucal e diabetes mellitus na população nipo-brasileira de Bauru-SP

    OpenAIRE

    TOMITA, Nilce Emy; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Laércio Joel FRANCO; Iunes, Magid [UNIFESP; Freitas,José Alberto de Souza; Lopes,Eymar Sampaio

    2003-01-01

    Este estudo transversal foi delineado para estimar a prevalência de diabetes mellitus, intolerância à glicose e condições de saúde bucal na população de origem japonesa, na faixa de 40 a 79 anos de idade, residente no município de Bauru-Brasil. Todos os indivíduos da primeira geração (isseis) e uma amostra casualizada de um terço da segunda geração (niseis) foram submetidos a entrevista domiciliar, totalizando 530 indivíduos. O exame clínico e teste oral de tolerância à glicose, e exame das c...

  2. Chemical Evolution and Star Formation History of the Disks of Spirals in Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.

    2011-05-01

    Milky Way (MW), M31 and M33 are the only three spiral galaxies in our Local group. MW and M31 have similar mass, luminosity and morphology, while M33 is only about one tenth of MW in terms of its baryonic mass. Detailed theoretical researches on these three spirals will help us to understand the formation and evolution history of both spiral galaxies and Local group. Referring to the phenomenological chemical evolution model adopted in MW disk, a similar model is established to investigate the star formation and chemical enrichment history of these three local spirals. Firstly, the properties of M31 disk are studied by building a similar chemical evolution model which is able to successfully describe the MW disk. It is expected that a simple unified phenomenological chemical evolution model could successfully describe the radial and global properties of both disks. Comparing with the former work, we adopt an extensive data set as model constraints, including the star formation profile of M31 disk derived from the recent UV data of GALEX. The comparison among the observed properties of these two disks displays very interesting similarities in their radial profiles when the distance from the galactic center is expressed in terms of the corresponding scale length. This implies some common processes in their formation and evolution history. Based on the observed data of the gas mass surface density and SFR surface density, the SFR radial profile of MW can be well described by Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law (K-S law) or modified K-S law (SFR is inversely proportional to the distance from the galactic center), but this is not applicable to the M31 disk. Detailed calculations show that our unified model describes fairly well all the main properties of the MW disk and most properties of M31 disk, provided that the star formation efficiency of M31 disk is adjusted to be twice as large as that of MW disk (as anticipated from the lower gas fraction of M31). However, the

  3. Tracoma em crianças do ensino fundamental no município de Bauru: Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieni Cristina Barbarini Ferraz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, por amostragem de escolares, frequentadores das escolas estaduais de Bauru, São Paulo, com o objetivo de detectar possíveis portadores de tracoma. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 1.749 crianças do ensino fundamental, de 6 a 14 anos, durante o ano de 2005. As escolas foram escolhidas por sorteio, de acordo com o número de estudantes e com a localização da escola dentro do setor da cidade (centro, região intermediária e periferia. O diagnóstico dos casos foi clínico, seguindo as normas da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS, confirmado laboratorialmente pelo método da imunofluorescência direta para detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tracoma inflamatório foi de 3,8%, tendo sido diagnosticado tracoma folicular em 3,7% e tracoma intenso em 0,06% das crianças examinadas. As crianças com tracoma moravam principalmente na região intermediária e periférica da cidade, áreas onde o fornecimento de água pode ser descontínuo e o tratamento do esgoto pode estar ausente. Um programa de controle foi desenvolvido e os comunicantes foram diagnosticados e tratados. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tracoma inflamatório em Bauru - Estado de São Paulo - é de 3,8%. Além da oportunidade de reconhecer e tratar os portadores e contatantes, os autores realçam o fato positivo da mobilização da comunidade bauruense no sentido de prevenir a cegueira pelo tracoma.

  4. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational

  5. Adaptive Row-grouped CSR Format for Storing of Sparse Matrices on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present new adaptive format for storing sparse matrices on GPU. We compare it with several other formats including CUSPARSE which is today probably the best choice for processing of sparse matrices on GPU in CUDA. Contrary to CUSPARSE which works with common CSR format, our new format requires conversion. However, multiplication of sparse-matrix and vector is significantly faster for many atrices. We demonstrate it on set of 1 600 matrices and we show for what types of matrices our format is profitable.

  6. The emergence of the non-profit foundation as a significant organizational format for group practice in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1988-01-01

    The non-profit foundation is fast becoming a factor in the organizational structure of group practices. A growing number of group practices have adopted this format as a means of positioning themselves for survival and success in the turbulent, changing environment of the health care delivery system.

  7. Ultraviolet+Infrared Star Formation Rates: Hickson Compact Groups with Swift and SPitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Gallagher, S. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Gronwall, C.; Immler, S.; Reines, A. E.; Hoversten, E.; Charlton, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present Swift UVOT ultraviolet (UV; 1600-3000 A) data with complete three-band UV photometry for a sample of 41 galaxies in 11 nearby (star formation rate, SFR(sub TOTAL). We use Spitzer MIPS 24 micron photometry to estimate SFR(sub IR), the component of SFR(sub TOTAL) that suffers dust extinction in the UV and is re-emitted in the IR. By combining the two components, we obtain SFR(sub TOTAL) estimates for all HCG galaxies. We obtain total stellar mass, M(sub *) estimates by means of Two Micron All Sky Survey K(sub s)-band luminosities, and use them to calculate specific star formation rates, SSFR is identical with SFR(sub TOTAL)/ M (sub *). SSFR values show a clear and significant bimodality, with a gap between low (approximately 1.2 x lO)exp -10)/yr) systems. We compare this bimodality to the previously discovered bimodality in alpha-IRAC, the MIR activity index from a power-law fit to the Spitzer IRAC 4.5-8 micron data for these galaxies. We find that all galaxies with alpha-IRAC 0) are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, as expected if high levels of star-forming activity power MIR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and a hot dust continuum. Consistent with this finding, all elliptical/SO galaxies are in the low-SSFR locus, while 22 out of 24 spirals / irregulars are in the high-SSFR locus, with two borderline cases. We further divide our sample into three subsamples (I, II, and III) according to decreasing H I richness of the parent galaxy group to which a galaxy belongs. Consistent with the SSFR and alpha-IRAC bimodality, 12 out of 15 type I (11 out of 12 type III) galaxies are in the high- (low-) SSFR locus, while type II galaxies span almost the full range of SSFR values. We use the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS) to construct a comparison subsample of galaxies that (1) match HCG galaxies in J-band total galaxy luminosity and (2) are not strongly interacting and largely isolated. This selection eliminates mostly low

  8. The Magellanic Satellites Survey: Searching for Hierarchical Structure Formation within the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtol, Keith; Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS)

    2017-01-01

    A generic prediction of galaxy formation in the standard cosmological model with cold dark matter is the hierarchical assembly of structure on mass scales ranging from ultra-faint galaxies to galaxy clusters. In the Local Group, dozens of galaxies have been found orbiting the Milky Way and Andromeda. The question of whether the largest Milky Way satellites, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, brought in their own entourage of satellites has been a long standing puzzle, and has garnered renewed interest following the recent discovery of more than a dozen ultra-faint galaxy candidates in the southern hemisphere. The on-going Magellanic Satellites Survey (MagLiteS) aims to complete an annulus of contiguous deep optical imaging with Blanco/DECam around the periphery of the Magellanic Clouds, enabling a systematic search for ultra-faint galaxies and other low-surface-brightness stellar substructures associated with the Magellanic system. I will report on the progress of MagLiteS and discuss science highlights from the first observing season, including a new ultra-faint galaxy candidate located ~11 kpc from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  9. A Multiwavelength View of Star Formation in Interacting Galaxies in the Pavo Group

    CERN Document Server

    Machacek, M; Jones, C; Forman, W R; Bastian, N

    2008-01-01

    We combine Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared (MIR) and Chandra X-ray observations of the dominant galaxies NGC6872 and NGC6876 in the Pavo group with archival optical and HI data to study interaction-induced star formation. In spiral galaxy NGC6872, 8.0 and 5.8 micron nonstellar emission having colors consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concentrated in clumps in three regions: in a 5 kpc radius outer ring about the center of the spiral galaxy, in a bridge of emission connecting NGC6872's northern spiral arm to IC4970, and along the full extent of NGC6872's tidal arms. PAH emission is correlated with young star clusters and dense HI regions. We find no strong differences in the MIR colors of star-forming regions in the spiral galaxy NGC6872 as a function of position relative to the tidally interacting companion galaxy IC4970. We find 11 very luminous X-ray sources (>~ (0.5 - 5) x 10^{39} ergs/s) clustered to the southwest in NGC6872, near bright star-forming regions. In NGC6872's tidal features,...

  10. Sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Shadlinsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups. The lymphoid apparatus of trachea and bronchi has been studied. taken from 58 humans of different age and both sexes, died or perished in accidents without pathologies of respiratory and immune systems was studied via microscopical methods. The trachea and bronchi principalis were fixated in 10% solution of formalin and in water Karnua. The longitudinal and transverse pieces were taken from cartilaginous and membranaceus walls of the upper, middle and lower one-third of the trachea and each bronchi principalis. These cuts 5-7 urn in thickness were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, azure-2-eosin, with hematoxylin-picrofucsin by Van-Gizon technique, with methyl green-pironin by Brashe technique (after fixation in water Karnua and reaction by Grymelius. The results of the research showed that during postnatal ontogenesis the sex related differences are observed in cell composition of the trachea and bronchi princiapalis' lymphoid structures. In adolescent, juvenile and 1-st mature period in females the percentage of small and big lymphocytes, cells with mitosis, plasma cells is more, but the percentage of medium lymphocytes and cells with degeneration is less than in males

  11. Cambrian Ichnofossils from the Zhoujieshan Formation (Quanji Group) Overlying Tillites in the Northern Margin of the Qaidam Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Xunlian Wang; Ye Wang

    2015-01-01

    The Quanji Group is composed of siliciclastics and carbonates and was deposited on a relatively stable block, in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin, NW China. It is one of the research hotspots in the Qilian-Qinling-Kunlun tectonic zones. However, it has long been argued whether the up-per Quanji Group should be assigned to the Precambrian or the Cambrian for lack of convincing fossil evidence. The discovery of ichnofossils, including Rusophycus, Cruziana, Dimorphichnus, Treptichnus, Skolithos, Arenicolites, Palaeophycus, and Helminthopsis, indicates that the upper member of the Zhou-jieshan Formation (top Quanji Group) is Cambrian in age, and at least above the Treptichnus (Phycodes) pedum Biozone, the lowermost biozone in the Cambrian. The lower member of the Zhoujieshan Forma-tion should belong to the Cambrian. During the time when the upper member of the Zhoujieshan For-mation was deposited, the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin was dominated by the Cruziana Ichno-facies, characterizing a lower-energy shelf (shallow) sea environment with moderate-rich oxygen con-tents. In addition, the conglomerates in the Hongtiegou Formation of the Quanji Group underlying the Zhoujieshan Formation were generally regarded as tillites. However, the dolostones of the lower member of the Zhoujieshan Formation are, in lithology and geochemistry, different from the typical cap-dolostones of the Doushantuo Formation in South China, so it is necessary to further study the ori-gins of the lower member of the Zhoujieshan Formation and the conglomerates of the Hongtiegou For-mation.

  12. Alcohol and Group Formation: A Multimodal Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol on Emotion and Social Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Sayette, Michael A.; Creswell, Kasey G.; Dimoff, John D.; Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Heckman, Bryan W.; Kirchner, Thomas R.; Levine, John M.; Moreland, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We integrated research on emotion and on small groups to address a fundamental and enduring question facing alcohol researchers: What are the specific mechanisms that underlie the reinforcing effects of drinking? In one of the largest alcohol-administration studies yet conducted, we employed a novel group-formation paradigm to evaluate the socioemotional effects of alcohol. Seven hundred twenty social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) were assembled into groups of 3 unacquainted persons each an...

  13. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  14. Report of the IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Hilton, James L; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Bell, Steven A; Capitaine, Nicole; Fienga, Agnes; Folkner, William M; Gastineau, Mickael; Pavlov, Dmitry; Pitjeva, Elena V; Skripnichenko, Vladimir I; Wallace, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) format as a standard format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) format for the orientation of these bodies. It further recommends that other supporting data be stored in a text PCK. These formats were developed for use by the SPICE Toolkit by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The CALCEPH library developed by the Institut de mecanique celeste de calcul des ephemerides (IMCCE) is also able to make use of these files. High accuracy ephemerides available in files conforming to the SPK and PCK formats include: the Development Ephemerides (DE) from JPL, Integrateur Numerique Planetaire de l'Observatoire de Paris (INPOP) from IMCCE, and the Ephemerides Planets and the Moon (EPM), developed by the Institute for Applied Astronomy (IAA...

  15. The Formation of Group Affect and Team Effectiveness : The Moderating Role of Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanghe, Jacqueline; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2010-01-01

    In the current research we use the social identity perspective to enhance our understanding of group affect (i.e. a collectively shared pattern of affective states among group members). Because higher identification (i.e. the extent to which group members define themselves in terms of their group me

  16. The Suppression of Star Formation and the Effect of Galaxy Environment in Low-Redshift Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Bai, Lei; Ponman, Trevor J; Raychaudhury, Somak; Dariush, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between galaxies and their surroundings is central to building a coherent picture of galaxy evolution. Here we use GALEX imaging of a statistically representative sample of 23 galaxy groups at z=0.06 to explore how local and global group environment affect the UV properties and dust-corrected star formation rates of their member galaxies. The data provide star formation rates out to beyond 2R_200 in all groups, down to a completeness limit and limiting galaxy stellar mass of 0.06 M_sun/yr and 10^8 M_sun, respectively. At fixed galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of star-forming group members is suppressed relative to the field out to an average radius of R ~ 1.5 Mpc ~ 2R_200, mirroring results for massive clusters. For the first time we also report a similar suppression of the specific star formation rate within such galaxies, on average by 40% relative to the field, thus directly revealing the impact of the group environment in quenching star formation within infallin...

  17. Image encryption schemes for joint photographic experts group and graphics interchange format formats based on three-dimensional baker with compound chaotic sequence generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shiyu; Tong, Xiaojun; Zhang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    We propose several methods to transplant the compound chaotic image encryption scheme with permutation based on three-dimensional (3-D) baker onto image formats such as the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) and graphics interchange format (GIF). The new methods avert the discrete cosine transform and quantization, which result in floating point precision loss, and succeed to encrypt and decrypt JPEG images lossless. The ciphered JPEG images generated by our solution own much better randomness than most other existing schemes. Our proposed method for GIF keeps the property of animation successfully. The security test results indicate the proposed methods have high security, and the speed of our algorithm is faster than classical solutions. Since JPEG and GIF image formats are popular contemporarily, we show that the prospect of chaotic image encryption is promising.

  18. Fractured-aquifer hydrogeology from geophysical logs: Brunswick group and Lockatong Formation, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Senior, Lisa A.; Decker, Edward R.

    2000-01-01

    The Brunswick Group and the underlying Lockatong Formation are composed of lithified Mesozoic sediments that constitute part of the Newark Basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. These fractured rocks form an important regional aquifer that consists of gradational sequences of shale, siltstone, and sandstone, with fluid transport occurring primarily in fractures. An extensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained in seven wells located at the borough of Lansdale, Pennsylvania, in order to better characterize the areal hydrogeologic system and provide guidelines for the refinement of numerical ground water models. Six of the seven wells are approximately 120 m deep and the seventh extends to a depth of 335 m. Temperature, fluid conductivity, and flowmeter logs are used to locate zones of fluid exchange and to quantify transmissivities. Electrical resistivity and natural gamma logs together yield detailed stratigraphic information, and digital acoustic televiewer data provide magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall from which almost 900 fractures are identified.Analyses of the geophysical data indicate that the aquifer penetrated by the deep well can be separated into two distinct structural domains, which may, in turn, reflect different mechanical responses to basin extension by different sedimentary units:1. In the shallow zone (above 125 m), the dominant fracture population consists of gently dipping bedding plane partings that strike N46°E and dip to the northwest at about 11 degrees. Fluid flow is concentrated in the upper 80 m along these subhorizontal fractures, with transmissivities rapidly diminishing in magnitude with depth.2. The zone below 125 m marks the appearance of numerous high-angle fractures that are orthogonal to the bedding planes, striking parallel but dipping steeply southeast at 77 degrees.This secondary set of fractures is associated with a fairly thick (approximately 60 m) high-resistivity, low-transmissivity sandstone unit that is

  19. The role of diagnosticity in stereotype formation: perceiving group means and variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T E; Stangor, C

    1992-09-01

    Three experiments tested the hypotheses that while forming stereotypes of social groups, people abstract the central tendency and variability of different attribute dimensions to determine which ones best differentiate the groups and that more differentiating dimensions are more likely to become stereotypical in the sense of becoming strongly associated with the groups in memory. Supporting these hypotheses. Experiment 1 found that, after viewing behaviors performed by members of 2 groups, Ss characterized the groups more in terms of attribute dimensions indicating larger differences between the central tendencies of the groups, and Experiment 2 showed that this effect did not occur when Ss formed impressions of only 1 group. Experiment 3 found that Ss also characterized groups more in terms of attribute dimensions indicating lower within-group variability.

  20. Social factors shaping the formation of a multi-stakeholder trails network group for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Steven Selin; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results and management implications of a longitudinal research study examining the social factors affecting the formation of a trails network advisory group for the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) in West Virginia. A collaborative process of creating an MNF trails network with input from local users and stakeholders has been largely...

  1. The Dawn of the Red: Star formation histories of group galaxies over the past 5 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Bower, Richard G; Mulchaey, John S; Parker, Laura C; Oemler, Augustus

    2010-01-01

    We examine the star formation properties of group and field galaxies in two surveys, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; at z ~ 0.08) and the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC; at z ~ 0.4). Using UV imaging from the GALEX space telescope, along with optical and, for GEEC, near infrared photometry, we compare the observed spectral energy distributions to large suites of stellar population synthesis models. This allows us to accurately determine star formation rates and stellar masses. We find that star forming galaxies of all environments undergo a systematic lowering of their star formation rate between z=0.4 and z=0.08 regardless of mass. Nonetheless, the fraction of passive galaxies is higher in groups than the field at both redshifts. Moreover, the difference between the group and field grows with time and is mass-dependent, in the sense the the difference is larger at low masses. However, the star formation properties of star forming galaxies, as measured by their average specific star f...

  2. Non-parametric star formation histories for 5 dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the local group

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, X; Valls-Gabaud, D; Gilmore, Gerard; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2000-01-01

    We use recent HST colour-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar populations of a sample of local dSph galaxies (Carina, LeoI, LeoII, Ursa Minor and Draco) to infer the star formation histories of these systems, $SFR(t)$. Applying a new variational calculus maximum likelihood method which includes a full Bayesian analysis and allows a non-parametric estimate of the function one is solving for, we infer the star formation histories of the systems studied. This method has the advantage of yielding an objective answer, as one need not assume {\\it a priori} the form of the function one is trying to recover. The results are checked independently using Saha's $W$ statistic. The total luminosities of the systems are used to normalize the results into physical units and derive SN type II rates. We derive the luminosity weighted mean star formation history of this sample of galaxies.

  3. Fluoridation of the public water supply and prevalence of dental fluorosis in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru, SP Fluoretação da água de abastecimento público e prevalência de fluorose dentária em bairro da periferia de Bauru, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ramires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the fluoride concentration in the public water supply and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren between 7 and 15 years old, living in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this, fifty two water samples were collected on three different days of one week. These samples were analyzed for fluoride by means of the ion-sensitive electrode method (Orion 9609 coupled to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720. In this method, 1.0 mL of TISAB II (Orion was added to 1.0 mL of the sample. For the epidemiological survey of fluorosis, 52 schoolchildren of both genders, aged between 7 and 15 were assessed, with prior authorization from their caretakers. Only one person examined the children, after supervised toothbrushing and drying with cotton wool rolls. The TF index was used. RESULTS: The fluoride concentrations in the water samples ranged from 0.62 to 1.20 mg/L, with a mean of 0.9 mg/L. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33%, with severity ranging from TF1 to TF4 (Kappa of 0.73 and concordance of 83.33%. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the analysis of water samples indicated a fluoride concentration greater than recommended for Bauru. The fluorosis levels found were higher than expected for a peripheral district, in which water is one of the few sources of fluoride.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a concentração de flúor na água de abastecimento público e a prevalência de fluorose dentária de escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, residentes em um bairro da periferia de Bauru. MATÉRIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas 52 amostras de água durante três dias de uma semana e analisadas utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609, acoplado a um potenciômetro (Procyon, modelo 720, com 1,0 mL da amostra à qual foi adicionado 1,0 mL de TISAB II (Orion. Para o levantamento epidemiológico de fluorose foram examinados 52 escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade

  4. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  5. Lower miocene larger foraminifera and petroleum potential of the Tai Formation, Mergui Group, Andaman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polachan, Songpope; Racey, Andrew

    Tertiary larger foraminifera are recorded for the first time from Thailand. The fauna studied is restricted mainly to the reefal carbonate of the Tai Formation, which rests unconformably on the pre-Late Eocene quartz-chlorite schist basement in the Central High region of the Mergui Basin. The formation is broadly correlatable with the Peutu Formation of the North Sumatra Basin. The Tai Formation can be divided into three units at the type locality; a basal unit of interbedded anhydrite, dolomite, shale and sandstone; a middle unit of coral/algal reefal limestones, and an upper unit of calcarenites interbedded with silty shales and sandstones. The middle and upper units have yielded a fauna comprising; Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) japonica, Spiroclypeus yabeii, Cycloclypeus eidae, Cycloclypeus sp. A, Heterostegina sp. A, Lepidocyclina (N) sp. A, Miogypsina sp. A, and Miogypsinoides sp. L. (N) japonica and Miogypsinoides sp. can range up into the Middle Miocene (Lower Tf) whilst C. eidae can range down into the Upper Oligocene (Lower Te). The fauna is typical of the Indo-West Pacific Miocene faunal province of Adams (1970) and shows closer affinities to the faunas of Indonesia than those of India-Pakistan.

  6. Permian bivalves of the Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, and their biostratigraphic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Guimarães Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A small and poorly diversified bivalve fauna from Taciba Formation, Itararé Group, Paraná Basin (State of Santa Catarina,Mafra Municipality, is described in this paper for the first time, based on new findings. The fauna is recorded in a 30 cmthick interval of fine sandstone locally at the top of Taciba Formation, in the Butiá quarry. The studied fossil-bearing sandstonebed is a marine intercalation recording a brief eustatic rise in sea-level, probably following glacier retreat and climateamelioration at the end of a broad glacial scenario. The fauna is mainly dominated by productid brachiopods, which are notdescribed here, and rare mollusk shells (bivalves and gastropods. Two bivalve species were identified: Myonia argentinensis(Harrington, 1955, and Aviculopecten multiscalptus (Thomas, 1928. The presence of Myonia argentinensis is noteworthysince this species is also present in the Baitaca assemblage found in marine siltstones (Baitaca assemblage of theRio do Sul Formation, cropping out at the Teixeira Soares region, Paraná State. This species is also recorded in the bivalvefauna from the Bonete Formation, Pillahinco Group, Sauce Grande Basin, Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina. Hence, themarine bivalves of the Taciba Formation are associated with the transgressive event that characterizes the Eurydesma fauna,indicating a Late Asselian-Sakmarian age for the bivalve fauna. Presence of the Myonia argentinensis megadesmid speciesreinforces the Gondwanic nature of the studied fauna.

  7. ETOP 14, a FORTRAN code to process ENDF/B data into the 68-group PHROG library format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimesey, R.A.; Singer, G.L.; Millsap, D.A.

    1976-07-01

    ETOP 14 processes neutron cross section data from the ENDF/B format to the 68-group PHROG fast spectrum code. Major changes have accompanied modifications in the ENDF/B format and modifications to the PHROG code necessitated by changes in the ENDF/B format. A large number of program changes have been made to increase the program's efficiency and accuracy in treating specific cross sections. The present version of the program will process all Version 4 ENDF/B formats except the Adler-Adler multilevel resonance formula. ETOP 14 calculates infinitely dilute capture and fission cross sections and an infinitely dilute elastic scattering matrix for these materials over the resonance range. This limitation will be corrected in the near future. Some reaction cross sections which are only prominent above 10 MeV are ignored by ETOP 14. The code in its present form can be easily extended above 10 MeV. The maximum number of multigroups permitted is 99 even though the PHROG library is presently limited to 68 quarter lethargy groups. The present report assumes a complete familiarity with the ENDF/B format.

  8. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  9. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  10. The effect of natural organic matter polarity and molecular weight on NDMA formation from two antibiotics containing dimethylamine functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey-Roback, Shannon L; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-12-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection byproduct preferentially formed in chloraminated water. NDMA may be formed from certain chemicals containing dimethylamine (DMA) functional groups. This reaction may be slowed by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, NOM fractionated by size or polarity was tested for its ability to slow or impede the formation of NDMA from two DMA-containing precursors, the antibiotics tetracycline and spiramycin. The high molecular weight NOM fractions (>10KDa) were shown to be the most effective in reducing the amount of NDMA formed from the precursor chemicals. The filtrate of a C-18 non-polar cartridge was also effective at reducing NDMA formation from tetracycline (spyramycin not tested). Therefore, polar and charged NOM components may be responsible for the reduction in NDMA formation. A possible mechanism for the reduction of NDMA formation from tetracycline is complexation due to the hydrogen bonding of the DMA functional group on tetracycline to polar phenolic functional groups in the NOM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PATH OF PREPARATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROPOSAL FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN VIEW OF BAURU THEORY PEDAGOGY OF HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL THEORY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro Alves Corrêa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the trajectory deployment of historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory in the Early Childhood Education from Municipal System of Education of Bauru and emphasize the process of formulating a new Pedagogical proposal anchored in the Marxist perspective, discussing the progress and difficulties encountered in the preparation of this document to ensure the principles of this concept in the theoretical and practical education of the collective. Therefore, it was necessary to recover the memory of the work at this stage of education since its implementation in the city, because it is understood that to investigate the educational past is possible to understand the theoretical position adopted for the realization of the formal character of the school children assumes within this pedagogy. For the organization of the study , we chose an experience report , for better suit the purposes of this paper and allow to know the variables that contributed to the choice of the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory as a theoretical unit privileged to teach the child zero to five years.

  12. Geochemistry of tourmalines associated with iron formation and quartz veins of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, Serra do Itaberaba Group (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda Gianna M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourmalines of intermediate schorl-dravite composition occur in iron formation (including metachert and tourmalinites, metasediments, calc-silicate and metabasic/intermediate rocks of the Morro da Pedra Preta Formation, a volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Serra do Itaberaba Group (northeast of São Paulo City, southeastern Brazil. The Morro da Pedra Preta Formation is crosscut by quartz veins that contain both intermediate schorl-dravite and an alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmaline, in which the occupancy of the X-site is ϑ0.51Ca0.33Na0.15, characterizing it as intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite end-members. Mg# values for this tourmaline are higher than those for intermediate schorl-dravite. Raman spectroscopy also confirms the presence of two groups of tourmalines. Stable isotope data indicate sediment waters as fluid sources, rather than fluids from magmatic/post-magmatic sources. Delta18O compositions for tourmalines, host metachert, and quartz veins are similar, showing that fluid equilibration occurred during crystallization of both quartz and tourmaline. Syngenetic, intermediate schorl-dravite tourmalines were formed under submarine, sedimentary-exhalative conditions; amphibolite-grade metamorphism did not strongly affect their compositions. Younger tourmalines of compositions intermediate to foitite and magnesiofoitite reflect the composition of the host rocks of quartz veins, due to fluid percolation along faults and fractures that caused leaching of Cr (and V and the crystallization of these alkali-deficient, Cr-(V-bearing tourmalines.

  13. Lithostratigraphy of the Calico Hills Formation and Prow Pass Tuff (Crater Flat Group) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Lithostratigraphic relations within the Calico Hills Formation and Prow Pass Tuff (Crater Flat Group) were reconstructed from analysis of core samples and observation of outcrop exposures. The Calico Hills Formation is composed of five nonwelded pyroclastic units (each formed of one or more pyroclastic-flow deposits) that overlie an interval of bedded tuff and a basal volcaniclastic sandstone unit. The Prow Pass Tuff is divided into four pyroclastic units and an underlying interval of bedded tuff. The pyroclastic units of the Prow Pass Tuff are distinguished by the sizes and amounts of their pumice and lithic clasts and their degree of welding. Pyroclastic units of the Prow Pass Tuff are distinguished from those of the Calico Hills Formation by their phenocryst assemblage, chemical composition, and ubiquitous siltstone lithic clasts. Downhole resistivity tends to mirror the content of authigenic minerals, primarily zeolites, in both for-mations and may be useful for recognizing the vitric-zeolite boundary in the study area. Maps of zeolite distribution illustrate that the bedded tuff and basal sandstone units of the Calico Hills Formation are altered over a wider area than the pyroclastic units of both the Calico Hills Formation and the upper Prow Pass Tuff.

  14. Functional-Group-Tolerant, Silver-Catalyzed N-N Bond Formation by Nitrene Transfer to Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Lourdes; Dorel, Ruth; Pablo, Óscar; Escofet, Imma; Sameera, W M C; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Maseras, Feliu; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Echavarren, Antonio M; Pérez, Pedro J

    2017-02-15

    Silver(I) promotes the highly chemoselective N-amidation of tertiary amines under catalytic conditions to form aminimides by nitrene transfer from PhI═NTs. Remarkably, this transformation proceeds in a selective manner in the presence of olefins and other functional groups without formation of the commonly observed aziridines or C-H insertion products. The methodology can be applied not only to rather simple tertiary amines but also to complex natural molecules such as brucine or quinine, where the products derived from N-N bond formation were exclusively formed. Theoretical mechanistic studies have shown that this selective N-amidation reaction proceeds through triplet silver nitrenes.

  15. Item Construction Using Reflective, Formative, or Rasch Measurement Models: Implications for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Gischlar, Karen L.; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Measures that accurately capture the phenomenon are critical to research and practice in group work. The vast majority of group-related measures were developed using the reflective measurement model rooted in classical test theory (CTT). Depending on the construct definition and the measure's purpose, the reflective model may not always be the…

  16. Bridging the gender divide : an experimental analysis of group formation in African villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2009-01-01

    Assortative matching occurs in many social contexts. We experimentally investigate gender assorting in sub-Saharan villages. In the experiment, co-villagers could form groups to share winnings in a gamble choice game. The extent to which grouping arrangements were or could be enforced and, hence,

  17. Toxic tau oligomer formation blocked by capping of cysteine residues with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Misato; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sumioka, Akio; Maeda, Sumihiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Akiko; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko; Yoshiike, Yuji; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Takashima, Akihiko

    2015-12-16

    Neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils, are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; the neurofibrillary tangle load correlates strongly with clinical progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that tau oligomer formation precedes the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and contributes to neuronal loss. Here we show that tau oligomer formation can be inhibited by compounds whose chemical backbone includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Specifically, we demonstrate that 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-containing compounds bind to and cap cysteine residues of tau and prevent its aggregation by hindering interactions between tau molecules. Further, we show that orally administered DL-isoproterenol, an adrenergic receptor agonist whose skeleton includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and which penetrates the brain, reduces the levels of detergent-insoluble tau, neuronal loss and reverses neurofibrillary tangle-associated brain dysfunction. Thus, compounds that target the cysteine residues of tau may prove useful in halting the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.

  18. Divergent Mechanistic Routes for the Formation of gem-Dimethyl Groups in the Biosynthesis of Complex Polyketides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poust, S; Phelan, RM; Deng, K; Katz, L; Petzold, CJ; Keasling, JD

    2015-01-07

    The gem-dimethyl groups in polyketide-derived natural products add steric bulk and, accordingly, lend increased stability to medicinal compounds, however, our ability to rationally incorporate this functional group in modified natural products is limited. In order to characterize the mechanism of gem-dimethyl group formation, with a goal toward engineering of novel compounds containing this moiety, the gem-dimethyl group producing polyketide synthase (PKS) modules of yersiniabactin and epothilone were characterized using mass spectrometry. The work demonstrated, contrary to the canonical understanding of reaction order in PKSs, that methylation can precede condensation in gem-dimethyl group producing PKS modules. Experiments showed that both PKSs are able to use dimethylmalonyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) as an extender unit. Interestingly, for epothilone module8, use of dimethylmalonyl-ACP appeared to be the sole route to form a gem-dimethylated product, while the yersiniabactin PKS could methylate before or after ketosynthase condensation.

  19. Specific Involvement of Pilus Type 2a in Biofilm Formation in Group B Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Cesira L.; Berti, Francesco; Necchi, Francesca; Reguzzi, Valerio; Ghezzo, Claudia; Telford, John Laird; Grandi, Guido; Maione, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 30% of healthy women and can infect newborns during delivery and cause severe sepsis and meningitis. Persistent colonization usually involves the formation of biofilm and increasing evidences indicate that in pathogenic streptococci biofilm formation is mediated by pili. Recently, we have characterized pili distribution and conservation in 289 GBS clinical isolates and we have shown that GBS has three pilus types, 1, 2a and 2b encoded by three corresponding pilus islands, and that each strain carries one or two islands. Here we have investigated the capacity of these strains to form biofilms. We have found that most of the biofilm-formers carry pilus 2a, and using insertion and deletion mutants we have confirmed that pilus type 2a, but not pilus types 1 and 2b, confers biofilm-forming phenotype. We also show that deletion of the major ancillary protein of type 2a did not impair biofilm formation while the inactivation of the other ancillary protein and of the backbone protein completely abolished this phenotype. Furthermore, antibodies raised against pilus components inhibited bacterial adherence to solid surfaces, offering new strategies to prevent GBS infection by targeting bacteria during their initial attachment to host epithelial cells. PMID:20169161

  20. Specific involvement of pilus type 2a in biofilm formation in group B Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Daniela Rinaudo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 30% of healthy women and can infect newborns during delivery and cause severe sepsis and meningitis. Persistent colonization usually involves the formation of biofilm and increasing evidences indicate that in pathogenic streptococci biofilm formation is mediated by pili. Recently, we have characterized pili distribution and conservation in 289 GBS clinical isolates and we have shown that GBS has three pilus types, 1, 2a and 2b encoded by three corresponding pilus islands, and that each strain carries one or two islands. Here we have investigated the capacity of these strains to form biofilms. We have found that most of the biofilm-formers carry pilus 2a, and using insertion and deletion mutants we have confirmed that pilus type 2a, but not pilus types 1 and 2b, confers biofilm-forming phenotype. We also show that deletion of the major ancillary protein of type 2a did not impair biofilm formation while the inactivation of the other ancillary protein and of the backbone protein completely abolished this phenotype. Furthermore, antibodies raised against pilus components inhibited bacterial adherence to solid surfaces, offering new strategies to prevent GBS infection by targeting bacteria during their initial attachment to host epithelial cells.

  1. Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Analysis of Spatially-Resolved Star-Formation in Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Rose; Collova, Natasha; Spicer, Sandy; Whalen, Kelly; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, we are conducting a survey of the gas and star-formation properties of galaxies in 36 groups and clusters in the local universe. The galaxies in our sample span a large range of galactic environments, from the centers of galaxy groups and clusters to the surrounding infall regions. One goal of the project is to map the spatial distribution of star-formation; the relative extent of the star-forming and stellar disks provides important information about the internal and external processes that deplete gas and thus drive galaxy evolution. We obtained wide-field H-alpha observations with the WIYN 0.9m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for galaxies in the vicinity of the MKW11 and NRGb004 galaxy groups and the Abell 1367 cluster. We present a preliminary analysis of the relative size of the star-forming and stellar disks as a function of galaxy morphology and local galaxy density, and we calculate gas depletion times using star-formation rates and HI gas mass. We will combine these results with those from other UAT members to determine if and how environmentally-driven gas depletion varies with the mass and X-ray properties of the host group or cluster. This work has supported by NSF grants AST-0847430, AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  2. Hierarchical Formation in Action: Characterizing Accelerated Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups Using Whole-Sky WISE Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zucker, Catherine; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher, Sarah; Alatalo, Katherine; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups provide an environment to study the growth of galaxies amid multiple prolonged interactions. With their dense galaxy concentrations and relatively low velocity dispersions, compact groups mimic the conditions of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Compact group galaxies are known to show a bimodality in $Spitzer$ IRAC infrared colorspace: galaxies are preferentially either quiescent with low specific star formation rates, or are prolifically forming stars---galaxies with moderate levels of specific star formation are rare. Previous $Spitzer$ IRAC studies identifying this "canyon" have been limited by small number statistics. We utilize whole-sky WISE data to study 163 compact groups, thereby tripling our previous sample and including more galaxies with intermediate mid-IR colors indicative of moderate specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We define a distinct WISE mid-IR color-space ($\\log[{\\frac{\\rm f_{12}}{\\rm f_{4.6}}}]$ vs. $\\log[{\\frac{\\rm f_{22}}{\\rm f_{3.4}}}]$) that we use to identify canyon...

  3. Formation of Carbonyl and Carboxyl Groups on Cellulosic Pulps: Effect on Alkali Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Perrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ozone bleaching generates carbonyl groups on the cellulose polymer when applied to unbleached kraft pulps. This suggests that pulp fully bleached with a totally chlorine-free (TCF sequence may contain more oxidized groups than standard elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleached pulp. A fully bleached pulp was treated with sodium hypochlorite to form oxidized groups (mostly carbonyls on the pure carbohydrates, which were investigated during subsequent alkaline treatment. Carbonyl groups had a strong impact on color development during alkaline treatment. Among the carbonyls, the keto groups were the most active. This was confirmed by the behavior of carbohydrate model compounds that contained aldehyde, keto, and/or carboxyl groups when subjected to alkaline conditions. A subsequent hydrogen peroxide (P stage effectively decreased the carbonyl content, which reduced yellowing during alkaline treatment. However, the oxidized cellulose was severely depolymerized. The addition of magnesium sulfate (Mg into the P stage minimized depolymerization while maintaining some of the carbonyls in the carbohydrates. It is proposed that Mg cations can hinder alkaline β-elimination, possibly by forming a complex with the carbonyl groups.

  4. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  5. Formation of Large-Amplitude Wave Groups in an Experimental Model Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Tm= 3.0s with large grouped waves embedded C -46 Figure 95. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 26- Hurricane Camille, ?i=30, Hs= 40.64 cm (16.0 in...Tm= 2.45s with wave group embedded C -47 Figure 96. Spectral Analysis of Phase II, Run 40- Hurricane Camille, ^=46.6, Hs= 26.16 cm (10.3 in.), Tm...1.96s with wave group embedded C -48 Figure 97. Three-dimensional wave surface plots for Phase II, Run 7 D-2 Figure 98. GLRP Single Point Time History

  6. Hydraulic Bureaucracy in a Modern Hydraulic Society – Strategic Group Formation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2009-10-01

    Among these strategic groups, the hydraulic bureaucracy and hydraulic construction business are the most crucial in terms of the specific role they play in the hydraulic landscape of the Mekong delta. Both groups exert considerable influence on water resources management and strive for the same resources, namely public funds (including Overseas Development Aid that is directed to hydraulic infrastructure development. This paper illustrates how both groups have emerged due to the growing need for water resources management in the delta and how they have set up alliances for mutually sharing resources in the long run. Furthermore, it is shown how both groups have adapted their resource-oriented strategies and actions to respond to the changes in the economic and political environment in Vietnam’s recent history.

  7. Space charge effects in rectilinear motion. Emittance compensation, pulse lengthening, and halo formation (working group 1 summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ferrario, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussions over a wide range of topics in Working Group I at the Second ICFA Advanced Accelerator Workshop on Physics of High-Brightness Beams held at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), November 9-12, 1999. Latest developments towards to a better understanding of high-brightness photoinjiectors were reported. The design and commissioning of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) were reported. The problem of beam halo formation was discussed in both beam transport systems and the SLAC 50 MW 11.4 GHz periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing klystron amplifier. A new class of corkscrewing elliptic beam equilibria was reported, and applications of such novel beam equilibria in controlling of charge-density and velocity fluctuations, beam halo formation and emittance growth were discussed. Pattern formation in proton rings was also discussed.

  8. Formation of the U.S. Air Force Aviator Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    ABSTRACT The first aviator mental health study groups (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and antidepressants) were approved by the Chief of Aerospace...mental health study groups (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and antidepressants) were approved by the Chief of Aerospace Medicine for the...traffic controllers were now required to meet enhanced medical standards similar to traditional aircrew such as pilots, navigators, and loadmasters. In

  9. Bridging the gender divide: An experimental analysis of group formation in African villages

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Barr; Marcel Fafchamps

    2009-01-01

    Assortative matching occurs in many social contexts. We experimentally investigate gender assorting in sub-Saharan villages. In the experiment, covillagers could form groups to share winnings in a gamble choice game. The extent to which grouping arrangements were or could be enforced and, hence, the distribution of interaction costs were exogeneously varied. Thus, we can distinguish between the effects of homophily and interaction costs on the extent of observed gender assorting. We find that...

  10. End Group Effects on the Hydrogel Formation of PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron; Ryu, Chang Y.; Jung, Gyoo Y.; Hwang, Hee Sung

    2012-02-01

    Pluronic F108, a triblock copolymer consisting of outer polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains and an inner polypropylene oxide (PPO) chains, has been shown to be an effective hydrogel matrix for DNA separation by capillary electrophoresis using single-stranded conformation polymorphism. This presentation will discuss a new pathway to potentially enhance the separation abilities of F108 by altering the chain end groups of the block copolymers. F108 is believed to form a micelle in aqueous solutions with the hydrophobic group in the interior, thus we expect considerable interaction between the DNA sample and the end groups found at the hydrophilic brush layers of the micelle. The rheological properties of end group derivatives of F108, in combination of small angle x-ray scattering, can reveal structural differences in the micelles. In particular, gelation temperature of the end group derivatives can be linked to differences in the micelle structure. Dynamic light scattering can also be used to determine the effects of chain end groups on the hydrodynamic size of the block copolymer micelles in dilute solution.

  11. Petrography, diagenesis and geotechnical properties of the El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group), El-Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashed, M. A.; Sediek, K. N.

    1997-10-01

    The El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group) outcrops widely in Egypt. It is quarried as an ornamental building stone and used as slabs in walls and floors. It is also important in foundation construction. The geotechnical behaviour of these rocks is commonly related to stratigraphical position, controlled by their petrography and textural and diagenetic features. The El-Rufuf Formation of Naqb Assiut, El-Kharga Oasis, consists of 63 m of micritic and neomorphosed limestones which are marly at the base. Microfacies analysis of these limestones indicates an inner to middle shelf open marine environment. The most common diagenetic features are neomorphism, silicification, dissolution and stylolites. There are clear relationships between the measured compressive strength of rocks and the facies and diagenetic features. Neomorphic sparry limestone has the lowest compressive strength, while cherty biomicritic limestone shows the highest values. Micritic and biomicritic limestones show intermediate values. Some anisotropism of compressive strength values is recorded in the stylolitic limestones and in the foliated marly part of the formation. The present study reveals that the El-Rufuf limestones, according to Deere's (1968) classification, are low to medium strength rocks with low modulus ratios (DL-CL), while the marly parts of the formation are low strength rocks with low modulus ratios (EL). The rocks of the marly part of the El-Rufuf Formation are unstable with regard to water and therefore have a zero softness coefficient.

  12. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  13. Modeling the Formation Process of Grouping Stimuli Sets through Cortical Columns and Microcircuits to Feature Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Klefenz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model of a self-structuring neuronal net is presented in which repetitively applied pattern sets induce the formation of cortical columns and microcircuits which decode distinct patterns after a learning phase. In a case study, it is demonstrated how specific neurons in a feature classifier layer become orientation selective if they receive bar patterns of different slopes from an input layer. The input layer is mapped and intertwined by self-evolving neuronal microcircuits to the feature classifier layer. In this topical overview, several models are discussed which indicate that the net formation converges in its functionality to a mathematical transform which maps the input pattern space to a feature representing output space. The self-learning of the mathematical transform is discussed and its implications are interpreted. Model assumptions are deduced which serve as a guide to apply model derived repetitive stimuli pattern sets to in vitro cultures of neuron ensembles to condition them to learn and execute a mathematical transform.

  14. Insights into the formation of inorganic heterocycles via cyclocondensation of primary amines with group 15 and 16 halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Tristram; Laitinen, Risto S

    2017-01-31

    Cyclocondensation is a major preparative route for the generation of inorganic heterocycles especially in the case of ring systems involving a Group 15 or 16 element linked to nitrogen. This Perspective will consider recent experimental and computational studies involving the reactions of primary amines (or their synthetic equivalents) with pnictogen and chalcogen halides. The major focus will be a discussion of the identity and role of acyclic intermediates in the reaction pathways to ring formation, as well as the nature of the heterocycles so formed. The similarities and differences between the chemistry of group 15 and 16 systems are emphasised with a view to providing signposts for further investigations.

  15. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily").

  16. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations.

  17. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  18. The Nature of Star Formation at 24 microns in the Group Environment at 0.3 < z < 0.55

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, K; Wilman, D J; McGee, S L; Bower, R G; Bai, L; Mulchaey, J S; Parker, L C; Shi, Y; Pierini, D

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy star formation rates (SFRs) are sensitive to the local environment; for example, the high-density regions at the cores of dense clusters are known to suppress star formation. It has been suggested that galaxy transformation occurs largely in groups, which are the intermediate step in density between field and cluster environments. In this paper, we use deep MIPS 24 micron observations of intermediate-redshift (0.3 10.5, corresponding to SFR > 2.7 M_sun/yr. We find that the group and field galaxies have different distributions of morphologies and mass. However, individual group galaxies have star-forming properties comparable to those of field galaxies of similar mass and morphology; that is, the group environment does not appear to modify the properties of these galaxies directly. There is a relatively large number of massive early-type group spirals, along with E/S0 galaxies, that are forming stars above our detection limit. These galaxies account for the nearly comparable level of star-forming activ...

  19. ON THE FORMATION OF AMIDE POLYMERS VIA CARBONYL–AMINO GROUP LINKAGES IN ENERGETICALLY PROCESSED ICES OF ASTROPHYSICAL RELEVANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förstel, Marko; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii, 2545 McCarthy Mall, 96822 HI (United States); Sun, Bing J.; Lee, Huan C.; Chang, Agnes H. H., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu, E-mail: hhchang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-01

    We report on the formation of organic amide polymers via carbonyl–amino group linkages in carbon monoxide and ammonia bearing energetically processed ices of astrophysical relevance. The first group comprises molecules with one carboxyl group and an increasing number of amine moieties starting with formamide (45 u), urea (60 u), and hydrazine carboxamide (75 u). The second group consists of species with two carboxyl (58 u) and up to three amine groups (73 u, 88 u, and 103 u). The formation and polymerization of these linkages from simple inorganic molecules via formamide und urea toward amide polymers is discussed in an astrophysical and astrobiological context. Our results show that long chain molecules, which are closely related to polypeptides, easily form by energetically processing simple, inorganic ices at very low temperatures and can be released into the gas phase by sublimation of the ices in star-forming regions. Our experimental results were obtained by employing reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, coupled with soft, single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization; they are complemented by theoretical calculations.

  20. Use of formative research and social network theory to develop a group walking intervention: Sumter County on the Move!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Burroughs-Girardi, Ericka; Stoisor-Olsson, Liliana; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Pekuri, Linda M

    2016-10-01

    Although social support is a frequently cited enabler of physical activity, few studies have examined how to harness social support in interventions. This paper describes community-based formative research to design a walking program for mobilizing naturally occurring social networks to support increases in walking behavior. Focus group methods were used to engage community members in discussions about desired walking program features. The research was conducted with underserved communities in Sumter County, South Carolina. The majority of focus group participants were women (76%) and African American (92%). Several important themes emerged from the focus group results regarding attitudes toward walking, facilitators of and barriers to walking, ideal walking program characteristics, and strategies for encouraging community members to walk. Most noteably, the role of existing social networks as a supportive influence on physical activity was a recurring theme in our formative research and a gap in the existing evidence base. The resulting walking program focused on strategies for mobilizing, supporting and reinforcing existing social networks as mechanisms for increasing walking. Our approach to linking theory, empirical evidence and community-based formative research for the development of a walking intervention offers an example for practitioners developing intervention strategies for a wide range of behaviors.

  1. THE SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION AND THE EFFECT OF THE GALAXY ENVIRONMENT IN LOW-REDSHIFT GALAXY GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Jesper [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bai, Lei [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ponman, Trevor J.; Raychaudhury, Somak [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dariush, Ali, E-mail: jr@dark-cosmology.dk [Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the interaction between galaxies and their surroundings is central to building a coherent picture of galaxy evolution. Here we use Galaxy Evolution Explorer imaging of a statistically representative sample of 23 galaxy groups at z Almost-Equal-To 0.06 to explore how local and global group environments affect the UV properties and dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) of their member galaxies. The data provide SFRs out to beyond 2R{sub 200} in all groups, down to a completeness limit and limiting galaxy stellar mass of 0.06 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, respectively. At fixed galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of star-forming group members is suppressed relative to the field out to an average radius of R Almost-Equal-To 1.5 Mpc Almost-Equal-To 2R{sub 200}, mirroring results for massive clusters. For the first time, we also report a similar suppression of the specific SFR within such galaxies, on average by 40% relative to the field, thus directly revealing the impact of the group environment in quenching star formation within infalling galaxies. At fixed galaxy density and stellar mass, this suppression is stronger in more massive groups, implying that both local and global group environments play a role in quenching. The results favor an average quenching timescale of {approx}> 2 Gyr and strongly suggest that a combination of tidal interactions and starvation is responsible. Despite their past and ongoing quenching, galaxy groups with more than four members still account for at least {approx}25% of the total UV output in the nearby universe.

  2. Oxo-group-14-element bond formation in binuclear uranium(V) Pacman complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Guy M; Arnold, Polly L; Love, Jason B

    2013-07-29

    Simple and versatile routes to the functionalization of uranyl-derived U(V)-oxo groups are presented. The oxo-lithiated, binuclear uranium(V)-oxo complexes [{(py)3LiOUO}2(L)] and [{(py)3LiOUO}(OUOSiMe3)(L)] were prepared by the direct combination of the uranyl(VI) silylamide "ate" complex [Li(py)2][(OUO)(N")3] (N" = N(SiMe3)2) with the polypyrrolic macrocycle H4L or the mononuclear uranyl (VI) Pacman complex [UO2(py)(H2L)], respectively. These oxo-metalated complexes display distinct U-O single and multiple bonding patterns and an axial/equatorial arrangement of oxo ligands. Their ready availability allows the direct functionalization of the uranyl oxo group leading to the binuclear uranium(V) oxo-stannylated complexes [{(R3Sn)OUO}2(L)] (R = nBu, Ph), which represent rare examples of mixed uranium/tin complexes. Also, uranium-oxo-group exchange occurred in reactions with [TiCl(OiPr)3] to form U-O-C bonds [{(py)3LiOUO}(OUOiPr)(L)] and [(iPrOUO)2(L)]. Overall, these represent the first family of uranium(V) complexes that are oxo-functionalised by Group 14 elements.

  3. Geological Features of Iron Formations and Associate Rock in Bulunkuole Group, West Kunlun, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaoyang; Wang, He; Ren, Guangli; Wu, Wenying

    2017-05-01

    West Kunlun is located at northwest part of the Tibetan plateau, and it’s divided into North Kunlun terrane, South Kunlun terrane and Tianshuihai terrane. Bulunkuole Group is located in Tianshuihai terrane, and Taaxi, Yelike, Laobing, Zankan, Mokaer and Jiertiekegou iron deposit was found in this terrane. Those iron deposits are set to the important iron ore mineralization belt of Xinjiang and even China. By investigation the geological features, ore distributions, and mineralization characters; and analyze the electron microprobe of magnetite and pyrite, stable isotope of pyrite, magnetite and anhydrite to discussion the tectonic setting and its genesis analysis iron ore deposit in Blunkuole Group, and establish the metallogenic model in this area. By contrastive analyzing of Taaxi, Yelike Zankan-Mokar iron ore deposits in Bulunkuole Group, it was found that all the iron ore deposit share the similar sedimentary environment. Those deposits have 3 ∼ 4 ore bodies, each get a meter to dozens of meters in width, extend to thousands of meters. The wall rocks are biotite quartz schist and plagioclase amphibole schist, and the two rocks interbed usually. It should be distinguish in the stratigraphic correlation of Bulunkuole Group for the influenced by the magma intrusion, such as granite and felsite porphyry.

  4. The Local Group dwarf leo T : HI on the brink of star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Begum, Ayesha; Oosterloo, Tom; Pal, Sabyasachi; Irwin, Michael J.; Belokurov, Vasily; Evans, N. Wyn; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    We present Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) andWesterbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) observations of the recently discovered Local Group dwarf galaxy, Leo T. The peak HI column density is measured to be 7 x 1020 cm(-2), and the total HI mass is 2.8 x 10(5) M-circle dot,, based on a dista

  5. Does Like Seek Like?: The Formation of Working Groups in a Programming Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou Gozalo, Eduard; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni; Arias, Marta; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2017-01-01

    In a course of the degree of computer science, the programming project has changed from individual to teamed work, tentatively in couples (pair programming). Students have full freedom to team up with minimum intervention from teachers. The analysis of the working groups made indicates that students do not tend to associate with students with a…

  6. Group Formation in Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Sofiane; Macedo, Joaquim; Bendella, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Learners are becoming increasingly divers. They may have much personal, social, cultural, psychological, and cognitive diversity. Forming suitable learning groups represents, therefore, a hard and time-consuming task. In Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (MCSCL) environments, this task is more difficult. Instructors need to consider…

  7. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidence-based guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. HYPERCALCIURIA: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary

  8. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  9. Thermochemistry of organic, elementorganic and inorganic species. Part XX. Enthalpies of formation for free radicals of main group elements’ halogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Takhistov, Viatcheslav; Slayden, Suzanne; Liebman, Joel

    2008-03-01

    General trends in thermochemistry for free radicals as the fragments of halogenated molecules of main group elements were found for the first time applying the series of isodesmic (working) reactions following the Benson's comparison of relative stabilities of free radicals in equations R+RH→ RH+R+Q, where Q is stabilization (destabilization) energy. The enthalpies of formation for parent molecules of main group elements' halogenides necessary for application of this and similar equations were presented earlier [A.V. Golovin, V.V. Takhistov, J. Mol. Struct., 784 (2006) 47.]. For fluorinated free radicals rad EF (E = Be-Ra), rad EF 2 ( rad EHF) (E = B-Tl, N-Bi) and rad EF 3 ( rad EH 2F, rad EHF 2) (E = C-Pb) the gradual decrease in stabilization by fluorine atoms was found when coming down the periodic table. This turned to destabilization for Tl, Sb, and Bi, and IVth group of elements (excluding carbon) with increasing destabilization in the row Si Cl > Br > I which was interpreted by involvement of polarizability (PAZ) effect of halogens increasing in this direction. For finding the enthalpies of formation for silicon and germanium-centered free radicals the data on ν ≡ E-H frequencies in IR-spectra were applied. Quite definite tendencies in structure/enthalpy of formation interrelationship were found for chlorinated, brominated and iodinated free radicals of IInd and IIIrd group of elements. In the VIth group the situation with F → Cl → Br → I replacement in stabilization of free radical center appeared completely different compared with II-IV groups. Owing to the high electronegativity of HO-group and low thermodynamic stability of HO rad radical all halogens highly stabilize rad OX radical and perform it in the row F < Cl-Br < I which is explained by increase of PAZ effect in this direction. All halogens are suggested to stabilize other rad EX free radicals (E = S-Po) but essentially less compared with rad OX free radicals. The tendencies in

  10. Informative value of some endocrine homeostatic parameters in the formation of endometrial cancer risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Sidorenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH and 90 patients with Stages I-II endometrial cancer (EC were followed up. The patients’ mean age was 44.3±2.1 years. A control group consisted of 20 healthy women matched for age. Before treatment, the authors determined the blood levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol by radiometric assay and the content of daily excreted cortisol, cortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, tetrahydrocortisone, 11-hydroxy-17-ketosteroids, estrone, estradiol, and pregnanediol by the conventional classical studies.The nature of the impaired synthesis and metabolism of sex and adrenocorticoid hormones and their degree have been found to coincide, which suggest that it is expedient to use these findings to form EC risk groups in patients with AEH in the late reproductive period.

  11. Group I Intron Internal Guide Sequence Binding Strength as a Component of Ribozyme Network Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Satterwhite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Origins-of-life research requires searching for a plausible transition from simple chemicals to larger macromolecules that can both hold information and catalyze their own production. We have previously shown that some group I intron ribozymes possess the ability to help synthesize other ribozyme genotypes by recombination reactions in small networks in an autocatalytic fashion. By simplifying these recombination reactions, using fluorescent anisotropy, we quantified the thermodynamic binding strength between two nucleotides of two group I intron RNA fragments for all 16 possible genotype combinations. We provide evidence that the binding strength (KD between the 3-nucleotide internal guide sequence (IGS of one ribozyme and its complement in another is correlated to the catalytic ability of the ribozyme. This work demonstrates that one can begin to deconstruct the thermodynamic basis of information in prebiotic RNA systems.

  12. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG).Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the upris...

  13. Effect of double quaternary ammonium groups on micelle formation of partially fluorinated surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Keisuke; Chiba, Nagisa; Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Takeuchi, Emi

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the effect of divalency on the micelle properties, we synthesized divalent cationic surfactants composed of fluorocarbons and double quaternary ammonium groups N,N-dimethyl-N-[2-(N'-trimethylammonium)ethyl]-1-(3-perfluoroalkyl-2-hydroxypropyl) ammonium bromide [C(n)(F)C(3)-2Am; where n (=8 or 10) represents the number of carbon atoms in the fluorocarbon chain]. The double quaternary ammonium groups are continuously combined by the ethylene spacer in the surfactant head group, which clearly distinguishes the molecular design of the surfactant from those of the other typical divalent surfactants, bolaform and gemini types. The presence of the divalent head group results in an advantageous increase in their solubility [i.e., rise in the critical micelle concentration (cmc)]; however, the extra electrostatic repulsion between divalent cations decreases the surface activity in comparison with monovalent homologous fluorinated surfactants. The cmc, surface tension at cmc, and area occupied by a surfactant molecule in aqueous solution at 298.2K are 4.32 mM, 30.6 mN m(-1), and 0.648 nm(2 )molecule(-1), respectively, for C(8)(F)C(3)-2Am, and 1.51 mM, 30.4 mN m(-1), and 0.817 nm(2) molecule(-1), respectively, for C(10)(F)C(3)-2Am. The micellar size and shape were investigated by dynamic light scattering and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs show that C(n)(F)C(3)-2Am (n=8 and 10) mainly forms ellipsoidal micelles approximately 10-100 nm in size for n=8 and approximately 10-20 nm in size for n=10. The degree of counterion binding to micelle was determined by selective electrode potential measurements, and the results of 0.7-0.8 agree with the average values for conventional monovalent ionic surfactants.

  14. Opinion groups formation and dynamics : structures that last from non lasting entities

    CERN Document Server

    Grauwin, Sébastian

    2015-01-01

    We extend simple opinion models to obtain stable but continuously evolving communities. Our scope is to meet a challenge raised by sociologists of generating "structures that last from non lasting entities". We achieve this by introducing two kinds of noise on a standard opinion model. First, agents may interact with other agents even if their opinion difference is large. Second, agents randomly change their opinion at a constant rate. We show that for a large range of control parameters, our model yields stable and fluctuating polarized states, where the composition and mean opinion of the emerging groups is fluctuating over time.

  15. Determinação de pesticidas organoclorados em água de manancial, água potável e solo na região de Bauru (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rissato Sandra Regina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the presence of organochlorinated pesticides in the water supply system of the city of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in agricultural areas and water samples at several points of the water source (river and the distribution net. The results of the analyses of the water from the source were compared with the Brazilian classification system for inland waters (CONAMA/86 and the results of analyses of treated water were compared with Brazilian standards for finished drinking water.

  16. ANÁLISE DO RELEVO DA BACIA DO CORREGO CASTELO (BAURU – SP: A INFLUÊNCIA DA URBANIZAÇÃO NOS PROCESSOS EROSIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Thomazini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A expansão urbana na maioria das cidades brasileiras, muitas vezes se dá de forma desordenada e em lugares impróprios, proporcionando consequências desastrosas como enchentes, assoreamento das drenagens e deslizamentos, conferindo riscos à população ali instalada e prejuízos aos cofres públicos. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo principal analisar a influência da expansão urbana no surgimento dos processos erosivos lineares, por meio dos estudos do relevo, na Bacia Hidrográfica do Córrego do Castelo, localizada na cidade de Bauru/SP. Para isto, utilizou-se o arcabouço teórico-metodológico da teoria Geral dos Sistemas, através da qual a Bacia Hidrográfica é compreendida como um sistema aberto, composto por conjuntos sendo estes, formados por elementos que se inter-relacionam. Deste modo, foram confeccionadas cartas morfométricas, usando as técnicas da cartografia digital semiautomática e associando os dados por estes obtidos, foi possível a construção da Carta de Energia do Relevo. Esta, juntamente com as Cartas Geomorfológicas, de Uso e Ocupação da Terra e os trabalhos de campo permitiram uma análise satisfatória, identificando a influência da ocupação urbana nos processos morfogênicos, onde a impermeabilização do solo nas vertentes, a canalização do escoamento superficial e a ocupação de fundo de vale exercem ações significativas sobre o relevo.

  17. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  18. Hierarchical Formation in Action: Characterizing Accelerated Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups Using Whole-sky WISE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher, Sarah; Alatalo, Katherine; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2016-04-01

    Compact groups provide an environment to study the growth of galaxies amid multiple prolonged interactions. With their dense galaxy concentrations and relatively low velocity dispersions, compact groups mimic the conditions of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Compact group galaxies are known to show a bimodality in Spitzer IRAC infrared color space: galaxies are preferentially either quiescent with low specific star formation rates (SSFRs) or prolifically forming stars—galaxies with moderate levels of specific star formation are rare. Previous Spitzer IRAC studies identifying this “canyon” have been limited by small number statistics. We utilize whole-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data to study 163 compact groups, thereby tripling our previous sample and including more galaxies with intermediate mid-IR colors indicative of moderate SSFRs. We define a distinct WISE mid-IR color space ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}12}{{f}4.6}\\right]\\right) versus ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}22}{{f}3.4}\\right]\\right) that we use to identify canyon galaxies from the larger sample. We confirm that compact group galaxies show a bimodal distribution in the mid-infrared and identify 37 canyon galaxies with reliable photometry and intermediate mid-IR colors. Morphologically, we find that the canyon harbors a large population of both Sa-Sbc and E/S0 type galaxies, and that they fall on the optical red sequence rather than the green valley. Finally, we provide a catalog of WISE photometry for 567 of 652 galaxies selected from the sample of 163 compact groups.

  19. Phase behavior of semifluorinated catanionic mixtures: head group dependence and spontaneous formation of vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Olsson, Ulf; Ruso, Juan M; Schulz, Pablo C; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2009-03-15

    Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C(16)TAB)-sodium perfluorooctanoate (C(8)FONa) and hexadecylpyridynium bromide (C(16)PyB)-C(8)FONa catanionic semifluorinated mixtures have been studied by conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and polarizing microscopy. The regular solution theory, applicable for a limited fluorinated molar ratio, does not predict long-range electrostatic interactions. The results are consistent with the fact that in the hydrogenated-rich region the interaction is attractive in both catanionic mixtures. The systems containing pyridinium headgroups were of the stronger interaction. A transition from micelles was found in both mixtures as a function of fluorinated molar ratio. Special attention was devoted to the effect of the head group in the system properties. The information related with the mean vesicle radius measured by DLS was compared with the vesicle size distribution as well as the elastic properties of the bilayer measured with cryo-TEM.

  20. Formation of Silver Nanoplates Layer on Amino Group Grafted Silica Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis PILIPAVICIUS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the self-arrangement of Ag nanoplates on (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES silanized silica coatings was investigated. Silica coatings were made by sol-gel method and silanized in two different ways. The first one includes silanization in acidic 2-propanol solution, the other one – in dry toluene. Coatings were silanized by using different amounts of APTES in case of silanization in 2-propanol. Silver nanoplates layer of functionalized silica coatings was obtained via self-assembly. Coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM, water contact angle measurements (CA, FT-IR analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Research showed that dense Ag nanoplates arrangement occurs when there is a high amount of amino groups on the surface.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.8405

  1. Intermolecular charge flux as the origin of infrared intensity enhancement upon halogen-bond formation of the peptide group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hajime

    2010-07-01

    The changes in the vibrational properties of the peptide group upon formation of O⋯X and N⋯X halogen bonds are studied theoretically. Calculations are carried out for complexes of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a well known model molecule of the peptide group, with halogen-containing molecules. For comparison, calculations are also carried out for some NMA-water hydrogen-bonding complexes. It is shown that the infrared (IR) intensity of the amide I mode of the peptide group is enhanced significantly (up to about 520 km mol-1 or 2.6 times) upon CO⋯X halogen-bond formation, in spite of rather modest magnitudes of the intermolecular electric field and of the changes in the CO bond length and in the amide I vibrational frequency as compared with the cases of the CO⋯H(D) hydrogen bonding. From the analysis of the changes in the dipole derivative and in the electronic structure, it is shown that this IR intensity enhancement arises from the intermolecular charge flux. For the N⋯X halogen bonding complexes, some characteristic changes in the vibrational properties are seen, among which the IR intensity enhancement of the ND out-of-plane wagging mode is most notable. The reason why such large IR intensity enhancements are seen for these particular vibrational modes is examined.

  2. Análise estrutural e considerações sobre a dinâmica sucessional de dois fragmentos florestais semideciduais do Jardim Botânico Municipal de Bauru, SP, Brasil Structural analysis and considerations on the successional dynamic of two semideciduous forest fragments at the Municipal Botanical Garden of Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Ongaro Pinheiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros fitossociológicos, como freqüência de classes de altura e de diâmetro, são muito utilizados em inferências sobre sucessão secundária em fitocenoses. Indivíduos abustivo-arbóreos com no mínimo 1,5 m de altura e fuste a 1,3 m, foram amostrados em 2.600 m² de floresta estacional semidecidual do Jardim Botânico Municipal de Bauru (JBMB. Informações sobre as freqüências de classes de diâmetro das cinco espécies com maior índice de valor de importância (Ocotea pulchella, Protium heptaphyllum, Copaifera langsdorffii, Platypodium elegans e Trichilia pallida e a classificação sucessional das populações mais numerosas também foram analisadas para inferências sobre as características sucessionais da comunidade estudada. As freqüências de classes de diâmetro de Vochysia tucanorum, espécie típica de savana, também foi estudada. As informações obtidas permitiram considerar que a floresta do JBMB encontra-se em estádio sucessional intermediário, e que, embora tenha sofrido com a ação do fogo no passado, algumas dessas populações estão conseguindo renovar-se.Phytosociological parameters, as the frequency of height and diameter classes, are commonly used to make inferences about secondary succession in given phytocenoses. Shrub and tree individuals higher than 1.5 m and with a bole length of at least 1.3 m were sampled in 2,600 m2 of semideciduous seasonal forest in the Municipal Botanical Garden of Bauru (JBMB. Information on the diameter class frequencies of five species with the highest Importance Value Index (Ocotea pulchella, Protium heptaphyllum, Copaifera langsdorffii, Platypodium elegans and Trichilia pallida and the more numerous species' successional classification were analyzed to make inferences about the successional features of the studied community. The diameter class frequencies of savannic species Vochysia tucanorum were also studied. The information obtained allowed to consider that the

  3. Avaliação física e química da polpa de maracujá congelada comercializada na região de Bauru Physical-chemical evaluation of the frozen passion fruit pulp traded in the Bauru region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Raimundo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de polpa de maracujá tem como objetivo a obtenção de produtos com características sensoriais e nutricionais próximas da fruta in natura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as informações nutricionais das embalagens e as características físico-químicas das polpas de maracujá congeladas. Foram analisadas 25 amostras, de 07 marcas diferentes, adquiridas em supermercados de Bauru-SP, e região. Apenas uma das marcas analisadas (14,3% encontra-se em acordo com a legislação vigente, sendo que as demais apresentam tabelas ultrapassadas ou incompletas. As características físico-químicas diferem entre as marcas comercializadas, principalmente quanto ao teor de ácido ascórbico, sendo que 64,0% das amostras se encontram em desarcordo com o Regulamento Técnico para Fixação dos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ para polpa de maracujá do Ministério da Agricultura. As variações observadas entre a polpa in natura e a congelada são menores nos itens: densidade, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez em ácido cítrico e ratio, mas altas quanto ao teor de ácido ascórbico.The purpose of passion fruit pulp industry is to keep the taste and nutritional characteristics as close as possible to the natural fruit. The objective of this work was to evaluate the packing nutritional information and the physical-chemical characteristics of the frozen passion fruit pulp. It was analyzed 25 pulp samples of the 07 different brand names found in Bauru and nearby cities in the State of São Paulo. Just one of the analyzed brand names (14.3 % was according to the current Brazilian Food Legislation, the others had exceeded or incomplete tables. The variations of the physical-chemical characteristics for the traded brands were mainly due to the rate of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and 64% of the samples also don't follow the rules of the Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality Standards (PIQ for passion fruit pulp of the

  4. Group additive values for the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of oxygenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2013-11-25

    A complete and consistent set of 60 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for oxygenate molecules and 97 GAVs for oxygenate radicals is provided, which allow to describe their standard enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities. Approximately half of the GAVs for oxygenate molecules and the majority of the GAVs for oxygenate radicals have not been reported before. The values are derived from an extensive and accurate database of thermochemical data obtained by ab initio calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory for 202 molecules and 248 radicals. These compounds include saturated and unsaturated, α- and β-branched, mono- and bifunctional oxygenates. Internal rotations were accounted for by using one-dimensional hindered rotor corrections. The accuracy of the database was further improved by adding bond additive corrections to the CBS-QB3 standard enthalpies of formation. Furthermore, 14 corrections for non-nearest-neighbor interactions (NNI) were introduced for molecules and 12 for radicals. The validity of the constructed group additive model was established by comparing the predicted values with both ab initio calculated values and experimental data for oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. The group additive method predicts standard enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities with chemical accuracy, respectively, within 4 kJ mol(-1) and 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) for both ab initio calculated and experimental values. As an alternative, the hydrogen bond increment (HBI) method developed by Lay et al. (T. H. Lay, J. W. Bozzelli, A. M. Dean, E. R. Ritter, J. Phys. Chem.- 1995, 99, 14514) was used to introduce 77 new HBI structures and to calculate their thermodynamic parameters (Δ(f)H°, S°, C(p)°). The GAVs reported in this work can be reliably used for the prediction of thermochemical data for large oxygenate compounds, combining rapid prediction with wide-ranging application.

  5. NGC 6845: metallicity gradients and star formation in a complex compact group

    CERN Document Server

    Olave-Rojas, D; Carrasco, E R; de Oliveira, C Mendes; de Mello, D F; Scarano, S

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained Gemini/GMOS spectra of 28 regions located across the interacting group NGC 6845, spanning from the inner regions of the four major galaxies (NGC 6845A, B, C, D) to the tidal tails of NGC 6845A. All regions in the tails are star-forming objects with ages younger than 10 Myr. We derived the gas-phase metallicity gradients across NGC 6845A and its two tails and we find that these are shallower than those for isolated galaxies. NGC 6845A has a gas-phase oxygen central metallicity of \\mbox{12+log(O/H)$\\sim$8.5} and a flat gas-phase metallicity gradient ($\\beta$=0.002$\\pm$0.004 dex kpc$^{-1}$) out to $\\sim$4 $\\times$ R$_{25}$ (to the end of the longest tidal tail). Considering the mass-metallicity relation, the central region of NGC 6845A displays a lower oxygen abundance than the expected for its mass. Taking into account this fact and considering the flat oxygen distribution measured along the eastern tidal tail, we suggest that an interaction event has produced a dilution in the central metallic...

  6. Effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous Easier: a group format 12-step facilitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Witbrodt, Jane; Zemore, Sarah E

    2009-10-01

    Most treatment programs recommend clients attend 12-step groups, but many drop out posttreatment. The effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous [AA] Easier (MAAEZ ), a manual-guided intervention designed to help clients connect with individuals encountered in AA, was tested using an "OFF/ON" design (n = 508). MAAEZ effectiveness was determined by comparing abstinence rates of participants recruited during ON and OFF conditions and by studying the effect of the number of MAAEZ sessions attended. At 12 months, more clients in the ON condition (vs. OFF) reported past 30-day abstinence from alcohol (p = .012), drugs (p = .009), and both alcohol and drugs (p = .045). In multivariate analyses, ON condition participants had significantly increased odds of abstinence from alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and from drugs (OR = 2.21); abstinence odds also increased significantly for each additional MAAEZ session received. MAAEZ appeared especially effective for those with more prior AA exposure, severe psychiatric problems, and atheists/agnostics. MAAEZ represents an evidence-based intervention that is easily implemented in existing treatment programs.

  7. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  8. The Pan-STARRS1 Medium-deep Survey: Star Formation Quenching in Group and Cluster Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hung-Yu; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Kai-Yang; Foucaud, Sebastien; Chen, Chin-Wei; Chiueh, Tzihong; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Chen, Wen-Ping; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2017-08-01

    We make use of a catalog of 1600 Pan-STARRS1 groups produced by the probability friends-of-friends algorithm to explore how the galaxy properties, i.e., the specific star formation rate (SSFR) and quiescent fraction, depend on stellar mass and group-centric radius. The work is the extension of Lin et al. In this work, powered by a stacking technique plus a background subtraction for contamination removal, a finer correction and more precise results are obtained than in our previous work. We find that while the quiescent fraction increases with decreasing group-centric radius, the median SSFRs of star-forming galaxies in groups at fixed stellar mass drop slightly from the field toward the group center. This suggests that the main quenching process in groups is likely a fast mechanism. On the other hand, a reduction in SSFRs by ˜0.2 dex is seen inside clusters as opposed to the field galaxies. If the reduction is attributed to the slow quenching effect, the slow quenching process acts dominantly in clusters. In addition, we also examine the density-color relation, where the density is defined by using a sixth-nearest-neighbor approach. Comparing the quiescent fractions contributed from the density and radial effect, we find that the density effect dominates the massive group or cluster galaxies, and the radial effect becomes more effective in less massive galaxies. The results support mergers and/or starvation as the main quenching mechanisms in the group environment, while harassment and/or starvation dominate in clusters.

  9. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  10. Coacervate formation from natural glycolipid: one acetyl group on the headgroup triggers coacervate-to-vesicle transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, T; Yanagishita, H; Kitamoto, D

    2004-09-01

    Coacervate (L3 phase) formation of the single component "natural" glycoliped biosurfactant, MEL-A, was observed for the first time by using an optical microscope, a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), and a freeze-fracture electron microscope (FF-TEM). It was also found that only a slight decrease in spontaneous curvature resulting from the absence of one acetyl group on the headgroup induced a drastic morphological change in the 3D self-assembled structure from coacervates (L3 phase) to ordered vesicles (Lalpha phase).

  11. FISSION-TRACK DATING OF A TEPHRA LAYER IN THE ALAT FORMATION OF THE DANDIERO GROUP (DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Attempts to date a biotite separate from a tephra layer recognized near Buia (Danakil Depression, Eritrea) in the liwer part of the Homo remains – bearing Dandiero group (formerly attributed to the Danakil Formation) using the 39Ar/40Ar method failed because of xenocrystic contamination. For this reason it was applied the fission-track method on glass, since no other phases datable with this technique were present. The quality of glass was very poor for fission-track dating, because of the sm...

  12. [Prognostic assessment for formation of a group of cardiovascular high risk among personnel participating in atomic submarines utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosiukin, A E; Vasiliuk, V B; Ivanchenko, A V; Saenko, S A; Semenchuk, O A; Dokhov, M A; Verveda, A B

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound scanning of main vessels (common carotid, internal carotid, common and superficial femoral, posterior tibial arteries) in staffers of shipyard "Nerpa"--branch of JSC "Shipbuilding center Zvezdochka" (Snezhnogorsk city Murmansk region)--engaged into atomic submarines utilization. Findings are atherosclerotic changes in common carotid and common femoral arteries--increased thickness of intima-media complex over the reference values or atherosclerotic plaque formation. The changes were maximal in a group of males aged over 50 with length of service over 25 years. Discriminant analysis helped to suggest a mathematic model to forecast cardiovascular diseases in personnel of "Nerpa" shipyard.

  13. Doubts about the crucial role of the rising-tube mechanism in the formation of sunspot groups

    CERN Document Server

    Getling, A V; Buchnev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary processing results are presented for a dataset obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. The idea of the project is to record, nearly simultaneously, the full velocity and magnetic-field vectors in growing active regions and sunspot groups at a photospheric level and distinguish between the manifestations of two mechanisms of sunspot-group formation --- the rising of an flux tube of a strong magnetic field and the in situ amplification and structuring of magnetic field by convection. A young bipolar subregion developing within AR 11313 was observed on 9--10 October 2011. Filtergrams and Dopplergrams were obtained, and one or two spectropolarimetric fast-mode scans were done. Based on the series of filtergrams, the trajectories of corks are computed, using a technique similar to but more reliable than local correlation tracking, and compared with the magnetic maps. Currently, only the vertical magnetic field and the horizontal flows are used for a qualitative analysis. The ...

  14. Substrate selective patterning on lithography defined gold on silica: Effect of end-group functionality on intermolecular layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, Magnus; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Strickland, Aaron D.; Batt, Carl A.

    2008-06-01

    An increasing number of applications in nanobiotechnology and other areas call for defined regions of different chemical functionality to achieve site-specific attachment while minimizing any unwanted surface interactions. In order to generate spatially defined chemical patterns on planar surfaces, standard nanofabrication methods are typically employed. However, when incorporating biological and chemical molecules into complex nanofabricated structures the micro/nanofabrication methods needed are often incompatible with the standard approaches used to achieve chemical patterning. An alternative strategy is to use substrate selective patterning (SSP) where two different organic molecules each have a specific affinity to a particular substrate material via a surface anchoring group. Here we use imaging ellipsometry, an ideally suited technique for measuring monolayer films on patterned substrates, and infrared spectroscopy to investigate SSP of alkanethiols with hydrophilic/hydrophobic moieties in combination with a methoxypolyethylenoxypropyltrichlorosilane reagent (mPEGTCS) on patterned gold on native silicon oxide substrates. One central aspect of SSP that was investigated was the cross-reactivity between the various substrate specific molecules, which can cause multilayer formation. Results showed that when the mPEGTCS reagent was used subsequently after formation of hydrophilic self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers (SAMs), there was an additional layer build-up of silane. No multilayer formation was observed for a hydrophobic alkanethiol SAM. SSP can be a practical method to effectively create localized functional chemistry on spatially defined nanofabricated devices.

  15. Psychometric assessments of life quality and voice for teachers within the municipal system, in Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gheissa Martinello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies show a high prevalence of vocal alterations among teachers. One of the criteria for the establishment of the prevalence of vocal alteration is based on teachers' self-perception. Objective: This study aimed at comparing voice-disordered quality of life measures between a group of teachers who reported vocal alteration and a group of teachers who did not, by verifying the teachers' perception regarding the impact of vocal alteration in the different dimensions of voice quality of life. Material and Methods: Ninety-seven (97 teachers answered three psychometric protocols of voice quality of life: Voice Handicap Index (VHI, Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL, and the Voice Activity Participation Profile (VAPP, in addition to a questionnaire for characterization of the sample. Results: The results were that 39.8% of the teachers reported vocal alteration. When comparing voice measures between the groups (with and without vocal alteration, statistically significant differences were observed: the total score of VHI, total score of V-RQOL and total score of VAAP and its dimensions. It was also verified that the physical dimension of VHI has a greater impact among the dimensions of this protocol. For VRQOL, the most striking dimension was the physical functioning domain, both indicating the laryngeal discomfort and the impact of voice on communication, in teachers with and without complaints. As for VAAP, no domain prevailed over the others in the group with no complaints. For teachers with complaints, three domains, i.e., daily communication, work, and emotions have a greater impact than social communication. The limitation and restriction scores were calculated as well, and it was observed the limitation of activities is greater than the restriction of activities, both in the group with and the group without complaints. Conclusion: One may conclude that the teachers who reported vocal alterations better realize the impact of voice in

  16. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  17. Siderophile element systematics of IAB complex iron meteorites: New insights into the formation of an enigmatic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    Siderophile trace element abundances and the 187Re-187Os isotopic systematics of the metal phases of 58 IAB complex iron meteorites were determined in order to investigate formation processes and how meteorites within chemical subgroups may be related. Close adherence of 187Re-187Os isotopic data of most IAB iron meteorites to a primordial isochron indicates that the siderophile elements of most members of the complex remained closed to elemental disturbance soon after formation. Minor, presumably late-stage open-system behavior, however, is observed in some members of the sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH subgroups. The new siderophile element abundance data are consistent with the findings of prior studies suggesting that the IAB subgroups cannot be related to one another by any known crystallization process. Equilibrium crystallization, coupled with crystal segregation, solid-liquid mixing, and subsequent fractional crystallization can account for the siderophile element variations among meteorites within the IAB main group (MG). The data for the sLM subgroup are consistent with equilibrium crystallization, combined with crystal segregation and mixing. By contrast, the limited fractionation of siderophile elements within the sLL subgroup is consistent with metal extraction from a chondritic source with little subsequent processing. The limited data for the other subgroups were insufficient to draw robust conclusions about crystallization processes involved in their formation. Collectively, multiple formational processes are represented in the IAB complex, and modeling results suggest that fractional crystallization within the MG may have been a more significant process than has been previously recognized.

  18. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  19. Star formation in the intragroup medium and other diagnostics of the evolutionary stages of compact groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Flores, S; De Mello, D F; Amram, P; Plana, H; Epinat, B; Iglesias-Páramo, J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Compact groups of galaxies are entities that have high densities of galaxies and serve as laboratories to study galaxy interactions, intergalactic star formation and galaxy evolution. Aims: The main goal of this study is to search for young objects in the intragroup medium of seven compact groups of galaxies: HCG 2, 7, 22, 23, 92, 100 and NGC 92 as well as to evaluate the stage of interaction of each group. Methods: We used Fabry-Perot velocity fields and rotation curves together with GALEX NUV and FUV images and optical R-band and HI maps. Results: (i) HCG 7 and HCG 23 are in early stages of interaction, (ii) HCG 2 and HCG 22 are mildly interacting, and (iii) HCG 92, HCG 100 and NGC 92 are in late stages of evolution. We find that all three evolved groups contain populations of young blue objects in the intragroup medium, consistent with ages < 100 Myr, of which several are younger than < 10 Myr. We also report the discovery of a tidal dwarf galaxy candidate in the tail of NGC 92. These three ...

  20. Caracterização e gênese de perfis plínticos desenvolvidos de arenito do Grupo Bauru: II - mineralogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas paisagens do norte e oeste do estado de São Paulo, plintita e petroplintita constituem feições que se repetem com freqüência sobre os arenitos cretácicos da Formação Adamantina (Grupo Bauru. Com o objetivo de avaliar as características mineralógicas desses materiais e estudar sua gênese, selecionaram-se dois perfis de solos representativos da paisagem local e constituídos por feições plínticas, petroplínticas e mosqueados. O estudo foi realizado na baixa meia encosta de uma vertente situada na Estação Experimental de Agronomia de Pindorama, do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, região norte do estado de São Paulo. Com base nas observações em microscópio de varredura e microanálise pontual realizadas em glébulas selecionadas, bem como nas análises mineralógicas da fração argila desferrificada e dos óxidos de ferro de todos os horizontes dos perfis estudados, constatou-se que caulinita, hematita e goethita são os principais constituintes da fração argila dos nódulos e horizontes estudados. Os minerais mica, gibbsita e anatásio complementam a mineralogia da fração argila das glébulas, assemelhando-se em constituição ao material interglebular e aos demais horizontes dos perfis. Quartzo, feldspatos potássicos, traços de feldspatos sódicos e ilmenita foram identificados como componentes da fração silte e areia dos nódulos. A presença constante de minerais alteráveis nas glébulas petroplínticas é evidência de que a gênese desses materiais está relacionada com a ferruginização do saprolito. Este fato, associado aos baixos teores de Al na estrutura dos óxidos de ferro das glébulas, evidencia sua formação em condições hidromórficas, supostamente relacionadas com a solubilização e mobilização do ferro ferroso, lixiviado da paisagem a montante e reprecipitado na zona de vadosa, onde os maiores potenciais de oxidação favoreceram a segregação e a precipitação do ferro.

  1. Lesões na dança: estudo transversal híbrido em academias da cidade de Bauru-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Geraldo Grego

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As atividades físicas praticadas pelos bailarinos predispõem-nos à ocorrência de inúmeros agravos. A busca por informações sobre as lesões dessa modalidade permitiu constatar, em nosso meio, escassez de investigações sobre o assunto. Nesse sentido, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi apontar as principais lesões da dança, visando descrever sua distribuição e caracterização a partir de nossa realidade, bem como sugerir medidas preventivas para os agravos de maior ocorrência. Para tanto, realizou-se estudo com 122 bailarinas na faixa etária de 8 a 30 anos, alocadas nas academias de dança da cidade de Bauru. Em sua maioria, eram membros do corpo de baile (42% ou estudantes (45%, com 3 a 11 anos de prática (73%, alunas de balé clássico (84% e jazz (66% e participavam de 4 a 8 aulas semanais (70%, com duração de 60 a 120 minutos (89%. O procedimento para coleta de dados foi o inquérito de morbidade referida para obtenção de informações sobre os agravos ocorridos no período de um ano. A apresentação dos resultados deu-se sob a forma de estatística descritiva, com distribuições de freqüência absoluta, relativa, corrigida e razão de lesões. Em termos analíticos foram utilizados testes não paramétricos de Wilcoxon, Spearman e Kruskal-Wallis, para p < 0,05. Os resultados apontaram 53,27% das respondentes com freqüências entre 1 e 6 lesões agudas, que aumentam com a idade, concentram-se no plano tegumentar (79,46% e estão associadas a variáveis como a idade em que começou a dançar e com o uso de sapatilha de ponta; 97,48% são agravos de membros inferiores, com predominância de calos (47,03% e bolhas (28,56% nos pés. O balé clássico foi o estilo responsável pela maior parte das lesões; as mais experientes e as estudantes foram as mais afetadas e o uso da sapatilha de ponta implicou risco elevado para ocorrência dos agravos observados nos pés.

  2. Investigations of the Temperature Influence on Formation of Compounds from the BTEX Group During the Thermal Decomposition of Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic binders applied in foundry plants based on synthetic resins, from the one side influence obtaining the required technological properties by the moulding sand and - in consequence - obtaining good quality castings, and on the other side are the source of volatile organic compounds (VOC. Together with synthetic resins their hardeners, which although added in very small amounts emit during their thermal decomposition substances negatively influencing the natural environment, are also used. Both, resins and hardeners only at the influence of high temperatures accompanying moulds pouring with liquid metal generate harmful volatile organic compounds including compounds from the BTEX group. Investigations of the temperature influence on the kind and amount of organic compounds formed during the thermal decomposition of selected binders and hardeners and their mixtures allow to determine temperature ranges the most favourable for emitting harmful substances as well as to compare their emission from the selected materials. The aim of this study was the determination the temperature influence on formation substances from the BTEX group, during thermal decomposition of the selected binder, its hardener and their mixture. The BTEX group emission constitutes one of the basic criteria in assessing the harmfulness of materials applied for moulding and core sands and it can undergo changes in dependence of the applied system resin-hardener. Investigations were carried out on the specially developed system for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in the temperature range: 500ºC - 1300ºC, at the laboratory scale. The investigations subject was the furan resin, its hardener and hardened furan resin. The assessment of the emission degree of the BTEX group in dependence of the system subjected to the temperature influence was performed, within the studies. The temperature range, in which maximal amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and

  3. Delivering a very brief psychoeducational program to cancer patients and family members in a large group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A J; Edmonds, C V; Williams, D

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that brief psychoeducational programs for cancer patients will significantly improve mean quality of life. As this kind of adjunctive treatment becomes integrated into general cancer management, it will be necessary to devise cost-effective and efficacious programs that can be offered to relatively large numbers of patients. We have developed a very brief 4-session program that provides this service to 40-80 patients and family members per month (and seems capable of serving much larger numbers, depending on the capacity of the facility in which they assemble). Patients meet in a hospital auditorium for a large group, lecture-style program that offers training in basic coping skills: stress management, relaxation training, thought monitoring and changing, mental imagery and goal setting. Over the first year we have treated 363 patients and 150 family members. Improvements were assessed by changes in the POMS-Short Form, and both patients and family members were found to improve significantly over the course of the program. While this is not a randomized comparison, it suggests that the benefits gained from a large group in a classroom are not substantially less than the improvements that have been documented in the usual small group format, where more interactive discussions are possible.

  4. Group IVA phospholipase A2-associated production of MMP-9 in macrophages and formation of atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Hiromi; Hontani, Naoya; Toshida, Issei; Oka, Mayuko; Sato, Takashi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2008-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is involved in atherogenesis, and the production of MMP-9 in macrophages is considered to be mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade. The present study examined the possible involvement of group IVA phospholipase A2 (IVA-PLA2), a key enzyme in the arachidonic acid cascade, in the production of MMP-9 induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in macrophages and high-fat diet-induced formation of atherosclerotic lesions using IVA-PLA2-deficient mice (C57BL/6 background). In wild-type mouse peritoneal macrophages, oxLDL induced an increase in MMP-9 in the culture medium. The oxLDL-promoted production of MMP-9 was markedly reduced in IVA-PLA2-deficient macrophages compared to wild-type macrophages. Feeding of wild-type mice with a high-fat diet caused the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root with increases in MMP-9 and macrophages in the lesions and with higher serum levels of total cholesterol. Such lesions were apparently less severe in IVA-PLA2-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet, despite higher total cholesterol levels. Under the conditions, a high-fat diet reduced the serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in wild-type mice. However, IVA-PLA2-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were protected against the decrease in HDL-C levels. The present results suggest that IVA-PLA2 is involved in the oxLDL-induced production of MMP-9 in macrophages and the high-fat diet-induced formation of early atherosclerotic lesions. The protection against the lesions in IVA-PLA2-deficient mice may be ascribable, in part, to the impaired production of MMP-9 and/or the maintained levels of HDL-C.

  5. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies I. Hubble Space Telescope / Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with $\\tau$ $\\sim$ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs (dTrans), and dwarf ellipticals (dEs) can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH ($\\tau$ $\\sim$ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages $>$ 10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z=2 ranges considerably (80\\%...

  6. Constraining the nature of dark matter with the star formation history of the faintest Local Group dwarf galaxy satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, Alice; Governato, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    $\\Lambda$-Warm Dark Matter (WDM) has been proposed as alternative scenario to $\\Lambda$ cold dark matter (CDM), motivated by discrepancies at the scale of dwarf galaxies, with less small-scale power and realized by collisionless particles with energies in the range $1-3$ keV. We present a new approach to constrain the viability of such WDM models using star formation histories of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high time-resolution star formation histories (SFHs) obtained with HST-based color magnitude diagrams with the range of possible collapse redshifts of their dark matter halos expected in CDM and in different WDM scenarios. The collapse redshift is inferred after determining a plausible infall mass of the subhalo. This is based on the current mass of individual dwarf inferred from stellar kinematics combined with results of cosmological simulations providing information on the subhalo evolution. Since WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale form signific...

  7. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram India and their palaeoenvironmental significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghavendra P Tiwari; Chinmoy Rajkonwar; Lalchawimawii; Paul Lalnuntluanga Jehova Malsawma; Victor Z Ralte; Satish J Patel

    2011-12-01

    A detailed ichnological study performed on the Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram, India reveals the occurrence of rich and diverse trace fossils. These have been collected from the two localities in Aizawl, i.e., Bawngkawn and Ropaiabawk, where sandstone-shale sequence is well exposed. Total 20 ichnospecies of 14 ichnogenera have been identified which include Arenicolites isp., Cochlichnus anguineus, Helminthopsis abeli, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Ophiomorpha borneensis, Palaeophycus tubularis, Palaeophycus heberti, Palaeophycus sulcatus, Palaeophycus alternatus, Pholeus abomasoformis, Pholeus bifurcatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Planolites annularis, Polykladichnus irregularis, Rhizocorallium isp., Skolithos linearis, Taenidium satanassi, Teichichnus rectus, Thalassinoides horizontalis and Thalassinoides paradoxicus. Ethologically these ichnogenera display dwelling and feeding activities of the infaunal organisms. Arenicolites, Ophiomorpha, Polykladichnus and Skolithos are the members of the Skolithos ichnofacies while Palaeophycus, Planolites, Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides are the members of the Cruziana ichnofacies. The presence of Skolithos ichnofacies indicates sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore zone while the Cruziana ichnofacies indicate unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in the shoreface/offshore zone. These ichnogenera indicate foreshore to shoreface-offshore zone of shallow marine environment for the deposition of the rocks of the Bhuban Formation of Mizoram.

  8. Lagoonal sedimentation and fluctuating salinities in the Vectis Formation (Wealden Group, Lower Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. J.; Ruffell, A.; Wach, G.; Goldring, R.

    1991-06-01

    Sedimentation in the Shepherd's Chine Member of the Vectis Formation is characterised by a cyclicity of four principal facies on which a strong asymmetry has been imprinted by erosional events. The four lithofacies are: (1) very fine to fine sandstones; (2) heterolithic sand/silt and mudstones; (3) parallel-laminated (pinstripe) mudstones; and (4) black mudstones. The biota, principally associated with lithofacies 2 and 3 (as shelly partings and coquinas), can be grouped into five molluscan associations which range from freshwater to quasi-marine. These associations are poorly correlated with the lithofacies, but fluctuate within and between cycles. Salinity and storm frequency increase towards the top of the formation, heralding the main marine Aptian transgression. Lithofacies and biotas indicate deposition in a lagoon that was shallow and temporarily emergent. The cyclicity is thought to represent the more distal phases of the advance and retreat of deltaic sand bodies, derived from a westerly direction, into the lagoon. Major storm events broke the symmetry of the cycles. A deltaic facies, represented by the Barnes High Sandstone Member, is thought to be laterally linked, reworked deltaic sandstone lobes.

  9. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  10. New Row-grouped CSR format for storing the sparse matrices on GPU with implementation in CUDA

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhuber, Tomáš; Vacata, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new format for storing sparse matrices. The format is designed to perform well mainly on the GPU devices. We present its implementation in CUDA. The performance has been tested on 1,600 different types of matrices and we compare our format with the Hybrid format. We give detailed comparison of both formats and show their strong and weak parts.

  11. Unusual C-C bond cleavage in the formation of amine-bis(phenoxy) group 4 benzyl complexes: Mechanism of formation and application to stereospecific polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.

    2014-08-11

    Group 4 tetrabenzyl compounds MBn4 (M = Zr, Ti), upon protonolysis with an equimolar amount of the tetradentate amine-tris(phenol) ligand N[(2,4-tBu2C6H2(CH 2)OH]3 in toluene from -30 to 25 °C, unexpectedly lead to amine-bis(phenoxy) dibenzyl complexes, BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn2 (M = Zr (1), Ti (2)) in 80% (1) and 75% (2) yields. This reaction involves an apparent cleavage of the >NCH2-ArOH bond (loss of the phenol in the ligand) and formation of the >NCH 2-CH2Bn bond (gain of the benzyl group in the ligand). Structural characterization of 1 by X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the complex formed is a bis(benzyl) complex of Zr coordinated by a newly derived tridentate amine-bis(phenoxy) ligand arranged in a mer configuration in the solid state. The abstractive activation of 1 and 2 with B(C6F 5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at room temperature generates the corresponding benzyl cations {BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn(THF)}+[BnB(C6F5) 3]- (M = Zr (3), Ti, (4)). These cationic complexes, along with their analogues derived from (imino)phenoxy tri- and dibenzyl complexes, [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(3,5- tBu2C6H2)O]ZrBn3 (5) and [2,4-Br2C6H2(O)(6-CH2(NC 5H9))CH2N=CH(2-adamantyl-4-MeC 6H2O)]ZrBn2 (6), have been found to effectively polymerize the biomass-derived renewable β-methyl-α-methylene- γ-butyrolactone (βMMBL) at room temperature into the highly stereoregular polymer PβMMBL with an isotacticity up to 99% mm. A combined experimental and DFT study has yielded a mechanistic pathway for the observed unusual C-C bond cleavage in the present protonolysis reaction between ZrBn4 and N[(2,4-tBu2C 6H2(CH2)OH]3 for the formation of complex 1, which involves the benzyl radical and the Zr(III) species, resulting from thermal and photochemical decomposition of ZrBn4, followed by a series of reaction sequences consisting of protonolysis, tautomerization, H-transfer, oxidation, elimination, and radical coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  12. Fluoride concentration in water at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru, SP Concentração de fluoreto na água do setor abastecido pela Estação de Tratamento de Água de Bauru, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simonetti Lodi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru and classify the samples as acceptable or unacceptable according to the fluoride concentration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: samples were collected from 30 areas at two periods, October 2002 and March 2003. The fluoride concentration in the samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion sensitive electrode (Orion 9609 connected to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720. Samples with fluoride concentration ranging from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L were considered acceptable, and those whose concentration was outside this range as unacceptable. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: the fluoride concentration of the water samples varied between 0.31 and 2.01 mg F/L. Nearly 56% of the samples were classified as acceptable. CONCLUSION: the variations in fluoride concentration at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station reinforce the need of constant monitoring for maintenance of adequate fluoride levels in the public water supply.OBJETIVO: Analisar a concentração de fluoreto da água de abastecimento público do setor abastecido pela Estação de Tratamento de Água de Bauru e classificar as amostras em aceitáveis ou inaceitáveis de acordo com a concentração de flúor. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas 238 amostras de 30 bairros em duas etapas, Outubro de 2002 e Março de 2003. A concentração de fluoreto presente nas amostras foi determinada em duplicata, utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609, acoplado ao potenciômetro (Procyon, modelo 720. As amostras com concentração de flúor variando entre 0,55 e 0,84 mg F/L foram consideradas como aceitáveis e aquelas cuja concentração estava fora do intervalo, como inaceitáveis. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: A concentração de fluoreto das amostras de água variou entre 0,31 e 2,01 mg F

  13. Análise do perfil profissional de cirurgiões-dentistas graduados na Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru- USP entre os anos de 1996 e 2000 Professional profile analysis of dentists graduated at Bauru dental School - University of São Paulo between 1996 and 2000

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    José Roberto de Magalhães Bastos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram determinar o perfil profissional dos 248 cirurgiões-dentistas graduados na Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru - USP entre 1996 e 2000, constatar se há a adoção de medidas educativo-preventivas de caráter coletivo por parte destes profissionais e determinar o grau de satisfação profissional, através de um questionário contendo questões abertas e de múltipla escolha. O índice de retorno foi de 39,5%. A análise dos resultados revelou que os cirurgiões-dentistas eram predominantemente do gênero masculino, escolheram a Odontologia como profissão por afinidade e consideraram bom o curso de Graduação. Os resultados demonstraram que os profissionais ainda não despertaram para a importância da educação e da prevenção, principalmente em nível coletivo. Concluiu-se que o perfil predominante do profissional é aquele que trabalha no consultório particular próprio (38,8% ou por porcentagem (25,5%, sendo que 26,5% atende em algum Convênio ou Cooperativa e apenas 12,2% trabalham na rede pública. Embora 63,3% tenham afirmado que se sentem realizados profissionalmente, apenas 12,2% estão financeiramente realizados. Uma das maiores dificuldades enfrentadas pelos cirurgiões-dentistas é a alta competitividade e saturação do mercado de trabalho.The aims of this study were to determine the professional profile of the 248 dentists graduated at Bauru Dental School - University of Sao Paulo between 1996 and 2000, verify if they accomplish educational and collective measures and determine the level of professional satisfaction. The material was a self-applicable questionnaire containing both multiple choice and open questions. The return rate was 39.5%. Analysis of data showed that the dentists, who were predominantly males, chose Dentistry as a profession because they felt comfortable with it, and evaluate the graduate course as good. Results showed that the practitioners still do not focus on the

  14. Efeito do espaçamento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthe parviflora Benth (coração-de-negro aos 42 anos, em Bauru, SP. Effect of the spacing in the development of Poecilanthe parviflora Benth. (coração-de-negro of 42 year-old grown, in Bauru, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de LIMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, plantios de espécies nativas visando à exploração comercial são raros, devido ao crescimento lento e à falta de informações silviculturais e oferta de sementes e mudas de boa qualidade. Dessa forma, no ano de 1964 foi implantado umexperimento visando avaliar os efeitos do espaçamento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthae parviflora, que é uma espécie de crescimento lento, na Estação Ecológica de Bauru, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, comcinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos seguintes espaçamentos: 1,0 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,5 m; 2,0 m x 2,0 m; 2,5 m x 2,5 m e 3,0 m x 3,0 m, tendo sido avaliados o diâmetro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual, volume por hectare e a sobrevivência. Os resultados demonstraram que os espaçamentos não influenciaram asobrevivência, mas produziram efeitos no diâmetro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual e volume por hectare. Com o aumento do espaçamento, houvemaior incremento nos valores das três primeiras variáveis, ocorrendo o inverso na última. Possivelmente, o uso de espaçamentos iniciais mais adensados e o emprego de desbastes seletivos e sucessivos resultariamemmaior proporção de madeira e melhor qualidade.In Brazil, planting of native species aiming at the commercial exploration is rare, due to the slow growth, the lack of silvicultural information and supply of seeds and seedling of superior quality. On account of this, in 1964 an experiment aiming to evaluate the effects of planting spacings on growing of Poecilanthae parviflora, which is a species of slow growth, was implanted in the Ecological Station of Bauru, SP. The trial was established in a complete-randomized block-design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of the following spacings: 1.0 m x 1.0 m; 1.5 m x 1.5 m; 2.0 m x 2.0 m; 2.5 m x 2.5 m and 3.0 m x 3.0 m, which were evaluated at

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reveal distinct patterns of anastomosis formation and hyphal healing mechanisms between different phylogenic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza, F.A.; Fernández, F.; Delmas, N.S.; Declerck, S.

    2005-01-01

    The significance of anastomosis formation and the hyphal healing mechanism (HHM) for functionality and integrity of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelial network remains poorly documented. Four Glomeraceae and three Gigasporaceae were cultured monoxenically. Anastomosis formation was asses

  16. Strong far-infrared cooling lines, peculiar CO kinematics, and possible star-formation suppression in Hickson compact group 57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Ogle, P. M.; Rich, J. A.; Xu, C. K. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lisenfeld, U. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Bitsakis, T. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guillard, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud XI, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Charmandaris, V. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Cluver, M.; Jarrett, T. [Astrophysics Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Dept of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Dopita, M. A.; Kewley, L. J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Freeland, E. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Rasmussen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Verdes-Montenegro, L. [Departamento Astronomía Extragaláctica, Instituto Astrofísica Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Yun, M., E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [University of Massachusetts, Astronomy Department, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to L {sub FIR} and weak CO(1-0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1-0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normal distribution of the [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-infrared (FIR) cooling supports a low-density, warm, diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable models of a photon-dominated region. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H{sub 2} emissions have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently disturbed, diffuse gas. The existence of shocks is also consistent with the peculiar CO kinematics in the galaxy, indicating that highly noncircular motions are present. These kinematically disturbed CO regions also show evidence of suppressed star formation, falling a factor of 10-30 below normal galaxies on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We suggest that the peculiar properties of both galaxies are consistent with a highly dissipative, off-center collisional encounter between HCG 57d and 57a, creating ring-like morphologies in both systems. Highly dissipative gas-on-gas collisions may be more common in dense groups because of the likelihood of repeated multiple encounters. The possibility of shock-induced star-formation suppression may explain why a subset of these HCG galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley.

  17. Involvement of the nadA gene in formation of G-group aflatoxins in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingjing; Zeng, Hongmei; Shima, Yoko; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Yabe, Kimiko

    2008-07-01

    The nadA gene is present at the end of the aflatoxin gene cluster in the genome of Aspergillus parasiticus as well as in Aspergillus flavus. RT-PCR analyses showed that the nadA gene was expressed in an aflatoxin-inducible YES medium, but not in an aflatoxin-non-inducible YEP medium. The nadA gene was not expressed in the aflR gene-deletion mutant, irrespective of the culture medium used. To clarify the nadA gene's function, we disrupted the gene in aflatoxigenic A. parasiticus. The four nadA-deletion mutants that were isolated commonly accumulated a novel yellow-fluorescent pigment (named NADA) in mycelia as well as in culture medium. When the mutants and the wild-type strain were cultured for 3 days in YES medium, the mutants each produced about 50% of the amounts of G-group aflatoxins that the wild-type strain produced. In contrast, the amounts of B-group aflatoxins did not significantly differ between the mutants and the wild-type strain. The NADA pigment was so unstable that it could non-enzymatically change to aflatoxin G(1) (AFG(1)). LC-MS measurement showed that the molecular mass of NADA was 360, which is 32 higher than that of AFG(1). We previously reported that at least one cytosol enzyme, together with two other microsome enzymes, is necessary for the formation of AFG(1) from O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) in the cell-free system of A. parasiticus. The present study confirmed that the cytosol fraction of the wild-type A.parasiticus strain significantly enhanced the AFG(1) formation from OMST, whereas the cytosol fraction of the nadA-deletion mutant did not show the same activity. Furthermore, the cytosol fraction of the wild-type strain showed the enzyme activity catalyzing the reaction from NADA to AFG(1), which required NADPH or NADH, indicating that NADA is a precursor of AFG(1); in contrast, the cytosol fraction of the nadA-deletion mutant did not show the same enzyme activity. These results demonstrated that the NadA protein is the cytosol enzyme

  18. Heat evolution of micelle formation, dependence of enthalpy, and heat capacity on the surfactant chain length and head group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatowski, Ella; Kozlov, Michael M; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2002-02-15

    Micelle formation by many surfactants is endothermic at low temperatures but exothermic at high temperatures. In this respect, dissociation of micelles (demicellization) is similar to dissolving hydrocarbons in water. However, a remarkable difference between the two processes is that dissolving hydrocarbons is isocaloric at about 25 degrees C, almost independently of the hydrocarbon chain length, whereas the temperature (T*) at which demicellization of different surfactants is athermal varies over a relatively large range. We have investigated the temperature dependence of the heat of demicellization of three alkylglucosides with hydrocarbon chains of 7, 8, and 9 carbon atoms. At about 25 degrees C, the heat of demicellization of the three studied alkylglucosides varied within a relatively small range (DeltaH=-7.8+/-0.4 kJ/mol). The temperature dependence of DeltaH(demic) indicates that within the studied temperature range the heat capacity of demicellization (DeltaC(P,demic)) is about constant. The value of DeltaC(P,demic) exhibited an apparently linear dependence on the surfactant's chain length (DeltaC(P,demic)/n(CH(2))=47+/-7 kJ/mol K). Our interpretation of these results is that (i) the transfer of the head groups from micelles to water is exothermic and (ii) the temperature dependence of the heat associated with water-hydrocarbon interactions is only slightly affected by the head group. This implies that the deviation of the value of T* from 25 degrees C results from the contribution of the polar head to the overall heat of demicellization. Calorimetric studies of other series of amphiphiles will have to be conducted to test whether the latter conclusion is general.

  19. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (10^4 < Mstar < 10^8 Msun) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived from analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) Lower mass galaxies quench earlier than higher mass galaxies; (2) Inside of virial radius there is no correlation between a satellite's current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; (3) There are hints of systematic differences in quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with literature results, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z=0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ~7 dex in stellar mass (10^4 < Mstar < 10^11.5 Msun). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases to...

  20. Real-space renormalization group flow in quantum impurity systems: Local moment formation and the Kondo screening cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Becker, Michael; Bulla, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    The existence of a length scale ξK˜1/TK (with TK the Kondo temperature) has long been predicted in quantum impurity systems. At low temperatures T≪TK, the standard interpretation is that a spin-(1)/(2) impurity is screened by a surrounding “Kondo cloud” of spatial extent ξK. We argue that renormalization group (RG) flow between any two fixed points (FPs) results in a characteristic length scale, observed in real space as a crossover between physical behavior typical of each FP. In the simplest example of the Anderson impurity model, three FPs arise, and we show that “free orbital,” “local moment,” and “strong coupling” regions of space can be identified at zero temperature. These regions are separated by two crossover length scales ξLM and ξK, with the latter diverging as the Kondo effect is destroyed on increasing temperature through TK. One implication is that moment formation occurs inside the “Kondo cloud”, while the screening process itself occurs on flowing to the strong coupling FP at distances ˜ξK. Generic aspects of the real-space physics are exemplified by the two-channel Kondo model, where ξK now separates local moment and overscreening clouds.

  1. Toxin Profile, Biofilm Formation, and Molecular Characterization of Emetic Toxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Group Isolates from Human Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Ok, Gyeongsik; Lee, Nari

    2015-11-01

    Emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus group species are an important problem, because the staple food for Korean is grains such as rice. In this study, we determined the prevalence (24 of 129 isolates) of emetic B. cereus in 36,745 stool samples from sporadic food-poisoning cases in Korea between 2007 and 2008. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and biofilm-forming ability of the emetic B. cereus isolates were investigated. Repetitive element sequence polymorphism polymerase chain reaction fingerprints (rep-PCR) were also used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Emetic B. cereus was present in 0.07% of the sporadic food-poisoning cases. The 24 emetic isolates identified all carried the nheABC and entFM genes and produced NHE enterotoxin. However, they did not have hemolysin BL toxin or related genes. A relationship between biofilm formation and toxin production was not observed in this study. The rep-PCR fingerprints of the B. cereus isolates were not influenced by the presence of toxin genes, or biofilm-forming ability. The rep-PCR assay discriminated emetic B. cereus isolates from nonemetic isolates, even if this assay did not perfectly discriminate these isolates. Further study on emetic isolates possessing a high degree of diversity may be necessary to evaluate the performance of the subtyping assay to discriminate emetic and nonemetic B. cereus isolates and could provide a more accurate indication of the risk from B. cereus strains.

  2. FISSION-TRACK DATING OF A TEPHRA LAYER IN THE ALAT FORMATION OF THE DANDIERO GROUP (DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIULIO BIGAZZI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to date a biotite separate from a tephra layer recognized near Buia (Danakil Depression, Eritrea in the liwer part of the Homo remains – bearing Dandiero group (formerly attributed to the Danakil Formation using the 39Ar/40Ar method failed because of xenocrystic contamination. For this reason it was applied the fission-track method on glass, since no other phases datable with this technique were present. The quality of glass was very poor for fission-track dating, because of the small size of grains. In addition, after polishing only few glass shards showed useful surfaces for track counting and only 25 spontaneous tracks were counted. The determined fission-track age - 0.75 +/- 0.16 Ma - is a rejuvenated age due to the presence of a certain amount of annealing of spontaneous tracks. An attempt to apply the plateau method for correcting this apparent age failed. A corrected age of 1.3 +/- 0.3 Ma was computed using the size-correction method. In spite of its low precision, this fission-track age represents a significant result, since it corroborates the attribution to Jaramillo Subchron of the normal magnetozone near the base of which the tephra is located. 

  3. Carbonate facies of the Upper Triassic Ojo Huelos Member, San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group), southern New Mexico: Paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Lucas, Spencer G.

    2012-10-01

    The Upper Triassic (Adamanian LVF) Ojo Huelos Member of the San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group) is a distinctive, carbonate-rich unit that occurs in the lower Chinle section of central New Mexico. The member consists mainly of micritic lime mudstones, ostracodal wackestones to grainstones, peloidal grainstones and distinctive pisolitic rudstones, interbedded with fine-grained siliciclastic mudstones. Most limestones exhibit some evidence of pedogenic brecciation and root penetration, and porous fabrics similar to those of modern limestone tufas occur locally. The interbedded mudstones are typically lenticular and commonly display a blocky ped fabric in which subequant peds are separated by sparry calcite veins. Fossils from the Ojo Huelos Member are freshwater (darwinulid) ostracodes, various freshwater fishes and aquatic/amphibious tetrapods-metoposaurs and phytosaurs. We interpret the carbonate facies as the deposits of carbonate lakes, ponds and wetlands that were partly spring-fed, whereas the interbedded and surrounding mudstones were alluvial in origin. The groundwater and overland hydrology of the region was likely controlled by the relative proximity to an upland recharge area in the Mogollon Highlands to the south, but sedimentary fabrics record strong overprinting by desiccation and pedogenic reworking. Consequently, we interpret the Ojo Huelos Member as recording a climate that varied from subhumid to semi-arid, which caused episodic falls in the hydrologic base-level. This resulted in landscape degradation, exemplified by significant pedogenic and erosional reworking of the carbonate sediments and fluvial incision.

  4. An improved lossless group compression algorithm for seismic data in SEG-Y and MiniSEED file formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huailiang; Tuo, Xianguo; Shen, Tong; Henderson, Mark Julian; Courtois, Jérémie; Yan, Minhao

    2017-03-01

    An improved lossless group compression algorithm is proposed for decreasing the size of SEG-Y files to relieve the enormous burden associated with the transmission and storage of large amounts of seismic exploration data. Because each data point is represented by 4 bytes in SEG-Y files, the file is broken down into 4 subgroups, and the Gini coefficient is employed to analyze the distribution of the overall data and each of the 4 data subgroups within the range [0,255]. The results show that each subgroup comprises characteristic frequency distributions suited to distinct compression algorithms. Therefore, the data of each subgroup was compressed using its best suited algorithm. After comparing the compression ratios obtained for each data subgroup using different algorithms, the Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain algorithm (LZMA) was selected for the compression of the first two subgroups and the Deflate algorithm for the latter two subgroups. The compression ratios and decompression times obtained with the improved algorithm were compared with those obtained with commonly employed compression algorithms for SEG-Y files with different sizes. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm provides a compression ratio of 75-80%, which is more effective than compression algorithms presently applied to SEG-Y files. In addition, the proposed algorithm is applied to the miniSEED format used in natural earthquake monitoring, and the results compared with those obtained using the Steim2 compression algorithm, the results again show that the proposed algorithm provides better data compression.

  5. Effects of an intervention in eating habits and physical activity in Japanese-Brazilian women with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil Efeitos da intervenção em hábitos alimentares e atividade física de mulheres nipo-brasileiras com elevada prevalência de síndrome metabólica, residentes em Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Roberta G. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impact of a lifestyle intervention on the cardiometabolic risk profile of women participating in the Study on Diabetes and Associated Diseases in the Japanese-Brazilian Population in Bauru. This was a non-controlled experimental study including clinical and laboratory values at baseline and after a 1-year intervention period. 401 Japanese-Brazilian women were examined (age 60.8±11.7 years, and 365 classified for metabolic syndrome (prevalence = 50.6%. Subjects with metabolic syndrome were older than those without (63.0±10.0 vs. 56.7±11.6 years, p Avaliou-se o impacto de intervenção no estilo de vida no perfil de risco cardiometabólico de mulheres participantes do Estudo de Diabetes e Doenças Associadas na População Nipo-Brasileira de Bauru. O delineamento foi experimental não-controlado, incluindo avaliação clínico-laboratorial basal e um ano após a intervenção. Examinaram-se 401 nipo-brasileiras (60,8 ± 11,7 anos sendo 365 classificáveis quanto à presença de síndrome metabólica, estimada em 50,6%. Portadoras de síndrome metabólica eram mais velhas que aquelas sem a síndrome (63,0 ± 10,0 vs. 56,7 ± 11,6 anos; p 5% do peso apresentaram melhor perfil que as que mantiveram ou ganharam. Programa de intervenção no estilo de vida em nipo-brasileiras de alto risco cardiometabólico, melhorou o perfil antropométrico e bioquímico, porém, se desconhece se serão duradouros, reduzindo eventos cardiovasculares em longo prazo.

  6. Directing Group in Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling: Copper-Catalyzed Site-Selective C-N Bond Formation from Nonactivated Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Jing; Lu, Xi; Wang, Guan; Li, Lei; Jiang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Yu-Dong; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-08-03

    Copper-catalyzed directed decarboxylative amination of nonactivated aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. This intramolecular C-N bond formation reaction provides efficient access to the synthesis of pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives as well as the modification of complex natural products. Moreover, this reaction presents excellent site-selectivity in the C-N bond formation step through the use of directing group. Our work can be considered as a big step toward controllable radical decarboxylative carbon-heteroatom cross-coupling.

  7. In vitro effect of antibiotics on biofilm formation by Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated from intestinal microbiota of dogs and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janice Oliveira; Martins Reis, Ana Catarina; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Pinheiro, Adriana Queiroz; Freire, Rosemary Souza; Oriá, Reinaldo Barreto; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano

    2014-08-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis group strains colonize the intestinal tract of dogs as commensal bacteria. Nevertheless, they can be opportunistic pathogens responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates in dogs, like in oral infections, abscesses and wound infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in B. fragilis strains isolated from dogs intestinal microbiota and to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobials on biofilm formation. A total of 30 B. fragilis group strains were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method. Thirteen B. fragilis strains were tested for biofilm formation and the biofilm producer strains were chosen to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials on biofilm formation. The isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, metronidazole, imipenem and chloramphenicol. Tetracycline and clindamycin were active against 50% and 33% of the strains, respectively. When biofilm-forming strains were grown in the presence of sub-MICs of imipenem and metronidazole, the inhibition of biofilm formation was observed. In contrast, enrofloxacin at ½ MIC caused a significant increase in biofilm formation in two of four strains examined. In conclusion, the B. fragilis group strains isolated were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials tested and the sub-MIC concentrations of imipenem, metronidazole and clindamycin were able to inhibit the biofilm formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation, sedimentology, structural setting, chemical composition, and provenance of selected formations in Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group, central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysdal, Russell G.; Lindsey, David A.; Taggart, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    A unit of the Mesoproterozoic Apple Creek Formation of the Lemhi Range previously was correlated with part of the lower subunit of the Mesoproterozoic Yellowjacket Formation in the Salmon River Mountains. Strata currently assigned to the middle subunit of the Yellowjacket Formation lie conformably above the Apple Creek unit in the Salmon River Mountains, and are here renamed the banded siltite unit and reassigned to the Apple Creek Formation. Almost all of the banded siltite unit is preserved within the Salmon River Mountains, where it grades upward into clastic rocks that currently are assigned to the upper subunit of the Yellowjacket Formation and that here are reassigned to the Gunsight Formation. The banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation is composed of a turbidite sequence, as recognized by previous workers. Uppermost strata of the unit were reworked by currents, possibly storm generated, and adjusted to a high water content by developing abundant soft-sediment deformation features. Basal strata of the overlying Gunsight Formation in the Salmon River Mountains display abundant hummocky crossbeds, storm-generated features deposited below fair-weather wave base, that are conformable above the storm-reworked deposits. The hummocky crossbedded strata grade upward into marine shoreface strata deposited above fair-weather wave base, which in turn are succeeded by fluvial strata. Hummocky and shoreface strata are absent from the Gunsight Formation in the Lemhi Range. The major thickness of the Gunsight Formation in both the Salmon River Mountains and the Lemhi Range is composed of fluvial rocks, transitional in the upper part into marine rocks of the Swauger Formation. The fluvial strata are mainly characterized by stacked sheets of metasandstone and coarse siltite; they are interpreted as deposits of braided rivers. The Poison Creek thrust fault of the Lemhi Range extends northwestward through the study area in the east-central part of the Salmon River

  9. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar: VII - Ensaio preliminar de adubação N-P-K no arenito de Bauru Fertilizer experiments with sugar cane: VII - Preliminary results with N, P, and K on "arenito de bauru" type of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alvarez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um experimento de adubação realizado em solo do arenito de Bauru, nunca adubado anteriormente, na Usina São Domingos, Catanduva, Estado de São Paulo. No estudo dos três principais elementos de fertilização, empregou-se um delineamento fatorial 3³. Os nutrientes foram pesquisados nos níveis, em kg/ha, de 0, 90 e 180 de nitrogênio, 0, 80 e 160 de P2O5 e 0, 100 e 200 de K2O, e empregados sob as formas de sulfato de amônio, superfosfato simples e cloreto de potássio. Os resultados mostraram que o fósforo foi o elemento em mínimo no solo, tendo proporcionado os maiores aumentos de produção. O emprêgo da adubação fosfatada determinou um efeito favorável no teor de sacarose do caldo, sendo linear a relação entre as doses empregadas e os aumentos de açúcar por tonelada de cana. O nitrogênio apresentou um aumento linear de produção, sendo muito menos acentuado do que o verificado para o fósforo. O meiior aumento foi verificado com o emprego do potássio.The results obtained in a 3³ factorial experiment on the applications of the three major elements for the sugar cane are presented in this paper. The fertilizer levels used were, as follows: (1 Nitrogen, applied aa ammonium sulphate at the rates of 0.90 and 180 k/ha; (2 phosphorus, applied as superphosphate at the rates of 0.80 and 160 k/ha of P2O5; and (3 Potassium, as potassium chloride at the rates of 0.100 e 200 kg/ha of K2O. All cultural operations were caried out as in commercial plantings. The results indicated that phosphorus was the element that gave the highest yield increases, improved also the sugar content of the canca. Nitrogen also increased the yield linearly, but the effects were less noticeable than those of phosphorus. The increase in yield due to potassium was lower than those of phosphorus and nitrogen.

  10. A Search for Triggered Star Formation in the Compact Group of Galaxies NGC 5851, NGC 5852 and CGCG 077-007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Charlotte Alexandra; Basu-Zych, Antara; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; NASA / GSFC X-ray Galaxies Group

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy interactions provide ideal conditions for triggering star formation, and impact galaxy evolution and the structure of the universe. The aim of this research is to study the key factors during galaxy interactions that influence star formation events by studying close pairs of galaxies to find the relationship between interaction properties (e.g. relative velocities and distances, mass ratios, orientation, and merger stage) and star formation rate (SFR). We present our analysis on one compact group of star-forming galaxies CGCG 077-007, NGC 5851, and their quiescent companion NGC 5852. Within this group we investigate the conditions where galaxy interactions cause higher SFR or supermassive black hole accretion (i.e. AGN activity), which might rather quench SFR. Areas of increased star formation are classified by the identification of the most UV bright regions within the galaxies. We find these areas by taking the Swift UVOT W2 filter and subtracting from it the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) z-band image in order to remove the underlying stellar population. The regions identified by this process allow us to conduct a multi-wavelength study of stellar populations within this compact group. We use Spectral Energy Distribution models to fit ultraviolet to mid-infrared photometry from Swift UVOT, SDSS, 2MASS and WISE and measure global star formation histories for the galaxies and for the identified star forming regions within the galaxies. In the future we will include analysis of Swift XRT data to place constraints on AGN activity, and relate to the star formation history. This group serves as a pilot study and we will apply these methods to a sample of 30 galaxy groups and close pairs in order to investigate the relationship between galaxy interactions, SFR, and AGN activity and gain deeper insight into how mergers drive galaxy evolution.

  11. Formation of Monolayers by the Coadsorption of Thiols on Gold: Variation in the Length of the Head Group, Tail Group, and Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    oleophobic monolayer) and the other by a polar or polarizable group (yielding a hydrophilic or oleophilic monolayer). In these systems the contact...to comprise discrete islands, each of which were oleophobic , then the monolayer itself would not be wetted by hexadecane. We observed that hexadecane

  12. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 108 {{M}⊙ }) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived by analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) lower-mass galaxies quench earlier than higher-mass galaxies; (2) inside of Rvirial there is no correlation between a satellite’s current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; and (3) there are hints of systematic differences in the quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with results from the literature, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z = 0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ˜7 dex in stellar mass (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 1011.5 {{M}⊙ }). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases toward the present, with both the lowest and highest-mass systems exhibiting the largest quenched fractions at all redshifts. In contrast, galaxies between {{M}\\star } ˜ 108-1010 {{M}⊙ } have the lowest quenched fractions. We suggest that such intermediate-mass galaxies are the least efficient at quenching. Finally, we compare our quenching times with predictions for infall times for low-mass galaxies associated with the MW. We find that some of the lowest-mass satellites (e.g., CVn II, Leo IV) may have been quenched before infall, while higher-mass satellites (e.g., Leo I, Fornax) typically quench ˜1-4 Gyr after infall. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA constract NAS 5-26555.

  13. The NGC 672 and NGC 784 Galaxy Groups: Evidence for Galaxy Formation and Growth Along a Nearby Dark Matter Filament

    CERN Document Server

    Zitrin, Adi

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged): We present U, B, V, R, I, H-alpha and NUV photometry of 14 galaxies in the very local Universe (within 10 Mpc that are dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrr), are at low redshift (511-10 Gyr) and one "young" population (<30 Myr) with the recent SF bursts occurring a few to a few 10s of Myr ago, arguing for synchronicity in star formation in these objects. We propose that the ~synchronous star formation in all objects is caused by the accretion of cold gas from intergalactic space onto dark matter haloes arranged along a filament threading the void where these dwarf galaxies reside and point out this galaxy sample as an ideal target to study hierarchical clustering and galaxy formation among very nearby objects.

  14. Alluvial-eolian interaction in a Cambrian rift margin: the Pedra das Torrinhas and Pedra Pintada formations (Guaritas Group, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marconato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of selected outcrops from the Pedra das Torrinhas Formation of the Guaritas Group (Cambrian, Camaquã Basin, near the basin bordering Encantadas Fault Zone. The studied succession includes alluvial fan deposits that pass laterally into eolian deposits. Sedimentary facies and architectural element analysis were performed, followed by sedimentary petrography and microscopic porosity analysis, aiming to characterize the porosity of the deposits and its spatial distribution. The main objective was to contribute to a better understanding of the porosity spatial distribution in depositional systems characterized by the interaction between alluvial and eolian processes, with special reference to deposits formed prior to the development of terrestrial plants. Porosity values are related to depositional processes, with higher porosities associated to eolian dune deposits (mean of 8.4%, and lower porosity related to interdunes (mean of 3.4% and alluvial fans (mean of 4.3%. Architectural elements analysis revealed the spatial relationships of these deposits, a response to the interplay of the eolian and alluvial processes. The integration of porosity data reveals that the interaction of alluvial and eolian processes results in heterogeneous distribution of porosity at the facies association scale. Eolian reworking of alluvial facies increases porosity whereas sheet-flood and other alluvial processes in the interdune areas reduce porosity.O presente trabalho consiste no estudo de afloramentos da Formação Pedra das Torrinhas do Grupo Guaritas (Cambriano, Bacia Camaquã, próximo à Zona de Falha das Encantadas. As sucessões estudadas incluem depósitos de leques aluviais que passam lateralmente para depósitos eólicos. Foram realizadas análises de fácies e de elementos arquiteturais, seguidos de petrografia sedimentar e análise microscópica de porosidade, com o objetivo de caracterizar a porosidade da unidade e sua

  15. Evidence for inter- and intraspecies biofilm formation variability among a small group of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando; Lima, Cláudia Afonso; Brás, Susana; França, Ângela; Cerca, Nuno

    2015-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are common bacterial colonizers of the human skin. They are often involved in nosocomial infections due to biofilm formation in indwelling medical devices. While biofilm formation has been extensively studied in Staphylococcus epidermidis, little is known regarding other CoNS species. Here, biofilms from six different CoNS species were characterized in terms of biofilm composition and architecture. Interestingly, the ability to form a thick biofilm was not associated with any particular species, and high variability on biofilm accumulation was found within the same species. Cell viability assays also revealed different proportions of live and dead cells within biofilms formed by different species, although this parameter was particularly similar at the intraspecies level. On the other hand, biofilm disruption assays demonstrated important inter- and intraspecies differences regarding extracellular matrix composition. Lastly, confocal laser scanning microscopy experiments confirmed this variability, highlighting important differences and common features of CoNS biofilms. We hypothesized that the biofilm formation heterogeneity observed was rather associated with biofilm matrix composition than with cells themselves. Additionally, our results indicate that polysaccharides, DNA and proteins are fundamental pieces in the process of CoNS biofilm formation.

  16. Petrologic and isotopic data from the Cretaceous (Campanian) Blackhawk Formation and Star Point Sandstone (Mesaverde Group), Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Turner, Christine E.; Peterson, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The presence of discrete minerals associated with coal—whether (1) detrital or authigenic constituents of the coals or in thin mudstone or siltstone units interbedded with coals, or (2) authigenic phases that formed along cleats—might influence its utilization as an energy resource. The build-up of sintered ash deposits on the surfaces of heat exchangers in coal-fired power plants, due to the alteration of minerals during combustion of the coal, can seriously affect the functioning of the boiler and enhance corrosion of combustion equipment. In particular, the presence of sodium in coals has been considered a key factor in the fouling of boilers; however, other elements (such as calcium or magnesium) and the amount of discrete minerals burned with coal can also play a significant role in the inefficiency of and damage to boilers. Previous studies of the quality of coals in the Cretaceous (Campanian) Blackhawk Formation of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, revealed that the sodium content of the coals varied across the region. To better understand the origin and distribution of sodium in these coals, petrologic studies were undertaken within a sedimentological framework to evaluate the timing and geochemical constraints on the emplacement of sodium-bearing minerals, particularly analcime, which previously had been identified in coals in the Blackhawk Formation. Further, the study was broadened to include not just coals in the Blackhawk Formation from various localities across the Wasatch Plateau, but also sandstones interbedded with the coals as well as sandstones in the underlying Star Point Sandstone. The alteration history of the sandstones in both formations was considered a key component of this study because it records the nature and timing of fluids passing through them and the associated precipitation of sodium-bearing minerals; thus, the alteration history could place constraints on the distribution and timing of sodium mineralization in the interbedded or

  17. Formation of Pickering emulsions stabilized via interaction between nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous phase and polymer end groups dissolved in oil phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahiro; Maeda, Hayata; Fujii, Syuji; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-06-26

    The influence of end groups of a polymer dissolved in an oil phase on the formation of a Pickering-type hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion and on the morphology of HAp nanoparticle-coated microspheres prepared by evaporating solvent from the emulsion was investigated. Polystyrene (PS) molecules with varying end groups and molecular weights were used as model polymers. Although HAp nanoparticles alone could not function as a particulate emulsifier for stabilizing dichloromethane (oil) droplets, oil droplets could be stabilized with the aid of carboxyl end groups of the polymers dissolved in the oil phase. Lower-molecular-weight PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups formed small droplets and deflated microspheres, due to the higher concentration of carboxyl groups on the droplet/microsphere surface and hence stronger adsorption of the nanoparticles at the water/oil interface. In addition, Pickering-type suspension polymerization of styrene droplets stabilized by PS molecules containing carboxyl end groups successfully led to the formation of spherical HAp-coated microspheres.

  18. The group A3 chondrules of Krymka: Further evidence for major evaporative loss during the formation of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Like Semarkona (type 3.0), Krymka (type 3.1) contains two distinct types of chondrule (namely groups A and B) which differ in their bulk compositions, phase compositions, and CL properties. The group A chondrules in both meteorites show evidence for major loss of material by evaporation(i.e. elemental abundance patterns, size, redox state, olivine-pyroxene abundances). Group A and B chondrules probably formed from common or very similar precursors by the same processes acting with different intensities, group A suffering greater mass-loss by evaporation and reduction of FeO and SiO2. While Krymka chondrules share many primary mineralogical and compositional properties with Semarkona chondrules, the minimal metamorphism it has suffered has also had a significant effect on its chondrules.

  19. RECONSTRUCTION OF A LOST CARBONATE FACTORY BASED ON ITS BIOGENIC DETRITUS (TERNATE-TRAVEDONA FORMATION AND GONFOLITE LOMBARDA GROUP - NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI COLETTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reconstructs a now completely eroded late Eocene to earliest Oligocene carbonate factory of Northern Italy, through the analysis of a carbonate deep-water-fan sequence (Ternate-Travedona Formation and the limestone detritus dispersed into the late Oligocene clastic-wedge of the Gonfolite Lombarda Group. Textural characteristics and skeletal assemblages of the Gonfolite pebbles were studied and compared to those of the Ternate-Travedona Formation. The same skeletal assemblage and the same taxa were found in samples from both areas, suggesting their common origin. Whereas the Ternate-Travedona Formation skeletal grains were reworked during transport, the Gonfolite Lombarda Group pure-limestone pebbles are pristine fragments of the carbonate platform, that was uplifted and eroded from the late Eocene to the early Oligocene. Using both these sources of information it was possible to reconstruct the late Eocene environment and its facies distribution. The areas undergoing high hydrodynamic energy were dominated by free-living coralline-algal branches, rhodoliths and larger thick-tested benthic foraminifera. A coralline framework, associated with thin-tested benthic foraminifera and boxwork rhodoliths, was present in slightly deeper and sheltered environments. Episodic debris flows, mainly triggered by river floods, supplied the sub-marine fan of the Ternate-Travedona Formation. These events were able to down-cut through the narrow platform and rip off large fragments of the substrate. River runoff probably also supplied large quantities of organic matter, leading to local oxygen-depletion and preservation of organic matter. The combined stressful effects of bottom instability and riverine discharge probably excluded corals from the association. The integrated study of the Ternate-Travedona Formation, and of the limestone pebbles in the Gonfolite Group, have enabled the reconstruction of this otherwise lost Eocene carbonate factory.

  20. A close look at the Centaurus A group of galaxies III. Recent star formation histories of late-type dwarfs around M83

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Cole, A A

    2011-01-01

    We study the resolved stellar populations of dwarf galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A/M83 group of galaxies. Our goal is to characterize their evolutionary history and to investigate eventual similarities or differences with the dwarf population in other group environments. This work presents the analysis of five late-type (irregular) dwarfs found in the vicinity of the giant spiral M83. Using archival HST/ACS data, we perform synthetic color-magnitude diagram modeling to derive the star formation histories of these late-type dwarfs. The target objects show heterogeneous star formation histories, with average star formation rates of 0.08 to 0.70x10^{-2} M_odot/yr. Some of them present prolonged, global bursts of star formation (~300-500 Myr). The studied galaxies are all metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~-1.4). We further investigate the spatial extent of different stellar populations, finding that the young stars show a clumpy distribution, as opposed to the smooth, broad extent of the old ones. The actively star forming ...

  1. Use of thermolytic protective groups to prevent G-tetrad formation in CpG ODN type D: structural studies and immunomodulatory activity in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Montserrat; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Ausín, Cristina; Beaucage, Serge L; Verthelyi, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) show promise as immunoprotective agents and vaccine adjuvants. CpG ODN type D were shown to improve clinical outcome in rhesus macaques challenged with Leishmania major. These ODN have a self-complementary core sequence and a 3' end poly(G) track that favors G-tetrad formation leading to multimerization. Although multimerization appears necessary for localization to early endosomes and signaling via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9), it can result in product polymorphisms, aggregation and precipitation, thereby hampering their clinical applications. This study shows that functionalizing the poly(G) track of D ODN with thermolytic 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl (fma) phosphate/thiophosphate protecting groups (pro-D ODN) reduces G-tetrad formation in solution, while allowing tetrad formation inside the cell where the potassium concentration is higher. Temperature-dependent cleavage of the fma groups over time further promoted formation of stable G-tetrads. Peripheral blood cells internalized pro-D ODN efficiently, inducing high levels of IFNalpha, IL-6, IFNgamma and IP-10 and triggering dendritic cell maturation. Administration of pro-D35 to macaques challenged with L.major significantly increased the number of antigen-specific IFNgamma-secreting PBMC and reduced the severity of the skin lesions demonstrating immunoprotective activity of pro-D ODN in vivo. This technology fosters the development of more efficient immunotherapeutic oligonucleotide formulations for the treatment of allergies, cancer and infectious diseases.

  2. The Ri-elaboration of the Collective Sphere. New Paths of Sociality and Groups-Formation among the New Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pirni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the article is to contribute to the understanding of the reinvention of politics in young generations moving from an in depth sociological examination of the change occurring in the structure of society and in its self-definition. The objective is to grasp the ambiguity and the ambivalence characterizing the ongoing scenery of change. To carry out this analysis, we will refer to Simmel’s seminar theory of society as a network of relations and, along this line, to the contributions of authors such as Beck, Giddens, Touraine, Melucci, Castells, on the development of the late modernity and the network society. The hy-pothesis we follow is that the younger generations present multiple and original synthesis between sub-jectivity and the collective dimension. The emergence of reticular and fluid relations among individuals fosters the process of individualization and the same reinvention of the nature of social ties. We frame the qualitative transformation of the concept of "group" and "collective" as the culmination of a process of individuation, which does not entail a disappearance of intermediate groups, but that multiplies and radically alters their structure. Groups are more and more fluid and their borders porous. Individuals are no longer defined by their belonging to groups, as the same belonging to groups becomes a contingent and a negotiated act

  3. A close look at the Centaurus A group of galaxies IV. Recent star formation histories of late-type dwarfs around CenA

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Cole, A A

    2012-01-01

    We study a sample of 5 dwarf irregular galaxies in the CenA/M83 group, which are companions to the giant elliptical CenA. We aim at deriving their physical properties over their lifetime and compare them to those of dwarfs located in different environments. We use archival HST/ACS data and apply synthetic color-magnitude diagram fitting in order to reconstruct the past star formation activity of the target galaxies. The average star formation rate for the studied galaxies ranges from 10^{-3} up to \\sim 7x10^{-2} M_odot/yr, and their mean metallicities correlate with their luminosities (from [Fe/H]\\sim -1.4 up to \\sim -1.0). The form of the star formation histories varies across the sample, with quiescent periods alternating with intermittent enhancements in the star formation (from a few up to several times the average lifetime value). The dwarfs in this sample formed ~35% to ~60% of their stellar content prior to ~5 Gyr ago. The resulting star formation histories for the CenA companions are similar to those ...

  4. Architecture de contrôle / commande sûre et flexible pour la navigation en formation d'un groupe de véhicules

    OpenAIRE

    Vilca Ventura, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the interest of robotics laboratories for the development of dedicated strategies for single vehicle navigation, several laboratories around the world are more and more involved in the general challenging field of cooperative multi-robot navigation. In this context, this work deals with the navigation in formation of a group of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) dedicated to structured environments. The complexity of this Multi-Robot System (MRS) does not permit the direct use of neither ...

  5. The formation of owners’ corporations in Hong Kong’s private housing estates: A probit evaluation of Mancur Olson’s group theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, PYL; Lai, LWC

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper uses a probit model to analyse 100 observations in terms of three hypotheses about the formation of owners’ corporations in high-density private housing estates in Hong Kong within the context of Mancur Olson’s group theory. The findings do not reject the theory, revealing that it is more likely for an older urban estate with fewer owners to form owners’ corporations. The discussion includes a brief introduction to Olson’s group theory and the development of the probit an...

  6. A discussion group program enhances the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A

    2007-01-01

    It has been well-established that discussion groups enhance student learning in large lecture courses. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a discussion group program on the development of conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course. In the discussion group, students worked on problems based on topics discussed in lecture. The program was evaluated using three assessment tools. First, student responses to pre- and posttests were analyzed. The test question asked the students to demonstrate the relationships between 10 different but related terms. Use of a concept map to link the terms indicated an advanced level of conceptual reasoning skills. There was a 13.8% increase in the use of concept maps from pre- to posttest. Second, the students took a Likert-type survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on their conceptual reasoning skills. Many of the students felt that the program helped them understand and use the main course concepts to logically solve problems. Finally, average exam grades increased as the semester progressed. The average final grade in the course was 75%. Students enrolled in the course the previous year (where the lecture component of the course did not assess or reflect student learning in the discussion group) had an average final grade of 69%. The results of this study demonstrate that the discussion group program improves the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

  7. Area of coal-bearing Mesaverde Formation and Mesaverde Group, southern Piceance Basin assessment area, Colorado (psmvbndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shape file and coverage of the top of the Rollins Sandstone Member. It outlines the area underlain by the coal-bearing Cameo/Fairfield coal group in the...

  8. Reciprocal altruism and group formation : The degree of segmentation of reciprocal altruists who prefer 'old-helping-partners'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeggelink, E.P.H.; de Vos, H.; Elsas, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    To what degree does reciprocal altruism add to the explanation of the human way of group living? That is the main question of this paper. In order to find an answer to this question, we use the Social Evolution Model (SEM) that has been developed earlier. It allows us to investigate both the conditi

  9. The elusive concept of 'internal objects' (1934-1943). Its role in the formation of the Klein Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, R D

    1997-10-01

    The author traces a debate about the concept of 'internal objects' that took place between 1937 and 1943 at a time when a group of British analysts was forming around Melanie Klein. The debate is set within a complex of personal, group and organisational dynamics, which the paper makes a start on unravelling. The history of the British Psycho-Analytical Society at this time exemplifies Bion's notion of group schism. The events in the Society's history demonstrate defensive aspects of the interaction between the opposed groups, which support members against various anxieties. These include the stress of the work of analysis, but also in this instance the particular anxieties deriving from the collapse of psychoanalysis in Europe, the state of war of the country as a whole, and the death of Freud shortly after he came to London. This psychoanalytic anxiety/defence model clarifies some aspects of the debate about internal objects, and demonstrates the way in which these various anxieties and defences become organised around a scientific debate in a scientific society.

  10. SSX2 is a novel DNA-binding protein that antagonizes polycomb group body formation and gene repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Relster, Mette Marie; Greve, Katrine Buch Viden

    2014-01-01

    formation and derepresses PcG target genes. SSX2 further negatively regulates the level of the PcG-associated histone mark H3K27me3 in melanoma cells, and there is a clear inverse correlation between SSX2/3 expression and H3K27me3 in spermatogenesis. However, SSX2 does not affect the overall composition...... and stability of PcG complexes, and there is no direct concordance between SSX2 and BMI1/H3K27me3 presence at regulated genes. This suggests that SSX2 antagonizes PcG function through an indirect mechanism, such as modulation of chromatin structure. SSX2 binds double-stranded DNA in a sequence non......-specific manner in agreement with the observed widespread association with chromatin. Our results implicate SSX2 in regulation of chromatin structure and function....

  11. Formation and geochemical significance of micrometallic aggregates including fissiogenic platinum group elements in the Oklo natural reactor, Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Makiko; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2010-08-01

    Metallic aggregates with a size of a few tens μm and consisting mainly of Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, Pb, As, Sb, S and Bi were found in the acid residue of SD37-S2/CD uraninite taken from Oklo natural reactor zone (RZ) 13. Quantitative analyses of major elements using an electron probe microanalyzer and in situ isotopic analyses of Zr, Mo, Ru, Pb and U using a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe were performed on the metallic aggregates to determine the geochemical behaviors of fission products and actinides and to ascertain the processes of formation of the aggregates in the RZs. The chemical compositions of the aggregates investigated in this study are significantly different from those reported previously, showing lower Pb content and no correlation between the contents of Pb and S in the individual grains. The 235U/ 238U ratios in metallic aggregates vary significantly from 0.00478 to 0.01466, indicating chemical fractionation between U and Pu during the formation of the aggregates. The Pb isotopic data indicate that most of the Pb in the aggregates decayed from 2.05 Ga-old uraninite that existed in the RZ originally and that there was chemical fractionation between U and Pb in some aggregates. The Zr and Mo isotopic ratios, 90Zr/ 91Zr and 95Mo/ 97Mo, for most of the aggregates had small variations, which can be simply explained by constant separate mixing of fissiogenic and nonfissiogenic components. On the other hand, a large variation in the 99Ru/ 101Ru ratio (0.324-1.73) cannot be explained only by a two component mixing theory; thus, chemical fractionation between Tc and Ru during the reactor criticality is suggested. The large variations in the 235U/ 238U and 99Ru/ 101Ru isotopic ratios suggest that the aggregates formed under various redox conditions owing to the radiolysis of water.

  12. Strong far-infrared cooling lines, peculiar CO kinematics, and possible star-formation suppression in Hickson compact group 57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm ...... galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley....

  13. Some Like it Hot: Linking Diffuse X-Ray Luminosity, Baryonic Mass, and Star Formation Rate in Compact Groups of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mulchaey, John S.; Walker, Lisa May; Brandt, Willian N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L(x-T) and (L(x-sigma), even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and Hi masses are great than or equal to 10(sup (11.3) solar mass are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 micron star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due togas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stellar mass assembly in the most massive galaxies.

  14. A re-evaluation of the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Day Point Formation (Chazy Group): A new look at old reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenberg, J.; Mehrtens, C.J. (Vermont Univ., Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Day Point Formation (Chazy Group, Middle Ordovician) outcrops in the Champlain Valley of New York and Vermont. The stratigraphy of the Day Point Formation is complex, containing lithologic sequences that are unique at different localities around the Champlain Valley. The formation exhibits complex lateral interfingering of seven lithofacies: (1) Highly bioturbated sandstone with symmetrical and bifurcating ripples. (2) Bioturbated, brachiopod rich, wackestone facies. (3) Planar cross-bedded, interlayered sand and sandy packstone. (4) Interlayered sand and shale grading into sand and limestone layers. (5) Grainstone which, at some localities, contains mound-shaped bryozoan reefs, at other localities thin non-reefal sheet-like layers are present. The grainstone also has planar laminated and cross stratified beds. (6) Fine-grained, calcareous sandstone with planar and herringbone cross bedding, which in places contains small bryozoan reefs and thin sheet-reefs. (7) Planar cross bedded packstone containing bryozoan reefs and thin sheet-like non-reefal layers. The thin reefal layers are found where the mound-shaped reefs are absent. The sand units are found only in the lower portion of the Day Point Formation. The bryozoan reefs and non-reefal layers are associated with the sand beds in the lower portion of the Day Point Formation, and either live within the sand or on top of it. The bryozoans that form the non-reefal layers, found in the limestones, are contained within thin layers of sand. In contrast, no sand is found in the upper section of the Day Point Formation, yet the bryozoan reefs flourish.

  15. Existence of two groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis based on biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular profile and agr-typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Caplin, Jonathan; Detilleux, Johann; Graber, Hans; Moroni, Paolo; Taminiau, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques G

    2016-03-15

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is recognised worldwide as an important pathogen causing contagious acute and chronic bovine mastitis. Chronic mastitis account for a significant part of all bovine cases and represent an important economic problem for dairy producers. Several properties (biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular expression and group agr) are thought to be associated with this chronic status. In a previous study, we found the existence of two groups of strains based on the association of these features. The aim of the present work was to confirm on a large international and non-related collection of strains the existence of these clusters and to associate them with case history records. In addition, the genomes of eight strains were sequenced to study the genomic differences between strains of each cluster. The results confirmed the existence of both groups based on capsular typing, intracellular survival and agr-typing: strains cap8-positive, belonging to agr group II, showing a low invasion rate and strains cap5-positive, belonging to agr group I, showing a high invasion rate. None of the two clusters were associated with the chronic status of the cow. When comparing the genomes of strains belonging to both clusters, the genes specific to the group "cap5-agrI" would suggest that these strains are better adapted to live in hostile environment. The existence of these two groups is highly important as they may represent two clusters that are adapted differently to the host and/or the surrounding environment.

  16. Studying the evolution of galaxies in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr - II. The importance of environment in the suppression of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsakis, T; Ciesla, L; Diaz-Santos, T; Appleton, P; Charmandaris, V; Krongold, Y; Guillard, P; Alatalo, K; Zezas, A; Gonzalez, J; Lanz, L

    2016-01-01

    We present an in depth study on the evolution of galaxy properties in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr. We are using the largest multi-wavelength sample to-date, comprised 1770 groups (containing 7417 galaxies), in the redshift range of 0.01formation activity of galaxies in our groups has been substantially reduced (3-10 times). Moreover, their star formation histories as well as their UV-optical and mid-infrared colors are significantly different from those of field and cluster galaxies, indicating that compact group galaxies spend more time transitioning through the green valley. The morphological transformation from late-type spirals into early-type galaxies occurs in the mid-infrared transition zone rather than in the UV-optical green valley. We find evidence of shocks...

  17. [Food groups for the investigation of risk of type 2 diabetes and associated diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Renata Yumi; Damião, Renata; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouveia; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes

    2011-09-01

    The food groups conventionally applied in activities of nutritional counseling were established according to their macronutrient content. However, it does not consider recent scientific evidences of the association between food consumption and risk of developing non-communicable chronic diseases. To propose food groups for the investigation of the association between food consumption and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and associated diseases among Japanese-Brazilians. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a lifestyle intervention study conducted among Japanese-Brazilians of Bauru, SP, Brazil, from 2005 to 2007. Food intake was assessed by three 24-hour recalls of 640 participants, both genders, aged 30 to 88 years old. Eighteen new food groups were proposed according to their quantity and quality of fat, carbohydrates, sodium, and fiber. The new food groups incorporate recent evidences of the association between diet and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  18. The crucial role of higher order multiplicity in wide binary formation: a case study using the β-Pictoris moving group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The `in situ' formation of very wide binaries is hard to explain as their physical separations are beyond the typical size of a collapsing cloud core (≈5000-10 000 au). Here we investigate the formation process of such systems. We compute population statistics such as the multiplicity fraction, companion-star fraction and physical separation distribution of companions in the β-Pictoris moving group. We compare previous multiplicity studies in younger and older regions and show that the dynamic evolution of a young population with a high degree of primordial multiplicity can lead to a processed separation distribution, similar to the field population. The evolution of outer components is attributed to the dynamical unfolding of higher order (triple) systems; a natural consequence of which is the formation of wide binaries. We find a strong preference for wide systems to contain three or more components (>1000 au: 11/14, 10 000 au: 6 / 7). We argue that the majority of wide binaries identified in young moving groups are primordial. Under the assumption that stellar populations, within our galaxy, have statistically similar primordial multiplicity, we can infer that the paucity of wide binaries in the field is the result of dynamical evolution.

  19. The Effect of Environment on the Formation of Halpha Filaments and Cool Cores in Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a combined X-ray and Halpha study of 10 galaxy groups and 17 galaxy clusters using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter. We find no difference in the morphology or detection frequency of Halpha filaments in groups versus clusters, over the mass range 10^13 < M_500 < 10^15 Msun. The detection frequency of Halpha emission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the total mass of the system, at the 52% confidence level. In contrast, we find that the presence of Halpha filaments is strongly correlated with both the global (89% confidence level) and core (84%) ICM entropy, as well as the X-ray cooling rate (72%). The Halpha filaments are therefore an excellent proxy for the cooling ICM. The Halpha filaments are more strongly correlated with the cooling properties of the ICM than with the radio properties of the BCG; this further supports the scenario where these filaments are directly associated with a thermally-unstable, rapidly cooling ICM, rather...

  20. Hydrophilic group formation and cell culturing on polystyrene Petri-dish modified by ion-assisted reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan E-mail: hama@kist.re.kr; Cho, Jun-Sik; Choi, Doo-Jin; Koh, Seok-Keun

    2001-04-01

    Polystyrene (PS) Petri-dishes were modified by an ion-assisted reaction (IAR) to improve wettability and to supply a suitable surface for cell culturing. Low energy Ar{sup +} ions with 1000 eV were irradiated on the surface of PS in oxygen gas environment. Water contact angles of PS were not reduced much by ion irradiation without oxygen gas and had a value of 40 deg. In the case of ion irradiation with flowing oxygen gas, however, the water contact angles were dropped significantly from 73 deg. to 19 deg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the hydrophilic groups were formed on the surface of PS by a chemical reaction between unstable chains induced by ion irradiation and the oxygen gas. Newly formed hydrophilic groups were identified as -(C-O)-, -(C=O)- and -(C=O)-O- bonds. The influence of the surface modification on growth of the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was investigated. The IAR-treated PS surfaces showed enhanced attachment and growth in PC12 cell culture test.

  1. Contrasting Sr isotope ratios in plagioclase from different formations of the mid-Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkel, W. A.; Wolff, J.; Eckberg, A.; Ramos, F.

    2008-12-01

    Many early Columbia River Basalt flows of the Steens and Imnaha Formations are characterized by abundant, texturally complex, coarse plagioclase phenocrysts. In Imnaha lavas, the feldspars typically have more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr than whole rock and matrix, and may exhibit complex isotopic zoning that is not correlated with An content. Imnaha plagioclase grains are interpreted as variably-contaminated crystals produced when high-crystallinity mid-crustal basaltic intrusions exchanged interstitial melt with adjacent partly-melted crustal rock; this isotopically variable debris was then remobilized by subsequent intrusion of mantle-derived basalt and brought to the surface as an isotopically heterogeneous mixture. In contrast, plagioclase grains in the texturally very similar Steens lavas are isotopically near-homogeneous and 87Sr/86Sr is not significantly displaced from that of the bulk rock. This is consistent with magma- crust interaction at low degrees of crustal melting during the early stages of the Columbia River flood basalt episode, where Steens and Imnaha lavas were erupted from distinct magma systems hosted by different types of crust that exerted different degrees of isotopic leverage on the mantle-derived magmas [1]. Thermal input to the Steens system declined at the same time as the Imnaha magmatic flux increased to ultimately produce the huge outpouring of Grande Ronde lavas, which are mixtures of mantle- and crust-derived liquids, the latter produced during high degrees of crustal melting during the time of peak magmatic flux. [1] Wolff et al. (2008) Nature Geoscience 1, 177-180.

  2. Different cardiovascular neuron groups in the ventral reticular formation of the rostral medulla in rabbits: single neurone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, E; Ootsuka, Y; Terui, N

    2000-03-15

    To examine whether the cardiovascular neurons of the ventral medulla consist of functionally different kinds of neurons, single neuronal activity of the ventral medulla, activity of the renal sympathetic nerves (RSNA), blood flow of the ear (EarBF) and arterial pressure (AP) were recorded in urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized and immobilized rabbits during electrical stimulation of the aortic nerve (AN, baroreceptor afferent fibers) and electrical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) that reduced EarBF but less affected on AP and RSNA. The dorsolateral funiculus of the second cervical cord was stimulated to evoke antidromic spikes of medullary neurons. Two kinds of reticulo-spinal neurons were identified. Activities of one kind of neurons were facilitated by stimulation of DMH (latency 48.6+/-27.6 ms, n=11) but they did not respond to stimulation of the AN. Therefore, it was presumed that these neurons controlled vasomotion of the ear through the vasoconstrictor neurons in the spinal cord but did not participate in regulation of systemic AP. Activities of the other neurons were inhibited by stimulation of the AN (latency 47.8+/-8 4 ms, n=16) but they did not respond to the DMH stimulation. These neurons were identical to those reported previously as the RVLM neurons, and they contributed to regulate systemic AP but might not participate in control of cutaneous vascular movement. The former neurons were located medially to the latter in the reticular formation of the rostral ventral medulla. These results provided evidence at the single neuronal level that the cardiovascular neurons in the ventral medulla were consisted of functionally different sympatho-excitatory neurons and they were located at the different sites in the rostral ventral medulla.

  3. Studying with the cloud: the use of online Web-based resources to augment a traditional study group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Sennik, Serena; Zaki, Amna; Trotter, Brendon

    2015-03-01

    Cloud-based applications such as Google Docs, Skype, Dropbox, and SugarSync are revolutionizing the way that we interact with the world. Members of the millennial generation (those born after 1980) are now becoming senior residents and junior attending physicians. We describe a novel technique combining Internet- and cloud-based methods to digitally augment the classic study group used by final-year residents studying for the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada examination. This material was developed by residents and improved over the course of 18 months. This is an innovation report about a process for enhanced communication and collaboration as there has been little research to date regarding the augmentation of learner-driven initiatives with virtual resources.

  4. Usefulness of postoperative hip irradiation in the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in a high risk group of patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLennan, I.; Keys, H.M.; Evarts, C.M.; Rubin, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification is a complication of total hip arthroplasty in 14 to 30% of patients. Significant functional impairment will occur in up to 28% of patients with ectopic bone. The high risk group includes those with preexisting heterotopic bone in either hip, those suffering from hypertrophic osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis and patients who have had multiple procedures on the hip. Fifty-eight patients (67 hips) were irradiated after surgical removal of ectopic bone (53 hips) or received radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification (14 hips). Ninety-five percent of patients had either no bone visible or insignificant amounts of ectopic bone visible on postoperative hip X-rays. Only 5% of patients showed significant persistence of ectopic bone. Postoperative hip function was dramatically improved compared to preoperative function in all patients treated. The importance of early commencement of irradiation is emphasized.

  5. [The difficult concept of "internal objects" (1934-1943). Its significance for the formation of the Klein group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, R D

    1996-06-01

    Although the concept of "inner objects" developed by Melanie Klein is hardly a major object of discussion today, it caused a furore in the ranks of the British Psychoanalytical Society in the thirties and forties. Notably the analysts from Vienna were unable to agree to the existence of inner objects engendered via processes of internalisation. The author traces the course of these discussions of a clinical problem and the confusion they caused, placing them at the same time in a specific historical context. He sees the controversy as the expression of conflicts and fears unsettling the British Psychoanalytical Society during that period, caused on the one hand by the necessary integration of the exiled Freud family and on the other by tensions within its own ranks leading ultimately to a division of the Society and the constitution of the Klein Group.

  6. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; Studley, S. A.; Walter, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron.

  7. The Italian MSUS Study Group recommendations for the format and content of the report and documentation in musculoskeletal ultrasonography in rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagnocco, Annamaria; Porta, Francesco; Cuomo, Giovanna; Delle Sedie, Andrea; Filippucci, Emilio; Grassi, Walter; Sakellariou, Garifallia; Epis, Oscar; Adinolfi, Antonella; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; De Lucia, Orazio; Di Geso, Luca; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Gabba, Alessandra; Gattamelata, Angelica; Gutierrez, Marwin; Massaro, Laura; Massarotti, Marco; Perricone, Carlo; Picerno, Valentina; Ravagnani, Viviana; Riente, Lucrezia; Scioscia, Crescenzio; Naredo, Esperanza; Filippou, Georgios

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to draw up a set of recommendations for the format and content of the musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) report in rheumatology. A panel of rheumatologists, members of the MSUS Study Group of the Italian Society of Rheumatology, met in order to identify the main discrepancies in the MSUS report. A set of 15 recommendations was then defined, aimed at resolving the main discrepancies. They consisted of information about the motivations for the MSUS examination, the equipment, the US modalities and scanning technique, a list of the examined structures and findings, the scoring/grading systems, the number of images and main findings to include and conclusions. Subsequently a Delphi-based procedure was started in order to obtain agreement on a core set of recommendations. Consensus for each recommendation was considered achieved when the percentage of agreement was >75%. Three complete rounds were performed. The response rate was 85.2% for the first round, 78.3% for the second and 88.9% for the third. Finally, consensus was obtained for 14 of 15 statements. These 14 statements represent the recommendations of the group for the format and content of the report and documentation in MSUS in rheumatology. To the best of our knowledge, our group has produced the first recommendations for the format and content of the report and documentation in MSUS in rheumatology. The report is an integral part of the MSUS examination and its use in a homogeneous form can help in the correct interpretation of the findings.

  8. Regional depositional setting and pore network systems of the El Garia Formation (Metlaoui Group, Lower Eocene), offshore Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, R.G.; Brown, A.A. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Moody, R.T.J. [Kingston University (United Kingdom); Bellis, J.K. [ARCO International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The Metlaoui Group was deposited on a broad ramp that deepened to the north-east into the Tethyan Sea. The ramp contains a series of broad facies belts. The inner-ramp facies belt is composed of three facies tracts: (1) Faid sabkha (most landward) characterised by skeletal-poor dolomudstones and wackestones and interbedded evaporites. (2) ain Merhotta restricted shallow-lagoon facies composed of sparse skeletal wackestones, packstones, and cross-bedded gastropod grainstones; (3) updip El Garia high-energy shoal complex (most seaward) composed of red algal-disocyclinid grainstones and packstones which are locally cross-bedded. Reservoir quality is variable, with most lime packstones and grainstones having moderate to high porosity (related to intraparticle and microporosity), but only poor to fair permeability (generally less than 10 mD). The higher-quality reservoirs have preserved interparticle porosity with permeabilities ranging from tens of millidarcys to several darcys. Permeable nummulitic packstones and grainstones are favoured by the following factors; (1) low abundance of lime mud, (2) low abundance of nummulithoclastic debris, (3) low abundance of echinoderm fragments, (4) moderate sorting, (5) minor precipitation of late burial cements, (6) dolomitization. (author)

  9. Formation of Selfbound States in a One-Dimensional Nuclear Model -- A Renormalization Group based Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kemler, Sandra; Braun, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear physics, Density Functional Theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and Renormalization Group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theo...

  10. Formation of selfbound states in a one-dimensional nuclear model—a renormalization group based density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Sandra; Pospiech, Martin; Braun, Jens

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear physics, density functional theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and renormalization group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theory and our DFT-RG approach is discussed and illustrated with the aid of the calculation of the second-order energy correction for a system of N identical fermions interacting via a general two-body interaction. Moreover, we discuss the control of spuriously emerging fermion self-interactions in DFT studies within our framework. In general, our approach may help to guide the development of energy functionals for future quantitative DFT studies of heavy nuclei from microscopic interactions.

  11. Strong Far-IR Cooling Lines, Peculiar CO Kinematics and Possible Star Formation Suppression in Hickson Compact Group 57

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, K; Lisenfeld, U; Bitsakis, T; Guillard, P; Charmandaris, V; Cluver, M; Dopita, M A; Freeland, E; Jarrett, T; Kewley, L J; Ogle, P M; Rasmussen, J; Rich, J A; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Xu, C K; Yun, M

    2014-01-01

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for{\\dag} Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson Compact Group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock and/or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to L$_{\\rm FIR}$ and weak CO(1-0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1-0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normal distribution of [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-IR cooling supports a low density warm diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable PDR models. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H$_2$ emission have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock-heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently distu...

  12. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  13. Formation of the Treysa quintet and the main-group pallasites by impact-generated processes in the IIIAB asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.

    2016-04-01

    Treysa and Delegate have compositions closely similar to those of IIIAB irons but plot above the IIIAB field on Ir-Au diagrams; for this reason they are designated anomalous members of IIIAB. All refractory siderophiles share this anomaly. Wasson (bib-0010"/>) interpreted the large spread on IIIAB Ir-Au diagrams to result from melt-trapping and generated solid and liquid fractional crystallization tracks; almost all IIIAB irons fall between the tracks. In contrast, Treysa, Delegate, and three other irons (the Treysa quintet) plot beyond the liquid track. Ideal fractional crystallization cannot account for compositions that plot outside the region between the tracks. Possible explanations for the anomalous compositions of the Treysa quintet are that (1) these meteorites did not form in the IIIAB magma or (2) they formed by the mixing of early crystallized solids with a late liquid. The weight of the evidence including cosmic-ray ages favor the second explanation. Although this explanation can account for positions plotting above the liquid track, it requires special circumstances. The infalling blocks must be assimilated and the resulting melt must crystallize quickly into pockets small enough (<1 m) to allow igneous gradients to be leveled by subsequent diffusion. The Treysa quintet shares the region beyond the liquid track with most main-group pallasites (PMG), which may have also originated in the IIIAB body. It appears that Treysa, its relatives, and the PMG were formed in one or more impact events that mixed olivine and solid metal formed near the core-mantle boundary with nearby magma. It is then necessary to cool the melt rapidly; the best way to achieve rapid cooling is by heat exchange with cooler solids. That the Treysa quintet and the PMG can be explained by the same processes operating on late IIIAB magma supports the conclusion that PMG formed on the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  14. Formation of truncated peptide by-products via sequence-specific formyl group transfer from Trp(For) residues to Nα in the course of Boc-SPPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azev, Viatcheslav N; Mustaeva, Leila G; Gorbunova, Elena Yu; Molchanov, Maksim V; Rodionov, Igor L

    2013-10-01

    (N(In))-Formyl protective group of tryptophan has been introduced as a base/nucleophile-labile protective group. It has long been known that a free Nα-amino group of the peptide can serve as a nucleophile: an irreversible formyl N(In)  → NH(2) transfer is consistently observed when deformylation is performed last on an otherwise deprotected peptide that possesses free Nα-amino group. Obviously, this particular side reaction should be expected any time free amino group is exposed to Trp(For), but, at the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in the course of Boc-SPPS. In the present communication, we describe a set of appropriately designed model experiments that permitted to detect the title side reaction both in solution and in solid-phase reactions. We observed intermolecular formyl group transfer with a model compound, Trp(For)-NH(2). Importantly, we also observed this migration on solid support with the rate roughly estimated to be up to 1% of residues per minute. We also observed that the formyl-group transfer reaction occurred in a sequence-dependent manner and was suppressed to a non-detectable level using 'in situ neutralization' technique. Because this side reaction is sequence dependent, there might be situations when the rate of the formation of Nα -formyl termination by-products is significant. In other cases, the Nα -For truncated by-products would not contaminate the final peptide significantly but still could be a source of microheterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Nonassociated gas resources in low-permeability sandstone reservoirs, lower tertiary Wasatch Formation, and upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouch, T.D.; Schmoker, J.W.; Boone, L.E.; Wandrey, C.J.; Crovelli, R.A.; Butler, W.C.

    1994-08-01

    The US Geological Survey recognizes six major plays for nonassociated gas in Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous low-permeability strata of the Uinta Basin, Utah. For purposes of this study, plays without gas/water contacts are separated from those with such contacts. Continuous-saturation accumulations are essentially single fields, so large in areal extent and so heterogeneous that their development cannot be properly modeled as field growth. Fields developed in gas-saturated plays are not restricted to structural or stratigraphic traps and they are developed in any structural position where permeability conduits occur such as that provided by natural open fractures. Other fields in the basin have gas/water contacts and the rocks are water-bearing away from structural culmination`s. The plays can be assigned to two groups. Group 1 plays are those in which gas/water contacts are rare to absent and the strata are gas saturated. Group 2 plays contain reservoirs in which both gas-saturated strata and rocks with gas/water contacts seem to coexist. Most units in the basin that have received a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) designation as tight are in the main producing areas and are within Group 1 plays. Some rocks in Group 2 plays may not meet FERC requirements as tight reservoirs. However, we suggest that in the Uinta Basin that the extent of low-permeability rocks, and therefore resources, extends well beyond the limits of current FERC designated boundaries for tight reservoirs. Potential additions to gas reserves from gas-saturated tight reservoirs in the Tertiary Wasatch Formation and Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the Uinta Basin, Utah is 10 TCF. If the potential additions to reserves in strata in which both gas-saturated and free water-bearing rocks exist are added to those of Group 1 plays, the volume is 13 TCF.

  16. Density functional study of hydrogen bond formation between methanol and organic molecules containing Cl, F, NH2, OH, and COOH functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Stefan K; St Petkov, Petko; Rangelov, Miroslav A; Vayssilov, Georgi N

    2011-12-08

    Various hydrogen-bonded complexes of methanol with different proton accepting and proton donating molecules containing Cl, F, NH(2), OH, OR, and COOH functional groups have been modeled using DFT with hybrid B3LYP and M05-2X functionals. The latter functional was found to provide more accurate estimates of the structural and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes of halides, amines, and alcohols. The characteristics of these complexes are influenced not only by the principle hydrogen bond of the methanol OH with the proton acceptor heteroatom, but also by additional hydrogen bonds of a C-H moiety with methanol oxygen as a proton acceptor. The contribution of the former hydrogen bond in the total binding enthalpy increases in the order chlorides contribution of the second type of hydrogen bond increases in the reverse order. A general correlation was found between the binding enthalpy of the complex and the electrostatic potential at the hydrogen center participating in the formation of the hydrogen bond. The calculated binding enthalpies of different complexes were used to clarify which functional groups can potentially form a hydrogen bond to the 2'-OH hydroxyl group in ribose, which is strong enough to block it from participation in the intramolecular catalytic activation of the peptide bond synthesis. Such blocking could result in inhibition of the protein biosynthesis in the living cell if the corresponding group is delivered as a part of a drug molecule in the vicinity of the active site in the ribosome. According to our results, such activity can be accomplished by secondary or tertiary amines, alkoxy groups, deprotonated carboxyl groups, and aliphatic fluorides, but not by the other modeled functional groups.

  17. Estudo dos horizontes orgânicos do solo de matas, no arenito Bauru: I - Distribuição e fracionamento da matéria orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. da Costa Verdade

    1951-01-01

    Full Text Available No estudo da serapilheira nos solos de mata do Arenito Bauru foram feitas as seguintes observações: Elaborou-se uma nomenclatura específica, dada a carência de termos técnicos em português, para denominar as diferentes camadas que constituem os horizontes orgânicos das matas. A matéria orgânica nos horizontes A00 e A0 foi determinada pelo processo de perda ao rubro e não pela multiplicação do teor de carbono por 1,724, porque, na serapilheira, este último processo conduz a resultados menos exatos. Apesar de não coincidirem exatamente as coletas de serapilheira com a dos perfis do levantamento pedológico já efetuado anteriormente no local, a sua associação permitiu esboçar o estado da matéria orgânica nestes solos. A quantidade de matéria orgânica da serapilheira oscila entre 1/2 a 1 da quantidade contida nos primeiros 30 cm do solo (camada a. O emprêgo do fogo para eliminar os restos vegetais das matas recém-derrubadas ou dos restos de cultura, é prática condenável em qualquer tipo de solo, mas, neste, assume aspecto ainda mais grave. Pelo estudo do fracionamento da matéria orgânica das diferentes camadas, constatou-se decomposição muito intensa, mesmo para a lignina, que é a base das substâncias humificadas. Como o levantamento pedológico já havia indicado, estes solos são pobres em substâncias orgânicas, mesmo no início da sua exploração agrícola. O estudo do fracionamento das substâncias nitrogenadas indica um enriquecimento do nitrogênio protéico, quando comparado com a matéria orgânica total. Deve haver perdas de nitrogênio, porém, muito menores que as das substâncias não nitrogenadas. A concentração, das frações nitrogenadas, à medida da evolução da matéria orgânica, é muito grande, caindo a relação C/N de, aproximadamente, 21-30 na camada L a 10-14 na camada a.The results of the study of a forest floor of Arenito Bauru Soil are summarized as follows: The organic matter

  18. Orchid bee baits attracting bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil: abundance, seasonality, and the importance of odors for dim-light bees Abelhas do gênero Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae atraídas por iscas químicas usadas para euglossíneos na região de Bauru, SP: abundância, sazonalidade e importância de odores para abelhas crepusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima R. N. Knoll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal bees in the genus Megalopta Smith, 1853 are generally collected using artificial light sources. However, between 1993 and 2000, a total of 946 females (no males were captured were captured using aromatic baits commonly used for orchid bees (Euglossini in five localities in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil. Aromatic compounds used in bait traps were: benzyl acetate, eucalyptol, eugenol, skatole, methyl salicylate, and vanillin. The Megalopta species collected were: M. guimaraesi (71.2% of total number of specimens, M. amoena (28.1%, and M. aegis (0.6%. Using the data from these traps, we showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between the abundance of individuals and meteorological factors, rainfall and temperature. Bees were more commonly collected in the spring (September to December and summer (December to March than in the autumn and winter, the latter characterized for being a drier and colder period. Variations in the abundance were also detected among localities and years. The most attractive compounds were eugenol (54%, methyl salicylate (22%, and eucalyptol (16%. The ability to detect smells may have an important role in searching for flowers during dim-light conditions. We suggest the use of aromatic compounds in future studies on the biology of Megalopta in the Neotropical region.Abelhas noturnas do gênero Megalopta (Smith, 1853 são geralmente coletadas usando fontes artificiais de luz. Porém entre os anos de 1993 e 2000, um total de 946 fêmeas de Megalopta foram capturadas (machos não foram capturados usando iscas aromáticas frequentemente usadas para atração de machos de Euglossini, em cinco localidades na região de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil. Os compostos aromáticos utilizados foram: acetato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, escatol, salicilato de metila e vanilina. As espécies encontradas foram M. guimaraesi (71.2% do total de indivíduos, M. amoena (28.1% and M. aegis (0.6%. De modo geral

  19. Group Formation on a Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen viser at en nummerering af indsamlede evalueringsskemaer kan afsløre gruppedannelse blandt de tilhørende studenter på et stort undervisningshold. Gruppedannelsen viser sig ved at sequenser med ens bedømmelse afviger fra en tilfældig fordeling defineret som en negativ binomialfordeling, d...

  20. Assessment of risk for the formation of psycho-physical development and somatic health disorders in children in the preschool educational organizations with different representation of groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Yu. Ustinova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted the study of sanitary and hygienic conditions for the staying of children in the preschool educational organization with increased representation of groups. It was established that in the “compacted” preschool educational organizations (30 children in group the area of playing rooms does not comply with requirements of SanPIN 2.4.1.3049–13; the acoustic exposure level reaches 75–80 dBA; the air of playing rooms contains phenol and formaldehyde in the concentrations exceeding the threshold level value for continuous exposure; and the bacterial load of the air of playing rooms, including the potentially pathogenic flora, increases significantly. The increased number of children in groups increases the risk of delays in the psycho-physical development of children and reduction of adaptive reserve of the cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous systems; increases the risk for formation of systemic multiple organ pathology that, in aggregate, contributes to the increased morbidity of children with allergic diseases of respiratory organs and skin, chronic inflammatory diseases of pharyngonasal cavity, bacterial intestinal and quarantine infections, functional disorders of nervous system and contact helminth infestations.

  1. Synthesis of an Open-Cage Structure POSS Containing Various Functional Groups and Their Effect on the Formation and Properties of Langmuir Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał; Karasiewicz, Joanna; Rojewska, Monika; Skrzypiec, Marta; Dopierała, Katarzyna; Prochaska, Krystyna; Maciejewski, Hieronim

    2016-09-05

    Recently, silsesquioxanes have been recognized as a new group of film-forming materials. This study has been aimed at determining the effect of the kind of functional groups present in two different open-cage structure POSS molecules on the possibility of the formation of Langmuir monolayers and their properties. To achieve this goal, two new POSS derivatives (of open-cage structures) containing polyether and fluoroalkyl functional groups have been synthesized on the basis of a hydrosilylation process. An optimization of the process was performed, which makes it possible to obtain the above-mentioned derivatives with high yields. In the next step, the Langmuir technique was applied to measurements of the surface pressure (π) - the mean molecular area (A) isotherms during the compression of monolayers formed by molecules of the two POSS derivatives considered. Subsequently, the monolayers were transferred onto quartz plates according to the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Both derivatives are able to form insoluble Langmuir films at the air-water interface, which can be transferred onto a solid substrate and effectively change its wetting properties.

  2. Muros de arrimo em solos colapsíveis provenientes do arenito Bauru: problemas executivos e influência em edificações vizinhas em áreas urbanas - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v25i2.2191

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar da Silva Lobo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Grandes áreas do Estado de São Paulo são cobertas por arenito do grupo Bauru. O solo superficial é constituído de areia fina argilosa vermelha, com alta porosidade e normalmente não-saturado. Solos similares são encontrados nos Estados do Paraná, de Minas Gerais, do Rio Grande do Sul, entre outros. Este solo em presença de água, quando sob tensão sofre colapso, provoca bruscas reduções de volumes e causa danos nas construções. Este artigo mostra a execução de muros de arrimo nesse tipo de solo, enfocando aspectos construtivos e as danosas conseqüências em construções vizinhas edificadas junto às divisas. São fornecidos parâmetros médios desse tipo de solo, encontrado na cidade de Bauru e mostrados casos de patologias devido à não-observância de cuidados construtivos. É enfatizada a importância de se considerar nos projetos de engenharia o aspecto colapsível desse solo, assim como são fornecidas recomendações com o objetivo de contribuir para futuros projetos.

  3. Conversion of membrane lipid acyl groups to triacylglycerol and formation of lipid bodies upon nitrogen starvation in biofuel green algae Chlorella UTEX29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Elton C; Johnson, Jodie V; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2013-11-01

    Algal lipids are ideal biofuel sources. Our objective was to determine the contributors to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and lipid body formation in Chlorella UTEX29 under nitrogen (N) deprivation. A fivefold increase in intracellular lipids following N starvation for 24 h confirmed the oleaginous characteristics of UTEX29. Ultrastructural studies revealed increased number of lipid bodies and decreased starch granules in N-starved cells compared to N-replete cells. Lipid bodies were observed as early as 3 h after N removal and plastids collapsed after 48 h of stress. Moreover, the identification of intracellular pyrenoids and differences in the expected nutritional requirements for Chlorella protothecoides (as UTEX29 is currently classified) led us to conduct a phylogenetic study using 18S and actin cDNA sequences. This indicated UTEX29 to be more phylogenetically related to Chlorella vulgaris. To investigate the fate of different lipids after N starvation, radiolabeling using ¹⁴C-acetate was used. A significant decrease in ¹⁴C-galactolipids and phospholipids matched the increase in ¹⁴C-TAG starting at 3 h of N starvation, consistent with acyl groups from structural lipids as sources for TAG under N starvation. These results have important implications for the identification of key steps controlling oil accumulation in N-starved biofuel algae and demonstrate membrane recycling during lipid body formation.

  4. Chemical Abundances and Kinematics in Globular Clusters and Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and Their Implications for Formation Theories of the Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Doug; Smith, Verne V; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I

    2007-01-01

    We review Galactic halo formation theories and supporting evidence, in particular kinematics and detailed chemical abundances of stars in some relevant globular clusters as well as Local Group dwarf galaxies. Outer halo red HB clusters tend to have large eccentricities and inhabit the area populated by dwarf spheroidal stars, favoring an extraGalactic origin. Old globulars show the full range of eccentricities, while younger ones seem to have preferentially high eccentricities, again hinting at their extraGalactic origin. We compare detailed abundances of a variety of elements between the halo and all dwarf galaxies studied to date, including both dwarf spheroidals and irregulars. The salient feature is that halo abundances are essentially unique. In particular, the general alpha vs. [Fe/H] pattern of 12 of the 13 galaxies studied are similar to each other and very different from the Milky Way. Sagittarius appears to be the only possible exception. It appears very unlikely that a significant fraction of the m...

  5. no Município de Alfredo Marcondes (Estado de São Paulo, Formação Adamantina (Turoniano-Santoniano, Bacia Bauru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinto Fernandes de Azevedo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Sauropod dinosaurs (Titanosauria remains were collected in Upper Cretaceous sandstones, at Alfredo Marcondes site, Adamantina Formation, São Paulo state. These fossils comprise a fragmentary right femur and a proximal portion of a right tibia. The femur was assigned to the family Titanosauridae on the basis of the following features: straight shape, somewhat anteroposteriorly flattened; fourth trochanter slightly medially pronounced right above of the middle part of the bone’s lenght; a proximolateral proeminence of thegreater trochanter and a medial deflection of the proximal end of the femur. The tibia described here shares similar features with Titanosauria taxa like a well developed cnemial crest only slightly curved laterally; a deep longitudinal concavity separating the crest from the tibial shaft and a very anteroposteriorly expanded proximal end. These are the first fossil bones of dinosaurs recovered from Alfredo Marcondes municipality.

  6. Analyse des effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Depover

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude porte sur les effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes (spontané versus contrasté dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance destiné à des étudiants universitaires. Les scénarios d’apprentissage mis en œuvre à l’occasion de cette expérience reposent sur l’utilisation des cartes conceptuelles comme support au travail collaboratif. Les résultats observés n’ont pas permis de mettre en évidence de différence quant à la densité conceptuelle des cartes ou au nombre d’unités de sens produites. Par contre, il apparaît que les unités de sens qui concernent les activités de planification et les commentaires métacognitifs sont nettement plus nombreuses au sein des groupes constitués par pairage contrasté. Une corrélation positive entre l’intensité des interactions à l’intérieur du forum et la densité conceptuelle des cartes produites a également été mise en évidence pour les groupes constitués sur la base d’un pairage contrasté. En ce qui concerne le pairage spontané, nos résultats indiquent que les paires constituées témoignent d’un comportement plus homogène, se révèlent plus collaboratives et consacrent moins d’effort à la planification du travail de groupe.

  7. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Gas Fueling of Spiral Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Effect of the Group Environment on Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Andrae, E.; Baldry, I. K.; Gunawardhana, M.; Kelvin, L. S.; Madore, B. F.; Seibert, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Alpaslan, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Driver, S. P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Loveday, J.; Rushton, M.

    2017-03-01

    We quantify the effect of the galaxy group environment (for group masses of 1012.5–1014.0 M ⊙) on the current star formation rate (SFR) of a pure, morphologically selected sample of disk-dominated (i.e., late-type spiral) galaxies with redshift ≤0.13. The sample embraces a full representation of quiescent and star-forming disks with stellar mass M * ≥ 109.5 M ⊙. We focus on the effects on SFR of interactions between grouped galaxies and the putative intrahalo medium (IHM) of their host group dark matter halos, isolating these effects from those induced through galaxy–galaxy interactions, and utilizing a radiation transfer analysis to remove the inclination dependence of derived SFRs. The dependence of SFR on M * is controlled for by measuring offsets Δlog(ψ *) of grouped galaxies about a single power-law relation in specific SFR, {\\psi }* \\propto {M}* -0.45+/- 0.01, exhibited by non-grouped “field” galaxies in the sample. While a small minority of the group satellites are strongly quenched, the group centrals and a large majority of satellites exhibit levels of ψ * statistically indistinguishable from their field counterparts, for all M *, albeit with a higher scatter of 0.44 dex about the field reference relation (versus 0.27 dex for the field). Modeling the distributions in Δlog(ψ *), we find that (i) after infall into groups, disk-dominated galaxies continue to be characterized by a similar rapid cycling of gas into and out of their interstellar medium shown prior to infall, with inflows and outflows of ∼1.5–5 x SFR and ∼1–4 x SFR, respectively; and (ii) the independence of the continuity of these gas flow cycles on M * appears inconsistent with the required fueling being sourced from gas in the circumgalactic medium on scales of ∼100 kpc. Instead, our data favor ongoing fueling of satellites from the IHM of the host group halo on ∼Mpc scales, i.e., from gas not initially associated with the galaxies upon infall. Consequently

  8. Estimated Thickness of the Cotton Valley Group to the Top of the Smackover Formation, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Cotton Valley Group to the top of the Smackover Formation. It was necessary to contour this...

  9. Estimated Thickness of the Travis Peak-Hosston Formations to the Top of the Cotton Valley Group, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Travis Peak or Hosston Formations to the top of the Cotton Valley Group. The map was...

  10. Facilitating identity formation, group membership, and learning in science classrooms: What can be learned from out-of-field teaching in an urban school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores both the obstacles and the possibilities for students developing identities associated with science by engaging in solidarity-building classroom interactions. Data come from ethnographic research conducted in a diverse eighth-grade urban magnet school classroom in which the teacher taught out of field for part of the year. Contrary to expectations, more students participated and reported enjoying science when the teacher was out of field. Analysis of classroom interactions indicated that while in field, the teacher primarily engaged in front stage performances that hid her struggles with the material and accentuated students' views of science as an elite status group. The types of solidarity that developed among students often did not involve science language and sometimes involved students rejecting peers' claims to membership. However, when out of field, the teacher allowed students into her backstage, where her struggles and learning processes were more explicit. These practices lessened the social distance between teacher and students, and reduced the risks of using science language, thereby encouraging solidarity and group membership. This study provides insights into some of the ways that teachers, particularly those in urban settings characterized by diversity, might be more successful at facilitating identity formation and learning in science.

  11. Sedimentary facies and depositional model of shallow water delta dominated by fluvial for Chang 8 oil-bearing group of Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 陆永潮; 吴吉元; 邢凤存; 刘璐; 马义权; 饶丹; 彭丽

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of southwestern Ordos Basin’s sedimentary characteristics, internal architectural element association styles and depositional model was illustrated through core statistics, well logging data and outcrop observations in Chang 8 oil-bearing group. This analysis indicates that shallow water delta sediments dominated by a fluvial system is the primary sedimentary system of the Chang 8 oil-bearing group of the Yanchang Formation in southwestern Ordos Basin. Four microfacies with fine grain sizes are identified: distributary channels, sheet sandstone, mouth bar and interdistributary fines. According to the sandbody’s spatial distribution and internal architecture, two types of sandbody architectural element associations are identified: amalgamated distributary channels and thin-layer lobate sandstone. In this sedimentary system, net-like distributary channels at the delta with a narrow ribbon shape compose the skeleton of the sandbody that extends further into the delta front and shades into contiguous lobate distribution sheet sandstone in the distal delta front. The mouth bar is largely absent in this system. By analyzing the palaeogeomorphology, the palaeostructure background, sedimentary characteristics, sedimentary facies types and spatial distribution of sedimentary facies during the Chang 8 period, a distinctive depositional model of the Chang 8 shallow water fluvial-dominated delta was established, which primarily consists of straight multi-phase amalgamated distributary channels in the delta plain, net-like distributary channels frequently diverting and converging in the proximal delta front, sheet sandstones with dispersing contiguous lobate shapes in the distal delta front, and prodelta or shallow lake mudstones.

  12. Formation of lysosulfatide, 3',6'-anhydropsychosine, ceramide, and sphingosine by saponification of cerebroside sulfate. Effect of the sulfate group on the hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, G; Kishimoto, Y; Seyama, Y; Yamakawa, T

    1979-02-01

    Saponification of cerebroside sulfate (sulfatide) by refluxing with 1 N KOH in 90% n-butanol for 1 h yielded ceramide, sphingosine, lysosulfatide (psychosine-3'-sulfate ester) and a hitherto unknown compound. The latter compound was identified as 3,6-anhydrogalactosyl sphingosine (3',6'-anhydropsychosine) from its mass spectrum. The structure of lysosulfatide was confirmed by reacylating it to sulfatide by condensing it with lignoceroyl chloride. The resulting sulfatide, which was chromatographically identical to control sulfatides, was not oxidized by periodate. The sulfatide was also permethylated and methanolyzed. The sugar moiety obtained was identified as methyl 2,4,6-tri-O-methylgalactoside by gas-liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. The presence of the sulfate group in lysosulfatide was further confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the presence of radioactivity when it was prepared from [35S]sulfatide. The effect of the sulfate group on cleavage of the galactoside linkage and on the formation of the 3,6-anhydro derivative is discussed.

  13. Prediction of Enthalpy of Formation in the Solid State (at 298.15 K) using Second-Order Group Contributions. Part 1. Carbon-Hydrogen and Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Anna; Dalmazzone, Didier

    2006-09-01

    A predictive method, based on Benson's group additivity technique, is developed for calculating the enthalpy of formation in the solid phase, at 298.15K, of carbon-hydrogen compounds and carbon-hydrogen-oxygen compounds. A complete database compiles 398 experimental enthalpies of formation. The whole group contribution values, ring strain corrections, and nonnearest neighbor interactions evaluated are listed. Finally a comparison with Cohen's method indicates that this new estimation method leads to higher precision and reliability.

  14. Influence of surface oxygenated groups on the formation of active Cu species and the catalytic activity of Cu/AC catalyst for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Li, Zhong; Zheng, Huayan; Hao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xia; Wang, Jiajun

    2016-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) supported Cu catalysts are employed to study the influence of surface oxygenated groups on the formation of active Cu species and the catalytic activity of Cu/AC catalyst for oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The AC supports are thermal treated under different temperatures in order to adjust the levels of surface oxygenated groups. The AC supports are characterized by BET, TPD-MS and XRD, and the Cu/AC catalysts are characterized by BET, XRD, TEM, XPS, AAS, CH3OH-TPD and N2O chemisorption. The results show that as the treatment temperature is below 800 °C, the BET surface area of the corresponding AC supports are nearly unchanged and close to that of the original AC (1529.6 m2/g). But as the thermal treatment temperature is elevated from 1000 to 1600 °C, the BET surface area of AC supports gradually decreases from 1407.6 to 972.2 m2/g. After loading of Cu, the BET surface area of copper catalysts is in the range of 834.4 to 1545.3 m2/g, which is slightly less than that of the respective supports. When AC is thermal treated at 400 and 600 °C, the unstable carboxylic acid and anhydrides groups are selectively removed, which has weakened the mobility and agglomeration of Cu species during the calcination process, and thus improve the Cu species dispersion over AC support. But as the treatment temperature is elevated from 600 °C to 1200 °C, the Cu species dispersion begins to decline suggesting further removal of stable surface oxygenated groups is unfavorable for Cu species dispersion. Moreover, higher thermal treatment temperature (above 1200 °C) promotes the graphitization degree of AC and leds to the decrease of Cu loading on AC support. Meanwhile, the removal of surface oxygenated groups by thermal treatment is conducive to the formation of more π-sites, and thus promote the reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and Cu0 as active centers. The specific surface area of (Cu+ + Cu0) is improved by thermal treatment of AC

  15. Production history matching to determine reservoir properties of important coal groups in the Upper Pottsville formation, Brookwood and Oak Grove fields, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen

    2013-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama is one of the most important coal mining and coalbed methane production areas in the United States. Methane control efforts through degasification that started almost 25 years ago for the sole purpose of ensuring mining safety resulted in more than 5000 coalbed methane wells distributed within various fields throughout the basin. The wells are completed mostly in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation and present a unique opportunity to understand methane reservoir properties of these coals and to improve their degasification performances. The Brookwood and Oak Grove fields in the Black Warrior Basin are probably two of the most important fields in the basin due to current longwall coal mining activities. In this work, methane and water productions of 92 vertical wellbores drilled, some completed 20 years ago, over a current large coal mine district located in these two fields, were analyzed by history matching techniques. The boreholes were completed at the Mary Lee coal group, or at combinations of the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek groups. History matching models were prepared and performed according to properties of each coal group. Decline curve analyses showed that effective exponential decline rates of the wells were between 2% and 25% per year. Results of production history matching showed, although they varied by coal group, that pressure decreased as much as 80% to nearly 25 psi in some areas and resulted in corresponding decreases in methane content. Water saturation in coals decreased from 100% to between 20 and 80%, improving gas relative permeabilities to as much as 0.8. As a result of primary depletion, permeability of coal seams increased between 10 and 40% compared to their original permeability, which varied between 1 and 10 md depending on depth and coal seam. These results not only can be used for diagnostic and interpretation purposes, but can be used as parameter

  16. Development of a Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Distress in Caregivers of Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplants: Formative Evaluation With Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tanisha; Simoneau, Teresa; Kilbourn, Kristin; Carr, Alaina; Kutner, Jean; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). Objective The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need. Methods We used an established approach for development of a mhealth intervention, completing the first two research and evaluation steps: Step One: Formative Research (eg, expert and stakeholder review from patients, caregivers, and palliative care experts) and Step Two: Pretesting (eg, Focus Groups and Individual Interviews with caregivers of patients with autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT). Step one included feedback elicited for a mock-up version of Pep-Pal session one from caregiver, patients and clinician stakeholders from a multidisciplinary palliative care team (N=9 caregivers and patient stakeholders and N=20 palliative care experts). Step two included two focus groups (N=6 caregivers) and individual interviews (N=9 caregivers) regarding Pep-Pal’s look and feel, content, acceptability, and potential usability/feasibility. Focus groups and individual interviews were audio-recorded. In addition, individual interviews were transcribed, and applied thematic analysis was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding to inform the development and refinement of the mobilized caregiver stress management intervention, Pep-Pal (PsychoEducation and skills for Patient caregivers). Results Overall, results were favorable. Pep-Pal was deemed acceptable for caregivers of patients receiving an auto-HSCT. The refined Pep-Pal program consisted of 9 sessions

  17. Formative Work to Develop a Tailored HIV Testing Smartphone App for Diverse, At-Risk, HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Torres, Maria Beatriz; Joe, Jennifer; Danh, Thu; Gass, Bobbi; Horvath, Keith J

    2016-11-16

    Although gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, few test for HIV at regular intervals. Smartphone apps may be an ideal tool to increase regular testing among MSM. However, the success of apps to encourage regular testing among MSM will depend on how frequently the apps are downloaded, whether they continue to be used over months or years, and the degree to which such apps are tailored to the needs of this population. The primary objectives of this study were to answer the following questions. (1) What features and functions of smartphone apps do MSM believe are associated with downloading apps to their mobile phones? (2) What features and functions of smartphone apps are most likely to influence MSM's sustained use of apps over time? (3) What features and functions do MSM prefer in an HIV testing smartphone app? We conducted focus groups (n=7, with a total of 34 participants) with a racially and ethnically diverse group of sexually active HIV-negative MSM (mean age 32 years; 11/34 men, 33%, tested for HIV ≥10 months ago) in the United States in Miami, Florida and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and deidentified for analysis. We used a constant comparison method (ie, grounded theory coding) to examine and reexamine the themes that emerged from the focus groups. Men reported cost, security, and efficiency as their primary reasons influencing whether they download an app. Usefulness and perceived necessity, as well as peer and posted reviews, affected whether they downloaded and used the app over time. Factors that influenced whether they keep and continue to use an app over time included reliability, ease of use, and frequency of updates. Poor performance and functionality and lack of use were the primary reasons why men would delete an app from their phone. Participants also shared their preferences for an app to

  18. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  19. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  20. Urgency treatment profile of 0 to 15 year-old children assisted at urgency dental service from Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo Perfil de tratamento de urgência de crianças de 0 a 15 anos atendidas no serviço de urgência odontológica da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Thiemy Sakai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental recordings of 0 to 15-year-old patients assisted at Urgency Dental Service (UDS from Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo, in 2001 and 2002, were assessed in order to quantify the number of patients that used the service, to determine attendance patterns, and to record the frequency of different types of dental emergencies and their performed treatment. Data were plotted and submitted to a descriptive statistical analysis. Among the total of patients attended at UDS (6020, 1166 (19.37% were children, with mean age of 9.24 years. Trauma was the cause for 199 (17.06% of the recorded urgency visits. It occurred more frequently in children between 0 and 3 years of age (34.42%, and between 7 and 12 years of age (18.12%. The main treatments performed were temporary restoration (33.33% for coronal fracture, and orientation (24.44% for luxation. Nontraumatic events were the etiology for 967 (82.92% of the total urgency diagnosis. The most commonly found nontraumatic diagnosis was dental caries lesions (61.75%, followed by problems of eruption or root resorption (14.27% and bone or soft tissue lesions (6.51%, among others (17.47%. The most frequent treatments performed for caries lesions were: excavation and temporary restoration (39.39% when there was no abscess, and coronal opening and dressing (40.95% for caries lesions with abscess. There was an increasing trend in caries lesions prevalence according to the rising of the age, in contrast to trauma prevalence. Treatment for both situations was done according to the indicated protocol for each case.Prontuários odontológicos de crianças de 0 a 15 anos de idade atendidas no Setor de Urgência Odontológica (SUO da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de São Paulo, em 2001 e 2002, foram avaliados a fim de se quantificar o número de pacientes que utilizaram o serviço, determinar os padrões de atendimento e relatar a freqüência de diferentes tipos de emergências odontol

  1. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  2. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  3. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  4. REPRESENTATION OF ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS: POTENTIALY OF VIRTUAL GROUPS AS TOOLS FOR TEACHING- LEARNING IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Victor Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One tool that has been in evidence, especially among young people, is Facebook. It can be classified as a synchronous communication tool that allows communities of people with similar interests to discuss and exchange experiences in real time, promoting the sharing of information and the creation of collective knowledge, even if they being in different parts of the globe. In this paper we show that Facebook can be used as an educational tool to aid the work done in the classroom and the impact of creating closed groups in online social networking for educational purposes. The survey was conducted with a group of students at a private school in Bauru/SP. We investigated the interaction profile of students with a closed group created on Facebook and through a questionnaire analyzed whether students use virtual environments for personal or educational. The survey reveals students perceptions about relevant aspects and the potential use of this tool as teaching-learning strategy.

  5. Estratigrafia y paleoambientes de la Formación Lumbrera, Grupo Salta, noroeste argentino Stratigraphy and paleoenvironments of the Lumbrera Formation, Salta Group, northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. del Papa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Lumbrera es la unidad superior del Subgrupo Santa Bárbara, Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno del noroeste argentino. Sobre la base de las asociaciones de facies y principales características sedimentarias se reconocen dos secciones estratigráficas, una inferior y otra superior denominadas informalmente Lumbrera inferior y Lumbrera superior. La primera está formada por sistemas fluviales permanentes areno-conglomerádicos y arenosos y un sistema lacustre perenne de agua dulce (Faja Verde. La sección superior está caracterizada por el dominio de sedimentación pelítica y en menor proporción areno-conglomerádica depositados en sistemas fluviales efímeros y lacustres. Los cambios paleoambientales, desde sistemas de ríos y lagos perennes a sistema de ríos efímeros, junto al registro fósil reconocido, indican un brusco cambio climático entre las dos secciones desde condiciones templado - húmedas en la base, a templado/cálido y secas en la parte superior. El conjunto de características sedimentológicas y estratigráficas permite interpretar que esta unidad se acumuló en dos ciclos sedimentarios separados por una superficie de discontinuidad sedimentaria. Se interpreta que estas diferencias no responden exclusivamente a cambios climáticos como el reconocido sino que reflejan variaciones en la configuración de la cuenca, como cambios en la tasa de subsidencia y ubicación de los depocentros que indican el inicio de la cuenca de antepaís.In northwestern Argentina, the Lumbrera Formation represents the uppermost unit of the Salta Group (Cretaceous - Paleogene. Two sections are recognized in this unit based on the facies associations, recognized from bottom to top as Lumbrera Inferior and Lumbrera Superior. The basal section consists of gravel-sand and sandy permanent fluvial systems and a perennial fresh-water lake (Faja Verde. The upper section is characterized by clastic fine-grained sedimentation and locally, by

  6. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnelusa Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnelusa...

  7. Prediction of Enthalpy of Formation in the Solid State (at 298.15K) Using Second-Order Group Contributions—Part 2: Carbon-Hydrogen, Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen, and Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Oxygen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Anna; Dalmazzone, Didier

    2007-03-01

    A program has been undertaken to develop a new group contribution method, based on Benson's group additivity technique, estimate as precisely as possible solid state enthalpies of formation, at 298.15K, of C -H compounds, C -H-O compounds, and C -H-N-O compounds. A set of 1017 experimental values of the enthalpy of formation has been studied and compared to the predicted values of this new method as well as the method of Domalski and Hearing. This new estimation technique leads to a higher precision and reliability. With the inclusion of additional group values, a wider range of compounds can be studied (compared to the Domalski and Hearing technique). Comparison with a quantum mechanical method [Rice et al., Combust. Flame 118, 445 (1999)] shows that the list of group contribution values, ring strain corrections, and non-nearest neighbor interactions provided here yields better estimates overall.

  8. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Inyan Kara Group that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Inyan Kara Group.

  9. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Distribution of Instructional Time and Its Effect on Group Cohesion in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Comparison of Intensive and Standard Format Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinger, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…

  11. Lithostratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Provenance of the Balfour Formation (Beaufort Group) in the Fort Beaufort-Alice Area, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David KATEMAUNZANGA; Cornelis Janse GUNTER

    2009-01-01

    The Balfour Formation has a pronounced lithological variation that is characterized by alternating sandstone- and mudstone-dominated members. The sandstone-dominated Oudeberg and Barberskrans Members are composed of lithofacies that range from intraformational conglomerates to fine-grained sediments, whereas the mudstone-dominated members (Daggaboersnek, Elandsberg, and Palingkloof) are dominated by the facies Fm and Fi. Petrography, geochemistry, and a paleocurrent analysis indicated that the source rock of the Balfour Formation was to south east and the rocks had a transitional/dissected magmatic arc signature. The sandstones-rich members were deposited by seasonal and ephemeral high-energy, low-sinuous streams, and the fine-grained-rich members were formed by ephemeral meandering streams. The paleoclimates have been equated to present temperate climates; they were semiarid becoming arid towards the top of the Balfour Formation. This has been determined by reconstructing the paleolatitude of the Karoo Basin, geochemistry, paleontology, sedimentary structures, and other rock properties, like color.

  12. Gridded bathymetry of the banktop and slope environments of Ta'u Island of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the banktop and slope environments of Ta'u Island of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa. This survey provides almost complete coverage...

  13. Gridded bathymetry of the banktop and slope environments of Ofu and Olosega Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the banktop and slope environments of Ofu and Olosega Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa. This survey provides almost complete...

  14. CRED 10m Gridded bathymetry of the submarine volcanos between Olosega and Ta'u Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the submarine volcanos between Olosega and Ta'u Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa This survey provides almost complete...

  15. Le groupe Formation des Utilisateurs de l'Association Belge de Documentation, petit bilan après plusieurs années de fonctionnement

    OpenAIRE

    Pochet, Bernard; Thirion, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The User Group Training: A Recent History and Evaluation by the Association belge de documentation With the arrival of new information and communication technologies over recent years, the role of libraries has been profoundly ransformed, and practices among users and librarians alike have been radically modified. This article reviews the main study and research activities of the User Training Group in the Association belge de documentation (Belgian Association for Documentation). It examines...

  16. The effects of hemoglobin genotype and ABO blood group on the formation of rosettes by Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsangpetch, R; Todd, J; Carlson, J; Greenwood, B M

    1993-02-01

    The mechanisms by which the hemoglobin genotype AS protect against severe malaria are not fully understood. We have investigated the possibility that protection might be achieved through an inability of red blood cells (RBC) with the AS genotype to form rosettes with RBC infected by Plasmodium falciparum. No evidence was obtained to support this hypothesis because RBC with the AS genotype formed rosettes with wild isolates of P. falciparum as readily as RBC with the AA genotype. However, the previous finding that parasitized RBC form rosettes more readily with RBC belonging to group A or B than with RBC belonging to group O was confirmed even in fresh clinical isolates.

  17. Mutational analysis of bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 1. Different functional groups are required for the nucleotidyl transfer and phosphodiester bond formation steps of the ligation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Ho, C Kiong; Pei, Yi; Shuman, Stewart

    2003-08-08

    T4 RNA ligase 1 (Rnl1) exemplifies an ATP-dependent RNA ligase family that includes fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) and a putative baculovirus RNA ligase. Rnl1 acts via a covalent enzyme-AMP intermediate generated by attack of Lys-99 N zeta on the alpha phosphorus of ATP. Mutation of Lys-99 abolishes ligase activity. Here we tested the effects of alanine mutations at 19 conserved positions in Rnl1 and thereby identified 9 new residues essential for ligase activity: Arg-54, Lys-75, Phe-77, Gly-102, Lys-119, Glu-227, Gly-228, Lys-240, and Lys-242. Seven of the essential residues are located within counterparts of conserved nucleotidyltransferase motifs I (99KEDG102), Ia (118SK119), IV (227EGYVA231), and V (238HFKIK242) that comprise the active sites of DNA ligases, RNA capping enzymes, and T4 RNA ligase 2. Three other essential residues, Arg-54, Lys-75 and Phe-77, are located upstream of the AMP attachment site within a conserved domain unique to the Rnl1-like ligase family. We infer a shared evolutionary history and active site architecture in Rnl1 (a tRNA repair enzyme) and Trl1 (a tRNA splicing enzyme). We determined structure-activity relationships via conservative substitutions and examined mutational effects on the isolated steps of Rnl1 adenylylation (step 1) and phosphodiester bond formation (step 3). Lys-75, Lys-240, and Lys-242 were found to be essential for step 1 and overall ligation of 5'-phosphorylated RNA but not for phosphodiester bond formation. These results suggest that the composition of the Rnl1 active site is different during steps 1 and 3. Mutations at Arg-54 and Lys-119 abolished the overall RNA ligation reaction without affecting steps 1 and 3. Arg-54 and Lys-119 are thereby implicated as specific catalysts of the RNA adenylation reaction (step 2) of the ligation pathway.

  18. The sequence stratigraphy of the Campo Mourao (upper part) and Taciba Formations, Itarare Group, Eastern part of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Campo Mourao (parte superior) e Taciba, Grupo Itarare, Leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Joel Carneiro de [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. E-mail: jocastro@caviar.igce.unesp.br

    1999-06-01

    The chronostratigraphic framework of the Campo Mourao (upper part) and Taciba formations, Itarare Group was investigated through a subsurface study in the eastern flank of the Parana Basin. A total of five depositional sequences were recognized, each represented by an upward increase in the argillaceous content (sandstone to diamictite to shale). The upper part of basal sequence 1 is formed by a thick diamictite by the Lontras Shale; these glaciomarine and marine systems may constitute the transgressive tract of the sequence and represent the top of Campo Mourao Formation/cycle. The Lontras Shale (or Member) is not restricted to the Santa Catarina State; instead it is recognized throughout the eastern flank of the basin. The sequence 2 is represented in the basal portion by the sandstones of Rio Segredo (base of Taciba Formation/cycle). The next sequences are similar to the previous one, including some particular patterns: as the basal sandstones form clastic wedges, the sequence may be represented exclusively by diamictities. The clastic wedges of sequences 2 and 4 were applied from east and northeast; the western margin also contributed as source of coarse clastics. Sequences 4 and 5 were studied in detail, since they were reached by several shallow wells near the outcrop belt. the sequence 4 clearly displays facies change from marine in the south (Passinho Shale) to delta front in center-south, and to coal-bearing delta plain in the north. The occurrence of sequence 5 is restricted to southern Parana and northern Santa Catarina; it presents deltaic sandstone deposits intercalated with marine shales/sandstones and glaciomarine diamictites. Despite some transitional characteristics shown by the upper part of Itarare Group (sequences 4 and 5), it is noteworthy the unconformable of the Group with the overlying, post-glacial Triunfo Member of Rio Bonito Formation. (author)

  19. Evolutionary tree design: An exploratory study of the influence of linear versus branching format on visitors' interpretation and understanding across age groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Teresa Elise

    This exploratory study sought to investigate the influence of tree graphic design---specifically linear versus branching depictions of taxa---on visitors in three different age groups (aged 11-13, 14-18, adults) interpretation and understanding using a multiple-case study strategy. The findings from this research indicate that linear and branched depictions elicit qualitatively different narratives and explanations about the relationships between the taxa in all age groups. Branched tree graphics support scientifically appropriate explanations of evolutionary relationships, i.e. that taxa are related via shared or common ancestry; while linear representations reinforce intuitive interpretations of ancestor-descendant or anagenic relationships. Furthermore, differences in the language used for linear and branched trees suggests that there is a spectrum within an analogy of developmental change that is thought to serve as a transitional concept between intuitive and scientific understanding--with 'evolved from' for branched depictions of taxa representing a shift towards an interpretation of shared ancestry rather than an individual transformation from one thing into another. In addition, branched graphics appear to support the correct reading and interpretation of shared or common ancestry in tree diagrams. Mixed reasoning was common and overall reasoning patterns were broadly similar among participants in all age groups, however, older youth (aged 14 to 18) and adults often provided more detail in their explanations and sometimes included references to evolutionary ideas such as variation, inheritance and selection.

  20. A study on the ability of quaternary ammonium groups attached to a polyurethane foam wound dressing to inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phat L; Hamood, Abdul N; de Souza, Anselm; Schultz, Gregory; Liesenfeld, Bernd; Mehta, Dilip; Reid, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection of acute and chronic wounds impedes wound healing significantly. Part of this impediment is the ability of bacterial pathogens to grow in wound dressings. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a polyurethane (PU) foam wound dressings coated with poly diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC-PU) to inhibit the growth and biofilm development by three main wound pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, within the wound dressing. pDADMAC-PU inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Time-kill curves were conducted both with and without serum to determine the killing kinetic of pDADMAC-PU. pDADMAC-PU killed S. aureus, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa. The effect of pDADMAC-PU on biofilm development was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative analysis, colony-forming unit assay, revealed that pDADMAC-PU dressing produced more than eight log reduction in biofilm formation by each pathogen. Visualization of the biofilms by either confocal laser scanning microscopy or scanning electron microscopy confirmed these findings. In addition, it was found that the pDADMAC-PU-treated foam totally inhibited migration of bacteria through the foam for all three bacterial strains. These results suggest that pDADMAC-PU is an effective wound dressing that inhibits the growth of wound pathogens both within the wound and in the wound dressing.

  1. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  2. Innate health threat among a visibly hidden immigrant group: a formative field data analysis for HIV/AIDS prevention among Zimbabwean workers in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Chikombero, Mandi; Modie-Moroka, Tirelo

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the collapse of the national economy and political instability, Zimbabwe has experienced a diaspora in recent years. Although Zimbabweans are now the largest immigrant group in most sub-Saharan countries, Zimbabwean immigrants are a mostly illegal and socioeconomically marginalized population. This study explores the lives of Zimbabwean workers in Botswana from a health communication perspective and provides suggestions for accelerating the diffusion of HIV/AIDS prevention information and practices among the target population. In particular, this ethnographic report portrays how the Zimbabwean workers in Botswana make sense of their surroundings and perceive information on HIV/AIDS prevention and other public health risks. Field data analysis highlights several communication features among the immigrants, including reliance on interpersonal communication, high rate of mobile phone adoption, inaccurate public awareness on HIV/AIDS and prevention messages, and stagnated communication with health care services. By connecting Dervin's sensemaking theory to Roger's diffusion of innovations theory, the suggestions from this study can be applied to design HIV/AIDS prevention interventions for the immigrants and socioeconomically marginalized groups.

  3. History background of the unity of the “pampeanas” agricultural groups. The formation of the Liaison Committee and the dispute over the rent (1970-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Sebastián Sanz Cerbino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the understanding of the political intervention of the agrarian “pampeana” bourgeoisie, taking as observable the actions and the rural groups positions at a time of political crisis. Studies on the topic have tended to overestimate the differences between small producers ("landholders" and large ("oligarchs", which has overshadowed the study of the moments of confluence, which have at least 40 years of history in the Argentina. After discussing the dominant approach in the literature, we will address the creation, in 1970, of the Liaison Committee, where converged Agrarian Federation, CONINAGRO, Argentine Rural Confederations and Rural Society. Drawing on national newspapers and corporate institutional documents, we rebuild the agreements around this alliance was structured and her specific intervention

  4. 基于指挥决策层次结构的决策团队形成方法%Method for Decision-making Group Formation Based on Command Decision-making Hiberarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 姚佩阳; 周翔翔; 王稳平

    2013-01-01

    The reasonable decision-making group is the guarantee of the effective allocation action to command decision -making tasks. Based on agent technology and command decision -making hiberarchy, a method of decision-making group formation is proposed. The capability-task judgment rule, capability updating mechanism, task decomposition and allocation strategy and task adjustment strategy are designed. The decision tasks are decomposed and allocated level by level. The initiative and collaboration of command decision-making Agent are played fully. The effective of command decision-making group formation is improved.%合理的决策团队是指挥决策任务有效分配实施的保证.运用Agent技术,提出了一种决策团队形成方法,该方法基于指挥决策层次结构,通过设计能力-任务判断准则、能力更新机制、任务分解分配策略以及任务调整策略,实现了决策任务的逐级分解分配,充分发挥了指挥决策Agent的主动性和协作性.

  5. 基于几何约束机制的团体操队形辅助设计平台%Formation Design Platform of Group Calisthenics Based on Geometry-Constrained Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑利平; 赵建明; 刘玉飞; 张娟; 刘晓平

    2013-01-01

    Massive sports,such as group calisthenics,often involve rapid,smooth,fluent,and regular formation deformation.The paper introduces a novel geometric constraint method,which is combined with morphing,centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) and Lloyd techniques,and puts forward a new group formation control solution for formation constrain,individual distribution layout,individual matching,motion path planning,and collision avoidance.In order to ensure the smoothness of deformation,morphing technology is used to generate a series of shapes between source formation and target formation as constrains.CVT methodology is utilized to compute the uniform layout of Agents in the constrained shape.Also due to the change of constraint shapes,improved Lloyd descent method,namely variable domain Lloyd descent,is applied to perform path planning and collision avoidance for the crowd.Finally,the computer aided system is built to effectively improve the design quality and efficiency of group calisthenics and other massive team sports.%大型团体演出,如团体操,往往涉及到快速、平滑、流畅、整齐的群体队形变换问题.基于虚拟人群仿真技术,通过引入几何约束方法,结合Morphing,CVT和Lloyd技术,从团体操队形约束、个体分布布局、个体配对、个体运动路径规划、群体碰撞避免等方面,综合提出一种新颖的团体操群体队形变换解决方案.首先采用Morphing生成从源队形到目标体操队形的一系列中间约束形状,保证变化的平滑性;然后利用CVT技术实现群体在约束形状中的分布布局;由于约束形状变化,个体的运动路径规划和碰撞避免均采用改进的Lloyd下降法,即变空间域下的Lloyd下降法来实现;最终搭建系统平台,有效地提高了团体操队形设计质量和效率.

  6. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 is required for fear memory formation and long-term potentiation in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sarina M; Bauer, Elizabeth P; Farb, Claudia R; Schafe, Glenn E; LeDoux, Joseph E

    2002-06-15

    The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR5 has been shown to play a key role in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. The present experiments examined the function of mGluR5 in the circuitry underlying Pavlovian fear conditioning using neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral techniques. First, we show using immunocytochemical and tract-tracing methods that mGluR5 is localized to dendritic shafts and spines in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) and is postsynaptic to auditory thalamic inputs. In electrophysiological experiments, we show that long-term potentiation at thalamic input synapses to the LA is impaired by bath application of a specific mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenyle-thynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), in vitro. Finally, we show that intra-amygdala administration of MPEP dose-dependently impairs the acquisition, but not expression or consolidation, of auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that mGluR5 in the LA plays a crucial role in fear conditioning and in plasticity at synapses involved in fear conditioning.

  7. Facilitating organisational development using a group-based formative assessment and benchmarking method: design and implementation of the International Family Practice Maturity Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Tapp, Laura; Edwards, Adrian; Newcombe, Robert; Eriksson, Tina; Braspenning, Jozé; Kuch, Christine; Adzic, Zlata Ozvacic; Ayankogbe, Olayinka; Cvetko, Tatjana; In 't Veld, Kees; Karotsis, Antonis; Kersnik, Janko; Lefebvre, Luc; Mecini, Ilir; Petricek, Goranka; Pisco, Luis; Thesen, Janecke; Turón, José María; van Rossen, Edward; Grol, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Well-organised practices deliver higher-quality care. Yet there has been very little effort so far to help primary care organisations achieve higher levels of team performance and to help them identify and prioritise areas where quality improvement efforts should be concentrated. No attempt at all has been made to achieve a method which would be capable of providing comparisons--and the stimulus for further improvement--at an international level. The development of the International Family Practice Maturity Matrix took place in three phases: (1) selection and refinement of organisational dimensions; (2) development of incremental scales based on a recognised theoretical framework; and (3) testing the feasibility of the approach on an international basis, including generation of an automated web-based benchmarking system. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of developing an organisational assessment tool for primary care organisations that is sufficiently generic to cross international borders and is applicable across a diverse range of health settings, from state-organised systems to insurer-based health economies. It proved possible to introduce this assessment method in 11 countries in Europe and one in Africa, and to generate comparison benchmarks based on the data collected. The evaluation of the assessment process was uniformly positive with the view that the approach efficiently enables the identification of priorities for organisational development and quality improvement at the same time as motivating change by virtue of the group dynamics. We are not aware of any other organisational assessment method for primary care which has been 'born international,' and that has involved attention to theory, dimension selection and item refinement. The principal aims were to achieve an organisational assessment which gains added value by using interaction, engagement comparative benchmarks: aims which have been achieved. The next step is to achieve wider

  8. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  9. A Spectroscopically Confirmed Excess of 24 micron Sources in a Super Galaxy Group at z=0.37: Enhanced Dusty Star Formation Relative to the Cluster and Field Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Kim-Vy H; Moustakas, John; Bai, Lei; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Holden, Bradford P; Zaritsky, Dennis; Kautsch, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    To trace how dust-obscured star formation varies with environment, we compare the fraction of 24 micron sources in a super galaxy group to the field and a rich galaxy cluster at z~0.35. We draw on multi-wavelength observations that combine Hubble, Chandra, and Spitzer imaging with extensive optical spectroscopy (>1800 redshifts) to isolate galaxies in each environment and thus ensure a uniform analysis. We focus on the four galaxy groups in supergroup 1120-12 that will merge to form a galaxy cluster comparable in mass to Coma. We find that 1) the fraction of supergroup galaxies with SFR(IR)>3 Msun/yr is four times higher than in the cluster (32% vs. 7%); 2) the supergroup's infrared luminosity function confirms that it has a higher density of IR members compared to the cluster and includes bright IR sources not found in galaxy clusters at z0.5 Mpc); once their star formation is quenched, most will evolve into faint red galaxies. Our analysis indicates that the supergroup's 24 micron population also differs fr...

  10. The Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to $z \\sim 0.8$

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lihwai; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R G; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K C; Denneau, L; Draper, P; Flewelling, H; Hodapp, K W; Huber, M E; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Price, Paul A; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2013-01-01

    Using a large sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey, we present the specific star formation rate (SSFR) - stellar mass (M*) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M* relation in different environments. We confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments ($M>10^{14}M_{solar}$), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star forming sequence of $17\\%$ at 4$\\sigma$ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of...

  11. Paleoproterozoic source contributions to the São Roque Group sedimentation: LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb dating and Sm-Nd systematics of clasts from metaconglomerates of the Boturuna Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Michael Heaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The So Roque Group is characterized by volcano-sedimentary sequences, in which deposition probably started in the late Paleoproterozoic. U-Pb dating by LA-MC-ICPMS of zircons extracted from predominantly equigranular monzogranites clasts from Morro Doce and Morro do Polvilho regions, yield paleoproterozoic ages of 2199 8.5 Ma and 2247 13 Ma, respectively. These represent the ages for the main source of granite for the metaconglomerates from the Boturuna Formation (basal unit of So Roque Group. Its polycyclic history is reinforced by the presence of inherited Archean zircons (2694 29 Ma found within the clasts. Moreover, these clasts have also been affected by the Neoproterozoic overprinting event as indicated by their lower intercept Concordia ages. Sm-Nd isotope data for the main clast varieties from the Morro Doce metaconglomerates yield TDM ages of 2.6 to 2.7 Ga, demonstrating that these granites are the recycling products of an Archean crustal component. The metaconglomerate arkosean framework yields slightly lower ENd(t values than those for the clasts, indicating that a younger and/or more primitive source also contributed to the Boturuna Formation.

  12. Paleoproterozoic source contributions to the Sao Roque Group sedimentation: LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb dating and Sm-Nd systematics of clasts from metaconglomerates of the Boturuna Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrique-Pinto, Renato; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Simonetti, Antonio [University of Notre Dame, South Bend (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Heaman, Larry Michael, E-mail: renatohp@usp.br, E-mail: vajanasi@usp.br, E-mail: ccgtassi@usp.br, E-mail: antonio.simonetti.3@nd.edu, E-mail: larry.heaman@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2012-12-15

    The Sao Roque Group is characterized by volcano-sedimentary sequences, in which deposition probably started in the late Paleoproterozoic. U-Pb dating by LA-MC-ICPMS of zircons extracted from predominantly equigranular monzogranites clasts from Morro Doce and Morro do Polvilho regions, yield paleoproterozoic ages of 2199 {+-}8.5 Ma and 2247 {+-}13 Ma, respectively. These represent the ages for the main source of granite for the metaconglomerates from the Boturuna Formation (basal unit of Sao Roque Group). Its polycyclic history is reinforced by the presence of inherited Archean zircons (2694 {+-}29 Ma) found within the clasts. Moreover, these clasts have also been affected by the Neoproterozoic overprinting event as indicated by their lower intercept Concordia ages. Sm-Nd isotope data for the main clast varieties from the Morro Doce metaconglomerates yield T{sub DM} ages of 2.6 to 2.7 Ga, demonstrating that these granites are the recycling products of an Archean crustal component. The metaconglomerate arkosean framework yields slightly lower {epsilon}{sub Nd(t)} values than those for the clasts, indicating that a younger and/or more primitive source also contributed to the Boturuna Formation. (author)

  13. 团体操复杂队形变化过程标示方法的研究%Study on the method of coordinate indication of the changing process of complex formation of group calisthenics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the design of the changing process of complex formation of group calisthenics and the training needs,we put forward methods that make actors into groups,number,and coordinate the changing process after divided into several components.This method could reduce a large number of moving path coordinates,and it is convenient for us to find the changes of every actor's coordinate position and moving path,the coordinate is clear and easily understand.Not only could we convenient to communicate and research the complex formation changing skills,but also reduce the training difficulty of the changing process of complex formation.Practices prove that the method is scientific and effective.%为了满足团体操复杂队形变化过程设计和训练的需要,提出了将演员分组、编号、划分成若干元件后标示变化过程的方法。这种方法大量地减少了移动路径的标示数量,可以方便地查找变化前后每个演员的坐标位置及移动路径,标示图清晰易懂。这不仅方便了复杂队形变化技巧的交流与研究,而且还降低了复杂队形变化过程的训练难度。

  14. 纸浆漂白臭氧处理段纤维素分子上羰基的形成%Formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose during ozone treatment of pulp:Consequences for pulp bleaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余光华(译); 张丹(译); 龙柱(译)

    2015-01-01

    研究了纸浆臭氧漂白过程中,木素和乙烯糖醛酸的存在对纤维素上羰基的形成及纤维素降解的影响。在碱抽提段(E),采用CCOA方法{以咔唑-9-羧酸[2-(2-氨基氧杂乙氧基)-乙氧基]酰胺作为羰基的选择性荧光标记物}对纸浆中的羰基进行跟踪检测。研究表明:在臭氧漂白过程中,己烯糖醛酸、木素与臭氧反应形成的自由基导致纤维素和半纤维素上形成羰基并致使纤维素降解。此外,还发现羰基的总量在E段有所下降,但在随后P段,当H2O2不够稳定的时候又会有所增加。最后,提出了几种有助于减少羰基形成的方法。%The formation of carbonyl groups during the ozone treatment (Z) of eucalyptus (EucalyptusgrandisandEucalyptus urophylla hybrid) kraft pulps and their behaviors during subsequent alkaline stages were investigated by the CCOA method with carbazole-9-carboxylic acid [2-(2-aminooxethoxy)-ethoxy] amide (CCOA) as the carbonyl-selective fluorescence label. Several pulp samples with or without lignin and hexenuronic acid (HexA) were used to elucidate the effects of these components when present in unbleached kraft pulp. Both HexA and lignin increased the formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose and hemicellulose during ozonation. It was concluded that radicals are likely formed when ozone reacts with either lignin or HexA. These carbonyl groups were involved in cellulose depolymerization during subsequent alkaline extraction stages with sodium hydroxide (E) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (P, in ZEP or ZP). Their numbers decreased after E but increased during P when H2O2 was not stabilized enough. Several ways to minimize the occurrence of carbonyl group formation are suggested.

  15. On Formations with Shemetkov Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Guo; Lujin Zhu

    2002-01-01

    A subgroup-closed formation F is called a formation with Shemetkov condition if every minimal non-F-group is either a group of prime order or a Schmidt group. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for formations with Shemetkov condition. From this, some known important results follow.

  16. 团队中子群形成的原因及影响--中国情境的实证研究%Causes and Effects of Subgroup Formation in Work Groups-An Empirical Study in the Chinese Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海珍; 邱林丹; 王香儿

    2016-01-01

    Group disruptions are very prevalent in practice,yet only little research examines them. We extend the literature on group disruptions by exploring their antecedents and consequents. We propose both perception of guanxi(a Chinese indige⁃nous variable)and perceived organizational politics(an external environmental factor)play a role in group disruptions phe⁃nomenon,suggest that group members with high-level perception of guanxi are apt to form subgroups,and so are those who perceive high-level organizational politics. We further prove the importance of subgroup formations by extending the positive effects of subgroup formation on perceived group conflicts,including relationship,task and process conflict. We test our mod⁃el using 209 individuals from a Chinese group company. The analytical results strongly support our propositions.%在实践中团队分裂十分普遍,然而却少有研究关注这一现象。文章通过探究其前因和后果,扩展了团队分裂的相关研究。一方面,文章提出关系感知(中国本土变量)和组织政治感知(外部环境因素)对团队分裂现象的影响,即高水平关系感知或高水平组织政治感知的团队成员更趋于形成子群。另一方面,建立子群形成与团队冲突(包括关系、任务和过程冲突)的正向关系,以证明子群形成是团队研究中不可忽视的现象。最后,通过来自中国本土公司209名员工数据检验了模型,数据分析结果支持了文章的观点。

  17. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    on poststarburst galaxies with molecular reservoirs, indicates that galaxies do not need to expel their molecular reservoirs prior to quenching SF and transitioning from blue spirals to red early-type galaxies. This may imply that SF quenching can occur without the need to starve a galaxy of cold gas first....

  18. On peer networks and group formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, Coralio

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada En el artículo «NP-completeness in Hedonic Games», identificamos algunas limitaciones significativas de los modelos estándar de juegos cooperativos: A menudo, es imposible alcanzar una organización estable de una sociedad en una cantidad de tiempo razonable. Las implicaciones básicas de estos resultados son las siguientes, Primero, desde un punto de vista positivo, las sociedades están «condenadas» a evolucionar constant...

  19. 基于微分几何与李群的无人机编队会合方法%UAVs formation rendezvous method based on differential geometry and Lie group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 彭双春; 安宏雷; 相晓嘉; 沈林成

    2013-01-01

    With the leader-follower formation pattern,a method for UAV formation rendezvous was developed based on the pursuit strategy. Firstly,the UAV non-decoupling 3D kinematics models were established by using the curve theory of differential geometry and the Frenet-Serret frames,where the curvature and the torsion were considered as the control effort.Secondly,the mathematical descriptions of the three-dimensional formation rendezvous were provided with the models,where the impact angular constraint in missile guidance was mapped to a flight path angle of the follower in formation rendezvous,and an additional azimuth angular constraint was introduced.Thirdly,the orientation deviation between the leader and the follower was measured by using an element of the special orthogonal group,and the element was mapped to a twist in an Lie algebra space corresponding to the Lie group by local coordinate mapping.Then,a geometric guidance law for formation rendezvous was developed by using the twist,and the corresponding curvature command and torsion command were presented.Finally,the numerical simulation for multi-UAVs formation rendezvous was carried out,under the leader flying straightly and making a turn,respectively.The simulation results show that the follower can track the orientation of the leader successfully and can converge to a specified configuration,which indicates that the proposed method is available.%在领航-跟随编队模式下,设计了一种基于追缉策略的无人机编队会合方法。基于微分几何曲线论和弗雷涅-塞雷标架建立了无人机非解耦三维运动模型,其中将曲率和挠率作为控制量;结合该模型给出了无人机三维编队会合问题的数学描述,它将导弹制导问题中的终端落角约束映射为编队会合问题中僚机的航迹倾角约束,同时引入额外的航迹方位角约束;使用特殊正交群的元素来度量长僚机方向偏差,并通过局部坐标映射将其映射

  20. Usage of microbial mats in depostional environment interpretation and sea level changes: A study of carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Deh-Sufiyan Formation in Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Bayetgol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Middle Cambrian in Central Alborz that call Deh-Sufiyan Formation in this research, were studied in Shahmirzad, Tueh-Darvar, Mila-Kuh and Deh-Molla sections. These sediments were deposited in four facies belts on a carbonate ramp including basinal environments, outer ramp (deep subtidal sequences, mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal sequences, and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal sequences. Various microbialites were recognized in the shallow-water sediments (includes subtidal and intertidal of this unit. Based on this study, microbial mats have various morphology of form and type of growth structure and inluding laminar to wavy-laminar, domal or hemispheroidal, bulbous, columnar, regular flabellate columns, unlaminated, loaf- to mound-shaped thrombolities. Facies associations of Deh-Sufiyan Formation are arranged in small-scale of peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles and microbial mats are the major features of them. The trends of vertical changes of facies in shallowing-upward and deepening-upward cycles and distribution of various types of microbialites in these cycles had been related to depostional environments and their postions on carbonate ramp. Basal classification method used in this study can provide valuable informations for application of microbiali mats in paleo-environmental and sequence stratigraphy analysis.

  1. Characterization of kerogens from Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Ishikari sogun kyutanso kerojien no netsubunkai GC/MS ni yoru kyarakutarizeshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, N.; Takano, O. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    In order to construct a model on expulsion of hydrocarbons from kerogen, it is necessary to have knowledge on composition of generated hydrocarbons. Characterization of the hydrocarbons from kerogens of Eocene Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations was carried out by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS). Kerogen type classification by microscopic method was also carried out. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contents by Py-GCMS correlates to herbaceous kerogen contents by the microscopic method. Both of phenols content and aromatics content correlate to woody kerogen content. Therefore, coals and coaly shales deposited in transgression periods, which were recognized by depositional phase analysis, are richer in aliphatic-hydrocarbons content than those in regression period. This may be a reflection of environmental changes in paleoclimate and paleobotany. (author)

  2. Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution Method for Predicting Standard Enthalpy of Formation in the Solid State: C-H, C-H-O, C-H-N, and C-H-N-O Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, Soufiane; Argoub, Kadda; Benkouider, Ali Mustapha; Yahiaoui, Ahmed; Kessas, Rachid; Bagui, Farid

    2015-11-01

    In this work, an artificial neural network-group contribution model is developed to predict the standard enthalpy of formation in the solid (crystal) state of pure compounds. Several classes of hydrocarbon compounds CH, oxygenated compounds CHO, nitrogen compounds CHN, and energetic compounds CHNO are investigated to propose a comprehensive and predictive model. The new model is developed and tested for 1222 organic compounds containing complex molecular structures. The performance of the new model has been compared with previous work and is shown to be far more accurate. The obtained results show an average absolute deviation of 9.33 {kJ}{\\cdot }{mol}^{-1} and a coefficient of determination of 0.9972 for the experimental values.

  3. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  4. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  5. Small Group Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Martin M.

    Learning in small groups is a practical way to bring about behavior change. The inquiry learning process is perceived to be the most natural and scientific way of learning. Skills developed include those of problem-solving task analysis, decision-making, value formation and adaptability. The art of small group interaction is developed. Factual…

  6. Wormlike Micelle Formation and Rheological Behavior in the Aqueous Solutions of Mixed Sulfate Gemini Surfactant without Spacer Group and Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide%Wormlike Micelle Formation and Rheological Behavior in the Aqueous Solutions of Mixed Sulfate Gemini Surfactant without Spacer Group and Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓梅; 赵剑曦; 游毅; 刘玉芳; 魏西莲

    2011-01-01

    The rheological behavior of the aqueous solutions of mixed sulfate gemini surfactant with no spacer group, referred to as d-C12S, and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C12TABr) at a total concentration of 100 mmol,L-1 but different molar ratios of ClzTABr to d-C12S (a1) was investigated using steady rate and frequency sweep measurements. The wormlike micelles were formed over a narrow a1 range of 0.20-0.27. The viscoelastic solutions exhibited Maxwell fluid behavior. At the optimum molar ratio of 0.25, the zero-shear viscosity was as high as 600 paos and the length of the mixed wormlike micelle was about 0.45-0.85 pm. The present result provides an exam- ple to construct long wormlike micelles by anionic gemini surfactant.

  7. SHRIMP Geochronology of Volcanics of the Zhangjiakou and Yixian Formations, Northern Hebei Province, with a Discussion on the Age of the Xing'anling Group of the Great Hinggan Mountains and Volcanic Strata of the Southeastern Coastal Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Baogui; HE Zhengjun; SONG Biao; REN Jishun; XIAO Liwei

    2004-01-01

    A zircon U-Pb geochronological study on the volcanic rocks reveals that both of the Zhangjiakou and Yixian Formations, northern Hebei Province, are of the Early Cretaceous, with ages of 135-130 Ma and 129-120 Ma,respectively. It is pointed out that the ages of sedimentary basins and volcanism in the northern Hebei -western Liaoning area become younger from west to east, i. e. the volcanism of the Luanping Basin commenced at c. 135 Ma, the Luotuo Mount area of the Chengde Basin c. 130 Ma, and western Liaoning c. 128 Ma. With a correlation of geochronological stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, we deduce that the Xing'anling Group, which comprises the Great Hinggan Mountains volcanic rock belt in eastern China, is predominantly of the early-middle Early Cretaceous, while the Jiande and Shimaoshan Groups and their equivalents, which form the volcanic rock belt in the southeastern coast area of China, are of the mid-late Early Cretaceous, and both the Jehol and Jiande Biotas are of the Early Cretaceous, not Late Jurassic or Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. Combining the characteristics of the volcanic rocks and, in a large area, hiatus in the strata of the Late Jurassic or Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous between the formations mentioned above and the underlying sequences, we can make the conclusion that, in the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous, the eastern China region was of high relief or plateau, where widespread post-orogenic volcanic series of the Early Cretaceous obviously became younger from inland in the west to continental margin in the east. This is not the result of an oceanward accretion of the subduction belt between the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate and the Asian continent, but rather reflects the extension feature, i.e. after the closure of the Paleo-Pacific ocean, the Paleo-Pacific ancient continent collided with the Asian continent and reached the peak of orogenesis, and then the compression waned and resulted in the retreating of the post

  8. 浙东南地区磨石山群祝村组地层及其区域对比%Lithological Characteristics and Regional Comparison of the Zhucun Formation of the Early Cretaceous Moshishan Group Volcanics in Southeastern Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小友; 王加恩; 汪发祥

    2012-01-01

      早白垩世期间浙东南地区火山岩地层磨石山群的祝村组的建组一直存有争议。近年在浙江宁海地区深入开展的1:50000区域地质调查,发现此套中—酸性火山碎屑岩、凝灰质沉积岩夹酸性或中性熔岩地层,在岩性组合、岩相类型、岩石化学成分、火山活动类型等方面与下伏的九里坪组存在较大差异,并在宁海水车、永嘉大箬岩、丽水祝村等地出露广泛、厚度较大。依火山岩地层划分原则,这套地层可作为一个组级岩石地层单位——祝村组。通过对浙东南地区祝村组地层的区域对比认为:祝村组属早白垩世火山活动产物;岩性组合随当时火山活动强度及所处位置有所不同:分布于火山活动较强的破火山口内的祝村组地层,以火山碎屑流相为主,另有崩落相、火山泥石流相、空落相等岩相类型,岩石化学类型属中—酸性;分布于火山活动时喷时歇的火山洼地内的祝村组,以空落相火山碎屑岩与湖相、冲积扇相沉积岩互层产出为主,并有少量火山碎屑流相与喷溢相岩相类型,岩石化学类型属酸性。%  The Zhucun Formation is a constituent part of the Early Cretaceous-aged Moshishan Group volcanics within southeastern Zhejiang Province, and is of controversial origin. Recent mapping at 1:50,000 scale by the Zhejiang Province regional geological survey has identified a set of acidic pyroclastic rocks and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks associated with acid or mafic lavas. This set of pyroclastics and tuffaceous sediments is lithological y, geochemical y, and volcanological y distinct from the underlying Jiliping Formation, and contains significantly different lithofacies units. These rocks are widely exposed in the study area, with units thickening towards the Shuiche area of Ninghai County, the Daruoyan area of Yongjia County, and the Zhucun area of the city of Lishui. Here, we define

  9. 张掖市肉牛类群的形成及产业发展的思考%Thought of Formation of Beef Cattle Group and Industry Development in Zhangye City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the formation of the Zhangye beef cattle groups are reviewed for the first time, improtant scientific research and project of Zhangye beef cattle industry were combed, historical background of Zhangye beef cattle development were clarified. Aimed at problems exsisting in beef industry development such as inefficiency of interest systems, low utilization rate of straw, no characteristic advantage brand, five proposals were proposed to develop beef cattle industry in Zhangye city.%本文首次对张掖肉牛类群的形成阶段进行了系统的回顾总结,梳理了肉牛产业发展历程中的重大科研及项目支撑,明晰了张掖肉牛发展的历史背景。针对肉牛产业发展中利益连接机制不健全、农作物秸秆利用率低、特色优势品牌未形成等问题,就张掖肉牛产业发展探索性的提出了五项建议。

  10. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  11. Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups. ... group is influenced by the skills of the group promoter and the adherence to certain ... through the different stages of group development and social capital formation.

  12. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  13. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  14. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  15. Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  16. Networks and Small Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kadushin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Homans' insights that interaction and sentiment are in a feedback loop that includes clique formation, social ranking and leadership are formalized and derived from a set of limited assumptions and propositions. Freeman's model of groups is used to detect pure informal groups, those that are not consequential upon anything else than sheer hanging around. It produces a system of cliques and rankings based purely on the rates of transitive triads that may include a third who is only weakly conn...

  17. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  18. A construção da identidade de sujeitos deficientes no grupo terapêutico-fonoaudiológico Identity formation of disabled individuals within a speech therapy group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Leite

    2008-08-01

    the internalization of roles. These roles are defined, in the first instance, by those persons who provide the most concrete reference points for the child, in particular their family, and beyond that by the wider social group to which they belong. Our objective was to reflect upon the formation of the personal identity of mentally disabled young people who were receiving speech therapy, this therapy being conducted in a group context. Transcripts of the language used by the subjects in constructing their self image were analyzed. This study was based upon the results obtained from previous research, conducted with groups of siblings of subjects classified as mentally disabled. These results revealed a negative image held by those siblings of their disabled brother or sister. The material analyzed is part of a data bank of videotapes, of disabled youngsters receiving group speech therapy in a school clinic setting, taken over a two year period. This data was transcribed and analyzed according to the guidelines of micro genetic analysis, taking into consideration minute details of interviews and in particular details and clips of interactive episodes. The examination of the data was directed towards the actions of the subjects of the study, their interpersonal relations and the social context in which these took place. The analysis conducted in this study aims to establish a relationship between the images these subjects have of themselves and the image put across by the social group to which they belong. The results demonstrated the resonance of the discourse of the social group in the verbalizations of the subjects. We conclude that to transform the image that the subjects with intellectual disability have of themselves it is necessary to direct actions to those who are close to them, namely family, friends, colleagues and their social group in general.

  19. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  20. Intensifying the Group Member's Experience Using the Group Log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valine, Warren J.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the use of a group log in which members analyze the content and process of each session using a suggested format. The log promotes dialogue between the leader and each group member and involves members more fully in the group process. Feedback indicates the log is valuable. (JAC)

  1. 汽油族组成对汽油催化裂化反应中干气生成的影响%EFFECT OF GASOLINE GROUP COMPOSITION ON DRY GAS FORMATION IN CATALYTIC CRACKING OF GASOLINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙有鑫; 龙军; 谢朝钢; 李正

    2011-01-01

    The effect of gasoline group composition on the formation of dry gas in FCC process is investigated using a fixed-fluidized bed reaction unit and MMC-2 catalyst.Results show that in the FCC process dry gas is mainly produced by catalytic cracking reactions, the percentage of dry gas formed by thermal cracking is low.With the increase of olefin content in gasoline feedstock, the ethylene yield increases significantly, yet the yields of hydrogen, methane and ethane remain almost unchanged.The dry gas components,including hydrogen, methane, ethane and ethylene, are produced during the scissions of penta-coordinated carbonium ions formed by the protonation of paraffin.Ethylene could also be produced by the β-scissions of tri-coordinated primary carbonium ions formed by the protonation of olefin.The ratio of the β-scissions of the primary carbonium ions and the β-scissions of the secondary carbonium ions formed by the isomerization of primary carbonium ions is fixed.%利用小型固定流化床(FFB)装置,采用MMC-2催化剂,考察汽油族组成对汽油催化裂化反应过程中干气生成的影响.结果表明,汽油催化裂化反应过程中干气主要南催化裂化反应产生,热裂化反应产生的干气所占的比例很低.随着汽油原料中烯烃含量的增加,氢气、甲烷和乙烷的产率基本保持不变,乙烯的产率明显增加.烷烃引发反应时形成的五配位正碳离子的裂解反应生成氢气、甲烷、乙烷和乙烯等干气组分.烯烃质子化形成的三配位伯正碳离子可能直接发生β裂解生成乙烯.伯正碳离子直接发生β裂解的反应和先发生异构化生成仲正碳离子再发生β裂解反应的比值基本是固定的.

  2. The evolution of groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlöber, S.; Klypin, A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Turchaninov, V.

    Using high resolution N -body simulations we study the formation and evolution of clusters and groups in a &Lambda CDM cosmological model. Groups of galaxies already form before z = 4. Merging of groups and accretion leads to cluster formation at z <&sim2. Some of the groups merge into large isolated halos.

  3. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... RPGs, with the first being of greater importance to digital games and the latter to the tabletop version....

  4. Grupos de alimentos para investigação de risco para diabetes tipo 2 e doenças associadas Food Groups for the investigation of risk of type 2 diabetes and associated diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Yumi Nishimura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os grupos de alimentos convencionalmente empregados em atividades de orientação nutricional foram estabelecidos de acordo com o seu teor de macronutrientes. Entretanto, não contemplam as evidências científicas recentes da associação entre consumo alimentar e risco de desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. OBJETIVO: Elaborar uma proposta de agrupamento de alimentos para a investigação da associação entre consumo alimentar e risco de desenvolvimento de diabetes tipo 2 e doenças associadas, em Nipo-Brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Análise transversal dos dados da linha de base de um estudo de intervenção no estilo de vida conduzido entre Nipo-Brasileiros de Bauru, SP, entre 2005 e 2007. A avaliação do consumo alimentar deu-se por meio da análise de três inquéritos recordatórios de 24 horas em 640 indivíduos, ambos os sexos, idade entre 30 e 88 anos. RESULTADOS: Foram propostos 18 novos grupos de alimentos considerando-se o teor e qualidade das gorduras e carboidratos, sódio e fibras CONCLUSÃO: Os novos grupos de alimentos incorporam evidências recentes da associação entre dieta e desenvolvimento de diabetes tipo 2.INTRODUCTION: The food groups conventionally applied in activities of nutritional counseling were established according to their macronutrient content. However, it does not consider recent scientific evidences of the association between food consumption and risk of developing non-communicable chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To propose food groups for the investigation of the association between food consumption and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and associated diseases among Japanese-Brazilians. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a lifestyle intervention study conducted among Japanese-Brazilians of Bauru, SP, Brazil, from 2005 to 2007. Food intake was assessed by three 24-hour recalls of 640 participants, both genders, aged 30 to 88 years old. RESULTS: Eighteen new

  5. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  6. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  7. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  8. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  9. Geochronology of the Dahongshan Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡霭琴; 朱炳泉; 等

    1991-01-01

    The Dahongshan Group is divided into five formations from the bottom to the top:the Laochanghe For-mation;the Manganghe Formation;the Hongshan Formation ,the Feiweihe Formation and the Potou For-mation.As can be seen form the U-Pb Concordia plot for zircon fractions collected from the metamorphic sodic lava of the Hongshan Formation,the upper intersect age with the Concordia is 1665.55-10.86+13.56Ma.Sm-Nd dating of four whole-rock samples and one hornblende from the Manganghe and Hongshan forma-tions yielded an isochron age of 1657±82Ma .This result is in good agreement with the zircon U-Pb age and thus can represent the formation age of the Dahongshan Group.The initial143Nd/144Nd ratio is esti-mated at 0.510646,with END(T)=+3.1±1.8.In addition the Dahongshan Group rocks are character-ized by low REE contents,with δEu>1.All this goes to show that the original rocks of the Dahongshan Group were derived from a depleted mantle.The calculated Sm-Nd model ages range from-1900 to -2000Ma,representing the time of crust/mantle differentiation in the area studied.From the above results,in conjunction with the time-scale scheme for China,the Dahongshan Group should be assigned to the Middle Proterozoic.

  10. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  11. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  12. Collision Induced Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Schäffer, R

    1997-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical model in which galaxy collisions and strong tidal interactions, both in the field and during the collapse phase of groups and clusters help determine galaxy morphology. From a semi-analytical analysis based on simulation results of tidal collisions (Aguilar & White 1985), we propose simple rules for energy exchanges during collisions that allow to discriminate between different Hubble types: efficient collisions result in the disruption of disks and substantial star formation, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies; inefficient collisions allow a large gas reservoir to survive and form disks. Assuming that galaxy formation proceeds in a Omega_0=1 Cold Dark Matter universe, the model both reproduces a number of observations and makes predictions, among which are the redshifts of formation of the different Hubble types in the field. When the model is normalized to the present day abundance of X-ray clusters, the amount of energy exchange needed to produce elliptical gal...

  13. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  14. Student Perceptions of Small-Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Ida Rose; McCaslin, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Elementary school teachers regularly arrange students in small groups for learning activities. A rich literature discusses various types of small-group learning formats and how those formats affect achievement. Few studies, however, have examined students' perceptions of small-group learning experiences. Our work extends the…

  15. Group reports. The recommendations proposed by the seven discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1989-01-01

    GROUP 1 — Discussion leader S.H. Sohmer — Organization and the ideal format of a large Flora (over 10,000 species) The Working Group first recognized that there are really two major categories of Flora projects serving quite different needs in the Malesian region: the local/national projects that

  16. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  17. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  18. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  19. CRED 10m Gridded bathymetry of the submarine volcanos between Olosega and Ta'u Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the submarine volcanos between Olosega and Ta'u Islands of the Manu'a Island group, American Samoa This survey provides almost complete...

  20. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island group, American Samoa in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island Group, American Samoa, South Pacific. These...

  1. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the banktop and bank edge environments of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island group, American Samoa with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u Islands of the Manua Island Group, American Samoa, South Pacific. These...

  2. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  3. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Rock? Continuous Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    A lesson plan is provided for a formative assessment probe entitled "Is It a Rock?" This probe is designed for teaching elementary school students about rocks through the use of a formative assessment classroom technique (FACT) known as the group Frayer Model. FACT activates students' thinking about a concept and can be used to…

  4. Novel cytochrome p450 bioactivation of a terminal phenyl acetylene group: formation of a one-carbon loss benzaldehyde and other oxidative products in the presence of N-acetyl cysteine or glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Raju; Tam, Janet; Aidasani, Divesh; Reid, Darren L; Skiles, Gary L

    2011-05-16

    Compounds 1 (N1-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6-methyl-N5-(3-(6-(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)pyridin-2-yl) isoquinoline-1,5-diamine) and 2 (N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; Erlotinib/Tarceva) are kinase inhibitors that contain a terminal phenyl acetylene moiety. When incubated in the presence of P450 and NADPH, the anticipated phenyl acetic acid metabolite was formed. When 10 mM of N-acetyl-l-cysteine was added to the incubation mixtures, the phenyl acetic acid product was reduced and at 25 mM or higher concentration of NAC, formation of the phenyl acetic acid was abolished. Instead, the phenyl acetylene moiety lost a carbon and formed a benzaldehyde product. Other oxidation products incorporating one or more equivalents of NAC were also observed. The identities of the metabolites were characterized by MS and NMR. Addition of deferoxamine or ascorbic acid diminished the formation of the NAC influenced products. Similar products were also observed when 1 or 2 were incubated in P450 reactions supplemented with GSH, in Fenton reactions supplemented with NAC or GSH, and in peroxidase reactions supplemented with NAC. We propose the thiols act as a pro-oxidant readily undergoing a one-electron oxidation to form thiyl radicals which in turn initiates the formation of other peroxy radicals that drive the reaction to the observed products. These in vitro findings suggest that one-electron oxidation of thiols may promote the cooxidation of xenobiotic substrates.

  5. Results of a collaborative study of the EDNAP group regarding the reproducibility and robustness of the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS389 I and II, DYS390 and DYS393 in a PCR pentaplex format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carracedo, A; Beckmann, A; Bengs, A

    2001-01-01

    390 and DYS393 and to determine whether uniformity of results could be achieved among different European laboratories.Laboratories were asked to analyze the five Y-STRs using singleplex and multiplex conditions in three bloodstains and one mixed stain (95% female and 5% male).All the laboratories...... reported the same results even for the mixed stain included in the exercise. This demonstrates the reproducibility and robustness of Y-chromosome STR typing even with multiplex formats and proves the usefulness of Y-STR systems for analyzing mixed stains with a male component.A total of 930 male samples...

  6. Hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; van Strien, N.M.; Witter, M.P.; Paxinos, G.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region are prominent components of the rat nervous system and play a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Many new details regarding the entorhinal cortex have been discovered since the previous edition, and the growing interest in t

  7. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  8. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  9. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As ...

  10. 中国利益集团的形成及其对改革和发展带来的影响%The Formation of Interest Groups in China and Their Impacts on Reform and Opening up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭长森; 夏亚涛

    2012-01-01

    我国改革开放三十年进程中,一方面市场经济体制逐步建立起来,另一方面也形成了不容忽视的利益集团问题。中国的利益集团处于无序竞争的状态,少数利益集团利用其特权占据了垄断的地位。并在一定程度上左右了改革的方向。利益集团是市场化的产物,是需要通过建立完善的市场经济体制加以解决的问题。%During the three decades of China's reform and opening up, the market economy system has been gradually built, although the problem with interest groups cannot be ignored. The disorderly competition of the interest groups can be reflected by the fact that a few interest groups monopolize the market by taking advantage of their franchise, and they, to some extent, determine the reform. The interest groups result from marketization, and therefore, such an issue should be addressed by es- tablishing a perfect market economic system.

  11. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  12. Taphofacies of Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian marine invertebrates from the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations, part of the outcropped marine sequence of the Tapajós Group (Southern Amazonas Basin, Brazil) - regional palaeoecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. P.; Scomazzon, A. K.; Nascimento, S.; Lemos, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most relevant characteristics of the Pennsylvanian shallow-water carbonates of the Amazonas Basin is its diverse and well preserved invertebrate fossiliferous assemblages. In order to better understand the origin of these fossil concentrations, taphonomic data were obtained along well exposed areas of the uppermost part of the Monte Alegre Formation and basal part of the Itaituba Formation, which, based on conodonts, fusulinids and palynomorphs is of Atokan age. The taphonomic data focused on invertebrate organisms were supported by petrographic analysis. The understanding of the stacking pattern of the strata in the studied section allowed the identification of five type taphofacies, which contributed in the development of regional palaeoecological models, expressed as block-diagrams. These characterize the distribution of the environmental parameters, the composition of the faunal associations and the distribution and amplitude of the taphonomic processes that created the taphonomic signatures of the bioclastic elements throughout the supratidal to lower intertidal/deep subtidal depositional environments pertinent to the studied depositional environment. The regional palaeoecological models here presented are related to the particularities of the depositional environments of the studied rocks and are exclusive for the characterization of this intracratonic basin set influenced by high frequency climatic variations. Lithofacies, biofacies and taphofacies associations also reflect depositional conditions pertinent to the studied regional context, differing from the elements observed in modern intracratonic contexts analogous to the one studied, from different sedimentary basins around the world. Therefore, invertebrate taphonomy, supported by the analysis of sedimentary facies, fulfills the purposes recommended in this work, demonstrating its potential as a tool for palaeoecological analysis in the Pennsylvanian outcropping section in the southern

  13. Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  15. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  16. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  17. The Formation of Publishing Group is the Only Way for the Development of the Publishing Industry of Qinghai%青海出版业集团化发展可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹永虎

    2012-01-01

      Since the 1990s,the development environment of China’s publishing industry has undergone tremendous changes,for their ow n development needs,domestic publishers began the forma tion of the ex-ploration and practice of the publishing group . In recent years,with the deepening of China’s cultural re-for m,the Press Group process by more and more attention .Based on the introduction of Qinghai publishing industry on the basis of the sta tus quo,the publishing industry of Qinghai competitive environment under-took an analysis,put forward Qinghai publishing group is the inevitable choice of development,and the group of the process may have some problems to put forward countermeasure to suggest .%  20世纪90年代以来,中国出版业的发展环境发生了巨大变化,出于自身发展的需要,国内出版社开始了组建出版集团的探索和实践。近年来,随着我国文化体制改革的不断深入,出版社集团化进程受到越来越多的关注。本文在介绍青海出版业现状的基础上,对青海出版业竞争环境进行了分析,提出了集团化是青海出版业发展的必然选择,并对集团化过程中可能出现的一些问题提出了对策建议。

  18. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori determined by measuring MICs of antimicrobial agents in color indicator egg yolk agar in a miniwell format. The Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group of Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the Johns Hopkins University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A; Valdez, Y; Gilman, R H; McDonald, J J; Westblom, T U; Berg, D; Mayta, H; Gutierrez, V

    1996-05-01

    Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole often causes failure of commonly used combination drug treatment regimens. We determined the MICs of metronidazole and clarithromycin against 18 H. pylori strains from Peru using tetrazolium egg yolk (TEY) agar. The MIC results obtained by agar dilution with petri dishes were compared with the results found through a miniwell format. The results of the two protocols for measuring drug susceptibility differed by no more than 1 dilution in all cases. On TEY agar, bright-red H. pylori colonies were easy to identify against a yellow background. Sixty-one percent (11 of 18) of the strains were resistant to metronidazole (MIC, > or = 4 micrograms/ml) and 50% (9 of 18) were resistant to clarithromycin (MIC, > or = 0.125 micrograms/ml), whereas none (0 of 5) of the strains tested were resistant to tetracycline (MIC, > or = 1 micrograms/ml). Thus, the prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance in Peru is higher than that in developed regions of the world. The miniwell plate with TEY agar allows easy H. pylori colony identification, requires about one-third less of the costly medium necessary for petri dish assaying, conserves space, and yields MICs equivalent to those with agar dilution in petri dishes.

  19. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  20. ORG ANIZATIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES OF THE HEAD OF THE INVESTIGATIVE BODY, THE BODY OF INQUIRY AND THE HEAD OF THE INVESTIGATION GROUP ON FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE INVESTIGATIVE TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastrygin A. S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The author has analyzed scientific and technical literature, plus materials of judicial and investigative practice, criminal procedural law, different views of scientists, as well as his own judgments on the proposed changes and additions to the content of the article 163 of Criminal Procedure Code. The analysis allows the author to declare the need to invite the heads of the investigative bodies of the various departments and units to carry out more in-depth additional analysis of the items and norms of the criminal procedural law governing the activities of the detective, the head of the investigative body, the head of the investigation team, the investigator, the chief of the inquiry body, the body of inquiry unit and the head of the group of investigators. However, the article 163 of Criminal Procedure Code provides for organizational and administrative activity of the head of the investigative body in terms of decision-making on the establishment of the investigation team, in determining the psychologically compatible, pushing and experienced investigators, members of the investigation team, as well as the approving of the head of the investigative group. Moreover, according to the p. 3 of part 1 of the art. 39 of the Russian Criminal Procedure Code, a head of the investigative body has the right to give instructions about the direction of the investigation and certain investigative actions

  1. 东秦岭丹凤岩群的形成时代和构造属性%A Study of Formation Epoch and Tectonic Attribute of the Danfeng Group Complex in East Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴先治; 李厚民; 李国光

    2001-01-01

    Located on the Shangdan tectonic zone, the Danfeng Group complex in the East Qinling mountains was on whole formed in Newproterozoic (1?000~800Ma). Petrogeochemical characterisitics of metabasic volcanic rocks within the complex of this group show that, instead of being ophiolite, they are island_arc type volcanic rocks formed in an active epicontinental paleoisland_arc tectonic environment under the plate tectonic system of Newproterozoic main orogenic epoch in Qinling orogenic belt.%东秦岭丹凤岩群位于秦岭商丹构造带上,主体形成于新元古代(1000Ma~800Ma),其中变质基性火山岩的岩石地球化学特征表明为岛弧型火山岩系,而非蛇绿岩,其形成于秦岭造山带新元古代主造山期板块构造体制下的活动陆缘古岛弧构造环境.

  2. Neutral Hydrogen in Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    McKay, N P F; Brough, S; Forbes, D A; Barnes, D G

    2002-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of the neutral hydrogen (HI) properties of an X-ray selected sample of nearby loose galaxy groups. This forms part of a multi-wavelength investigation (X-ray, optical and radio) of the formation and evolution of galaxies within a group environment. Some initial findings of an ATNF Parkes Multibeam wide-area neutral hydrogen imaging survey of 17 nearby galaxy groups include two new, potentially isolated clouds of HI in the NGC 1052 and NGC 5044 groups and significant amounts of HI within the group virial radii of groups NGC 3557 and IC 1459 - two groups with complex X-ray structures that suggest they may still be in the act of virialisation. Here we present ATCA high-resolution synthesis-imaging follow-up observations of the distribution and kinematics of HI in these four groups.

  3. Facilities removal working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  4. Involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in the barrier function of the human erythrocyte membrane. I. Impairment of resealing and formation of aqueous pores in the ghost membrane after modification of SH groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonk, S; Deuticke, B

    1992-04-29

    Resealed human erythrocyte ghosts prepared by a two-step procedure were shown to have small residual barrier defects with the properties of aqueous pores, such as size discrimination of hydrophilic nonelectrolytes (erythritol to sucrose), indicative of an apparent pore radius of about 0.7 nm, and a low activation energy (about 12-20 kJ/mol (mannitol, sucrose)) of the leak fluxes. As in other cases (Deuticke et al. (1991) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1067, 111-122) these leak fluxes can be inhibited by phloretin. Treatment of such resealed ghosts with the mild SH oxidizing agent, diamide, induces additional membrane leaks to the same extent and with the same properties as in native erythrocytes (Deuticke et al. (1983) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 731, 196-210), including reversibility of the leak by SH reducing agents, inhibition by phloretin and stimulation by alkanols. In contrast, resealed ghosts prepared either from diamide-treated erythrocytes or by adding diamide to the 'open' membranes prior to reconstitution of high ionic strength and raising the temperature, exhibit a state of greater leakiness. This leakiness is somewhat different in its origin from the former class of leaks, since it can also be produced by N-ethylmaleimide, which is essentially ineffective when added to the membrane in its 'tight' state. The leaks induced in the 'open' state of the membrane, which can be regarded as a consequence of an impaired resealing, are nevertheless reversible by reducing agents added after resealing and are comparable in many, but not all their characteristics to leaks induced in the 'tight' state of the membrane. Resealing in the presence of the isothiocyanostilbenes DIDS or SITS mimicks the leak forming effect of diamide by modifying a small population of SH groups, while amino groups seem not to be involved. The findings indicate and substantiate an important role of the redox state of membrane skeletal protein sulfhydryls in the maintenance and the re-establishment of the

  5. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  6. Microevolution of human archaic groups of Arica, northern Chile, and its genetic contribution to populations from the Formative Period Microevolución de grupos humanos arcaicos de Arica, norte de Chile, y su contribución genética a las poblaciones del Período Formativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR HUGO VARELA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The microevolution of the archaic populations from Chile's northern coast and its morphological contribution to Formative period groups was studied. The sample comprised 181 individuals belonging to two Archaic (Morro-Uhle and Morro 1-1/6 and one Formative (Playa Miller-7 [Plm-7] series of the coast and one sample from the Formative (Alto Ramírez exhumed at the Azapa Valley. A total of 29 metric variables of the cranium were analyzed. Biological variability was assessed using discriminant analysis and Mahalanobis' D² distance stadistic (MDS. Population structure was inferred using a method based on quantitative genetic theory that predicts a lineal relationship between average within-group phenotypic variance and group distance to the population centroid. The four samples studied proved to be different from a morphologic point of view. The greatest distance was observed between Plm-7 (coast Formative and Alto Ramirez (valley Formative, the least between Morro-Uhle and Morro 1-1/6, the remaining distances presenting intermediate values. Regarding the total population, the most divergent group was Alto Ramírez and the least divergent was Morro1-1/6. A gradual biologic change was observed between Archaic (Morro Uhle and Morro 1-1/6 and coastal Formative populations (Plm-7 pointing to a morphological (genetic contribution of Archaic fishermen to Formative population of Chile's northern coast, without excluding gene flow from other groups of the South Central Andean AreaEstudiamos la microevolución de las poblaciones arcaicas de la costa norte y sus contribuciones morfológicas al Período Formativo. La muestra comprendió 181 individuos pertenecientes a dos colecciones arcaicas de la costa (Morro-Uhle y Morro 1-1/6 y una al formativo (Alto Ramírez exhumada en el Valle de Azapa. Un total de 29 variables métricas del cráneo fueron analizadas. La variabilidad biológica fue determinada utilizando análisis discriminante y distancias de

  7. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  8. From mapping class groups to automorphism groups of free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    We show that the natural map from the mapping class groups of surfaces to the automorphism groups of free groups, induces an infinite loop map on the classifying spaces of the stable groups after plus construction. The proof uses automorphisms of free groups with boundaries which play the role...... of mapping class groups of surfaces with several boundary components....

  9. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  10. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  11. Chemostratigraphy of Neoproterozoic Banded Iron Formation (BIF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Sial, Alcides N.; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Sawawin BIF (Saudi Arabia), and the Jucurutu Formation of the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil). Lake Superior type BIFs are represented by the Tonian Shilu Group (South China) and the late Ediacaran Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal and Cerro Espuelitas formations, Uruguay). Useful chemostratigraphic tools...

  12. The evolution of groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlöber, S; Kravtsov, A V; Turchaninov, V I

    1999-01-01

    Using high resolution N-body simulations we have studied the formation and evolution of clusters and groups in a LCDM cosmological model. Groups of galaxies have been formed already before z=4. The total number of small bound systems and the total number of galaxies in these small systems rapidly decreases after z=1.5. The fraction of isolated galaxies remains approximately constant after z =1, whereas the fraction of galaxies in groups decreases. Merging of groups and accretion leads to cluster formation at z < 2. Some of the groups merge into large isolated halos.

  13. The Age of Youxi Formation of Jitang Rock Group in Taniantaweng Mountains, Northern Qiangtang, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau%青藏高原北羌塘他念他翁山吉塘岩群酉西岩组时代的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何世平; 李荣社; 于浦生; 辜平阳; 王超; 杨永成; 张维吉

    2012-01-01

    Whether the Jitang rock group in northern Qingtang, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau belongs to Precambrian metamorphite series has long been controversial, especially on the age of formation due to lack of effective isotopic age to restrict its age. High resolution LA-ICP-MS in situ dating yields the original rock U-Pb age of 965±55Ma and 1048. 2±3. 3 Ma for quartz-chlorite schist (the protolith is intermediate volcanic rocks) and greenschist (the protolith is intermediate-basic volcanic rocks) in Jitang rock Group, Taniantaweng mountains, respectively. This indicates the original rock of Youxi Formation of the Jitang rock group formed during the end of Jixian Period or early Nanhua Period. Meanwhile, the Youxi Formation of the Jitang rock group may represent the geological record of volcanicsm-sedimentation during the extension of early Rodinian supercontinent break.%关于位于青藏高原北羌塘地区的吉塘岩群是否属于前寒武纪变质岩系历来存在较大争议,对其形成年龄一直缺少有效同位素年代学限定.通过高精度的LA-ICP-MS(激光剥蚀等离子体质潜仪)锆石微区原位U-Pb同位素测年,获得他念他翁山一带吉塘岩群酉西岩组石英绿泥片岩(原岩为中性火山岩)的原岩形成年龄为965±55Ma,绿片岩(原岩为中基性火山岩)的原岩形成年龄为1048.2±3.3Ma,表明吉塘岩群酉西岩组原岩形成时代为蓟县纪末一南华纪初.吉塘岩群酉西岩组可能代表Rodinia超大陆裂解早期伸展期间火山沉积作用的地质记录.

  14. Individuality and social influence in groups : Inductive and deductive routes to group identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lee, AT; Novak, RJ

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between forms of social identity formation in small interactive groups is investigated. In groups in which a common identity is available or given, norms for individual behavior may be deduced; from group properties (deductive identity). In groups in which interpersonal relations are c

  15. Star Formation in the Local Group with NIRSpec

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; NIRSpec Guaranteed Time Observation Team

    2017-06-01

    I will present a NIRSpec GTO programme showcasing the multi-object spectroscopy capabilities of NIRSpec for stellar studies. We will obtain medium- and high-resolution spectra of hundreds of known pre-main sequence (PMS) stars with different ages hosted in massive starburst clusters in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. These PMS stars were identified from HST photometry as objects with strong Hα excess emission (EW > 10Å). Each cluster contains about 500-1000 such PMS stars in a typical 3’x3’ field, thereby guaranteeing optimal filling of the NIRSpec Micro-Shutter Array. The ultimate scientific goal is to understand the very nature of the mass accretion process, and how the corresponding infall of gas from the circumstellar disc onto the star depends on the mass, age, and metallicity of the PMS object. This study is unique, since spectroscopic studies of PMS objects so far are limited to the solar neighbourhood and no information exists for starburst clusters and for non-solar metallicity.

  16. Formation Tracking with Orientation Convergence for Groups of Unicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime González-Sierra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three trajectory tracking control strategies for unicycle-type robots based on a leader-followers scheme. The leader robot converges asymptotically to a smooth trajectory, while the follower robots form an undirected open-chain configuration at the same time. It is also shown that the orientation angles of all the robots converge to the same value. The control laws are based on a dynamic extension of the kinematic model of each robot. The output function to be controlled is the midpoint of the wheel axis of every robot. This choice leads to an ill-defined control law when the robot is at rest. To avoid such singularities, a complementary control law is enabled momentarily when the linear velocity of the unicycles is close to zero. Finally, numerical simulations and real-time experiments show the performance of the control strategies.

  17. Secure Group Formation Protocol for a Medical Sensor Network Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    wireless sensors to be both secure and usable by exploring different solutions on a fully functional prototype platform. In this paper, we present an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based protocol, which offers fully secure sensor set-up in a few seconds on standard (Telos) hardware. We evaluate...

  18. Secure Group Formation Protocol for a Medical Sensor Network Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Designing security mechanisms such as privacy and access control for medical sensor networks is a challenging task; as such systems may be operated very frequently, at a quick pace, and at times in emergency situations. Understandably, clinicians hold extra unproductive tasks in low regard......, and experience from user workshops and observations of clinicians at work on a hospital ward show that if the security mechanisms are not well designed, the technology is either rejected altogether, or they are circumvented leaving the system wide open to attacks. Our work targets the problem of designing...... wireless sensors to be both secure and usable by exploring different solutions on a fully functional prototype platform. In this paper, we present an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based protocol, which offers fully secure sensor set-up in a few seconds on standard (Telos) hardware. We evaluate...

  19. Integrated Groups and Smooth Distribution Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro J. MIANA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prove directly that α-times integrated groups define algebra homo-morphisms. We also give a theorem of equivalence between smooth distribution groups and α-times integrated groups.

  20. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  1. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  2. Estudo dos fatores de virulência associados à formação de biofilme e agrupamento filogenético em Escherichia coli isoladas de pacientes com cistite Study on virulence factors associated with biofilm formation and phylogenetic groupings in Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ribeiro Tiba

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de Escherichia coli, isoladas de pacientes do sexo feminino com quadro clínico de cistite, foram caracterizadas quanto à presença de fatores de virulência associados à formação de biofilme e ao agrupamento filogenético. Os resultados da reação em cadeia da polimerase demonstraram que todas as amostras foram positivas para o gene fimH (fímbria do tipo1, 91 amostras foram positivas para o gene fliC (flagelina 50 amostras positivas para o gene papC (fímbria P, 44 amostras positivas para o gene kpsMTII (cápsula e 36 amostras positivas para o gene flu (antígeno 43. Os resultados dos ensaios de quantificação da formação de biofilme demonstraram que 44 amostras formaram biofilme em microplacas de poliestireno e 56 amostras apresentaram resultado ausente/fraco. Também confirmamos a incidência das amostras de Escherichia coli no grupo filogenético B2 e D.Escherichia coli samples isolated from female patients with cystitis were characterized with regard to the presence of virulence factors associated with biofilm formation and phylogenetic groupings. Polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that all the samples were positive for the gene fimH (type 1 fimbriae, 91 for fliC (flagellins, 50 for papC (P fimbriae, 44 for kpsMTII (capsules and 36 for flu (antigen 43. The results from assays to quantify the biofilm formation demonstrated that 44 samples produced biofilm on polystyrene microplates and 56 samples produced weak or no biofilm. We also confirmed that Escherichia coli samples were present in phylogenetic groups B2 and D.

  3. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  4. Stereotype Formation : Biased by Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pelley, Mike E.; Reimers, Stian J.; Calvini, Guglielmo; Spears, Russell; Beesley, Tom; Murphy, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose that biases in attitude and stereotype formation might arise as a result of learned differences ill the extent its which social groups have previously been predictive elf behavioral or physical properties Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that differences in the experienced predictiveness o

  5. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  6. Faint Dwarfs in Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to $\\Delta m_r \\equiv ({m}_{r,\\, {\\rm sat}} -\\, {m}_{r,\\, {\\rm main}}) \\sim 6$-$8$, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs, and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down...

  7. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  8. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  9. “江蚁”群体工作幸福感的形成机理与提升策略%On the Formation Mechanism and Promoting Strategy of Work Well-being of Wuhan "Ant Tribe" Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏季; 吴燕妮; 夏晶

    2011-01-01

    分析现阶段武汉"蚁族"群体(简称"江蚁")生活就业和工作幸福感状况,探讨"江蚁"工作幸福感的影响因素、形成机理和提升策略,以期改善"江蚁"的生活就业状况,促进武汉市城市和谐发展,提高武汉市企业人力资源管理水平。%This paper analyzed the present situation of life,employment and work well-being of Wuhan "ant tribe" groups,and discussed the influencing factors,formation mechanism and promotion strategy of their work well-being in order to improve the situation of life and employment of Wuhan "ant tribe" groups,promote the harmonious development of Wuhan city and improve enterprises′ human resources management in Wuhan.

  10. Research on Formation Rule of Innovation Research Groups-A Case of NSFC Projects%创新研究群体形成规律研究--基于国家自然科学基金创新研究群体项目的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕建新; 郑建明; 杨永华

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes 341 innovation research group projects of NSFC fund from 2000 to 201 3 as research objects. The paper uses quantitative content analysis method and curriculum vitae method to research fund projects quantity &broad amount,the continuation,host institutions'system ®ional distribution,project leaders'age distribution,and key words so as to analyze formation rule of innovation research groups.%以国家自然科学基金委2000—2013年共341个创新研究群体项目为研究对象,从项目数量和经费情况、延续资助情况、所属系统及区域分布、负责人年龄分布、关键词分析几方面进行了统计,结合项目负责人的个人履历开展定量分析,从五方面分析创新研究群体的形成规律。

  11. Formation enthalpies of peroxy-substituted silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrivnyi, V. N.; Pavlovskii, Yu. P.; van-Chin-Syan, Yu. Ya.

    2010-05-01

    Enthalpies of combustion and formation of four peroxy-substituted silanes containing one or several peroxide groups bonded directly to the silicon atom were determined experimentally. The [O-(Si)(O)] group contribution and the correction for the pair interaction of peroxide groups were determined.

  12. Vol en formation sans formation: contrôle et planification pour le vol en formation des avions sans pilote

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the study and the implementation of a system that manages autonomously the configuration of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs. The purposes are to improve the safety and the efficiency of a group of military UAVs, and to fill the gap between mission planning layers and formation control layers. Formation flight is particularly suited for military applications in hostile environments, that require synchronizations on target arrivals or mutual support for jam...

  13. Restucturing the Project Work Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The chapter is based on an evaluation of a pedagogical experiment at Roskilde University, the Antology Experiment. The objective of the experiment was to develop and expand the framework for project work through the production of anthologies compiled collectively by a number of project groups....... The novel aspects of the Anthology Experiment were most notably its magnitude and complexity. In this experiment the groups were totalling some 50 students who were working together. The experiment used a well-known publishing format from research, namely the anthology form, which usually focuses....... The organization was complex, the written product changed from project to article format, the students had to concentrate on working in their own project group as well as in the so-called clusters, and the form of exam was radically changed...

  14. Magnetic translation groups as group extension

    OpenAIRE

    Florek, Wojciech

    1998-01-01

    Extensions of a direct product T of two cyclic groups Z_n1 and Z_n2 by an Abelian (gauge) group G with the trivial action of T on G are considered. All possible (nonequivalent) factor systems are determined using the Mac Lane method. Some of resulting groups describe magnetic translation groups. As examples extensions with G=U(1) and G=Z_n are considered and discussed.

  15. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  16. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  17. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  18. Open Groups: Adaptations in Implementing a Parent Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna-Jean P. Brock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Programs that focus on positive parenting have been shown to improve parental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, and increase parent and child bonding. These programs are typically conducted in a closed group format. However, when individual or community needs are more immediate, programmers sometimes opt for an open group format. To determine the effectiveness of this adaptation to an open group format, the present study compared both groups on parental outcomes. Methods: Both closed and open group formats were offered and implemented between January 2009 and December 2012. Participants for both formats were recruited through similar means and the format placement for each family was determined by the immediacy of the need for an intervention, the time lapse until a new cycle would begin, and scheduling flexibility. Chi-Square analyses were conducted to determine demographic differences between the two groups and gain scores were calculated from the pre- and post-test AAPI-2 scales within a mixed MANOVA to determine group for-mat effectiveness. Results: Though open groups contained higher risk families; parental out-come improvements were significant for both groups. All participants, regardless of group membership, demonstrated the same statistically significant improvements following completion of the program. Conclusion: Findings provide support for adapting group formats when necessary to fit community and individual needs.

  19. Team Formation and Self-serving Biases

    OpenAIRE

    Corgnet, B. (Brice)

    2007-01-01

    There exists extensive evidence that people learn positively about themselves. We build on this finding to develop a model of team formation in the workplace. We show that learning positively about oneself systematically undermines the formation of teams. Agents becoming overconfident tend to ask for an excessive share of the group outcome. Positive learning generates divergence in workers' beliefs and hampers efficient team formation. This result is shown to be robust to high degrees of work...

  20. STRATEGIC ALLIANCES – THEIR DEFINITION AND FORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kinderis, Remigijus; Jucevičius, Giedrius

    2013-01-01

    The article presents analysis of the definition of strategic alliances, the analysis of alliance and the research of a strategic alliance concept; furthermore, it focuses on the contingent hierarchy of alliances. The motives of strategic alliances formation, their categories, groups and benefit for business have been revealed in this article. Special attention is paid to the process of strategic alliance formation and the analysis of factors that influence the formation of strategic alliances...

  1. About group digital signatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adriana Cristina Enache

    2012-01-01

    ...).A group digital signature is a digital signature with enhanced privacy features that allows members of a given group to anonymously sign messages on behalf of the group, producing a group signature...

  2. Satellite galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vennik, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyse distribution, kinematics and star-formation (SF) properties of satellite galaxies in three different samples of nearby groups. We find that studied groups are generally well approximated by low-concentration NFW model, show a variety of LOS velocity dispersion profiles and signs of SF quenching in outskirts of dwarf satellite galaxies.

  3. The Local Group: Inventory and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.

    2011-01-01

    An overview is presented of what we know about the Local Group of galaxies, primarily from optical imaging and spectroscopy. AGB stars are on the whole a very sparse and unrepresentative stellar population in most Local Group galaxies. However, more detailed studies of star formation histories and c

  4. The Local Group : Inventory and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Kerschbaum, F; Lebzelter, T; Wing, RF

    2011-01-01

    An overview is presented of what we know about the Local Group of galaxies, primarily from optical imaging and spectroscopy. AGB stars are on the whole a very sparse and unrepresentative stellar population in most Local Group galaxies. However, more detailed studies of star formation histories and c

  5. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  6. PREDICATION OF THE ORE RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF CHANG 8 AND CHANG 9 OIL GROUP OF YANCHANG FORMATION IN PINGBEI EXPLORATION AREA%坪北探区延长组长8、长9油层组资源潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 郭爱华; 李浩; 张慧元

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,along with the exploration change of Yanchang formation in strategy, Pingbei exploration area achieved new discovery in Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group of Yanchang formation. Based on the massive core data,with SEM observations microscopic-analysis, casting thin sections and conventional Hg injection techniques, the results showed Chang 9 oil group is shallow lake deposition and sediments are fine. Chang 8 oil group locates in Ansai delta front, underwater distributary channel and debouch bar sandbodies whose storage space are big developed. Reservoir space is made up of original residual pore between grains. There is one set of premium hydrocarbon source rock on the top of Chang 9 oil group,about 5~14 m thick,which generate hydrocarbons strongly. There are three types of reservoir assemblage in this area, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, lowe generation and high accumulation ones, high generation and low accumulation ones. According to oil-test results of Chang 8 and Chang 9 oil group, self-generation and self-accumulation ones, low generation and high accumulation ones in Pingbei exploration area present good oil exploration prospect. Oil-bearing area can be increased by progressive exploration,it's also the replacement resources of next exploitation.%以大量的岩心和测井资料为基础,利用铸体薄片、扫描电镜及压汞等测试分析方法,对坪北探区延长组长8和长9油层组的沉积环境、储层特征以及生储盖的组合关系进行了研究,结果表明长9期属浅湖相沉积,沉积物普遍较细,其顶部发育一套优质烃源岩,厚度5~14 m,具有良好的供烃能力;长8期位于安塞三角洲沉积前缘,主要发育三角洲前缘水下分流河道和河口坝砂体,具有良好的储集空间,以原生残余粒间孔隙为主;区域内发育自生自储式、下生上储式、上生下储式3种成藏组合类型.根据坪北探区延长组长8、长9层试油成果,综合评价认为

  7. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  8. The Format Registry Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary McGath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available File format identification is an important issue in digital preservation. Several noteworthy attempts, including PRONOM, GDFR, and UDFR, have been made at creating a comprehensive repository of format information. The sheer amount of information to cover and the constant introduction of new formats and format versions has limited their success. Alternative approaches, such as Linked Data and offering limited per-format information with identifiers that can be used elsewhere, may lead to greater success.

  9. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  10. Group Projects in Social Work Education: The Influence of Group Characteristics and Moderators on Undergraduate Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwait, Ariana E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of group size, group formation, group conflict, and division of labor on student outcomes in a group project for a sample of 112 BSW research seminar students at a large university in the Midwest. Students completed surveys on their experiences with the group project at the end of the semester. Multiple regression…

  11. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  12. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio, Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos Anta Formation (Miocene, Metán Subgroup (Orán Group, in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quattrocchio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno. A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, constituído por las formaciones Río Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno. Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex, en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano. Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos.Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (300m thick in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup

  13. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  14. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  15. Heats of formation of binary semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Sastry, B.S.R. [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826 004 (India)

    2005-03-01

    Heats of formation of tetrahedrally coordinated II-VI and III-V groups of binary semiconductors have been calculated using plasmon energy data. Two simple relations between plasmon energy and heats of formation have been proposed. One is based on spectroscopic model of Phillips and Van Vechten and other is based on the best-fit data of heats of formation. The calculated values of heats of formation from both the equations are compared with the experimental values and the values reported by earlier workers. A fairly good agreement has been obtained between them. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  17. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  18. Homomorphisms of quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ralf; Woronowicz, Stanisław Lech

    2010-01-01

    We introduce some equivalent notions of homomorphisms between quantum groups that behave well with respect to duality of quantum groups. Our equivalent definitions are based on bicharacters, coactions, and universal quantum groups, respectively.

  19. Food Groups Recipes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    15 pages In 2011, My Plate replaced the Food Pyramid as a visual representation for the USDA Dietary Guidelines. This publication, a group of recipes based on this new division of food groups, reflects the effort of the USDA and other groups to translate science-based research into everyday practice for Americans. Fifteen recipes (3 from each food group) show ways to use foods from each food group. They are complete with basic nutritional analyses and food group amounts.

  20. Depositional Age of the Pake Formation of Ximeng Group and Its Tectonic Implications:Constraints from Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Lu-Hf Isotopes%滇西南西盟群帕可组沉积时代厘定及构造意义:锆石U-P b年代学及Lu-Hf同位素证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晓婉; 张玉芝

    2016-01-01

    研究滇西南地区出露的西盟群碎屑岩沉积时限及其古地理属性对了解冈瓦纳大陆东缘的构造演化及其古地理重建具有重要意义。本文对西盟群帕可组3个变质砂岩样品中的碎屑锆石进行了 LA-ICP-MS U-Pb测年和原位 Lu-Hf同位素组成分析,获得样品的最小年龄峰值分别为568Ma、541Ma和560Ma,εHf(t)值为-24.0~26.3。结合前人对帕可组内片麻状花岗岩的研究成果,推测西盟群帕可组沉积于早寒武世—中奥陶世(541~460Ma),而非以往所认为的前寒武纪地层。Lu-Hf同位素组成则表明西盟群帕可组物源为古老地壳物质的再循环并混入新生地壳组分,结合其他区域地质资料推断西盟群物源类似东印度板块,与东冈瓦纳大陆具有亲缘性。%Depositional age,provenance and paleogeography characteristics of the Ximeng metasedimentary sequence is key for better understanding the tectonic evolution and paleogeographic reconstruction of East Gondwana Continent.This paper presented the zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotope for three metamorphic sandstone samples from the Pake Formation of Ximeng Group in SW Yunnan.The group has been traditionally considered as the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Shan-Thai Block.The detrital zircons from three samples yielded the youngest age peaks at 568Ma, 541Ma and 560Ma,respectively,and the εHf(t)values change from -24.0 to +26.3.In combination with other data,it is inferred that the Pake Formation deposited at 541-460Ma,equivalent to Late Cambrian to early-middle Ordovician pe-riod,different from previous proposed Precambrian strata.Their εHf(t)values indicate that their source rocks might origi-nate from the mixing of recycled ancient continental material with juvenile crustal component.Our results,along with other geological data,suggest that the source rocks of the Ximeng Group have an affinity of Tethys-Himalaya and from