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Sample records for formation parana basin

  1. Bentonites of the Irati Formation in the southern sector of the Parana Basin, Brazil; Bentonitas da Formacao Irati no setor sul da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aurelio Fagundes; Dani, Norberto; Remus, Marcus Vinicius Dornelles; Sommer, Margot Guerra, E-mail: norberto.dani@ufrgs.br, E-mail: marcus.remus@ufrgs.br, E-mail: margot.sommer@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl, E-mail: brunoldhorn@gmail.com [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Recife, PE (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional

    2017-01-15

    This paper aims to identify and to present mineralogical and chemical arguments that demonstrate the existence of bentonite levels in the Irati Formation, found in outcrops to the west Acegua in southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). These levels are thin, on average 4 cm thick, large in area, and are composed of grayish-white to greenish massive clay stones that contrast, in the field, with the shales of the Irati Formation. The bentonite levels of the Irati Formation are predominantly composed of Ca-montmorillonite, which constitutes the fine matrix of the rock; and scattered primary or magmatic crystals not larger than very fine sand. Among the main primary minerals representative of volcanic setting, it is possible to identify β-quartz paramorphs, sanidine, biotite, zircon, apatite and ilmenite, in addition to quartz and feldspar shards (splinters). More rarely, fragments of meso and macrocharcoals are found within the bentonite layers, which contrast with the maturity and type of non-vegetal organic matter of the Irati shale. Therefore, the nature of the precursor volcanism is inferred on the basis of rock geochemistry and crystal chemistry of the neoformed montmorillonite in the bentonite levels. Both methodologies indicate that during this period the volcanic ashes that reached the Parana Basin were generated by volcanism of intermediate composition, which is in accordance with what is known about the Lower Choiyoi Volcanic Province manifestations, which were synchronous with the sedimentation of the Irati Formation in the Parana Basin. (author)

  2. Radionuclides distribution in blooming of the permian sediments from the Irati Formation of the Parana Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this work is to study natural radionuclides in sedimentary rocks. The concentration of them reflects the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment as well as some mineralogical characteristics of the rock matrix, and also more recent events as weathering and erosion. Using gamma ray high resolution spectrometry, the profile of activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was assessed for 226 Ra, 238 U, 32 Th and 40 K in rocks of the Irati Formation belonging to Parana Sedimentary Basin. The samples were collected at a limestone abandoned mine, in the city of Sapopema, (PR). 24 samples were collected, eleven from the exposed vertical profile with approximately 5.50 m, whose stratigraphy is represented by an alternation among decimetrics layers of limestones, bituminous shales, and some rhythmits layers (milimetric sheets of limestone and bituminous shales), 9 repetitions of a sample to study the variability, and three rigolits samples in sequential apprenticeships of weathering. Each sample was dried in the sun during about 48 hours, broken, drizzled in a sieve of 4 mesh and put, in a cylindrical container. The measures were accomplished using a Germanium Hyper Pure detector (HPGe) with relative efficiency of 66%, connected to a standard spectrometry electronic chain. The measured concentrations of activity of 238 U were smaller for the limestones (17.80 ±0.09 Bq.Kg -1 ), larger for the bituminous shales (125.5 ± 2.6 Bq.Kg -1 with enrichment of uranium in the sample (200), 548 ± 16 Bq.Kg -1 , upper part of the column), and intermediate for the rhythmits (23.0 ± 1,3 Bq.Kg -1 . The ratio eTh/K obtained for the studied profiles has equivalent values, indicating similar mineralogical characteristics for the limestones, bituminous shales, rhythmits and studied rigolits. On the other hand, to the ratio eTh/eU showed that two of the three regolits samples belong to oxidizer atmospheres, favoring the leaching of uranium, what can be

  3. A Late Jurassic fossil assemblage in Gondwana: Biostratigraphy and correlations of the Tacuarembó Formation, Parana Basin, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel; Soto, Matías; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Martínez, Sergio; Ubilla, Martín

    2009-08-01

    The Tacuarembó Formation has yielded a fossil assemblage that includes the best known body fossils, consisting of isolated scales, teeth, spines, and molds of bones, recovered from thin and patchy bonebeds, from the Botucatu Desert, Parana Basin, South America. The remains are preserved in the sandstones widespread around the city of Tacuarembó. We propose a new formalized nomenclature for the Tacuarembó Formation, naming its "Lower" and "Upper" members as the Batoví (new name) and Rivera (new rank) members, respectively. An assemblage zone is defined for the Batoví Member (fluviolacustrine and aeolian deposits). In this unit, the freshwater hybodontid shark Priohybodusarambourgi D'Erasmo is well represented. This species was previously recorded in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous units of the Sahara and the southern Arabian Peninsula. Globally considered, the fossil assemblage of this member ( P. arambourgi, dipnoan fishes, Ceratosaurus-like theropods, and conchostracans) is indicative of a Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age, which in combination with the stratigraphic relationships of the Tacuarembó Formation with the overlying basalts of the Arapey Formation (132 My average absolute age) implies that the latter was deposited during the Kimmeridgian-Hauterivian interval.

  4. Comparative analysis of the calcretization process in the Marilia formations (Bauru group - Brasil) and Mercedes ( Paysandu group - Uruguay), Upper Cretaceous of the Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veroslavsky, G.; Etchebehere, M.; Sad, A.; Fulfaro, J.

    1998-01-01

    Pedogenic and non-pedogenic calcrete facies are very common feature of Marilia (Brazil) and Mercedes (Uruguay) formations in the Parana Basin. The non-pedogenic ones constitute massive limestone facies that have been recently interpreted as groundwater calcretes. These limestones are exploited in both countries to supply raw materials to Portland cement and soil conditioner in origin and age of calcretization phenomena. In Uruguay, the calcretization process seens to be band formation. Field relationships and fossil assemblage point to a Paleocene (or later) age for the calcretization. In Brazilian territory, the groundwater calcretes aresupposed to be of Upper Cretaceous age due to the presence of dinosaurs scattered through the Bauru Group, including siliciclastic beds below and above the calcretes. The authors assume that calcretization processes are similar in both countries (host rocks, intensity, size, textures, geometries and economic potential). The main difference is in age of the calcretization. (author)

  5. Radionuclides distribution in blooming of the permian sediments from the Irati Formation of the Parana Basin; Distribuicao de radionuclideos em um afloramento de sedimentos permianos da Formacao Irati na Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this work is to study natural radionuclides in sedimentary rocks. The concentration of them reflects the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment as well as some mineralogical characteristics of the rock matrix, and also more recent events as weathering and erosion. Using gamma ray high resolution spectrometry, the profile of activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was assessed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 32}Th and {sup 40}K in rocks of the Irati Formation belonging to Parana Sedimentary Basin. The samples were collected at a limestone abandoned mine, in the city of Sapopema, (PR). 24 samples were collected, eleven from the exposed vertical profile with approximately 5.50 m, whose stratigraphy is represented by an alternation among decimetrics layers of limestones, bituminous shales, and some rhythmits layers (milimetric sheets of limestone and bituminous shales), 9 repetitions of a sample to study the variability, and three rigolits samples in sequential apprenticeships of weathering. Each sample was dried in the sun during about 48 hours, broken, drizzled in a sieve of 4 mesh and put, in a cylindrical container. The measures were accomplished using a Germanium Hyper Pure detector (HPGe) with relative efficiency of 66%, connected to a standard spectrometry electronic chain. The measured concentrations of activity of {sup 238}U were smaller for the limestones (17.80 {+-}0.09 Bq.Kg{sup -1}), larger for the bituminous shales (125.5 {+-} 2.6 Bq.Kg{sup -1} with enrichment of uranium in the sample (200), 548 {+-} 16 Bq.Kg{sup -1}, upper part of the column), and intermediate for the rhythmits (23.0 {+-} 1,3 Bq.Kg{sup -1}. The ratio eTh/K obtained for the studied profiles has equivalent values, indicating similar mineralogical characteristics for the limestones, bituminous shales, rhythmits and studied rigolits. On the other hand, to the ratio eTh/eU showed that two of the three regolits samples belong to oxidizer

  6. Comparative analysis of the calcretization process in the Marilia formations (Bauru group - Brasil) and Mercedes ( Paysandu group - Uruguay), Upper Cretaceous of the Parana basin; Analisis comparativo de los procesos de calcretizacion en las Formaciones Marilia (Grupo Bauru-Brasil) y Mercedes (Grupo Paysandu-Uruguay), Cretacico Superior de la cuenca de Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veroslavsky, G; Etchebehere, M; Sad, A; Fulfaro, J

    1998-07-01

    Pedogenic and non-pedogenic calcrete facies are very common feature of Marilia (Brazil) and Mercedes (Uruguay) formations in the Parana Basin. The non-pedogenic ones constitute massive limestone facies that have been recently interpreted as groundwater calcretes. These limestones are exploited in both countries to supply raw materials to Portland cement and soil conditioner in origin and age of calcretization phenomena. In Uruguay, the calcretization process seens to be band formation. Field relationships and fossil assemblage point to a Paleocene (or later) age for the calcretization. In Brazilian territory, the groundwater calcretes aresupposed to be of Upper Cretaceous age due to the presence of dinosaurs scattered through the Bauru Group, including siliciclastic beds below and above the calcretes. The authors assume that calcretization processes are similar in both countries (host rocks, intensity, size, textures, geometries and economic potential). The main difference is in age of the calcretization. (author)

  7. Vertical Profiles Of 226Ra, 232Th And 40K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 1.84 Bq·kg -1 for 232 Th and 4.20 Bq·kg -1 for 40 K. Activity concentrations were determined for 226 Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq·kg -1 ), 232 Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq·kg -1 ) and 40 K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq·kg -1 ). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81±0.22 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 4.21±0.07 Bq·kg -1 for 232 Th, and 50.11±0.82 Bq·kg -1 for 40 K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10±12.17 Bq·kg -1 for

  8. Geochemical characterization of Parana Basin volcanic rocks: petrogenetic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the geochemical characteristics of Parana Basin volcanic rocks is presented. The results are based on the analyses of major and trace elements of 158 samples. Ninety three of these volcanic samples belong to 8 flow sequences from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina States. The remaining sixty five samples are distributed over the entire basin. In order to study the influence of crustal contamination processes in changing chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks, 47 samples representative of the crystalline basement of the southern and southeastern Parana Basin were also analysed. Several petrogenetic models were tested to explain the compocional variability of the volcanic rocks, in particular those of southern region. The results obtained sugest an assimilation-fractional crystallization process as viable to explain the differences of both the chemical characteristics and Sr isotope initial ratios observed in basic and intermediate rocks. A model involving melting processes of basic material, trapped at the base of the crust, with composition similar to low and high TiO 2 basalts appears to be a possibility to originate the Palmas and Chapeco acid melts, respectively. The study of ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated low TiO 2 basic rocks from the southern, central and northern regions shows the existence of significant differences in the geochemical charactetistics according to their geographical occurrence. A similar geochemical diversity is also observed in high TiO 2 basalts and Chapeco volcanics. Differences in incompatible element ratios between low and high TiO 2 ''uncontaminated'' or poorly contaminated basalts suggest that they could have been produced by different degrees of melting in a garnet peridotite source. Geochemical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) data also support the view that basalts from northern and southern regions of Parana Basin originated from mantle source with different composition. (author) [pt

  9. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  10. REGIONAL MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS IN HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION, PARANA BASIN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William D.; Saad, Antonio; Ohofugi, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The mangetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with sounding spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas. Refs.

  11. Extension of the Parana Basin to offshore Brazil: Implications for coalbed methane evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, M.; Kalkreuth, W.; Rolim, S.B.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is a worldwide exploration target of the petroleum industry. In Brazil, the most important coal-bearing succession is associated with the Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin. The gas-prone areas are located at the southeastern margin of the Parana Basin and possibly in the offshore region of the northern part of the Pelotas Basin. Coalfields end abruptly at the present day shoreline, a result of rifting of Gondwana and the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean. All geologic indicators suggest that in pre-rift times the coal seams extended further eastwards, probably now lying deeply buried below the sedimentary succession of the Pelotas Basin. The present paper discusses structural, stratigraphic, seismic and aeromagenetic data that support the preservation of continental crust beneath ocean sediment. If the coal beds had similar lateral extent to known onshore coals, and coal beds extended across the projected extension of the Parana basin, and there was a conservative 5 m of cumulative coal thickness, then a potential methane volume can be estimated for this newly inferred resource. Average onshore coal gas content is 32 scf/ton (1.00 m(3)/ton). If this is similar in the offshore coal deposits, then the hypothetical methane volume in the offshore area could be in excess of 1.9 x 10(12) scf (56 x 10(9) m(3)). Metamorphism from dikes associated with rifting are potential complicating factors in these deposits, and since no borehole reaching the deep-lying strata in the offshore area are available, this is a hypothetical gas resource with a certain level of uncertainty which should be tested in the future by drilling a deep borehole.

  12. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  13. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil....

  14. Sequence stratigraphy of Taciba and Rio Bonito formations in Mafra, SC area, eastern Parana Basin, Brazil; Estratigrafia de sequencias das formacoes Taciba e Rio Bonito (Membro Triunfo) na regiao de Mafra/SC, leste da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The Taciba and Rio Bonito ('lower' Triunfo Mbr) formations are divided into six depositional sequences based on cores, gamma-ray and electrical logs from shallow drillings from northern Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Each sequence is formed by two systems tracts, a lower one, sandy (low stand) and an upper one, shaly (high stand). The Taciba Formation has three sequences, S{sub 0} to S{sub 2}; sequence S{sub 0} has a thick turbidite sandstone at the base (Rio Segredo Member) that pinches out towards the eastern margin and even disappears in the Mafra outcrop area. Sequence S{sub 1} varies from a thin fluvial-estuarine system to a thick turbidite sandstone of a channelled fan system; S{sub 1} upper shaly system tract is marine in well PP-11, and it is glacially influenced in well PP-10. Sequence S{sub 2} is a thick sandstone body of shallow marine origin, but restricted to one well (PP-11); its upper shaly tract is dominated by massive siltstones intercalated with thin, distal tempestites. The 'lower' Triunfo Member (or 'Taciba- Triunfo transition') begins with the arrival of deltaic clastics of sequence S{sub 3} lower tract, coarsening-up from medial- to proximal delta front sandstones. Sequence S{sub 4} is quite similar to S{sub 3}, both showing sandstone pro gradation from north to south, as opposed to the southwest-sourced transgressive diamictites. Sequence S{sub 5} consists of fluvial deposits at well PP-12, and two transgressive cycles from wells PP-11 to PP-9, each one of them composed of fluvial-estuarine to marine systems. Well PP-10 is an exception, where the lower cycle presents de glaciation to marine deposits. (author)

  15. Pre-Carboniferous sedimentary sequences of the northeastern flank of the Parana basin and southwestern of the Parnaiba basin and its uraniferous possibilites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1982-01-01

    The analyses of the already existent geological data of the northeastern flank of the Parana Basin and the Southwestern flank of the Parnaiba Basin, added to new data from drilling and geological mapping allowed a better knowledge of the stratigraphy of the pre-carboniferous sedimentary sequences (silurian and devonian ages) as well as provided subsidies for the definition of its uranium possibilites. Besides the already known uranium deposits of the Ponta Grossa Formation, is should be considered as worth while of prospecting the Pimenteiras Formation. (Author) [pt

  16. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author) [pt

  17. Considerations on fluorides anomalies in Botucatu-Piramboia aquifers system, Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmelmann, A.A.; Reboucas, A.C.; Reboucas, A.M.; Heine, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater of a great number of deep wells dug to exploit the Botucatu-Piramboia aquifer system in the Parana Basin, Brazil, have high fluoride concentrations, over 1 ppm, that turns groundwater useless for human supply. Investigations being carried out a the Center for Groundwater Research (CEPAS) of the Institute of Geosciences at USP, Sao Paulo, indicate a relationship between fluoride concentration and groundwater age, dated with radiocarbon. (author)

  18. Geochemistry contribution of Pb isotopes on basalts origin study from Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, L.S.; Dupre, B.; Allegre, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents thirty new Pb-isotope and concentration data for low- and high-tiO sub(2) continental flood basalts of the Parana Basin. The results obtained from representative samples show significant differences with respect to type and location of these basic rocks. The low- and high-TiO sub(2) basalts from the northern region of the Parana Basin exhibit very similar Pb-isotope compositions. On the other hand, the low-TiO sub(2) basalts of central and southern areas, which exhibit low Sr initial isotope ratios (less than 0,7060), show very small variation in Pb isotope compositions which are highly enriched in radiogenic Pb in comparison with the analogues of northern region. The high-TiO sub(2) basic rocks analysed from northern and central regions have the same values for Pb isotope ratios, which are slightly more radiogenic compared with high-TiO sub(2) basalts from southern region. The data obtained, combined with other geochemical (major and trace elements, including rare earths) and isotope (Sr and Nd) results support the view that the basalts from northern and southern areas of the Parana Basin originated in lithospheric mantle reservoirs with different geochemical characteristics. (author)

  19. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S

    1987-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S.

    1986-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies of ground water from Botucatu Aquifer - Partial results for North region of Parana Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.B.G. da; Kimmelmann, A.A.; Cunha Reboucas, A. da

    1985-01-01

    The first results of an investigation, to study the flow path, the processes controlling the chemical composition, the recharge, as well as, the origin, apparent ages and dynamic of the groundwater of the Botucatu Aquifer in the Brazilian part of the Parana Basin (818.000 Km 2 ), using hydrochemical and environmental isotope technics ( 2 H, 18 O, 13 C, 3 H, 14 C), are presented. Samples of 20 deep wells, located in the northern part of the Basin (states of Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias), were analysed. (Author) [pt

  2. Fractal properties of fractured sandstones of the Guartela Canyon, Parana Basin - Brazil; Propriedades fractais de arenitos fraturados do Canyon Guartela, Formacao Furnas, Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jeferson de; Figueira, Isabela Francoso Rebutini; Santos, Thais Borba [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGG/DG/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Programa de Pos-Graducao em Geologia; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DG/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Pierin, Andre Ramiro; Spisila, Andre Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DG/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Programa de Iniciacao Cientifica

    2008-03-15

    The statistical and geometrical properties of fracture systems were obtained by analyzing remote sense images and outcrop data, in the Region of Guartela Canyon, in the central-eastern of Parana State. The probability distributions of fractures, with their parameters and attributes, were obtained through extensive statistical exploration of data. These parameters were used as input data for generating 3-D stochastic fractures models through the 'discrete fracture network - DFN' method. The modeling is performed by using the code FRED. To study the persistence of statistical parameters in multiple scales were used remote sensing images (SRTM, Landsat TM7 and aerial photos), covering a scale range from outcrops (few meters) to basin scales (hundreds of kilometers). The results indicated the presence of power-law (fractal) statistics for the spatial and size distributions. Fractals distributions were found for all sets studied, in some cases with different fractal exponents. The implications of fractal behavior for the generation of discrete fracture network, and consequently for the hydraulic properties, are briefly discussed. (author)

  3. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po and 210 Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: → Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. → Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. → Contribution of 226 Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. → Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  4. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  5. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos, E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Av. 24-A, No. 1515 - CP 178, CEP 13506-900-Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: > Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. > Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. > Contribution of {sup 226}Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. > Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  6. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  7. Uranium, Thorium and Potassium concentrations and volumetric heat production rates at the eastern border of the Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Telma C.Q.; Ribeiro, Fernando B.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations were measured and volumetric heat production rates were calculated for rocks from the exposed basement at the eastern-southeastern border of the Parana Basin between 23 deg S and 32 deg S. Heat generating element concentration data available in the literature were also used when possible, for volumetric heat production calculations. The uranium concentrations vary from below determination limit (0.51 ppm) and 16 ppm whereas the thorium concentrations vary from below the determination limit (1.26 ppm) and 68 ppm, and K concentrations vary between 0.08% and 5.6%. Volumetric heat production rates vary between 0.07 μW/m 3 to 6.2 μW/m 3 , and the obtained results show a variable heat generation rate with high heat producing bodies scattered along this Parana Basin border. The higher observed values concentrate in the Ribeira fold belt at about 23 deg S and between 30 deg S and 32 deg S in the Down Feliciano fold belt. Isolated high heat production rates can also be observed between 26 deg S and 28 deg S. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Sedimentologie and stratigraphic s aspects of conglomeratic sandstones belong to the channel between of the Pirambora and Botucatu formations (mesozoic basin of Parana)district of Sao Paolo Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano Chang, M.

    1998-01-01

    The interest of present study is concerned to the sedimentogenic characterization of fluvial conglomeratic sandstones that occur close to the top of Piramboia Formation.These deposits are interpreted as braided channel bar facies, deposited on alluvial fans at the border of desertic environment. The sandstones are fine to coarse, with variable percentage of gravel. These are dominantly quart zones and median scale trough cross-bedded. (author)

  9. Spectral gamma-ray signature of fluvial deposits: a case study from the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil; Assinatura gamaespectrometrica de depositos fluviais: estudo de caso na Formacao do Rio do Rasto, Permiano Superior da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowek, Guilherme Arruda, E-mail: arruda@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca; Vesely, Fernando Farias, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br, E-mail: vesely@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Setor de Ciencias da Terra; Berton, Fabio, E-mail: fabioberton1@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Fluvial channel-fill deposits form highly heterogeneous hydrocarbon reservoirs. The study of outcrop analogs can help in the characterization of these heterogeneities, which are usually not detected by subsurface geophysical methods. The aim of this research is to compare outcrop log signatures with grain size trends and depositional elements of the fluvial deposits of the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation. A series of vertical gamma-ray logs were assembled in two outcrops in order to: 1) characterize log-facies in a succession composed of alternated flood plain, channel fill and eolian strata; 2) define within-channel spectral gamma-ray variability of a mixed-load composite point bar deposit and its relationship with grain size trends and lithofacies; 3) correlate log signatures observed in the outcrop sections with deep exploratory wells drilled several tens of kilometers from the study area. The results of this study show that gamma-ray logs have good correlation with grain size trends and that different depositional elements have distinct signatures. On the other hand, point bar deposits exhibit strong lateral changes in log signature due variations in grain size and mud content within lateral accretion strata. Although frequent, the classic bell-shaped log motif was not always detected, which means that the amount of fluvial channel-fill deposits recognized in subsurface can be underestimated. Similar log signatures were detected in the boreholes, at least in the closest ones, helping in paleoenvironmental interpretation in the subsurface. (author)

  10. Radioactive carbon-14 dating of ground waters in IPEN for evaluation of water resources in Rio Grande do Norte and Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Pereira, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dating of deep ground waters from Potiguar basin and Parana basin was carried out to identify zones of recharge. In all 28 samples, five from Potiguar basin and 23 from Parana basin were analyzed for 14 C. The methods of sample collection and analysis are described. The analysis consists of transforming carbon of the sample to benzene, by synthesis process involving four steps i.e. production of carbon dioxide, production of lithium carbide, hydrolysis to acetylene and catalytic polymerization to bezene. The specific activity of the synthertized benzene is measured by liquid scintillation counting. The corrections for initial 14 C content have been made by using the model of Vogel. (Author) [pt

  11. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  12. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  13. Preliminary survey of soil erosion in a micro-basin in the Brazilian state of Parana, using the Cs-137 methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of the 137 Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion or deposition in an area. The 137 Cs activities were measured in soil samples to determine the soil losses or gains in a basin at the north of Parana State. The detection efficiency was determined by measurement of standards, prepared with well-known activities of 137 Cs. The soil losses or gains were determinate in up-slope, hill-slope and down-slope, in six different transect in the studied basin using three models of the literature. (author)

  14. Methodology of the 137 Cs for the soil erosion and deposition determination in a micro basin from the north of Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of 137 Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. The 137 Cs activity of soil samples, taken from a small basin at the North of Parana, were measured employing a HPGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. Standard oil samples with known concentrations of 137 Cs were prepared for the detection efficiency determination. Soil loss or gain was measured at the top, midslope and low slope regions, for six different transects at the investigated small basin. (author)

  15. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  16. Sedimentary thickness and velocity in the northeast boundary of the Parana Basin with Andean earthquakes and local events; Espessura e velocidade das camadas sedimentares na borda nordeste da Bacia do Parana utilizando telessismos da regiao andina e sismos locais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josimar A.; Souza, Luiz M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica; Assumpcao, Marcelo S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Deep Andean earthquakes are a suitable source of high-frequency P-waves (with good signal to noise ratio up to {approx} 10 Hz) that can be used to obtain high-resolution receiver functions at stations in intra-cratonic basins in Brazil. Receiver functions (Gaussian width 20) at five stations in the Bebedouro seismic area (NE Parana Basin) were calculated using the time domain deconvolution of Ligorria and Ammon (1999). Inter-station Rayleigh wave phase velocities were measured using local earthquakes. Joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh phase velocities provided reasonably well constrained S-wave velocity profiles. Shallow seismic refraction surveys were used to fix the velocities of the surface layers during the inversion. The area is characterized by a thin surface layer of sandstones ({approx}60 m), followed by a {approx}500 m thick basalt layer. Beneath the basalts, low-velocity layers define another sedimentary sequence. These features are consistent with the expected values based on well data at regional distances and confirm the usefulness of high-frequency receiver functions to study sedimentary basins. (author)

  17. Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-02-01

    In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal

  18. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.T.G. de; Formoso, M.L.L.; Trescases, J.J.; Meunier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  19. Spatial and seasonal patterns in fish assemblage in Corrego Rico, upper Parana River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erico L. H Takahashi

    Full Text Available The upper Paraná River basin drains areas of intensive industry and agriculture, suffering negative impacts. The Córrego Rico flows through sugar cane fields and receives urban wastewater. The aim of this work is to describe and to compare the fish assemblage structure in Córrego Rico. Six standardized bimonthly samples were collected between August 2008 and June 2009 in seven different stretches of Córrego Rico. Fishes were collected with an experimental seine and sieves, euthanized, fixed in formalin and preserved in ethanol for counting and identification. Data were recorded for water parameters, instream habitat and riparian features within each stretch. Non-metric multidimensional scaling, species richness and diversity analysis were performed to examine spatial and seasonal variation in assemblage structure. Fish assemblage structure was correlated with instream habitat and water parameters. The fish assemblage was divided in three groups: upper, middle and lower reaches. High values of richness and diversity were observed in the upper and lower stretches due to connectivity with a small lake and Mogi Guaçu River, respectively. Middle stretches showed low values of richness and diversity suggesting that a small dam in the middle stretch negatively impacts the fish assemblage. Seasonal differences in fish assemblage structure were observed only in the lower stretches.

  20. A preliminary survey of soil erosion in a small basin in the Parana state by using 137Cs methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, A.C.; Appoloni, C.R.; Parreira, P.S.; Guimaraes, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of 137 Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. 137 Cs is an artificial radionuclide that was introduced in the environment through nuclear tests and deposited as radioactive fallout. 137 Cs has a relatively long half-life of 30.2 years and when in contact with the soil is rapid and strongly adsorbed by clay an organic particles. The adsorbed 137 Cs in soil is a useful tracer of soil erosion when soil 'labeled' with 137 Cs is eroded, the 137 Cs is transported with the soil in the same proportion. A 137 Cs inventory for an individual sampling point, which is less than the reference sample value, is indicative of erosion, whereas an inventory greater than the reference sample value, indicates deposition. With the objective of a preliminary verification of using this methodology, seven areas were chosen for soil sampling in a small basin at Parana state, Brazil. Six of them were cultivated areas and also a reference area, without agricultural use, that didn't presents signs of soil erosion and deposition. 137 Cs activity of soil samples was measured employing a HpGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. The activities of the 18 samples of the six measured areas (3 samples from each area, one at the top, one at the medium level and one at the lower level), varied from 0.39 Bq.kg -1 to 2.31 Bq.kg -1 . The measured activity of the reference area was 1.39 Bq.kg -1 . Losses (or gains) of soil in the different areas were determined making use of three published equations. These equations were derived in terms of 137 Cs activity, but we adapted them only in terms of the area under 137 Cs peak, in counts per second (cps), and the mass of the samples in order to avoid the deviation in the efficiency of the system. One of this equations , in cps, is: Y = [(N s . (m r /m s ) - N r )/N r ] . (2640/28), where Y is loss or gain of the soil; N s is the area under the 137 Cs peak in the

  1. Methodology of the {sup 137} Cs for the soil erosion and deposition determination in a micro basin from the north of Parana State; Metodologia do {sup 137} Cs para determinacao da erosao e deposicao de solo em uma microbacia do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    1997-12-31

    The measurement of {sup 137} Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. The {sup 137} Cs activity of soil samples, taken from a small basin at the North of Parana, were measured employing a HPGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. Standard oil samples with known concentrations of {sup 137} Cs were prepared for the detection efficiency determination. Soil loss or gain was measured at the top, midslope and low slope regions, for six different transects at the investigated small basin. (author) 47 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Methodology of the {sup 137} Cs for the soil erosion and deposition determination in a micro basin from the north of Parana State; Metodologia do {sup 137} Cs para determinacao da erosao e deposicao de solo em uma microbacia do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    1998-12-31

    The measurement of {sup 137} Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion/accumulation. The {sup 137} Cs activity of soil samples, taken from a small basin at the North of Parana, were measured employing a HPGe gamma ray detector and a standard spectrometric nuclear electronic chain. Standard oil samples with known concentrations of {sup 137} Cs were prepared for the detection efficiency determination. Soil loss or gain was measured at the top, midslope and low slope regions, for six different transects at the investigated small basin. (author) 47 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Geochemical studies based in microconstituent elements of oils, betuminous shales and its extracts from Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clain, Almir Faria

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum contains a high number of elements, considered as microconstituents, once they contribute with less than 1 % of its constitution. The concentration of those elements in the petroleum is very low, because it varies from ng/g to μg/g, therefore the use of sensitive and multielemental techniques is essential for their determination. The objective of this work is to determine the concentration of 46 microconstituent elements in organic extracts from the betuminous shales of the Irati Formation, and correlate oils from Paraná Basin, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. Aspects associated with origin, secondary migration, oil age, pH and E h values, and the redox conditions in the depositional environment of the organic matter are discussed. The concentration behavior of the microconstituent elements is presented using statistical techniques of multivariate analysis The determined oil concentration was about 10% and 0.14-0.91% for the reservoir rocks and organic extracts from source rocks, respectively. The concentration values of the elements in oils trended to decrease with the atomic number, ranging from 5-166 μg/g for AI, 24-238 for Fe and 0.0007-0.38 for U. For some elements, which are organically bound to oil, the results were 0.48-39 μg/g to V, 4.4-28 μg/g for Ni and 0.13-27 μg/g for Mo. The concentration values in oils and organic extracts samples presented a statistic distribution almost log-normal for most of determined elements. The concentration ratios U/Th and V/Cr are representative of paleo-redox condition index. (author)

  4. The Tunas Formation (Permian) in the Sierras Australes foldbelt, east central Argentina: evidence for syntectonic sedimentation in a foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gamundi, O. R.; Conaghan, P. J.; Rossello, E. A.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1995-04-01

    The Tunas Formation, extensively exposed in the Sierras Australes foldbelt of eastern central Argentina, completes the sedimentation of the Gondwanan (Late Carboniferous-Permian) sequence, locally known as the Pillahuincó Group. The underlying units of the Group show an integrated depositional history which can be explained in terms of glaciomarine sedimentation (Sauce Grande Formation) and postglacial transgression (Piedra Azul and Bonete Formations). This succession also has a rather uniform quartz-rich, sand-sized composition indicative of a cratonic provenance from the Tandilia Massif to the northeast. Early to Late Permian deformation folded and thrusted the southwestern basin margin (Sierras Australes) and triggered the deposition of a 1,500 m — thick, synorogenic prograding wedge, the Tunas Formation, in the adjacent foreland basin (Sauce Grande or Claromecó Basin). Sandstone detrital modes for the Tunas deposits show moderate to low contents of quartz and abundant lithics, mostly of volcanic and metasedimentary origin. Paleocurrents are consistently from the SW. Tuffs interbedded with sandstones in the upper half of Tunas Formation (Early — early Late? Permian) are interpreted as being derived from volcanic glass-rich tuffs settled in a body of water. Extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region during that period. The age constraints and similarities in composition between these volcanics and the tuffaceous horizons present in the Sauce Grande, Parana and Karoo Basins suggest a genetic linkage between these two episodes. The intimate relationship between volcanic activity inboard of the paleo-Pacific margin, deformation in the adjacent orogenic belt and subsidence and sedimentation in the contiguous foreland basin constitutes a common motif in the Sauce Grande and Karoo Basins of southwestern Gondwana.

  5. K-Basin gel formation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates

  6. Groundwater movement study of Guarani Aquifer System through isotopes in Parana Sao Paulo and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Chemas Hindi, E.; Lima Bittencourt, A.; Aravena, R.; Montano, J.; Duarte, U.

    2007-01-01

    The current conceptual models of the Guarany Aquifer System (GAS), found in Galboa et al. (1976), Fraga (1992); Campos (1994), Araujo et al. (1995), Rosa Filho et al. (1998) and Campos (2000), are in regional scale, taking only intoaccount the aquifer stratigraphic characteristics, showing the Piramboia and Botucatu Formations gently dipping under the Serra Geral Formation. This model represents the aquifer like an almost homogeneous and isotropic layer, desregarding local influences caused by fauts and intrusive bodies on the groundwater flow or on the water volume stored in the aquifer, as quoted by Sinelli et al. (1984). The GAS shows many structural conditioning, with highligts to the depocenters of Serra Geral Formation, reactivation of faulting systems, the uplift of the present basin s borders and the activation of the Rio Grande and Ponta Grossa Arches (Araujo et al., 1995). Regarding the structural control due to the Ponta Grossa Arch, it is worthwhile to point out the ocurrence along the mentioned arch, of innumerous diabase dykes predominately striking NW (Ferreira 1982a,b).The dykes and regional geological structures (faultings) play an important role on the structural compartimentation of the GAS. The strategy for the GAS exploitation, inside Parana State, must involve technical, scientific (geology, geophysics, hydrochemistr y and isotopic studies) and socio-economic approaches, in order to select the favourable targets for groundwater withdraw and, simultaneously, allow a proper management that result in a good balance between water production and use and protection of the GAS. Therefore, the knowledge of local geological factors controling the aquifer hydrodynamic (flow pattern, volume of stored water, well yieldings and water quality) besides its geometric compartimentation (unities with different hydrodynamic behaviour), will contribute to the development of a conceptual qualitative model to be used as a tool for the SAG mangement. The results of

  7. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Inversion and Model Validation with Potential Field Data and Seismics for the Central Portion of Parana Sedimentary Basin in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terra, E. F.; Fontes, S. L.; Taveira, D. T.; Miquelutti, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná basin, on the central-south region of the South American Plate, is one of the biggest South American intracratonic basins. It is composed by Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, which were covered by the enormous Cretaceous flood basalts, associated with the rifting of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Its depocenter region, with a maximum estimated depth of just over 7000 m, was crossed by three magnetotelluric - MT profiles proposed by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) aimed at better characterizing its geological structure, as the seismic images are very poor. The data include about 350 MT broadband soundings spanning from 1000 Hz down to 2,000 s. The MT data were processed using robust techniques and remote reference. Static shift observed in some stations were corrected based on Transient Electromagnetic - TEM measurements at each site. These models were integrated to existent gravity, magnetic and seismic data for a more comprehensive interpretation of the region. A pilot 3D model has also been constructed on a crustal scale covering the study area using four frequencies per decade in the 3D inversion scheme proposed by Siripunvaraporn et al. (2005). The inversion scheme produced a reliable model and the observations were adequately reproduced, with observed fitting particularly better for the deeper structures related to basement compared to the 2D results. The main features in the conductivity model correspond to known geological features. These included the conductivity structures obtained for the upper crust, i.e. the sedimentary sequences, underlain by more resistive material, assumed to be basement. Local resistive features in the near-surface are associated to volcanic basalts covering the sediments. Some highly resistivity horizontal and vertical bodies were associated to volcanic intrusion like dikes and sills. We observed depressions on basement consistent with half-graben structures possibly filled with sandstones.

  8. Stratigraphy of Guichon Formation (lower cretaceous) in litoral basin, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Perea, D.; Perinotto, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is about the stratigraphic al analysis of the Guichon Formation (lower cretaceous, litoral basin in Uruguay). The facies association is represented by conglomerates mainly fine sandstones and mud stones wi ch is interpreted as an alluvial system. A regional palaeogeography and a new geochronological alternative are established for this formation. (author).

  9. Geochemistry of the Upper Parana River floodplain. Study of the Garcas Pond and Patos Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelo Bevilacqua Remor; Silvio Cesar Sampaio; Marcio Antonio Vilas Boas; Ralpho Rinaldo dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the supply of chemical elements to the Upper Parana River floodplain and identify trends in the geochemistry of its drainage basin. The primary factor that regulates the supply of chemical elements of the Upper Parana River floodplain is the flood pulse, which can be magnified by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Garcas Pond is affected by agriculture, urbanization, discharge of industrial effluents and hydroelectric power production activities. Patos Pond is affected by sugarcane burning, gold mining, agriculture and urbanization. (author)

  10. Radioactivity of rocks from the geological formations belonging to the Tibagi River hydrographic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This work is a study of the 40 K and the 238 U and 232 Th series radioactivity in rocks measured with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The rocks were taken from the geologic formations in the region of the Tibagi river hydrographic basin. The course of this river cuts through the Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences of the Parana sedimentary basin. In order to take into account the background radiation attenuation by the samples, a technique was developed that eliminated the need to measure a blank sample. The effects of the radiation's self-attenuation in the sample matrix were taken into account by using a gamma ray direct transmission method. The results for 87 rock samples, taken from 14 distinct formations, and their corresponding radioactivity variations are presented and discussed according to the possible geological processes from which they originated. Among the most discussed results are: an outcrop that profiles shale, limestone and rhythmite in the Irati Formation; a sandstone and siltstone sequence from the Rio do Rasto Formation; and a profile sampled in a coal mine located in the Rio Bonito Formation. The calculations of the rocks' contributions to the outdoor gamma radiation dose rate agree with the values presented by other authors for similar rocks. The highest dose values were obtained from felsic rocks (rhyolite of the Castro group, 129.8 ± 3.7 nGy.h -1 , and Cunhaporanga granite, 167 ± 37 nGy.h -1 ). The other highest values correspond to the shale rocks from the Irati Formation (109 ± 16 nGy.h -1 ) and the siltic shale rocks from the Ponta Grossa Formation (107.9 ± 0.7 nGy.h -1 ). The most recent geological formations presented the lowest dose values (e.g. the Botucatu sandstone, 3.3 ± 0.6 nGy.h -1 ). The average value for sedimentary rocks from seven other formations is equal to 59 ± 26 nGy.h -1 . The Rio Bonito Formation presented the highest dose value (334 ± 193 nGy.h -1 ) mainly due to the anomalous 226 Ra

  11. Palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palaeolatitudes of the older formations about 44.9° S and that of the younger sites about 9.1° S show a migration of the West African craton from medium to low latitude during the Neoproterozoic, in conformity with the Snowball Earth hypothesis. KEYWORDS: West African craton, Volta basin, Virtual Geomagnetic Pole, ...

  12. Mechanics of Formation of Forearc Basins of Indonesia and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, T.; Willett, S.; Kopp, H.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the mechanics of forearc basins will be the object of a numerical investigation to understand the relationships between the wedge deformation and forearc basin formation. The aim of this work is to gain insight into the dynamics of the formation of the forearc basin on top of a deforming accretionary wedge, including the mechanism of formation of accommodation space and preservation of basin stratigraphy. Our tool is a two-dimensional numerical model that includes the rheological properties of the rock, including effective internal friction angle, effective basal friction angle, thermally-activated viscosity and strain softening. We also simulate different sedimentation rates in the basin, to study the influence of underfilled and overfilled basin conditions on wedge deformation. The stratigraphy in the basin is simulated, because, as noted in earlier studies, underfilled conditions incourage tectonic deformation in the inner wedge. We compare the numerical model to basins along the Sunda-Java Trench and the Alaskan margin. The Sunda-Java Trench shows a variety of structural and basin styles including underfilled and overfilled basins and different wedge geometries along the same trench. We interprete and document these structural styles, using depth migrated seismic sections of the Sunda Trench, obtained in three surveys, GINCO (11/98 - 01/99), MERAMEX (16/09/04 - 7/10/04) and SINDBAD (9/10/06 - 9/11/06) and made available by the IFM-GEOMAR group in Kiel and the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften and Rohstoffe (BGR) in Hannover. On the Alaska margin we focus on the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island plateau. This segment of the margin has one of the largest accretionary wedge - forearc basin systems in the world. It also exhibits a double forearc basin system with an interior basin (Cook inlet) and an outer basin, outboard of Kodiak Island, which is a prime candidate for a negative-alpha basin, as described by Fuller et al., (Geology, 2006). A number

  13. Impact-Basin Formation on Mercury: Current Observations and Outstanding Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. M. H.; Head, J. W.; Fassett, C. I.

    2018-05-01

    Mercury provides an important laboratory for understanding impact-basin formation on planetary bodies. MESSENGER observations improved our understanding, but much is still unknown about the formation and evolution of basin features.

  14. Formation evaluation of fractured basement, Cambay Basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh Datta; Farooqui, M Y; Chatterjee, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional reservoirs such as fractured basalts, shale gas and tight sand are currently playing an important role in producing a significant amount of hydrocarbon. The Deccan Trap basaltic rocks form the basement of the Cambay Basin, India, and hold commercially producible hydrocarbon. In this study two wells drilled through fractured basalts are chosen for evaluating the lithology, porosity and oil saturation of the reservoir sections. Well logs, such as gamma ray, high resolution resistivity, litho density, compensated neutron and elemental capture spectroscopy, have been used in cross-plotting techniques for lithology and mineral identification. Formation micro imagery log data have been analysed to quantify the fractures and porosity in the fractured reservoirs for a well in the south Ahmedabad block of the Cambay Basin. The results of the analysis of two wells are presented and discussed and they are found to be in good agreement with geological and production data. (paper)

  15. Formation and evolution of mesozoic volcanic basins in Gan-Hang tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingpu

    1999-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the principle model for the formation and the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic basins in the Gan-Hang Tectonic Belt, and describes the distinct evolution features between the internal and external sites of volcanic basins, the natural relation between the down-warped, down-faulted, collapse volcanic basins and volcanic domes, the relationship between the formation of inter layered fractured zones of the volcanic cover and the evolution of volcanic basins

  16. Biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation in Zagros Basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdaction   The Gurpi Formation is developed in the central of the Zagros fold in Khuzestan, Lorestan and Fars provinces of southwestern Iran, defined az theZagros basin ,The Gurpi refers to Gurpi Mountain in the Kuzestan province.type section gurpi,which is N of the Lali oil wells and N-E of Masjed – Soleiman city,comprises 320m argillaceous limestone and gry-to-blueshale marl(James and Wynd,1965Although the boundary the Gurpi Formation and the underlying Ilam Formation is reported to be gradual,the altered facies found at this boundrary could be a sign of a low disconformity or even unconformity.In some place,the Ilam Formation does not exist and tne Gurpi Formation lie abave the Sarvak Formation.The upper boundry of the Gurpi Formation is more noticeable and there are different overlying formations.In Khozstan province,the Gurpi Formation is overlain by purplr shale of pabdeh Formation with signs of unconformity.The Gurpi Formation is not always concurrent. Biostratigraphy and lithological characteries of the Gurpi Formation were studied by James and Wynd (1965, Taheri (1998, KameliAzao (2002, Zarei (2005, Hematinasab (2008, Madavian (2009, Tavalaian (2011. This research study aims at describing the biostratigraphy of Gurpi Formation.In this study five stratigraphic section is investigate for its Planktonc Foraminiforal content.     Method and Matrials   This study involves five stratigraphic sections from the Gurpi Formation that were measured the ticknes and determind of Litostratigrapic limit as well as recognizd of detail litostrstigray the Gurpi Formation.More than 525 thine sections were examined. Some samples from the underlying Pabdeh Formation were also analysed for comparison. then recognizd Genus and species of Planktonic foraminifera and biozones mentioned wells have been introduced. In order to the biozonation of Gurpi Formation, stratigraphic distribution of well- known foraminifora is recognizd and then biozones are

  17. Biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation in Zagros Basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Sadeghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introdaction   The Gurpi Formation is developed in the central of the Zagros fold in Khuzestan, Lorestan and Fars provinces of southwestern Iran, defined az theZagros basin ,The Gurpi refers to Gurpi Mountain in the Kuzestan province.type section gurpi,which is N of the Lali oil wells and N-E of Masjed – Soleiman city,comprises 320m argillaceous limestone and gry-to-blueshale marl(James and Wynd,1965Although the boundary the Gurpi Formation and the underlying Ilam Formation is reported to be gradual,the altered facies found at this boundrary could be a sign of a low disconformity or even unconformity.In some place,the Ilam Formation does not exist and tne Gurpi Formation lie abave the Sarvak Formation.The upper boundry of the Gurpi Formation is more noticeable and there are different overlying formations.In Khozstan province,the Gurpi Formation is overlain by purplr shale of pabdeh Formation with signs of unconformity.The Gurpi Formation is not always concurrent. Biostratigraphy and lithological characteries of the Gurpi Formation were studied by James and Wynd (1965, Taheri (1998, KameliAzao (2002, Zarei (2005, Hematinasab (2008, Madavian (2009, Tavalaian (2011. This research study aims at describing the biostratigraphy of Gurpi Formation.In this study five stratigraphic section is investigate for its Planktonc Foraminiforal content.     Method and Matrials   This study involves five stratigraphic sections from the Gurpi Formation that were measured the ticknes and determind of Litostratigrapic limit as well as recognizd of detail litostrstigray the Gurpi Formation.More than 525 thine sections were examined. Some samples from the underlying Pabdeh Formation were also analysed for comparison. then recognizd Genus and species of Planktonic foraminifera and biozones mentioned wells have been introduced. In order to the biozonation of Gurpi Formation, stratigraphic distribution of well- known foraminifora is recognizd and

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  19. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Luiz, Tatiane; Roquetti Velludo, Marcela; Carvalho Peret, Alberto; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Moldenhauer Peret, André

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the ...

  20. Mineralogical and structural transformations related to alterations in hydrothermal and climatological conditions of basic vulcanic rocks from northern Parana (Ribeirao Preto region, SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, N.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed studies of the basic vulcanic rocks of northern Parana basin (Region of Ribeirao Preto, SP) reveled that these rocks were affected by pre-meteoric activity (hydrothermal alteration) before being exposed to the supergene system of alteration linked to the lithosphere/atmosphere interface. Mineralogical and structural transformation are studied. The appearance of sequential crystalline-chemical paragenesis in zones suggest that the hydrothermal activity occurred during two successives processes of alteration: the expulsion of the water from the rock during the later stages of magma cooling and the continous process of dissolution of the rock wall and the ionic diffusion involving the rock sistem of structural voids. The hydro-thermal action was followed by weathering action developing a thin 'front' of superficial alteration. This alteration system, can lead to the formation of three major levels of alteration horizons and superficial accumulations: alterites, glebular and suil surface materials. (C.D.G.) [pt

  1. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  2. The role of Mesozoic sedimentary basin tapers on the formation of Cenozoic crustal shortening structures and foredeep in the western Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    The foreland basin records important clues of tectonic and sedimentary process of mountain-building, thus to explore its dynamic mechanism on the formation is an important issue of the mountain-basin interaction. The Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt and its adjacent Sichuan basin located in the eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, are one of the most-concerned regions of studying modern mountain-building and seismic process, and are also a natural laboratory of studying the dynamics of the formation and development of foreland basin. However, it still need further explore on the mechanics of the development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust-belts in the western Sichuan Basin. The Longmen Shan thrust belt has experienced multi-stages of tectonics evolution, foreland basin formation and topography growth since Late Triassic, and whether the early formed basin architecture and large Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper can influence the formation and development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust belts? To solve these issues, this project aim to focus on the Cenozoic foreland basin and internal crustal shortening structures in the western Sichuan basin, on the basis of growth critical wedge taper theory. We will reconstruct the shape of multi-phases of sedimentary basin tapers, the temporal-spatial distribution of crustal shortening and thrusting sequences, and analyze the control mechanism of Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper on the formation of Cenozoic foreland basins, and final explore the interaction between the tectonics geomorphology, stress field and dynamic propagation of foreland basin.

  3. Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate material transported by the Parana and Uruguay rivers during high (december 1993) and low (september 1994) water periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, F.; Thouron, D.; Garcon, V.; Henry, F.; Probst, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Our motivation is to better constrain the neodymium and strontium isotopic signatures of the closest continental riverine source (Parana and Uruguay rivers) to the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence zone in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We thus present new isotopic data on the Nd and Sr of the dissolved and suspended loads of the Parana and Uruguay rivers for two water periods forming the Rio de la Plata whose drainage basin is the second largest one in South America. The Parana dissolved material shows less radiogenic (ε Nd (0) ranging between -12.1 and -8.2) than the Uruguay one with a mean ε Nd (0) value of -6.3 ± 0.3. Suspended particulates display the same isotopic trend (mean ε Nd (0) value of -10.3 and -6.0 for the Parana and Uruguay rivers, respectively). Dissolved load 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Parana (0.7123) is found to be more radiogenic than the Uruguay one (0.7097); the suspended load follows the same trend with 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of 0.7247 and 0.7115 in the Parana and Uruguay rivers, respectively. The relatively radiogenic Nd and non radiogenic Sr of the Uruguay River as compared to the Parana River could be attributed to a predominance of tholeiitic basalts in the drainage basin. A revisited estimation of the fluxes of Nd considering all South American rivers delivering into the western South and Tropical Atlantic Ocean yields a Nd particulate flux to estuarine water two orders of magnitude higher than the Nd dissolved flux. Considering the net dissolved and suspended fluxes of Nd reaching the Rio de la Plata, we have calculated a resulting ε Nd (0) equal to -10.2. The computation of ε Nd (0) of the Rio de la Plata outflow waters gives a value of -8.3, taking into account various removal processes within the estuary. (authors)

  4. Formation-evolution model of uranium-productive basin and its recognition criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Li Ziying; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang

    2004-11-01

    Based on geologic-tectonic setting and dynamic evolution of important U-productive basins both at home and abroad, authors distinguish six type of U-productive basins, and nominate each type by typical representative of this type, namely Chu-Sarysu and Syr-Darya type, Central Kyzylkum type, Zaural and West-Siberia type, Zabaikal type, Bohemia type, and South Texas type. The formation-evolution model of each type of U-productive basin has been established and recognition criteria have been proposed. Finially, the difference between each type U-productive basin is discussed and some assumption on prospecting for U-productive basins is proposed. (authors)

  5. Formation-evolution model of uranium-productive basin and its recognition criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuyi, Chen; Ziying, Li [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Weixun, Zhou; Taiyang, Guan [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2004-11-15

    Based on geologic-tectonic setting and dynamic evolution of important U-productive basins both at home and abroad, authors distinguish six type of U-productive basins, and nominate each type by typical representative of this type, namely Chu-Sarysu and Syr-Darya type, Central Kyzylkum type, Zaural and West-Siberia type, Zabaikal type, Bohemia type, and South Texas type. The formation-evolution model of each type of U-productive basin has been established and recognition criteria have been proposed. Finially, the difference between each type U-productive basin is discussed and some assumption on prospecting for U-productive basins is proposed. (authors)

  6. Energy balance of the Parana State - 1980-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the energetic balance of Parana State - 1980/1994, including the energy fluxes from primary and secondary energy sources in the main sectors of Parana economy. It informs consumption, production and energy external dependence. 26 figs., 88 tabs

  7. Analysis on sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems of Mangbang formation, upper tertiary in Longchuanjiang basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Yao Yifeng; Chen Yong; Li Guoxin

    2004-01-01

    Longchuanjiang basin is a small Cenozoic intramontane down-faulted basin. This paper, combining the Pliocene structure, the volcanic activities and the sedimentation of the basin, analyses the sequence stratigraphy and the depositional systems of Mangbang formation (the cover of the basin). Based on the analysis of depositional systems of Mangbang formation, the depositional pattern of Pliocene in Longchuanjiang basin is set up. It is suggested that because of the fast accumulation in early down-faulted zone during Pliocene time, the alluvial fan depositional system was dominated at that time. During the middle-late period, the alluvial fan entered the lake forming a combination of fan-fandelta-lacustrine depositional systems. Authors propose a view point that the formation of Mangbang formation sequence was constrained by multistage tectonic movement, and three structural sequences were established, and system tracts were divided. (authors)

  8. Hydrocarbon potential assessment of Ngimbang formation, Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandito, R. H.; Haris, A.; Zainal, R. M.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    The assessment of Ngimbang formation at Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin has been conducted to identify the hydrocarbon potential by analyzing the response of passive seismic on the proven reservoir zone and proposing a tectonic evolution model. In the case of petroleum exploration in Northeast Java basin, the Ngimbang formation cannot be simply overemphasized. East Java Basin has been well known as one of the mature basins producing hydrocarbons in Indonesia. This basin was stratigraphically composed of several formations from the old to the young i.e., the basement, Ngimbang, Kujung, Tuban, Ngerayong, Wonocolo, Kawengan and Lidah formation. All of these formations have proven to become hydrocarbon producer. The Ngrayong formation, which is geologically dominated by channels, has become a production formation. The Kujung formation that has been known with the reef build up has produced more than 102 million barrel of oil. The Ngimbang formation so far has not been comprehensively assessed in term its role as a source rock and a reservoir. In 2013, one exploratory well has been drilled at Ngimbang formation and shown a gas discovery, which is indicated on Drill Stem Test (DST) reading for more than 22 MMSCFD of gas. This discovery opens new prospect in exploring the Ngimbang formation.

  9. Education in Parana in the teachers’ formation process in republican Brazil: the contribution of the compendium of pedagogy by Dario Vellozo - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i2.18295

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete dos Anjos Silva Schaffrath

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work has a result the study on the Compendium of Pedagogy (1907 by Dario Vellozo (1869-1937, teacher of Ginasio Paranaense and Escola Normal de Curitiba. The Compendium of Pedagogy by Vellozo was published in 1907 and republished in 1975. It was organized in three parts, one for every year of Teachers’ School. The article refers to the first book of the collection. In the first part of that book, there are ten lessons which covers the Pedagogy subject and their methods, organization of school and definitions of educations, as well as several lessons about Ancient, Medieval and Modern History and the prevailing educational thought in each one of them. The book for the second year, which was also organized in ten lesson, emphasizes the teaching methods, didactics, and physical education (health, moral, intellectual aspects. For the third year of course, Vellozo writes lessons about science, geography, history, drawing, music and a special lesson about kindergartens. The Compendium follows the scientific logics that should guide the school practices in that historical period, but also reflects the current culture in Teachers’ School, as well as  it shows the social-economic, political and cultural influences in Brazil and in Parana.  

  10. Palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Volta basin lies on the southern part of the West African craton, more precisely on the Leo (or Man) craton. The Dahomeyides chain is thrust onto its eastern fringe. The Volta basin is filled with Neoproterozoic to Cambro- Ordovician sediments. From bottom to top they are: the Boumbouaka Supergroup made of ...

  11. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  12. Gas hydrate formation and accumulation potential in the Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xiugen; Wang, Jian; Tan, Fuwen; Feng, Xinglei; Wang, Dong; He, Jianglin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Qiangtang Basin is the biggest residual petroleum-bearing basin in Tibet Plateau. • The Late Triassic Tumen Gela Formation is the most important gas source rock. • Seventy-one potential anticline structural traps have been found. • A favorable geothermal condition for gas hydrate formation. • A large number of mud volcanoes were discovered in the basin. - Abstract: The Qiangtang Basin is the biggest residual petroleum-bearing basin in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, and is also an area of continuous permafrost in southwest China with strong similarities to other known gas-hydrate-bearing regions. Permafrost thickness is typically 60–180 m; average surface temperature ranges from −0.2 to −4.0 °C, and the geothermal gradient is about 2.64 °C/100 m. In the basin, the Late Triassic Tumen Gela Formation is the most important gas source rock for gas, and there are 34.3 × 10 8 t of gas resources in the Tumen Gela Formation hydrocarbon system. Seventy-one potential anticline structural traps have been found nowadays covering an area of more than 30 km 2 for each individual one, five of them are connected with the gas source by faults. Recently, a large number of mud volcanoes were discovered in the central Qiangtang Basin, which could be indicative of the formation of potential gas hydrate. The North Qiangtang depression should be delineated as the main targets for the purpose of gas hydrate exploration

  13. Evolution of Xihulitu basin and its control to uranium ore-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Li Ziying; Dong Wenming

    2003-01-01

    There is a close relationship between basin filling succession and evolution of the basin. Characteristics of basin evolution can be studied by analyzing the basin filling succession. Two major periods are recognized according to the filling succession and subsequent alteration of the Xihulitu Basin. Evolutionary characteristics of each stage of the basin formation and alteration have been discussed in details. The types and special distribution of uranium metallization are controlled by the scale, connection degree and distribution of sandstone units and impermeable mudstone beds. The environment of uranium ore-formation became favorable as the faults modified the hydrodynamic condition. The basin had been uplifted for a long time after it was filled. Intergranular pores are not destroyed due to the weak mechanical compaction, which is beneficial to groundwater penetrating. Montmorillonitization and zeolitization in some sandstone units are strong because of the high content of volcanic fragments. The major uranium metallization is the phreatic oxidation type. The northern zone of the second sub-basin in the central section of the basin is regarded as the first perspective target for subsequent exploration. (authors)

  14. Development of regional future climate change scenarios in South America using the Eta CPTEC/HadCM3 climate change projections: climatology and regional analyses for the Amazon, Sao Francisco and the Parana River basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Chou, Sin Chan; Alves, Lincoln M.; Pesquero, Jose F.; Soares, Wagner R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Lyra, Andre A.; Sueiro, Gustavo; Chagas, Diego J.; Gomes, Jorge L.; Bustamante, Josiane F.; Tavares, Priscila [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kay, Gillian; Betts, Richard [UK Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the climate projections over South America using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model HadCM3. The global model ensemble was run over the twenty-first century according to the SRES A1B emissions scenario, but with each member having a different climate sensitivity. The four members selected to drive the Eta-CPTEC model span the sensitivity range in the global model ensemble. The Eta-CPTEC model nested in these lateral boundary conditions was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over 1961-1990 to represent baseline climate, and 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes. Results presented here focus on austral summer and winter climate of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods, for South America and for three major river basins in Brazil. Projections of changes in upper and low-level circulation and the mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields simulate a pattern of weakening of the tropical circulation and strengthening of the subtropical circulation, marked by intensification at the surface of the Chaco Low and the subtropical highs. Strong warming (4-6 C) of continental South America increases the temperature gradient between continental South America and the South Atlantic. This leads to stronger SLP gradients between continent and oceans, and to changes in moisture transport and rainfall. Large rainfall reductions are simulated in Amazonia and Northeast Brazil (reaching up to 40%), and rainfall increases around the northern coast of Peru and Ecuador and in southeastern South America, reaching up to 30% in northern Argentina. All changes are more intense after 2040. The Precipitation-Evaporation (P-E) difference in the A1B downscaled scenario suggest water deficits and river runoff reductions in the eastern Amazon and Sao Francisco Basin, making these regions susceptible to drier conditions and droughts in the future

  15. Energy matrix in the Parana State. Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The energy sector in the Parana State, Brazil, is analyzed. The supply, demand, investment, environmental, social and economic aspects are described, and the necessary action for satisfying the energy demand in the year 2000 are presented. 69 tabs., 11 figs

  16. Bed load determination in Parana river by radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.E.; Enokihara, C.T.; Rocca, H.C.C.; Bittencourt, A.V.L.

    1988-10-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with marked sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana river, near the future site for the ''Ilha Grande'' Dam in Guaira City (State of Parana). 198 Au radioisotope was employed and measurements had been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 952,3 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 m mean thickness and 1.65 m/day mean velocity. (author) [pt

  17. palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Mean palaeomagnetic directions are calculated on the high temperature components and yield a mean palaeopole,. Plon=349.3° ... KEYWORDS: West African craton, Volta basin, Virtual Geomagnetic Pole, Palaeolatitude, Snowball Earth. INTRODUCTION .... The samples were taken in the field using a portable petrol ...

  18. Miocene block uplift and basin formation in the Patagonian foreland: The Gastre Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, A.; D'Elia, L.; Franzese, J. R.; Veiga, G. D.; Hernández, M.

    2013-08-01

    The intraplate fault-block mountains and intermontane deposits of the Gastre Basin, which are recorded more than 550 km east of the Andean trench in central Patagonia, Argentina, are analyzed. The Gastre Basin is one of the largest Patagonian intermontane basins, limited by uplifted blocks strongly oblique to the Andean chain. It was originated by reverse faulting and inversion of pre-existing normal faults associated with a Mesozoic rift basin and defined by older crustal heterogeneities. The deformational event occurred during the middle Miocene, related to a short contractional episode (16.1-14.86 Ma), probably in response to an eastward migration of the Andean fold and thrust belt. During Pliocene to Quaternary times, neither younger fault-block uplifts nor reconfigurations of the basin occurred. Similarities between the study area and other parts of the Patagonian foreland - such as the presence of Miocene reverse or inversion tectonics, as well as the accommodation of the Miocene sedimentary successions - suggest that the Gastre Basin is part of a major late early to middle Miocene broken foreland system (i.e. the Patagonian broken foreland) that exhumed discrete fault-block mountains and generated contemporary basins along more than 950 km parallel to the Andean trench (i.e. between 40°00' and 48°00' south latitude). Based on recent studies on the southern Andean Margin, this continental-scale contractional episode may be the result of a flat-slab subduction segment. Nevertheless, such a hypothesis is very difficult to support when analyzing such a large flat subduction segment along the entire Patagonian trench. This suggests the need to consider alternative flat-slab trigger mechanisms or other factors in the generation of broken foreland systems.

  19. Radioactivity of rocks from the geological formations belonging to the Tibagi River hydrographic basin; Radioatividade de rochas provenientes das formacoes geologicas pertencentes a bacia hidrografica do Rio Tibagi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    This work is a study of the {sup 40}K and the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series radioactivity in rocks measured with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The rocks were taken from the geologic formations in the region of the Tibagi river hydrographic basin. The course of this river cuts through the Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences of the Parana sedimentary basin. In order to take into account the background radiation attenuation by the samples, a technique was developed that eliminated the need to measure a blank sample. The effects of the radiation's self-attenuation in the sample matrix were taken into account by using a gamma ray direct transmission method. The results for 87 rock samples, taken from 14 distinct formations, and their corresponding radioactivity variations are presented and discussed according to the possible geological processes from which they originated. Among the most discussed results are: an outcrop that profiles shale, limestone and rhythmite in the Irati Formation; a sandstone and siltstone sequence from the Rio do Rasto Formation; and a profile sampled in a coal mine located in the Rio Bonito Formation. The calculations of the rocks' contributions to the outdoor gamma radiation dose rate agree with the values presented by other authors for similar rocks. The highest dose values were obtained from felsic rocks (rhyolite of the Castro group, 129.8 {+-} 3.7 nGy.h{sup -1}, and Cunhaporanga granite, 167 {+-} 37 nGy.h{sup -1}). The other highest values correspond to the shale rocks from the Irati Formation (109 {+-} 16 nGy.h{sup -1}) and the siltic shale rocks from the Ponta Grossa Formation (107.9 {+-} 0.7 nGy.h{sup -1}). The most recent geological formations presented the lowest dose values (e.g. the Botucatu sandstone, 3.3 {+-} 0.6 nGy.h{sup -1}). The average value for sedimentary rocks from seven other formations is equal to 59 {+-} 26 nGy.h{sup -1}. The Rio Bonito Formation presented the highest dose value (334

  20. The Tacuarembo formation (late jurassic-early cretaceiys): ataphonomical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Tacuarembo Formation of Uruguay exhibits the only body fossils from Botucatu desert, at Parana basin. The taphonomic pattern of this unit was studied in all fossiliferous localities and 4 modes were distinguished: 1)bonebeds, 2) Friable sandstone levels with fragments and clay pellets, 3) articulated and not fragmented remains, 4) molds. These modes clearly reflect a subaqueous system showing different degrees in deepness, energy and distance to the shore border. The two first referred modes which are associated to coarser grain sizes including dinosaur remains, represent high energy flows nearer to the terrestrial margins of the system

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of human platelet antigens in Euro-African and Japanese descendants from Parana, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Ana Paula Avenia; Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2017-09-01

    The frequency distributions of HPA-1 to HPA-6 and HPA-15 were evaluated in two Brazilian populations from Parana: a mixed population of predominantly Caucasians and a population of Japanese descendants. Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP in 364 unrelated individuals. Differences in the distribution of HPA highlight diversity in Brazilian miscegenation and the importance of formation of the HPA panel composed of regional blood donors.

  2. GRAIL Gravity Observations of the Transition from Complex Crater to Peak-Ring Basin on the Moon: Implications for Crustal Structure and Impact Basin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Bierson, Carver J.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission provide the opportunity to analyze the detailed gravity and crustal structure of impact features in the morphological transition from complex craters to peak-ring basins on the Moon. We calculate average radial profiles for free-air anomalies and Bouguer anomalies for peak-ring basins, proto-basins, and the largest complex craters. Complex craters and proto-basins have free-air anomalies that are positively correlated with surface topography, unlike the prominent lunar mascons (positive free-air anomalies in areas of low elevation) associated with large basins. The Bouguer gravity anomaly profiles of complex craters are highly irregular, with central positive anomalies that are generally absent or not clearly tied to interior morphology. In contrast, gravity profiles for peak-ring basins (approx. 200 km to 580 km) are much more regular and are highly correlated with surface morphology. A central positive Bouguer anomaly is confined within the peak ring and a negative Bouguer anomaly annulus extends from the edge of the positive anomaly outward to about the rim crest. A number of degraded basins lacking interior peak rings have diameters and gravity patterns similar to those of well-preserved peak-ring basins. If these structures represent degraded peak-ring basins, the number of peak-ring basins on the Moon would increase by more than a factor of two to 34. The gravity anomalies within basins are interpreted to be due to uplift of the mantle confined within the peak ring and an annulus of thickened crust between the peak ring and rim crest. We hypothesize that mantle uplift is influenced by interaction between the transient cavity and the mantle. Further, mascon formation is generally disconnected from the number of basin rings formed and occurs over a wide range of basin sizes. These observations have important implications for models of basin and mascon formation on the

  3. Neutron activation analysis of minerals from Cuddapah basin geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra Kumar, P.V.; Suresh Kumar, N.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Krishna Reddy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Green and yellow serpentines along with two associated minerals namely dolomite and intrusive rock dolerite obtained from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India were analyzed by k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) method. Gold ( 197 Au) was used as the single comparator. Two reference materials namely USGS W-1 (geological) and IAEA Soil-7 (environmental) were analyzed as control samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A total of 21 elements present at major, minor and trace concentrations were determined in serpentines as well as associated minerals. The elemental concentrations were used for distinguishing and characterizing these minerals, and also to understand the extent of segregation of elements from the associated or host mineral rocks to serpentines. (author)

  4. Uranium isotopes in groundwaters from Tubarao Group, Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Caprioglio, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the uranium isotopes 238-U and 234-U in some important deep tubular wells drilled at Tubarao Group, with the aim of verifying if the dissolution processes that are taking place within the aquifer can generate enhanced 234-U/238-U activity ratios like those found at the Botucatu-Piramboia aquifer. (author)

  5. Energy balance from Parana State: 1980-1993; Balanco energetico do Parana: 1980-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This energetic balance from the Parana State, Brazil, includes the data referent to the year of 1993. It aims to be a planning tool to the public sector embraced to the energetic question and to orient productive investments to the private sector. It also shows the energetic information during the period of 1980-1993, presenting energetic streams of energetic primary and secondary sources, since its production to the final consumption, according to the main sectors of the economy in the Parana State. The balance is divided in seven chapters, as follows: resume - a synthetic analysis of the energetic sector evolution during the last 14 years and the consolidated data about production, consumption, etc concerning to 1993; energetic supply and demand; energetic interchange transformation centers; another energetic information; energy and socio economy; consolidated energetic balances; and annex - balance structure, information treatment, units, conversion table to medium tEP and specific masses and higher calorific capacities 5 figs., 7 graphs, 1 map, 92 tabs.

  6. Rheology of irradiated honey from Parana region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, S.F. E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Viscosity characteristics can be governed by the molecular chain length of sugars present in the honey. Honey is essentially a mixture of sugar and water. When a physical treatment, as gamma radiation, is applied to food, some changes on its viscosity may occur. Viscosity is one of the important properties of honey and depends on water and sugar quantities. The objective of this work was to verify the rheological behavior of irradiated honey from Parana region in comparison to the unirradiated one. Each rheogram was measured at different shear rates that was increased to a certain value then immediately decreased to the starting point ('up and down curves'). These measurements were made for control and irradiated samples (5 and 10 kGy) in different temperatures (30 deg. C, 35 deg. C and 40 deg. C). The curves constructed with shear stress against shear rate presented linearity. Honey, irradiated and control, showed a Newtonian behavior and gamma radiation did not affect it.

  7. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Exploration for tight oil in the frontier Santanghu Basin of northwest China has resulted in recent commercial discoveries sourced from the lacustrine Upper Permian Lucaogou Formation, already considered a “world class source rock” in the Junggar Basin to the west. Here we apply an integrated analytical program to carbonate-dominated mudrocks from the Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin to document the nature of organic matter (OM) in the context of an evolving lake system. The organic-rich samples (TOC 2.8–11.4 wt%; n = 10) were widely spaced from an ~ 200 m cored section, interpreted from textural and mineralogical evidence to document transition from a lower under-filled to an overlying balanced-filled lake. Organic matter is dominated by moderate to strongly fluorescent amorphous material with Type I geochemical signature (HI values 510–755; n = 10) occurring in a continuum from lamellar stringers, 10–20 μm thick, some ≥ 1 mm in length (possible microbial mat; preserved only in lower under-filled section) to finely-disseminated amorphous groundmass intimately intermixed with mineral matrix. Biomarkers for methanotrophs and photosynthetic cyanobacteria indicate a complex microbial consortium. A unicellular prasinophyte green alga(?), similar to Tasmanites in marine rocks, is present as discrete flattened discs 50–100 μm in diameter. Type III OM including vitrinite (some fluorescent) and inertinite also is abundant. Solid bitumen, indicating local kerogen conversion, fills voids and occurs throughout the cored section. Vitrinite reflectance values are 0.47–0.58%, consistent with strong OM fluorescence but may be “suppressed”. Other proxies, e.g., biomarker parameters, indicate the Lucaogou Formation is in the early oil window at this location. On average, slightly more amorphous OM and telalginite are present in the lower section, consistent with a shallow, stratified, saline environment with low sediment dilution. More

  8. GRAIL gravity observations of the transition from complex crater to peak-ring basin on the Moon: Implications for crustal structure and impact basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Bierson, Carver J.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission provide the opportunity to analyze the detailed gravity and crustal structure of impact features in the morphological transition from complex craters to peak-ring basins on the Moon. We calculate average radial profiles of free-air anomalies and Bouguer anomalies for peak-ring basins, protobasins, and the largest complex craters. Complex craters and protobasins have free-air anomalies that are positively correlated with surface topography, unlike the prominent lunar mascons (positive free-air anomalies in areas of low elevation) associated with large basins. The Bouguer gravity anomaly profiles of complex craters are highly irregular, with central positive anomalies that are generally absent or not clearly tied to interior morphology. In contrast, gravity profiles for peak-ring basins (∼200 km to 580 km) are much more regular and are highly correlated with surface morphology. A central positive Bouguer anomaly is confined within the peak ring and a negative Bouguer anomaly annulus extends from the edge of the positive anomaly outward to about the rim crest. A number of degraded basins lacking interior peak rings have diameters and gravity patterns similar to those of well-preserved peak-ring basins. If these structures represent degraded peak-ring basins, the number of peak-ring basins on the Moon would increase by more than a factor of two to 34. The gravity anomalies within basins are interpreted to be due to uplift of the mantle confined within the peak ring and an annulus of thickened crust between the peak ring and rim crest. We hypothesize that mantle uplift is influenced by interaction between the transient cavity and the mantle. Further, mascon formation is generally disconnected from the number of basin rings formed and occurs over a wide range of basin sizes. These observations have important implications for models of basin and mascon formation on the Moon

  9. Heat flow, deep formation temperature and thermal structure of the Tarim Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Li, Xianglan

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal regime of a sedimentary basin not only provides constraint on understanding the basin formation and evolution, but also offers fundamental parameters for hydrocarbon resources assessment. As one of three Precambrian blocks in China, the Tarim craton is also a current hydrocarbon exploration target where the largest sedimentary basin (Tarim Basin) develops with great potential. Although considerable advancement of geothermal regime of this basin has been made during the past decades, nearly all the temperature data in previous studies are from the exploration borehole formation testing temperatures. Recently, we have conducted the steady-state temperature logging in the Tarim basin, and measured abundant rock thermal properties, enabling us to re-visit the thermal regime of this area with more confidence. Our results show that the present-day geothermal gradients for the Tarim Basin vary from 23 K/km to 27 K/km, with a mean of 22 K/km; the values of heat flow range from 40 mW/m2 to 49 mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. These new data confirmed that the Tarim Basin has relatively low heat flow and shares similar geothermal regime with other Precambrian cratons in the world. In addition, the new temperatures from the steady-state logs are larger than the bottom hole temperatures (BHT) as 22 degree Celsius, indicating the thermal non-equilibrium for the BHTs used in previous studies. Spatial distribution of the estimated formation temperatures-at-depth of 1~5km within the basin is similar and mainly controlled by crystalline basement pattern. Generally, the temperatures at the depth of 1km range from 29 to 41 degree Celsius, with a mean of 35 degree Celsius; while the temperatures at 3km vary from 63 to 100 degree Celsius, and the mean is 82 degree Celsius; at 5km below the surface, the temperatures fall into a range between 90 and 160 degree Celsius, with a mean of 129 degree Celsius. We further proposed the long-term low geothermal background and large burial

  10. Estimate of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan

    2015-04-01

    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim basin, the largest sedimentary basin in China, is significant for its hydrocarbon generation, preservation and geothermal energy potential assessment, but till now is not well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data, drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime, and estimate the formation temperature at specific depths in the range 1000~5000 m in this basin. Results show that the heat flow of the Tarim basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5±7.6 mW/m2; geothermal gradient at the depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7±2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature at the depth of 1000 m is estimated to be between 29 °C and 41°C, with a mean of 35°C; whilst the temperature at 2000 m ranges from 46~71°C with an average of 59°C; 63~100°C is for that at the depth of 3000 m, and the mean is 82°C; the temperature at 4000 m varies from 80 to 130°C, with a mean of 105°C; 97~160°C is for the temperature at 5000 m depth. In addition, the general pattern of the subsurface formation temperatures at different depths is basically similar and is characterized by high temperatures in the uplift areas and low temperatures in the sags. Basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties account for this pattern of the geo-temperature field in the Tarim basin.

  11. Sedimentology of the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic (?) Mosolotsane Formation (Karoo Supergroup), Kalahari Karoo Basin, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Segwabe, Tebogo; Makuke, Bonno

    2010-08-01

    The Mosolotsane Formation (Lebung Group, Karoo Supergroup) in the Kalahari Karoo Basin of Botswana is a scantly exposed, terrestrial red bed succession which is lithologically correlated with the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Molteno and Elliot Formations (Karoo Supergroup) in South Africa. New evidence derived from field observations and borehole data via sedimentary facies analysis allowed the assessment of the facies characteristics, distribution and thickness variation as well as palaeo-current directions and sediment composition, and resulted in the palaeo-environmental reconstruction of this poorly known unit. Our results show that the Mosolotsane Formation was deposited in a relatively low-sinuosity meandering river system that drained in a possibly semi-arid environment. Sandstone petrography revealed mainly quartz-rich arenites that were derived from a continental block provenance dominated by metamorphic and/or igneous rocks. Palaeo-flow measurements indicate reasonably strong, unidirectional current patterns with mean flow directions from southeast and east-southeast to northwest and west-northwest. Regional thickness and facies distributions as well as palaeo-drainage indicators suggest that the main depocenter of the Mosolotsane Formation was in the central part of the Kalahari Karoo Basin. Separated from this main depocenter by a west-northwest - east-southeast trending elevated area, an additional depocenter was situated in the north-northeast part of the basin and probably formed part of the Mid-Zambezi Karoo Basin. In addition, data also suggests that further northeast-southwest trending uplands probably existed in the northwest and east, the latter separating the main Kalahari Karoo depocenter from the Tuli Basin.

  12. Regional facies variations in the Vempalle formation of Cuddapah Basin: implications on uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, H.S.; Mukundhan, A.R.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Achar, K.K.; Umamaheswar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Strata-bound large tonnage uranium deposit hosted by the Grey-impure-dolostone of Vempalle Formation of Cuddapah Basin is known in Tummalapalle-Rachakuntapalle sector. Deposition of rocks of Cuddapah Basin commenced with Papaghni Group, which comprises Clastic - Gulcheru Formation and Chemogenic - Vempalle Formation. The Vempalle Formation is developed over 280 km stretch from south to north along the western margin of Cuddapah Basin with maximum thickness of about 2.1 km. Recent studies helped in classifying the Vempalle Formation into five major lithofacies viz. Massive Dolostone, Conglomerate, Grey-impure-dolostone (host rock for uranium mineralization), Purple shale and Cherty Dolostone. The lithofacies studies along selected traverses from Tummalapalle in south to Dhone in north revealed the development of all five facies upto Narpala near Chitravati River whereas towards its north, the Grey-impure-dolostone and Cherty Dolostone dominate. The study also revealed over lapping nature of Cherty Dolostone in North of Nossam-Peddapaya lineament; where it directly rests above the Gulcheru Formation. Environment of deposition for these facies of Vempalle Formation place this in a Shallowing-upward carbonate depositional system with characteristic tidal flat environment. The Grey-impure-dolostone facies hosting uranium is interpreted to be developed in Supratidal environment with a narrow pH range of 7.0 - 7.5 in a reducing environment along with precipitation of phosphate. Since the tidal flats have later extension over several kilometers, favorable environment of Grey-impure-dolostone may exist over wide area in northern part also. The search for Grey-impure-dolostone hosted uranium, therefore has a bearing an understanding the regional facies variations in Vempalle Formation. The paper presents the studies carried out in this direction and results thereof. (author)

  13. Energy balance from Parana State - 1980-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The energy flows of primary and secondary energy sources since the production to the end consumption in the main sectors of Parana State economy during 1980 to 1992, are presented. The supply and demand, consumption and production of energy sources are shown. Some information about resources and reserves are also cited. (C.G.C.)

  14. Molluskan fauna in two shell mounds in the State of Parana coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Vasconcellos Gernet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shell mounds are artificial formations consisting mostly of mollusk shells used in the feeding of the prehistoric peoples which inhabited our coast. These sites are found throughout the Brazilian coast, and hundreds of them were cataloged in the State of Paraná since the 1940s. The fragility of these sites, their importance as evidences of our prehistoric period, and its abrupt disappearance, justify the need for new researches which contribute to contextualize and draw up plans to preserve this heritage. The works related to the molluskan fauna found in the shell mounds are restricted to refer to the most common species and, sometimes, just their popular names. A greater knowledge on these prehistoric inhabitants’ diet allows a better understanding of ancient natural ecosystems. The survey of mollusks was carried out in the shell mounds Guaraguaçu and Boguaçu, in the towns of Pontal do Parana and Guaratuba, respectively, and performed through visual inspection, reading of specialized bibliography and comparison to previous works on the fauna of the shell mounds in the State of Parana coast. Altogether, 29 species were observed in the shell mound Guaraguaçu and 17 species were observed in the shell mound Boguaçu, resulting in a total of 31 species.

  15. An assessment on CO2 geosequestration in deep saline formations in the Taihsi Basin, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mo-Si; Lin, Andrew T.; Fan, Jhen-Huei

    2015-04-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is to inject and store a large amount of anthropogenic CO2 in deep and sealed porous rocks in order to mitigate the aggravated threat of global climate changes. Borehole and reflection seismic data are used to understand the spatial distribution of suitable CO2 reservoirs and cap rocks in the Taihsi Basin, central Taiwan, where the level of seismicity is low. The Taihsi Basin was a rift basin during the Paleocene to Eocene, followed by a phase of post-rift subsidence during late Oligocene to late Miocene. The loading of the Taiwan mountain belt since late Miocene has turned the Taihsi Basin into a peripheral foreland basin, with strata gently dipping toward the mountain belts in the east. The coastal plain in central Taiwan (Changhua and Yunlin Counties) and its adjacent offshore areas are close to major CO2 emission sources and no active geological structures are found in these areas, making the study area a favorable CO2 storage site. Spatial distribution of formation thickness and depth for CO2 reservoirs and cap rocks indicates three CO2 storage systems existed in the study area. They are: (1) late Miocene to Pliocene Nanchuang Formation and Kueichulin Formation (reservoirs)-Chinshui Shale (seals) system (hereafter abbreviated as NK-C system), (2) early to middle Miocene Shihti Formation and Peiliao Formation (reservoirs)-Talu Shale (seals) system (SP-T system), (3) early Miocene Mushan Formation (reservoirs)-Piling Shale (seals) system (M-P system). The NK-C system contains multiple layers of porous sandstones from Nanchuang and Kueichulin formations, with total thickness around 210-280 m. In the vicinity of the northern bank of the Jhuoshuei River, reservoir top reaches a depth around 1850 m, with 60 m thick seal formation, the Chinshui Shale. However, the Chinshui Shale becomes sand-prone in the Changhua coastal and nearshore areas due to facies changes. The SP-T system consists of two porous sandstone layers from

  16. Uranium mineralization in the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle formation near Nagayapalle, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Himadri; Harikrishnan, T.; Hanumanthappa, D.; Rengarajan, M.; Saravanan, B.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Mahendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Cuddapah Basin is the hub of uranium exploration for years together in India. Initial efforts were for quartz-pebble-conglomerate type mineralization. However, the emphasis later shifted towards dolostone-hosted mineralization and finally to unconformity-associated uranium mineralization. The recent finding of uranium mineralization associated with the Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is the outcome of continuous exploration input in the Cuddapah Basin over years. Uranium mineralization (up to 0.278% U 3 O 8 ) associated with the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is represented by pitchblende and autunite. Pitchblende occurs as tiny grains in the intergranular spaces and along grain boundaries; and also at places replaces pyrite and covellite grains. The geological set-up indicates that the geodomain is favourable for uranium mineralization. (author)

  17. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  18. Paleoecological insights from fossil freshwater mollusks of the Kanapoi Formation (Omo-Turkana Basin, Kenya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert

    2017-09-13

    The Early Pliocene Kanapoi Formation of the Omo-Turkana Basin consists of two fluvial/deltaic sedimentary sequences with an intermediate lacustrine sequence that was deposited in Paleolake Lonyumun, the earliest large lake in the basin. Overall, the geology and vertebrate paleontology of the Kanapoi Formation are well studied, but its freshwater mollusks, despite being a major component of the benthic ecosystem, have not been subjected to in-depth study. Here I present the first treatment of these mollusks, which have been retrieved mainly from the lacustrine but also from the upper fluvial sediments, with a focus on paleoecological implications. Overall, the freshwater mollusk fauna is reasonably diverse and contains the gastropods Bellamya (Viviparidae), Melanoides (Thiaridae), Cleopatra (Paludomidae) and Gabbiella (Bithyniidae), as well as the unionoid bivalves Coelatura, Pseudobovaria (Unionidae), Aspatharia, Iridina (Iridinidae) and Etheria (Etheriidae). Material is typically recrystallized and lithified and its taphonomy suggests deposition in a system with intermediate energy, such as a beach, with post-depositional deformation and abrasion. The mollusk assemblage is indicative of perennial, fresh and well-oxygenated waters in the Kanapoi region. It suggests that Paleolake Lonyumun had largely open shores with limited vegetation and that swampy or ephemeral backwaters were rare. Overall, these findings support earlier paleoecological interpretations based on the fish assemblage of Paleolake Lonyumun at Kanapoi. Moreover, mollusk assemblages from this lake are very similar across the Omo-Turkana Basin (Nachukui, Usno, Mursi and Koobi Fora Formations) suggesting that the lacustrine paleoecological conditions found in the Kanapoi Formation existed throughout the basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  20. Strike-slip tectonics and Quaternary basin formation along the Vienna Basin fault system inferred from Bouguer gravity derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salcher, B. C.; Meurers, B.; Smit, J.; Decker, K.; HöLzel, M.; Wagreich, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Vienna Basin at the transition between the Alpine and Carpathian belt hosts a number of large Pleistocene sub-basins forming along an active continental scale strike-slip fault (Vienna Basin strike-slip fault). We utilize first-order derivatives from industrial Bouguer gravity data to unravel

  1. Soft sediment deformation structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabode, Solomon Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Soft sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Maastrichtian shallow marine wave to tide influenced regressive sediments of Ajali Formation in the western flank of Anambra basin, southern Nigerian. The soft sediment deformation structures were in association with cross bedded sands, clay and silt and show different morphological types. Two main types recognised are plastic deformations represented by different types of recumbent folds and injection structure represented by clastic dykes. Other structures in association with the plastic deformation structures include distorted convolute lamination, subsidence lobes, pillars, cusps and sand balls. These structures are interpreted to have been formed by liquefaction and fluidization mechanisms. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Facies analysis, detailed morphologic study of the soft sediment deformation structures and previous tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main trigger agent for deformation is earthquake shock. The soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the western part of Anambra basin provide a continuous record of the tectonic processes that acted on the regressive Ajali Formation during the Maastrichtian.

  2. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area.

  3. {sup 210}Pb geochronology and chemical characterization of sediment cores from lakes of the Parana river alluvial plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.F.L.; Damatto, S.R.; Scapin, M.A. [IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Remor, M.B.; Sampaio, S.C. [UNIOESTE - Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The flood plain of the upper Parana River is located among the lakes formed by the Brazilian hydroelectric plants being the last part of the Parana river, in Brazil, where there is an ecosystem with interaction river-flood plain. This flood plain has considerable habitat variability, with great diversity of terrestrial and aquatic species, and the floods are the main factor that regulates the operation of this ecosystem. The seasonality of the flood pulses is mainly influenced by the El Nino phenomenon, which increases precipitation in the drainage basin of the flood plain of the upper Parana River. Because of its unique characteristics this ecosystem is the subject of intense study since 1980, mainly from the ecological point of view. Therefore, two sediment cores were collected in the ponds formed by the floods, Patos pond and Garcas pond, in order to characterize the sediment chemically and evaluate a possible historic contamination. The trace element concentrations As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}) and the major elements Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, P, V, Mn, and Na (%) were determined in the sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, using instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gross beta counting, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Ce, Cr, Cs, La, Nd, Sc, Sm and Th are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust for both ponds. The sedimentation rates obtained for Garca pond, 0.77 cm.y{sup -1}, and Patos pond, 0.62 cm.y{sup -1} are in agreement with studies performed in sedimentary environments similar to the present work, such as Brazilian wetland Pantanal. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Reinterpretation of the tectonics and formation of the Pernambuco Plateau Basin, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, Murray; Jones, Stephen M.; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Reston, Timothy; Barbosa, Antonio; Biondo, Vanessa; Mort, Haydon P.

    2017-04-01

    crustal structure has acted as a mechanical barrier to south to north rift propagation, which has controlled the basin's formation. The shear zone was likely reactivated with a sinistral sense of shear to accommodate rifting, which also helps explain the anomalously wide continental margin at the Pernambuco Plateau.

  5. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  6. Chemical of shales belonging to Castellanos and Migues formations (Cretaceous), Santa Lucia basin - Uruguay: Paleoenvironment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, E.; Veloslavsky, G.; Fulfaro, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work there are analyzed 16 samples of shales belonging to Castellanos and Migues formations (Cretaceous), taken from cores of various boreholes of the Santa Lucia Basin (Uruguay). Chemical analysis of major elements, trace elements (B,V, Sr, Rb, Cr y Ga) and X- ray diffractometry were done to them in order to obtain a geochemical characterization. The characterization shows that their chemical composition is comparable to the world average composition of shales. Besides, the X-ray diffractometry. Based on that, it is clear to deduce that it existed a change in the environment conditions having a shift from a redactor environment which agrees with former micropaleontologic studies. (author)

  7. A Reinterpretation of the Baturetno Formation: Stratigraphic Study of the Baturetno Basin, Wonogiri, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna Sulastya Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.125-137This paper focuses on the Quaternary Baturetno Formation. An earlier research concluded that the black clay of the Baturetno Formation formed as a ‘palaeolake’ deposit. The ‘palaeolake’ was interpreted to form due to the shifting course of the Bengawan Solo Purba River in relation to Pliocene tectonic tilting in the southern Java. The stratigraphy of the Baturetno Formation was observed in the western part of the Baturetno Basin, and based on marker beds, the Baturetno Formation was classified into three units: (1 Gravel unit (GR in the upper part, (2 clay unit (CU in the middle part, and (3 sand-gravel unit (SG in the lower part. There are floating gravel fragments of andesite, claystone, coral, and limestone with diameters of up to 10 cm in the clay unit. The particle size of sediment reflects the environment, but the lake deposition occurs under very quiet conditions. The occurrence of these fragments within the clay cannot be explained if the clay was deposited within a lake environment. The occurrence of floating fragments in the black clay of Baturetno Formation can best be explained through mudflow process. The cohesive strength of the mudflow is responsible for the ability of large fragments to float within the mud matrix. In general, the Baturetno Formation is inferred to be an alluvial fan deposit. The presence of sand, gravel, and mud are characteristics of alluvial fan deposits.

  8. The Parana paradox: can a model explain the decadal impacts of climate variability and land-cover change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Livino, A.; Briscoe, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the 1970s, despite a decrease in rainfall, flow in the Parana river has increased. This paradox is explored using the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. If there were no change in land cover, the modeled runoff decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s by 11.8% (with 1970 land cover) or 18.8% (with 2008 land cover). When the model is run holding climate constant, the decadal average of the modeled runoff increased by 24.4% (with the 1970s climate) or by 33.6% (with 2000s climate). When the model is run allowing both the actual climate and land-cover changes, the model gives an increase in the decadal average of runoff by 8.5%. This agrees well with 10.5% increase in the actual stream flow as measured at Itaipu. There are three main conclusions from this work. First, the ED model is able to explain a major, paradoxical, reality in the Parana basin. Second, it is necessary to take into account both climate and land use changes when exploring past or future changes in river flows. Third, the ED model, now coupled with a regional climate model (i.e., EDBRAMS), is a sound basis for exploring likely changes in river flows in major South American rivers.

  9. Management report 2001 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil - management report of calendar year of 2000 is presented, covering the following topics: COPEL - standing for much more than energy; extending the benefits of electricity to everyone in Parana state, Brazil; protecting and recovering the environment; philanthropy and volunteer work; education; social integration; support to cultural expression and gratitude

  10. Social balance sheet 2000 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil social balance report of calendar year of 2000 is presented, covering the following topics: COPEL - standing for much more than energy; extending the benefits of electricity to everyone in Parana state, Brazil; protecting and recovering the environment; philanthropy and volunteer work; education; social integration; support to cultural expression and gratitude

  11. Parameters controlling fracturing distribution: example of an Upper Jurassic marly-calcareous formation (eastern Paris Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y.; Proudhon, B.

    2006-01-01

    Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)

  12. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hermínio da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  13. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea from the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil, Upper Aptian-Albian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Silveira Antonietto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sergipe-Alagoas Basin has one of the most complete, exposed lithological successions of the Cretaceous period in the continental margin of Brazil. It captures several phases of the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean, including rift, gulf and drift. The upper Aptian–Albian Riachuelo Formation corresponds to the first stages of the southern proto-Atlantic Ocean invasion in that basin. The present study reviews the taxonomic identification and ecology of 39 ostracod species of this formation, proposing a new genus – Gabonorygma gen. nov. – and three new species – Praebythoceratina deltalata sp. nov., Gabonorygma sergipana gen. et sp. nov. and Brachycythere smithsoniana sp. nov. Other taxa include Conchoecia? sp. 1, Cytherella sp. 1, C. besrineensis comb. nov., Cytherelloidea aff. globosa, C. btaterensis, Bairdoppilata sp. 1, Bairdoppilata sp. 2, B. comanchensis comb. nov., B. pseudoseptentrionalis, Robsoniella falklandensis, Cetacella sp. 1, Paracypris eniotmetos, Harbinia sinuata?, H. crepata, Liasina sp. 1, Praebythoceratina amsittenensis comb. nov., P. trinodosa comb. nov., Patellacythere sp. 1, P. shimonensis comb. nov., Xestoleberis? sp. 1, Xestoleberis? sp. 2, Apatocythere? sp. 1, Neocythere? aff. pseudovanveeni, N. (Physocythere tenuis, Aracajuia antiqua comb. nov., A. benderi, A. fragilis comb. nov., Eocytheropteron sp. 1, Metacytheropteron aff. minuta, Microceratina? sp. 1, M. azazoulensis, Veenia guianensis, Algeriana? sp. 1, Quasihermanites? sp. 1 and Sergipella viviersae.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey input-data forms for the assessment of the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-10-24

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin (Permian Basin Province) in southwestern Texas (Marra and others, 2017). The Spraberry Formation was assessed using both the standard continuous (unconventional) and conventional methodologies established by the USGS for three assessment units (AUs): (1) Lower Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, (2) Middle Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, and (3) Northern Spraberry Conventional Oil AU. The revised assessment resulted in total estimated mean resources of 4,245 million barrels of oil, 3,112 billion cubic feet of gas, and 311 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the input parameters used in the USGS 2017 Spraberry Formation assessment.

  15. Characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and uranium metallogenetic prospect of Zhiluo formation in Daliuta area, Ordos Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianxin; Li Xide; Zhang Zhaolin

    2006-01-01

    Ordos Basin is a large down-warping basin in the northwest of North-China Platform; Daliuta area is located in the northeast of Ordos Basin. In this area, sand bodies of fluvial facies developed well in the submember of the lower member of the target Zhiluo Formation of Middle Jurassic and several sand belt of large scale occurred. Yellow interlayer oxidation zone have been discovered in belt I and belt III by the drilling and it is of a certain scale. Due to the young age of interlayer oxidation and unsatisfied uranium sources, uranium metallogenic prospect of this area need more research and exploration. (authors)

  16. Depositional environment and sedimentary of the basinal sediments in the Eibiswalder Bucht (Radl Formation and Lower Eibiswald Beds), Miocene Western Styrian Basin, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, K.

    1994-12-01

    The Eibiswald Bucht is a small subbasin of the Western Styrian Basin exposing sediments of Lower Miocene age. In the past the entire sequence exposed in the Eibiswalder Bucht has been interpreted as being of fluvial/lacustrine origin; here, results are presented of detailed sedimentological investigations that lead to a revision of this concept. The lowermost siliciclastic sedimentary unit of the Eibiswalder Bucht sequence is the Radl Formation. It is overlain by the Eibiswald Beds, which are subdivided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Eibiswald Beds. The Radl Formation and the Lower Eibiswald Beds are interpreted as a fan delta complex deposited along NNW-SSE striking faults. Based on the sedimentary facies this fan delta can be subdivided into a subaerial alluvial fan facies group, a proximal delta facies group and a distal delta/prodelta facies group. The Radl Formation comprises the alluvial fan and proximal delta facies groups, the Lower Eibiswald Beds the distal delta/prodelta facies group. The alluvial fan and the proximal delta consist of diverse deposits of gravelly flows. The distal delta/prodelta consists of wave-reworked, bioturbated, low density turbidites intercalated with minor gravelly mass flows. The prodelta can be regarded as as the basin facies of the small and shallow Eibiswalder Bucht, where marine conditions prevailed. The basin was probably in part connected with the Eastern Styrian Basin, the contemporary depositional environment of the Styrian Schlier (mainly turbiditic marine offshore sediments in the Eastern Styrian Basin). Analysis of the clast composition, in conjunction with the paleotransport direction of the coarse delta mass flows of the Radl Formation, shows that the source rocks were exclusively crystalline rocks ranging from greenschists to eclogites.

  17. Mineralogy and organic petrology of oil shales in the Sangkarewang Formation, Ombilin Basin, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)]|[Centre for Geological Resources, Department of Mines and Energy, Jalan Soekarno Hatta No. 444, Bandung 40254 (Indonesia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2009-01-31

    The Ombilin Basin is filled by late Eocene to early Oligocene marginal fan deposits (Brani Formation) and lacustrine shales (Sangkarewang Formation), unconformably overlain by a late Oligocene to early Miocene fluvial sequence (Sawahlunto and Sawahtambang Formations) and capped by an early to mid-Miocene marine sequence (Ombilin Formation). Significant oil shale deposits occur in the Sangkarewang Formation, intercalated with thin laminated greenish-grey calcareous sandstones. X-ray diffraction shows that the sediments consist mainly of quartz, feldspar, carbonates and a range of clay minerals, together in some cases with minor proportions of sulphides, evaporites and zeolites. Feldspar and non-kaolinite clay minerals decrease up the sequence, relative to kaolinite, suggesting a changing sediment source as the basin was filled. Calcite, thought to be mainly of authigenic origin, is also more abundant in the middle and upper parts of the sequence. The organic matter in the oil shales of the sequence is dominated by liptinite macerals, particularly alginite (mainly lamalginite) and sporinite. Cutinite also occurs in some samples, along with resinite and traces of bituminite. The dominance of lamalginite in the liptinite components suggests that the material can be described as a lamosite. Samples from the Sangkarewang Formation have vitrinite reflectance values ranging between 0.37% and 0.55%. These are markedly lower than the vitrinite reflectance for coal from the overlying Sawahlunto Formation (0.68%), possibly due to suppression associated with the abundant liptinite in the oil shales. Fischer assay data on outcrop samples indicate that the oil yield is related to the organic carbon content. Correlations with XRD data show that, with one exception, the oil yield and organic carbon can also be correlated directly to the abundance of carbonate (calcite) and inversely to the abundance of quartz plus feldspar. This suggests that the abundance of algal material in the

  18. Araçatuba Formation: palustrine deposits from the initial sedimentation phase of the Bauru Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Luiz A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous accumulated an essentially sandy continental sedimentary sequence. In a first desertic phase the basaltic substratum was covered by a widespread and homogeneous aeolian sand unit with minor loess intercalations. The substratum relief favored the formation of an endorheic drainage system under semi-arid climate, a process that started the development of the Araçatuba Paleoswamp. The palustrine deposits (Araçatuba Formation comprise siltstone and tipically greenish gray narrow tabular strata of sandstone cemented by carbonate. Moulds and gypsite and dolomite pseudomorphs were identified. The moulds seem to be genetically associated with desiccation cracks, root marks and climbing ripple lamination levels, that, on the whole, indicate calm shallow saline waters undergoing phases of subaerial exposition. At the boundaries of the study area, sand units may exhibit sigmoidal features and convolute bedding structure, which is characteristic of marginal deltaic deposits. The Araçatuba Formation is enclosed in and later overlaid by the aeolian deposits of the Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation.

  19. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Liu

    Full Text Available A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km. The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front

  20. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front" character.

  1. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  2. Late Eocene Myanmar tectonics constrained by magnetostratigraphy of the Yaw Formation, Chidwin Basin, Kalewa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Licht, Alexis; Bernard, Annabelle; Roperch, Pierrick; Win, Zaw; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Aung, Day Wa; Kaythi, Myat; Hnin Swe, Hnin; Poblete, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Sedimentary basins in Myanmar have recorded key events of the India-Asia collision including associated geodynamic movements and paleoclimatic records. In particular, Paleogene deposits provide invaluable insight on the accretion of the Burma terrane, its rotation associated with the alleged extrusion of Indochina and the formation of the Indo-Burman ranges. They also yield unique records of monsoonal intensity during the growth of the Tibetan Plateau and a rich paleontological assemblage including some of the earliest primates. However, understanding the potential relations between these recorded events is strongly hindered by insufficient age control on these deposits. As part of the Myanmar Geodynamic & Paleoclimate Initiative and the ERC "MAGIC" project, our initial focus is to date Paleogene deposits of Myanmar with better accuracy using magnetostratigraphy. We present preliminary results from the Chindwin Basin where we sampled a 400-meter section of the top of the Yaw formation recording a major sedimentological facies transition previously estimated roughly as Eocene to Oligocene in age. Detailed rock magnetic analyses enabled to identify and isolate primary Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations of normal and reversed polarities carried by iron sulfides, iron carbonates and/or iron oxides. A correlation to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale can be proposed suggesting deposition between the base of chrons C16n2n and the base of C13r (36.3 and 34.8 Ma). This age suggests the facies transition may be more likely associated with regional tectonics such as the Indo-Burman uplift rather than sea-level drop linked to ice-sheet formation at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition at 33.9 Ma. In addition, the mean observed paleomagnetic declination (13.3+/-3.7°) is statistically indistinguishable from declinations expected by geodynamic models with limited vertical-axis rotations of the Burma terrane and therefore supports little to no rotational extrusion since 35 Ma.

  3. Geology of Santa Rita Coal Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa da Silva, Z.C.; Bortoluzzi, C.A.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Dias-Fabricio, M.E.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Marques-Toigo, M.; Paim, P.S.G.; Piccoli, A.E.M.; Silva Filho, B.C.

    1984-04-01

    Data on the sedimentology, stratigraphy, palynology, coal petrography and geochemistry of the Santa Rita Coal Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are presented. The investigations were carried out on samples obtained from drill cores of the sedimentary rocks of Tubarao Supergroup, Lower Permian of Parana Basin. (25 refs.)

  4. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected

  5. Natural and artificial radionuclides in soils from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.; Barreto, W.O.; Cardoso, A.

    1994-01-01

    Soil samples from Parana State, Brazil, were collected in 1991 and compared with others collected at some location in March 1977 and at the end of 1983. Pedological analyses were practiced on the samples and 137 Cs and 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K activities were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. A latitude dependence of 137 Cs was found as well. It was impossible to determine the 137 Cs contribution from Chernobyl nuclear accident because of low fallout and intense leaching, erosion and re-suspension in soils of regions with high annual precipitation. Natural radionuclides did not show such effects. (author) 39 refs; 6 tabs

  6. Facies analysis of tuffaceous volcaniclastics and felsic volcanics of Tadpatri Formation, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-05-01

    The felsic volcanics, tuff and volcaniclastic rocks within the Tadpatri Formation of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin are not extensively studied so far. It is necessary to evaluate the extrusive environment of felsic lavas with associated ash fall tuffs and define the resedimented volcaniclastic components. The spatial and temporal bimodal association were addressed, but geochemical and petrographic studies of mafic volcanics are paid more attention so far. The limited exposures of eroded felsic volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastic components in this terrain are highly altered and that is the challenge of the present facies analysis. Based on field observation and mapping of different lithounits a number of facies are categorized. Unbiased lithogeochemical sampling have provided major and selective trace element data to characterize facies types. Thin-section studies are also carried out to interpret different syn- and post- volcanic features. The facies analysis are used to prepare a representative facies model to visualize the entire phenomenon with reference to the basin evolution. Different devitrification features and other textural as well as structural attributes typical of flow, surge and ash fall deposits are manifested in the middle, lower and upper stratigraphic levels. Spatial and temporal correlation of lithologs are also supportive of bimodal volcanism. Felsic and mafic lavas are interpreted to have erupted through the N-S trending rift-associated fissures due to lithospheric stretching during late Palaeoproterozoic. It is also established from the facies model that the volcaniclastics were deposited in the deeper part of the basin in the east. The rifting and associated pressure release must have provided suitable condition of decompression melting at shallow depth with high geothermal gradient and this partial melting of mantle derived material at lower crust must have produced mafic magmas. Such upwelling into cold crust also caused partial heat

  7. Preliminary Simulations of CO2 Transport in the Dolostone Formations in the Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y; Wolery, T; Carroll, S

    2009-04-30

    This report summarizes preliminary 2-D reactive-transport simulations on the injection, storage and transport of supercritical CO{sub 2} in dolostone formations in the Ordos Basin in China. The purpose of the simulations was to evaluate the role that basin heterogeneity, permeability, CO{sub 2} flux, and geochemical reactions between the carbonate geology and the CO{sub 2} equilibrated brines have on the evolution of porosity and permeability in the storage reservoir. The 2-D simulation of CO{sub 2} injection at 10{sup 3} ton/year corresponds to CO{sub 2} injection at a rate of 3 x 10{sup 5} ton/year in a 3-D, low permeable rock. An average permeability of 10 md was used in the simulation and reflects the upper range of permeability reported for the Ordos Basin Majiagou Group. Transport and distribution of CO{sub 2} between in the gas, aqueous, and solid phases were followed during a 10-year injection phase and a 10-year post injection phase. Our results show that CO{sub 2} flux and the spatial distribution of reservoir permeability will dictate the transport of CO{sub 2} in the injection and post injection phases. The injection rate of supercritical CO{sub 2} into low permeable reservoirs may need to be adjusted to avoid over pressure and mechanical damage to the reservoir. Although it should be noted that 3-D simulations are needed to more accurately model pressure build-up in the injection phase. There is negligible change in porosity and permeability due to carbonate mineral dissolution or anhydrite precipitation because a very small amount of carbonate dissolution is required to reach equilibrium with respect these phases. Injected CO{sub 2} is stored largely in supercritical and dissolved phases. During the injection phase, CO{sub 2} is transport driven by pressure build up and CO{sub 2} buoyancy.

  8. The relationship between tectonic-thermal evolution and sandstone-type uranium ore-formation in Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the volcanic activities, the geothermal field, the thermal flow field, the paleogeo-thermal activity and the tectonic evolution of the Ordos basin indicates that the tectonic-thermal evolution of the Ordos basin has offered the basis for the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock mutual reactions, and has created favourable conditions for the formation of organic mineral resources and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Especially, the tectonic-thermal event during middle-Late Jurassic to Cretaceous played an important role in providing uranium source material, and assisting the migration, the concentration and precipitation of uranium and uranium ore-formation. (authors)

  9. Characteristics of the Triassic Source Rocks of the Aitutu Formation in the (West Timor Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the  marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate  rocks of this Triassic marine  facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter.  A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.

  10. Stratigraphy and palynology of the Lower Carboniferous Sortebakker Formation, Wandel Sea Basin, eastern North Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhoff, F.; Stemmerik, L. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vigran, J.O. [IKU Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    2000-07-01

    Two palynological assemblages of Early Carboniferous age have been recorded from the upper parts of the non-marine, fluvial-dominated Sortebakker Formation in the Wandel Sea Basin. The stratigraphically lower assemblage includes poorly preserved Cingulizonates spp., Densosporites spp., Lycospora spp. and Schulzospora spp. whereas the upper assemblage contains a more diversified microflora including the stratigraphically important Tripartites distinctus, Potoniespores delicatus and Savitrisporites spp. The microflora enables correlation and dating of the succession to the late Visean Perotrilites tessellatus - Schulzospora campyloptera (TC) and Raistrickia nigra - Triquitrites marginatus (NM) miospore Biozones of western Europe. The depositional facies correspond to those seen in time equivalent deposits from East Greenland, Svalbard, Bjoernoeya and the Barents Sea. (au)

  11. Effect of hydro mechanical coupling on natural fracture network formation in sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouraga, Zady; Guy, Nicolas; Pouya, Amade

    2018-05-01

    In sedimentary basin context, numerous phenomena, depending on the geological time span, can result in natural fracture network formation. In this paper, fracture network and dynamic fracture spacing triggered by significant sedimentation rate are studied considering mode I fracture propagation using a coupled hydro-mechanical numerical methods. The focus is put on synthetic geological structure under a constant sedimentation rate on its top. This model contains vertical fracture network initially closed and homogeneously distributed. The fractures are modelled with cohesive zone model undergoing damage and the flow is described by Poiseuille's law. The effect of the behaviour of the rock is studied and the analysis leads to a pattern of fracture network and fracture spacing in the geological layer.

  12. Influence of overpressure on formation velocity evaluation of Neogene strata from the eastern Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Khandaker M.; Uddin, Ashraf

    2005-06-01

    Interpretation of sonic log data of anticlinal structures from eastern Bangladesh reveals significant variations of acoustic velocity of subsurface strata. The amount of variation in velocity is 32% from Miocene to Pliocene stratigraphic units in Titas and Bakhrabad structure, whereas 21% in Rashidpur structure. Velocity fluctuations are influenced by the presence of gas-bearing horizons, with velocities of gas-producing strata 3-7% lower than laterally equivalent strata at similar depth. Average velocities of Miocene Boka Bil and Bhuban formations are, respectively, 2630 and 3480 m/s at Titas structure; 2820 and 3750 m/s at Bakhrabad; and 3430 and 3843 m/s at the Rashidpur structure. From the overall velocity-depth distribution for a common depth range of 915-3000 m, the Titas, Bakhrabad and Rashidpur structures show a gradual increase in velocity with depth. In contrast, the Sitakund anticline in SE Bangladesh reveals a decrease in velocity with depth from 3000 to 4000 m, probably due to the presence of overpressured mudrocks of the Bhuban Formation. Tectonic compression, associated with the Indo-Burmese plate convergence likely contributed the most toward formation of subsurface overpressure in the Sitakund structure situated in the Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt of the eastern Bengal basin, Bangladesh.

  13. Water isotopic characterization of hypersaline formation of a petroleum field Reconcavo basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, Danilo Ribeiro de Sa; Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes de

    2010-01-01

    Formation water is the water present in reservoir rock pores, produced together with petroleum. Usually it is hyper saline with concentrations that can be higher than 250 g/l of dissolved solids. The concentration of the dissolved elements and the isotopic composition of the water and of some of the dissolved elements can be excellent tracers to study the dynamic of underground fluid flux, the mixing of distinct sources and the origin of salinization of these waters. This work reports the isotopic composition (δ 2 H , δ 18 O) and electrical conductivity (EC) of formation waters from 10 wells of a petroleum field of the Reconcavo Basin, looking for their evolution, interaction with the minerals and rocks and reservoir interconnection. The samples have electric conductivity ranging from 84 to 137 mS/cm, with conductivity increasing with depth of production zone. It is observed an enrichment of deuterium and oxygen-18 with the depth of production zone, probably due to water-rock interactions that were probably increased by higher temperatures of the deeper levels and longer residence times. The samples from the production zone between 1450 to 1520 m, drained by 7 of the 10 wells sampled, show a small range in isotopic composition and in electric conductivity, indicating homogeneity in this level of the reservoir. In the shallow level of 450 m the values of δ 2 H , δ 18 O and EC are lower, with isotopic composition similar to the oceanic water, possibly representing the original water that entered the reservoir during the sedimentation of the basin. (author)

  14. Rodents from the Upper Miocene Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joniak, Peter; de Bruijn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The upper Miocene assemblages of rodents collected from two layers of the type section of the Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey) are described. The assemblage from the lower level is considerably less diverse than that from the upper level. It contains Progonomys together with

  15. Formation and inversion of transtensional basins in the western part of the Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia, with emphasis on the Cobar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, R. A.

    The Palaeozoic history of the western part of the Lachlan Fold Belt in New South Wales was dominated by strike-slip tectonics. In the latest Silurian to late Early Devonian, an area of crust >25,000 km 2 lying west of the Gilmore Suture underwent regional sinistral transtension, leading to the development of intracratonic successor basins, troughs and flanking shelves. The volcaniclastic deep-water Mount Hope Trough and Rast Trough, the siliciclastic Cobar Basin and the volcanic-rich Canbelego-Mineral Hill Belt of the Kopyje Shelf all were initiated around the Siluro-Devonian boundary. They all show clear evidence of having evolved by both active syn-rift processes and passive later post-rift (sag-phase) processes. Active syn-rift faulting is best documented for the Cobar Basin and Mount Hope Trough. In the former case, the synchronous activity on several fault sets suggests that the basin formed by sinistral transtension in response to a direction of maximum extension oriented NE-SW. Structures formed during inversion of the Cobar Basin and Canbelego-Mineral Hill Belt indicate closure under a dextral transpressive strain regime, with a far-field direction of maximum shortening oriented NE-SW. In the Cobar Basin, shortening was partitioned into two structural zones. A high-strain zone in the east was developed into a positive half-flower structure by re-activation of early faults and by formation of short-cut thrusts, some with strike-slip movement, above an inferred steep strike-slip fault. Intense subvertical cleavage, a steep extension lineation and variably plunging folds are also present. A lower-strain zone to the west developed by syn-depositional faults being activated as thrusts soling into a gently dipping detachment. A subvertical cleavage and steep extension lineation are locally present, and variably plunging folds are common. Whereas Siluro-Devonian basin-opening appeared to be synchronous in the western part of the fold belt, the different period of

  16. Sedimentology and Reservoir Characteristics of Early Cretaceous Fluvio-Deltaic and Lacustrine Deposits, Upper Abu Gabra Formation, Sufyan Sub-basin, Muglad Rift Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed; Abdullatif, Osman; Hariri, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Sufyan Sub-basin is an East-West trending Sub-basin located in the northwestern part of the Muglad Basin (Sudan), in the eastern extension of the West and Central Africa Rift System (WCARS). The Early Cretaceous Abu Gabra Formation considered as the main source rock in the Muglad Basin. In Sufyan Sub-basin the Early Cretaceous Upper Abu Gabra Formation is the main oil-producing reservoir. It is dominated by sandstone and shales deposited in fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine environment during the first rift cycle in the basin. Depositional and post-depositional processes highly influenced the reservoir quality and architecture. This study investigates different scales of reservoir heterogeneities from macro to micro scale. Subsurface facies analysis was analyzed based on the description of six conventional cores from two wells. Approaches include well log analysis, thin sections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations, grain-size, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the Abu Gabra sandstone. The cores and well logs analyses revealed six lithofacies representing fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine depositional environment. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted and sub-angular to subrounded, Sub-feldspathic arenite to quartz arenite. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies within Abu Gabra reservoir where it shows progressive coarsening upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The upper part of the reservoir showed well connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to lower parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenesis.The XRD and SEM analyses show that kaolinite and chlorite clay are the common clay minerals in the studied samples. Clay matrix and quartz overgrowth have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability, while the dissolution of feldspars

  17. Climate Proxy Signals in the Plio-Pleistocene Chemeron and Miocene Lukeino Formations, Baringo Basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J.; Hill, A.; Wilson, K. E.; Edgar, R.; Goble, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Chemeron Formation is a hominin-bearing, highly fossiliferous sequence of dominantly alluvial fan and fluvial sedimentary rocks, with climatically significant lacustrine intercalations, exposed within the Tugen Hills of the central Kenya Rift. As we have previously documented (Deino et al., 2006; Kingston et al., 2007), the formation contains a sequence of five 3-7 m thick diatomites in the interval 2.7-2.5 Ma that record, at precessional intervals, the repeated occurrence of deep-lake conditions in the Baringo Basin. These lakes appear abruptly, persist for only about 8,000 years of the ~23,000 year precessional cycle, and recede quickly. The oscillations have been tied to marine core and Mediterranean sapropel sections based on high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of K-feldspar in tuffs interspersed through the sequence, and paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy. Ongoing paleontological investigations in the Tugen Hills are addressing the dynamics of high-resolution faunal and ecological change directly related to the fluctuating climatic background, including its effect on hominin evolution. This specific interval in the Baringo Basin/Tugen Hills has been identified by the Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project Steering Committee as one of five target areas in East Africa for high-resolution coring studies. The drilling project is currently moving forward to the funding agency proposal development phase. Further exploration in the Tugen Hills has revealed a similar, older sequence of rhythmic alternating diatomites and non-lacustrine sediments in nearby drainages. These beds may represent a precessionally driven climate response possibly associated with the next older orbital eccentricity maximum from ~3.2-2.9 Ma. Characterization of the lithostratigraphy of this area is in progress, and samples of intercalated tuff beds suitable for high-precision single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar dating have been acquired. We have also extended our search for climate proxy records

  18. Numerical modelling of Quaternary terrace staircase formation in the Ebro foreland basin, southern Pyrenees, NE Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, R.T.; Stange, K.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.

    2016-01-01

    The southern foreland basin of the Pyrenees (Ebro basin) is an exorheic drainage basin since Late Miocene times. Remnants of an early exorheic Ebro drainage system are not preserved, but morphology provides evidence for the Pliocene–Quaternary drainage development. The incision history of the Ebro

  19. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  20. Architectural features of the Kayenta formation (Lower Jurassic), Colorado Plateau, USA: relationship to salt tectonics in the Paradox Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Michael H.

    1991-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones of the Kayenta Formation were analyzed using architectural element analysis. Paleocurrent trends, the distribution of lacustrine facies and local silcrete development indicate that synsedimentary movement of evaporites in the underlying Paradox Basin created an unstable basin floor beneath the Kayenta fluvial system. This instability resulted in deflection of fluvial axes, local basin development and local areas of interrupted fluvial deposition with eolian dunes. Paleocurrent trends in the Kayenta system reflect periodic interruptions of southwesterly flow. Salt migrating laterally out of a rim syncline into an adjacent salt anticline resulted in a rim syncline of slight topographic relief. The resulting basin was probably rapidly filled, allowing the resumption of southwesterly flow. Differential movement of salt (incipient solution collapse features (?)) resulted in the formation of small centripetal basins in which playa mudstones formed. A laterally extensive resistant ledge underlies a horizontal surface, suggestive of deflation to the water table of an exposed section of valley fill. A channel scour in the top of one of these surfaces has margins much steeper ( > 60°) than the angle of repose for unconsolidated sand. Early cementation of the exposed floodplain could account for this resistance.

  1. The geochemistry of claystone-shale deposits from the Maastritchian Patti formation, Southern Bida basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Okunlola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An inorganic geochemical study of a claystone and shale sequence from the Patti Formation around Ahoko in the Southern Bida basin, Nigeria, was carried out to determine the basin's depositional conditions,provenance and tectonics. Representative samples underwent mineralogical and geochemical analysis involving major, trace and rare earth element analysis.Mineralogical studies using X-ray diffraction analysis revealed prominent kaolinite, dickite and illite peaks; accessory minerals included quartz and microcline. Major element abundance showed thatthe shale samples had SiO2 (61.26%, Al2O3 (16.88% and Fe2O3 (3.75% constituting more than 79% of bulk chemical composition whilst claystone samples contained SiO2 (67.79%, Al2O3 (17.81% andFe2O3 (1.67%. Higher SiO2, Ba, Sr, V, and Nb concentrations were observed in claystone samples rather than shale whereas the shale samples were observed to be more Zr-, Ni- and Zn-enriched than theclaystone ones. The shale and claystone samples showed slightly light rare earth enrichment and slightly flat heavy rare earth depleted patterns having a negative Eu and Tm anomaly. High TiO2 and Rb/K2Ovalues also indicated that the shale and claystone samples were matured. Geochemical parameters such as U, U/Th, Ni/Co and Cu/Zn ratios indicated that these shales were deposited in oxic conditions; theAl2O3/TiO2 ratio suggested that intermediate igneous rocks were probable source rocks for the shales, while mafic rocks were suggested as being source rocks for the claystone. However, the La/Sc, Th/Sc, Th/Co ratios and shales and claystone plots revealed that they came within the range given for felsic rocks as provenance, thereby suggesting mixed provenace for the sediments. A passive-margin tectonic settingwas adduced for the sedimentary sequences.

  2. CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at ∼185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were ∼8 wt%, ∼59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE canister sludge

  3. CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILL SR

    2010-06-10

    The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at {approx}185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were {approx}8 wt%, {approx}59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE

  4. Syn-sedimentary tectonics and facies analysis in a rift setting: Cretaceous Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin, SE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Chakraborty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous (Albian–Cenomanian Dalmiapuram Formation is one of the economically significant constituents in the hydrocarbon-producing Cauvery rift basin, SE India that opened up during the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous Gondwanaland fragmentation. The fossil-rich Dalmiapuram Formation, exposed at Ariyalur within the Pondicherry sub-basin of Cauvery Basin, rests in most places directly on the Archean basement and locally on the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian Basal Siliciclastic Formation. In the Dalmiapuram Formation, a facies association of tectonically-disturbed phase is sandwiched between two drastically quieter phases. The early syn-rift facies association (FA 1, records the first carbonate marine transgression within the basin, comprising a bar–lagoon system with occasionally storms affecting along the shore and a sheet-like non-recurrent biomicritic limestone bed on the shallow shelf that laterally grades into pyrite–glauconite-bearing dark-colored shale in the deeper shelf. Spectacular breccias together with varied kinds of mass-flow products comprise the syn-rift facies association (FA 2. While the breccias occur at the basin margin area, the latter extend in the deeper inland sea. Clast composition of the coarse clastics includes large, even block-sized limestone fragments and small fragments of granite and sandstone from the basement. Marl beds of quieter intervals between tectonic pulses occur in alternation with them. Faulted basal contact of the formation, and small grabens filled by multiple mass-flow packages bear the clear signature of the syntectonic activity localized contortions, slump folds, and pillow beds associated with mega slump/slide planes and joints, which corroborates this contention further. This phase of tectonic intervention is followed by another relatively quieter phase and accommodates the late syn-rift facies association (FA 3. A tidal bar–interbar shelf depositional system allowed a

  5. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Tatiane Ferraz; Velludo, Marcela Roquetti; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Peret, André Moldenhauer

    2011-06-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish.

  6. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.

  7. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  8. Stress state variations among the clay and limestone formations of the molasse basin of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, Tim; Mueller, Herwig; Frieg, Bernd; Klee, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The design of geological repositories for radioactive waste responds to the requirements of technical feasibility and long-term safety in the context of a specific geological setting. An important aspect of the geological setting is the primary stress field. To a large extent the stress state controls repository induced effects such as the excavation damage zone and the associated potential changes in the waste isolation properties of the host rock. Therefore the measurement of the stress state receives some attention where the site selection for geological repositories focuses onto relatively weak host rocks such as clay-stones and marly shales that tend to develop a significant excavation damage zone. Measurements of the minimum stress magnitudes in a recently drilled geothermal well in the Molasse Basin of northern Switzerland have yielded a stress profile reaching from 592 m to 1455 m depth. It straddles several rock units and includes the top of the crystalline basement. The sedimentary sequence consists of Marine limestones, shales and marls unconformably covered by Tertiary rocks of the Molasse. In other parts of the basin the evaporitic rocks of the Triassic Muschelkalk formation at the base of the sedimentary layer served as a regional detachment and enabled thin skinned thrusting and the formation of the Jura Fold and Thrust Belt in the Late Miocene. The stress measurements have been performed in the open hole by Mini-frac tests. The method uses a double packer system to isolate a one meter long interval of the borehole that is then pressurized at high injection rates up to the breakdown of the formation. Repeated pressurization of the interval allows to determine the stress that acts on the newly created fracture. The total injected volume during such a test is in the range of a few litres and the size of the fracture that extends from the borehole normal to the minimum

  9. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE CARNIAN - NORIAN CALCARI CON SELCE FORMATION IN THE LAGONEGRO BASIN, SOUTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RIGO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Triassic Calcari con Selce Formation, cropping out in the southern Apennines (S Italy, consists of 400 m of micritic limestones, often nodular, with chert beds and nodules, organized in dm to m beds intercalated with mm (rarely centimetric marly horizons. Three intervals characterized by higher siliciclastic content have been recognized within this formation, and stratigraphically ordered after an accurate conodont biostratigraphical investigation: 1 the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, previously named in literature with the informal expression of “livello argilloso ad Halobia superba”, Tuvalian (upper Carnian; 2 an interval of some tens of meters of limestones and brown shales with abundant chert beds, here informally termed the "brown member", Tuvalian/Lacian (upper Carnian/lower Norian; 3 the ca. 3 m thick red shale horizon, Sevatian (upper Norian in age. All these intervals are characterized by micritic limestones or marly limestones with bivalves, radiolarians and conodonts alternating with shales (green, brown or red having thicknesses of 50 cm or more. These intervals are also associated to an increase of calciturbidites, consisting of echinoderm fragments, isolated thin-shelled bivalves and reworked, partially lithified intraclasts of the Calcari con Selce Fm. The Carnian green clay-radiolaritic horizon and the Sevatian red siliciclastic interval are useful lithostratigraphic markers recognizable throughout the Lagonegro Basin and have been used as guide horizons to evaluate the lateral continuity of contiguous limestone beds. The green clay-radiolaritic horizon has been logged in 4 sections (Pignola 2, Mt. Armizzone, Pezza la Quagliara, San Michele. The sections are presently at approximately 50 km distance - but Tertiary thrusts occur between the sections, suggesting a larger separation at the time of the deposition of the Formation. Above the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, single carbonate beds or banks with the same

  10. Sequence stratigraphy, sedimentary systems and petroleum plays in a low-accommodation basin: Middle to upper members of the Lower Jurassic Sangonghe Formation, Central Junggar Basin, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youliang; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Chunfang

    2015-06-01

    The Lower Jurassic Junggar Basin is a low-accommodation basin in northwestern China. Because of low subsidence rates and a warm, wet climate, deposits of the Central subbasin of the Junggar Basin formed from fluvial, deltaic, shallow lake facies. Sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary systems of the Lower Jurassic members of the Sangonghe Formation (J1s) were evaluated by observing cores, interpreting wireline logs and examining seismic profiles. Two third-order sequences were recognized in the strata. The distribution of the sedimentary systems in the systems tracts shows that tectonic movement, paleorelief, paleoclimate and changes in lake level controlled the architecture of individual sequences. During the development of the lowstand systems tract (LST), the intense structural movement of the basin resulted in a significant fall in the water level in the lake, accompanied by rapid accommodation decrease. Braided rivers and their deltaic systems were also developed in the Central Junggar Basin. Sediments carried by braided rivers were deposited on upward slopes of the paleorelief, and braid-delta fronts were deposited on downward slopes. During the transgressive systems tract (TST), the tectonic movement of the basin was quiescent and the climate was warm and humid. Lake levels rose and accommodation increased quickly, shoal lines moved landward, and shore- to shallow-lake deposits, sublacustrine fans and deep-lake facies were deposited in shallow- to deep-lake environments. During the highstand systems tract (HST), the accommodation no longer increased but sediment supply continued, far exceeding accommodation. HST deposits slowly formed in shallow-lake to meandering river delta-front environments. Relatively low rates of structural subsidence and low accommodation resulted in coarse-grained successions that were fining upward. Deposits were controlled by structural movement and paleorelief within the LST to TST deposits in the Central subbasin. Fine- to medium

  11. Tectonically controlled sedimentation: impact on sediment supply and basin evolution of the Kashafrud Formation (Middle Jurassic, Kopeh-Dagh Basin, northeast Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Amini, Abdolhossein; Aliabadi, Ali Akbar; Boulvain, Frédéric; Sardar Abadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-11-01

    The Kashafrud Formation was deposited in the extensional Kopeh-Dagh Basin during the Late Bajocian to Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) and is potentially the most important siliciclastic unit from NE Iran for petroleum geology. This extensional setting allowed the accumulation of about 1,700 m of siliciclastic sediments during a limited period of time (Upper Bajocian-Bathonian). Here, we present a detailed facies analysis combined with magnetic susceptibility (MS) results focusing on the exceptional record of the Pol-e-Gazi section in the southeastern part of the basin. MS is classically interpreted as related to the amount of detrital input. The amount of these detrital inputs and then the MS being classically influenced by sea-level changes, climate changes and tectonic activity. Facies analysis reveals that the studied rocks were deposited in shallow marine, slope to pro-delta settings. A major transgressive-regressive cycle is recorded in this formation, including fluvial-dominated delta to turbiditic pro-delta settings (transgressive phase), followed by siliciclastic to mixed siliciclastic and carbonate shoreface rocks (regressive phase). During the transgressive phase, hyperpycnal currents were feeding the basin. These hyperpycnal currents are interpreted as related to important tectonic variations, in relation to significant uplift of the hinterland during opening of the basin. This tectonic activity was responsible for stronger erosion, providing a higher amount of siliciclastic input into the basin, leading to a high MS signal. During the regressive phase, the tectonic activity strongly decreased. Furthermore, the depositional setting changed to a wave- to tide-dominated, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic setting. Because of the absence of strong tectonic variations, bulk MS was controlled by other factors such as sea-level and climatic changes. Fluctuations in carbonate production, possibly related to sea-level variations, influenced the MS of the siliciclastic

  12. Determination of solid flow for bottom sediment drag of Parana river using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Pedro E.; Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rocca, Hector C.C.; Bittencourt, Andre V.L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with labeled sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana River, near Guaira City, State of Parana. 198 Au radioisotope was used and measurements have been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 914,8 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 mean thickness and 1,65 m/day mean velocity. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Radiological safety programme for the health departments in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly, J.G. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of Brazil's centralized administration in the past, various parts of the public service were somewhat inefficient. Another reason was the size of the country. To improve the situation in the health sector, it was decided to transfer administrative responsibility to the municipal authorities. Accordingly, the public health system is now defined under the appropriate legislation as the 'Unified Health System' (SUS), comprising federal, state and municipal levels. This system promotes decentralization of therapeutic or preventive services (including the Radiation Facility Health Inspectorate) and proposes any additional legislation required. In Parana the Radiation Facility Health Inspectorate has 3600 organizations listed, employing ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research, which need to be regularly inspected for licensing and control. In 1994, 50% of the annual inspection target in the state was attained. The Radiation Safety Programme for the Health Departments in Parana directs these activities in this State. Its strategies are: (1) to establish implementation phases for activities planned for each area; (2) to take advantage of the SUS structure to introduce or expand operational services at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels with appropriate equipment. The tertiary level involves co-ordination of the Programme and complementary executive functions, as well as maintaining an information system with other related organizations. The other levels include licensing, control and emergency response. As the Programme develops, indicators will be established to help identify progress achieved and correct operating strategy where necessary. Thus, the services provided to the public will be enhanced in quality and the radiation doses reduced. In addition, in emergency situations, the time elapsing between the event and its notification to the authorities will be reduced, minimizing the consequences of any accidents. (author)

  14. Partial preservation of the Tentaculites Crotalinus shell from Ponta Grossa Formation (Devonian)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciguel, J.H.G.; Roesler, O.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of a single specimen of Tentaculites crotalinus SALTER emend. CIGUEL et al. (1984) that present a possible partial preservation of the shell. It comes from an outcrop of the Grossa Formation (Devonian) near Jaguariaiva, State of Parana. The skeletal microstructure of the Tentaculitoidea shell rather poorly Known. Thus, the phylogenetic relationships of these invertebrates still uncertain. Tentaculitids are very common fossils in Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation (Parana Basin) but so far Known only from external and internal moulds. The objective of this study is to demonstrate wheter the layer found in between the internal and external mould is or not a case shell preservation. The chemical composition of this layer and of the external mould was analysed by X rays. X rays difratometry was applied only to the matrix (at the external mould). The structure of the supposed shell remain was studied by binocular stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. It revealed a foliate structure due to several paralel to subparalel oriented lamelae, with a chemical composition distinct from the matrix, and some elements possibly mantained from the original shell composition. Thus, a partial preservation of the original shell seems to be the better explanation for this case. This shell would be composed by calcium carbonate disposed in laminar layers, the outer ones being impregnated by Fe and Mn molecules during the diagenetic processes. The skeletal composition and microstructure would suggest a molluscan affinity for the tentaculitida Order. (auThor) [pt

  15. Seismic fracture detection of shale gas reservoir in Longmaxi formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujia; Cao, Junxing; Jiang, Xudong

    2017-11-01

    In the shale reservoirs, fractures play an important role, which not only provide space for the oil and gas, but also offer favorable petroleum migration channel. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the fractures characteristics in shale reservoirs for the exploration and development of shale gas. In this paper, four analysis technologies involving coherence, curvature attribute, structural stress field simulation and pre-stack P-wave azimuthal anisotropy have been applied to predict the fractures distribution in the Longmaxi formation, Silurian, southeast of Sichuan Basin, China. By using the coherence and curvature attribute, we got the spatial distribution characteristics of fractures in the study area. Structural stress field simulation can help us obtain distribution characteristics of structural fractures. And using the azimuth P-wave fracture detection technology, we got the characteristics about the fracture orientation and density of this region. Application results show that there are NW and NE fractures in the study block, which is basically consistent with the result of log interpretation. The results also provide reliable geological basis for shale gas sweet spots prediction.

  16. Clay mineral association in the salt formation of the Transylvanian Basin and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Bican-Bris̡an

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigated clay fraction was separated from salt samples recovered from three boreholes located in the Praid salt deposit area. For comparison, samples collected from Turda deposit (Franz Josef adit, the Rudolf and Ghizele chambers and from the salt massif from Sărăţel were also analyzed. The qualitative investigations evidenced a clay minerals association dominated by illite and chlorite accompanied by subordinate amounts of kaolinite, smectite, fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite, and in minor amounts, by 14/14 chlorite/vermiculite and chlorite/smectite interstratifications. A quantitative evaluation (% including a standard graphical representation was performed only for the borehole samples (Praid, according to the vertical distribution. The genetical interpretation of the identified clay minerals association took into account the influence of the sedimentation mechanisms and the climate control on the mineral phases. The environment of formation for the salt in the Transylvanian Basin was defined by the presence of specific climatic factors, also suggested by the palynological investigations.

  17. Reservoir diagenesis research of Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingming Kong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir diagenesis of Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin was studied based on a large number of thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction tests, and some other experiments. Seven diagenetic processes were identified, including compaction, cementation, clay mineral transformation, replacement, dissolution, organic matter thermal maturation, and tectonic disruption. Three kinds of cements (quartz, carbonate and sulfide were recognized, while the source material of quartz cements and the main factor of forming abundant carbonate cements were summed up. According to the single well analysis of the Well N3, it shows that the best, the suboptimal and the none shale reservoir sections were subjected to different diagenetic transformations. As to best shale reservoir, except for compaction, all the main inorganic diagenesis were significantly related to organic matter maturation. Through comprehensive analysis of diagenetic indicators, it is observed that the reservoir has already been in period B of middle diagenetic stage to late diagenetic stage. The inorganic diagenesis has a significant impact on shale reservoir, because it not only controls the conservation, development, and evolution of porosity, but also the mechanical property and the adsorption capacity of rocks. The organic diagenesis is the source material of shale gas, and it generates a large number of nanoporosity in organic matter, which increases the total porosity and the adsorption capacity of the reservoir.

  18. Himalayan tectonic evolution and uranium ore formation, south of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wanwen; Wang Liming; Tian Li

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of stress field and geomorphic environment of Songliao Basin during Himalayan Movement, it is presented that Himalayan Movement supplied favorite structural and geomorphic conditions with Eocene and Pliocene being metallogenic epoch for sandstone-type uranium in Songliao Basin. Degradation inliers at the southern margin of Songliao Basin, where structure and mineralization developed well, are the target area for in-situ sandstone type uranium. (authors)

  19. Estimation of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China: implications for hydrocarbon generation and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China, is vital for assessment of hydrocarbon generation and preservation, and of geothermal energy potential. However, it has not previously been well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data with drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime and estimate the subsurface formation temperature at depth in the range of 1000-5000 m, together with temperatures at the lower boundary of each of four major Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks buried in this basin. Results show that heat flow of the Tarim Basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5 ± 7.6 mW/m2; the geothermal gradient at depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7 ± 2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature estimated at the depth of 1000 m is between 29 and 41 °C, with a mean of 35 °C, while 63-100 °C is for the temperature at the depth of 3000 m with a mean of 82 °C. Temperature at 5000 m ranges from 97 to 160 °C, with a mean of 129 °C. Generally spatial patterns of the subsurface formation temperature at depth are basically similar, characterized by higher temperatures in the uplift areas and lower temperatures in the sags, which indicates the influence of basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties on the geotemperature field. Using temperature to identify the oil window in the source rocks, most of the uplifted areas in the basin are under favorable condition for oil generation and/or preservation, whereas the sags with thick sediments are favorable for gas generation and/or preservation. We conclude that relatively low present-day geothermal regime and large burial depth of the source rocks in the Tarim Basin are favorable for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. In addition, it is found that the

  20. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  1. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  2. Deposition and diagenesis of the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Brushy Basin Member and the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in northwest New Mexico are nonmarine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic age. This stratigraphic interval consists of as many as four lithofacies deposited in fluvial and playa-lake environments. Lithofacies A is composed of crossbed feldspathic sandstone and was deposited by braided streams on an alluvial plain. Lithofacies B is composed of crossbedded feldspathic sandstone and tuffaceous mudstone, and was deposited by braided and anastomosing streams at the distal end of the alluvial plain. Lithofacies C is composed of calcareous, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited on a mudflat between the alluvial plain and a playa lake. Lithofacies D is composed of zeolitic, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited in a playa lake. The distribution of diagenetic facies in mudstones and tuffs in the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member reflects the pH and salinity gradients common to fluvial/playa-lake systems. The abundant vitric ash in the sediments reacted to form montmorillonite in the fluvial facies. Calcite and montmorillonite were the reaction products where the fluvial and outermost playa facies met. Vitric ash reacted to form clinoptilolite and heulandite along the playa margins. In the center of the playa facies, analcime replaced clinoptilolite, an early zeolite. These early diagenetic minerals were replaced by albite, quartz, and mixed-layer illitemontmorillonite where the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member have been deeply buried in the San Juan basin

  3. Constraining back-arc basin formation in the eastern Coral Sea: preliminary results from the ECOSAT voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seton, M.; Williams, S.; Mortimer, N. N.; Meffre, S.; Moore, J.; Micklethwaite, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Coral Sea region is an underexplored area at the northeastern corner of the Australian plate, where long-lived interaction between the Pacific and Australian plate boundaries has resulted in an intricate assemblage of deep oceanic basins and ridges, continental fragments and volcanic products. A paucity of marine geophysical and geological data from this complex region has resulted in the lack of a clear conceptual framework to describe its formation, ultimately affecting our understanding of the connection between the plate boundaries of the SW Pacific and SE Asia. In particular, the tectonic relationship between two back-arc basins, the Santa Cruz and d'Entrecasteaux Basins, and the South Rennell Trough, has yet to be resolved. In October-November, 2012, we collected 6,200 km of marine magnetic, 6,800 km of gravity and over 13,600 km2 of swath bathymetry data from the eastern Coral Sea onboard the RV Southern Surveyor. A complementary dredging program yielded useful samples from 14 seafloor sites. Our preliminary geochemical interpretation of the dredge samples obtained from the South Rennell Trough reveal volcanic rocks resembling MORB or BABB-type basalts, similar in composition to the recently re-analysed and dated ORSTOM dredges from the area that yielded ~28 Ma MORB-like basalts. Swath bathymetry profiles from the Santa Cruz Basin reveal that the South Rennell Trough extends into this basin, with seafloor spreading fabric being parallel to the trough. Preliminary analysis of the three full and four partial new magnetic anomaly profiles across the Santa Cruz Basin, coupled with limited existing profiles, reveals that the basin may have formed between Chrons 13-18 (~32-38 Ma), with an extinct spreading ridge along the inferred continuation of the South Rennell Trough, consistent with ORSTOM age dates. Our results suggest that the South Rennell Trough is an extinct southwestward propagating spreading ridge, which may have initiated along a pre

  4. Characterization of lacustrine shale pore structure: The Upper-Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amounts of silty laminae in continental shale gas reservoir were investigated in the Zhangjiatan shale of the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin. The purpose of this study is to provide awareness in terms of the nature and discrepancies in pore structure between silty laminae and clayey laminae. By mechanically separating the silty laminae from the shale core, a combination measurement series of mercury injection capillary pressure, N2 adsorption, and carbon dioxide adsorption were performed on the aforementioned two parts. An integrated pore size distribution, with a pore diameter range of 0.1 nm-100 μm, was obtained by using appropriate sample particle size and calculation model. The comparative analysis of the pore structure shows that the clayey laminae are dominated by mesopore and micropore; meanwhile, the silty laminae are dominated by macropore alone. The pore volume distribution in clayey laminae is sorted as mesopore volume > micropore volume > macropore volume, on the other hand, for silty laminae it is macropore volume > mesopore volume > micropore volume. The averaged total pore volume of silty laminae is 2.02 cc/100 g, and for clayey laminae, it is 1.41 cc/100 g. The porosity of silty laminae is 5.40%, which is greater than that of clayey laminae's 3.67%. Since silty laminae have larger pore width and pore space, they are more permeable and porous than the clayey laminae; it also acts as a favorable conduit and reservoir for shale gas.

  5. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  6. Formation of Burial Mounds of the Sarmatian Time in the Basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Korobkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the formation of the burial mounds in the basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai river in the Sarmatian period. Most of the burial mounds of the region begin to form in the Bronze Age and continue to function throughout the early, middle and early late-Sarmatian periods. Most of the burial mounds were located on the watersheds and above-flood terraces of different levels. All of them are characterized by same principles of planning, barrows in them are stretched in a chain in the natural form of the terrace on which the burial mound was built. The territories developed already in the Bronze Age were chosen for creating mounds in the early Sarmatian period. The main part of them is concentrated on a small section landplot of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai river. During the Middle Sarmatian period, the main part of barrows were also located in the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai, but represented 2 plots. One of these plots continues to use large burial mounds of the previous period, and the other one undergoes the creation of small barrow groups consisting usually of two-three barrows containing the richest burials of the region with the “classical” set of Middle Sarmatian features. In the late Sarmatian period, as well as in the previous stages of the Sarmatian culture, the burial mounds of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai continue to be used, which cease to function no later than at the first half of the 3rd century AD. But the territory of actively used burial mounds changes, and the main complexes of that time concentrate in the upper reaches, where new burial mounds are created and continue to function until the end of the Sarmatian era.

  7. Survey of the energy balance in the State of Parana, Brazil, 1980-1995; Sinopse do balanco energetico do Parana, 1980-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    A summary of energy consumption in the state of Parana, Brazil, in the period 1980-1995 is presented. The data includes energy from different sources, the share of each sector of the economy, the quantity of energy imported and exported by the state, the energy resources and reserves and the regional consumption distribution 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Preliminary study of favorability for uranium of the Sangre de Cristo Formation in the Las Vegas basin, northeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.T.; Strand, J.R.; Reid, B.E.; Phillips, W.R.

    1977-12-01

    Uranium favorability of the Sangre de Cristo Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Las Vegas basin has been evaluated. The Las Vegas basin project area, located in Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico, comprises about 3,489 sq mi. The formation contains sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics that are considered favorable for uranium deposition. Field investigations consisted of section measuring, rock sampling, and ground radiometric reconnaissance. North-south and east-west cross sections of the basin were prepared from well logs and measured sections. Petrographic, chemical, and spectrographic analyses were conducted on selected samples. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic information were used to determine depositional environments. The most favorable potential host rocks include red to pink, coarse-grained, poorly sorted, feldspathic to arkosic lenticular sandstones with stacked sandstone thicknesses of more than 20 ft and sandstone-to-shale ratios between 1:1 and 2:1. The sandstone is interbedded with mudstone and contains carbonaceous debris and anomalous concentrations of uranium locally. Areas of maximum favorability are found in a braided-stream, alluvial-plain depositional environment in the north-central part of the Las Vegas basin. There, carbonaceous material is well preserved, probably due to rapid subsidence and burial. Furthermore, uranium favorability is highest in the lower half of the formation because carbonaceous wood and plant fragments, as well as known uranium deposits, are concentrated in this zone. Piedmont deposits in the north and east, and meander-belt, alluvial-plain deposits in the south, are not considered favorable because of the paucity of uranium deposits and a minimum of carbonaceous material

  9. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  10. Deuterium and oxygen-18 concentrations in rain and river waters from Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana States, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Oliveiro J.; Salati, Eneas

    1982-01-01

    The main object of this paper was to study the concentration of deuterium (D) and Oxygen-18 ( 18 O) in the rain and river waters from the States of Minas Gerais, Sao paulo and Parana. Monthly samples were prepared and analysed at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-ESALQ-USP) with the use of CH-4 ( 18 O) and GD-150 (D) mass spectrometers of Varian-Mat. In order to correlate the D and 18 O of the rain water the equation δD = 9.22 + 7.17δ18 was found. Considering the three equations separately it was observed that the parameter a = δD -bδ18 increases from the South to the North. For the Piracicaba River (city of Piracicaba only), the D and 18 O relationship was expressed by δD = -10.98 + 4.88δ18. The States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo can be divided according to the weight-average concentrations (δ18 m% 0 ). This division is not possible from Parana. Considering the average from the weight average concentration (annually and summer) for the three States, the annual average (D and 18 O) is slightly richer than the summer average, showing the importance of the amount effect, mainly for the States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The rivers studied had little variation in the 18 O concentrations with no definite periodicity. The rivers from the North of Minas Gerais are slightly richer in 18 O than the rivers from the South. The waters from Rio Grande in the South of Minas Gerais State are poorer in 18 O than the water of the same river in the 'Triangle'region. The δ18% 0 data for the rivers Grande, Parnaiba and Parana are very similar, so there is no way to compute the contribution of the first and the second rivers in the formation of the third. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Porous media of the Red River Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota: a possible Sedimentary Enhanced Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Caitlin M.

    2018-01-01

    Fracture-stimulated enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) can be developed in both crystalline rocks and sedimentary basins. The Red River Formation (Ordovician) is a viable site for development of a sedimentary EGS (SEGS) because the formation temperatures exceed 140 °C and the permeability is 0.1-38 mD; fracture stimulation can be utilized to improve permeability. The spatial variations of the properties of the Red River Formation were analyzed across the study area in order to understand the distribution of subsurface formation temperatures. Maps of the properties of the Red River Formation-including depth to the top of the formation, depth to the bottom of the formation, porosity, geothermal gradient, heat flow, and temperature-were produced by the Kriging interpolation method in ArcGIS. In the future, these results may be utilized to create a reservoir simulation model of an SEGS in the Red River Formation; the purpose of this model would be to ascertain the thermal response of the reservoir to fracture stimulation.

  12. Stratigraphic sequence and sedimentary characteristics of Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin and its peripheral areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision sedimentary environment study of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation is an important subject for shale gas exploration and development in Sichuan Basin and its surrounding areas. On the basis of outcrops and drilling data, its isochronous stratigraphic framework was built according to a particular graptolite zone and an important marker bed, and lithofacies, paleontology, calcareous content, well logging, geochemistry and other geologic information were combined to describe the sedimentary microfacies of Longmaxi Formation and its stratigraphic sequence, sedimentary evolution process and high quality shale distribution features as follows: ① with regional diachronism of the top and the bottom, the Longmaxi Formation is divided into two third-order sequences (SQ1 and SQ2, of which SQ1 is mainly an abyssal sedimentary assemblage deposited in the marine transgression period, and SQ2 is a bathyal to shallow sea sedimentary assemblage deposited in the marine regression period; ② there are eight microfacies such as deep calcareous shelf and deep argillaceous shelf in this formation and the organic-rich shale was mainly deposited in the deep water area of SQ1; and ③ from SQ1 to SQ2, the depocenter moved from the depression area in southern-eastern to northern Sichuan Basin, but the central Sichuan uplift remained an underwater one. It is concluded from this study that: ① shale gas production layers were mainly deposited in SQ1, the southern-eastern depression area was the depocenter in SQ1 and a shale gas enrichment area; and ② black shale in northern Sichuan was deposited in late SQ2, with limited distribution and relatively insufficient exploration potential, but the potential of shale gas exploration in western Hubei area is between southern-eastern and northern Sichuan Basin.

  13. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  14. Methane clumped isotopes in the Songliao Basin (China): New insights into abiotic vs. biotic hydrocarbon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Etiope, Giuseppe; Zhang, Shuichang; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Huang, Ling; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic hydrocarbon gas, typically generated in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and crystalline shields, has important implications for the deep biosphere, petroleum systems, the carbon cycle and astrobiology. Distinguishing abiotic gas (produced by chemical reactions like Sabatier synthesis) from biotic gas (produced from degradation of organic matter or microbial activity) is sometimes challenging because their isotopic and molecular composition may overlap. Abiotic gas has been recognized in numerous locations on the Earth, although there are no confirmed instances where it is the dominant source of commercially valuable quantities in reservoir rocks. The deep hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Xujiaweizi Depression in the Songliao Basin (China) have been considered to host significant amounts of abiotic methane. Here we report methane clumped-isotope values (Δ18) and the isotopic composition of C1-C3 alkanes, CO2 and helium of five gas samples collected from those Xujiaweizi deep reservoirs. Some geochemical features of these samples resemble previously suggested identifiers of abiotic gas (13C-enriched CH4; decrease in 13C/12C ratio with increasing carbon number for the C1-C4 alkanes; abundant, apparently non-biogenic CO2; and mantle-derived helium). However, combining these constraints with new measurements of the clumped-isotope composition of methane and careful consideration of the geological context, suggests that the Xujiaweizi depression gas is dominantly, if not exclusively, thermogenic and derived from over-mature source rocks, i.e., from catagenesis of buried organic matter at high temperatures. Methane formation temperatures suggested by clumped-isotopes (167-213 °C) are lower than magmatic gas generation processes and consistent with the maturity of local source rocks. Also, there are no geological conditions (e.g., serpentinized ultramafic rocks) that may lead to high production of H2 and thus abiotic production of CH4 via CO2 reduction. We propose

  15. Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin: Sulfur and lead isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal

  16. Geochemical characteristics and implications of shale gas from the Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gas geochemical analysis was conducted on the shale gas from the Longmaxi Formation in the Weiyuan-Changning areas, Sichuan Basin, China. Chemical composition was measured using an integrated method of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The results show that the Longmaxi shale gas, after hydraulic fracturing, is primarily dominated by methane (94.0%–98.6% with low humidity (0.3%–0.6% and minor non-hydrocarbon gasses which are primarily comprised of CO2, N2, as well as trace He. δ13CCO2 = −2.5‰−6.0‰3He/4He = 0.01–0.03Ra.The shale gas in the Weiyuan and Changning areas display carbon isotopes reversal pattern with a carbon number (δ13C1 > δ13C2 and distinct carbon isotopic composition. The shale gas from the Weiyuan pilot has heavier carbon isotopic compositions for methane (δ13C1: from −34.5‰ to −36.8‰, ethane (δ13C2: −37.6‰ to −41.9‰, and CO2 (δ13CCO2: −4.5‰ to −6.0‰ than those in the Changning pilot (δ13C1: −27.2‰ to −27.3‰, δ13C2: −33.7‰ to −34.1‰, δ13CCO2: −2.5‰ to −4.6‰. The Longmaxi shale was thermally high and the organic matter was in over mature stage with good sealing conditions. The shale gas, after hydraulic fracturing, could possibly originate from the thermal decomposition of kerogen and the secondary cracking of liquid hydrocarbons which caused the reversal pattern of carbon isotopes. Some CO2 could be derived from the decomposition of carbonate. The difference in carbon isotopes between the Weiyuan and Changning areas could be derived from the different mixing proportion of gas from the secondary cracking of liquid hydrocarbons caused by specific geological and geochemical conditions.

  17. Continuously increasing δ98Mo values in Neoarchean black shales and iron formations from the Hamersley Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Taubald, Heinrich; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2015-09-01

    We present Mo-, C- and O-isotope data from black shales, carbonate- and oxide facies iron formations from the Hamersley Group, Western Australia, that range in age from 2.6 to 2.5 billion years. The data show a continuous increase from near crustal δ98Mo values of around 0.50‰ for the oldest Marra Mamba and Wittenoom formations towards higher values of up to 1.51‰ for the youngest sample of the Brockman Iron Formation. Thereby, the trend in increasing δ98Mo values is portrayed by both carbonate facies iron formations and black shales. Considering the positive correlation between Mo concentration and total organic carbon, we argue that this uniformity is best explained by molybdate adsorption onto organic matter in carbonate iron formations and scavenging of thiomolybdate onto sulfurized organic matter in black shales. A temporal increase in the seawater δ98Mo over the period 2.6-2.5 Ga is observed assuming an overall low Mo isotope fractionation during both Mo removal processes. Oxide facies iron formations show lowest Mo concentrations, lowest total organic carbon and slightly lower δ98Mo compared to nearly contemporaneous black shales. This may indicate that in iron formation settings with very low organic matter burial rates, the preferential adsorption of light Mo isotopes onto Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides becomes more relevant. A similar Mo-isotope pattern was previously found in contemporaneous black shales and carbonates of the Griqualand West Basin, South Africa. The consistent and concomitant increase in δ98Mo after 2.54 billion years ago suggests a more homogenous distribution of seawater molybdate with uniform isotopic composition in various depositional settings within the Hamersley Basin and the Griqualand West Basin. The modeling of the oceanic Mo inventory in relation to the Mo in- and outflux suggests that the long-term build-up of an isotopically heavy seawater Mo reservoir requires a sedimentary sink for isotopically light Mo. The search for this

  18. Early Permian transgressive-regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip; Banerjee, Sudipto; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2018-03-01

    The present research is an attempt to assess the Barakar Formation of the Raniganj Gondwana Basin, India, in the frame of fluvio-marine (estuarine) depositional systems using sequence stratigraphic elements. Analysis of predominant facies associations signify deposition in three sub-environments: (i) a river-dominated bay-head delta zone in the inner estuary, with transition from braided fluvial channels (FA-B1) to tide-affected meandering fluvial channels and flood plains (FA-B2) in the basal part of the succession; (ii) a mixed energy central basin zone, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-B2), tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-B3) in the middle-upper part of the succession; and (iii) a wave-dominated outer estuary (coastal) zone (FA-B4 with FA-B3) in the upper part of the succession. Stacked progradational (P1, P2)-retrogradational (R1, R2) successions attest to one major base level fluctuation, leading to distinct transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles with development of initial falling stage systems tract (FSST), followed by lowstand systems tract (LST) and successive transgressive systems tracts (TST-1 and TST-2). Shift in the depositional regime from regressive to transgressive estuarine system in the early Permian Barakar Formation is attributed to change in accommodation space caused by mutual interactions of (i) base level fluctuations in response to climatic amelioration and (ii) basinal tectonisms (exhumation/sagging) related to post-glacial isostatic adjustments in the riftogenic Gondwana basins.

  19. Formation mechanism of a basin of attraction for passive dynamic walking induced by intrinsic hyperbolicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Kokubu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Passive dynamic walking is a useful model for investigating the mechanical functions of the body that produce energy-efficient walking. The basin of attraction is very small and thin, and it has a fractal-like shape; this explains the difficulty in producing stable passive dynamic walking. The underlying mechanism that produces these geometric characteristics was not known. In this paper, we consider this from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory, and we use the simplest walking model to clarify the mechanism that forms the basin of attraction for passive dynamic walking. We show that the intrinsic saddle-type hyperbolicity of the upright equilibrium point in the governing dynamics plays an important role in the geometrical characteristics of the basin of attraction; this contributes to our understanding of the stability mechanism of bipedal walking. PMID:27436971

  20. New constraints on the mechanism for the formation of the Pannonian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Ferenc; Fodor, László; Balázs, Attila; Musitz, Balázs; Koroknai, Balázs

    2013-04-01

    The epoch making cooperation with the MIT group (especially Wiki Royden) in the 1980's on the Pannonian basin arrived at two main conclusions: i) modest to medium value of synrift crustal extension was accompanied by dramatic attenuation of the mantle lithosphere, and ii) subduction and rollback of the Alpine Tethys controlled the extrusion of Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia terranes into the Carpathian embayment. These early results already went beyond a thermomechanical model and suggested the importance of dynamic influences exerted by upper mantle flows. Recent results of SKS anisotropy determinations (Kovács et al. 2012) has been interpreted in terms of a west-east directed flow sub-parallel with the main strike of the Eastern Alps at the western and central part of the basin, and a toroidal flow around the subducted Carpathian slab more towards the east. Horváth and Faccenna (2011) have put forward the idea that inflow of upper mantle material into the Pannonian basin was derived from the sub-Adriatic lithosphere via the northern Dinaric slab window since the late Oligocene, when rollback of oceanic lithosphere commenced on the western and eastern side of Adria. The importance of Dinaric subduction in the evolution of the Pannonian basin has been spectacularly demonstrated recently by the recognition of a number of metamorphic core complexes in the Sava-zone, which were exhumed during the synrift phase of the Pannonian basin (e.g. Ustaszewski et al. 2010, Matenco et al. 2012). Inside the basin the Sava zone represents a complex transfer fault system between the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia terranes. High quality seismic sections will be presented with new interpretation to show the complicated structural features and the massive volcanism interpreted in terms of leaky transforms. The seismic sections will also show new time constraint for the postrift fill of the basin, which shed new light on the dramatically anomalous subsidence and uplift pattern during the late

  1. Seasonal characteristics, formation mechanisms and source origins of PM2.5 in two megacities in Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanbo; Tian, Mi; Chen, Yang; Shi, Guangming; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Fumo; Zhang, Leiming; Deng, Liqun; Yu, Jiayan; Peng, Chao; Cao, Xuyao

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 and its major chemical components, formation mechanisms, and geographical origins in the two megacities, Chengdu (CD) and Chongqing (CQ), in Sichuan Basin of southwest China, daily PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at one urban site in each city for four consecutive seasons from autumn 2014 to summer 2015. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 were 67.0 ± 43.4 and 70.9 ± 41.4 µg m-3 at CD and CQ, respectively. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA) and organic matter (OM) accounted for 41.1 and 26.1 % of PM2.5 mass at CD, and 37.4 and 29.6 % at CQ, respectively. Seasonal variations of PM2.5 and major chemical components were significant, usually with the highest mass concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded the national air quality standard on 30 % of the sampling days at both sites, and most of the pollution events were at the regional scale within the basin formed under stagnant meteorological conditions. The concentrations of carbonaceous components were higher at CQ than CD, likely partially caused by emissions from the large number of motorcycles and the spraying processes used during automobile production in CQ. Heterogeneous reactions probably played an important role in the formation of SO42-, while both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions contributed to the formation of NO3-. Geographical origins of emissions sources contributing to high PM2.5 masses at both sites were identified to be mainly distributed within the basin based on potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis.

  2. Seasonal characteristics, formation mechanisms and source origins of PM2.5 in two megacities in Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of PM2.5 and its major chemical components, formation mechanisms, and geographical origins in the two megacities, Chengdu (CD and Chongqing (CQ, in Sichuan Basin of southwest China, daily PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at one urban site in each city for four consecutive seasons from autumn 2014 to summer 2015. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 were 67.0 ± 43.4 and 70.9 ± 41.4 µg m−3 at CD and CQ, respectively. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA and organic matter (OM accounted for 41.1 and 26.1 % of PM2.5 mass at CD, and 37.4 and 29.6 % at CQ, respectively. Seasonal variations of PM2.5 and major chemical components were significant, usually with the highest mass concentration in winter and the lowest in summer. Daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded the national air quality standard on 30 % of the sampling days at both sites, and most of the pollution events were at the regional scale within the basin formed under stagnant meteorological conditions. The concentrations of carbonaceous components were higher at CQ than CD, likely partially caused by emissions from the large number of motorcycles and the spraying processes used during automobile production in CQ. Heterogeneous reactions probably played an important role in the formation of SO42−, while both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions contributed to the formation of NO3−. Geographical origins of emissions sources contributing to high PM2.5 masses at both sites were identified to be mainly distributed within the basin based on potential source contribution function (PSCF analysis.

  3. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  4. Analysis on depositional system and prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposits of Bayanhua formation in Yilemen basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Li Guoxin; He Fayang; Wei Yunjie

    2002-01-01

    Yilemen basin is a typical Mesozoic intra-mountain one. The author analyses characteristics of depositional system and the prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposit in the sedimentary cover of the Bayanhua Formation, Lower Cretaceous. Authors suggest that the conglomerate, sandstone-conglomerate and sandstone beds of braided stream and delta are favourable horizons for locating phreatic and interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits, i.e. the northwestern side of Dalai uplifted zone, the Chagantaigebuqi narrow sag, and the southern area of Baolinbuqi

  5. Surface composition of pull-apart bands in Argadnel Regio, Europa: Evidence of localized cryovolcanic resurfacing during basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M.; Shirley, James H.; Dalton, James B.; Kamp, L.

    2017-03-01

    We combine Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data to investigate the composition of pull-apart bands in Europa's Argadnel Regio. Using spectral linear mixture modeling employing cryogenic laboratory reference spectra, we find that bands of intermediate age ("grey" bands) are compositionally distinct from bands that are stratigraphically younger ("dark" bands). The grey bands have higher abundances of larger ice grains and lower abundances of hydrated salts than the dark bands; both of these tendencies are statistically significant at the 1% level. The grey and dark bands have similar abundances of hexahydrite, a material which is relatively stable under irradiation; however, the derived abundances of frozen magnesium sulfate brine and of mirabilite, which are more susceptible to fragmentation by radiation, are significantly higher in the dark bands than in the grey bands. These results are consistent with a physical model in which the differences in composition and in ice grain sizes are linked to space weathering and radiolytic processing levels; the grey bands have presumably undergone higher levels of processing, due to being exposed on Europa's surface for a longer period of time. One prominent wedge-shaped band exhibits an anomalous albedo variation across its northern portion, appearing dark in its top third, and grey in its southernmost two-thirds. We find that the dark part of the band has a modeled composition that is in-family with other dark bands, while the grey portion has a modeled composition that is indistinguishable from other grey bands in the study area. Because these variations cannot easily be attributed to the band's formation mechanism (bands open sequentially along a central axis), we surmise that the northern part has been resurfaced, probably in response to the formation of a large topographic basin that cuts through the band. Faulting accompanying basin formation may provide conduits allowing

  6. Rodents from the Upper Miocene Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Joniak, Peter; de Bruijn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The upper Miocene assemblages of rodents collected from two layers of the type section of the Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey) are described. The assemblage from the lower level is considerably less diverse than that from the upper level. It contains Progonomys together with Megacricetodon, which is a very unusual association. The assemblage from the upper layer shows a relatively high diversity with four species of Gliridae instead of only one in the lower layer. Apa...

  7. Geology of the Cannonball Formation (Paleocene) in the Williston basin, with reference to uranium potential. Report of investigation No. 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvancara, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Paleocene Cannonball Formation is a marine, non-lignitic-bearing clastic sequence in the lower part of the Fort Union Group. It is overlain by the lignite-bearing Tongue River Formation in places and both overlain and underlain by the lignite-bearing Ludlow Formation in places. The Cannonball crops out primarily in southwest-central North Dakota and probably occurs throughout the western one-half of the state. It occurs also in northwestern South Dakota and may extend into parts of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Poorly consolidated, very fine- to fine-grained, light to medium brownish yellow-weathering sandstone and light gray-weathering, sandy mudstone are the principal types of lithology. Mudstone generally predominates in North Dakota whereas sandstone seems to predominate in South Dakota. Although uranium in the Williston basin has been found almost entirely in lignite and nonmarine carbonaceous rocks, its occurrence in the marine Cannonball Formation is possible. If the Cannonball, Ludlow, Tongue River, and Sentinel Butte Formations are at least partly penecontemporaneous, a variety of depositional environments were in areal juxtaposition during the Paleocene. Streams originating or passing through coastal plain bogs could have carried uranium ions (derived from volcanic materials) to the Cannonball sea where they were deposited syngenetically. Epigenetic uranium may occur in Cannonball mudstones or sandstones that directly underlie the Ludlow Formation, which is known to contain volcanic materials

  8. Formation and deformation of the Pannonian Basin: constraints from observational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, F.; Bada, G.; Szafian, P.; Tari, G.; Adam, A.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed spectacular progress in the collection of observational data and their interpretation in the Pannonian Basin and the surrounding Alpine, Carpathian and Dinaric mountain belts. A major driving force behind this progress was the PANCARDI project of the EUROPROBE

  9. Information from geology: Implications for soil formation and rehabilitation in the post coal mining environment, Bowen Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, A.V.; Esterle, J.; McLennan, T.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The coal mining industry is likely to disturb as much as 60,000 ha of the Bowen Basin up to the year 2000. While comprising only a small proportion of the approximately 32,000 km 2 of the Bowen Basin, this considerable area will eventually need to be rehabilitated by creating appropriate land forms with a stabilizing and self-sustaining cover of vegetation. The job of restoring the disturbed area will fall to the practitioners of rehabilitation science. This paper briefly outlines the actual and potential significance of geological information to rehabilitation practice in the open-cut coal mining industry of the Bowen Basin. It focuses particularly on the problems of soil formation and the consequent limitations to ecosystem development due to the nature of the overburden materials and the environment. Lastly, it describes some of the distinctive features of the mine-soils of the area. Geological information can assist in the identification, classification, description and behaviour of post-mining materials. Potential inputs are not restricted to these and there is scope for wider inputs to management of the mining environment although the interface with biology requires further development. (author). 4 figs., 31 refs

  10. Regional diagenesis of sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansley, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports that early authigenic mineral assemblages and vitroclastic textures are very well preserved in upper sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The distributions of the authigenic minerals were controlled, in part, by chemical gradients in a large saline, alkaline lake (Lake T'oo'dichi) that existed in late Morrison time. Sandstones on lake margins were cemented by smectite and silica, whereas sandstones nearer the lake center, in which waters were most saline and alkaline, were cemented by zeolites. Diagenetic alterations in sandstones were promoted by alkaline interstitial waters that emanated from adjacent fine-grained, tuffaceous lake beds. Metastable phases that precipitated first were replaced relatively quickly by more stable, ordered phases in the geochemically favorable environment of the closed basin setting. Elevation of temperatures above the geothermal gradient was proved by the influx of warm, deep-basin waters that locally modified early diagenetic assemblages during burial diagenesis. In organic- (and commonly also uranium ore-) bearing sandstones located primarily in the southern part of the basin, complex diagenetic assemblages resulted from water/rock reactions involving soluble organic complexes

  11. Physical and chemical stratigraphy suggest small or absent glacioeustatic variation during formation of the Paradox Basin cyclothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Blake; Maloof, Adam C.

    2015-06-01

    The Paradox Basin cyclothems previously have been interpreted as Milankovitch style glacial-interglacial cycles from the Late Paleozoic Ice Age, but an unambiguous test for a glacioeustatic origin has not been conducted. A high resolution coupled chemical and physical stratigraphic analysis of two outcrop sections and three core segments provides new evidence that supports either minor sea level change of several meters or an autocyclic mechanism for parasequence formation. High amplitude sea level change is ruled out by the scale of thin top-negative isotopic meteoric diagenesis trends associated with parasequence tops and subaerial exposure fabrics. Isotopic gradients from shelf (light) to basin (heavy) indicate that parasequences are deposited diachronously, with isotopes of more distal sections recording increased basin restriction. These results support the idea that the late Pennsylvanian was a prolonged period of relatively static eustasy, agreeing with recent studies in the western USA. The methods provide a new set of tools and context for extracting environmental information from cyclic upward shallowing carbonate parasequences.

  12. Land degradation of Taleghan drainage basin, Iran from saline and alkaline marly formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakikhani, K.; Feiznia, S.; Hosseini, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    In Iran fine-grained, saline, alkaline and erodible Tertiary marly formations are exposed in many geological zones and play important role in the formation of present landforms. They also play important role in degradation of water resources and soils as diffuse sources, they are the main sources of suspension loads of many rivers and are endless sources of sediments for sand dunes. These marly formations are present in Zagros, Central Iran, Alborz and Kopeh Dagh geological Zones and consists of different geological formations such as Gachsaran, Mishan and Razak Formations ( in Zagros), Lower Red and Upper Red Formations ( in Central Iran) and Neogene Red Beds (in Albords and Kopeh Dagh). (Author)

  13. Land degradation of Taleghan drainage basin, Iran from saline and alkaline marly formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakikhani, K.; Feiznia, S.; Hosseini, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    In Iran fine-grained, saline, alkaline and erodible Tertiary marly formations are exposed in many geological zones and play important role in the formation of present landforms. They also play important role in degradation of water resources and soils as diffuse sources, they are the main sources of suspension loads of many rivers and are endless sources of sediments for sand dunes. These marly formations are present in Zagros, Central Iran, Alborz and Kopeh Dagh geological Zones and consists of different geological formations such as Gachsaran, Mishan and Razak Formations ( in Zagros), Lower Red and Upper Red Formations ( in Central Iran) and Neogene Red Beds (in Albords and Kopeh Dagh). (Author)

  14. Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: new constraints on the location of Paleocene/Eocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, L.; Gee, J.; Gallet, Y.; Pick, T.; Bown, T.

    1994-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from DSDP Site 550, with the isotopic data determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 ?? 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al. ?? 1994.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%basin modeling was performed. The oil-filling history was also defined by means of basin modeling and microthermometry. The results indicated the presence of low maturity to mature crude oils originating from the burial of terrigenous organic matter beneath a saline lake in the source rocks of mainly type II1kerogen. In addition, a higher proportion of bacteria and algae was shown to contribute to the formation of crude oil in the lower section when compared with the upper section of the Lucaogou Formation. Oil-source correlations demonstrated that not all mudstones within the Lucaogou Formation contributed to oil accumulation.Crude oil from the upper and lower sections originated from thin-bedded mudstones interbedded within sweet spot sand bodies. A good coincidence of filling history and hydrocarbon generation history indicated that the Lucaogou reservoir is a typical in situ reservoir. The mudstones over or beneath the sweet spot bodies consisted of natural caprocks and prevented the vertical movement of oil by capillary forces. Despite being thicker, the thick-bedded mudstone between the upper and lower sweet spots had no obvious contribution to

  16. Study on the relationship of the fault-block structure feature and sandstone uranium formation in Chaoshui basin north belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin

    2006-12-01

    The mineralization conditions for three types of acclivity belt (Baojia Jing A' Lashan Youqi-Tangjia Gou and Taojia Jing CHAOSHUI BASIN NORTH BELT) are analyzed, according to the fault-block acclivity belt, the prospecting goal layer, the interlayer oxidized zone and uranium metallization characteristic and so on. It is considered that the positive fault-block acclivity belt favors containing oxygen and uranium water coming from eclipse source area to go into prospecting goal layer, and advanced the formation of interlayer oxidized zone and sandstone uranium metallization. The antithetic fault-block and the buried fault-block acclivity don't favors containing oxygen and uranium water into prospecting goal layer, and format difficultly interlayer oxidized belt and sandstone uranium metallization. Therefore A'Lashan Youqi-Tangjia Gou part is a uranium mineralization prospect sector. (authors)

  17. Archosauriform remains from the Late Triassic of San Luis province, Argentina, Quebrada del Barro Formation, Marayes-El Carrizal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianechini, Federico A.; Codorniú, Laura; Arcucci, Andrea B.; Castillo Elías, Gabriela; Rivarola, David

    2016-03-01

    Here we present archosauriform remains from 'Abra de los Colorados', a fossiliferous locality at Sierra de Guayaguas, NW San Luis Province. Two fossiliferous levels were identified in outcrops of the Quebrada del Barro Formation (Norian), which represent the southernmost outcrops of the Marayes-El Carrizal Basin. These levels are composed by massive muddy lithofacies, interpreted as floodplain deposits. The specimens consist of one incomplete maxilla (MIC-V718), one caudal vertebra (MIC-V719), one metatarsal (MIC-V720) and one indeterminate appendicular bone (MIC-V721). The materials can be assigned to Archosauriformes but the fragmentary nature and lack of unambiguous synapomorphies preclude a more precise taxomic assignment. The maxilla is remarkably large and robust and represents the posterior process. It preserved one partially erupted tooth with ziphodont morphology. This bone shows some anatomical traits and size match with 'rauisuchians' and theropods. MIC-V719 corresponds to a proximal caudal vertebra. It has a high centrum, a ventral longitudinal furrow, expanded articular processes for the chevrons, a posteriorly displaced diapophysis located below the level of the prezygapophyses, and short prezygapophyses. This vertebra would be from an indeterminate archosauriform. MIC-V720 presents a cylindrical diaphysis, with a well-developed distal trochlea, which present resemblances with metatarsals of theropods, pseudosuchians, and silesaurids, although the size matches better with theropods. MIC-V721 has a slender diaphysis and a convex triangular articular surface, and corresponds to an indeterminate archosauriform. Despite being fragmentary, these materials indicate the presence of a diverse archosauriforms association from Late Triassic beds of San Luis. Thus, they add to the faunal assemblage recently reported from this basin at San Juan Province, which is much rich and diverse than the coeval paleofauna well known from Los Colorados Formation in the

  18. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR E. PAULIV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  19. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  20. War and early state formation in the northern Titicaca Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Charles; Levine, Abigail

    2011-08-23

    Excavations at the site of Taraco in the northern Titicaca Basin of southern Peru indicate a 2,600-y sequence of human occupation beginning ca. 1100 B.C.E. Previous research has identified several political centers in the region in the latter part of the first millennium B.C.E. The two largest centers were Taraco, located near the northern lake edge, and Pukara, located 50 km to the northwest in the grassland pampas. Our data reveal that a high-status residential section of Taraco was burned in the first century A.D., after which economic activity in the area dramatically declined. Coincident with this massive fire at Taraco, Pukara adopted many of the characteristics of state societies and emerged as an expanding regional polity. We conclude that organized conflict, beginning approximately 500 B.C.E., is a significant factor in the evolution of the archaic state in the northern Titicaca Basin.

  1. A preliminary analysis of the groundwater recharge to the Karoo formations, mid-Zambesi basin, Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Owen, R.; Dahlin, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary study is being carried out on recharge to the Karoo sandstone aquifer in the western part of Zimbabwe, where recharge is controlled by the presence of a thick, confining basalt layer. The aquifer is geographically extensive, and has been identified throughout the southern part......, before it dips below an impervious basalt cover. However, resistivity profiling shows that the basalt at the basin margin is weathered and fractured, and probably permeable, while the basalt deeper into the basin is fresh, solid and impermeable. Field and laboratory analysis of 22 groundwater samples......–130 mm/yr, with an average value of 25 mm/yr. Preliminary results of recharge estimate using 36Cl data suggests lower direct infiltration rates, but further studies are needed. The combination of hydro-chemical, isotopic and geophysical investigations show that the recharge area extends well beyond...

  2. Radiocarbon constraints on fossil thinolite tufa formation in the Mono Basin, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, S. L.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Hemming, S. R.; Stine, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2009-12-01

    Mono Lake is a terminal lake located at the western edge of the Great Basin, and is famous for its tufa towers. Thinolite, which is thought to be a CaCO3 pseudomorph of ikaite, is found around the Mono Basin in many fossil tufa towers, particularly at elevations above 2000 meters. The subaqueous parent mineral ikaite forms at low temperatures (34 kyr) to as young as 15.5 14C kyr BP. In general there is a consistent stratigraphic trend of ages within the mound, but the thinolite ages are anomalously young and one thinolite sample shows a large age reversal. The best estimate of the age of the precipitation of this tufa mound is given by the non-thinolite textures. More work is needed to determine the best sampling and sample preparation strategies in order to get a reliable age model for this mound.

  3. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  5. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  6. Ecological impact from large constructions of hydroelectric power plants in Parana River, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Argentino A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis over environmental impacts on Parana River as a result of the hydroelectric power plants construction is presented. Hydroelectric dams, also including the planned ones, are showing during the explanation, and biologic aspects are discussed. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Annual report 2000 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil, during the calendar year of 2003 is presented, comprising: a management report, portraying the Company's accomplishments during the year in connection with its core businesses and a social balance sheet, addressing the Company's efforts to contribute to the development and well-being of the community by means of socially oriented projects

  8. Evidence of volcanic activity in the base of the Pendencia Formation, onshore Potiguar Basin; Evidencia de atividade vulcanica na base da Formacao Pendencia, Bacia Potiguar emersa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, S.M.C.; Souza, R.S. de; Sombra, C.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Silva Scuta, M. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-10-01

    The occurrence of volcanic rocks on the Pendencia Formation on the onshore part of Potiguar Basin, the porosity and permeability characteristics, are presented. The studies suggest that the evidence of the volcanic activity occurred associated with the rift process, all the wells drilling in the basin presents profiles characteristics at those volcanos-sedimentary sequences found in other sedimentary basins, and the lithic sandstones permit the conclusion that the occurrence of under water volcanic activity is contemporary of sedimentation in the Pendencia Lake. 4 figs., 8 refs.

  9. Raw material of the Corumbatai formation at the region of ceramic pole of Santa Gertrudes - Sao Paulo, Brazil, with natural characteristics for fabrication of expanded clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.M.T.; Zanardo, A.; Rocha, R.R.; Roveri, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper refers to the study of the bases material of the Corumbatai Formation (Parana Basin) from a clay mine, which presents limits for its use in ceramic tiles in dry grinding process due to its hardness and, especially, the high content of organic matter in relation to the clay overlaid. The characterization of the raw material and the product was accomplished by organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and test-firing. Firing conditions were determined to get expanded clay, using fast firing static kiln and a continuous roller kiln, both from laboratory equipment, getting samples with variable density up to the limit of expansion, with density that can reach values lower than 0,5g.cm -3 because of the formation of closed pores and an external vitreous foil which provide a high mechanical resistance to the particles. (author)

  10. The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation of the Tabas Block, east central Iran: Succesion of a failed-rift basin at the Paleotethys margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Ghomashi, M.; Amin-Rasouli, H.; Kheradmand, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation is a dominantly red colored marginal marine succession deposited in the north-south trending Tabas Basin of east central Iran. It is correlated with the unconformity-bounded lower limestone member of the Elika Formation of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. The Sorkh Shale is bounded by the pre-Triassic and post-Lower Triassic interregional unconformities and consists mainly of carbonates, sandstones, and evaporites with shale being a minor constituent. Detailed facies analysis of the Sorkh Shale Formation resulted in recognition of several genetically linked peritidal facies that are grouped into restricted subtidal, carbonate tidal flat, siliciclastic tidal flat, coastal plain and continental evaporite facies associations. These were deposited in a low energy, storm-dominated inner-ramp setting with a very gentle slope that fringed the Tabas Block of east central Iran and passed northward (present-day coordinates) into deeper water facies of the Paleotethys passive margin of northern Cimmerian Continent. Numerous carbonate storm beds containing well-rounded intraclasts, ooids and bioclasts of mixed fauna are present in the Sorkh Shale Formation of the northern Tabas Basin. The constituents of the storm beds are absent in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, but are present throughout the lower limestone member of the Elika Formation. The Tabas Block, a part of the Cimmerian continent in east central Iran, is a rift basin that developed during Early Ordovician-Silurian Paleotethys rifting. Facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Sorkh Shale Formation has revealed additional evidence supporting the Tabas Block as a failed rift basin related to the Paleotethys passive margin. Absence of constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, presence of the constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather facies of the Elika Formation (the

  11. Geochemistry of coal-measure source rocks and natural gases in deep formations in Songliao Basin, NE China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Jingkui; Zhang, Shuichang; Hu, Guoyi; He, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Beijing (China); Petroleum Geology Research and Laboratory Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina (China); Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry, China National Petroleum Corp. (China)

    2010-12-01

    The natural gases developed in deep volcanic rock reservoirs of the Songliao Basin, NE China are characterized by enriched {delta}{sup 13}C value for methane and frequently reversal carbon isotopic distribution pattern. Although many researchers consider such gas type as an abiogenic origin, we believe the natural gases have a biogenic origin mainly except little inorganic gases and the reversal carbon isotopic distribution pattern of gases is caused by mixing of different origin gases. Methane carbon isotopic values for majority samples fall in the range from - 24 permille to - 32 permille, which is heavier than typical coal-type gases in other Chinese basins. There are several reasons caused heavy carbon isotope of methane: (1) Carbon isotopic values of source kerogen are 3-5 permille heavier than these from other basins; (2) Source rocks are at extremely high maturity stage with vitrinite reflectance mostly above 3.0%; (3) Portion of gas is derived from basement mudrock or slate with higher maturity. The observation on the organic from deep formation reveals that there is a relatively high content for liptinite, which reaches approximately 8 to 10%. The macerals component of source rock shows that the source rocks have some ability to generate oil. Small portion of oil was generated from high hydrogen content macerals in coals and shales as proof by oil found in microcrack and in micropore of coal and oil-bearing fluid inclusions grown in volcanic reservoir. The occurrence of pyrobitumen in volcanic reservoir indicates preexisted oil had been cracked into wet gas, and this kind of gas had also been found in gas pools. Heavy isotopic methane is derived from coal at extremely high maturity stage. There may be little inorganic alkane gases in deep layers for their geochemistry and special geological setting of Songliao Basin. Artificial mixing experiments of different origins gases confirm that inorganic gas such as gas from well FS1 mixed with other end members

  12. Radiation traces in exportation food samples of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2002-02-01

    This work deals with radioactive traces measurements in foodstuffs produced at the State of Parana, with large export rate and also of nutritious products of some regional trading companies. The measured foods were: sulfite treated sugar, tea, mint candy, soy in grain, soy crumb, gross soy oil, gum free oil and commercial refined soy oil. Six samples of each lot of the analyzed material were prepared, which represent a sampling with 90% of confidence. The samples were sealed in Marinelli beaker of 2.1 L completely filled and kept during 40 days until secular equilibrium was achieved. The counting time for each measure was of 48 hours. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a HPGe detector with 10% of relative efficiency, coupled to standard nuclear electronics and a 8 l multichannel card. The acquisition of the data was accomplished with the software Maestro TM , version 3.2. The energy resolution of the 137 Cs 661.62 keV gamma line was 1.75 keV. The larger intensity gamma lines observed in the spectra were from the following radionuclides: 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 212 Pb of the 232 Th series, 214 Bi and 214 Pb from the 238 U series, 227 Ac from the 235 U series and 40 K. Activities and lower level of detection limits were calculated according to the International Agency of Atomic Energy norms.The detector efficiency was measured using a 152 Eu certified source and IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 certified reference materials. For most of the radionuclides it was possible only the measurement of the minimum activity detectable in the foodstuffs. Self-attenuation corrections were accomplished with support literature results. The most important activity observed was that of 40 K, whose value measured for soy in natura was 745.0 + - 9 .1 Bq/kg and for the crumb soy 1473 ± 15 Bq/kg.. he measured activities of the several analyzed foods were compatible with the values expected for non contaminated normal environmental samples, except for soy crumb, whose 40 K

  13. Geochemical Aspects of Formation of Large Oil Deposits in the Volga-Ural Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I.; Nosova, F.; Pronin, N.; Nosova, J.; Budkevich, T.

    2012-04-01

    C35/hC34, GAM / HOP, S27/S28/S29 (steranes), DIA / REG, Ts / Tm, MOR / HOP, NOR / HOP, TET / TRI, C29SSR, C29BBAA, C31HSR, S30STER, TRI / PENT, TRI / HOP. Comparison in the rock-oil system was performed primarily according to the parameters indicating the depositional environment of the source rock that contains syngenetic DOM - according to the coefficients that determine lithological conditions for the formation of the supposed oil-source bed strata (DIA / REG, Ts / Tm, NOR / HOP, TRI / HOP and STER / PENT). Biomarker ratios indicate a different type of sedimentation basins. Sediments, which accumulated DOM from Semilukskiy horizon, can be characterized by low clay content, or its absence, that is consistent with the carbonate type of cut of the horizon. The bacterial material that was accumulated under reducing conditions of sedimentation appeared to be the source of syngenetic OM. Chemofossils found in oils from Pashiyskiy horizon are typical of sedimentary strata that contain clay - for clastic rocks, which in the study area are mainly represented by deposits and Eyfel Givetian layers of the Middle Devonian and lowfransk substage of the Upper Devonian. The study of correlations obtained for the different coefficients of OM and oils showed that only the relationships between Ts/Tm and DIA/REG and between NOR/HOP and TRI/HOP are characteristic of close, almost similar values of correlation both for the dispersed organic matter and for oil. In all other cases, the character of the correlation of OM is significantly different from that of oil. The differences in values and ranges of biomarker ratios as well as the character of their correlation indicates the absence of genetic connection between the oil from Pashiyskiy horizon for the dispersed organic matter from Semilukskiy horizon. This conclusion is based on the study of five biomarker parameters (DIA/REG, Ts/Tm, NOR/HOP, TRI/HOP and STER/PENT). The research results described in the article clearly indicate the

  14. Analysis on hydrological condition for uranium ore formation in Wuerhe district, Junggar Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Quanqing; Zhang Xinke; Ren Manchuan

    2009-01-01

    Wuerhe district is located in the northwestern part of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang. It belongs to a relative quiet area without the obvious tectonic activities and obvious subsequent tectonic activization. Through the regional uranium resources evaluation on this area, the inter-bedded oxidation zone and uranium mineralization are discovered in Cretaceous. The wall rock, the recharge-runoff-discharge mechanism of groundwater, palaeo-hydrological condition, hydrological and hydrogeochemical features of groundwater are introduced briefly, the favorable uranium ore-forming segment is summarized to be located in the fore-mountain area to the west of Ke-Xia fault terrace zone. (authors)

  15. Source rock formation evaluation using TOC & Ro log model based on well-log data procesing: study case of Ngimbang formation, North East Java basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatahillah Yosar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ngimbang Formation is known as one major source of hydrocarbon supply in the North Eastern Java Basin. Aged Mid-Eocene, Ngimbang is dominated by sedimentary clastic rocks mostly shale, shaly sandstone, and thick layers of limestone (CD Limestone, with thin layers of coal. Although, laboratory analyses show the Ngimbang Formation to be a relatively rich source-rocks, such data are typically too limited to regionally quantify the distribution of organic matter. To adequately sample the formation both horizontally and vertically on a basin–wide scale, large number of costly and time consuming laboratory analyses would be required. Such analyses are prone to errors from a number of sources, and core data are frequently not available at key locations. In this paper, the authors established four TOC (Total Organic Carbon Content logging calculation models; Passey, Schmoker-Hester, Meyer-Nederloff, and Decker/Density Model by considering the geology of Ngimbang. Well data along with its available core data was used to determine the most suitable model to be applied in the well AFA-1, as well as to compare the accuracy of these TOC model values. The result shows good correlation using Decker (TOC Model and Mallick-Raju (Ro- Vitrinite Reflectance Model. Two source rocks potential zones were detected by these log models.

  16. Analysis on hydrogeological conditions of uranium formation in mulaamite sag in Kumux basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengwei; Chen Liyun; Wang Juntang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis on the materials, hydrogeological conditions, features of water-bearing rock formation, relationship amoung the hydrogeochemical features and interlayer oxidation zone and uranium formation are analyzed from the point of view of basic geological conditions, it is preliminarily considered that Kuluketage fore-mountain zone has a good potential to develop the interlayer oxidation belt and uranium mineralization. (authors)

  17. DELIVERABLE 1.1.1 REGIONAL PARADOX FORMATION STRUCTURE AND ISOCHORE MAPS, BLANDING SUB-BASIN, UTAH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Kevin; Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m 3 ) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m 3 ) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field (figure 1). However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

  18. Methylotrophic methanogenesis governs the biogenic coal bed methane formation in Eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Liu, Ruyin [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Zhang, Hongxun [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Zhong, Qiding; Xiong, Zhenghe [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing (China). Food Analysis using Isotope Technology Lab

    2012-12-15

    To identify the methanogenic pathways present in a deep coal bed methane (CBM) reservoir associated with Eastern Ordos Basin in China, a series of geochemical and microbiological studies was performed using gas and water samples produced from the Liulin CBM reservoir. The composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM implied a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin of the methane. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the dominance of the methylotrophic methanogen Methanolobus in the water produced. The high potential of methane production by methylotrophic methanogens was found in the enrichments using the water samples amended with methanol and incubated at 25 and 35 C. Methylotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaea in both enrichments as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and nitrate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the water produced were a factor in coal biodegradation to fuel methanogens. These results suggested that past and ongoing biodegradation of coal by methylotrophic methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, as well as thermogenic CBM production, contributed to the Liulin CBM reserves associated with the Eastern Ordos Basin. (orig.)

  19. Exhumation history of the western Kyrgyz Tien Shan: Implications for intramontane basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Alejandro; Sobel, Edward R.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    The dextral Talas-Fergana Fault separates the western from the central Tien Shan. Recent work has shed light on the Cenozoic evolution of the eastern and central Tien Shan; much less attention has been paid to the western Tien Shan. In this contribution we present new thermochronological ages for the Fergana and Alai ranges that, combined with the available data set, constrain the Cenozoic exhumation history of the western Tien Shan. Following a tectonically quiet early Cenozoic period, we suggest an onset of exhumation at 25 Ma. This early onset was followed by a period of slower exhumation and in some areas minor reheating. A final, strong late Miocene rapid cooling event is well represented in the western Tien Shan as in other sectors of the range. The early onset of uplift of the western Tien Shan dissected the previously continuous westernmost Parathethyan Sea, progressively isolating basins (e.g., Fergana, Tarim, and Alai basins) in the central Asian hinterland. Moreover, the coeval timing of late Miocene uplift along the length of entire Tien Shan implies that neither the Pamir nor Tarim can be the sole driver for exhumation of the entire range.

  20. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy and its controls on uranium mineralization. Taking middle Jurassic Qingtujing formation in Chaoshui basin as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunling; Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Liu Hongxu

    2006-01-01

    By applying the high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, the different sub-divisions of base-level cycles of Qingtujing Formation, Middle Jurassic in Chaoshui Basin are analyzed in detail. 23 short, 3 middle and 1 long base-level cycles are recognized. On the above basis, the corresponding frameworks of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy have been established in northern and southern sub-basins respectively, and the detailed sedimentary facies of MSC 1-3 and the special distribution of Qintujing Formation are discussed. It is pointed out that MSC 2 is the most favorable layer for the localization of sandstone-type uranium deposits. (authors)

  1. Radiation traces in exportation food samples of Parana State, Brazil; Tracos radioativos em amostras alimentares de exportacao do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2002-02-01

    This work deals with radioactive traces measurements in foodstuffs produced at the State of Parana, with large export rate and also of nutritious products of some regional trading companies. The measured foods were: sulfite treated sugar, tea, mint candy, soy in grain, soy crumb, gross soy oil, gum free oil and commercial refined soy oil. Six samples of each lot of the analyzed material were prepared, which represent a sampling with 90% of confidence. The samples were sealed in Marinelli beaker of 2.1 L completely filled and kept during 40 days until secular equilibrium was achieved. The counting time for each measure was of 48 hours. Measurements were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a HPGe detector with 10% of relative efficiency, coupled to standard nuclear electronics and a 8 l multichannel card. The acquisition of the data was accomplished with the software Maestro{sup TM}, version 3.2. The energy resolution of the {sup 137} Cs 661.62 keV gamma line was 1.75 keV. The larger intensity gamma lines observed in the spectra were from the following radionuclides: {sup 228} Ac, {sup 208} Tl, {sup 212} Pb of the {sup 232} Th series, {sup 214} Bi and {sup 214} Pb from the {sup 238} U series, {sup 227} Ac from the {sup 235} U series and {sup 40} K. Activities and lower level of detection limits were calculated according to the International Agency of Atomic Energy norms.The detector efficiency was measured using a {sup 152} Eu certified source and IAEA-375 and IAEA-326 certified reference materials. For most of the radionuclides it was possible only the measurement of the minimum activity detectable in the foodstuffs. Self-attenuation corrections were accomplished with support literature results. The most important activity observed was that of {sup 40} K, whose value measured for soy in natura was 745.0 {sup +}-{sup 9}.1 Bq/kg and for the crumb soy 1473 {+-} 15 Bq/kg.. he measured activities of the several analyzed foods were compatible with the values

  2. Nanggulan Formation and Its Problem As a Basement in Kulonprogo Basin, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.2.71-80Nanggulan Formation consists of the oldest clastic rock sequence exposed in Kulonprogo area, Yogyakarta. This paper discusses the position of Nanggulan Formation as a basement. The method used in this research is surface and subsurface investigations based on gravity surveys. The rock assemblage is exposed and distributed partly in the east flank of Kulonprogo Mountains with weak undulated morphology. The rock sequence is composed of sand to clay grain sizes such as sandstone, quartz sandstone, calcareous sandstone, claystone, fossiliferous claystone, calcareous claystone, siltstone, and coal seam intercalations. The total thickness of the sequence is less than 200 m. Based on the fossil and palynology investigations, previous investigators concluded the age of the rock was Eocene to Middle Miocene. The geological structures developed in the rocks are the lithological stratification, fractures, folding, and faulting. The subsurface interpretation based on gravity data revealed the rock was located under the andesite breccias with 2.44 g/cc density. The density of the rock sequence was 2.63 g/cc. The gravity interpretation shows a strong indication that Nanggulan Formation underlies the andesitic breccias presumably associated with Old Andesite Formation exposed in Kulonprogo Mountains. The limited distribution, the thickness, and the closed environmental deposition of Nanggulan Formation found in the present investigation raised problems on the position of the formation as the basement of Old Andesite Formation occurring in the Kulonprogo Mountain.

  3. Sill intrusion driven fluid flow and vent formation in volcanic basins: Modeling rates of volatile release and paleoclimate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of mass extinction events in conjunction with climate change occur throughout the geological record and may be accompanied by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The processes that trigger such globally destructive changes are still under considerable debate. These include mechanisms such as poisoning from trace metals released during large volcanic eruptions (Vogt, 1972), CO2 released from lava degassing during the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) (Courtillot and Renne, 2003) and CH4 release during the destabilization of sub-seafloor methane (Dickens et al., 1995), to name a few. Thermogenic methane derived from contact metamorphism associated with magma emplacement and cooling in sedimentary basins has been recently gaining considerable attention as a potential mechanism that may have triggered global climate events in the past (e.g. Svensen and Jamtveit, 2010). The discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes that are spatially associated with such basins also supports the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (e.g. Jamtveit et al., 2004; Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2006). A previous study that investigated this process using a fluid flow model (Iyer et al., 2013) suggested that although hydrothermal plume formation resulting from sill emplacement may indeed release large quantities of methane at the surface, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, some of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales observed in the fossil record. Here, we reinvestigate the rates of gas release during sill emplacement in a case study from the Harstad Basin off-shore Norway with a special emphasis on vent formation. The presented study is based on a seismic line that crosses multiple sill structures emplaced around 55 Ma within the Lower Cretaceous sediments. A single well-defined vent complex is interpreted above the termination of the

  4. Paleoclimate cycles and tectonic controls on fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian strata in upper Triassic Chinle Formation, San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiel, R.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Sedimentologic study of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the San Juan basin (SJB) indicates that Late Triassic paleoclimate and tectonic movements influenced the distribution of continental lithofacies. The Shinarump, Monitor Butte, and Petrified Forest Members in the lower part of the Chinle consist of complexly interfingered fluvial, floodplain, marsh, and lacustrine rocks; the Owl Rock and Rock Point Members in the upper part consists of lacustrine-basin and eolian sandsheet strata. Facies analysis, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, and paleoclimate models demonstrate that the Late Triassic was dominated by tropical monsoonal circulation, which provided abundant precipitation interspersed with seasonally dry periods. Owl Rock lacustrine strata comprise laminated limestones that reflect seasonal monsoonal precipitation and larger scale, interbedded carbonates and fine-grained clastics that represent longer term, alternating wet and dry climatic cycles. Overlying Rock Point eolian sand-sheet and dune deposits indicate persistent alternating but drier climatic cyclicity. Within the Chinle, upward succession of lacustrine, alternating lacustrine/eolian sand-sheet, and eolian sand-sheet/dune deposits reflects an overall decrease in precipitation due to the northward migration of Pangaea out of low latitudes dominated by monsoonal circulation.

  5. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  6. Facies and porosity origin of reservoirs: Case studies from the Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation of Sichuan Basin, China, and their implications on reservoir prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjiang Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dolostone of the Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation has been a significant gas exploration area in Sichuan Basin. In Gaoshiti-Moxi regions, a giant gas pool with thousands of billion cubic meters' reserve has been discovered. However, the origin of the reservoir and the distribution patterns are still disputed, eventually constraining the dolostone exploration of the Longwangmiao Formation. This paper focuses on the characteristics, origin, and distribution patterns of the dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation based on: the outcrop geological survey, cores, thin-sections observation, reservoir geochemical characteristics study, and reservoir simulation experiments. As a result, two realizations were acquired: (1 The Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation could be divided into upper and lower part in Sichuan Basin. Based on the two parts of the Longwangmiao Formation, two lithofacies paleogeographic maps were generated. In addition, the carbonate slope sedimentary models were established. The grainstone shoals are mainly distributed in the shallow slope of the upper part in the Longwangmiao Formation. (2 The grainstone shoals are the developing basis of the dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation. Moreover, the contemporaneous dissolution was a critical factor of grainstone shoal reservoir development in the Longwangmiao Formation. Controlled by the exposure surface, the dissolution vugs are not only extensively distributed, but also successively developed along the contemporaneous pore zones. Hence, the distribution patterns could be predicted. The geological understandings of the origin of dolostone reservoir in the Longwangmiao Formation show that the reservoir distributed in the areas of karstification in the Gaoshiti-Moxi regions, as well as the widespread grainstone shoals in the whole basin, are the potential exploration targets. Keywords: Sichuan Basin, Longwangmiao Formation, Carbonate slope, Dolograinstone shoal

  7. The development condition of longitudinal channels of a Lower Cretaceous formation and its perspective for sandstone type uranium deposits in the Erlian basin, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, M.; Xu, Q.; Liu, W.; Song, J.; Chen, D.; Wei, S.

    2014-01-01

    The palaeochannel, which is classified as basal and interformational types on the basis of geological setting, is an important host for the sandstone type uranium deposit. Diversities exist in development conditions and uranium minerogenetic potential of the two types of palaeochanneles. The Erlian basin, about 105 km"2 and adjacent to channel-type uranium deposit provinces in Russia and Mongolia, is one of main uraniferous basins in the north of China. It is significant to research into development conditions of palaeochannels for uranium mineral exploration in the Erlian basin. 1. Geological background: The Erlian basin consists of five depressions which divide the basin and form alternations with uplifts and depressions. Sedimentary capping strata of the basin mainly is the Lower Cretaceous Bayanhua group (K1b) which consists of the Aershan group (K1ba), Tenger group (K1bt) and Saihan group (K1bs) from bottom to top. The Saihan group, which is the product in the phase of depression, is the most important uranous strata in the Erlian basin. 2. Development characteristic and condition of the longitudinal palaeochannel of the Saihan formation: Large-scale longitudinal multi-palaeochannels are identified in the center and northeast of the basin, such as the QiHaRiGeTu-SaiHanGaoBi palaeochannel (CH01), BaYanWuLa palaeochannel (CH02) and GaoLiHan palaeochanne l(CH03), et al., which character the length from several 10s of km to 100 km, width of several 10s of km and thickness of sand bodies from 20 m to 130 m, more or less. Palaeochannels of the Saihan formation are interformational type because the underlay is argillite at the top of the Tenggeer formation. Restrictive geological environments and conditions are necessary to form longitudinal channels and mainly are as follows: (1) the basin in the sustained step of depression; (2) sharp gradient (>5°?) in parts of sub-depressions and sufficient sedimentary supply from the upstream; (3) elongate erosional lowlands or

  8. Cyclic platform dolomites and platform-to-basin transition of Jefferson Formation (Frasnian), southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1987-08-01

    The Jefferson Formation (Frasnian) in southwestern Montana consists of cyclic sequences of shallow marine platformal dolomites that grade westward into slope/basinal facies in east-central Idaho. Regional sedimentologic characteristics of slope facies in Idaho indicate that the Jefferson platform resembled a distally steepened ramp. Slope facies consist of slope laminites with local small scale slumps and slope breccias. Shallow water platform-derived clasts are lacking in the slope breccias. Individual shallowing upward platform cycles are 25 m to < 1 m thick and consists of, in descending order: local solution-collapse breccia caps; cryptalgal dolomudstone; rare ooid dolograinstone; thin-bedded Amphipora dolowackestone; coarsely crystalline dolostones with abundant lenticular to domal stromatoporoids; and basal thin-bedded, fine-grained, shale dolostones with closely spaced hard-grounds that grade upward into burrow-homogenized, irregularly bedded dolostones.

  9. Status report: numerical modeling of ground-water flow in the Paleozoic formations, western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, D.B.; Thackston, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference numerical model was applied to simulate the ground-water flow pattern in Paleozoic strata within the western Paradox Basin region. The primary purpose of the modeling was to test the present conceptual hydrogeologic model and evaluate data deficiencies. All available data on ground-water hydrology, although sparse in this area, were utilized as input to the model. Permeability and potentiometric levels were estimated from petroleum company drill-stem tests and water-supply wells; formation thicknesses were obtained from geologic correlation of borehole geophysical logs. Hydrogeologic judgment weighed heavily in the assignment of hydrologic values to geologic features for this preliminary modeling study. Calibration of the model was accomplished through trial-and-error matching of simulated potentiometric contours with available head data. Hypothetical flow patterns, flux rates, recharge amounts, and surface discharge amounts were produced by the model. 34 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The relationship between depositional system and ore-formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Dongsheng area, Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang; Ou Guangxi

    2006-01-01

    The analysis on depositional system plays a very important role in studying sandstone-type uranium deposits. Based on depositional system analysis and sequence stratigraphy, and through the study of depositional system characteristics and the spatial distribution of sedimentary facies, the evolution of sedimentary environments as well as the sequence stratigraphy of Zhiluo Formation in Dongsheng area, Ordos basin, authors have come to the following conclusions, (1) the spatial distribution of sand bodies is controlled by the planar distribution of sedimentary facies, which, in turn, affects the spatial distribution of ore-hosting sand bodies; (2) the evolution of sedimentary facies and sedimentary environments creates good lithofacies and lithological conditions favorable for interlayer oxidation; (3) the spatial lithologic combination of 'three layer structure' is controlled by sedimentary sequence. (authors)

  11. Geochemical characteristics of Wulunguhe Formation oxidation zone and its relation to uranium mineralization in Dingshan area, Junggar basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Xiu; Xu Qiang; He Zhongbo

    2014-01-01

    The paper mainly analyzes and compares major elements, trace elements and REE in the phreatic oxidation zone and interlayer oxidized zone of Wulunguhe Formation in Dingshan area, Junggar basin. Characters of major elements and trace elements indicate that argillation and carbonatization and correlation of U, V and Mo in the phreatic oxidation zone are stronger than those in the interlayer oxidized zone. Conclusion from REE is as follows: there are congruent origins of sedimentation, depositional setting and tectonic setting. Differentiation of LREE and HREE and alterations in phreatic oxidation zone are more obvious than those in the interlayer oxidized zone. Negative anomaly of Eu in the interlayer oxidized zone is more obvious than that in the phreatic oxidation zone. (authors)

  12. Shale gas characterization based on geochemical and geophysical analysis: Case study of Brown shale, Pematang formation, Central Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Nastria, N.; Soebandrio, D.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geochemical and geophysical analyses of shale gas have been carried out in Brown Shale, Middle Pematang Formation, Central Sumatra Basin. The paper is aimed at delineating the sweet spot distribution of potential shale gas reservoir, which is based on Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Maturity level data, and combined with TOC modeling that refers to Passey and Regression Multi Linear method. We used 4 well data, side wall core and 3D pre-stack seismic data. Our analysis of geochemical properties is based on well log and core data and its distribution are constrained by a framework of 3D seismic data, which is transformed into acoustic impedance. Further, the sweet spot of organic-rich shale is delineated by mapping TOC, which is extracted from inverted acoustic impedance. Our experiment analysis shows that organic materials contained in the formation of Middle Pematang Brown Shale members have TOC range from 0.15 to 2.71 wt.%, which is classified in the quality of poor to very good. In addition, the maturity level of organic material is ranging from 373°C to 432°C, which is indicated by vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.58. In term of kerogen type, this Brown shale formation is categorized as kerogen type of II I III, which has the potential to generate a mixture of gasIoil on the environment.

  13. Two-dimensional simulation of clastic and carbonate sedimentation, consolidation, subsidence, fluid flow, heat flow and solute transport during the formation of sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Klaus

    1999-05-01

    Geological processes that create sedimentary basins or act during their formation can be simulated using the public domain computer code `BASIN'. For a given set of geological initial and boundary conditions the sedimentary basin evolution is calculated in a forward modeling approach. The basin is represented in a two-dimensional vertical cross section with individual layers. The stratigraphic, tectonic, hydrodynamic and thermal evolution is calculated beginning at an initial state, and subsequent changes of basin geometry are calculated from sedimentation rates, compaction and pore fluid mobilization, isostatic compensation, fault movement and subsidence. The sedimentologic, hydraulic and thermal parameters are stored at discrete time steps allowing the temporal evolution of the basin to be analyzed. A maximum flexibility in terms of geological conditions is achieved by using individual program modules representing geological processes which can be switched on and off depending on the data available for a specific simulation experiment. The code incorporates a module for clastic and carbonate sedimentation, taking into account the impact of clastic sediment supply on carbonate production. A maximum of four different sediment types, which may be mixed during sedimentation, can be defined. Compaction and fluid flow are coupled through the consolidation equation and the nonlinear form of the equation of state for porosity, allowing nonequilibrium compaction and overpressuring to be calculated. Instead of empirical porosity-effective stress equations, a physically consistent consolidation model is applied which incorporates a porosity dependent sediment compressibility. Transient solute transport and heat flow are calculated as well, applying calculated fluid flow rates from the hydraulic model. As a measure for hydrocarbon generation, the Time-Temperature Index (TTI) is calculated. Three postprocessing programs are available to provide graphic output in Post

  14. Provenance of the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone Formation: implications for distribution and architecture of aeolian vs. fluvial reservoirs in the North German Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke; Friis, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Zircon U–Pb geochronometry, heavy mineral analyses and conventional seismic reflection data were used to interpret the provenance of the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone Formation. The succession was sampled in five Danish wells in the northern part of the North German Basin. The results show...... Shield did not supply much sediment to the basin as opposed to what was previously believed. Sediment from the Variscan belt was transported by wind activity across the North German Basin when it was dried out during deposition of the aeolian part of the Volpriehausen Member (lower Bunter Sandstone......). Fluvial sand was supplied from the Ringkøbing-Fyn High to the basin during precipitation events which occurred most frequently when the Solling Member was deposited (upper Bunter Sandstone). Late Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous zircon ages predominate in the Volpriehausen Member where the dominant age...

  15. Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

  16. Palaeontology of the upper Turonian paralic deposits of the Sainte-Mondane Formation, Aquitaine Basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neraudenau, D.; Saint Martin, S.; Battern, D.J.; Colin, J.P.; Daviero-Gomez, V.; Girard, V.; Gomez, B.; Nohra, Y.A.; Polette, F.; Platel, J.P.; Saint Martin, J.P.; Vullo, R.

    2016-07-01

    The upper Turonian lignite deposits of Sainte-Mondane, Dordogne (Aquitaine Basin, SW France), consist of clays bearing translucent, orange to red, amber micrograins. The amber exhibits different types of microbial inclusions. The clays contain several conifers including the genera Brachyphyllum, Frenelopsis and Glenrosa, and a few leaf fragments of eudicot angiosperms. Among the plant meso-fossils the occurrence of Costatheca, Spermatites and abundant, diverse, megaspores, including species of Ariadnaesporites, Bacutriletes, Echitriletes, Erlansonisporites, Maexisporites, Minerisporites and Verrutriletes, is noteworthy. Pollen grains of the Normapolles group are important components of the palynomorph assemblage. The clays were deposited in a calm, estuarine or lagoonal, muddy environment. The overlying lignitic sands contain large fossil wood pieces of the conifer Agathoxylon, small solitary corals, fragmentary oysters and pectinids, echinoid spines, a few teeth of marine selachians and bony fishes, but no amber is present. These sands were deposited in a high-energy coastal marine environment. (Author)

  17. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.El pez tucunaré (Cichla piquiti, nativo del sistema de la cuenca del rio Tocantins-Araguaia, fue introducido en la cuenca del río Paranaíba, parte del sistema del río Paraná. En este ecosistema trófico de planicie aluvial, las relaciones entre comunidades de peces están definidas por diferentes factores que pueden ser modificados debido a la represa del río, y da como resultado grandes cambios en la interacción biológica en éstos hábitats. La represa de Cachoeira Dourada forma parte de una serie de represas en el río Paranaíba en el Brasil central, donde el tucunaré se ha establecido. Una investigación sobre su espectro alimentario, combinado con información sobre sus caracter

  18. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic character and sandstone-type uranium ore formation. A case from Saihan Formation in Baiyinwula area, Erlian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongbo; Qin Mingkuan

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy has been applied widely in the petroleum exploration and development, many achievements have been achieved. However, it is in the beginning stage that high-resolution sequence stratigraphy is applied to explore the sandstone-type uranium deposits in Erlian Basin. By applying principles of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy and taking typical boreholes as an example, sedimentary cycles of Saihan Formation, the ore-bearing formation in Baiyinwula area are divided and correlated through cross sections. One long-term cycle (LSC 1 ), two middle-term cycles (MSC 1 , MSC 2 ) have been identified in this study. Based on this and combined with the mineralization character of sandstone uranium deposits in this area, it is presented that the interlayer oxidation zone is developed mainly in the rising hemicycle of MSC 1 and uranium ore bodies predominantly in channel sand bodies that were developed in the system tract with low accommodation; furthermore, it is recognized that these sand bodies are moderate (10-15 m) in thickness, fairly good in interconnectivity, relatively thin (<3 m) with the argillaceous interbed, and good in permeability, abundant in the organic matter and thus it is favorable for the development of the interlayer oxidization zone. (authors)

  19. The Silurian Hoedongri Formation in the Taebaeksan Basin of Korea Revisited: its Significance in the Tectonic Reconstruction of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, S.; Hong, J.; Jung, S.; Ree, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Silurian Hoedongri Formation of the Taebaeksan Basin of South Korea has been used as a key unit to the correlation of tectonic provinces of East Asia since the South China craton (or Yangtz block) contains Silurian-Devonian sequences as well as Cambrian-Ordovician ones in the Paleozoic basins while the North China craton (or Sino-Korea block) is devoid of Silurian-Devonian sequences. In the Biryongdong area near the type locality of the Hoedongri Formation, it has been reported that the gray limestone of the Hoedongri Formation unconformably overlies brownish gray limestone of the Ordovician Haengmae Formation. However, our detailed examination on the Biryongdong section reveals that both of the brownish gray and gray limestones are mylonitic marbles with the boundary between the two units being a healed fault breccia zone (~ 12 m thick). The main difference of the two units is that repeated cycles of plastic deformation and fracturing occurred in the underlying brownish gray marble ('Haengmae') while the gray marble ('Hoedongri') deformed mainly by intracrystalline plasticity. The mylonitic foliation strikes NW with a low to moderate dip angle (20-60°) to NE. The ridge-in-groove type lineation on foliation surface trends NNW. The shape-preferred foliation of elongated calcite grains are oblique to the mylonitic foliation defined by layers with a grain-size variation, indicating a top-to-the-SSE shear sense. The mylonitic marble consists of elongated remnant grains (80-120 μm) with deformation twins and dynamically recrystallized matrix grains (10-40 μm). Grain boundaries and twin boundaries are lobate or wavy, indicating dynamic boundary migration. Some layers of the gray mylonitic marble are composed entirely of larger (80-120 μm) elongated calcite grains. In the brownish gray mylonitic marble unit, layers of brittle fracturing overprinting mylonitic foliation occur. In some of these layers, fragments (several cm - tens of cm) of the mylonitic marble are

  20. Sedimentological characteristics and depositional processes of sediment gravity flows in rift basins: The Palaeogene Dongying and Shahejie formations, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Chen, Hongde; Zhong, Yijiang; Wang, Jun; Xu, Changgui; Chen, Anqing; Du, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Sediment gravity flow deposits are common, particularly in sandy formations, but their origin has been a matter of debate and there is no consensus about the classification of such deposits. However, sediment gravity flow sandstones are economically important and have the potential to meet a growing demand in oil and gas exploration, so there is a drive to better understand them. This study focuses on sediment gravity flow deposits identified from well cores in Palaeogene deposits from the Liaodong Bay Depression in Bohai Bay Basin, China. We classify the sediment gravity flow deposits into eight lithofacies using lithological characteristics, grain size, and sedimentary structures, and interpret the associated depositional processes. Based on the scale, spatial distribution, and contact relationships of sediment gravity flow deposits, we defined six types of lithofacies associations (LAs) that reflect transformation processes and depositional morphology: LA1 (unconfined proximal breccia deposits), LA2 (confined channel deposits), LA3 (braided-channel lobe deposits), LA4 (unconfined lobe deposits), LA5 (distal sheet deposits), and LA6 (non-channelized sheet deposits). Finally, we established three depositional models that reflect the sedimentological characteristics and depositional processes of sediment gravity flow deposits: (1) slope-apron gravel-rich depositional model, which involves cohesive debris flows deposited as LA1 and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA5; (2) non-channelized surge-like turbidity current depositional model, which mainly comprises sandy slumping, suspended load dominated turbidity currents, and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA5 and LA6; and (3) channelized subaqueous-fan depositional model, which consists of non-cohesive bedload dominated turbidity currents, suspended load dominated turbidity currents, and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA2-LA5, originating from sustained extrabasinal turbidity currents

  1. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil; Programa de seguridad radiologica para las oficinas de salud en Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G. [Secretaria de Saude do Estado do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

  3. Depositional History and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Yeongheung Formation (Yeongweol Group), Taebaeksan Basin, mid-east Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoo Jin; Kwon, Yi Kyun

    2017-04-01

    composition ratio of siliciclastic materials dominated facies in the upper part of the Yeongheung Formation. The Middle1 subunit is pervasively recognized by subaerial exposures facies (carbonate breccia, paleosol), whereas the Middle2 subunit is similar to the Middle1 subunit except for the absence of subaerial exposure features. The Western subunit lost some of its primary sedimentary structure and texture in comparison to other subunits, because of the active recrystallization, metamorphism, structural deformation and carbonate diagenesis. This study reveals depositional history and refines sequence stratigraphy of the Yeongheung Formation, promoting understanding of the basin evolution of the Yeongweol Group.

  4. Biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeogeography of the mainly marine Ager Formation (Upper Paleocene — Lower Eocene) in the Tremp Basin, Central-South Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Pieter A.M.

    1978-01-01

    During the greater part of the Palaeogene the Tremp Basin was an area which underwent rapid subsidence as compared with the axial zone of the Pyrenees to the north, and the Ebro Massif to the south. As a result the sea occupied this area for a long time and deposition of the Ager Formation took

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  6. Atmospheric Processes in the South Baikal Basin and Their Role in Relief Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta М. Tyumentseva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and the solar and circulation features in the Lake Baikal basin are analyzed. The relationship between the heat balance and surface temperature of slopes is shown, taking into account each features’ physical state. The dependence of the heat balance values and the underlying surface temperature were revealed. The quantitative material allowed us to reveal regional patterns of geomorphological regimes, seasonal rhythm, and the dynamics of processes. In Cisbaikalia, within the denudation cycle, semi-humid states under water erosion and aeolian processes of moderate intensity predominate. The semi-arid state manifests itself under decreasing humidification. In these years, the probability of extreme manifestations of aeolian processes is high. The humid states occur in 1% of cases, primarily in extremely wet years, when fluvial processes are dramatically activated. In Cisbaikalia, climate warming and an increase in mean annual temperature have been observed in recent years. Depending on the moisture amplitude and heat availability, the intensity and direction of water erosion and aeolian processes is changing now. The dynamics of relief-forming processes cause an increase in loose substance in the lake and the exacerbation of the ecological situation.

  7. Delineating gas bearing reservoir by using spectral decomposition attribute: Case study of Steenkool formation, Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Pradana, G. S.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic setting of the Bird Head Papua Island becomes an important model for petroleum system in Eastern part of Indonesia. The current exploration has been started since the oil seepage finding in Bintuni and Salawati Basin. The biogenic gas in shallow layer turns out to become an interesting issue in the hydrocarbon exploration. The hydrocarbon accumulation appearance in a shallow layer with dry gas type, appeal biogenic gas for further research. This paper aims at delineating the sweet spot hydrocarbon potential in shallow layer by applying the spectral decomposition technique. The spectral decomposition is decomposing the seismic signal into an individual frequency, which has significant geological meaning. One of spectral decomposition methods is Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), which transforms the seismic signal into individual time and frequency simultaneously. This method is able to make easier time-frequency map analysis. When time resolution increases, the frequency resolution will be decreased, and vice versa. In this study, we perform low-frequency shadow zone analysis in which the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency of 15 Hz was observed and we then compare it to the amplitude at the mid (20 Hz) and the high-frequency (30 Hz). The appearance of the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency was disappeared at high frequency, this anomaly disappears. The spectral decomposition by using CWT algorithm has been successfully applied to delineate the sweet spot zone.

  8. Dilatant shear band formation and diagenesis in calcareous, arkosic sandstones, Vienna Basin (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Marco; Exner, Ulrike; Gier, Susanne; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines deformation bands in calcareous arkosic sands. The investigated units can be considered as an equivalent to the Matzen field in the Vienna Basin (Austria), which is one of the most productive oil reservoirs in central Europe. The outcrop exposes carbonate-free and carbonatic sediments of Badenian age separated by a normal fault. Carbonatic sediments in the hanging wall of the normal fault develop dilation bands with minor shear displacements (< 2 mm), whereas carbonate-free sediments in the footwall develop cataclastic shear bands with up to 70 cm displacement. The cataclastic shear bands show a permeability reduction up to 3 orders of magnitude and strong baffling effects in the vadose zone. Carbonatic dilation bands show a permeability reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude and no baffling structures. We distinguished two types of deformation bands in the carbonatic units, which differ in deformation mechanisms, distribution and composition. Full-cemented bands form as dilation bands with an intense syn-kinematic calcite cementation, whereas the younger loose-cemented bands are dilatant shear bands cemented by patchy calcite and clay minerals. All analyzed bands are characterized by a porosity and permeability reduction caused by grain fracturing and cementation. The changed petrophysical properties and especially the porosity evolution are closely related to diagenetic processes driven by varying pore fluids in different diagenetic environments. The deformation band evolution and sealing capacity is controlled by the initial host rock composition. PMID:26300577

  9. Environmental isotope and hydrochemical investigation of Bauru and Botucatu groundwaters, Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmelmann, A.

    1991-06-01

    A combined hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope investigation is being carried out in the Bauru- and Botucatu groundwaters. Based on former isotope data, the 2 H/ 18 O-, 3 H-, 13 C-, 14 C- and 3 He/ 4 He-contents of representative groundwaters out from the Bauru- and Botucatu-aquifer are now investigated to reveal a possible interaction of the groundwater systems and to correlate 14 C-groundwater residence times with groundwater ages derived from other isotope methods. (author)

  10. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Both; Christi Noriko Sonoo; Juarez Vieira Nascimento; Hudson de Resende Moreira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL) and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women), corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection....

  11. Formation of fine crystalline dolomites in lacustrine carbonates of the Eocene Sikou Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genesis of the fine crystalline dolomites that exhibit good to excellent reservoir properties in the upper fourth member of the Eocene Shahejie Formation (Es 4 s around the Sikou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, is uncertain. This paper investigates the formation mechanisms of this fine crystalline dolomite using XRD, SEM, thin section analysis and geochemical data. The stratigraphy of the Sikou lacustrine carbonate is dominated by the repetition of metre-scale, high-frequency deposition cycles, and the amount of dolomite within a cycle increases upward from the cycle bottom. These dolomite crystals are 2–30 μm in length, subhedral to anhedral in shape and typically replace both grains and matrix. They also occur as rim cement and have thin lamellae within ooid cortices. Textural relations indicate that the dolomite predates equant sparry calcite cement and coarse calcite cement. The Sr concentrations of dolomites range from 900 to 1200 ppm. Dolomite δ18O values (−11.3 to −8.2 ‰ PDB are depleted relative to calcite mudstone (−8.3 to −5.4 ‰ PDB that precipitated from lake water, while δ13C values (0.06–1.74 ‰ PDB are within the normal range of calcite mudstone values (−2.13 to 1.99 ‰ PDB. High 87Sr/86Sr values (0.710210–0.710844 indicate that amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+ have been derived from the chemical weathering of Palaeozoic carbonate bedrocks. The high strontium concentration indicates that hypersaline conditions were maintained during the formation of the dolomites and that the dolomites were formed by the replacement of precursor calcite or by direct precipitation.

  12. Favourable Formations for CO{sub 2} Storage in the Almazan Basin; Formaciones Favorables para el Almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en la Cuenca de Almazan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Rivas, C.; Lomba Falcon, L.

    2008-04-10

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is one of the technological options that have been considered nowadays for global climate change mitigation. Underground CO{sub 2} storage requires the selection and identification of deep geological formations which must meet criteria for health and environmental safety in the middle-term of one thousand years. Deep permeable formations, depleted oil and gas fields, unminable coal seams and saline rocks are possible geological formations for CO{sub 2} storage. Some areas in our country have been selected to search potential CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Among these areas, sedimentary basins are highlighted because of their thick stratigraphic sequences and the availability of extensive geological data which are coming from fossil fuel exploration. In this report, the identification and selection of favourable geological formations in the Almazan basin is presented. A 3D simplified subsurface basin geological model that was based on a Geographic Information System is included as well. The report also includes suitable CO{sub 2} injection areas in the surface for the selected geological formations. Finally, a preliminary CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimation of a potential structural trap has been calculated, considering only physical CO{sub 2} trapping. This work has been undertaken in the framework of the Geological CO{sub 2} Storage Project which is within the Singular Strategic Project of the Ministry of Education and Science Generation, Capture and Storage advanced technologies of CO{sub 2}. (Author) 84 refs.

  13. Formation mechanisms and sequence response of authigenic grain-coating chlorite: evidence from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authigenic grain-coating chlorite is widely distributed in the clastic rocks of many sedimentary basins around the world. These iron minerals were mainly derived from flocculent precipitates formed when rivers flow into the ocean, especially in deltaic environments with high hydrodynamic conditions. At the same time, sandstone sequences with grain-coating chlorites also tend to have relatively high glauconite and pyrite content. EPMA composition analysis shows that glauconites with “high Al and low Fe” content indicate slightly to semi-saline marine environments with weak alkaline and weakly reducing conditions. By analyzing the chlorite-containing sandstone bodies of the southern Sichuan Xujiahe Formation, this study found that chlorite was mainly distributed in sedimentary microfacies, including underwater distributary channels, distributary channels, shallow lake sandstone dams, and mouth bars. Chlorite had a tendency to form in the upper parts of sandstone bodies with signs of increased base level, representing the influence of marine (lacustrine transgression. This is believed to be influenced by megamonsoons in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region during the Late Triassic Epoch. During periods of abundant precipitation, river discharges increased and more Fe particulates flowed into the ocean (lake. In the meantime, increases or decreases in lake level were only affected by precipitation for short periods of time. The sedimentary environment shifted from weakly oxidizing to weak alkaline, weakly reducing conditions as sea level increased, and Fe-rich minerals as authigenic chlorite and glauconite began to form and deposit.

  14. Petrological-geochemical characteristics of coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Songliao basin and their geological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gan; Zhang Bangtong

    2005-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin are mainly composed of sandstone, mudstone and siltstone. The petrological-chemical analysis of clastic sedimentary rocks from Quantou Formation, Cretaceous indicates that their lithology mainly consists of arkose, shale and minor rock debris sandstone and greywacke by chemical classification of bulk elements. REE distribution pattern displays the apparent enrichment of LREE and negative anomaly of Eu and is similar to that of NASC and PAAS. The ratio of trace-element in sedimentary rocks to that of upper crust shows gentle character. All the above features indicate that these sedimentary rocks were slowly deposited under weakly active tectonic setting. They are sediments typical for passive continental margin and active continental margin. It is suggested that material source of clastic sediments of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin was originated from Hercynian granite of Zhangguangchai Mountain, and the granite was originated from upper crust. (authors)

  15. Controls on cutoff formation along a tropical meandering river in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The termination of meander bends is an inherent part of the evolution of meandering rivers. Cutoffs are produced by one of two mechanisms: neck cutoffs occur when two adjacent meanders converge, while chute cutoffs are generated by flood-driven floodplain incision, resulting in a shorter, steeper channel path. Here we use an annually-resolved record of Landsat imagery, coupled with daily discharge data to assess the role of high-magnitude discharges (Q ≥ QBF) on cutoff formation along the Rio Beni, Bolivia. Our results suggest that despite numerous above-bankfull events, the dominant cutoff mechanism operating on the Beni is neck cutoff. Evaluating the formation of these cutoffs reveals that migration rates accelerate during years of high discharge, and eventually cause the migrating bends to breach. The density of floodplain vegetation and the medium into which the channel migrated was also responsible for the patterns of cutoff documented along this river. The presence of existing floodplain channels permitted the river to divert its flow along shorter courses thereby facilitating cutoff, and limiting sinuosity growth. Understanding the long-term evolution of meandering channels is important since their morphodynamics are responsible for the creation of highly biodiverse riparian habitats, as well as the store and release of alluvial material. Moreover, the interactions between discharge and the channel-floodplain system are integral for the functioning and long-term evolution of these landscapes, particularly in the face of global climate change.

  16. Major factors controlling fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation tight oil reservoir, Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Deyu; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Liu, Dongdong; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Yunzhao

    2017-09-01

    Natural fractures in seven wells from the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar Basin were evaluated in light of regional structural evolution, tight reservoir geochemistry (including TOC and mineral composition), carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite-filled fractures, and acoustic emission (AE). Factors controlling the development of natural fractures were analyzed using qualitative and/or semi-quantitative techniques, with results showing that tectonic factors are the primary control on fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Junggar Basin. Analyses of calcite, dolomite, and TOC show positive correlations with the number of fractures, while deltaic lithofacies appear to be the most favorable for fracture development. Mineral content was found to be a major control on tectonic fracture development, while TOC content and sedimentary facies mainly control bedding fractures. Carbon and oxygen isotopes vary greatly in calcite-filled fractures (δ13C ranges from 0.87‰ to 7.98‰, while δ18O ranges from -12.63‰ to -5.65‰), indicating that fracture development increases with intensified tectonic activity or enhanced diagenetic alteration. By analyzing the cross-cutting relationships of fractures in core, as well as four Kaiser Effect points in the acoustic emission curve, we observed four stages of tectonic fracture development. First-stage fractures are extensional, and were generated in the late Triassic, with calcite fracture fills formed between 36.51 °C and 56.89 °C. Second-stage fractures are shear fractures caused by extrusion stress from the southwest to the northeast, generated by the rapid uplift of the Tianshan in the Middle and Late Jurassic; calcite fracture fills formed between 62.91 °C and 69.88 °C. Third-stage fractures are NNW-trending shear fractures that resulted from north-south extrusion and thrusting in a foreland depression along the front of the Early Cretaceous Bogda Mountains. Calcite fracture

  17. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  18. Geochemistry of water in the Fort Union formation of the northern Powder River basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roger W.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow water in the coal-bearing Paleocene Fort Union Formation of southeastern Montana was investigated to provide a better understanding of its geochemistry. Springs, wells less than 200 feet deep, and wells greater than 200 feet deep were observed to have different water qualities. Overall, the ground water exists as two systems: a mosaic of shallow, chemically dynamic, and localized recharge-discharge cells superimposed on a deeper, chemically static regional system. Water chemistry is highly variable in the shallow system; whereas, waters containing sodium and bicarbonate characterize the deeper system. Within the shallow system, springs and wells less than 200 feet deep show predominantly sodium and sulfate enrichment processes from recharge to discharge. These processes are consistent with the observed aquifer mineralogy and aqueous chemistry. However, intermittent mixing with downward moving recharge waters or upward moving deeper waters, and bacterially catalyzed sulfate reduction, may cause apparent reversals in these processes.

  19. Past, present and future formation of groundwater resources in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, A.; Vallner, L.; Vaikmae, R.; Raidla, V.

    2012-04-01

    Cambrian-Vendian Aquifer System (CVAS) is the deepest confined aquifer system used for water consumption in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB). A regional groundwater flow and transport model (Visual Modflow) was used to investigate the paleohydrogeological scientific and contemporary management problems of CVAS. The model covers the territory of Estonia and its close surrounding, all together 88,000 km2 and includes all main aquifers and aquitards from ground surface to as low as the impermeable part of the crystalline basement. Three-dimensional distribution of groundwater heads, flow directions, velocities, and rates as well as transport and budget characteristics were simulated by the model. Water composition was changed significantly during the last glaciations.Strongly depleted O and H stable isotope composition, absence of 3H and low radiocarbon concentration are the main indicators of glacial origin of groundwater in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer in northern Estonia. The noble gas analyses allowed concluding, that palaeorecharge took place at temperatures around the freezing point. While in North Estonia, most of water was changed by glacial melt water, high salinity water is till preserved in Southern part of Estonia.First results of modeling suggest that during the intrusion period lasting 7.3-9.3 ka the front of glacial thaw water movement had southeast direction and reachedto 180-220 kmfrom CVAS outcrop in Baltic Sea. Confining layer of CVAS is cut through by deep buried valleys in several places in North Estonia making possible for modern precipitation to infiltrate into aquifer system in present day. In case of natural conditions, the water pressure of CVAS is few meters above sea level and most of valleys act as discharge areas for aquifers system. Two regional depression ones have formed in North Estonia as a result of groundwater use from CVAS. Water consumption changes the natural groundwater gradient, flow direction and thereforerecharge

  20. The brackish-water bivalve Waagenoperna from the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation of the Junggar Basin and its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brackish-water bivalve Waagenoperna Tokuyama, 1959 is reported from the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Formation at four localities, along the southern margin and western margin of the Junggar Basin. Taphonomic features recorded in the field indicate that it occurs in autochthonous or parautochthonous assemblages. The autecology of Waagenoperna therefore yields information on the palaeoenvironment of the area. The restriction of Waagenoperna to marine and brackish-water settings suggests that the sea water once reached these areas during the Sinemurian. This paper discusses the palaeogeographic implications and suggests an ingression of the sea water from the west to the western and southern part of the Junggar Basin. Additionally, the two Waagenoperna species collected from the Haojiagou section in the Junggar Basin are taxonomically documented.

  1. Raw material of the Corumbatai formation at the region of ceramic pole of Santa Gertrudes - Sao Paulo, Brazil, with natural characteristics for fabrication of expanded clay; Materia-prima da formacao Corumbatai na regiao do polo ceramico de Santa Gertrudes - Sao Paulo, com caracteristicas naturais para fabricacao de argila expandida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M.M.T.; Zanardo, A.; Rocha, R.R.; Roveri, C.D., E-mail: mmoreno@rc.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    This paper refers to the study of the bases material of the Corumbatai Formation (Parana Basin) from a clay mine, which presents limits for its use in ceramic tiles in dry grinding process due to its hardness and, especially, the high content of organic matter in relation to the clay overlaid. The characterization of the raw material and the product was accomplished by organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and test-firing. Firing conditions were determined to get expanded clay, using fast firing static kiln and a continuous roller kiln, both from laboratory equipment, getting samples with variable density up to the limit of expansion, with density that can reach values lower than 0,5g.cm{sup -3} because of the formation of closed pores and an external vitreous foil which provide a high mechanical resistance to the particles. (author)

  2. Chester (Mississippian) ostracodes from Bangor Formation of Black Warrior basin, northern Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devery, H.; Dewey, C.

    1986-05-01

    A previously unreported ostracode fauna is described from the Bangor Limestone in Franklin, Lawrence, and Colbert Counties, Alabama. The Bangor formation is a Chesterian (Mississippian) platformal carbonate sequence. The predominant carbonates are bioclastic and oolitic grainstones to wackestones with less abundant micritic claystones. Intercalated fine clastics are common in the upper and lower parts of the sequence. This study focuses on the bioclastic limestones with interbedded shales of the lower Bangor. The megafaunal associations include crinoid and blastoid pelmatozoans, orthotetid, and spiriferid brachiopids, and both fenestrate and nonfenestrate bryozoans. Solitary rugose corals and trilobites may be locally abundant. Gastropods and bivalves form a consistent but accessory part of the fauna, which indicates a shallow, nearshore shelf environment. A diverse ostracode fauna of variable abundance has been collected from the shaly units and friable limestones. The ostracode fauna indicates shallow, open-marine conditions and is dominated by bairdiaceans, including Bairdia spp. Rectobairdia and Bairdiacypris. Several species of Cavellina, healdia, and Seminolites are also abundant. Palaeocopids present include Coryellina, Kirkbya, and Polytylites. Kloedenellaceans include Beyrichiopsis, Glyptopleura, Glypotpleurina, and .Hypotetragona. Paraparchitaceans are notably more scarce, but specimens of Shishaella have been found. Some sample have a high valve to carapace ratio, suggesting postmortem transport. Although diversity is high, numerical abundances can be low. Initial studies suggest the ostracodes have a Mid-Continent affinity, which may indicate that the Appalachians were acting as a barrier to migration of European forms.

  3. Paleoenvironment of Tanjung Formation Barito Basin- Central Kalimantan Based on palynological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winantris Winantris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research area is located in the Muara Teweh, North Barito, Central Kalimantan. The cocking coal deposits are well known as they were produced from this area.  Upper part of Tanjung Formation is target coal production. The study objectives are to analyze paleoenvironment and to determine the relative age of coal deposits based on palynological data. Preparing palinological analysis used standard procedure by hydrofluoric acid method.Palynomorphs data  grouped into six types of ecology, and the sequence is as follows ; fresh water and lowland (41,75 %, brackish water  swamp (30,10%, Peat and freshwater swamp (17,96%, marine element (7,77 %, back mangrove (1,46% and upland element (0,97. Palmae pollen is very dominant, especially from freshwater and peat swamp that grow around coastal area i.e. Dicolcopollis, Proxapertites cursus, Proxapertites operculatus, Longapertites and Palmaepollenites kutchensis. Although marine  fossil found, but the frequency  less than one percent,  that was the  evidence of influence sea water to swamp area. The palynomorphs indicate the coal sedimented at upper delta plain.  Fossil index of relative age consist of    Proxapertites cursus, Proxapertites operculatus, Magnastriatites howardi Verrucatosporites usmensis, Retistephanocolpites , and Ixonantes type which refer to Late Eocene.

  4. Shale gas characterization of the Dinder and Blue Nile Formations in the Blue Nile Basin, East Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoieb, Monera Adam; Sum, Chow Weng; Bhattachary, Swapan Kumar; Abidin, Nor Syazwani Zainal; Abdelrahim, Omer Babiker

    2016-11-01

    The development of gas and oil in unconventional plays in United State and Northern Europe has affected the finances and the energy security. Geochanical properties of shale rocks can have a major impact on the efficiency of shale gas exploration. The goal of this study is to evaluate shale gas potentiality in the Blue Nile Basin, using samples from existing drilled wells. All the samples were analyzed in detail with the following organic geochemical techniques: total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-eval pyrolysis, to determine the quality and quantity of the organic matter. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the shale intervals vary from 0.6 to 4.5weight% in FARASHA-1 Well, while in TAWAKUL-1 Well range from 0.4 to 2.4weight%, suggesting that fair to good source generative potential, as revealed by the S2 v's TOC plot. Hydrogen index (HI) values range from 12 to 182 mg HC/g TOC in the two wells, indicating type III and IV derived-input in the samples and their potential to generate gas. However, the Blue Nile and Dinder Formation have Tmax values in the range of 437 to 456°C, indicating early maturity in the oil window. Thus, higher maturity levels have affected the hydrocarbon generation potential and HI of the samples.

  5. Late Archaic–Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins. PMID:27849582

  6. Late Archaic-Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2016-11-29

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins.

  7. Accumulation conditions and exploration potential of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas in Wuxi area, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas is a new exploration field in Wuxi area, Sichuan Basin, China. Some geological parameters related to shale gas evaluation of the new exploration wells in Wuxi area have been studied, including shale reservoir, gas-bearing, geochemical and paleontological characteristics. The study suggests that the original shale gas generation conditions of the area were good, but later this area went through serious and multi-phase tectonic damage. The major evidences include that: the δ13C2 value of shale gas is obviously higher than that in areas with the same maturity, indicating the shale gas is mainly late kerogen cracking gas and high hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency; the porosity of shale in Wuxi area is very low because of strong tectonic movements and lack of retained oil in the shale; some shale cores near faults even show very weak metamorphic characteristics with intense cleavage, and the epidermis of graptolite fossils was pyrolyzed. The comprehensive study shows shale gas in Wuxi area has prospective resources, but the possibility to get scale commercial production in recent time is very low.

  8. Diagenetic differences of the Zhenzhuchong Member of Ziliujing Formation in the Jiulongshan–Jiange area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcai Hou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rocks of the Zhenzhuchong Member of the Ziliujing Formation, Jiulongshan–Jiange area in the Sichuan Basin, were analyzed by petrography, XRD, and SEM techniques to investigate their diagenetic history and properties, such as authigenic mineral types, evolution of mixed-layer illite–smectite minerals, the clay assembly, and the fraction of mixed-layer clay minerals. The results revealed that the Zhenzhuchong Member has experienced several important episodes of diagenetic alteration since the deposition, including compaction (pressure-solution, cementation, metasomatism, dissolution, fracturing, and infilling of caves and cracks. It was also observed that diagenetic properties of the Jiulongshan area were significantly different from those of the Jiange area. The rock samples from the Jiulongshan area were characterized by the composition of siliceous and calcareous cements, varying amounts of detrital grains, clay matrix and kaolinite replaced by calcites, a certain amount of rarely dissolved early-stage kaolinite, dickite, and infillings by late-stage calcite. On the other hand, for the rock samples from the Jiange area, the dissolution is a common phenomenon with features of abundant aluminosilicates-dissolution pores or components, but the replacement phenomenon has rarely been seen. These rock samples were characterized by the presence of clay mineral cements, quartz, and dolomite infillings. It indicated that there was a great difference of diagenesis between the two areas in the types, phase, and temperature of diagenetic fluids. Revealing the difference would provide theoretical and practical implications for the exploration of high quality oil and gas reservoirs.

  9. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of the Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation tight sandstones in the southern Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Kelai; Cao, Yingchang; Jahren, Jens; Zhu, Rukai; Bjørlykke, Knut; Haile, Beyene Girma; Zheng, Lijing; Hellevang, Helge

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation in the southern Songliao Basin is the typical tight oil sandstone in China. For effective exploration, appraisal and production from such a tight oil sandstone, the diagenesis and reservoir quality must be thoroughly studied first. The tight oil sandstone has been examined by a variety of methods, including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, fluorescence, electron probing analysis, fluid inclusion and isotope testing and quantitative determination of reservoir properties. The sandstones are mostly lithic arkoses and feldspathic litharenites with fine to medium grain size and moderate to good sorting. The sandstones are dominated by feldspar, quartz, and volcanic rock fragments showing various stages of disintegration. The reservoir properties are quite poor, with low porosity (average 8.54%) and permeability (average 0.493 mD), small pore-throat radius (average 0.206 μm) and high displacement pressure (mostly higher than 1 MPa). The tight sandstone reservoirs have undergone significant diagenetic alterations such as compaction, feldspar dissolution, quartz cementation, carbonate cementation (mainly ferrocalcite and ankerite) and clay mineral alteration. As to the onset time, the oil emplacement was prior to the carbonate cementation but posterior to the quartz cementation and feldspar dissolution. The smectite to illite reaction and pressure solution at stylolites provide a most important silica sources for quartz cementation. Carbonate cements increase towards interbedded mudstones. Mechanical compaction has played a more important role than cementation in destroying the reservoir quality of the K1q4 sandstone reservoirs. Mixed-layer illite/smectite and illite reduced the porosity and permeability significantly, while chlorite preserved the porosity and permeability since it tends to be oil wet so that later carbonate cementation can be inhibited to some extent. It is likely that the oil emplacement occurred

  10. A New Basal Sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from Quebrada del Barro Formation (Marayes-El Carrizal Basin), Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaldetti, Cecilia; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Pol, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Background Argentinean basal sauropodomorphs are known by several specimens from different basins; Ischigualasto, El Tranquilo, and Mogna. The Argentinean record is diverse and includes some of the most primitive known sauropodomorphs such as Panphagia and Chromogisaurus, as well as more derived forms, including several massospondylids. Until now, the Massospondylidae were the group of basal sauropodomorphs most widely spread around Pangea with a record in almost all continents, mostly from the southern hemisphere, including the only record from Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe here a new basal sauropodomorph, Leyesaurus marayensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Quebrada del Barro Formation, an Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic unit that crops out in northwestern Argentina. The new taxon is represented by a partial articulated skeleton that includes the skull, vertebral column, scapular and pelvic girdles, and hindlimb. Leyesaurus is diagnosed by a set of unique features, such as a sharply acute angle (50 degrees) formed by the ascending process of the maxilla and the alveolar margin, a straight ascending process of the maxilla with a longitudinal ridge on its lateral surface, noticeably bulging labial side of the maxillary teeth, greatly elongated cervical vertebrae, and proximal articular surface of metatarsal III that is shelf-like and medially deflected. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Leyesaurus as a basal sauropodomorph, sister taxon of Adeopapposaurus within the Massospondylidae. Moreover, the results suggest that massospondylids achieved a higher diversity than previously thought. Conclusions/Significance Our phylogenetic results differ with respect to previous analyses by rejecting the massospondylid affinities of some taxa from the northern hemisphere (e.g., Seitaad, Sarahsaurus). As a result, the new taxon Leyesaurus, coupled with other recent discoveries, suggests that the diversity of massospondylids in the southern hemisphere was higher

  11. The transgressive-regressive cycle of the Romualdo Formation (Araripe Basin): Sedimentary archive of the Early Cretaceous marine ingression in the interior of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Michele Andriolli; Quaglio, Fernanda; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Fürsich, Franz Theodor; Perinotto, José Alexandre J.; Assine, Mario Luis

    2017-08-01

    Geologic events related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean deeply influenced the sedimentary record of the Araripe Basin. As consequence, upper stratigraphic units of the basin record a marine ingression in northeastern Brazil during the late Aptian. The timing and stratigraphic architecture of these units are crucial to understand the paleogeography of Gondwana and how the proto-Atlantic Ocean reached interior NE Brazil during the early Cretaceous. This marine ingression is recorded in the Araripe Basin as the Romualdo Formation, characterized by a transgressive-regressive cycle bounded by two regional unconformities. In the eastern part of the basin, the Romualdo depositional sequence comprises coastal alluvial and tide-dominated deposits followed by marine transgressive facies characterized by two fossil-rich intervals: a lower interval of black shales with fossil-rich carbonate concretions (Konservat-Lagerstätten) and an upper level with mollusk-dominated shell beds and shelly limestones. Following the marine ingression, an incomplete regressive succession of marginal-marine facies records the return of continental environments to the basin. The stratigraphic framework based on the correlation of several sections defines a transgressive-regressive cycle with depositional dip towards southeast, decreasing in thickness towards northwest, and with source areas located at the northern side of the basin. The facies-cycle wedge-geometry, together with paleocurrent data, indicates a coastal onlap towards NNW. Therefore, contrary to several paleogeographic scenarios previously proposed, the marine ingression would have reached the western parts of the Araripe Basin from the SSE.

  12. U-Pb zircon constraints on the age of the Cretaceous Mata Amarilla Formation, Southern Patagonia, Argentina: Its relationship with the evolution of the Austral Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Augusto N; Poire, Daniel G; Martin, Thomas; Gerdes, Axel; Goin, Francisco J; Gelfo, Javier N; Hoffmann, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant fossil content of the Mata Amarilla Formation (Southern Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina), its age has always generated a considerable number of questions and debates. The chronological data provided by invertebrates, dinosaurs, fish, turtles, plesiosaurs and fossil flora are contradictory. In this work, twenty U-Pb spot analyses by laser ablation were carried out on the outer parts of the zoned zircon crystals from a tuff layer of the middle section of the Mata Amarilla Formation, yielding a U-Pb concordia age of 96.23±0.71 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Cenomanian. The deposition of the lower section of the Mata Amarilla Formation marks the onset of the foreland stage of the Austral Basin (also known as Magallanes Basin); this transition is characterized by the west-east shift of the depositional systems, which is consistent with the progradation of the Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt. Thus, the onset of the foreland stage could have occurred between the upper Albian and lower Cenomanian, as the underlying Piedra Clavada Formation is lower Albian in age. On comparing the data obtained with information from the Ultima Esperanza Province in Chile, it can be suggested that the initiation of the closure of the Rocas Verdes Marginal Basin occurred simultaneously

  13. Late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial tableland formation in an intra-mountainous basin in a tectonically active mountain belt - A case study in the Puli Basin, central Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, Chia Han; Lüthgens, Christopher; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Reimann, Tony; Frechen, Manfred; Böse, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The morphology in Taiwan is a product of high tectonic activity at the convergent margin and East Asian monsoon climate. Tablelands are prominent geomorphic features in the Puli Basin in central Taiwan. These tablelands provide an archive to understand links between past climatic evolution and

  14. Fluvial sedimentology of a major uranium-bearing sandstone - A study of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, the main ore-bearing sandstone in the San Juan basin, consists of a sequence of vertically stacked braided stream deposits. Three fluvial units within the sequence can be delineated in the basin. Volcanic pebbles are abundant in the middle fluvial unit, in a zone that forms a crude time line. A pronounced thickening of sandstone in the Westwater Canyon Member north of Gallup, once believed to be the apex of a large alluvial fan, is now thought to merely reflect a greater accumulation of sediment in response to downwarping of the basin in that area. Provenance studies suggest that highlands that contributed detritus to Westwater Canyon streams were located several hundred kilometers to the west and southwest of the San Juan basin, and thus fan apices would also have been several hundred kilometers upstream. The fluvial units recognized in the basin may well be coalesced distal fan deposits, but are probably best interpreted as vertically stacked braided steam sequences. Facies changes in fine-grained interbeds of the Westwater Canyon probably have greater significance in terms of localizing ore than any special attribute of the fluvial sandstones themselves. Uranium ore generally occurs in sandstones that are interbedded with greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones. Pore waters that were expelled from these mudstones are thought to have been the source of the pore-filling organic matter (humate) associated with primary uranium ore in nearby sandstones

  15. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  16. Effect of the mining industry on the formation of regions based on the example of tentative concepts of Lyublinskiy coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazdziora, J

    1977-01-01

    It has been noted that large industrial centers and population centers often arise in areas where there are valuable mineral deposits. The role of the mining industry as a factor in the formation of industrial regions grew rapidly during the industrial revolution, when coal replaced wood as a source of energy. Gigantic industrial-urban settlements grew up in the area of coal basins in an uncontrolled manner with chaotic disruption, so that at the present time their further development and modernization is quite difficult. The complex of factors in the formation of modern coal basins was taken into consideration in draft concepts in building the central region of the Lyublinskiy coal basin. Specific mining and geological conditions of the basin, as well as the nature of the region which was non-industrial until recently are included. It makes it possible to develop a modern model of the mining surface which differs from former ones because it has a technical and social-municipal infrastructure which is rational from the organizational and engineering standpoint and has a favorable effect on the environment.

  17. Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility of agricultural soils in the Northwest region of the Parana State, Brazil; Gamaespectrometria, resistividade eletrica e susceptibilidade magnetica de solos agricolas no noroeste do estado do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becegato, Valter Antonio [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina-UDESC, Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias, Lages, SC (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: becegato@cav.udesc.br, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (LPGA/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada

    2005-10-15

    Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were taken from agricultural areas near the City of Maringa, in the Northwest region of the Parana state, south Brazil, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of radionuclides (K, eU, and eTh), the apparent resistivity, and the magnetic susceptibility determined for soils. Three different types of soils are present in this agricultural area: Alfisoil, clayey texture Oxisoil, both deriving from Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Serra Geral Formation; and medium texture Oxisoil from reworked Serra Geral and Goio-Ere formations, the latter deriving from sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Caiua Group. It could be observed that in more clayey soils both concentration of radionuclides and susceptibility values are higher than in more sandy soils, especially due to the higher adsorption in the former and to the higher availability of magnetic minerals in the latter. The average ppm and Bq Kg{sup -1} grades for K, eU, and eTh in the areas under anthropic activity are of 1766-54.75, 0.83-10.22, and 1.78-7.27, respectively. These grades are significantly higher than those of non-occupied or non-fertilized areas (1101-34.15 K, 0.14-1.69 eU, and 1.31-5.36 eTh in ppm and Bq Kg-1, respectively.) Correlations were observed between uranium and clay, uranium and magnetic susceptibility, uranium and organic matter, and between electric resistivity and clay grades. Varied concentrations of radionuclides were also observed in different fertilizer formulations applied to soy and wheat cultures. Apparent electric resistivity values between 25 and 647 Ohm.m and magnetic susceptibility values between 0.28 e 1.10 x 10-3 SI due to clay and magnetic minerals represented important soil discrimination factors in the study area that can be incorporated as easy, low-cost soil mapping tools. (author)

  18. On the formation and evolution of the Pannonian basin: constraints derived from the orogenic collapse recorded at the junction between Carpathians and Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, L. C.; Radivojevic, D.

    2012-04-01

    Formation and evolution of back-arc basins is related to the evolution of subduction zones, resulting geometries being dependent on the interplay between the velocity of retreating slabs and boundary conditions that often limit rapid subduction systems. Classical models of evolution in the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaridic domain assume that the formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is related to the rapid roll-back of an European slab and the invasion of Tisza-Dacia and ALCAPA upper plate blocks into the so-called Carpathians embayment starting at ~20Ma. The general mechanism assumes a gradual evolution, an initial mechanical phase of extensional detachments being recognized near the transition between the Alps and the Pannonian basin was subsequently followed by upper crustal normal faulting and a thermal phase during the Middle-late Miocene times that affected the central part of the Pannonian basin. A key area of the entire system often neglected by kinematic studies is the connection between South Carpathians and Dinarides. Here, regional seismic lines traversing the entire Serbian part of the Pannonian basin were calibrated with well data in order to derive an evolutionary model. The deformation is dominantly expressed by the formation of extensional (half-)grabens that are the brittle expression of large-scale extensional detachments. In contrast with previous interpretation restricting the syn-rift phase to the Middle Miocene, the geometry of normal faults and the associated syn-kinematic sedimentation allows the definition of a continuous Early to Late Miocene extensional evolution that was followed by the formation of isolated uplifted areas during the subsequent Pliocene - Quaternary inversion. The orientation of these (half-)grabens changes gradually from W-E to NW-SE and then to N-S, suggesting that the present-day strike of faults is the effect of a clockwise rotational mechanism of South Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains in respect to Dinarides. The S

  19. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  20. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy from outcrops of the Kribi-Campo sub-basin: Lower Mundeck Formation (Lower Cretaceous, southern Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntamak-Nida, Marie Joseph; Bourquin, Sylvie; Makong, Jean-Claude; Baudin, François; Mpesse, Jean Engelbert; Ngouem, Christophe Itjoko; Komguem, Paul Bertrand; Abolo, Guy Martin

    2010-08-01

    The Kribi-Campo sub-basin is composed of an Early to Mid Cretaceous series from West Africa's Atlantic coast and is located in southern Cameroon in the Central African equatorial rain forest. It is the smallest coastal basin in Cameroon and forms the southern part of the Douala/Kribi-Campo basin known as Douala basin ( s.l.). Until now, no detailed sedimentological studies have been carried out on the outcrops of this basin located in the Campo area. The aim of this study was to characterise the depositional environments, vertical evolution and tectonic context of these Lower Cretaceous series in order to make a comparison with adjacent basins and replace them in the geodynamic context. Facies analysis of the Lower Mundeck Formation (Lower Cretaceous) indicates the presence of four major, interfigered facies associations, that are inferred to represent elements of an alluvial to lacustrine-fan delta system. The clast lithologies suggest proximity of relief supplying coarse-grained sediment during the deposition of the Lower Mundeck Formation at Campo. The general dip and direction of the bedding is approximately 10°-12°NW, which also corresponds to the orientation of the foliations in the underlying metamorphic basement. The main sedimentary succession is characterised by a major retrogradational/progradational cycle of Late Aptian age, evaluated at about 3 Ma, with a well-developed progradational trend characterised by fluctuations of the recognised depositional environments. Fluctuations in lake level and sediment supply were possibly controlled by active faults at the basin margin, although climatic changes may have also played a role. The consistently W-WNW palaeoflow of sediments suggests that the palaeorelief was located to the east and could be oriented in a NNE-SSW direction, downthrown to the west. Local outcrops dated as Albian, both north and south of the main outcrop, display some marine influence. These deposits are cut by 040-060 faults parallel to

  1. Insights into the subsurface transport of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water from hydraulic fracturing using soil samples from Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, SS; Sun, Y; Tsang, DC; Graham, NJ; Ok, YS; Feng, Y; Li, XD

    2017-01-01

    Produced water is a type of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, which may pose a risk to the environment and humans due to its high ionic strength and the presence of elevated concentrations of metals/metalloids that exceed maximum contamination levels. The mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water and selected soils from Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin in China were investigated using column experiments and synthetic produced water whose quality was represent...

  2. Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphy of Missole Outcrops: N’Kapa Formation of the South-Eastern Edge of Douala Sub-Basin (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwetche , Paul; Ntamak-Nida , Marie Joseph; Nitcheu , Adrien Lamire Djomeni; Etame , Jacques; Owono , François Mvondo; Mbesse , Cecile Olive; Kissaaka , Joseph Bertrand Iboum; Ngon , Gilbert Ngon; Bourquin , Sylvie; Bilong , Paul

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Missole facies description and sequence stratigraphy analysis allow a new proposal of depositional environments of the Douala sub-basin eastern part. The sediments of Missole outcrops (N’kapa Formation) correspond to fluvial/tidal channel to shallow shelf deposits with in some place embayment deposits within a warm and semi-arid climate. Integrated sedimentologic, palynologic and mineralogical data document a comprehensive sequence stratigraphy of this part of the Doua...

  3. A sedimentological analysis of sediments corresponding to the San Gregorio Formation )Lower Permian), located in the eastern border of the North Uruguayan Basin, Sierra Guazunambi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso Aguilar, C.; Gama, E.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of sediments corresponding to the San Gregorio Formation (Lower Permian), located in the eastern border of the Norte Uruguayan Basin, Sierra Guazunambi, Cerro Largo Departament was made. Facies analysis of about 100 otucrops fand more than 1.300 meters, in an area of 45 square kilometers showed diamictites rhytmites and massive sandstones, formed by gravitational sedimentary flows. Also present are prodelta mudrocks and deltaic front sandstones.(author)

  4. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  5. Investigation on the upper Paleozoic Strata in Tang-e-Zakeen, and introducing Zakeen formation, Kuh-e Faraghan Zagros Basin, South Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavidel-Syooki, M.

    1998-01-01

    A thick clastic sequence is well-developed in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, being situated approximately 80 Km north of Bandar Abbas. The sequence is 340 m. thick and mainly consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale and subordinate dolomitic beds. So far, this clastic sequence has been called Faraghan Formation. This rock unit lacks marine fauna and based on stratigraphic position, it was assigned to the Early Permian (Szabo and Kheradpir, 1978). Since then, a detailed palynological study has been carried out on the Faraghan Formation by the author. These studies resulted identification of numerous palynomorph taxa, including miospore and acritarch species. The known palynomorph taxa indicated that, a major part of Faraghan Formation belongs to the Devonian Period, while the rest is Early Permian. As a result, the National Iranian Stratigraphic Committee decided and agreed upon to divide the Faraghan Formation into two rock units, namely, the Zakeen Formation, embracing the Devonian strata, and Faraghan Formation for the Early Permian sequence in the Zagros Basin respectively. The Zakeen Formation derives from the Zakeen Village which is located in the southern flank of Kuh-e-Faraghan, about 80 km north of Bandar Abbas. The type section of Zakeen Formation attains a thickness of 285m. in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, approximately 23 Km from the Zakeen village. It disconformably rests on the Sarchahan Formation, while it too, disconformably overlain by the Faraghan Formation. A total of 100 samples from the Zakeen Formation were selected and treated in the palynological laboratory of the Exploration Division of National Iranian Oil Company. 63 palynomorph taxa were encountered from the Zakeen Formation. The known species were arranged in five local stratigraphic assemblage zones. Zones I and II occur in a thickness of 96 m. of the Zakeen Formation, in ascending order, suggesting the Early Devonian whereas Zones III and IV occur Within 156 m. interval of the Zakeen

  6. Fault kinematics and depocenter evolution of oil-bearing, continental successions of the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian) in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    Up to 10% of the liquid hydrocarbons of the Golfo San Jorge basin come from the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian), an ash-dominated fluvial succession preserved in a variably integrated channel network that evolved coeval to an extensional tectonic event, poorly analyzed up to date. Fault orientation, throw distribution and kinematics of fault populations affecting the Mina del Carmen Formation were investigated using a 3D seismic dataset in the Cerro Dragón field (Eastern Sector of the Golfo San Jorge basin). Thickness maps of the seismic sub-units that integrate the Mina del Carmen Formation, named MEC-A-MEC-C in ascending order, and mapping of fluvial channels performed applying geophysical tools of visualization were integrated to the kinematical analysis of 20 main normal faults of the field. The study provides examples of changes in fault throw patterns with time, associated with faults of different orientations. The "main synrift phase" is characterized by NE-SW striking (mean Az = 49°), basement-involved normal faults that attains its maximum throw on top of the volcanic basement; this set of faults was active during deposition of the Las Heras Group and Pozo D-129 formation. A "second synrift phase" is recognized by E-W striking normal faults (mean Az = 91°) that nucleated and propagated from the Albian Mina del Carmen Formation. Fault activity was localized during deposition of the MEC-A sub-unit, but generalized during deposition of MEC-B sub-unit, producing centripetal and partially isolated depocenters. Upward decreasing in fault activity is inferred by more gradual thickness variation of MEC-C and the overlying Lower Member of Bajo Barreal Formation, evidencing passive infilling of relief associated to fault boundaries, and conformation of wider depocenters with well integrated networks of channels of larger dimensions but random orientation. Lately, the Mina del Carmen Formation was affected by the downward propagation of E-W to ESE-WNW striking

  7. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  8. New Prespective Paleogeography of East Java Basin; Implicationrespond to Oil and Gas Eksploration at Kujung Formation Carbonate Reservoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilana, C.; Premonowati; S, Hanif I.; Choirotunnisa; Shirly, A.; Utama, M. K.; Sinulingga, Y. R.; Syafitra, F.

    2018-03-01

    Paleogeography is one of critical points that always less considered by explorationist in the world. Almost all of the consideration is focused on trapping mechanism. Paleogeography is guidance in understanding both of physical and chemical of rock characteristic which will correlate with its depositional environment. Integration of various geological and geophysical data such as; tectonic, structural geology, stratigraphy, lithology, and biostratigraphy will lead us to a better understanding of rock characteristics. Six paleogeographic interpretations was made consist of; Early Tertiary (P5-56-55 ma), Middle Eocene (P14-41 ma), Late Oiligocene (P22-25.5 ma), Early Miocene (N7-16.5 ma), Middle Miocene (N9-14.5 ma), and Pleistocene (NN19-1.5 ma). That six paleogeographic interpretations are assumed represent the paleogeographic evolution of East Java Basin time after time. In Middle Eocene time, it would be more than hundred possibilities regarding the location where the formation deposited. This would be controlled by the existence of some local structural paleohighs and horsts which oriented NW-SE followed by their own sedimentary transportation path. With assumption that hydrocarbon generation was occurred in 15 Ma and the depth of maturation window lies on about 2,500 m depth. Therefore, the possibility of source rock maturation is high, due to almost of the clastics sediment of Ngimbang deposited into the series of grabens. The Kujung reef types simplified defines and categorize into; 1) Patch Reef 2) Berrier Reef 3) Pinnacle Reef Over Isolated Reef. Kujung Carbonates were deposited in Early Miocene when regional transgression occurred. The depositional environments were dominated by shallow marine littoral-sublittoral. Generally, the reservoir quality of this Kujung Carbonate shows fair to good quality, in range7-32% porosity, and 1-1400 mD permeability (internal SKK Migas data).

  9. Facies-controlled reservoir properties in ramp-fan and slope-apron deposits, Miocene Puente Formation, Los Angeles basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, K.T.; Geving, R.L.; Suchecki, R.K.

    1989-03-01

    The Miocene Puente Formation in outcrops of the eastern Los Angeles basin is interpreted as a succession of slope-apron and ramp-fan deposits that accumulated in a prism-rise wedge. The principal depositional components of this dominantly base-of-slope and ramp system are ramp-fan channels and lobes, and slope-channel and slope-apron channel/interchannel deposits. Facies-specific textural, compositional, and diagenetic attributes observed in thin section assist in the classification of depositional facies. Specifically, occurrence of carbonate cement, clay mineralogy, and abundance of organic material vary as a function of component facies architecture of the depositional system. Slope and ramp-fan channel-fill sandstones are characterized by pervasive carbonate cements, including poikilotopic and fine-grained calcite, fine-grained and baroque dolomite, and minor siderite. Diagenetic clays predate carbonate cements, and dolomite predates coarser, void-filling calcite. Ramp-fan lobe and interchannel deposits are carbonate free but are rich in detrital clay and organic matter. Diagenetic clays include mixed-layer illite/smectite and kaolinite. Sediments deposited in slope-apron channel fill are virtually cement free except for small amounts of authigenic illite/smectite. Slope-apron interchannel deposits are characterized by high content of organic matter and clay-rich matrix. Potential reservoir characteristics, such as grain size, sorting, and abundance of depositional clay matrix, are related to the primary sedimentary properties of depositional architectural components in the ramp-fan and slope-apron system. Additional diagenetic modifications, without consideration of compaction, were controlled by precipitation reactions associated with fluid flow along pathways related to the depositional architectural framework.

  10. Dynamic elastic properties of the Wufeng–Longmaxi formation shale in the southeast margin of the Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jixin; Shen, Hui; Xu, Zhonghua; Ma, Zhonggao; Zhao, Qun; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the growing interest in Late Ordovician to the Early Silurian Wufeng–Longmaxi black shale for gas production in the southeast of the Sichuan Basin, little data is available on the acoustic properties of these shale reservoirs. The dynamic elastic properties of a suite of shales from this formation with different organic matter content were measured using the ultrasonic transmission technique at a range of confining pressures. The mineralogical features and reservoir space types were studied with the goal of analyzing their influence on the acoustic properties of the shale samples. The TOC (total organic content) is found to have a positive correlation with the quartz content and a negative correlation with the clay content. Organic matter pores and inter-crystal micro-pores are the main pore types. Organic-rich shales show a low P-wave impedance (Ip) and Vp/Vs ratio due to relatively higher TOC and quartz content; nonetheless, high P-wave (Ip) is also observed when the quartz content is very high resulting from the variation of load-bearing grains. The velocities and anisotropy of different shale samples show varying pressure dependence. A strong positive correlation is found between the anisotropy and the clay content. Three different types of microfabric can be observed in the shale samples, giving a qualitative explanation for the correlation between the anisotropy and the clay content. The occurrence of preferential alignment of the clay minerals requires that the clay content exceeds a critical volume, and this value is about 25%–30% in this study. (paper)

  11. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  12. Eocene and Miocene extension, meteoric fluid infiltration, and core complex formation in the Great Basin (Raft River Mountains, Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Wells, Michael L.; Cosca, Michael A.; Gottardi, Raphael; Gebelin, Aude; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) in the North American Cordillera reflect the effects of lithospheric extension and contribute to crustal adjustments both during and after a protracted subduction history along the Pacific plate margin. While the Miocene-to-recent history of most MCCs in the Great Basin, including the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek MCC, is well documented, early Cenozoic tectonic fabrics are commonly severely overprinted. We present stable isotope, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar), and microstructural data from the Raft River detachment shear zone. Hydrogen isotope ratios of syntectonic white mica (δ2Hms) from mylonitic quartzite within the shear zone are very low (−90‰ to −154‰, Vienna SMOW) and result from multiphase synkinematic interaction with surface-derived fluids. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology reveals Eocene (re)crystallization of white mica with δ2Hms ≥ −154‰ in quartzite mylonite of the western segment of the detachment system. These δ2Hms values are distinctively lower than in localities farther east (δ2Hms ≥ −125‰), where 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data indicate Miocene (18–15 Ma) extensional shearing and mylonitic fabric formation. These data indicate that very low δ2H surface-derived fluids penetrated the brittle-ductile transition as early as the mid-Eocene during a first phase of exhumation along a detachment rooted to the east. In the eastern part of the core complex, prominent top-to-the-east ductile shearing, mid-Miocene 40Ar/39Ar ages, and higher δ2H values of recrystallized white mica, indicate Miocene structural and isotopic overprinting of Eocene fabrics.

  13. Hydrothermal Alteration Promotes Humic Acid Formation in Sediments: A Case Study of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Nittala S.; Kiran, Rayaprolu; Rama Reddy, M.; Iyer, Sridhar D.; Peketi, A.; Borole, D. V.; Krishna, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Anomalously high concentrations of humic-rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) in extant submarine hydrothermal vent plumes traveled far from source are increasingly being reported. This DOM, able to mobilize trace metals (e.g., Fe2+) has been hypothesized as originating from organic matter produced by thermogenic bacteria. To eliminate a possible abiogenic origin of this DOM, study is required of well-preserved organic compounds that can be attributed to thermogenic bacteria. The Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) is part of a diffuse plate boundary and an intraplate deformation zone. Coarse fraction (>63 µ) characteristics, mineralogy, magnetic susceptibility, and geochemistry were examined in sediments of a core raised close to a north-south fracture zone near the Equator. Two horizons of distinctly brown-colored sediments were shown as hydrothermally altered from their charred fragments and geochemistry (CaCO3, Corg, Ti/Al, Al/(Al + Fe + Mn), Sr/Ba, Mg/Li, Mn micronodules, Fe/Mn). We examined whether humic substances were preserved in these sediments, and if so whether their carbon isotope distribution would support their hydrothermal origin. Alkali extraction of sediments afforded humic acids (HA) in yields up to 1.2% in the brown sediments. The remaining portions of the core had nil or low concentrations of HA. The carbon of hydrothermal HA is isotopically heavier (average δ13C, ˜ -16.3‰) compared to nonhydrothermal HA (-18.1‰), suggesting that they were probably formed from organic matter that remained after elimination of lighter carbon enriched functional groups during diagenesis. The results provide compelling evidence of HA formation from lipids originating from thermogenic bacteria.

  14. Review of consequences of uranium hydride formation in N-Reactor fuel elements stored in the K-Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.W.

    1994-09-28

    The 105-K Basins on the Hanford site are used to store uranium fuel elements and assemblies irradiated in and discharged from N Reactor. The storage cylinders in KW Basin are known to have some broken N reactor fuel elements in which the exposed uranium is slowly reacting chemically with water in the cylinder. The products of these reactions are uranium oxide, hydrogen, and potentially some uranium hydride. The purpose of this report is to document the results f the latest review of potential, but highly unlikely accidents postulated to occur as closed cylinders containing N reactor fuel assemblies are opened under water in the KW basin and as a fuel assembly is raised from the basin in a shipping cask for transportation to the 327 Building for examination as part of the SNF Characterization Program. The postulated accidents reviews in this report are considered to bound all potential releases of radioactivity and hydrogen. These postulated accidents are: (1) opening and refill of a cylinder containing significant amounts of hydrogen and uranium hydride; and (2) draining of the single element can be used to keep the fuel element submerged in water after the cask containing the can and element is lifted from the KW Basin. Analysis shows the release of radioactivity to the site boundary is significantly less than that allowed by the K Basin Safety Evaluation. Analysis further shows there would be no damage to the K Basin structure nor would there be injury to personnel for credible events.

  15. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, M.S.M.; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs

  16. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, M.S.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J. [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs.

  17. Origins and Geochemistry of Oolitic Dolomite of the Feixianguan Formation from the Yudongzi Outcrop, Northwest Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of dolomite formation has long presented a challenge to researchers. In this study, the origin of widely occurring oolitic dolomites from the Yudongzi outcrop in the lower Triassic Feixianguan formation in northwest Sichuan, China, was investigated through petrographic observations, and mineralogical and geochemical analysis. Analytical methods used include cathodoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, stable isotopes, and electronic microprobe characterization. The dolomites were categorized into three major genetic types according to their textural and structural characteristics, which reflect their various origins. The first genetic type of these dolomites, seepage reflux dolomitization, occurs in marly to microcrystalline dolomite during the penecontemporaneous stage, and displays negatively skewed δ18Ο (−2.83‰ Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB, positively skewed δ13C (2.71‰ PDB, a low degree of order (0.48, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.707509–0.707634, indicating involvement of a Mg-rich brine fluid in an open evaporative environment. The second type, shallow burial dolomitization, is the most significant genetic type of dolomite reservoir in this area. This process produced dominantly silty to fine crystalline dolomite in a platform-margin oolitic beach facies with negatively skewed δ18Ο (−3.26‰ PDB, positively skewed δ13C (1.88‰ PDB, a high degree of order (0.70, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.707318–0.707661, which are related to seawater-derived fluids in a shallow burial environment. The third type is moderate to deep burial dolomitization, and is the main process responsible for zoned dolomite and dolomite with cloudy cores and clear rims (CCCR dolomite, which have the most strongly negatively skewed δ18Ο (−7.32‰ PDB, positively skewed δ13C (3.02‰ PDB, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.707217–0.707855, representing diagenetic alteration and fluid flow in a closed environment. These findings indicate that dolomite was likely

  18. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Qaleh Jegh and Yazdan Abad sections (West of Kopet-Dagh Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Gholami Fard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-    Introduction Kopet Dagh Basin is located on the northeast of Iran, extending over Iran, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan with a west-northwest to east-southeast trend. The Iranian part of the basin is located between 61°14ˊ and 54°00ˊE and 38°15ˊ and 35°38ˊ N. It constitutes the second most important hydrocarbon province of Iran after Zagros Basin. Cretaceous sediments are well developed and extensively exposed in this basin. In order to study the Biostratigraphy of Sarcheshme and Sanganeh Formations, the calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated in two stratigraphic sections. Shokri (2000, Hadavi and Shokri (2000, Hadavi and Bodaghi (2000 & 2009, Dehghan (2002, Mahanipour et al. (2011a,b & 2012 and Mahanipour and Kani (2015 studied the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshme or Sanganeh Formation.   2-    Material & Methods The studied sections, the Qaleh Jegh section (located at a distance of 35 km to the northeast of Bojnord, on the Baba Boland mountain; N37°47ˊ57˝ and E57°16ˊ53˝ and Yazdan Abad section (located at north of Yazdan Abad village; N37°55ˊ34˝ and E57°35ˊ10˝. Sarcheshmeh Formation conformably overlies the Tirgan Formation and is in turn overlain by the Sanganeh Formation in both sections and Atamir Formation conformably overlies the Sanganeh Formation. Sarcheshmeh Formation measures 2660 m in Qaleh Jegh section and comprises argillaceous limestone (with limestone intercalations in lower part and shale (with limestone intercalation in upper part. A  fossiliferous limestone separates the Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh. Sanganeh Formation measures 1400 m and consists of siltstones (with sandstone, shale or limestone intercalation in lower part and shale containing chert nodules (with siltstone intercalation in upper part. At Yazadn Abad section the 655 m thick succession of Sarcheshmeh Formation consists of alternating argillaceous limestone and limestone in lower part and

  19. Uranium and main oxides in soil in the Northeast part of Parana basil; Uranio e principais oxidos em solo na porcao nordeste da bacia do Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, I.C.; Bonotto, D.M.; Jimenez-Rueda, J.R., E-mail: fagundes.isabella@gmail.com, E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br, E-mail: jairorjr@rc.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Uranium is a litophile element that migrates to crust together with other light silicates. This work evaluated the relationships among the concentrations of uranium, major oxides (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, TiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and organic matter in different horizons of a soil profile located over siltstone from Tatui Formation, Piracicaba River sub-basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Different techniques were utilized for data acquisition, for instance, alpha spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and smectrophotometry. The major U concentrations were found in horizons enriched in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, indicating its tending to be retained in iron oxides. (author)

  20. Possible Involvement of Permian Phosphoria Formation Oil as a Source of REE and Other Metals Associated with Complex U-V Mineralization in the Northern Bighorn Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Moore-Nall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of V, U, REE and other metals in the Permian Phosphoria Formation have been speculated and studied by numerous scientists. The exceptionally high concentrations of metals have been interpreted to reflect fundamental transitions from anoxic to oxic marine conditions. Much of the oil in the Bighorn Basin, is sourced by the Phosphoria Formation. Two of the top 10 producing oil fields in Wyoming are located approximately 50 km west of two abandoned U-V mining districts in the northern portion of the basin. These fields produce from basin margin anticlinal structures from Mississippian age reservoir rock. Samples collected from abandoned U-V mines and prospects hosted in Mississippian aged paleokarst in Montana and Wyoming have hydrocarbon residue present and contain anomalous high concentrations of many metals that are found in similar concentrations in the Phosphoria Formation. As, Hg, Mo, Pb, Tl, U, V and Zn, often metals of environmental concern occur in high concentrations in Phosphoria Formation samples and had values ranging from 30–1295 ppm As, 0.179–12.8 ppm Hg, 2–791 ppm Mo, <2–146 ppm Pb, 10–490 ppm Tl, 907–86,800 ppm U, 1240–18,900 ppm V, and 7–2230 ppm Zn, in mineralized samples from this study. The REE plus Y composition of Madison Limestone- and limestone breccia hosted-bitumen reflect similar patterns to both mineralized samples from this study and to U.S. Geological Survey rock samples from studies of the Phosphoria Formation. Geochemical, mineralogical and field data were used to investigate past theories for mineralization of these deposits to determine if U present in home wells and Hg content of fish from rivers on the proximal Crow Indian Reservation may have been derived from these deposits or related to their mode of mineralization.

  1. Generation and migration of Bitumen and oil from the oil shale interval of the Eocene Green River formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    The results from the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, based primarily on the Fischer assay method, are applied herein to define areas where the oil shale interval is depleted of some of its petroleum-generating potential along the deep structural trough of the basin and to make: (1) a general estimates of the amount of this depletion, and (2) estimate the total volume of petroleum generated. Oil yields (gallons of oil per ton of rock, GPT) and in-place oil (barrels of oil per acre, BPA) decrease toward the structural trough of the basin, which represents an offshore lacustrine area that is believed to have originally contained greater petroleum-generating potential than is currently indicated by measured Fischer assay oil yields. Although this interval is considered to be largely immature for oil generation based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, the oil shale interval is a likely source for the gilsonite deposits and much of the tar sands in the basin. Early expulsion of petroleum may have occurred due to the very high organic carbon content and oil-prone nature of the Type I kerogen present in Green River oil shale. In order to examine the possible sources and migration pathways for the tar sands and gilsonite deposits, we have created paleogeographic reconstructions of several oil shale zones in the basin as part of this study.

  2. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  3. Sedimentology of the Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin Members, Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Colorado Plateau, and relationship to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member was deposited by eastward-flowing, high energy, intermittent streams that drained a source area of diverse lithologies. Multi-channel river systems exhibited only minor downstream changes, most notably a slight increase in the amount of lateral accretion deposition. During deposition of the overlying Brushy Basin Member, a large saline, alkaline lake developed in an area that encompasses both the San Juan basin and the Paradox basin. Alteration of airborne volcanic ash that became incorporated in the lake sediments resulted in a lateral zonation of authigenic minerals that resembles the zonation characteristic of Cenozoic saline, alkaline lakes. The lake, named Lake T'oo'dichi, is the largest and oldest saline, alkaline lake known. Localization of primary uranium ore in the Grants uranium region, New Mexico, is more related to depositional facies in the Brushy Basin Member than to any special attribute of the host sandstones in the Westwater Canyon Member. Coincidence of depositional facies in the Brushy Basin Member with ore distribution and ore-related alteration patterns in the Westwater Canyon Member suggests a model in which humic acids originated in pore waters of smectitic mudstones of the Brushy Basin Member and moved downward into the underlying sandstones of the Westwater Canyon Member. Here, the humic acids precipitated to form humin layers that subsequently concentrated uranium from ground water to form the orebodies

  4. Calibrating Late Cretaceous Terrestrial Cyclostratigraphy with High-precision U-Pb Zircon Geochronology: Qingshankou Formation of the Songliao Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Ramezani, J.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    A continuous succession of Late Cretaceous lacustrine strata has been recovered from the SK-I south (SK-Is) and SKI north (SK-In) boreholes in the long-lived Cretaceous Songliao Basin in Northeast China. Establishing a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework is a prerequisite for integrating the Songliao record with the global marine Cretaceous. We present high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology by the chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal-ionization mass spectrometry method from multiple bentonite core samples from the Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation in order to assess the astrochronological model for the Songliao Basin cyclostratigraphy. Our results from the SK-Is core present major improvements in precision and accuracy over the previously published geochronology and allow a cycle-level calibration of the cyclostratigraphy. The resulting choronostratigraphy suggest a good first-order agreement between the radioisotope geochronology and the established astrochronological time scale over the corresponding interval. The dated bentonite beds near the 1780 m depth straddle a prominent oil shale layer of the Qingshankou Formation, which records a basin-wide lake anoxic event (LAE1), providing a direct age constraint for the LAE1. The latter appears to coincide in time with the Late Cretaceous (Turonian) global sea level change event Tu4 presently constrained at 91.8 Ma.

  5. Deuterium and oxygen-18 concentrations in rain and river waters from Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana States, Brazil; Concentracoes de deuterio e oxigenio-18 nas aguas de precipitacao e de superficie dos Estados de Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo e Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Oliveiro J [Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras, MG (Brazil); Salati, Eneas [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    1982-07-01

    The main object of this paper was to study the concentration of deuterium (D) and Oxygen-18 ({sup 18} O) in the rain and river waters from the States of Minas Gerais, Sao paulo and Parana. Monthly samples were prepared and analysed at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-ESALQ-USP) with the use of CH-4 ({sup 18} O) and GD-150 (D) mass spectrometers of Varian-Mat. In order to correlate the D and {sup 18} O of the rain water the equation {delta}D = 9.22 + 7.17{delta}18 was found. Considering the three equations separately it was observed that the parameter a = {delta}D -b{delta}18 increases from the South to the North. For the Piracicaba River (city of Piracicaba only), the D and {sup 18} O relationship was expressed by {delta}D = -10.98 + 4.88{delta}18. The States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo can be divided according to the weight-average concentrations ({delta}18 m%{sub 0}). This division is not possible from Parana. Considering the average from the weight average concentration (annually and summer) for the three States, the annual average (D and {sup 18} O) is slightly richer than the summer average, showing the importance of the amount effect, mainly for the States of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The rivers studied had little variation in the {sup 18} O concentrations with no definite periodicity. The rivers from the North of Minas Gerais are slightly richer in {sup 18} O than the rivers from the South. The waters from Rio Grande in the South of Minas Gerais State are poorer in {sup 18} O than the water of the same river in the `Triangle`region. The {delta}18% {sub 0} data for the rivers Grande, Parnaiba and Parana are very similar, so there is no way to compute the contribution of the first and the second rivers in the formation of the third. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Discovery and basic characteristics of high-quality source rocks found in the Yuertusi Formation of the Cambrian in Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Paleozoic strata of the Tarim Basin have abundant resources of marine oil and gas. In the Tahe area, Halahatang area, and Tazhong area of the basin, many large-scale oilfields have been found. These oilfields have a confirmed oil and gas reserves worth more than 2.5 billion tons and have completed the annual output of more than 14 million tons of marine oil and gas equivalent. The belief that the only main hydrocarbon source rocks are of the Cambrian or Ordovician is still controversial. Chemists have made significant progress and have effectively lead the oil and gas exploration in Tarim Basin. Due to the complexity of the basin and the limitation of samples, the research work, and fine contrast is restricted. In this article, we investigated the Cambrian strata outcrop of Tarim Basin in detail. By analyzing a lot of outcrops, high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks of Yuertusi Formation have been found in more than 10 outcrop points in Aksu region. The source rocks' lithology is black shale with total organic carbon (TOC content that ranges between 2% and 16%. Total organic carbon (TOC of the black shale layer could be as much as 4%–16%, especially in the outcrops of the Yutixi and Shiairike. This by far is the best marine hydrocarbon source rock that was found in China. The source rocks were distributed consistently in the Aksu region, the thickness of which is about 10–15 m. It was formed in a sedimentary environment of a middle gentle slope to a low gentle slope. Organic matter enrichment is controlled by the upwelling currents. The thick strata of dolostone that developed in the Xiaoerblak Formation are considered to be good reservoirs of the beach and microbial reef in the upper strata of Yuertusi Formation. No hydrocarbon source rocks have been found in the outcrop of Xiaoerblak Formation. The thick strata of gyprock and mudstone development are a set of satisfactory cap layer in the Lower Cambrian. This hydrocarbon

  7. An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: A case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Upadhyay, P. K.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Zakaulla, Syed; Bhatt, A. K.; Natarajan, V.; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-03-01

    The lower stratigraphic part of the Cuddapah basin is marked by mafic and felsic volcanism. Tadpatri Formation consists of a greater variety of rock types due to bimodal volcanism in the upper part. Presence of bimodal volcanism is an indication of continental rift setting. Various genetic processes involved in the formation of such volcanic sequence result in original textures which are classified into volcaniclastic and coherent categories. Detailed and systematic field works in Tadpatri-Tonduru transect of SW Cuddapah basin have provided information on the physical processes producing this diversity of rock types. Felsic volcanism is manifested here with features as finger print of past rhyolite-dacite eruptions. Acid volcanics, tuffs and associated shale of Tadpatri Formation are studied and mapped in the field. With supporting subordinate studies on geochemistry, mineralogy and petrogenesis of the volcanics to validate field features accurately, it is understood that volcanism was associated with rifting and shallow marine environmental condition. Four facies (i.e., surge, flow, fall and resedimented volcaniclastic) are demarcated to describe stratigraphic units and volcanic history of the mapped area. The present contribution focuses on the fundamental characterization and categorization of field-based features diagnostic of silica-rich volcanic activities in the Tadpatri Formation.

  8. Geological and geochronological evidence for the effect of Paleogene and Miocene uplift of the Northern Ordos Basin on the formation of the Dongsheng uranium district, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yi, Chao; Dong, Qian; Cai, Yu-Qi; Liu, Hong-Xu

    2018-02-01

    The Dongsheng uranium district, located in the northern part of the Ordos Basin, contains the largest known sandstone-hosted uranium deposit in China. This district contains (from west to east) the Daying, Nalinggou, and Dongsheng uranium deposits that host tens of thousands of metric tonnes of estimated recoverable uranium resources at an average grade of 0.05% U. These uranium orebodies are generally hosted by the lower member of the Zhiluo Formation and are dominantly roll or tabular in shape. The uranium deposits in this district formed during two stages of mineralization (as evidenced by U-Pb dating) that occurred at 65-60 and 25 Ma. Both stages generated coffinite, pitchblende, anatase, pyrite, and quartz, with or without sericite, chlorite, calcite, fluorite, and hematite. The post-Late Cretaceous uplift of the Northern Ordos Basin exposed the northern margins of the Zhiluo Formation within the Hetao depression at 65-60 Ma, introducing groundwater into the formation and generating the first stage of uranium mineralization. The Oligocene (∼25 Ma) uplift of this northern margin exposed either the entirety of the southern flank of the Hetao depression or only the clastic sedimentary part of this region, causing a second gravitational influx of groundwater into the Zhiluo Formation and forming the second stage of uranium mineralization.

  9. Palynology of Lower Palaeogene (Thanetian-Ypresian) coastal deposits from the Barmer Basin (Akli Formation, Western Rajasthan, India): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.M.; Kumar, M.; Srivastava, D. [Birbal Sahni Instititue of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-03-15

    The 32-m thick sedimentary succession of the Paleocene-Eocene Akli Formation (Barmer basin, Rajasthan, India), which is exposed in an open-cast lignite mine, interbed several lignite seams that alternate with fossiliferous carbonaceous clays, green clays and widespread siderite bands and chert nodules. The palynofloral assemblages consist of spore, pollen and marine dinoflagellate cysts that indicate a Thanetian to Ypresian age. The assemblage is dominated by angiospermic pollen and specimens showing affinity with the mangrove Palm Nypa are also very abundant. The Nypa-like pollen specimens exhibit a wide range of morphological variation, some of the recorded morphotypes being restricted to this Indian basin. Preponderance of these pollen taxa indicates that the sediments were deposited in a coastal swamp surrounded by thick, Nypa-dominated mangrove vegetation. The dispersed organic matter separated from macerated residues indicates the dominance of anoxic conditions throughout the succession, although a gradual transition to oxic conditions is recorded in the upper part.

  10. Matéria-prima da formação Corumbataí na região do pólo cerâmico de Santa Gertrudes, SP, com características naturais para fabricação de argila expandida Sedimentary rocks from Corumbataí formation (Paraná basin, Brazil with natural characteristics to produce expanded clay lightweight aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. T. Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se um material da base da Formação Corumbataí, proveniente de uma mineração de argila, que apresenta restrições de uso em cerâmica devido à sua dureza e, principalmente, ao alto conteúdo de matéria orgânica. Verificou-se que o material apresenta características naturais ótimas para a fabricação de argila expandida diretamente a partir de fragmentos de rocha, mostrando comportamento piroplástico com expansão significativa se submetido à queima rápida. A caracterização da matéria-prima e do produto foi realizada mediante análise de carbono orgânico, difração de raios X, microscopia ótica e testes de queima. Foram determinadas as condições de queima para obter argila expandida utilizando forno de queima rápida e forno a rolos, ambos de laboratório, obtendo corpos com densidade variável (que podem chegar a valores menores que 0,5 g.cm-3 até o limite de expansão. Esta densidade é obtida devido à formação de poros fechados e uma película externa vítrea, que proporcionam uma resistência mecânica alta aos fragmentos expandidos.This paper refers to the study of the material of the base of the Corumbataí formation (Parana Basin, Brazil of a clay mine, which presents limits for its use in ceramic tiles in dry grinding process due to its hardness and, especially, the high content of organic matter in relation to the clay overlaid. The characterization of the raw material and the product was accomplished by organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and test-firing. Firing conditions were determined to get expanded clay, using fast firing static kiln and a continuous roller kiln, both from laboratory equipment, getting samples with variable density up to the limit of expansion, with density that can reach values lower than 0.5 g.cm-3 because of the formation of closed pores and an external vitreous foil which provide a high mechanical resistance to the particles.

  11. Geology of the Fox Hills Formation (late Cretaceous) in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, with reference to uranium potential. Report of investigation No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvancara, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Fox Hills Formation is a marine and brackish sequence of primarily medium and fine clastics within the Late Cretaceous Montana Group. In the Williston basin of North Dakota, four members (in ascending order) are recognized: Trail City, Timber Lake, Iron Lightning (with Bullhead and Colgate lithofacies), and Linton. The Fox Hills conformably overlies the Pierre Shale and conformably and disconformably underlies and interfingers with the Hell Creek Formation; it occurs in about the western two-thirds of the state. The geology of the Fox Hills Formation in North Dakota, and the stratigraphy of which is based on previous surface information and recent subsurface data, are summarized, and its potential for uranium is evaluated

  12. Formation and mechanism of the abnormal pressure zone and its relation to oil and gas accumulations in the Eastern Jiuquan Basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 黄第藩

    1996-01-01

    Three abnormal overpressure zoes with a planar top at different depths occur in the Ying’er Depression in the Eastern Jiuquan Basin. The distance and the temperature difference between them are about 1 000 m and 30℃, respectively. The studies of sedimentary history, nature of formation water, variation of geothermal gradient and examination of thin sections, and the relationship between lithologic section and formation pressure show that there are conditions for formation of abnormal overpressure zones in the Ying’er Depression. Aquathermal pressuring and the overlying sediment load are main factors forming the abnormal overpressure zones. The study indicates that most of oil and gas in the Ying’er Depression accumulated in reservoirs above or under the seals or in the top of the compartments.

  13. Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Composition of Carbonate Rocks of the Permian Qixia Formation, Sichuan Basin: Thermal Effects of Emeishan Basalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The late Permian thermal events related to Emeishan Basalt has made a great impact on the underlying carbonate rock properties in the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. In this paper, we investigate the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of the Qixia Formation carbonates from two sections: the Qiaoting Section in the northeastern part of the Sichuan Basin and the Changjianggou Section at the northwestern edge of the Basin. The data reveal that: (i Samples from Qiaoting section show a relatively narrow range of δ13C and δ18O, varying from 2.7‰ to 5.2‰ with an average of 4.2‰, and -3.8‰ to -7.8‰ with an average of -5.4‰, respectively. In contrast, Samples from Changjianggou section exhibit larger magnitude of variation in δ13C and δ18O, ranging from -1‰ to 3.8‰ with an average of 1.5‰, and -2.1 to -9.2‰, with an average of -6.0‰ respectively; (ii δ13C and δ18O records in carbonates from Qiaoting section are similar to those of Middle Permian seawater whereas carbonates from the Changjianggou section are depleted in 13C and 18O compared to contemporary seawater; (iii On the basis of combined petrographic and paleo-heat flow evidence, the lower carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of the carbonates from the Changjianggou section are interpreted to be the results of thermal effects of Emeishan Basalt because of its proximity to the eruption center of the basalt. The high temperature reduced the δ18O values of the carbonates and forced the organic matter to mature at an early stage, thus producing 13C-enriched carbon dioxide to participate in the formation of carbonates.     Composición Isotópica de Oxígeno y Carbón en Rocas de Carbonato de la Formación de Edad Pérmica Qixia, en la Cuenca de Sichuan: Efectos Térmicos del Basalto Emeishan   Resumen Los eventos térmicos del Pérmico tardío relacionados con el Basalto Emeishan han tenido un gran impacto en las propiedades de las rocas de carbonato

  14. Micromorphology of Paleosols of the Marília Formation and their Significance in the Paleoenvironmental Evolution of the Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deduction of associated paleoenvironments and paleoclimate, definition of the chronosequence of paleosols, and paleogeographic reconstruction have become possible through the application of micromorphology in paleopedology. Micromorphology has also been useful in recognition of weathering processes and definition of minerals formed in succession. In this respect, the objective of this study was to identify the development of pedogenic processes and discuss their significance in the paleoclimate evolution of the Marília Formation (Maastrichtian of Bauru Basin. Three sections of the Marília Formation (A1, A2, and A3 were described, comprising nine profiles. Micromorphologic al analysis was carried out according to the specialized literature. In the Marília Formation, the paleosols developed in sandstones have argillic (Btkm, Bt and carbonate (Bk horizons with different degrees of cementation, forming mainly calcretes. The evolution of pedogenic processes, in light of micromorphological analysis, evidenced three moments or stages for the genesis of paleosols with Bkm, Btk, and Bt horizons, respectively. In the Maastrichtian in the Bauru Basin, the paleosols with Bkm are older and more arid environments, and those with Bt were formed in wetter weather, but not enough to lead to the genesis of enaulic-related distributions, typical of current Oxisols.

  15. The role of the thermal convection of fluids in the formation of unconformity-type uranium deposits: the Athabasca Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, A. A.; Malkovsky, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    In the global production of uranium, 18% belong to the unconformity-type Canadian deposits localized in the Athabasca Basin. These deposits, which are unique in terms of their ore quality, were primarily studied by Canadian and French scientists. They have elaborated the diagenetic-hydrothermal hypothesis of ore formation, which suggests that (1) the deposits were formed within a sedimentary basin near an unconformity surface dividing the folded Archean-Proterozoic metamorphic basement and a gently dipping sedimentary cover, which is not affected by metamorphism; (2) the spatial accommodation of the deposits is controlled by the rejuvenated faults in the basement at their exit into the overlying sedimentary sequence; the ore bodies are localized above and below the unconformity surface; (3) the occurrence of graphite-bearing rocks is an important factor in controlling the local structural mineralization; (4) the ore bodies are the products of uranium precipitation on a reducing barrier. The mechanism that drives the circulation of ore-forming hydrothermal solutions has remained one of the main unclear questions in the general genetic concept. The ore was deposited above the surface of the unconformity due to the upflow discharge of the solution from the fault zones into the overlying conglomerate and sandstone. The ore formation below this surface is a result of the downflow migration of the solutions along the fault zones from sandstone into the basement rocks. A thermal convective system with the conjugated convection cells in the basement and sedimentary fill of the basin may be a possible explanation of why the hydrotherms circulate in the opposite directions. The results of our computations in the model setting of the free thermal convection of fluids are consistent with the conceptual reasoning about the conditions of the formation of unique uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin. The calculated rates of the focused solution circulation through the fault

  16. Assessment of water and proppant quantities associated with petroleum production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth; Varela, Brian A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Engle, Mark A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Martinez, Cericia D.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.

  17. Quaternary river terrace formation in the Allier basin, France : a reconstruction based on sand bulk geochemistry and 3-D modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.

    1991-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is focussed on a quantitative reconstruction of the effects of past environmental dynamics within a fluvial system. The study area is part of the Allier basin (Limagne) in the Auvergne, Massif Central, France.

    The

  18. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, Rebecca; Tonnesen, Gail; Luecken, Deborah; Gilliam, Rob; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Baker, Kirk R.; Schwede, Donna; Murphy, Ben; Helmig, Detlev; Lyman, Seth N.; Roselle, Shawn

    2017-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used to simulate a 10 day high-ozone episode observed during the 2013 Uinta Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS). The baseline model had a large negative bias when compared to ozone (O3) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements across the basin. Contrary to other wintertime Uinta Basin studies, predicted nitrogen oxides (NOx) were typically low compared to measurements. Increases to oil and gas VOC emissions resulted in O3 predictions closer to observations, and nighttime O3 improved when reducing the deposition velocity for all chemical species. Vertical structures of these pollutants were similar to observations on multiple days. However, the predicted surface layer VOC mixing ratios were generally found to be underestimated during the day and overestimated at night. While temperature profiles compared well to observations, WRF was found to have a warm temperature bias and too low nighttime mixing heights. Analyses of more realistic snow heat capacity in WRF to account for the warm bias and vertical mixing resulted in improved temperature profiles, although the improved temperature profiles seldom resulted in improved O3 profiles. While additional work is needed to investigate meteorological impacts, results suggest that the uncertainty in the oil and gas emissions contributes more to the underestimation of O3. Further, model adjustments based on a single site may not be suitable across all sites within the basin.

  19. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835714; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  20. Formation of forearc basins by collision between seamounts and accretionary wedges: an example from the New Hebrides subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Fisher, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seabeam data reveal two deep subcircular reentrants in the lower arc slope of the New Hebrides island arc that may illustrate two stages in the development of a novel type of forearc basin. The Malekula reentrant lies just south of the partly subducted Bougainville seamount. This proximity, as well as the similarity in morphology between the reentrant and an indentation in the lower arc slope off Japan, suggests that the Malekula reentrant formed by the collision of a seamount with the arc. An arcuate fold-thrust belt has formed across the mouth of the reentrant, forming the toe of a new accretionary wedge. The Efate reentrant may show the next stage in basin development. This reentrant lies landward of a lower-slope ridge that may have begun to form as an arcuate fold-thrust belt across the mouth of a reentrant. This belt may have grown by continued accretion at the toe of the wedge, by underplating beneath the reentrant, and by trapping of sediment shed from the island arc. These processes could result in a roughly circular forearc basin. Basins that may have formed by seamount collision lie within the accretionary wedge adjacent to the Aleutian trenches. -Authors

  1. Paleomorphology of the upper part of the Macae formation, Namorado field, Campos basin; Paleomorfologia do intervalo superior da formacao Macae, Campo de Namorado, Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Eduardo Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Tomazelli, Luiz Jose; Ayup-Zouain, Ricardo Norberto [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica; Viana, Adriano Roessler [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Edificio Sede

    2004-07-01

    The Macae Formation (Late Albian-Turonian of the Campos Basin) is represented by a thick column of carbonate sediments whose deposition began soon after the evaporitic phase that marks the beginning of the marine occupation of the basin. The top of this interval is represented by an unconformity (Type I), indicative of a variation in the base level of the basin, on which the turbidities of the basal sequence of the Namorado Field were deposited. For a better understanding of the depositional geometry of these turbidities, the paleogeomorphology analysis demonstrated to be quite efficient. The method of work used for so was a combination among the seismic 3D visualization (VoxelGeo{sup R}), from the characterization of different physical attributes of the seismic signal, and the facies analysis of wells profiles of the referred field. The developed analysis allowed the individualization and the three-dimensional visualization of a sinuous paleochannel in the top of the interval, until then not described in previous interpretations of this depositional system. With the information coming from this study, a better understanding of the genesis of this accumulation can be reached, especially in the part regarding to the units of important economic character, represented by the turbidities deposits and whose occurrences are related with stages of relative lowering of the sea level. (author)

  2. Characterization of shale gas enrichment in the Wufeng Formation–Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin of China and evaluation of its geological construction–transformation evolution sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas in Upper Ordovician Wufeng Formation–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is one of the key strata being explored and developed in China, where shale gas reservoirs have been found in Fuling, Weiyuan, Changning and Zhaotong. Characteristics of shale gas enrichment in the formation shown by detailed profiling and analysis are summarized as “high, handsome and rich”. “High” mainly refers to the high quality of original materials for the formation of shale with excellent key parameters, including the good type and high abundance of organic matters, high content of brittle minerals and moderate thermal evolution. “Handsome” means late and weak deformation, favorable deformation mode and structure, and appropriate uplift and current burial depth. “Rich” includes high gas content, high formation pressure coefficient, good reservoir property, favorable reservoir scale transformation and high initial and final output, with relative ease of development and obvious economic benefit. For shale gas enrichment and high yield, it is important that the combination of shale was deposited and formed in excellent conditions (geological construction, and then underwent appropriate tectonic deformation, uplift, and erosion (geological transformation. Evaluation based on geological construction (evolution sequence from formation to the reservoir includes sequence stratigraphy and sediment, hydrocarbon generation and formation of reservoir pores. Based on geological transformation (evolution sequence from the reservoir to preservation, the strata should be evaluated for structural deformation, the formation of reservoir fracture and preservation of shale gas. The evaluation of the “construction - transformation” sequence is to cover the whole process of shale gas formation and preservation. This way, both positive and negative effects of the formation-transformation sequence on shale gas are assessed. The evaluation

  3. Crustal layering and gravity highs in the Midcontinent of North America - implications for the formation of the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H. J.; Boschelli, J.; Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.; Marshak, S.; Chen, C.; Yang, X.; DeLucia, M. S.; Larson, T. H.; Rupp, J.

    2017-12-01

    The emerging picture of crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the North American cratonic platform resulting from recent increases in the resolution of seismic studies is revealing a scale of complexity and heterogeneity not previously recognized. Examples of novel images of the lithosphere allowed by this increased sampling come from the results of the OIINK project, an EarthScope FlexArray experiment. OIINK data provides new insight into tectonic relationships among the Reelfoot Rift, Ozark Plateau, Rough Creek Graben, and Illinois Basin. Making use of ambient-noise tomography from data recorded by the OIINK Array and surrounding stations we produced a new shear-wave velocity model of the region. This model indicates detailed variations in crustal wavespeeds align with the regional tectonic features. Beyond corroborating previous observations of high-speed material in the mid- to lower crust of the southern Illinois Basin, this new model demonstrates that these anomalous velocities extend continuously from the Reelfoot, beneath the Mississippi Embayment, into southern Indiana. This model also includes a separate area characterized by a similarly thickened layer of increased velocities in the middle and lower crust beneath the LaSalle Deformation Belt, a north-south band of faults and folds that runs along the axis of the Illinois Basin. At depths of about 20 km, the top of these areas of thickened high-velocity crust align with a midcrustal discontinuity identified by receiver functions. Additionally, the lateral extent of these structures correlates with regions of increased Bouguer gravity. If the high-velocity structures contain high-density material, this configuration provides an explanation for the source of these positive gravity anomalies. These observations support a model in which Late Proterozoic rifting beneath the region of the Illinois Basin provided an opportunity for high-density material to enter the crust as residuum from melt extraction

  4. Microbial flora in organic honey samples of africanized honeybees from Parana river islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify and compare the main contamination sources and the hygienic/sanitary conditions of organic honey samples of Apis mellifera from Parana River islands. Thirty-three (33 samples were analyzed between January 2005 and August 2006. Eleven (11 samples were collected by beekeepers and twenty-two (22 samples were collected and processed in accordance with ideal personal hygiene norms and good manufacturing practices. The samples underwent microbiological analysis in search of coliforms at 35 ºC and 45 ºC, as well as fungi enumeration analysis. As for fungi counting, the samples harvested by beekeepers showed values above the maximum established by Resolution nº 15/94 of Common Market Group - Mercosul. The results showed that secondary contamination sources are responsible for the reduction of organic honey quality.

  5. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy; Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Khoury, Helen J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  6. Methodology for getting the end use of energy in the industrial sector from Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag Filho, A.

    1990-03-01

    A methodology for a survey on the utilization of energy in the industrial sector from Parana state, at low costs, and aiming the supply of data with the desired reliability and disaggregation is presented. The obtained data shall provide elements for the adoption of short term actions as well as serve as a basis for the elaboration of medium and long terms scenarios. The survey shall be conducted throughout the state, comprising all fields of activity and having the following objectives: determine the state's energetic consumption profile by industrial segment and by end use of energy; determine the state's energetic profile with the spatial distribution of consumption and detect the industrial segments which are more sensitive to the energetic substitution programs and/or of energy conservation. (author)

  7. Paralic parasequences associated with Eocene sea-level oscillations in an active margin setting: Trihueco Formation of the Arauco Basin, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.; Elgueta, Sara

    1997-06-01

    The Eocene Trihueco Formation is one of the best exposed successions of the Arauco Basin in Chile. It represents a period of marine regression and transgression of second-order duration, during which barrier island complexes developed on a muddy shelf. The strata are arranged in classical shoaling-upward parasequences of shoreface and beach facies capped by coal-bearing, back-barrier lagoon deposits. These fourth-order cycles are superimposed upon third-order cycles which caused landward and seaward shifts of the coastal facies belts. The final, punctuated rise in sea level is represented by shelf mudrocks with transgressive incised shoreface sandstones. Relative sea-level oscillations as revealed in the stratigraphy of the Trihueco Formation show a reasonable correlation with published Eocene eustatic curves.

  8. Physical and lithological properties Oligocene-Miocene formations of the Okhotsk-Kamchatka Basin (to 85-th Anniversary of Professor Yuri Konstantinovich Burlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Karnyushina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was the prediction of physical and lithological properties of volcanogenic-sedimentary formations at different depths. For this purpose Oligocene-Miocene sediments from a number of wells within the Icha and Kolpakovsky depressions of Okhotsk-Kamchatka oil and gas basin have been studied. Relationship between temperature and fluid conditions of the katagenesis zone and the change in the rocks composition, their porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity were identified. Superposed phenomena and characteristics of the reservoir rocks transformations within the water-hydrocarbon contacts in the gas and gas condensate pools have been considered. The relationship between volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks physical and lithological properties and the formation of non-stationary geothermal regime has been shown. The article is devoted to the head of these investigations – Professor Yuri Konstantinovich Burlin (1931-2011. 12 Oktober this year, he would have turned his 85 years.

  9. Underground CO{sub 2} Storage: Approach for Favourable Formations in Ebro Basin; AGP de CO{sub 2}: Seleccion de Formaciones Favorables en la Cuenca del Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, R.; Perucha, A.; Recreo, F.

    2008-04-10

    The study of the possibilities of conducting Deep Geological CO{sub 2} Storage inside Spanish territory is being performed through the Strategic Singular Project PS-120000-2005-2 of the National Program of Energy from the Education and Science Ministry, and called CO{sub 2} generation, sequestration and storage advanced technologies, sub project N3 CO{sub 2} Geological Storage This report studies the possibilities the Ebro basin offers for definitive CO{sub 2} storage as one of the Spanish selected areas from previous studies. The study and reinterpretation of the information obtained from the hydrocarbon exploration accomplished in the area has lead to the selection of a series of geological formations. These formations have been chosen attending certain characteristics such as their disposition, extension, depth and porosity. The study has also been conducted considering the characteristics of the geological formations above the CO{sub 2} storage formations so as to guarantee the sealing of the storage. The study includes the approximate estimation of the storage capacity for each of the formations in Megatons of CO{sub 2}, which can be useful in future decision making. Deep geological storage is one of the more relevant international initiatives in order to eliminate or reduce the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. (Author) 68 refs.

  10. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and western blots (WB were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato; a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96% were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4% for brucellosis, 25 (12.1% for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1% for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH that was considered to be average (0.733 in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population.

  11. Petrography and geochemistry characteristics of the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation from the Laoheishan Basin, Northeast China: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Liu, Zhaojun; Meng, Qingtao; Wang, Yimeng; Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Yinbo

    2017-06-01

    The petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks from the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin, northeast (NE) China are studied to determine the weathering intensity, provenance and tectonic setting of the source region. Petrographic data indicate the average quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments (QFL) of the sandstone is Q = 63 %, F = 22 %, and L = 15 %. Lithic fragments mainly contain volcanic clasts that derived from surrounding basement. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal abundant clay and detrital minerals (e.g. quartz), as well as minor calcite in the fine-grained sediments. The Hf contents and element concentration ratios such as Al2O3/TiO2, Co/Th, La/Sc, and La/Th are comparable to sediments derived from felsic and intermediate igneous rocks. The strong genetic relationship with the igneous rocks from the northwest and northeast areas provides evidence that the sediments of the Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin have been derived from this area. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and index of chemical variability (ICV) reveal an intensive weathering in the source region of the sediments. The multidimensional tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate that the source rocks of K1ml are mainly derived from the collision system. However, they may also comprise sediments derived from the continental rift system. The results are consistent with the geology of the study area.

  12. Late Pliocene establishment of exorheic drainage in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau as evidenced by the Wuquan Formation in the Lanzhou Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Benhong; Liu, Shanpin; Peng, Tingjiang; Ma, Zhenhua; Feng, Zhantao; Li, Meng; Li, Xiaomiao; Li, Jijun; Song, Chunhui; Zhao, Zhijun; Pan, Baotian; Stockli, Daniel F.; Nie, Junsheng

    2018-02-01

    The fluvial archives in the upper-reach Yellow River basins provide important information about drainage history of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) associated with geomorphologic evolution and climate change. However, the Pliocene fluvial strata within this region have not been studied in detail, hence limiting the understanding of the late Cenozoic development of regional fluvial systems. In this paper, we present the results of a study of the geochronology, sedimentology, and provenance of the fluvial sequence of the Wuquan Formation in the Lanzhou Basin in the northeastern TP. Magnetostratigraphic and cosmogenic nuclide burial ages indicate that the Wuquan Formation was deposited during 3.6-2.2 Ma. Furthermore, sedimentary facies, gravel composition, paleocurrent data, and detrital zircon Usbnd Pb age spectra reveal that the fluvial sequence resembles the terraces of the Yellow River in terms of source area, flow direction, and depositional environment. Our results indicate that a paleo-drainage system flowing out of the northeastern TP was established by ca. 3.6 Ma and that the upstream parts of the Yellow River must have developed subsequently from this paleo-drainage system. The late Pliocene drainage system fits well with the dramatic uplift of the northeastern TP, an intensified Asian summer monsoon, and global increase in erosion rates, which may reflect interactions between geomorphic evolution, tectonic deformation, and climate change.

  13. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  14. Uranium and main oxides in soil in the Northeast part of Parana basil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, I.C.; Bonotto, D.M.; Jimenez-Rueda, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Uranium is a litophile element that migrates to crust together with other light silicates. This work evaluated the relationships among the concentrations of uranium, major oxides (SiO_2, Al_2O_3, Na_2O, K_2O, CaO, MgO, Fe_2O_3, MnO, TiO_2, P_2O_5) and organic matter in different horizons of a soil profile located over siltstone from Tatui Formation, Piracicaba River sub-basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Different techniques were utilized for data acquisition, for instance, alpha spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and smectrophotometry. The major U concentrations were found in horizons enriched in Fe_2O_3, indicating its tending to be retained in iron oxides. (author)

  15. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  16. Slope-apron deposition in an ordovician arc-related setting: The Vuelta de Las Tolas Member (Suri Formation), Famatina Basin, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Ordovician Suri Formation is part of the infill of the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina, which formed in an active setting along the western margin of early Paleozoic Gondwana. The lower part of this formation, the Vuelta de Las Tolas Member, records sedimentation on a slope apron formed in an intra-arc basin situated on a flooded continental arc platform. The coincidence of a thick Arenig-Llanvirn sedimentary succession and volcanic-plutonic arc rocks suggests an extensional or transtensional arc setting, and is consistent with evidence of an extensional regime within the volcanic arc in the northern Puna region. The studied stratigraphic sections consist of volcanic rocks and six sedimentary facies. The facies can be clustered into four facies associations. Association 1, composed of facies A (laminated siltstones and mudstones) and B (massive mudstones and siltstones), is interpreted to have accumulated from silty-muddy high-and low-density turbidity currents and highly fluid, silty debris flows, with subsequent reworking by bottom currents, and to a lesser extent, hemipelagic suspension in an open-slope setting. Facies association 2 is dominated by facies C (current-rippled siltstones) strata. These deposits are interpreted to record overbank sedimentation from fine-grained turbidity currents. Facies E (matrix-supported volcanic breccias) interbedded with andesitic lava units comprises facies association 3. Deposition was contemporaneous with subaqueous volcanic activity, and accumulated from cohesive debris flows in a coarse-grained wedge at the base of slope. Facies association 4 is typified by facies D (vitric fine-grained sandstones and siltstones) and F (channelized and graded volcanic conglomerates and breccias) deposits. These strata commonly display thinning-and fining-upward trends, indicating sedimentation from highly-concentrated volcaniclastic turbidity currents in a channelized system. The general characteristics of these deposits of fresh

  17. Hydrothermal dolomitization of the Bekhme formation (Upper Cretaceous), Zagros Basin, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Record of oil migration and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurbeg, Howri; Morad, Daniel; Othman, Rushdy; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Kolo, Kamal; Spirov, Pavel; Proust, Jean Noel; Preat, Alain; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-07-01

    The common presence of oil seepages in dolostones is widespread in Cretaceous carbonate successions of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This integrated field, petrographic, chemical, stable C, O and Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusion study aims to link dolomitization to the origin and geochemical evolution of fluids and oil migration in the Upper Cretaceous Bekhme carbonates. Flux of hot basinal (hydrothermal) brines, which is suggested to have occurred during the Zagros Orogeny, resulted in dolomitization and cementation of vugs and fractures by coarse-crystalline saddle dolomite, equant calcite and anhydrite. The saddle dolomite and host dolostones have similar stable isotopic composition and formed prior to oil migration from hot (81-115 °C) basinal NaCl-MgCl2-H2O brines with salinities of 18-22 wt.% NaCl eq. The equant calcite cement, which surrounds and hence postdates saddle dolomite, has precipitated during oil migration from cooler (60-110 °C) NaCl-CaCl2-H2O brines (14-18 wt.% NaCl eq). The yellowish fluorescence color of oil inclusions in the equant calcite indicates that the oil had API gravity of 15-25° composition, which is lighter than present-day oil in the reservoirs (API of 10-17°). This difference in oil composition is attributed to oil degradation by the flux of meteoric water, which is evidenced by the low δ13C values (- 8.5‰ to - 3.9‰ VPDB) as well as by nil salinity and low temperature in fluid inclusions of late columnar calcite cement. This study demonstrates that linking fluid flux history and related diagenesis to the tectonic evolution of the basin provides important clues to the timing of oil migration, degradation and reservoir evolution.

  18. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chernaki-Leffer,AM.; Almeida,LM.; Sosa-Gómez,DR.; Anjos,A.; Vogado,KM.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter a...

  19. The Springhill Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous) as a potential low enthalpy geothermal reservoir in the Cerro Sombrero area, Magallanes Basin, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, S. C.; Elgueta, S.; Arancibia, G.; Morata, D.; Sanchez, J.; Rojas, L.

    2017-12-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy technologies are being developed around the world as part of policies to replace the use of conventional sources of energy by renewable ones. The reuse of abandoned oil and gas wells in sedimentary basins, whose reservoirs are saturated with water at temperatures above 120°C, is of increasing interest due to the low initial cost.In Chile, interest in applying this technology is focused on the Magallanes Basin (Austral Basin in Argentina) in the extreme south of the country, where important hydrocarbon deposits have been exploited for more than six decades with more than 3,500 wells drilled to depths of over 4,000m. Hydrocarbons have been extracted mainly from the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous Springhill Formation, which includes sandstone lithofacies with porosities of 12% to 19% and permeability of 10mD and 1100mD. This formation has been drilled mainly at depths of 1500m to 3000m, the estimated geothermal gradient in the zone is 4.9 °C/100m with well bottom temperature measurements oscillating between 60° and 170°C, sufficient for district heating, and even, electricity generation by means of ORC technologies.To understand in detail the behavior and distribution of the different lithofacies of the Springhill Formation in the Sombrero Oil and Gas Field, sedimentological and geological 3D models have been generated from existing well logs and seismic data. To comprehend the quality of the reservoirs on the other hand, many petrophysical studies of drill core samples representative of the different lithofacies, complemented by electric well log interpretations, were carried out. Results confirm the existence of at least two quartz-rich sandstone lithofacies as potential geothermal reservoirs. In the principal settlement in this area, Cerro Sombrero township (1,800 population), the annual average temperature is 6.4°C, requiring constant domestic heating which, at present comes exclusively from natural gas. The study shows

  20. Facies and depositional environments for the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, defined by taphonomic and compositional criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Tavares

    Full Text Available Lacustrine carbonate rocks form important hydrocarbon accumulations along the Brazilian continental margin, some of which are contained in oil fields in which coquinas are one of the main reservoirs (viz. Campos Basin. The complexity and heterogeneity of these deposits make them a challenge in terms of reservoir description. For the necessary classification and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the coquinas, it is essential to evaluate many aspects including biological (such as carbonate productivity, sedimentological (energy regime in the depositional environment, transport of bioclasts, terrigenous supply, taphonomic (fragmentation of shells, abrasion and diagenetic processes. The facies analysis applied in this study is considered a more appropriate classification approach to understand these coquinas, since it is more flexible and comprehensive than the existing classifications for carbonate rocks. The material investigated here consists of rock samples of the coquinas from the Atol Quarry of the Morro do Chaves Formation (Barremian/Aptian, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. These rocks that crop out in the Atol quarry complex can be considered as a case study for similar coquinas reservoirs found in the Brazilian continental margin basins. Six sedimentary facies were described, using the main taphonomic (fragmentation of shells and compositional (presence of micrite and siliciclastic matrix features as a diagnostic criteria. Two carbonate facies, two mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies and two siliciclastic facies (mudstones were identified. From the facies succession, combined with a review of the literature on the subject, the following depositional paleoenvironments were defined: high-energy lake platform, lacustrine delta in a high-energy lake platform and lake-centre. In this paper, a new facies model for the studied coquinas succession is proposed.

  1. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind

    2017-12-01

    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  2. Hydrogeological analysis applied to regional evaluation of sandstone-type uranium ore-formation in sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Laisheng

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of regional evaluation of uranium ore-formation is to preliminarily divide environmental zones and to delineate favourable areas for uranium ore-formation in order to provide basis for further detailed prospecting work. Of the various kinds of prospecting work, the hydrogeologic work should be mainly carried out in following aspects: division of hydrogeological units, the determination of artesian water-bearing system and the identification of prospecting target horizon; the analysis on hydrodynamic regime, the analysis on hydrogeochemical environments, the paleo-hydrogeologic analysis and the delineation of redox front and favourable area for uranium ore-formation. (author)

  3. Gravity flow deposits of the Maceio Formation - Alagoas Basin, NE of Brazil; Depositos de fluxos gravitacionais da Formacao Maceio - Bacia de Alagoas, NE do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Luci Maria [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Sedimentologia e Petrologia]. E-mail: arienti@petrobras.com.br

    2006-05-15

    This work deals with the Aptian rift section of Maceio Formation (Albian), Alagoas Basin, Northeast of Brazil, using data from outcrops and wells (Tabuleiro dos Martins Field). Studies of facies, process, depositional systems, facies tract and sequences were performed to characterize hyperpicnal turbidities; of which sediments were directly input by catastrophic river floods. Sequence stratigraphy concepts can be used for rift-section analysis, considering the concept of - climate systems tracts - and the result is an excellent correlation between deposit types and climate conditions. Transgressive system tracts (TTS) related to humid periods represent phases of high siliciclastic input into the basin, resulting on sandstone turbidity sequences, typically enriched by continental organic matter. In contrast, later high stand system tracts (LHST), corresponding to arid conditions, are dominated by muddy lacustrine deposits, enriched by algalic organic matter and showing mud cracks. Locally, low stand system tracts (LST) dominated by evaporites are found in restricted areas. Climate and tectonics were the main controlling factors of the architecture and frequency of the sequences. This study showed that an integrated approach, using outcrops and subsurface data, is a powerful tool to understand facies and depositional process, sequences and their stacking pattern on continental- rift deposits. (author)

  4. Evidence of synsedimentary microbial activity and iron deposition in ferruginous crusts of the Late Cenomanian Utrillas Formation (Iberian Basin, central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hidalgo, José F.; Elorza, Javier; Gil-Gil, Javier; Herrero, José M.; Segura, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Ferruginous sandstones and crusts are prominent sedimentary features throughout the continental (braided)-coastal siliciclastic (estuarine-tidal) wedges of the Late Cenomanian Utrillas Formation in the Iberian Basin. Crust types recognized are: Ferruginous sandy crusts (Fsc) with oxides-oxyhydroxides (hematite and goethite) concentrated on sandstone tops presenting a fibro-radial internal structure reminding organic structures that penetrate different mineral phases, suggesting the existence of bacterial activity in crust development; Ferruginous muddy crusts (Fmc) consisting of wavy, laminated, microbial mats, being composed mainly of hematite. On the other hand, a more dispersed and broader mineralization included as Ferruginous sandstones with iron oxides and oxyhydroxides (hematite and goethite) representing a limited cement phase on these sediments. The presence of microbial remains, ferruginous minerals, Microbially-induced sedimentary structures, microbial laminites and vertebrate tracks preserved due to the presence of biofilms suggest firstly a direct evidence of syn-depositional microbial activity in these sediments; and, secondly, that iron accumulation and ferruginous crusts development occurred immediately after deposition of the host, still soft sediments. Ferruginous crusts cap sedimentary cycles and they represent the gradual development of hard substrate conditions, and the development of a discontinuity surface at the top of the parasequence sets, related to very low sedimentary rates; the overlying sediments record subsequent flooding of underlying shallower environments; crusts are, consequently, interpreted as boundaries for these higher-order cycles in the Iberian Basin.

  5. High pollution events in the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. Insights on mechanisms and spatial distribution of the formation of secondary aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Baasandorj, M.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Thornton, J. A.; Womack, C.

    2017-12-01

    High pollution events are common in many locations in the U.S.A. and around the world. They can last several days or up to weeks and they negatively affect human health, deteriorate visibility, and increase premature mortality. The main causes for high pollution events are related to meteorology and sources. They often happen in the winter, when high emissions, stagnation and reduced mixing, due to a shallow boundary layer, cause high concentrations of pollutants to accumulate. In the last decades, the air quality in the U.S. has seen an overall improvement, due to the reductions in particulate and gaseous pollutants. However, some areas remain critical. The Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys are currently areas where high pollution events are a serious environmental problem involving more than 2.4 million people. We will present the results of the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in winter 2017. During UWFPS, we carried out airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition and precursor vapor concentrations over the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. We will give insights into how and under which conditions conversion of precursor vapors into aerosol particles takes place in the area. We will also present a comparison of our measurements with models that will provide an insight of the mechanisms that lead to the formation of secondary aerosol particles. With the results of our work, we aim to inform strategies for pollution control in the future.

  6. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  7. Permian-Triassic maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons in the Assistência Formation (Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil: implications for the exploration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Mateus

    Full Text Available New lines of geological evidence strongly suggest that the main period of hydrocarbon maturation within Assistência Formation should be Permian-Triassic, stimulated by a high geothermal gradient that also sustained various manifestations of hydrothermal activity. Three main stages of fluid/hydrocarbon migration can also be inferred on the basis of multiscale observations: confined flow in late Permian to Triassic times, depending on the local build-up of fluid pressures; heterogeneous flow in Lower Cretaceous, triggered by a rejuvenated temperature gradient assisted by the early developed permeability conditions; and a late flow possibly driven by local pressure gradients, after complete cooling of dolerite dykes/sills. The early maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons have significant consequences in the design of exploration models to be applied in Paraná Basin.

  8. Paleodepositional environment and age of Kanawa Member of Pindiga Formation, Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Sedimentological and palynological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abdulkarim H.; Mamman, Y. D.; Abubakar, M. B.; Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Jitong, John Shirputda; Shettima, Bukar

    2017-10-01

    Sedimentogical and palynological investigations of the Kanawa Member of Pindiga Formation in the Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria were carried out in order to determine the paleoenvironment and age of the sediments. Three main lithofacies were identified from the measured sedimentary log section, namely; the wave rippled sandstones, the limestones (with ammonites, bivalves and gastropods) and the clay-shale. The facies were interpreted to have been deposited in a marine environment. Based on palynological studies, Kanawa Member consists of two palynozones, namely; Cretacaeiporites scabratus and Triorites africaensis. The Triorites africaensis zone is characterized by species of T. africaensis, Gnetaceaepollenites sp. 1, Cretacaeiporites polygonalis, Monosulcites sp., Cretacaeiporites scabratus, Elaterocolpites castelainii and is dated Late Cenomanian whilst the Cretacaeiporites scabratus zone is characterized by the dominance of C. scabratus, C. mulleri and Tricolporopollenites sp and is dated Early Turonian. The Kanawa Member is therefore, dated Late Cenomanian to early Turonian.

  9. Petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and paleo environmental characterization of radioactive anomaly associated to carbonate rocks from Jandaira formation of high cretaceous from Potiguar basin - Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Jandaira Formation (Turonian/Maastrichtian - Potiguar Basin, Brazil) presents an anomalous radioactive marker in the upper part of its carbonatic section. This marker of 3-20 m in thickness, comprises an area of about 3500 Km 2 and shows a radioactivity of 470 UAPI, against a background of 20 UAPI on the Gamma Ray Log. In the effort of characterizing this marker, petrological, mineralogical, geological and paleontological, analyses were made in ditch samples of selected 23 wells. This marker is composed by bioclastics packstones to mudstones, mainly constituted of planktonic and bentonic forams, deposited in relatively deep water. Chemical analysis of the P 205 richest samples, the ones show that they are also enriched on U, F, As, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, V, Y, Yb and on all rare-earth elements. The origin of the radioactive anomaly is due to the presence of sedimentary phosphates (phosphorite) made-up of uraniferous coloform apatite. (author)

  10. Integration of seismic data and a triple porosity model for interpretation of tight gas formations in the Western Canada sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Fernando; Aguilera, Roberto; Lawton, Don [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the increased global demand for oil and gas, companies are looking to unconventional methods for exploring, drilling and refining these products. Unconventional reservoirs are found in the form of shale gas, coal bed methane and tight gas. This paper presents a model for evaluating various tight gas reservoirs in the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB) by developing an equation. The proposed method integrates a triple porosity model with sonic, density and resistivity logs. The model uses petrographic data from work in the WCSB to determine the types of pores that are present in the tight rocks. The process also provides information on inter-well formation resistivity, porosity and water saturation to allow estimation of the amount of original gas in place. The results calculated from this study agreed with the actual deep resistivities of the WCSB Nikanassin group. This model can also be applied to other regions of the world that have similar characteristics to those of the WCSB.

  11. Isotopic investigation of ground water resources in the Ojo Alamo sandstone, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, F.M.; Peeters, L.A.; Tansey, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The San Juan Basin, in northwest New Mexico, has vast reserves of strippable, low-sulfur coal. Development of the resource will require large quantities of water, from an area where water resources are not abundant. Since surface-water supplies are fully allocated, increased future water demands will have to be met through ground-water development. The study concentrates on the Ojo Alamo, Nacimiento, and San Jose Formations, the aquifers directly above the principal coal unit. Carbon-14 and tritium methods were used to date the ground water in these units. Initial radiocarbon activities were calculated using the models of Vogel, Tamers, Pearson, Mook and Fontes. The observation lends support to the hypothesis of isotopically lighter Pleistocene precipitation. Such lighter recharge was most likely due to a colder mean annual temperature and perhaps increased winter precipitation. A similar change is obtained from noble-gas paleothermometry

  12. Natural Tracers and Multi-Scale Assessment of Caprock Sealing Behavior: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Heath; Brian McPherson; Thomas Dewers

    2011-03-15

    The assessment of caprocks for geologic CO{sub 2} storage is a multi-scale endeavor. Investigation of a regional caprock - the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA - at the pore-network scale indicates high capillary sealing capacity and low permeabilities. Core and wellscale data, however, indicate a potential seal bypass system as evidenced by multiple mineralized fractures and methane gas saturations within the caprock. Our interpretation of {sup 4}He concentrations, measured at the top and bottom of the caprock, suggests low fluid fluxes through the caprock: (1) Of the total {sup 4}He produced in situ (i.e., at the locations of sampling) by uranium and thorium decay since deposition of the Kirtland Formation, a large portion still resides in the pore fluids. (2) Simple advection-only and advection-diffusion models, using the measured {sup 4}He concentrations, indicate low permeability ({approx}10-20 m{sup 2} or lower) for the thickness of the Kirtland Formation. These findings, however, do not guarantee the lack of a large-scale bypass system. The measured data, located near the boundary conditions of the models (i.e., the overlying and underlying aquifers), limit our testing of conceptual models and the sensitivity of model parameterization. Thus, we suggest approaches for future studies to better assess the presence or lack of a seal bypass system at this particular site and for other sites in general.

  13. Petrophysical characterization of the Dolomitic Member of the Boñar Formation (Upper Cretaceous; Duero Basin, Spain) as a potential CO2 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, A.; Kovacs, C.; Herrero-Hernandez, A.; Gomez-Fernandez, F.

    2016-07-01

    Boñar Formation (Upper Cretaceous) is a mainly carbonate succession, which outcrops in the North of Duero Basin (Spain). According to the existing data, the Dolomitic Member of this formation appears to be the most suitable for geological storage of CO2. The main objective of this study is to find evidence to support, clarify and specify –at an initial level– the potential of the Dolomitic Member of the Boñar Formation as a geological reservoir. The study covers density, porosity and permeability tests on samples obtained from the outcrop of the succession near the village of Boñar (León). According to the analysis and interpretation of the mentioned petrophysical properties, the porosity of the Dolomitic Member is within the acceptable range for CO2 geological storage, but the permeability values are far too low. This minimizes the possibilities of the Dolomitic Member –and probably of the whole Boñar Formation– to become an appropriate CO2 reservoir. (Author)

  14. Formation and destruction mechanism as well as major controlling factors of the Silurian shale gas overpressure in the Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangjian Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Well JY1 and Well PY1 in the Eastern Sichuan Basin as examples, the formation mechanism of shale gas overpressure was studied by using the cross plot of acoustic versus density logging data. During the processes of hydrocarbon generation and the uplifting, the pressure evolution of fluids in shale gas layers was reconstructed by fluid inclusions and PVTSIM software. The major factors controlling the evolution of shale gas overpressure were established according to the study of fracture, the timing of the uplifting, and episodes of tectonic deformation. Our results showed that the main mechanism of overpressure in the Silurian shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin was the fluid expansion, which was caused by hydrocarbon generation. Since the Yanshanian, the strata were uplifted and fluid pressure generally showed a decreasing trend. However, due to the low compression rebound ratio of shale gas reservoir rocks, poor connectivity of reservoir rocks, and low content of formation water and so on, such factors made fluid pressure decrease, but these would not be enough to make up the effects of strata erosion resulting in a further increase in fluid pressure in shale gas reservoirs during the whole uplifting processes. Since the Yanshanian, the Well PY1 zone had been reconstructed by at least three episodes of tectonic movement. The initial timing of the uplifting is 130 Ma. Compared to the former, the Well JY1 zone was firstly uplifted at 90 Ma, which was weakly reconstructed. As a result, low-angle fractures and few high resistance fractures developed in the Well JY1, while high-angle fractures and many high resistance fractures developed in the Well PY1. In totality, the factors controlling the overpressure preservation in shale gas reservoirs during the late periods include timing of late uplifting, superposition and reconstruction of stress fields, and development of high-angle fractures.

  15. Field investigation with regard to the impermeability of clay formations. Helium-4 soil gas surveys in sedimentary basins as a tentative study of secondary permeability in clayey sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, S.; Benvegnu, F.; Brondi, A.; Polizzano, C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with a tentative study for the detection of the secondary permeability in clayey formations conducted in several sedimentary basins in Central Italy, by means of geochemical methods. The main purposes are: to try a geochemical method, based on the distribution of deep origin gases in soil gas ( 4 He and 222 Rn), to detect buried fault systems and to study the permeability of clay as a potential migration pathway for nuclides of radioactive waste deposits; to verify the effectiveness of this method for the selection of suitable sites for radwaste disposal. This research programme consists in a collaboration between ENEA and the University of Rome within the communitarian programme for the disposal of high level and long-live radwaste. Investigations concerned sedimentary basins filled by sand-clay formations 1000-2000 meters thick and characterized by different tectonic: Era and Chiani-Paglia Valleys (Tuscany and North Latium), structural trenches due to extensive tectonics along the tyrrhenian edge, and Vasto region, a basin in the 'Adriatic foretrench', characterized by compressive tectonics. The investigated areas are near or directly correspond to geothermal fields or to hydrocarbon reservoirs supplying gases which may migrate upward along fractures. Almost 4000 soil gas samples were collected in the three surveyed areas; the sampling density was of about 1.5 points / km 2 , normally used in the regional scale surveys. The obtained results show that the observed helium anomalies are distributed or elongated according to the main tectonic features of the substratum (fault systems, fractures, deep structures); the magnitude of anomalies seems to correlate with the nature of the deep gas reservoir (i.e. oil in Vasto), geothermal reservoir in the Paglia valley. These observations seem to confirm that the presence of deep origin gases in soils is controlled by tectonics. Clay thickness does not significantly control the uprising of deep gases: in

  16. Diagenetic Iron Cycling in Ancient Alkaline Saline Lacustrine Sedimentary Rocks: A Case Study on the Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-McIntyre, S. L.; Chan, M. A.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.

    2014-12-01

    The upper part of the Brushy Basin Member in the Four Corners region of the U.S. was deposited in an ephemeral alkaline saline lake system with copious input of volcanic ash. The variegated shale formation provides a setting for the study of early diagenetic iron cycling that records the action of alkaline saline fluid chemistries reacting with volcaniclastic sediments in the presence of microbes. A bull's-eye pattern of authigenic minerals with increasing alteration towards the basinal center similar to modern alkaline saline lakes provides evidence for an extreme paleoenvironmental interpretation. The purpose of this research is to document specific factors, such as reactive sediments, microbial influences, and grain size that affect concretion formation and iron cycling in an ancient extreme environment. Three broad diagenetic facies are interpreted by color and associated bioturbation features: red, green and intermediate. Diagenetic facies reflect meter-scale paleotopography: red facies represent shallow water to subaerial, oxidizing conditions; green facies reflect saturated conditions and reducing pore water chemistry shortly after deposition, and intermediate facies represent a combination of the previous two conditions. Evidence of biotic influence is abundant and trace fossils exhibit patterns associated with the diagenetic facies. Red diagenetic facies typically contain burrows and root traces and green diagenetic facies exhibit restricted biotic diversity typically limited to algal molds (vugs). Microbial fossils are well-preserved and are in close proximity to specific iron mineral textures suggesting biotic influence on the crystal morphology. Three categories of concretions are characterized based on mineralogy: carbonate, iron (oxyhydr)oxide and phosphate concretions. Concretion mineralogy and size vary within an outcrop and even within a stratigraphic horizon such that more than one main category is typically present in an outcrop. Variation in

  17. The upper limit of maturity of natural gas generation and its implication for the Yacheng formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Long; Zheng, Jianjing; Chen, Guojun; Zhang, Gongcheng; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Yongchang

    2012-08-01

    Vitrinite reflectance (VR, Ro%) measurements from residual kerogen of pyrolysis experiments were performed on immature Maoming Oil Shale substituted the samples for the gas-prone source rocks of Yacheng formation of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the South China Sea. The work was focused on determination an upper limit of maturity for gas generation (ULMGG) or "the deadline of natural gas generation". Ro values at given temperatures increase with increasing temperature and prolonged heating time, but ΔRo-value, given a definition of the difference of all values for VR related to higher temperature and adjacent lower temperature in open-system non-isothermal experiment at the heating rate of 20 °C/min, is better than VR. And representative examples are presented in this paper. It indicates that the range of natural gas generation for Ro in the main gas generation period is from 0.96% to 2.74%, in which ΔRo is in concordance with the stage for the onset and end of the main gas generation period corresponding to 0.02% up to 0.30% and from 0.30% up to 0.80%, respectively. After the main gas generation period of 0.96-2.74%, the evolution of VR approach to the ULMGG of the whole rock for type II kerogen. It is equal to 4.38% of VR, where the gas generation rates change little with the increase of maturation, ΔRo is the maximum of 0.83% corresponding to VR of 4.38%Ro, and the source rock does not nearly occur in the end process of hydrocarbon gas generation while Ro is over 4.38%. It shows that it is the same the ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen as the method with both comparison and kinetics. By comparing to both the conclusions of pyrolysis experiments and the data of VR from the source rock of Yacheng formation on a series of selected eight wells in the shallow-water continental shelf area, it indicate that the most hydrocarbon source rock is still far from reaching ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen. The source rock of Yacheng formation in the

  18. Organic petrology and Rock-Eval characteristics in selected surficial samples of the Tertiary Formation, South Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hermiyanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no3.20096Organic petrologic data of the DOM of Talangakar and Muaraenim Formations show that the organic matter consisting mainly of vitrinite group is essentially composed of telocollinite (1.0 – 70.8 % and desmocollinite (0.8 – 66.6 % with minor telinite (0.6 – 9.4 %, detrovitrinite (0.6 – 6.0 %, and cor- pocollinite (0.6 – 2.0 %. Minor exinite (0.4 – 7.8 % and inertinite (0.4 – 8.0 % are also determined. However, mineral matter varies from 0.6 – 99.44 %. Downwards, the increase in vitrinite reflectance (0.33 – 0.48 % is concomitant with the depth of each formation. Furthermore, based on Rock-eval pyrolysis, TOC value of the Talangakar Formation ranges from 0.09 – 15.38 %, Gumai 0.34 – 0.39 %, Airbenakat 0.32 – 4.82 %, and Muaraenim between 0.08 – 15.22 %. Moreover the PY (Potential Yield value variation of the Talangakar, Gumai, Airbenakat, and Muaraenim Formations are between 0.04 – 36.61 mg HC/g rock, 0.53 – 0.81 mg HC/g rock, 0.1 – 4.37 mg HC/g rock, and 0.07 – 129.8 mg HC/g rock respectively. Therefore, on the basis of those two parameters, the four formations are included into a gas - oil prone source rock potential. However, the Talangakar and Muaraenim Formations are poor to excellent category, whereas the Air Benakat tends to indicate a poor – fair category and Gumai Formation are only within a poor category. Tmax value of the Talangakar ranges from 237 – 4380 C, Gumai 316 – 3590 C, Airbenakat 398 – 4340 C with exceptions of 4970 C and 5180 C, and Muaraenim Forma- tions 264 – 4250 C. The Talangakar Formation contains kerogen Type II dan III, with the HI (Hydrogen Index value varies from 45.16 – 365.43. However two samples show value of 0. The organic content of the Gumai and Air Benakat Formations are included into kerogen type III, with HI value ranges from11.87 – 40.82, and 19 – 114 respectively. Moreover the Muaraenim Formation has two category of

  19. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  20. Utilizing borehole electrical images to interpret lithofacies of fan-delta: A case study of Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation in Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Changmin; Tang, Yong; Qu, Jianhua; Guo, Xudong; Sun, Yuqiu; Zhu, Rui; Zhou, Yuanquan (Nancy)

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale conglomerate fan-delta aprons were typical deposits on the slope of Mahu Depression during the Early Triassic. Without outcrops, it is difficult to study the lithofacies only by examining the limited cores from the main oil-bearing interval of the Baikouquan Formation. Borehole electrical imaging log provides abundant high-resolution geologic information that is obtainable only from real rocks previously. Referring to the lithology and sedimentary structure of cores, a case study of fan-deltas in the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation of the Mahu Depression presents a methodology for interpreting the complicated lithofacies utilizing borehole electrical images. Eleven types of lithologies and five types of sedimentary structures are summarized in borehole electrical images. The sediments are fining upward from gravel to silt and clay in the Baikouquan Formation. Fine-pebbles and granules are the main deposits in T1b1 and T1b2, but sandstones, siltstones and mudstones are more developed in T1b3. The main sedimentary textures are massive beddings, cross beddings and scour-and-fill structures. Parallel and horizontal beddings are more developed in T1b3 relatively. On integrated analysis of the lithology and sedimentary structure, eight lithofacies from electrical images, referred to as image lithofacies, is established for the fan-deltas. Granules to coarse-pebbles within massive beddings, granules to coarse-pebbles within cross and parallel beddings, siltstones within horizontal and massive beddings are the most developed lithofacies respectively in T1b1, T1b2 and T1b3. It indicates a gradual rise of the lake level of Mahu depression during the Early Triassic, with the fan-delta aprons retrograding towards to the margin of the basin. Therefore, the borehole electrical imaging log compensate for the limitation of cores of the Baikouquan Formation, providing an effective new approach to interpret the lithofacies of fan-delta.

  1. Utilizing borehole electrical images to interpret lithofacies of fan-delta: A case study of Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation in Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Rui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale conglomerate fan-delta aprons were typical deposits on the slope of Mahu Depression during the Early Triassic. Without outcrops, it is difficult to study the lithofacies only by examining the limited cores from the main oil-bearing interval of the Baikouquan Formation. Borehole electrical imaging log provides abundant high-resolution geologic information that is obtainable only from real rocks previously. Referring to the lithology and sedimentary structure of cores, a case study of fan-deltas in the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation of the Mahu Depression presents a methodology for interpreting the complicated lithofacies utilizing borehole electrical images. Eleven types of lithologies and five types of sedimentary structures are summarized in borehole electrical images. The sediments are fining upward from gravel to silt and clay in the Baikouquan Formation. Fine-pebbles and granules are the main deposits in T1b1 and T1b2, but sandstones, siltstones and mudstones are more developed in T1b3. The main sedimentary textures are massive beddings, cross beddings and scour-and-fill structures. Parallel and horizontal beddings are more developed in T1b3 relatively. On integrated analysis of the lithology and sedimentary structure, eight lithofacies from electrical images, referred to as image lithofacies, is established for the fan-deltas. Granules to coarse-pebbles within massive beddings, granules to coarse-pebbles within cross and parallel beddings, siltstones within horizontal and massive beddings are the most developed lithofacies respectively in T1b1, T1b2 and T1b3. It indicates a gradual rise of the lake level of Mahu depression during the Early Triassic, with the fan-delta aprons retrograding towards to the margin of the basin. Therefore, the borehole electrical imaging log compensate for the limitation of cores of the Baikouquan Formation, providing an effective new approach to interpret the lithofacies of fan-delta.

  2. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Both

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women, corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Spearman’s correlation test. The results showed the dissatisfaction of teachers with wages, working conditions and balance between work and leisure. Most subjects presented positive lifestyle behaviors, but the components nutrition, physical activity and stress management were a matter of concern. Internal evaluation of QWL yielded higher correlation coefficients than lifestyle. When comparing the two analytical matrices, low levels of correlation were observed between components and overall assessment of the constructs.

  3. Water percolation conditions in Ilha Solteira dam (Parana River), using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Guidicini, G.; Silva, R.F. da.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic techniques used in the study of water perconlation at the exact place of the construction of the canal lock of Ilha Solteira Dam, in its left side is presented. At the time of the drilling operations, it was discovered, by water leakage tests, total lost at 275,00 level. This water lost occurred at the vicinities of basalt lava-flows. The water leakage tests showed that the total absorption of pumping flow was about 80 liters per minute. To determine the velocity of water percolation in the probable cracks or fractures of the basalt a test of radioactive tracer 131 I was used. For the study of the radioactive tracer behaviour two techniques were tried: measurement of its dilution in the original of the well and the measurement of residence time. Results from the tests showed the existence of a crack or a set of cracks oriented from the radcoisotopic injection well to the artesian wells located at the left shore of Parana river, below Ilha Solteira Dam. The mentioned cracks are localized at the 272,00 level, close tr the contact between the basalt lava-flows

  4. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of archaeological ceramics from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Richard M.C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Coimbra, Melayne M.; Aragao, Pedro H.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work demonstrates an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μρ) of irregular form samples. This methodology aims the study of indigenous archaeological ceramics from the region of Londrina, North of Parana State, Brazil. These ceramics are from Padre Carlos Weiss Historic Museum, Londrina University and belong to the Kaingaing tradition. Firstly, μρ determination by two mean method was performed by the gamma ray beam attenuation of the immersed ceramics, by using two different means with well-known linear attenuation coefficient. Beyond, the deduction of the equation for the μρ determination by the two-means methods, was also realized. By the other side, μρ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer program. This program uses the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. To verify the two-means method efficiency, five ceramics sample of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Theses ceramics, we used for the μρ determination using the attenuation method, and two-means method. The results and the μρ obtained deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two-means method is applicable for the mass attenuation coefficient determination for the archaeometry studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE STATE OF PARANA – BRAZIL (1970, 1996 AND 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucir Reinaldo Alves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper analyzes the spatial displacement of the productivity of Gross Value of Agricultural Production of the main activities and cultures of Parana’s State in 1970, 1996 and 2007. To this, we used a database of pre-existing on the Gross Value of Agricultural Production - the VBPA contained in the Agricultural Censuses (IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the SEAB (Secretary of Agriculture and Supply of Paraná. The results showed that the VBPA of Paraná State has a spatial displacement during the period, where it was concentrated in 1970 in the northern portion of the state, influenced mainly by coffee plantations. In 2007, the most visible concentration hovered over the West and Southwest regions, and motion to expand the activities poultry and swine in those regions as well as crop production technicality as soybeans and corn. The findings of this study confirm the dynamism of the regions, as well as the impact of modernization on the field, and also highlights the role that agricultural activities have on the economy of the state of Parana.

  6. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in the native forest soil at Londrina region (Parana, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appolono, Carlos Roberto; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2002-01-01

    The 137 Cs depth distribution has been studied in several areas in the world and its knowledge is very important to verify its behavior in the soil matrix. The form of 137 Cs depth distribution more observed in an undisturbed soil it is exponential type. In this work, the study of 137 Cs depth distribution was accomplished at three native forests and a coffee yard, built before the 137 Cs fallout, in the region of Londrina (Parana). The sampling was conducted in 1 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm increment depth. The 137 Cs inventory observed for the forests was 248 Bq m -2 (Mata1), 338 Bq m -2 (Mata2) and 325 Bq m -2 (MataUEL). No 137 Cs activity was detected in the coffee yard. The 137 Cs depth distribution for the three forests presented the exponential type. For the soil class of the forests, 137 Cs adsorbed on the soil particles can be considered fixed or slowly exchangeable. (author)

  7. Petrophysical Properties of the Yeso, Abo and Cisco Formations in the Permian Basin in New Mexico, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Griffin

    The area that comprises the Northwest Shelf in Lea Co., New Mexico has been heavily drilled over the past half century. The main target being shallow reservoirs within the Permian section (San Andres and Grayburg Formations). With a focus shifting towards deeper horizons, there is a need for more petrophysical data pertaining to these formations, which is the focus of this study through a variety of techniques. This study involves the use of contact angle measurements, fluid imbibition tests, Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) and log analysis to evaluate the nano-petrophysical properties of the Yeso, Abo and Cisco Formation within the Northwest Shelf area of southeast New Mexico. From contact angle measurements, all of the samples studied were found to be oil-wetting as n-decane spreads on to the rock surface much quicker than the other fluids (deionized water and API brine) tested. Imbibition tests resulted in a well-connected pore network being observed for all of the samples with the highest values of imbibition slopes being recorded for the Abo samples. MICP provided a variety of pore structure data which include porosity, pore-throat size distributions, permeability and tortuosity. The Abo samples saw the highest porosity percentages, which were above 15%, with all the other samples ranging from 4 - 7%. The majority of the pore-throat sizes for most of the samples fell within the 1 - 10 mum range. The only exceptions to this being the Paddock Member within the Yeso Formation, which saw a higher percentage of larger pores (10 - 1000mum) and one of the Cisco Formation samples, which had the majority of its pore sizes fall in the 0.1 - 1 mum range. The log analysis created log calculations and curves for cross-plot porosity and water saturation that were then used to derive a value for permeability. The porosity and permeability values were comparable with those measured from our MICP and literature values.

  8. Spatial pattern formation and intraspecific competition of anabasis aphylla l. population in the diluvial fan of junggar basin, nw china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.; Li, Y.Y.; Niu, P.X.

    2015-01-01

    Using conventional nearest neighbour analysis and Ripley's L-function, the goal of this study was to analyze spatial patterns of Anabasis aphylla plants in order to investigate underlying competitive processes that shape the population spatial structure from diluvial fan in Junggar Basin, NW China. We found that the spatial patterns of all growth stages were aggregated in the three study plots, and seedling and juvenile plants were more aggregated than expected by chance. Positive associations among growth stages of A. aphylla population were found at a small scale while negative associations of seedling and juvenile relative to adult plants were shown at a larger scale. The processes such as dispersal, seedling establishment, environmental heterogeneity, plant interactions and disturbance may have acted individually or in concert with other processes to produce the aggregated patterns and competitive relationship. Moreover, these findings suggested that the aggregated distribution and the competitive interaction between A. aphylla plants in the diluvial fan reflected not only in mortality, but also in decreased performance (smaller canopy) that was an important characteristic of drought-enduring plant, thus preventing a regular distribution pattern. (author)

  9. Formation conditions, accumulation models and exploration direction of large-scale gas fields in Sinian-Cambrian, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to comprehensive research on forming conditions including sedimentary facies, reservoirs, source rocks, and palaeo-uplift evolution of Sinian-Cambrian in Sichuan Basin, it is concluded that: (1 large-scale inherited palaeo-uplifts, large-scale intracratonic rifts, three widely-distributed high-quality source rocks, four widely-distributed karst reservoirs, and oil pyrolysis gas were all favorable conditions for large-scale and high-abundance accumulation; (2 diverse accumulation models were developed in different areas of the palaeo-uplift. In the core area of the inherited palaeo-uplift, “in-situ” pyrolysis accumulation model of paleo-reservoir was developed. On the other hand, in the slope area, pyrolysis accumulation model of dispersed liquid hydrocarbon was developed in the late stage structural trap; (3 there were different exploration directions in various areas of the palaeo-uplift. Within the core area of the palaeo-uplift, we mainly searched for the inherited paleo-structural trap which was also the foundation of lithological-strigraphic gas reservoirs. In the slope areas, we mainly searched for the giant structural trap formed in the Himalayan Period.

  10. Flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system: a new depositional model for the Devonian Cabeças Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Piauí, Brazil

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    Luiza Corral M.O. Ponciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The depositional model of the Cabeças Formation is re-evaluated in the context of the Devonian paleogeography of the Parnaíba Basin, and with particular reference to similarities between the formation's facies associations on the eastern border of the basin and the flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system facies that have been discussed in recent literature. The widespread occurrence and nature of sigmoidal clinoforms (with asymptotic cross-stratification and climbing ripples of the Cabeças Formation are here considered as strong evidence of flood-influenced depositional settings. Sandy strata of the Passagem Member, in the vicinity of Pimenteiras and Picos (Piauí State, are interpreted as the distal part of fine-grained mouth-bar deposits interbedded with delta-front sandstone lobes showing hummocky cross-stratification. Richly fossiliferous levels, with diverse megainvertebrates and plant cuticles, occur within the delta-front lobes and the distal mouth-bar deposits, reflecting continuation of shallow marine conditions.O modelo deposicional da Formação Cabeças é reinterpretado no presente estudo com base no contexto paleogeográfico da Bacia do Parnaíba durante o Devoniano e na similaridade entre as fácies encontradas na Formação Cabeças com as fácies características dos sistemas flúvio-deltaicos dominados por inundações. O tipo das clinoformas sigmoidais (com estratificação cruzada assintótica e laminação cruzada cavalgante, e a sua predominância na Formação Cabeças, são consideradas como as principais evidências da influência de inundações nesta unidade. Depósitos do Membro Passagem, localizados nos arredores das cidades de Pimenteiras e Picos, são interpretados como o componente distal de um tipo de barra de desembocadura com a predominância de arenitos finos a conglomeráticos, intercalados com lobos arenosos tabulares de frente deltaica com estratificação cruzada hummocky. Diversos intervalos fossil

  11. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Late Pleistocene sea-level changes recorded in tidal and fluvial deposits from Itaubal Formation, onshore portion of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

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    Isaac Salém Alves Azevedo Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Pleistocene deposits exposed in the Amapá Coastal Plain (onshore portion of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, northeastern South America were previously interpreted as Miocene in age. In this work, they were named as "Itaubal Formation" and were included in the quaternary coastal history of Amazonia. The study, through facies and stratigraphic analyses in combination with optically stimulated luminescence (single and multiple aliquot regeneration, allowed interpreting this unit as Late Pleistocene tidal and fluvial deposits. The Itaubal Formation, which unconformably overlies strongly weathered basement rocks of the Guianas Shield, was subdivided into two progradational units, separated by an unconformity related to sea-level fall, here named as Lower and Upper Units. The Lower Unit yielded ages between 120,600 (± 12,000 and 70,850 (± 6,700 years BP and consists of subtidal flat, tide-influenced meandering stream and floodplain deposits, during highstand conditions. The Upper Unit spans between 69,150 (± 7,200 and 58,150 (± 6,800 years BP and is characterized by braided fluvial deposits incised in the Lower Unit, related to base-level fall; lowstand conditions remained until 23,500 (± 3,000 years BP. The studied region was likely exposed during the Last Glacial Maximum and then during Holocene, covered by tidal deposits influenced by the Amazon River.

  13. Strontium distribution and origins in a natural clayey formation (Callovian-Oxfordian, Paris Basin, France): a new sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Negrel, P.; Crouzet, C.; Guerrot, C.; Gautier, A.; Michel, P.; Vinsot, A.; Buschaert, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Strontium is a minor element in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (ANDRA Underground Research laboratory, France) and may be interesting as a natural analogue of cationic radionuclides. The objective of our study was to better understand the chemical behaviour of this element since the sediment deposition. Previous mineralogical work showed that main strontium-bearing minerals in the clay-stones, in addition to clay minerals, are celestite, carbonates and accessory micas and K-feldspars. In order to establish the strontium distribution and determine its origins across the clayey formation and establish a strontium diffusion profile, a four step sequential extraction procedure combined with strontium isotopes was developed and adapted to the mineralogy of the Bure clay-stones. The four-steps sequential extraction developed and applied to sixteen samples of Callovian-Oxfordian clay-stones showed that the exchangeable fraction (27 to 48% of the total strontium) and the carbonate fraction (38-47% of the total strontium) are the two main fractions carrying the strontium, the detrital fraction being secondary (< 15%). Celestite is the major strontium-carrier mineral that can perturb the results of the sequential extraction but not significantly modify the distribution of strontium at the scale of the formation. The celestite was studied on micronic to centi-metric crystals, separated by hand-picking on core samples. The development of this sequential extraction procedure for the Callovian-Oxfordian formation shows the importance of the first cobalt hexamine trichloride step to extract the exchangeable strontium adsorbed on clay minerals and block the exchangeable sites with cobalt for the following steps, allowing a good separation of exchangeable fraction and carbonates. However the reagent/solid ratio of 20 seems to be less adapted to carbonate-rich samples. The good separation between exchangeable

  14. Glacially induced faulting along the NW segment of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, northern Denmark: Implications for neotectonics and Lateglacial fault-bound basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Sandersen, Peter B. E.; Wu, Patrick; Winsemann, Jutta

    2018-06-01

    The Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone (STZ) is the northwestern segment of the Tornquist Zone and extends from Bornholm across the Baltic Sea and northern Denmark into the North Sea. It represents a major lithospheric structure with a significant increase in lithosphere thickness from south to north. A series of meter-scale normal faults and soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are developed in Lateglacial marine and lacustrine sediments, which are exposed along the Lønstrup Klint cliff at the North Sea coast of northern Denmark. These deformed deposits occur in the local Nørre Lyngby basin that forms part of the STZ. Most of the SSDS are postdepositional, implying major tectonic activity between the Allerød and Younger Dryas (∼14 ka to 12 ka). The occurrence of some syn- and metadepositional SSDS point to an onset of tectonic activity at around 14.5 ka. The formation of normal faults is probably the effect of neotectonic movements along the Børglum fault, which represents the northern boundary fault of the STZ in the study area. The narrow and elongated Nørre Lyngby basin can be interpreted as a strike-slip basin that developed due to right-lateral movements at the Børglum fault. As indicated by the SSDS, these movements were most likely accompanied by earthquake(s). Based on the association of SSDS these earthquake(s) had magnitudes of at least Ms ≥ 4.2 or even up to magnitude ∼ 7 as indicated by a fault with 3 m displacement. The outcrop data are supported by a topographic analysis of the terrain that points to a strong impact from the fault activity on the topography, characterized by a highly regular erosional pattern, the evolution of fault-parallel sag ponds and a potential fault scarp with a height of 1-2 m. With finite-element simulations, we test the impact of Late Pleistocene (Weichselian) glaciation-induced Coulomb stress change on the reactivation potential of the Børglum fault. The numerical simulations of deglaciation-related lithospheric

  15. Petrography and diagensis of Padeha Formation sandstones (Lower-Middle Devonian at Bujhan section, Binalud Basin, NE Iran

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    Mehdi Reza Poursoltani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Based on petrological and geochemical studies, minor diagenetic events in the eodiagenetic stage include cementation (calcite, dolomite and iron oxide and rarely fracturing. Mesodiagenetic events were dominated by cementation (silica, dolomite, calcite, iron oxide components, clay minerals, compaction, intra-grain microfractures, alteration of unstable clasts, dissolution and replacement, pressure solution, and rarely formation of apatite. Minor telodiagenetic events include dissolution and cementation (dolomite, ankerite, siderite, iron oxide and rarely kaolinite. The bulk of the porosity is secondary, with an average of 4.7%, which is the result of dissolution and fractures

  16. Characterization and 3D reservoir modelling of fluvial sandstones of the Williams Fork Formation, Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranter, Matthew J; Vargas, Marielis F; Davis, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic characteristics and distribution of fluvial deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation in a portion of Rulison Field and addresses 3D geologic modelling of reservoir sand bodies and their associated connectivity. Fluvial deposits include isolated and stacked point-bar deposits, crevasse splays and overbank (floodplain) mudrock. Within the Williams Fork Formation, the distribution and connectivity of fluvial sandstones significantly impact reservoir productivity and ultimate recovery. The reservoir sandstones are primarily fluvial point-bar deposits interbedded with shales and coals. Because of the lenticular geometry and limited lateral extent of the reservoir sandstones (common apparent widths of ∼500–1000 ft; ∼150–300 m), relatively high well densities (e.g. 10 acre (660 ft; 200 m) spacing) are often required to deplete the reservoir. Heterogeneity of these fluvial deposits includes larger scale stratigraphic variability associated with vertical stacking patterns and structural heterogeneities associated with faults that exhibit lateral and reverse offsets. The discontinuous character of the fluvial sandstones and lack of distinct marker beds in the middle and upper parts of the Williams Fork Formation make correlation between wells tenuous, even at a 10 acre well spacing. Some intervals of thicker and amalgamated sandstones within the middle and upper Williams Fork Formation can be correlated across greater distances. To aid correlation and for 3D reservoir modelling, vertical lithology proportion curves were used to estimate stratigraphic trends and define the stratigraphic zonation within the reservoir interval. Object-based and indicator-based modelling methods have been applied to the same data and results from the models were compared. Results from the 3D modelling indicate that sandstone connectivity increases with net-to-gross ratio and, at lower net-to-gross ratios (<30%), differences exist in

  17. (S, C, O, Sr) isotopic constraints on the diagenetic evolution of the COX clay formations at the Bure URL site, Paris Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E. C.; Tournassat, C.; Agrinier, P.; Widory, D.; Guerrot, C.; Buschaert, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Underground Research Laboratory of Bure, located in the Eastern part of the Paris Basin, was selected by ANDRA (French Agency for Nuclear Management) in order to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste disposal in the Callovian-Oxfordian thick clayey formation at 400 meters depth. Since 1994's, numerous investigations have been initiated to understand and predict the behaviour of the clay formation in time and in space, by constraining its stability, the chemical evolution of the porewaters, and solution transfers between the clayey formation and its adjacent limestone sequences during geological times (ANDRA, 2005). In that way, this study presents combined new mineralogical and isotopic data of the diagenetic mineral sequence to constrain the porewater chemistry of the rock at different stages of the sedimentary then burial history of the clayey formation. The petrological study of Callovian-Oxfordian claystones provided evidence of the following diagenetic mineral sequence: 1) Framboïdal pyrite ± micritic calcite in replacement of carbonate bioclasts and in bioturbations, 2) Iron-rich euhedral carbonates (ankerite, sideroplesite), Glauconite, 3) Sparry dolomite, celestite in residual porosity, 4) Chalcedony 5) quartz/calcite. Pyrite in bioturbations shows a wide range of δ34S (-38 to +74 permil/CDT), providing evidence of bacterial sulphate reduction processes. The lowest negative values (-38 to -22 permil) indicate precipitation of pyrite in a marine environment with a permanent recharge in sulphate, whereas the higher pyrite δ34S values (-14 up to +74 permil) show that pyrite precipitated in a system that closed for sulphate. Consequently the variations of pyrite δ34S in bioturbations along the lithostratigraphic profil indicate a change of sedimentation conditions from a deep marine environment to an environment with alternative recharge of marine sulphates; that is consistent with the transgression/regression cycle observed in the middle sequence

  18. Pore formation and occurrence in the organic-rich shales of the Triassic Chang-7 Member, Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China

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    Chuang Er

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shale-reservoir appraisal depends greatly on its pore characteristics (e.g., diameter, geometry, connectivity. Using a new pore-classification scheme based on the matrix type and occurrence state, four types of pores are identified in the organic-rich shales of the Triassic Chang-7 Member: intergranular, intragranular, organic pore, and microfracture. The intergranular pores are subdivided into primary pores between clastic grains, clay-mineral aggregates, and secondary dissolution pores between clastic grains or clay-mineral aggregates based on their origins, respectively. The intragranular pores are subdivided into secondary dissolved pores in feldspars, intra-clay-mineral aggregates and inter-pyrite. Organic pores include primarily microfractures in the organic matter and isolated organic pores. Microfracture is mainly developed along sandy and muddy laminations. Analysis by integration of data from pore imaging, low-temperature liquid nitrogen absorption, relationships between pore geometry and mineral components and between TOC and maturity of organic matter indicates that depositional environment, diagenesis, and thermal evolution of organic matter controlled the formation and preservation of pores. Organic-rich shales deposited in a deep and semi-deep lake environment contains thinly bedded turbidite sandstones, which are characterized by high content of clastic particles and thus favor the development of primary intergranular and intragranular pores, as well as microfractures along sandy laminations. During the early diagenesis process, precipitation of pyrite favors the development of inter-pyrite pores. However, compaction reduced the diameter and bulk pore volume. Organic pore has been greatly reduced under compaction. Dissolution led to formation of both inter and intra-feldspar pores, which has improved reservoir quality to some extent. Organic pore started to develop after shale maturity reaches a threshold (RO = 0

  19. Spinel and plagioclase peridotites of the Nain ophiolite (Central Iran): Evidence for the incipient stage of oceanic basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnia, Tahmineh; Saccani, Emilio; Arai, Shoji

    2018-06-01

    and ocean-continent transition zones (OCTZ), suggesting that they formed during the early stages of the evolution of the Nain oceanic basin. This means that the Nain lherzolites represent the Triassic-Jurassic western border of the CEIM or alternatively an associated OCTZ.

  20. Properties petrophysics of formation Jandaira: portion west of Potiguar Basin; Propriedades petrofisicas da formacao Jandaira: porcao oeste da Bacia Potiguar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Isabelle T.; Vieira, Marcela M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The focus of this study are the carbonate rocks of Jandaira Formation (Cenomanian-Campanian), located in the northeastern Brazil, enclosing, almost in its totality, the Rio Grande do Norte State and a small portion of the Ceara State. The research consisted of field work, petrographic description and petrophysical analysis of samples from surface and subsurface. The objective was to characterize and quantify the porosity and the permeability of this formation. In the qualitative analysis, the types of pores were classified; in the quantitative one, the porosity values were obtained through petrophysical essays and point counting in thin-sections. The samples from subsurface present porosity values less than 10% and permeability values between 0.01 and 0,47 mD. The samples from outcrops present minimum porosity of 0,6%, arriving up to 19.2%, and permeability between 0.0 and 1370,11 mD. In subsurface, the porosity values are higher in comparison with the permeability ones, inferring that, although there is good percentage of pores, they are isolated. In surface, the pores are normally interconnected, resulting in higher values of permeability. This is due to the more intense dissolution processes that rocks under these condition suffer; this fact is observed not only in the field, but in thin-sections, as well. (author)

  1. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of Bakken and Three Forks Formations horizontal wells in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.

  2. Experimental study on hydration damage mechanism of shale from the Longmaxi Formation in southern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Xiangjun Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a serious problem in drilling operation, wellbore instability restricts efficient development of shale gas. The interaction between the drilling fluid and shale with hydration swelling property would have impact on the generation and propagation mechanism of cracks in shale formation, leading to wellbore instability. In order to investigate the influence of the hydration swelling on the crack propagation, mineral components and physicochemical properties of shale from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation (LF were investigated by using the XRD analysis, cation exchange capabilities (CEC analysis, and SEM observation, and we researched the hydration mechanism of LF shale. Results show that quartz and clay mineral are dominated in mineral composition, and illite content averaged 67% in clay mineral. Meanwhile, CEC of the LF shale are 94.4 mmol/kg. The process of water intruding inside shale along microcracks was able to be observed through high power microscope, meanwhile, the hydration swelling stress would concentrate at the crack tip. The microcracks would propagate, bifurcate and connect with each other, with increase of water immersing time, and it would ultimately develop into macro-fracture. Moreover, the macrocracks extend and coalesce along the bedding, resulting in the rock failure into blocks. Hydration swelling is one of the major causes that lead to wellbore instability of the LF shale, and therefore improving sealing capacity and inhibition of drilling fluid system is an effective measure to stabilize a borehole.

  3. Characterization of Coal Quality Based On Ash Content From M2 Coal-Seam Group, Muara Enim Formation, South Sumatra Basin

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    Frillia Putri Nasution

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muara Enim Formation is well known as coal-bearing formation in South Sumatra Basin. As coal-bearing formation, this formation was subjects of many integrated study. Muara Enim Formation can be divided into four coal-seam group, M1, M2, M3, and M4. The M2 group comprising of Petai (C, Suban (B, Lower Mangus (A2, and Upper Mangus (A1. Depositional environments of Group M2 is transitional lower delta plain with sub-depositional are crevasse splay and distributary channel. The differentiation of both sub-depositional environments can be caused the quality of coal deposit. One of quality aspects is ash content. This research conducted hopefully can give better understanding of relationship between depositional environments to ash content. Group M2 on research area were found only Seam C, Seam B, and Seam A2, that has distribution from north to central so long as 1400 m. Coal-seam thickness C ranged between 3.25-9.25 m, Seam B range 7.54-13.43 m, and Seam C range 1.53-8.37 m, where all of coal-seams thickening on the central part and thinning-splitting to northern part and southern part. The ash content is formed from burning coal residue material. Ash contents on coal seam caused by organic and inorganic compound which resulted from mixing modified material on surrounded when transportation, sedimentation, and coalification process. There are 27 sample, consists of 9 sample from Seam C, 8 sample from Seam B, and 10 sample from Seam A2. Space grid of sampling is 100-150 m. Ash content influenced by many factors, but in research area, main factor is existence of inorganic parting. Average ash content of Seam C is 6,04%, Seam B is 5,05%, and Seam A2 is 3,8%. Low ash content influenced by settle environment with minor detrital material. High ash content caused by oxidation and erosional process when coalification process. Ash content on coal in research area originated from detritus material carried by channel system into brackish area or originated

  4. High resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy and glendonite occurrences of the Christopher Formation, Sverdrup Basin (Axel Heiberg Island, Canada): implications for mid Cretaceous high latitude climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrle, Jens O.; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Pugh, Adam T.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the evolution of Canada's Arctic region, as a crucial component of Earth's climate system, is fundamental to assess short and long-term climate, environmental, and paleogeographic change. However, the stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Cretaceous Arctic is poorly constrained and a detailed bio- and chemostratigraphic correlation of major mid-Cretaceous paleoceanographic turning points such as Oceanic Anoxic Events, cold snaps, and biotic turnovers with key locations of the high- and low latitudes is missing. Here we present for the first time a high resolution bio- and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Arctic Albian Christopher Formation of the Sverdrup Basin at Glacier Fiord in the southern part of Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic. By using these techniques we developed a high temporal framework to record major environmental changes as it is indicated by the occurrence of glendonites and sandstone intervals of our studied Albian succession. The Albian Christopher Formation is a shale dominated marine unit with a thickness of approximately 1200 m. Several transgressive/ regressive cycles can be recognized by prograding shoreface units that break up mudrock deposition. In addition, glendonites are mainly found in the lower part of the Christopher Formation. Glendonites are pseudomorphs of calcite, after the metastable mineral ikaite, and have been often described from high latitude Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous marine environments from the Canadian Arctic, Spitsbergen and Australia. The formation of glendonites takes place in the uppermost layer of the sediment and requires near-freezing temperatures, high salinity, and orthophosphate-rich bottom water. Although the presence of glendonites implies a range of paleoenvironmental conditions there is a consensus in the scientific literature that they reflect cooler paleoenvironmental conditions. Preliminary bio- and carbon isotope stratigraphic results suggest that the

  5. TIC/TOC and Redox Sensitive Trace Element (RSTEs) Signals Indicating Redox Conditions of the Lower Part of the Cabo Formation Near Organya (Organya Basin), Catalunya, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdocia, C.; Maurrasse, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The thick (> 4.5 km) sedimentary succession of the Organya Basin includes the Cabo Formation [1] which is well exposed in the Cabo valley area and is characteristically composed of black to dark gray marlstones and limestones that accumulated during the greenhouse climate and contain variable amount of organic matter [2-4]. Here we present geochemical results to assess redox conditions of 35.6 m of the Cabo Formation near the Barremian / Aptian boundary, along Catalunya Route C-14, immediately north of the town of Organya. TOC values range between 1 wt% and 5.8 wt%, and peak in all black limestones (0.43 m, 4.38 m, 14.85 m, 29.95 m, and 35.6 m). These TOC values average about 2.0 wt %, except at a height of 0.43 m, where the TOC has a strong peak (5.78 wt%). TIC values oscillated between 86.7 wt% and 96.8 wt%, and averaged at 92.7 wt% and show a strong negative correlation with TOC (r = -0.78). Measured carbon isotope on the organic carbon fraction (δ13Corg) showed fluctuations that ranged from -24.41‰ to -22.15‰. The TOC and δ13Corg curves show a positive correlation (r = 0.58), suggesting that carbon sequestration in the basin followed the overall global signature. Redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cu, and Mo) correlate with TOC values (r > 0.6), suggesting that dysoxic conditions were responsible for the preservation of organic matter. Biolimiting trace elements (Fe, P) also correlate positively with redox trace elements, and both have highest concentrations at 14.85 m, in concurrence with a high TOC value (2.93 wt%) indicating high primary productivity at that level. Major elements (Al, Si, and Ti) also correlates slightly with TOC (Al: r = 0.39; Si: r = 0.36; Ti: r = 0.43). References: [1] García-Senz, J., 2002, PhD Thesis, University of Barcelona, 310 pp. [2] Bernaus, J.M., et al., 2003. Sedimentary Geology 159 (3-4), 177-201. [3] Caus, E., et al., 1990. Cret. Research 11, 313-320. [4] Sanchez-Hernandez, Y., Maurrasse, F.J-M.R. 2014. Chem

  6. Interpreting irregularity in small-scale, cyclical precipitation of halite-anhydrite couplets within the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, Paradox Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, K. R.; Agena, W. F.; Dubiel, R. F.; Lee, M. W.; Pitman, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation (Hermosa Group) contains 33 documented evaporite cycles consisting of thick (6-240 m) halite successions interbedded with anhydrite, silty dolomite, and black shale. The evaporite deposits precipitated from marine brines under restricted circulation conditions in the Paradox Basin, a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough formed adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift, where periodic glacioeustatic sea-level fluctuations and intermittent meteoric water influxes altered salinity gradients. Each salt cycle contains rhythmically bedded halite-anhydrite couplets, in which anhedral to euhedral bottom-growth halite crystals are overlain by thin (mm-scale), subaqueously precipitated layers of anhydrite in the form of "snow-on-the-roof" texture. Discrete grains of sylvite, which are red due to hematite inclusions, locally occur as bands or aggregates throughout most salt packages. In order to delineate controls on high-frequency halite-anhydrite precipitation, the thickness of distinct couplets were measured in four salt cycles, two (Cycles 3 and 5) in the Cane Creek No.1 corehole and two (Cycles 5 and 13) in the Shafer No. 1 corehole. The cores were drilled approximately 8 km apart within the central portion of the basin near the crests of the Cane Creek and Shafer salt anticlines. The thickness of halite-anhydrite couplets ranges between 1-90 cm for all measured cycles, with the most commonly occurring thickness of approximately 3-4 cm. Despite the proximity of the two cores, the salt cycles in the Shafer No. 1 core are 12-15m thicker than in the Cane Creek No. 1 core, and individual couplets thicken within the middle (~20 m) of the salt section. In contrast, couplets thicken near the top of the halite bed in the Cane Creek No.1 core, which is most pronounced in Cycle 5. Locally disrupted and distorted laminae due to salt flowage, however, complicates some laminae measurements. The small-scale, cyclical pattern of halite

  7. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured {sup 222}Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m{sup 3} and 320.82 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m{sup 3} and 67.50 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m{sup 3}. Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m{sup 3} taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  8. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. The tunas massif, state of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, C.B.; Barbieri, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Tunas massif, outcropping 80 km from the city of Curitiba, Parana State, southern Brazil, covers about 22 km 2 . It intruded into Precambrian metaigneous and metasedimentary units about 80 Ma ago (K/Ar and Rb/Sr data); five subcircular volcanic structures are recognized. Syenites and alkali syenites (plus some pulaskites) are the main rock-types, with subordinate alkali gabbros, syenogabbros, essexites and syenodiorites; small late syenitic dikes are also found. Magmatic breccias containing clasts of all rock-types are widespread. Main minerals are feldspars (both alkali feldspars and plagioclases, varying from bytownite to more sodic members), Ca-pyroxenes (Ti-salites grading towards ferrosalites and aegirine-augites), amphiboles (mainly pargasites, although kaersutites and katophorites are also present), Fe-biotites (sometimes enriched in Ti), olivines (hortonolites to ferrohortonolites), quartz and feldspathoids (both fresh and altered nephelines and sodalites); main accessories are Ti-magnetites (with exsolved ilmenite) and apatite. In the AFM diagram, whole rock chemistry depicts a typical alkaline trend. Binary variation diagrams (D.I. vs. several elements) show positive correlation for Si, Na and K, and negative slopes for Mg and Ca. The variation in the amounts of Ni, Cr and V with differentiation can be explained by withdrawal of olivine, Ca-pyroxenes and magnetite, and that of Sr and Ba by the fractionation of feldspars. The rocks are also relatively enriched in REE, a trend which is more pronounced for the light REE. Mass balance calculations show that the overall differentiation trend of the Tunas rocks can be explained by crystal fractionation, although several complexities arise and point to more complex genetic patterns. Isotopic Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with a mantle origin for the parental magma; dike rocks, however, with 87 Sr 86 Sr i = 0.70777 - 0.70806, were probably contaminated by crustal material. (author) [pt

  9. Soil quality indicators in a rhodic kandiudult under different uses in northern Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biana Harumi Kuwano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of soil, maintaining or improving its quality, is one of the goals of diversification in farmlands. From this point of view, bioindicators associated with C, N and P cycling can be used in assessments of land-use effects on soil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil associated with C, N and P under different land uses in a farm property with diversified activity in northern Parana, Brazil. Seven areas under different land uses were assessed: fragment of native Atlantic Forest; growing of peach-palm (Bactrys gasipaes; sugarcane ratoon (Saccharum officinarum recently harvested, under renewal; growing of coffee (Coffea arabica intercropped with tree species; recent reforestation (1 year with native tree species, previously under annual crops; annual crops under no-tillage, rye (Cecale cereale; secondary forest, regenerated after abandonment (for 20 years of an avocado (Persea americana orchard. The soil under coffee, recent reforestation and secondary forest showed higher concentrations of organic carbon, but microbial biomass and enzyme activities were higher in soils under native forest and secondary forest, which also showed the lowest metabolic coefficient, followed by the peach-palm area. The lowest content of water-dispersible clay was found in the soil under native forest, differing from soils under sugarcane and secondary forest. Soil cover and soil use affected total organic C contents and soil enzyme and microbial activities, such that more intensive agricultural uses had deeper impacts on the indicators assessed. Calculation of the mean soil quality index showed that the secondary forest was closest to the fragment of native forest, followed by the peach-palm area, coffee-growing area, annual crop area, the area of recent reforestation and the sugarcane ratoon area.

  10. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured 222 Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m 3 and 320.82 Bq/m 3 resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m 3 . Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m 3 and 67.50 Bq/m 3 resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m 3 . Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m 3 taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  11. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halila GC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0 for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05. Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97% and adverse effects (62.3% were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence

  12. Regional evaluation and primary geological structural and metallogenical research of great Kavir basin as view of possibility formation of sedimentary-surficial Uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali Sadr, S.

    2006-01-01

    Great Kavir basin is the largest inner basin in Iran that extended about 90000 km 2. This basin is situated in the centre of lran , to the south from Alborz mountain range and elongated in the sub- latitudinal trend and its construction is asymmetric. The basin cover consists generally of complicated sequence of continental - marine Oligocene - Miocene molasses. According to drainage systems - conditions, molassoid cycles, alluvial, alluvial - deltaic and lacustrine sediments, climate, morphological conditions and metallogenic and structural features, Great Kavir depression generally is favorable for exigence and surficial uranium deposits (vally - fill, flood plain, deltaic and playa). Uranium occurrences that are Known in the southern and north eastern part of the margent Great Kavir basin, are Arosan, Irekan and Mohammad Abad. Similar geological - structural conditions for uranium mineralization is possible in the margent of Great Kavir basin

  13. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 1. Ozone formation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J; Revelle, Meghan K; Dabdub, Donald

    2004-02-01

    Metrics associated with ozone (O3) formation are investigated using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) three-dimensional air-quality model. Variables investigated include the O3 production rate (P(O3)), O3 production efficiency (OPE), and total reactivity (the sum of the reactivity of carbon monoxide (CO) and all organic gases that react with the hydroxyl radical). Calculations are spatially and temporally resolved; surface-level and vertically averaged results are shown for September 9, 1993 for three Southern California locations: Central Los Angeles, Azusa, and Riverside. Predictions indicate increasing surface-level O3 concentrations with distance downwind, in line with observations. Surface-level and vertically averaged P(O3) values peak during midday and are highest downwind; surface P(O3) values are greater than vertically averaged values. Surface OPEs generally are highest downwind and peak during midday in downwind locations. In contrast, peaks occur in early morning and late afternoon in the vertically averaged case. Vertically averaged OPEs tend to be greater than those for the surface. Total reactivities are highest in upwind surface locations and peak during rush hours; vertically averaged reactivities are smaller and tend to be more uniform temporally and spatially. Total reactivity has large contributions from CO, alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, unsubstituted monoaromatics, and secondary organics. Calculations using estimated emissions for 2010 result in decreases in P(O3) values and reactivities but increases in OPEs.

  14. Secondary formation of nitrated phenols: insights from observations during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results from online measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS with acetate as reagent ion in an oil and gas production region in January and February of 2014. Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Based on known markers (CH4, NOx, CO2, primary emissions of nitrated phenols were not important in this study. A box model was used to simulate secondary formation of phenol, nitrophenol (NP, and dinitrophenols (DNP. The box model results indicate that oxidation of aromatics in the gas phase can explain the observed concentrations of NP and DNP in this study. Photolysis was the most efficient loss pathway for NP in the gas phase. We show that aqueous-phase reactions and heterogeneous reactions were minor sources of nitrated phenols in our study. This study demonstrates that the emergence of new ToF-CIMS (including PTR-TOF techniques allows for the measurement of intermediate oxygenates at low levels and these measurements improve our understanding on the evolution of primary VOCs in the atmosphere.

  15. Palynological and sedimentary analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops of the Itapecuru Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Parnaíba Basin), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Neila N.; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2016-03-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Itapecuru Formation occur in a large area of the Parnaíba Basin and its deposits crop out along the Itapecuru River, in Maranhão State, northern Brazil. The palynological analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops strata yields a rich and diversified data. The presence of index-palynofloras in assemblages allows the identification of the Complicatisaccus cearensis Zone, of Late Aptian-Early Albian age. Terrestrial palynomorphs are abundant in the assemblages, being represented by bryophytes and pteridophytes, especially perisporate trilete spores (Crybelosporites and Perotrilites), and gymnosperms and angiosperms (Afropollis and Elaterosporites). The composition of palynological assemblages suggests the presence of moist soils for both outcrops. Acritarchs were recovered in the Querru 1 outcrop, which suggest a marine setting supporting a tidal flat environment indicated by facies associations. Furthermore, reworked Paleozoic palynomorphs were observed in the Querru 1 outcrop. The microflora from Igarapé Ipiranga outcrop suggests terrestrial environment corroborating with floodplain environment indicated by facies association.

  16. Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

    2013-10-01

    Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

  17. Morphological variation, phylogenetic relationships, and geographic distribution of the Baenidae (Testudines), based on new specimens from the Uinta Formation (Uinta Basin), Utah (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, J. Howard; Townsend, K. E. Beth; Adrian, Brent; Jager, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We described newly discovered baenid specimens from the Uintan North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA), in the Uinta Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah. These specimens include a partial skull and several previously undescribed postcranial elements of Baena arenosa, and numerous well-preserved shells of B. arenosa and Chisternon undatum. Baenids from the Uintan NALMA (46.5–40 Ma) are critical in that they provide valuable insight into the morphology and evolution of the diverse and speciose baenid family near the end of its extensive radiation, just prior to the disappearance of this clade from the fossil record. These Uintan specimens greatly increase the known variation in these late-surviving taxa and indicate that several characters thought to define these species should be reassessed. The partial cranium of B. arenosa, including portions of the basicranium, neurocranium, face, and lower jaw, was recently recovered from Uinta B sediments. While its morphology is consistent with known specimens of B. arenosa, we observed several distinct differences: a crescent-shaped condylus occipitalis that is concave dorsally, tuberculum basioccipitale that flare out laterally, and a distinct frontal-nasal suture. The current sample of plastral and carapacial morphology considerably expands the documented variation in the hypodigms of B. arenosa and C. undatum. Novel shell characters observed include sigmoidal extragular-humeral sulci, and small, subtriangular gular scutes. Subadult specimens reveal ontogenetic processes in both taxa, and demonstrate that diagnostic morphological differences between them were present from an early developmental age. PMID:28686718

  18. Morphological variation, phylogenetic relationships, and geographic distribution of the Baenidae (Testudines, based on new specimens from the Uinta Formation (Uinta Basin, Utah (USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather F Smith

    Full Text Available We described newly discovered baenid specimens from the Uintan North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA, in the Uinta Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah. These specimens include a partial skull and several previously undescribed postcranial elements of Baena arenosa, and numerous well-preserved shells of B. arenosa and Chisternon undatum. Baenids from the Uintan NALMA (46.5-40 Ma are critical in that they provide valuable insight into the morphology and evolution of the diverse and speciose baenid family near the end of its extensive radiation, just prior to the disappearance of this clade from the fossil record. These Uintan specimens greatly increase the known variation in these late-surviving taxa and indicate that several characters thought to define these species should be reassessed. The partial cranium of B. arenosa, including portions of the basicranium, neurocranium, face, and lower jaw, was recently recovered from Uinta B sediments. While its morphology is consistent with known specimens of B. arenosa, we observed several distinct differences: a crescent-shaped condylus occipitalis that is concave dorsally, tuberculum basioccipitale that flare out laterally, and a distinct frontal-nasal suture. The current sample of plastral and carapacial morphology considerably expands the documented variation in the hypodigms of B. arenosa and C. undatum. Novel shell characters observed include sigmoidal extragular-humeral sulci, and small, subtriangular gular scutes. Subadult specimens reveal ontogenetic processes in both taxa, and demonstrate that diagnostic morphological differences between them were present from an early developmental age.

  19. Paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic investigations of the whitehorse group/quartermaster (Dewey Lake) formation (upper permian-lowermost triassic) in the Palo Duro basin, northwest Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Dylan R.

    In northwest Texas, upper Permian to lowermost Triassic hematite-cemented detrital sedimentary rocks, which include a small number of regionally extensive ash beds, were deposited during the time interval of the greatest mass extinction event sequences in Earth history. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy, as well as key rock magnetic properties, of the upper Whitehorse Group (WH) and Quartermaster formations (QM) at selected sections in the Palo Duro Basin, have been determined using thermal, and chemical demagnetization approaches and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and backfield demagnetization, and thermal demagnetization of three component IRM methods. Demagnetization results show that the WH/QM contains a primary/near-primary characteristic remanent magnetization at each level sampled and thus the magnetic polarity stratigraphy for each section can be compared with existing polarity time scales across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Estimated site mean directions yield a paleomagnetic pole for the latest Permian for North America of 57.8°N, 130.6°E from 38 sampled sites.

  20. Paleoenvironmental interpretation through the analysis of ostracodes and carbonate microfacies: study of the Jandaíra Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Potiguar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Batista dos Santos Filho

    Full Text Available Paleoecological analyses are important tools for the reconstruction of paleoenvironments. This paper had the objective of using analysis of ostracode assemblages and carbonate microfacies of a well (Carbomil and an outcrop (Quixeré from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, in order to verify how they corroborate and complement the other. Two paleoenvironments for Carbomil Well (assemblages 1 and 2, respectively marine and brackish to neritic environments and one for Quixeré Outcrop (assemblage 3, marine environment were identified through the ostracode assemblage analysis. Thin section analysis allowed the identification of two different facies for Carbomil Well, i.e. bioclastic packstones to wackstones, a marine brackish or restricted marine system; and bioclastic grainstones to packstones, a normal, shallow marine system. High levels of alteration on the samples prevented an adequate analysis of Quixeré Outcrop; however, it seems to point towards a low-energy environment. Overall, information provided by the thin sections corroborate and complement data of the ostracode assemblages, which allowed a higher degree of certainty for the paleoenvironmental analysis.

  1. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 3. Fern-like foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, W.B.K. [Noonee Nyrang, Wellington, NSW (Australia)

    2003-01-31

    Two quarries in the Basin Creek Formation of the Middle Triassic Nymboida Coal Measures have yielded numerous examples of fern-like foliage. No affiliated fertile material is available to place the fronds in a natural classification. Twenty three species in twelve genera are described as morpho-taxa in Order and Family Incertae Sedis. Plants described in this paper are: Cladophlebis conferta sp. nov., C octonerva sp. nov., C. paucinerva sp. nov., C. relallachfisp. nov., C. sinuala sp. nov., C. lenuoinnula sp. nov., Diconymba sparnosa gen. et sp. nov., Gouldianum alelhopleroides gen. et sp. nov., Leconama stachyophylla gen. et sp. nov., Micronymbopteris repens gen. et sp. nov., Nymbiella lacerata gen. et sp. nov., Nymboidiantum glossophyllum (Tenison-Woods) gen. et comb. nov., N. multilobatum gen. et sp. nov., N. elegans gen. et sp. nov., N. fractiflexum gen. et sp. nov., N. robustum gen. et sp. nov., Nymbophlebis polymorpha gen. et sp. nov., Nymbopteron dejerseyi (Retallack) gen. et comb. nov.,N. foleyi gen. et sp. nov., N. uncinatum gen. et sp. nov., Nymborhipteris radiata gen. et sp. nov., Ptilotonymba curvinervia gen. et sp. nov. and Sphenopteris speciosa sp. nov. The diversity of this new material demonstrates the remarkable recovery of Gondwana vegetation following the end-Permian extinction event.

  2. Facies architecture and high resolution sequence stratigraphy of an aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine system in the Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Lucas Valadares; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    The Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation records the deposition of aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine systems accumulated in the cratonic sag Parnaíba basin. Characterization of the facies associations and sequence stratigraphic framework was done by detailed description and logging of outcrops. Six facies associations were recognized: aeolian dunes and interdunes, aeolian sandsheets, fluvial channels, tidally-influenced fluvial channels, shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition. Through correlation of stratigraphic surfaces, the facies associations were organized in system tracts, which formed eight high frequency depositional sequences, bounded by subaerial unconformities. These sequences are composed of a lowstand system tract (LST), that is aeolian-dominated or fluvial-dominated, a transgressive system tract (TST) that is formed by tidally-influenced fluvial channels and/or shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition deposits with retrogradational stacking, and a highstand system tract (HST), which is formed by shoreface-shelf transition and shoreface deposits with progradational stacking. Two low frequency cycles were determined by observing the stacking of the high frequency cycles. The Lower Sequence is characterized by aeolian deposits of the LST and an aggradational base followed by a progressive transgression, defining a general TST. The Upper Sequence is characterized by fluvial deposits and interfluve pedogenesis concurring with the aeolian deposits of the LST and records a subtle regression followed by transgression. The main control on sedimentation in the Piauí Formation was glacioeustasy, which was responsible for the changes in relative sea level. Even though, climate changes were associated with glacioeustatic phases and influenced the aeolian and fluvial deposition.

  3. Transient dynamics study on casing deformation resulted from lost circulation in low-pressure formation in the Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of completion of an ultra-deep well newly drilled in the Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, long-section and large-scale deformation occurred in the heavy casing section and nickel base alloy casing section of the sealing Triassic limestone interval, so a new hole had to be sidetracked, which impels us to rediscover the applicability of conventional drilling and completion technology in ultra-deep wells. In this paper, based on the borehole condition and field operation data of this well, the borehole pressure field variation initiated by lost circulation in the low-pressure formation was analyzed from the perspective of dynamics, then, the variation pattern of differential pressure inside and outside the well bore at different time intervals was depicted, and the primary cause of such complication was theoretically revealed, i.e., the pressure wave generated by instant lost circulation in low-pressure formation would result in redistribution of pressure inside the downhole confined space, and then the crush of casing in the vicinity of local low-pressure areas. Pertinent proposals for avoiding these kinds of engineering complexities were put forward: ① when downhole sealing casing operation is conducted in open hole completion, liner completion or perforated hole, the potential damage of lost circulation to casing should be considered; ② the downhole sealing point and sealing mode should be selected cautiously: the sealing point had better be selected in the section with good cementing quality or as close to the casing shoe as possible, and the sealing mode can be either cement plug or mechanical bridge plug. This paper finally points out that good cementing quality plays an important role in preventing this type of casing deformation.

  4. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  5. Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene H.S.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

  6. Air oxidation of samples from different clay formations of East Paris basin: quantitative and qualitative consequences on the dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchart, Pascale; Faure, Pierre; Michels, Raymond; Parant, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. During the excavation and the building of an underground research laboratory in clay geological formations, exposure to air is one of the most important parameters affecting the composition of fossil organic matter. Indeed the net effect of air oxidation of the organic matter is enrichment in oxygen and carbon combined with a loss of hydrogen. Effluents formed are CO 2 and water as well as the liberation of hydrocarbons. This process may have an impact on water chemistry of the clay, especially on the quantity and composition of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM). The clays studied were the following and may be distinguished on the basis of their organic matter content: - The Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, collected in the Bure Underground Research Laboratory (Meuse, France), which contains a mixture of type II and III kerogen; - The Toarcian shales of East Paris Basin collected from drilling EST 204 (Meuse, France) contains type II kerogen; - The Kimmeridgian shales of East Paris Basin collected from drilling HTM 102 (Meuse, France) also contains type II kerogen. The powdered clay samples were oxidized in a ventilated oven at 100 C under air flow during 2, 256, 512 and 1088 hours for Callovo-Oxfordian samples and during 512 and 2048 hours for Toarcian and Kimmeridgian samples. The DOM of each sample was extracted by soxhlet using pure water. Different analyses were carried out: - Quantitative evolution of DOM with the oxidation process; - Evolution of several chemical parameters of DOM with oxidation using molecular analyses (PyGC-MS) molecular weight distribution (GPC-HPLC) as well as spectroscopic measurements (3D-Fluorescence). Increasing oxidation induces an increase of DOC values for all samples. Also, Changes in the chemical composition of the DOM are observed: decrease in the molecular weight range; enrichment in acidic functional groups (alkane-dioic acids, alkanoic acids, aromatics poly acids). Moreover the

  7. Major and trace elements in Mahogany zone oil shale in two cores from the Green River Formation, piceance basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.; Dean, W.E.; Parduhn, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Parachute Creek Member of the lacustrine Green River Formation contains thick sequences of rich oil-shale. The richest sequence and the richest oil-shale bed occurring in the member are called the Mahogany zone and the Mahogany bed, respectively, and were deposited in ancient Lake Uinta. The name "Mahogany" is derived from the red-brown color imparted to the rock by its rich-kerogen content. Geochemical abundance and distribution of eight major and 18 trace elements were determined in the Mahogany zone sampled from two cores, U. S. Geological Survey core hole CR-2 and U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole O1-A (Figure 1). The oil shale from core hole CR-2 was deposited nearer the margin of Lake Uinta than oil shale from core hole O1-A. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the Mahogany zone from each of these two cores is compared using elemental abundances and Q-mode factor modeling. The results of chemical analyses of 44 CR-2 Mahogany samples and 76 O1-A Mahogany samples are summarized in Figure 2. The average geochemical abundances for shale (1) and black shale (2) are also plotted on Figure 2 for comparison. The elemental abundances in the samples from the two cores are similar for the majority of elements. Differences at the 95% probability level are higher concentrations of Ca, Cu, La, Ni, Sc and Zr in the samples from core hole CR-2 compared to samples from core hole O1-A and higher concentrations of As and Sr in samples from core hole O1-A compared to samples from core hole CR-2. These differences presumably reflect slight differences in depositional conditions or source material at the two sites. The Mahogany oil shale from the two cores has lower concentrations of most trace metals and higher concentrations of carbonate-related elements (Ca, Mg, Sr and Na) compared to the average shale and black shale. During deposition of the Mahogany oil shale, large quantities of carbonates were precipitated resulting in the enrichment of carbonate-related elements

  8. Alternatives procedures for small farming sustainable management of parana pine Mecanismos alternativos para manejo sustentável de pinheiro-do-paraná na pequena propriedade rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zbigniew Mazuchowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    After the expansion of agricultural frontier occurred in the southern brazilian region, which brought native forest substitution, new  management and alternatives practices were introduced in order to preserve and stimulate new plantings of the parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia . Alongside, in the last years, silviculturists have been promoting activities of forest development, in special with Pinus, Eucalyptus, Grevillea and bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella species to face wood depletion of native forest species. At the same time, new legal procedures also contributed to reduce new plantings of parana pine  because it tried to enforce simple preservation with high demands and tough inspection measures. Thus, representing 85 % of land structure in the State of Paraná, discouraged - small farmers were looking for to erradicate this species due to legal over regulation. Therefore, to  vercome this situation, mechanisms were offered to the silviculture management of Brazilian pine which were based in two central points tupgrading the existing laws and to incentive new plantations, specially in the areas set aside for environmental protection called of "Reserva Legal". In this way, the Extension Service (Emater tried to help this situation with the following prescription: technology diffusion; rewards to stimulate forest producers in the municipality; and formation of farmers groups to collect, select and to sell pine seeds.

    Em substituição às florestas nativas, pela abertura de fronteira agrícola, práticas agropecuárias alternativas foram introduzidas nas propriedades rurais com pinheiro-do-paraná (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kunt. Porém, nos últimos anos, a silvicultura tem  promovido o desenvolvimento de atividades ligadas às madeiras de pínus, eucalipto, grevílea e bracatinga frente à exaustão de madeira oriunda de espécies florestais nativas, na geração de recursos no meio

  9. Evaluation of radon concentration in dwellings and well water of Parana State-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi

    2011-01-01

    Considering the growing interest of International Agencies and national Governmental organs in studies and measurements of radon activity in air, soil gas and ground water (mainly from artesian wells) as well as scarceness of such measurements at Brazilian territory, present studies were initiated by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN) of Brazilian Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN). This Collaboration started in 2003. Radon monitoring program is based mainly on use of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors for radon activity measurements in air. Continuous electronic radon detectors are used for radon measurements in soil gas and water. Current work presents the results of indoor 222 Rn activity of dwellings and working places of Curitiba-PR and radon concentration in ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the same area. The indoor measurements of radon activity were performed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors CR-39. After the exposition, CR-39 detectors were submitted to chemical development which permitted to make alpha particle tracks counting. The results of calibration of CR-39 together with efficiency of used exhalation chambers as well as alpha particle tracks chemical development procedure were performed in cooperation with CDTN and collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The major part of indoor 222 Rn concentration in residences was found below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements present 222 Rn concentration bellow 100 Bq/m3. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the samples of water from artesian wells submitted to recursive measurements by instant radon detector AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO during few weeks with intervals of about 4 days between each measurement

  10. Modelling the petroleum generation and migration of the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaowen; He, Sheng; Liu, Keyu; Shi, Zhongsheng; Bachir, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The mudstones in the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) are the primary source rocks in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin. They are rich in organic matter with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content up to 3.5%. The sandstones in the Es3 member are the deepest proven hydrocarbon reservoir rocks with measured porosity and permeability values ranging from 3.6% to 32.4% and from 0.01 md to 3283.7 md, respectively. One, two and three-dimensional basin modelling studies were performed to analyse the petroleum generation and migration history of the Es3 member in the Banqiao Depression based on the reconstruction of the burial, thermal and maturity history in order to evaluate the remaining potential of this petroleum province. The modelling results are calibrated with measured vitrinite reflectance ( R o), borehole temperatures and some drilling results of 63 wells in the study area. Calibration of the model with thermal maturity and borehole temperature data indicates that the present-day heat flow in the Banqiao Depression varies from 59.8 mW/m 2 to 61.7 mW/m 2 and the paleo-heat flow increased from 65 Ma to 50.4 Ma, reached a peak heat-flow values of approximately 75 mW/m 2 at 50.4 Ma and then decreased exponentially from 50.4 Ma to present-day. The source rocks of the Es3 member are presently in a stage of oil and condensate generation with maturity from 0.5% to 1.8% R o and had maturity from 0.5% to 1.25% R o at the end of the Dongying Formation (Ed) deposition (26 Ma). Oil generation (0.5% R o) in the Es3 member began from about 37 Ma to 34 Ma and the peak hydrocarbon generation (1.0% R o) occurred approximately from 30 Ma to 15 Ma. The modelled hydrocarbon expulsion evolution suggested that the timing of hydrocarbon expulsion from the Es3 member source rocks began from 31 Ma to 10 Ma with the peak hydrocarbon expulsion shortly after 26 Ma. Secondary petroleum migration pathways in the Es3 member of the Banqiao Depression are modelled based on the

  11. Insights into the subsurface transport of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water from hydraulic fracturing using soil samples from Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-04-01

    Produced water is a type of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, which may pose a risk to the environment and humans due to its high ionic strength and the presence of elevated concentrations of metals/metalloids that exceed maximum contamination levels. The mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water and selected soils from Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin in China were investigated using column experiments and synthetic produced water whose quality was representative of waters arising at different times after well creation. Temporal effects of produced water on metal/metalloid transport and sorption/desorption were investigated by using HYDRUS-1D transport modelling. Rapid breakthrough and long tailings of As(V) and Se(VI) transport were observed in Day 1 and Day 14 solutions, but were reduced in Day 90 solution probably due to the elevated ionic strength. The influence of produced water on the hydrogeological conditions (i.e., change between equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport) was evidenced by the change of tracer breakthrough curves before and after the leaching of produced water. This possibly resulted from the sorption of polyacrylamide (PAM (-CH 2 CHCONH 2 -) n ) onto soil surfaces, through its use as a friction reducer in fracturing solutions. The sorption was found to be reversible in this study. Minimal amounts of sorbed As(V) were desorbed whereas the majority of sorbed Se(VI) was readily leached out, to an extent which varied with the composition of the produced water. These results showed that the mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in soil largely depended on the solution pH and ionic strength. Understanding the differences in metal/metalloid transport in produced water is important for proper risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  13. Exotic clasts, debris flow deposits and their significance for reconstruction of the Istebna Formation (Late Cretaceous - Paleocene, Silesian Basin, Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzeboński, Piotr; Kowal-Kasprzyk, Justyna; Olszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The different types of calcareous exotic clasts (fragments of pre-existing rocks), embedded in the Paleocene siliciclastic deposits of the Istebna Formation from the Beskid Mały Mountains (Silesian Unit, Western Outer Carpathians), were studied and differentiated through microfacies-biostratigraphical analysis. Calcareous exotics of the Oxfordian- Kimmeridgian age prevail, representing a type of sedimentation comparable to that one documented for the northern Tethyan margin. The Tithonian exotic clasts (Štramberk-type limestones), which are much less common, were formed on a carbonate platform and related slope. The sedimentary paleotransport directions indicate the Silesian Ridge as a main source area for all exotics, which were emplaced in the depositional setting of the flysch deposits. The exotics constitute a relatively rare local component of some debrites. Proceedings of the sedimentological facies analysis indicate that these mass transport deposits were accumulated en-masse by debris flows in a deep-water depositional system in the form of a slope apron. Exotics prove that clasts of the crystalline basement and, less common, fragments of the sedimentary cover, originated from long-lasting tectonic activity and intense uplift of the source area. Mass transport processes and mass accumulation of significant amounts of the coarse-grained detrital material in the south facial zone of the Silesian Basin during the Early Paleogene was due to reactivation of the Silesian Ridge and its increased denudation. Relative regression and erosion of the emerged older flysch deposits were also forced by this uplift. These processes were connected with the renewed diastrophic activity in the Alpine Tethys.

  14. The formation of early settled villages and the emergence of leadership: A test of three theoretical models in the Rio Ilave, Lake Titicaca Basin, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathan Mcdonald

    Despite obvious necessities for understanding later developments in the region, Preceramic cultures in the Titicaca Basin are poorly understood due to lacking empirical data. This dissertation focuses on examination of two processes occurring in the Rio Ilave drainage during the Late 5000--3100 B.C.E. (6000--4400 B.P.) and Terminal 3100--1500 B.C.E. Archaic (4400--3200 B.P.): the formation of settled villages and the emergence of leadership. These processes are tested against theoretical predictions derived from: population resource imbalance, human behavioral ecology, and agency theories. Resource imbalance theory predicts appearance of density dependent adaptive problems prior to major cultural transformations. Human behavioral ecology predicts increased dietary diversity and incorporation of greater processing costs occuring coincidentally with reduced residential mobility. Symbolic mate value advertising is a predicted leadership strategy. Agency theory predicts internal sources of social tension, potentially independent of external forces, as primary causes of cultural change. Feast hosting and the formation political economy are expected to be central to both social processes investigated from this perspective. Local paleoclimatic proxies suggest aridity from ca 4000--2000 B.C.E. Reanalysis of pedestrian survey data indicate population growth during the Late Archaic. Excavation and ground penetrating radar survey at Pirco and Jiskairumoko demonstrate reduced residential mobility and increased evidence for social differentiation appearing during the Late Archaic's (before 3000 B.C.E.) end. New cultural patterns include: pithouses, more groundstone, internal storage, costly non-local artifacts, domesticated plants and animals, costly grave goods, and use of ochre in symbolic contexts. No clear cut evidence for inter-community promotional feasting was identified but some finds suggest intra-community alliance feasts. By the end of the Terminal Archaic ca. 1500 B

  15. Potential of production of biodiesel starting from the chicken oil in the cooperatives of the West of Parana, Brazil; Potencial de producao de biodiesel a partir do oleo de frango nas cooperativas do oeste do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], Email: ssouza@unioeste.br; Neitzke, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (PIBIC/CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica; Gomes, Luis Fernando Souza [Colegio Estadual Presidente Castelo Branco, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], Email: luisfsg@ibest.com.br; Bariccatti, Reinaldo Aparecido [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CECE/UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas], Email: bariccatti@unioeste.br

    2006-07-01

    Brazil occupies a prominence place in the development and use of sources renovate of energy, due to its great territorial extension, climate and several alternatives. One of these it is the bio diesel,o production which can substitute the oil diesel, decreasing the impacts to the environment. In the productive chain of chicken meat a residue, chicken oil, is generated with potential for biodiesel production. In this work they were certain characteristics physical chemistries, that can influence in the reactions of transesterification of the chicken oil. It was lifted up the potential of production of chicken oil in the cooperatives of the area west of the state of Parana and yield in biodiesel. The bio diesel production by cooperatives could be of 19.525.209,0 kg/year of bio diesel and the yield of 95%. (author)

  16. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil; Avaliacao de kerma de entrada na pele em exames radiologicos no Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE/DEN), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  17. Estratificacion espacial y comportamiento de Prochilodus scrofa en distintas fases del ciclo de vida, en la planici de inundacion del alto rio Parana y embalse de Itaipu, Parana, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho, A.A.; Vazzoler, A.E.A. de; Gomes, L.C.; Okada, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    Les poissons du genre #Prochilodus scrofa$ ont un comportement migratoire et présentent une répartition différenciée dans les bassins des fleuves d'Amérique du Sud. Les migrations et le cycle de la reproduction de #P. scrofa$ ont éété étudiés dans un secteur du Haut Parana, comprenant la retenue d'Itaipu, un bief du fleuve, ses affluents et la plaine d'inondation autour de Porto Rico (23°43'S-53°10'W/25°33'S-54°35'W). Les études ont porté d'octobre 1986 à septembre 1988. En octobre, une fract...

  18. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  19. The study of ground water movements about Guarani Aquifer system through Parana, Sao Paulo isotopes and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Lima Bittendourt, A.; Chemas Hindt, E.; Duarte, U.; Montano, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study relates tectonic features to hydrochemistry properties in order to show an example where the Guarany Aquifer behaves like a closed compartiment. This situation can be used as a model to other localities with similar geological structures where the aquifer is not recharged by modern waters, therefore, groundwater withdrawal from deep wells depletes the aquifer turning its exploitation not recommended. This study area was located inside the limits of the Ponta Grossa Arch, especially by the the Rio Alonzo and Sao Jeronimo-Curiuva lineaments. Among the waters that had been already classified in Sao Paulo and Parana States (Brazil), predominate the calcium-bicarbonate and sodiumbicarbonate types and the characteristic of the water in this particular case is sodiumsulfate- chloride type with TDS above 1000 mg/L

  20. Characterization and technological properties of mineral clays used in the Southwest of Parana and West of Santa Catarina states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdameri, C.Z.; Ciesca, D.F.; Zatta, L.; Anaissi, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize clay minerals used in the ceramic industry in southwestern region of Parana and west of Santa Catarina states. The precursors used were the same used by industries in these regions for the production of bricks. The precursors were characterized,preliminary results are shown with respect to structural, chemical and physical precursors (XRD, EDS and plasticity). The specimens were characterized for technological burning properties: linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural tension and density. The results show that the clays present Typical chemical composition of raw clay, however, the evaluation of technological properties after burning indicate negative results to be applied to the manufacture of red ceramic because did not meet the regulatory requirements. (author)

  1. Analysis of inter-organizational relationships in hospitality business at Curitiba (Parana State, Brazil. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio João Hocayen-da-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality business in Curitiba City (Parana State, Brazil turned to be a good investment for national and international hotel chains due to the settlement of assembly industries as well as several multinational companies in the dwellings,  which increased demand for hospitality services.  This study sought to examine the inter-organizational relationships held by hospitality business companies in Curitiba. To achieve that goal semi-structured interviews with owners, directors and managers were conducted in two hotels belonging to locals, either persons or groups. Secondary data were collected in printed or on line newspapers and magazines. It was possible to note the absence of formal practices of alliances and partnerships between companies of the analyzed sector, which  hinders the achievement of sustainable competitive advantage.

  2. EVALUATION OF FACTORS OF THE WORKPLACES IN MATE INDUSTRY (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. AT CENTRAL-SOUTH IN PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed in the maté process industry workplaces, located in central-south of the Parana State, Brazil, from June to August 2005. The climate conditions, noise and light level were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The results showed that the climate conditions through the Wet Bulle Globe Temperature (WBGT was in accordance with NR 15 standard, with a maximum of 17.0 ºC at 15:00 p.m. in the “Barbaquá” sector. The noise levels were above allowed by legislation in the “Barbaquá” sector at finally work day. The light conditions were not in accordance with NBR 5413/92 in the majority of the workplaces evaluated, mainly after the 18:00 p.m, when the artificial illumination became necessary.

  3. SITE INDEX CURVES AND HYPSOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP FOR Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR THE CAMPOS GERAIS REGION, PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida de Souza Retslaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to fit mathematical models for the construction of Site Index curves and to estimate heights at different ages for Eucalyptus grandis in the Campos Gerais region, Parana State. The data used to fit the models came from permanent, temporary plots and pre-harvesting inventory, covering ages from 2.5 to 26.5 years. Several models were tested to represent the sites and the hypsometric relationship. The Site Index curves were constructed by the guide-curve method. For the Site Index, the Chapman-Richards model showed the best fit and precision statistics, generating 5 Site Index curves (range of 5 m with the Chapman-Richards model. The four hypsometric models tested showed satisfactory performance and similar statistics and the inclusion of the variables dominant height or site index did not substantially improve the goodness of fit statistics, but the residues were more homogeneous and closer to zero.

  4. An evolving magmatic-hydrothermal system in the formation of the Mesozoic Meishan magnetite-apatite deposit in the Ningwu volcanic basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hao; Jiang, Man-Rong; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Xia, Yan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Li, Huan

    2018-06-01

    The Meishan iron deposit contains 338 Mt of iron-ore reserves at 39% Fe and represents the largest magnetite-apatite deposit in the Ningwu Basin of eastern China. Controversy has long existed about whether this deposit had a hydrothermal or iron-oxide melt origin. Iron mineralization is genetically related to plutons that are composed of gabbro-diorite, which were emplaced at 130 ± 1 Ma. These rocks have SiO2 contents of 51.72-54.60 wt%, Na2O contents of 3.47-4.04 wt%, K2O contents of 2.02-2.69 wt%, and K2O/Na2O ratios of 0.51-0.73. These rocks are enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in Nb, Ta, and Ti, which indicates that the magma originated through partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle source in a subduction environment. A pattern of decreasing initial Sr isotopic ratios and increasing εNd(t) values with time in Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks of the Ningwu Basin may indicate incorporation of increasing proportions of asthenospheric mantle material into the source magma, which is consistent with the processes of lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling in eastern China related to Mesozoic subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. Two stages of magnetite are found in the gabbro-diorite: (1) early-crystallized magnetite as euhedral-subhedral crystals in larger clinopyroxene crystals, and (2) later-crystallized magnetite and accompanying ilmenite grains in the voids between plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals. The formation of magnetite before clinopyroxene, combined with the results of Fe-Ti oxide geothermometry and analysis of magnetite V content, indicates that the oxygen fugacity of the source magma was greater than ΔFMQ +2.2 at an early stage (>640 °C) but decreased to ΔFMQ -2.66 as abundant magnetite crystallized at a later stage (∼489 °C). The early crystallization of magnetite at a high oxygen fugacity does not support a Fenner evolution trend for the primitive magma and diminishes the likelihood of liquid immiscibility

  5. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  6. Active shortening, intermontane basin formation, and geomorphic evolution in an orogenic plateau: Central Puna Plateau, NW Argentina (24°37'S, 67°03'W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Manfred R.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Freymark, Jessica; Pingel, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    The high-elevation Andean Plateau (Altiplano-Puna; 4km) is a first-order morphotectonic province of the Central Andes and constitutes the world's second largest orogenic plateau. While there are many unifying basin characteristics in this region, including internal drainage, semi-arid to arid climate and associated deposition of evaporites, there are notable differences between the northern and southern parts of the plateau. In contrast to the vast basins of the Altiplano (north) and incipient establishment of fluvial connectivity and sediment transport to the foreland, the Puna (south) comprises numerous smaller basins, bordered by reverse-fault bounded ranges up to 6 km high. The plateau is internally drained and fluvial connectivity with the foreland does not exist leading to thick sedimentary basin fills that comprise continental evaporites, volcanic and clastic deposits, typically between 3 and 5 km thick. However, repeated impacts of climate change and superposed tectonic activity in the southern plateau have resulted in further basin differentiation, abandonment or re-arrangement of fluvial networks and impacts on sediment transport. Here we report evidence for sustained contractional tectonic activity in the Pocitos Basin in the southern plateau. On the western margin of the basin fanning of dipping strata and regraded, steeply inclined gravel-covered pediment surfaces and wind gaps associated with gravel derived from distant sources in the west document late Tertiary to Pleistocene growth of an approximately N-S oriented and N plunging anticline. The growth of the eastern limb of this anticline has caused the isolation of a formerly more extensive basin. In addition, Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake shorelines and lacustrine deposits are tilted eastward along the same structure and InSAR measurements of deformed lake terraces document that the fold is growing. Despite widely reported extensional faulting in the southern Puna, we conclude (1) that the

  7. Geochemical and isotope aspects of calcite deposits and calcitic marbles hosts mineralizations, Serra do Carumbe, Vale do Ribeira, Parana state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venusso, Gerson Caetano; Andrade e Silva, Antonio C. Gondim de

    2011-01-01

    The calcite deposits and the calcitic marbles hosts occur in Serra do Carumbe, in the Vale do Ribeira region, Parana State, were studied in their geochemical and isotopic aspects viewing the gathering of information about their genesis and economical use. The calcite deposits are constituted by veins and lenses, being three of them concordant and one discordant in relation to the S_0 from the hosting marbles. In these deposits four main types of calcite were recognized: rombohedrical, fibrous, banded and microcrystalline. The calcite reveal themselves having high purity, with CaO concentration above 55.30% and MgO below 0.42%. The lithogeochemical study of the marbles sequence was conducted in various suites revealing an uniformity in their composition, with high values of CaO (above 46.92%) in relation to the MgO values (below 3,37%), what favors their use for cement manufacture, except in sectors that suffered fault influences, where the marbles are impure (siliceous, magnesian, ferruginous and aluminous). Regarding their trace elements content, the hosting calcitic marbles have higher concentrations than the calcite, in the elements Sr, B, Ba and Mg, what makes evident their different formation environments. The δ"1"3C values from calcite range from –9,02 to –12,24 ‰ , referring to PDB, while the values δ"1"8O range from 24,48 to 25,23 ‰, referring to SMOW; meanwhile, for the calcitic marbles, the δ"1"3C values range from –4,03 to 1,42‰ and of δ"1"8O range from 20,71 to 23,00 ‰. The high δ"1"8O values would indicate enrichment referring to the interaction of the calcite's generator fluid with the carbonatic host rock. The δ"1"3C values indicate origin from hydrothermal solution for the calcite, although they would not allow to conclude if their sources would be superficial or profound. As for the hosting calcitic marbles, the isotopic values indicate genesis from pre-cambrian marine limestone. (author)

  8. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duílio M Z de A Silva

    Full Text Available Supernumerary (B chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  9. Geochemistry of formation waters from the Wolfcamp and “Cline” shales: Insights into brine origin, reservoir connectivity, and fluid flow in the Permian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Reyes, Francisco R.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Lin, Ma; Ianno, Adam J.; Westphal, Tiffani M.; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important oil producing provinces in the United States, information on basinal hydrogeology and fluid flow in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico is lacking. The source and geochemistry of brines from the basin were investigated (Ordovician- to Guadalupian-age reservoirs) by combining previously published data from conventional reservoirs with geochemical results for 39 new produced water samples, with a focus on those from shales. Salinity of the Ca–Cl-type brines in the basin generally increases with depth reaching a maximum in Devonian (median = 154 g/L) reservoirs, followed by decreases in salinity in the Silurian (median = 77 g/L) and Ordovician (median = 70 g/L) reservoirs. Isotopic data for B, O, H, and Sr and ion chemistry indicate three major types of water. Lower salinity fluids (100 g/L), isotopically heavy (O and H) water in Leonardian [Permian] to Pennsylvanian reservoirs (2–3.2 km depth) is evaporated, Late Permian seawater. Water from the Permian Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian “Cline” shales, which are isotopically similar but lower in salinity and enriched in alkalis, appear to have developed their composition due to post-illitization diffusion into the shales. Samples from the “Cline” shale are further enriched with NH4, Br, I and isotopically light B, sourced from the breakdown of marine kerogen in the unit. Lower salinity waters (3 km depth), which plot near the modern local meteoric water line, are distinct from the water in overlying reservoirs. We propose that these deep meteoric waters are part of a newly identified hydrogeologic unit: the Deep Basin Meteoric Aquifer System. Chemical, isotopic, and pressure data suggest that despite over-pressuring in the Wolfcamp shale, there is little potential for vertical fluid migration to the surface environment via natural conduits.

  10. Vertical Profiles Of 226Ra, 232Th And 40K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Paraná Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Paraná sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 1.84 Bqṡkg-1 for 232Th and 4.20 Bqṡkg-1 for 40K. Activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bqṡkg-1), 232Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bqṡkg-1) and 40K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bqṡkg-1). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81±0.22 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 4.21±0.07 Bqṡkg-1 for 232Th, and 50.11±0.82 Bqṡkg-1 for 40K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10±12.17 Bqṡkg-1 for 226Ra, 43.69

  11. Parameters controlling fracturing distribution: example of an Upper Jurassic marly-calcareous formation (eastern Paris Basin); Parametres controlant la distribution de la fracturation: exemple dans une serie marno-calcaire du Jurassique superieur (Est du bassin de Paris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Laboratoire de recherche souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Proudhon, B. [GEO.TER, 34 - Clapiers (France)

    2006-10-15

    Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)

  12. Facies interpretations and lateral variability based on correlation of conventional core in the Logan canyon and Mississauga formations of the Scotian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, D.J.W. [Geological Survey of Canada (Canada); Gould, K.M.; Pe-Piper, G. [Saint Mary' s University (Canada)], email: 075353g@acadiau.ca

    2011-07-01

    In the Lower Cretaceous of the Scotian Basin in Canada, sediment facies have been interpreted mostly using vertical successions of rock. However, other studies show that the lateral extent and variability of sediment facies must be understood to assess reservoir extent and connectivity. The aim of this paper is to present the investigation of two areas of the Scotian Basin. In each area, a regional correlation was performed using gamma ray well logs and the lithology, sedimentary and biogenic structures were determined for 67 different cores. It was found that the determination of facies and vertical successions was useful for comparing and correlating across multiple wells. In addition it was shown that gamma logs are effective for regional correlation but can only correlate major changes. This paper demonstrated that gamma logs are useful for performing facies interpretations and determining lateral variability.

  13. Adaptation of rural electricity cooperatives in the State of Parana to the scenario of the electric sector; Adaptacao das cooperativas de eletrificacao rural do estado do Parana ao cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], Email: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmenan, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Reisdoerfer, Eli Carlos; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Email: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Rural Electrification Cooperatives (REC) has already played a fundamental role in rural electrification process. Bearing in mind changes in legislation towards specific laws that tend to facilitate energy distribution and trade relations, REC has increased there potential to contribute even more to above mentioned process. The present work intended to assess how REC settled in Parana State have adapted themselves to the privatised electrical business scenario as well as to new legal requirements and the presence of great national and international corporations disputing the energy market. Such new electrical market model favors huge changes to the electrification cooperatives, with the possibility of transforming cooperatives into public service energy with governmental permission. Moreover, it also represents a giant challenge for their insertion and continuity in such new scenario, in as much as the REC classification process as public service companies for electric energy distribution has been carried out for years, added to the scarcity of investments on state cooperatives, therefore restricting electric energy supply to residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  14. Optimization, water reuse and biomass energy potential from waste water poultry slaughterhouse in Matelandia-Parana, Brazil; Otimizacao, reuso de agua e potencial energetico da biomassa presente nas aguas residuarias de abatedouro de aves em Matelandia, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formentini, Diana Fatima [Fundacao Parque Tecnologico de Itaipu (PTI), Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mpbambiental@yahoo.com.br; Costanzi, Ricardo Nagamine [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UFTPR), PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The alternative sources for energy generation through anaerobic digestion assist in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and increase the efficiency removing wastewater organic load. This study aimed to identify opportunities for optimization and water reuse in industry and energy potential of biomass present in wastewater from poultry slaughterhouse in Matelandia Parana state, through the anaerobic digestion process. The company slaughtered 130,000 poultries d{sup -1} and generates a wastewater flow of 3,398.77 m{sup 3}.d{sup -}1. Measurements of water consumption were made by water meters installed at seven points of the production process, which resulted in consumption values by sector. The treatment system used consists of pre-treatment in sieve flotator static and physical, followed by stabilization ponds. Two anaerobic ponds were covered with a geo membrane and installed a gas meter to measure the flow of biogas production. The average production of biogas produced in each month was approximately 2,100 m{sup 3}. The use of biomass poultry slaughterhouse is viable for generating electricity and that you can reuse 255.80 m{sup 3}.d{sup -1}. (author)

  15. Revision of the equation Calculated Cetane Index for the characteristics of diesel commercialized in the Parana-Brazil; Revisao da equacao de Calculo do Indice de Cetano para as caracteristicas do diesel comercializado no Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Tatiana Bittencourt de; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Cocco, Lilian Cristina [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Analise de Combustiveis Automotivos (LACAUTets)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the development of models for Calculated Cetane Index (CCI) determination with the purpose of tailor it to the diesel oil sold in Brazil, using optimization techniques. As the diesel is the main fuel on the Brazilian territory, their quality is of great importance. The CCI calculation is important to evaluate the diesel quality. The standard ASTM D 4737 does not take into account the presence of cetane booster additive and biodiesel, which creates the need to recast the equation of the CCI determination. About 300 representative samples were selected of diesel in Parana, during the 2006 to 2007 period, which had their physic-chemical properties determined using the methodology adopted by the ANP - the Brazilian petroleum, natural gas and biofuel agency. The Derived Cetane Number was obtained in the IQT apparatus and several models were proposed, all with better predictive capability than the equation of the standard ASTM D 4737. It is pointed out that biodiesel can act as cetane booster additive depending upon its origin, mostly in concentrations above 5%. The methodology can be expanded to generate a representative equation for the diesel sold in the whole Brazilian territory. (author)

  16. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao de ceramicas arqueologicas do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1998-12-31

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination ({mu} {rho}) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the {mu} {rho} determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for {mu} {rho} determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, {mu} theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, {mu} {rho} was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for {mu} {rho} and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author) 25 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao de ceramicas arqueologicas do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1997-12-31

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination ({mu} {rho}) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the {mu} {rho} determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for {mu} {rho} determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, {mu} theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, {mu} {rho} was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for {mu} {rho} and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author) 25 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Application of Advanced Exploration Technologies for the Development of Mancos Formation Oil Reservoirs, Jicarilla Apache Indian Nation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Scott; Billingsley, Randy

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) develop an exploration rationale for the Mancos shale in the north-eastern San Juan basin; (2) assess the regional prospectivity of the Mancos in the northern Nation lands based on that rationale; (3) identify specific leads in the northern Nation as appropriate; (4) forecast pro-forma production, reserves and economics for any leads identified; and (5) package and disseminate the results to attract investment in Mancos development on the Nation lands

  19. A new spiny species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Loricariidae: Hypostominae from thermal waters, upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda O. Martins

    Full Text Available A new species of Hypostomus is described from the rio Quente, rio Paranaíba drainage, in the upper rio Paraná basin in central Brazil. The rio Quente is a peculiar small and shallow fast water stream with water temperatures around 34ºC. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by having the five lateral series of plates with hypertrophied odontodes not aligned in rows and more conspicuous on flanks of caudal peduncle of the larger specimens. The new species is only known from the rio Quente.

  20. Tracing of natural radionuclides mobility in deep sedimentary environment using radioactive (234U/238U) disequilibria: application to the Mesozoic formations of the Eastern part of the Paris Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, P.

    2003-11-01

    This thesis forms part of the geological investigations undertaken by the French agency for nuclear waste management, ANDRA, around the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) located in the Eastern part of the Paris Basin in order to evaluate the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste repository in deep argilite formations. The aim of the study is to examine the radionuclide migration in the deep Callovo-Oxfordian target argilite layer and its surrounding low- permeability Bathonian and Oxfordian limestone formations in order to assess the long term confining capacities of the sedimentary series. This study is based on measurement of radioactive disequilibria within U-series by Multiple- Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The high precision and accuracy achieved allowed to demonstrate the 234 U/ 238 U radioactive equilibrium in the Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. This result shows the uranium immobility in the target formation and provides a strong evidence for the current chemical stability and closure of the system for uranium and most probably for the other actinides. This is a fundamental result with respect to the problematic of disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep geological formation since it provides a in situ indication of the confining capacities of the clayey target formation in the current settings. Conversely, ( 234 U/ 238 U) disequilibria are systematically observed within zones, located in the surrounding carbonate formations, that are characterized by pressure dissolution structures (stylolites or dissolution seams). These disequilibria provide evidence for a discrete uranium relocation during the last two million years in the vicinity of stylolitic structures. This is a surprising result since it is generally supposed that these deep, low permeability, compact formations behave as closed system at the time scale of the U-series. (author)

  1. Patherns in the rare earth elements of the Serra do Carambei granite (Parana) and the others associated ignous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto-Coelho, C.V.; Marini, O.J.

    1986-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) distribution patters in igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area (Parana) were a very important tool to elucidate the genetic processes and the cogenetic relationships between these rocks. The porphyroid facies of the Cunhaporanga Granitoid Complex has a REE distribution pattern characterized by decreasing concentrations in direction to the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and the smooth Eu negative anomalie, compatible with amphibole fractionation during the magma ascent and the incipient plagioclase fractionation. The REE pattern of the Serra do Carambei Granite is characterized by the strong Eu negative anomalie, by the light rare earth element (LREE) depletion and by the HREE increase. This shape of the REE patterns is frequently observed in Sn-W granites, according to French authors. However in the igneous rocks of the Serra do Carambei Granite area this is not true. ''Rhyolite'' dytes intrusives in the Serra do Carambei Granite exhibit REE pattern similar to the wall rock, indicating then the same genetic processes. The Castro Group rhyolites have REE patterns with decreasing concentrations in direction to the HREE and smooth Eu negative anomalie. The REE distribution patterns is against the consanguinity between the ''rhyolites'' intruded in the Serra do Carambei Granite and the rhyolites of the Castro Group and also between these rhyolites and the above mentioned Granite. (author) [pt

  2. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaki-Leffer, A M; Almeida, L M; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Anjos, A; Vogado, K M

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week). Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points). There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  3. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. Chernaki-Leffer

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22 for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week. Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points. There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  4. Major and minor elements and traces in igneous rocks from crystalline basement of Parana by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ademar O.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R.

    2015-01-01

    Major and minor components of 30 acid and basic igneous rocks (granites, syenites, riolites and a basalt) of the Parana state crystalline basement were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF), in order to evaluate the similarity in terms of the compositional content. The corrections of interelements effects (absorption/intensification) were performed by means of the fundamental parameters (FP) method. The methodology was validated using a certificated reference material. The main oxides found associated with the quantified elements are SiO_2, Al_2O_3, Na_2O, K_2O, Fe_2O_3, CaO, MgO, TiO_2, P_2O_5, MnO, SO_3, NiO, ZnO, Rb_2O. Through statistical analysis, the studied samples were organized in 3 groups of similar compositions: syenites, light granites and basalt and dark granites. The results show that the WDXRF technique is a robust tool that enables distinction even between similar geological samples. (author)

  5. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1997-01-01

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μ ρ) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the μ ρ determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for μ ρ determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, μ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, μ ρ was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for μ ρ and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author)

  6. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

    2001-02-01

    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  7. Analysis on depositional system and discussion on ore-formation conditions of channel sandstone type uranium deposit. Taking Dongsheng area, Ordos meso-cenozoic basin as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rengui; Yu Dagan; Zhu Minqiang; Zhou Wanpeng; Chen Anping

    2003-01-01

    Applying the theory of depositional system, the depositional facies and depositional systems of the Zhiluo Formation in Dongsheng area are systematically analysed, and the authors proposed that sediments of the Zhiluo Formation are of fluvial facies, and streams of the Zhiluo time experienced three evolution stages, namely: the early braided stream, the middle low sinuosity meandering stream and the late high sinuosity meandering stream. Based on features of paleoclimatic evolution, the Zhiluo Formation is divided into two lithological members. The lower lithological member consists of sediments of braided and low sinuosity meandering streams under humid-ward paleoclimatic conditions forming grey sedimentary formation. The upper member is composed of sediments of meandering streams under arid-hot paleoclimatic conditions representing complex-colored (mainly red) sedimentary formation. It is suggested that uranium mineralization in the study area is of channel sandstone type and controlled by braided channel sediments. Besides, the ore-formation conditions for channel sandstone type uranium deposit are preliminarily discussed

  8. The Paleo-environmental significance of the iron-formations and iron-rich mudstones of the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand-Mozaan Basin, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Sc. The Mesoarchean Witwatersrand and Pongola Supergroups of South Africa are the oldest, well preserved supracratonic successions worldwide. Various banded iron formation (BIF) and iron-rich mudstone units occur within the West Rand Group of the Witwatersrand Supergroup and the Mozaan Group of the Pongola Supergroup. A granular iron formation (GIF) occurs in a single unit in the Nconga Formation of the Mozaan Group. The Witwatersrand Supergroup and Mozaan Group have been lithostratigrap...

  9. Utilizing Integrated Prediction Error Filter Analysis (INPEFA) to divide base-level cycle of fan-deltas: A case study of the Triassic Baikouquan Formation in Mabei Slope Area, Mahu Depression, Junggar Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui; Zhu, Rui; Qu, Jianhua; Wu, Jun; You, Xincai; Sun, Yuqiu; Zhou, Yuanquan (Nancy)

    2018-05-01

    The Mahu Depression is an important hydrocarbon-bearing foreland sag located at the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin, China. On the northern slope of the depression, large coarse-grained proximal fan-delta depositional systems developed in the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation (T1b). Some lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been found in the conglomerates of the formation since recent years. However, the rapid vertical and horizontal lithology variations make it is difficult to divide the base-level cycle of the formation using the conventional methods. Spectral analysis technologies, such as Integrated Prediction Error Filter Analysis (INPEFA), provide another effective way to overcome this difficultly. In this paper, processed by INPEFA, conventional resistivity logs are utilized to study the base-level cycle of the fan-delta depositional systems. The negative trend of the INPEFA curve indicates the base-level fall semi-cycles, adversely, positive trend suggests the rise semi-cycles. Base-level cycles of Baikouquan Formation are divided in single and correlation wells. One long-term base-level rise semi-cycle, including three medium-term base-level cycles, is identified overall the Baikouquan Formation. The medium-